WorldWideScience

Sample records for soybean ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme

  1. Overexpression of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH10 causes chromosome missegregation and tumor formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.H.; Jeganathan, K.B.; Malureanu, L.; Deursen, J.M.A. van

    2010-01-01

    The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase functions with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH10 in the orderly progression through mitosis by marking key mitotic regulators for destruction by the 26-S proteasome. UbcH10 is overexpressed in many human cancer types and

  2. Expression Profiling of WSSV ORF 199 and Shrimp Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme in WSSV Infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the major viral pathogens affecting shrimp aquaculture. Four proteins, WSSV199, WSSV 222, WSSV 249 and WSSV 403, from WSSV are predicted to encode a RING-H2 domain, which in presence of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2 in shrimp can function as viral E3 ligase and modulate the host ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Modulation of host ubiquitin proteasome pathway by viral proteins is implicated in viral pathogenesis. In the present study, a time course expression profile analysis of WSSV Open Reading Frame (ORF 199 and Penaeus monodon ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (PmUbc was carried out at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post WSSV challenge by semi-quantitative RT-PCR as well as Real Time PCR. EF1α was used as reference control to normalize the expression levels. A significant increase in PmUbc expression at 24 h post infection (h.p.i was observed followed by a decline till 72 h.p.i. Expression of WSSV199 was observed at 24 h.p.i in WSSV infected P. monodon. Since the up-regulation of PmUbc was observed at 24 h.p.i where WSSV199 expression was detected, it can be speculated that these proteins might interact with host ubiquitination pathway for viral pathogenesis. However, further studies need to be carried out to unfold the molecular mechanism of interaction between host and virus to devise efficient control strategies for this chaos in the shrimp culture industry.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogenetic and Expression Analyses of the Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Lu, Shengqiao; Dong, Chen; Zhao, Qiufang; Chen, Hongliang; Jia, Liqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Ubiquitination is a post-translation modification where ubiquitin is attached to a substrate. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) play a major role in the ubiquitin transfer pathway, as well as a variety of functions in plant biological processes. To date, no genome-wide characterization of this gene family has been conducted in maize (Zea mays). Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, a total of 75 putative ZmUBC genes have been identified and located in the maize genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmUBC proteins could be divided into 15 subfamilies, which include 13 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (ZmE2s) and two independent ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant (UEV) groups. The predicted ZmUBC genes were distributed across 10 chromosomes at different densities. In addition, analysis of exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs in each candidate gene has revealed high levels of conservation within and between phylogenetic groups. Tissue expression analysis indicated that most ZmUBC genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues, indicating that these are involved in various physiological and developmental processes in maize. Moreover, expression profile analyses of ZmUBC genes under different stress treatments (4°C, 20% PEG6000, and 200 mM NaCl) and various expression patterns indicated that these may play crucial roles in the response of plants to stress. Conclusions Genome-wide identification, chromosome organization, gene structure, evolutionary and expression analyses of ZmUBC genes have facilitated in the characterization of this gene family, as well as determined its potential involvement in growth, development, and stress responses. This study provides valuable information for better understanding the classification and putative functions of the UBC-encoding genes of maize. PMID:26606743

  4. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 controls cellular proliferation through regulation of p27Kip1 protein levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, Nicole; Ruetz, Stephan; Natt, Francois; Hall, Jonathan; Weiler, Jan; Mestan, Juergen; Ducarre, Monique; Grossenbacher, Rita; Hauser, Patrick; Kempf, Dominique; Hofmann, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    Ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 was shown to be required for the activation of key cyclin-dependent kinases, thereby triggering the onset of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Although the SCF Skp2 ubiquitin ligase has been reported to mediate p27 Kip1 degradation, the nature of the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in this process has not yet been determined at the cellular level. Here, we show that antisense oligonucleotides targeting the human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34 downregulate its expression, inhibit the degradation of p27 Kip1 , and prevent cellular proliferation. Elevation of p27 Kip1 protein level is found to be the sole requirement for the inhibition of cellular proliferation induced upon downregulation of Cdc34. Indeed, reducing the expression of p27 Kip1 with a specific antisense oligonucleotide is sufficient to reverse the anti-proliferative phenotype elicited by the Cdc34 antisense. Furthermore, downregulation of Cdc34 is found to specifically increase the abundance of the SCF Skp2 ubiquitin ligase substrate p27 Kip1 , but has no concomitant effect on the level of IkBα and β-catenin, which are known substrates of a closely related SCF ligase

  5. Cellular Ubc2/Rad6 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme facilitates tombusvirus replication in yeast and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Yoshiyuki; Molho, Melissa; Chuang, Chingkai; Nagy, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Mono- and multi-ubiquitination alters the functions and subcellular localization of many cellular and viral proteins. Viruses can co-opt or actively manipulate the ubiquitin network to support viral processes or suppress innate immunity. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model host, we show that the yeast Rad6p (radiation sensitive 6) E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and its plant ortholog, AtUbc2, interact with two tombusviral replication proteins and these E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes could be co-purified with the tombusvirus replicase. We demonstrate that TBSV RNA replication and the mono- and bi-ubiquitination level of p33 is decreased in rad6Δ yeast. However, plasmid-based expression of AtUbc2p could complement both defects in rad6Δ yeast. Knockdown of UBC2 expression in plants also decreases tombusvirus accumulation and reduces symptom severity, suggesting that Ubc2p is critical for virus replication in plants. We provide evidence that Rad6p is involved in promoting the subversion of Vps23p and Vps4p ESCRT proteins for viral replicase complex assembly. - Highlights: • Tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with cellular RAD6/Ubc2 E2 enzymes. • Deletion of RAD6 reduces tombusvirus replication in yeast. • Silencing of UBC2 in plants inhibits tombusvirus replication. • Mono- and bi-ubiquitination of p33 replication protein in yeast and in vitro. • Rad6p promotes the recruitment of cellular ESCRT proteins into the tombusvirus replicase

  6. Cellular Ubc2/Rad6 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme facilitates tombusvirus replication in yeast and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imura, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: imura@brs.nihon-u.ac.jp; Molho, Melissa; Chuang, Chingkai; Nagy, Peter D., E-mail: pdnagy2@uky.edu

    2015-10-15

    Mono- and multi-ubiquitination alters the functions and subcellular localization of many cellular and viral proteins. Viruses can co-opt or actively manipulate the ubiquitin network to support viral processes or suppress innate immunity. Using yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model host, we show that the yeast Rad6p (radiation sensitive 6) E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and its plant ortholog, AtUbc2, interact with two tombusviral replication proteins and these E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes could be co-purified with the tombusvirus replicase. We demonstrate that TBSV RNA replication and the mono- and bi-ubiquitination level of p33 is decreased in rad6Δ yeast. However, plasmid-based expression of AtUbc2p could complement both defects in rad6Δ yeast. Knockdown of UBC2 expression in plants also decreases tombusvirus accumulation and reduces symptom severity, suggesting that Ubc2p is critical for virus replication in plants. We provide evidence that Rad6p is involved in promoting the subversion of Vps23p and Vps4p ESCRT proteins for viral replicase complex assembly. - Highlights: • Tombusvirus p33 replication protein interacts with cellular RAD6/Ubc2 E2 enzymes. • Deletion of RAD6 reduces tombusvirus replication in yeast. • Silencing of UBC2 in plants inhibits tombusvirus replication. • Mono- and bi-ubiquitination of p33 replication protein in yeast and in vitro. • Rad6p promotes the recruitment of cellular ESCRT proteins into the tombusvirus replicase.

  7. Inactivation of the HR6B ubiquitin-conjugating DNA repair enzyme in mice causes male sterility associated with chromatin modification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Klaveren; J. de Wit (Jan); C.G. van Gurp; M.H.M. Koken (Marcel); M. Vermey; J.H. van Roijen (Jan Herman); J.T.M. Vreeburg (Jan); W.M. Baarends (Willy); D. Bootsma (Dirk); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); H.P. Roest (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe ubiquitin-conjugating yeast enzyme RAD6 and its human homologs hHR6A and hHR6B are implicated in postreplication repair and damage-induced mutagenesis. The yeast protein is also required for sporulation and may modulate chromatin structure via histone ubiquitination. We report the

  8. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF is overexpressed in cervical cancer and associates with tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Nishi, Hirotaka; Bian, Mei-Lu; Higuma, Chinatsu; Sasaki, Toru; Ito, Hiroe; Isaka, Keiichi

    2012-10-01

    We found that the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA is highly expressed in cervical squamous cancer relative to normal tissues and its expression levels positively correlate with clinical stage. Reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by >80% using shRNA decreases the expression levels of HIF-1α, and the proliferation, invasion and tumorigenicity of SiHa, a cervical squamous cancer cell line. E2-EPF knockdown also increases the chemosensitivity to topoisomerase I inhibitor (topotecan) and II (etoposide and doxorubicin). Our results suggest that E2-EPF is associated with the growth and aggressivity of cervical tumor cells. Targeting the E2-EPF pathway may have potential clinical applications for the treatment of cervical cancer.

  9. A newly discovered ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 correlated with the cryogenic autolysis of Volvariella volvacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming; Wang, Hong; Chen, Mingjie; Bao, Dapeng; Zhu, Qiuming; Tan, Qi

    2016-05-25

    In Volvariella volvacea, a species of edible mushroom, cryogenic autolysis is a typical part of abnormal metabolism. Previous functional annotation cluster analyses of cold-induced gene expression profiles have shown that the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2), rather than the cyclin-like F-box domain alone, forms the functional cluster. In this study, analysis of gene expression profiling showed that only one type of UBE2 in V. volvacea (UBEV2) was significantly up-regulated. Further quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed that the expression of UBEV2 was significantly up-regulated (Pautolysis. The specific distribution of UBEV2 in recently diverged herb decay fungi indicated that UBEV2 was not evolutionarily correlated with early diverging fungi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that UBEV2 was generated by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from the ancestry of Selaginella moellendorffii UBE2. Further relative time estimation and detection of natural selection showed that there has been recent positive selection after HGT in UBEV2. Molecular modeling and logo analysis showed that the cysteine-cysteine motif is the characteristic of the UBEV2 family. These observations indicate that UBEV2 is a new type of UBE2 correlated with the cryogenic autolysis of V. volvacea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-like gene associated to pathogen response in Concholepas concholepas: SNP identification and transcription expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Aguilar-Espinoza, Andrea; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2012-10-01

    Ubiquitin-conjugated E2 enzyme (UBE2) is one of the main components of the proteasome degradation cascade. Previous studies have shown an increase of expression levels in individuals challenged to some pathogen organism such as virus and bacteria. The study was to characterize the immune response of UBE2 gene in the gastropod Concholepas concholepas through expression analysis and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) discovery. Hence, UBE2 was identified from a cDNA library by 454 pyrosequencing, while SNP identification and validation were performed using De novo assembly and high resolution melting analysis. Challenge trials with Vibrio anguillarum was carried out to evaluate the relative transcript abundance of UBE2 gene from two to thirty-three hours post-treatment. The results showed a partial UBE2 sequence of 889 base pair (bp) with a partial coding region of 291 bp. SNP variation (A/C) was observed at the 546th position. Individuals challenged by V. anguillarum showed an overexpression of the UBE2 gene, the expression being significantly higher in homozygous individuals (AA) than (CC) or heterozygous individuals (A/C). This study contributes useful information relating to the UBE2 gene and its association with innate immune response in marine invertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The tomato Fni3 lysine-63-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and suv ubiquitin E2 variant positively regulate plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, Ravi V; Liu, Yao; Rosebrock, Tracy R; Brady, Jennifer J; Hamera, Sadia; Connor, Richard A; Martin, Gregory B; Zeng, Lirong

    2013-09-01

    The activation of an immune response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Pseudomonas syringae relies on the recognition of E3 ligase-deficient forms of AvrPtoB by the host protein kinase, Fen. To investigate the mechanisms by which Fen-mediated immunity is regulated, we characterize in this study a Fen-interacting protein, Fni3, and its cofactor, S. lycoperiscum Uev (Suv). Fni3 encodes a homolog of the Ubc13-type ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that catalyzes exclusively Lys-63-linked ubiquitination, whereas Suv is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant. The C-terminal region of Fen was necessary for interaction with Fni3, and this interaction was required for cell death triggered by overexpression of Fen in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Fni3 was shown to be an active E2 enzyme, but Suv displayed no ubiquitin-conjugating activity; Fni3 and Suv together directed Lys-63-linked ubiquitination. Decreased expression of Fni3, another tomato Ubc13 homolog, Sl-Ubc13-2, or Suv in N. benthamiana leaves diminished cell death associated with Fen-mediated immunity and cell death elicited by several other resistance (R) proteins and their cognate effectors. We also discovered that coexpression of Fen and other R proteins/effectors with a Fni3 mutant that is compromised for ubiquitin-conjugating activity diminished the cell death. These results suggest that Fni3/Sl-Ubc13-2 and Suv regulate the immune response mediated by Fen and other R proteins through Lys-63-linked ubiquitination.

  12. The Tomato Fni3 Lysine-63–Specific Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme and Suv Ubiquitin E2 Variant Positively Regulate Plant Immunity[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, Ravi V.; Liu, Yao; Rosebrock, Tracy R.; Brady, Jennifer J.; Hamera, Sadia; Connor, Richard A.; Martin, Gregory B.; Zeng, Lirong

    2013-01-01

    The activation of an immune response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Pseudomonas syringae relies on the recognition of E3 ligase–deficient forms of AvrPtoB by the host protein kinase, Fen. To investigate the mechanisms by which Fen-mediated immunity is regulated, we characterize in this study a Fen-interacting protein, Fni3, and its cofactor, S. lycoperiscum Uev (Suv). Fni3 encodes a homolog of the Ubc13-type ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that catalyzes exclusively Lys-63–linked ubiquitination, whereas Suv is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant. The C-terminal region of Fen was necessary for interaction with Fni3, and this interaction was required for cell death triggered by overexpression of Fen in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Fni3 was shown to be an active E2 enzyme, but Suv displayed no ubiquitin-conjugating activity; Fni3 and Suv together directed Lys-63–linked ubiquitination. Decreased expression of Fni3, another tomato Ubc13 homolog, Sl-Ubc13-2, or Suv in N. benthamiana leaves diminished cell death associated with Fen-mediated immunity and cell death elicited by several other resistance (R) proteins and their cognate effectors. We also discovered that coexpression of Fen and other R proteins/effectors with a Fni3 mutant that is compromised for ubiquitin-conjugating activity diminished the cell death. These results suggest that Fni3/Sl-Ubc13-2 and Suv regulate the immune response mediated by Fen and other R proteins through Lys-63–linked ubiquitination. PMID:24076975

  13. High expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) correlates with nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhihua; Guo, Junli; Jie, Wei; Jiang, Xiaofan; Zeng, Chao; Zheng, Shaojiang; Luo, Botao; Zeng, Yumei; Ding, Ranran; Jiang, Hanguo; He, Qiyi

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) has been detected in many types of human cancers, and is correlated with tumor malignancy. However, the role of UBE2C in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of aberrant UBE2C expression in the progression of human NPC. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect UBE2C protein in clinical samples of NPC and benign nasopharyngeal tissues, and the association of UBE2C expression with patient clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. UBEC2 expression profiles were evaluated in cell lines representing varying differentiated stages of NPC and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelia NP-69 cells using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescent staining. Furthermore, UBE2C was knocked down using RNA interference in these cell lines and proliferation and cell cycle distribution was investigated. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that UBE2C protein expression levels were higher in NPC tissues than in benign nasopharyngeal tissues (P<0.001). Moreover, high UBE2C protein expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P=0.017), lymph node metastasis (P=0.016) and distant metastasis (P=0.015) in NPC patients. In vitro experiments demonstrated that UBE2C expression levels were inversely correlated with the degree of differentiation of NPC cell lines, whereas UBE2C displayed low level of expression in NP-69 cells. Knockdown of UBE2C led to significant arrest at the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased cell proliferation was observed in poorly-differentiated CNE2Z NPC cells and undifferentiated C666-1 cells, but not in well-differentiated CNE1 and immortalized NP-69 cells. Our findings suggest that high expression of UBE2C in human NPC is closely related to tumor malignancy, and may be a potential marker for NPC progression

  14. Degradation Signals Recognized by the Ubc6p-Ubc7p Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilon, Tamar; Chomsky, Orna; Kulka, Richard G.

    2000-01-01

    Proteolysis by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is highly selective. Specificity is achieved by the cooperation of diverse ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (Ubcs or E2s) with a variety of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) and other ancillary factors. These recognize degradation signals characteristic of their target proteins. In a previous investigation, we identified signals directing the degradation of β-galactosidase and Ura3p fusion proteins via a subsidiary pathway of the ubiquitin-proteasome system involving Ubc6p and Ubc7p. This pathway has recently been shown to be essential for the degradation of misfolded and regulated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and membrane, which are transported to the cytoplasm via the Sec61p translocon. Mutant backgrounds which prevent retrograde transport of ER proteins (hrd1/der3Δ and sec61-2) did not inhibit the degradation of the β-galactosidase and Ura3p fusions carrying Ubc6p/Ubc7p pathway signals. We therefore conclude that the ubiquitination of these fusion proteins takes place on the cytosolic face of the ER without prior transfer to the ER lumen. The contributions of different sequence elements to a 16-amino-acid-residue Ubc6p-Ubc7p-specific signal were analyzed by mutation. A patch of bulky hydrophobic residues was an essential element. In addition, positively charged residues were found to be essential. Unexpectedly, certain substitutions of bulky hydrophobic or positively charged residues with alanine created novel degradation signals, channeling the degradation of fusion proteins to an unidentified proteasomal pathway not involving Ubc6p and Ubc7p. PMID:10982838

  15. Structure of human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 G2 (UBE2G2/UBC7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Ryoichi; Yoshikawa, Seiko; Murayama, Kazutaka; Imai, Yuzuru; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structure of human UBE2G2/UBC7 was solved at 2.56 Å resolution. The superimposition of UBE2G2 on UbcH7 in a c-Cbl–UbcH7–ZAP70 ternary complex suggested that the two loop regions of UBE2G2 interact with the RING domain in a similar way as UbcH7. The human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 G2 (UBE2G2/UBC7) is involved in protein degradation, including a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). The crystal structure of human UBE2G2/UBC7 was solved at 2.56 Å resolution. The UBE2G2 structure comprises a single domain consisting of an antiparallel β-sheet with four strands, five α-helices and two 3 10 -helices. Structural comparison of human UBE2G2 with yeast Ubc7 indicated that the overall structures are similar except for the long loop region and the C-terminal helix. Superimposition of UBE2G2 on UbcH7 in a c-Cbl–UbcH7–ZAP70 ternary complex suggested that the two loop regions of UBE2G2 interact with the RING domain in a similar way to UbcH7. In addition, the extra loop region of UBE2G2 may interact with the RING domain or its neighbouring region and may be involved in the binding specificity and stability

  16. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. ► The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. ► The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. ► The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. ► OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  17. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  18. Molecular and structural insight into lysine selection on substrate and ubiquitin lysine 48 by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suryadinata, Randy; Holien, Jessica K; Yang, George

    2013-01-01

    , the mechanisms of lysine selection are not clearly understood. The positioning of lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site and residues proximal to lysines are critical in their selection. We investigated determinants of lysine specificity of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Cdc34, toward substrate and Ub lysines....... Evaluation of the relative importance of different residues positioned -2, -1, +1 and +2 toward ubiquitination of its substrate, Sic1, on lysine 50 showed that charged residues in the -1 and -2 positions negatively impact on ubiquitination. Modeling suggests that charged residues at these positions alter...... the native salt-bridge interactions in Ub and Cdc34, resulting in misplacement of Sic1 lysine 50 in the Cdc34 catalytic cleft. During polyubiquitination, Cdc34 showed a strong preference for Ub lysine 48 (K48), with lower activity towards lysine 11 (K11) and lysine 63 (K63). Mutating the -2, -1, +1 and +2...

  19. Transcript Levels of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 and Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 2C in Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Jung Min; Bae, Sun Sik; Lee, Jeong Zoo; Kim, Choung-Soo; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to identify the androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) status, clinical significance of AR-V7 in hormone sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). Then, we evaluated AR-V7 and changes of its target gene, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) which is an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in serial tumor biopsies from patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy. We used RT-PCR and Q-PCR assay to evaluate AR-V7, androgen receptor full length (AR-FL), and UBE2C in tumor biopsies from patients with HSPC and CRPC. We examined associations between mRNA expression of AR-V7 and clinicopathologic factors. Furthermore, to identify other potential genes involved in the development of CRPC, RNA sequencing was conducted, using paired prostate cancer (PCa) tissues obtained immediately prior to treatment and at the time of therapeutic resistance. A total of 13 HSPC patients and three CRPC patients were enrolled. Neither a high Gleason score (score of 8 and 9) nor a high risk of PCa (a high risk of locally advanced PCa according to NCCN guidelines) was correlated with mRNA expression of AR-V7 in HSPC (P = 0.153 and P = 0.215). The mRNA expression of AR-FL, but not AR-V7, was significantly associated with the mRNA expression of UBE2C level in HSPC (P = 0.007). However, increased expression of AR-V7, not AR-FL, paralleled increased expression of UBE2C in the CRPC specimens (P = 0.03). AR-V7 expression status before ADT was likely related to shorter CRPC development in patients treating ADT. The result of the RNA-sequencing analysis using serial samples from the same patient before and after castration demonstrated an increased level of the PI3K regulatory subunit 1 (P = 0.018). Our study revealed the role of UBE2C as a marker of the androgen signaling pathway in PCa. Differential gene expression analysis using serial samples from the same patient

  20. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Jes R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of

  1. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Gene Family in Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.: Genome-Wide Identification and Gene Expression during Flower Induction and Abiotic Stress Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengwei Jue

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s or UBC enzymes play vital roles in plant development and combat various biotic and abiotic stresses. Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. is an important fruit tree in the subtropical region of Southeast Asia and Australia; however the characteristics of the UBC gene family in longan remain unknown. In this study, 40 D. longan UBC genes (DlUBCs, which were classified into 15 groups, were identified in the longan genome. An RNA-seq based analysis showed that DlUBCs showed distinct expression in nine longan tissues. Genome-wide RNA-seq and qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis revealed that 11 DlUBCs were up- or down-regualted in the cultivar “Sijimi” (SJ, suggesting that these genes may be important for flower induction. Finally, qRT-PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of 13 DlUBCs under SA (salicylic acid treatment, seven under methyl jasmonate (MeJA treatment, 27 under heat treatment, and 16 under cold treatment were up- or down-regulated, respectively. These results indicated that the DlUBCs may play important roles in responses to abiotic stresses. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive insight into the organization, phylogeny, and expression patterns of the longan UBC genes, and therefore contribute to the greater understanding of their biological roles in longan.

  2. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2-EPF Is Overexpressed in Primary Breast Cancer and Modulates Sensitivity to Topoisomerase II Inhibition1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Donato; Zhang, Jianhuan; Trinh, Lan; Lalehzadeh, Guita; Meisner, Rene; Yamaguchi, Ken D; Ruderman, Daniel L; Dinter, Harald; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2007-01-01

    We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycle-regulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER- MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G2 checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo) II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIα protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness. PMID:17710163

  3. The Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2-EPF Is Overexpressed in Primary Breast Cancer and Modulates Sensitivity to Topoisomerase II Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Tedesco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycleregulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER- MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G2 checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIα protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness.

  4. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF is overexpressed in primary breast cancer and modulates sensitivity to topoisomerase II inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Donato; Zhang, Jianhuan; Trinh, Lan; Lalehzadeh, Guita; Meisner, Rene; Yamaguchi, Ken D; Ruderman, Daniel L; Dinter, Harald; Zajchowski, Deborah A

    2007-07-01

    We identified the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-EPF mRNA as differentially expressed in breast tumors relative to normal tissues and performed studies to elucidate its putative role in cancer. We demonstrated that overexpression of E2-EPF protein correlated with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity in breast cancer specimens and that its expression is cell cycle-regulated, suggesting a potential function for E2-EPF in cell cycle progression. However, reduction of E2-EPF protein levels by > 80% using RNAi had no significant effects on the proliferation of HeLa cervical cancer cells or ER(-) MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. Because E2-EPF protein levels were elevated during the G(2)/M phase of the cell cycle and because E2-EPF mRNA in tumor specimens was frequently coexpressed with genes involved in cell cycle control, spindle assembly, and mitotic surveillance, the possibility that E2-EPF might have a function in the cellular response to agents that induce a G(2) checkpoint or an M checkpoint was investigated. E2-EPF knockdown sensitized HeLa cells to the topoisomerase (topo) II inhibitors etoposide and doxorubicin and also increased topo IIalpha protein levels. These data suggest that combined administration of topo II-directed drugs and E2-EPF inhibitors may enhance their clinical effectiveness.

  5. The Level of Autoantibodies Targeting Eukaryote Translation Elongation Factor 1 α1 and Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 2L3 in Nondiabetic Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhee G. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe prevalence of novel type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM antibodies targeting eukaryote translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 autoantibody (EEF1A1-AAb and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2L3 autoantibody (UBE2L3-AAb has been shown to be negatively correlated with age in T1DM subjects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether age affects the levels of these two antibodies in nondiabetic subjects.MethodsEEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic control subjects (n=150 and T1DM subjects (n=101 in various ranges of age (18 to 69 years were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cutoff point for the presence of each autoantibody was determined based on control subjects using the formula: [mean absorbance+3×standard deviation].ResultsIn nondiabetic subjects, there were no significant correlations between age and EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels. However, there was wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels among control subjects <40 years old; the prevalence of both EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb in these subjects was 4.4%. When using cutoff points determined from the control subjects <40 years old, the prevalence of both autoantibodies in T1DM subjects was decreased (EEFA1-AAb, 15.8% to 8.9%; UBE2L3-AAb, 10.9% to 7.9% when compared to the prevalence using the cutoff derived from the totals for control subjects.ConclusionThere was no association between age and EEF1A1-AAb or UBE2L3-AAb levels in nondiabetic subjects. However, the wide variation in EEF1A1-AAb and UBE2L3-AAb levels apparent among the control subjects <40 years old should be taken into consideration when determining the cutoff reference range for the diagnosis of T1DM.

  6. Functional inhibition of Ubiquitin conjugating Enzyme (UBE2C) reduces proliferation and sensitizes cervical and breast cancer cells to radiation, doxorubicin, tamoxifen and letrozole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, Mayil Vahanan; Rawat, Akhilesh; Gopisetty, Gopal; Thangarajan, Rajkumar; Ganesharaja, Selvaluxmy

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women, worldwide. About 80% of cervical cancer cases occur in developing countries. Breast cancer has overtaken cervical cancer in most of the urban centers in India. In recent years, interest in the role of Ubiquitin conjugating Enzyme E2C (UBE2C) in cancer has shown a dramatic increase. Several studies have reported UBE2C as a potential oncogene and therapeutic target. The objective of the study was to elucidate radiation and chemo-sensitivity in response to functional inhibition of UBE2C in cervical and breast cancer cell lines. Taqman Real time PCR was performed to measure UBE2C levels in cervical and breast cancer cell lines. A dominant negative form of UBE2C (DN-UBE2C) was used to functionally inhibit wild type UBE2C. Cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth were measured by colorimetric assay and soft agar assay respectively. Radiation and chemo response of cell lines were assessed by colorimetric assay and clonogenic assay. Difference in sensitivity to radiation was observed among the cervical cancer cell lines studied. The growth rate of SiHa and HeLa transfected with DN- UBE2C was significantly reduced compared to vector control. Further, DN-UBE2C mediated radio-sensitivity was correlated with a significant decrease in resistance to radiation by SiHa and HeLa cells after transfection when compared to control cultures. Similarly, both the growth rate and the anchorage independent growth of MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells transfected with DN-UBE2C were significantly reduced compared to cells transfected with vector alone. MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells expressing DN-UBE2C were significantly more sensitive to different doses of radiation and doxorubicin compared to controls. In addition, DN-UBE2C transfected MCF7 cells were more sensitive to inhibition by tamoxifen and letrozole compared to vector controls. These results suggest that UBE2C can be used as a potential therapeutic target for cervical and breast

  7. MMS2, Encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-like protein, is a member of the yeast error-free postreplication repair pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, S.; Chow, B.L.; Xiao, W.

    1998-01-01

    Among the three Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair epistasis groups, the RAD6 group is the most complicated and least characterized, primarily because it consists of two separate repair pathways: an error-free postreplication repair pathway, and a mutagenesis pathway. The rad6 and rad18 mutants are defective in both pathways, and the rev3 mutant affects only the mutagenesis pathway, but a yeast gene that is involved only in error-free postreplication repair has not been reported. We cloned the MMS2 gene from a yeast genomic library by functional complementation of the mms2-1 mutant [Prakash, L. and Prakash, S. (1977) Genetics 86, 33-55]. MMS2 encodes a 137-amino acid, 15.2-kDa protein with significant sequence homology to a conserved family of ubiquitin-conjugating (Ubc) proteins. However, Mms2 does not appear to possess Ubc activity. Genetic analyses indicate that the mms2 mutation is hypostatic to rad6 and rad18 but is synergistic with the rev3 mutation, and the mms2 mutant is proficient in UV-induced mutagenesis. These phenotypes are reminiscent of a pol30-46 mutant known to be impaired in postreplication repair. The mms2 mutant also displayed a REV3-dependent mutator phenotype, strongly suggesting that the MMS2 gene functions in the error-free postreplication repair pathway, parallel to the REV3 mutagenesis pathway. Furthermore, with respect to UV sensitivity, mms2 was found to be hypostatic to the rad6 delta 1-9 mutation, which results in the absence of the first nine amino acids of Rad6. On the basis of these collective results, we propose that the mms2 null mutation and two other allele-specific mutations, rad6 delta 1-9 and pol30-46, define the error-free mode of DNA postreplication repair, and that these mutations may enhance both spontaneous and DNA damage-induced mutagenesis

  8. lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar and Morula/Apc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Olga

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a critical step in key cell cycle events, such as metaphase-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking regulatory proteins for proteasomal degradation. Its overall structure and function has been elucidated mostly in yeasts and mammalian cell lines. The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex is still relatively uncharacterized, particularly in metazoan systems. Here, lemming (lmg mutants were used to study the APC/C subunit, Apc11, and its interaction partners in Drosophila melanogaster. Results The lmg gene was initially identified through a pharate adult lethal P element insertion mutation expressing developmental abnormalities and widespread apoptosis in larval imaginal discs and pupal abdominal histoblasts. Larval neuroblasts were observed to arrest mitosis in a metaphase-like state with highly condensed, scattered chromosomes and frequent polyploidy. These neuroblasts contain high levels of both cyclin A and cyclin B. The lmg gene was cloned by virtue of the lmg03424 P element insertion which is located in the 5' untranslated region. The lemming locus is transcribed to give a 2.0 kb mRNA that contains two ORFs, lmgA and lmgB. The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 amino acid protein also contains a RING-finger motif characteristic of known APC11 subunits. The lmgA ORF alone was sufficient to rescue the lethal and mitotic phenotypes of the lmg138 null allele and to complement the temperature sensitive lethal phenotype of the APC11-myc9 budding yeast mutant. The LmgA protein interacts with Mr/Apc2, and they together form a binding site for Vihar, the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. Despite

  9. DMPD: A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termination ofIkappaB kinase pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15809659 A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termination of...csml) Show A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termination ofIkappaB kinase pathways.... PubmedID 15809659 Title A pervasive role of ubiquitin conjugation in activation and termina

  10. Rates of ubiquitin conjugation increase when muscles atrophy, largely through activation of the N-end rule pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, V.; Baracos, V.; Sarraf, P.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The rapid loss of muscle mass that accompanies many disease states, such as cancer or sepsis, is primarily a result of increased protein breakdown in muscle, and several observations have suggested an activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Accordingly, in extracts of atrophying muscles from tumor-bearing or septic rats, rates of 125I-ubiquitin conjugation to endogenous proteins were found to be higher than in control extracts. On the other hand, in extracts of muscles from hypothyroid rats, where overall proteolysis is reduced below normal, the conjugation of 125I-ubiquitin to soluble proteins decreased by 50%, and treatment with triiodothyronine (T3) restored ubiquitination to control levels. Surprisingly, the N-end rule pathway, which selectively degrades proteins with basic or large hydrophobic N-terminal residues, was found to be responsible for most of these changes in ubiquitin conjugation. Competitive inhibitors of this pathway that specifically block the ubiquitin ligase, E3alpha, suppressed most of the increased ubiquitin conjugation in the muscle extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats. These inhibitors also suppressed ubiquitination in normal extracts toward levels in hypothyroid extracts, which showed little E3alpha-dependent ubiquitination. Thus, the inhibitors eliminated most of the differences in ubiquitination under these different pathological conditions. Moreover, 125I-lysozyme, a model N-end rule substrate, was ubiquitinated more rapidly in extracts from tumor-bearing and septic rats, and more slowly in those from hypothyroid rats, than in controls. Thus, the rate of ubiquitin conjugation increases in atrophying muscles, and these hormone- and cytokine-dependent responses are in large part due to activation of the N-end rule pathway.

  11. Mutation of cysteine-88 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD6 protein abolishes its ubiquitin-conjugating activity and its various biological functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, P.; Prakash, S.; Prakash, L.

    1990-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for DNA repair, DNA damage-induced mutagenesis, and sporulation. RAD6 protein is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that has been shown to attach multiple molecules of ubiquitin to histones H2A and H2B. We have now examined whether the E2 activity of RAD6 is involved in its various biological functions. Since the formation of a thioester adduct between E2 and ubiquitin is necessary for E2 activity, the single cysteine residue (Cys-88) present in RAD6 was changed to alanine or valine. The mutant proteins were overproduced in yeast cells and purified to near homogeneity. We show that the rad6 Ala-88 and rad6 Val-88 mutant proteins lack the capacity for thioester formation with ubiquitin and, as a consequence, are totally devoid of any E2 activity. The rad6 Ala-88 and rad6 Val-88 mutations confer a defect in DNA repair, mutagenesis, and sporulation equivalent to that in the rad6 null allele. We suggest that the biological functions of RAD6 require its E2 activity. (author)

  12. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  13. Corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy with the addition of exogenous enzymes for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRB Dourado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP, xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn. The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05 in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004. In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG. Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn. Differences were observed (p=0.08 in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03. The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.

  14. Preparation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins using an insect cell-free protein synthesis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Ezure, Toru; Ando, Eiji; Nishimura, Osamu; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Tsunasawa, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitination is one of the most significant posttranslational modifications (PTMs). To evaluate the ability of an insect cell-free protein synthesis system to carry out ubiquitin (Ub) conjugation to in vitro translated proteins, poly-Ub chain formation was studied in an insect cell-free protein synthesis system. Poly-Ub was generated in the presence of Ub aldehyde (UA), a de-ubiquitinating enzyme inhibitor. In vitro ubiquitination of the p53 tumor suppressor protein was also analyzed, and p53 was poly-ubiquitinated when Ub, UA, and Mdm2, an E3 Ub ligase (E3) for p53, were added to the in vitro reaction mixture. These results suggest that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system contains enzymatic activities capable of carrying out ubiquitination. CBB-detectable ubiquitinated p53 was easily purified from the insect cell-free protein synthesis system, allowing analysis of the Ub-conjugated proteins by mass spectrometry (MS). Lys 305 of p53 was identified as one of the Ub acceptor sites using this strategy. Thus, we conclude that the insect cell-free protein synthesis system is a powerful tool for studying various PTMs of eukaryotic proteins including ubiqutination presented here.

  15. Use of Sunflower Meal with Enzyme Mixture Substituted for Soybean Meal in Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    KIRKPINAR, Figen; BASMACIOĞLU, Hatice

    2001-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sunflower meal with an enzyme mixture containing a-amylase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, lipase and protease substituted for soybean meal in broiler diets on performance, intestinal weight, viscosity and pH, as well as the frequency of sticky droppings and abdominal fat. In the trial, a total of 960 one-day-old Avian broiler chicks were used. The trial lasted 6 weeks. A total of 12 experimental diets were supplied ad libitum. Dietary treatme...

  16. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler

    Full Text Available Malic enzymes (ME catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields.

  17. Enzyme activity and seedling growth of soybean seeds under accelerated aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollhhi Nooshabadi S.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed aging is the main problem of seed storage. Changes of bio-chemical and reduction of seedling growth are consequence of seed deterioration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of accelerated aging on soybean seed germination indexes and enzyme activity. Seeds were incubated in closed plastic boxes for the accelerated aging treatments. Three accelerate aging regimes were performed by placing seeds at 41°C and relative humidity (RH of 90-100 % for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days periods. Our results showed that increasing aging duration resulted higher reduction in germination characteristics, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Germination percentage, means time to germination, germination index, normal seedling percentage and enzyme activity decrease significantly.

  18. Effects of hydrogen fluoride and wounding on respiratory enzymes in soybean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C J; Miller, G W; Welkie, G W

    1966-01-01

    Soybeans (Glycine max, merr, Var. Hawkeye) were cultured in Hoagland's solution and fumigated with hydrogen fluoride (ca. 100 ppb). After 24, 96 and 144 hr of fumigation, the enzyme activities of cytochrome oxidase, peroxidase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase, ascorbic acid oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assayed in leaves from fumigated and control plants. The total oxygen uptake after each time of treatment was measured. The effect of mechanically wounding the tissue on the above enzymes was determined by rubbing with carborundum. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity from fumigated leaves showed an average increase of 5 to 22 times that of the control. Cytochrome oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities were markedly stimulated by fluoride fumigation. Polyphenol oxidase activity was suppressed throughout the fumigation period. Ascorbic acid oxidase was stimulated at the initial state, then showed a steady decrease in activity. In vitro tests revealed that ascorbic acid oxidase and peroxidase were very sensitive to fluoride ions. Polyphenol oxidase was only slightly inhibited by 10/sup -2/M KF solution. Cytochrome oxidase and catalase were not affected by KF up to 10/sup -2/M. Total respiration throughout the treatment period showed an accelerated rate. All enzymes studied were stimulated by wounding. The effect of HF on respiration and specific enzymes is discussed in terms of direct effects and injury. 48 references, 8 tables.

  19. Cultivation of Podospora anserina on soybean hulls results in an efficient enzyme cocktail for plant biomass hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Bouzid, Ourdia; Ruiz-Robleto, J.; Post, Harm|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341667374; Peng, Mao; Heck, Albert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/105189332; Altelaar, Maarten|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833517; de Vries, Ronald P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186324960

    2017-01-01

    The coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina was cultivated on three different plant biomasses, i.e. cotton seed hulls (CSH), soybean hulls (SBH) and acid-pretreated wheat straw (WS) for four days, and the potential of the produced enzyme mixtures was compared in the enzymatic

  20. Nedd8 processing enzymes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Donoghue, Jean; Bech-Otschir, Dawadschargal; Larsen, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Conjugation of the ubiquitin-like modifier Nedd8 to cullins is critical for the function of SCF-type ubiquitin ligases and thus facilitates ubiquitin conjugation and ultimately degradation of SCF substrates, including several cell cycle regulators. Like ubiquitin, Nedd8 is produced as a precursor...... that must first be processed before it becomes active. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae this is carried out exclusively by the enzyme Yuh1....

  1. A novel fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese Natto; a typical and popular soybean food in the Japanese diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, H; Hamada, H; Tsushima, H; Mihara, H; Muraki, H

    1987-10-15

    A strong fibrinolytic activity was demonstrated in the vegetable cheese Natto, which is a typical soybean food eaten in Japan. The average activity was calculated at about 40 CU (plasmin units)/g wet weight. This novel fibrinolytic enzyme, named nattokinase, was easily extracted with saline. The mol. wt and pI were about 20,000 and 8.6, respectively. Nattokinase not only digested fibrin but also the plasmin substrate H-D-Val-Leu-Lys-pNA (S-2251), which was more sensitive to the enzyme than other substrates tried. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate and 2,2,2-trichloro-1-hydroxyethyl-o,o-dimethylphosphate strongly inhibited this fibrinolytic enzyme.

  2. Factors affecting emulsion stability and quality of oil recovered from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S; Maurer, D; Johnson, L A

    2009-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess how the stability of the emulsion recovered from aqueous extraction processing of soybeans was affected by characteristics of the starting material and extraction and demulsification conditions. Adding endopeptidase Protex 6L during enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing (EAEP) of extruded soybean flakes was vital to obtaining emulsions that were easily demulsified with enzymes. Adding salt (up to 1.5 mM NaCl or MgCl(2)) during extraction and storing extruded flakes before extraction at 4 and 30 degrees C for up to 3 months did not affect the stabilities of emulsions recovered from EAEP of soy flour, flakes and extruded flakes. After demulsification, highest free oil yield was obtained with EAEP of extruded flakes, followed by flour and then flakes. The same protease used for the extraction step was used to demulsify the EAEP cream emulsion from extruded full-fat soy flakes at concentrations ranging from 0.03% to 2.50% w/w, incubation times ranging from 2 to 90 min, and temperatures of 25, 50 or 65 degrees C. Highest free oil recoveries were achieved at high enzyme concentrations, mild temperatures, and short incubation times. Both the nature of enzyme (i.e., protease and phospholipase), added alone or as a cocktail, concentration of enzymes (0.5% vs. 2.5%) and incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), use during the extraction step, and nature of enzyme added for demulsifying affected free oil yield. The free oil recovered from EAEP of extruded flakes contained less phosphorus compared with conventional hexane-extracted oil. The present study identified conditions rendering the emulsion less stable, which is critical to increasing free oil yield recovered during EAEP of soybeans, an environmentally friendly alternative processing method to hexane extraction.

  3. Effect of the nitrogen fertilizer type on the enzyme activity in the rhizosphere of calcic chernozem and soybean production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emnova, E. E.; Daraban, O. V.; Bizgan, Ya. V.; Toma, S. I.; Vozian, V. I.; Iacobuta, M. D.

    2015-05-01

    Three varieties (Aura, Magie, and Indra) of soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) were grown in a small-plot experiment on a calcic chernozem with the application of two types of nitrogen fertilizers: ammonium nitrate (Nan) or carbamide (Nc). These fertilizers at the rate of 20 kg N/ha were applied before sowing together with potassium phosphate (60 kg P2O5/ha). The microbial nitrification capacity and the activity of enzymes related to the nitrogen cycle (urease and nitrate reductase) were measured in the rhizosphere (0-20 cm) at the stage of soybean flowering. It was determined that the biological (enzyme) activity of the calcic chernozem in the soybean rhizosphere was more intense on the plots with the Nan fertilizer than on the plots with the Nc fertilizer. The urease activity depended on the type of nitrogen fertilizer (Nan or Nc) under the conditions of soil water deficiency. In the soil under the Aura variety, the urease activity was significantly lower in the treatments with Nc application, and this was accompanied by a decrease in the crop yield. The nitrification capacity of the calcic chernozem was generally low; in the case of the Nc fertilizer, it was significantly lower than in the case of the Nan fertilizer. The nitrate reductase activity of the soil was also lower in the case of the Nc fertilizer. Each of the three soybean varieties had its own response to changes in the nitrogen nutrition aimed at improving the soybean tolerance to fluctuations in the soil water content during the growing season.

  4. Ubiquitin C-terminal electrophiles are activity-based probes for identification and mechanistic study of ubiquitin conjugating machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Kerry Routenberg; Pandya, Renuka K; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2009-04-17

    Protein modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers (Ubl) requires the action of activating (E1), conjugating (E2), and ligating (E3) enzymes and is a key step in the specific destruction of proteins. Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) deconjugate substrates modified with Ub/Ubl's and recycle Ub inside the cell. Genome mining based on sequence homology to proteins with known function has assigned many enzymes to this pathway without confirmation of either conjugating or DUB activity. Function-dependent methodologies are still the most useful for rapid identification or assessment of biological activity of expressed proteins from cells. Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that are active-site-directed for the classification of protein activities in complex mixtures. Here we show that the design and use of an expanded set of Ub-based electrophilic probes allowed us to recover and identify members of each enzyme class in the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including E3 ligases and DUBs with previously unverified activity. We show that epitope-tagged Ub-electrophilic probes can be used as activity-based probes for E3 ligase identification by in vitro labeling and activity studies of purified enzymes identified from complex mixtures in cell lysate. Furthermore, the reactivity of our probe with the HECT domain of the E3 Ub ligase ARF-BP1 suggests that multiple cysteines may be in the vicinity of the E2-binding site and are capable of the transfer of Ub to self or to a substrate protein.

  5. Characterization of the aroma of a meatlike process flavoring from soybean-based enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Fang G; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2002-05-08

    Defatted soybean meal was converted into enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (E-HVP) using the proteolytic enzyme Flavorzyme. Total free amino acids increased by 40-fold after enzyme hydrolysis, with leucine being the most abundant, followed by phenylalanine, lysine, glutamine/glutamic acid, and alanine. Volatile components from a meatlike process flavoring made from E-HVP were isolated by direct solvent extraction (DSE)-high vacuum transfer (HVT), dynamic headspace sampling and static headspace sampling and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and GC-olfactometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis was used to establish a flavor dilution chromatogram of the DSE-HVT extract. Results of these complementary techniques indicated the importance of odorants of high (hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol), intermediate (2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-furanmethanethiol, and 3-(methylthiol)propanal) and low volatility (maltol and Furaneol) in the overall aroma of the meatlike process flavoring.

  6. Supplementing enzymes to extruded, soybean based diet improves breakdown of non-starch polysaccharides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Verlhac, Viviane

    2016-01-01

    Plant-based feed ingredients typically contain remnants of dietary fibres [DF; non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and lignin] that have various antinutritive effects in carnivorous fish. Exogenous enzymes have been shown to improve the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of plant-based diets...... presumably by assisting in the breakdown of NSP. This study examined the effects on NSP degradation when supplementing β-glucanase, xylanase, protease or a mix of the three enzymes to an extruded, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diet containing 344 g kg−1 de-hulled, solvent-extracted soybean...... meal (SBM). The NSP content in the non-supplemented control diet and in faecal samples from the dietary treatment groups was analysed to determine the recovery/apparent digestibility of cellulose and total non-cellulosic polysaccharide (T-NCP) sugar monomers. The enzymes had significant, positive...

  7. A small-molecule inhibitor of the ubiquitin activating enzyme for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Marc L; Milhollen, Michael A; Ciavarri, Jeff; Fleming, Paul; Traore, Tary; Sappal, Darshan; Huck, Jessica; Shi, Judy; Gavin, James; Brownell, Jim; Yang, Yu; Stringer, Bradley; Griffin, Robert; Bruzzese, Frank; Soucy, Teresa; Duffy, Jennifer; Rabino, Claudia; Riceberg, Jessica; Hoar, Kara; Lublinsky, Anya; Menon, Saurabh; Sintchak, Michael; Bump, Nancy; Pulukuri, Sai M; Langston, Steve; Tirrell, Stephen; Kuranda, Mike; Veiby, Petter; Newcomb, John; Li, Ping; Wu, Jing Tao; Powe, Josh; Dick, Lawrence R; Greenspan, Paul; Galvin, Katherine; Manfredi, Mark; Claiborne, Chris; Amidon, Benjamin S; Bence, Neil F

    2018-02-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) comprises a network of enzymes that is responsible for maintaining cellular protein homeostasis. The therapeutic potential of this pathway has been validated by the clinical successes of a number of UPS modulators, including proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory imide drugs (IMiDs). Here we identified TAK-243 (formerly known as MLN7243) as a potent, mechanism-based small-molecule inhibitor of the ubiquitin activating enzyme (UAE), the primary mammalian E1 enzyme that regulates the ubiquitin conjugation cascade. TAK-243 treatment caused depletion of cellular ubiquitin conjugates, resulting in disruption of signaling events, induction of proteotoxic stress, and impairment of cell cycle progression and DNA damage repair pathways. TAK-243 treatment caused death of cancer cells and, in primary human xenograft studies, demonstrated antitumor activity at tolerated doses. Due to its specificity and potency, TAK-243 allows for interrogation of ubiquitin biology and for assessment of UAE inhibition as a new approach for cancer treatment.

  8. The fission yeast ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes UbcP3, Ubc15, and Rhp6 affect transcriptional silencing of the mating-type region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Inga Sig; Nielsen, Olaf; Murray, Johanne M

    2002-01-01

    Genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II are silenced when introduced near the mat2 or mat3 mating-type loci of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Silencing is mediated by a number of gene products and cis-acting elements. We report here the finding of novel trans-acting factors identified...... was not suppressed by a mutation in the 26S proteasome, suggesting that loss of silencing is not due to an increased degradation of silencing factors but rather to the posttranslational modification of proteins by ubiquitination. We discuss the implications of these results for the possible modes of action of UbcP3...

  9. Nodule-Enriched GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 Enzymes Have Distinct Substrate Specificities and Are Important for Proper Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Damodaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15. In vitro enzymatic assays showed that each of these GH3 proteins preferred IAA and aspartate as acyl and amino acid substrates, respectively. GmGH3-15 showed a broad substrate preference, especially with different forms of auxin. Promoter:GUS expression analysis indicated that GmGH3-14 acts primarily in the root epidermis and the nodule primordium where as GmGH3-15 might act in the vasculature. Silencing the expression of these GH3 genes in soybean composite plants led to altered nodule numbers, maturity, and size. Our results indicate that these GH3s are needed for proper nodule maturation in soybean, but the precise mechanism by which they regulate nodule development remains to be explained.

  10. Inducers of resistance and silicon on the activity of defense enzymes in the soybean-Phakopsora pachyrhizi interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Antunes da Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of jasmonic acid (JA, Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM and calcium silicate (a source of soluble silicon, Si, on the potentiation of soybean resistance to Asian soybean rust (ASR. The ASR severity was significantly reduced on plants sprayed with ASM or supplied with Si in comparison to plants sprayed with JA or deionized water. For chitinases (CHI, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants sprayed with deionized water or with ASM occurred at 72 hours after inoculation (hai, at 24 and 72 hai when sprayed with JA and at 141 hai when supplied with Si. For β-1,3-glucanases (GLU, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants sprayed with deionized water occurred at 24, 48 and 141 hai, but not until 72 for plants sprayed with ASM. For phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (PAL, significant differences in activity between non-inoculated and inoculated plants occurred only for plants sprayed with ASM at 72 and 141 hai. In conclusion, the ASR symptoms can be mild on plants sprayed with ASM or supplied with Si and that this amelioration likely involved the defense enzymes.

  11. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Bei-bei; Ling, Li; Hua, Chen; Ren, Shu-yan

    2014-09-01

    The effects of soybean oligosaccharides (SBOS) on antioxidant enzyme activities and insulin resistance in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were investigated. Ninety-seven pregnant women with GDM were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (51 cases) and the SBOS group (46 cases). Before the group separation, the blood sugar level in patients was maintained stable by regular diet and insulin treatment. The control group was continued with the insulin treatment, while the SBOS group was treated with the combination of insulin and SBOS. Results showed that SBOS were able to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate insulin resistance in pregnant women with GDM, which indicates that SBOS may play an important role in the control of GDM complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of extra virgin olive oil and soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kholy, Thanaa A; Abu Hilal, Mohammad; Al-Abbadi, Hatim Ali; Serafi, Abdulhalim Salim; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad K; Sobhy, Hanan M; Richardson, John R C

    2014-06-23

    We investigated the effect of extra virgin (EV) olive oil and genetically modified (GM) soybean on DNA, cytogenicity and some antioxidant enzymes in rodents. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups. The control group of rodents was fed basal ration only. The second group was given basal ration mixed with EV olive oil (30%). The third group was fed basal ration mixed with GM (15%), and the fourth group survived on a combination of EV olive oil, GM and the basal ration for 65 consecutive days. On day 65, blood samples were collected from each rat for antioxidant enzyme analysis. In the group fed on basal ration mixed with GM soyabean (15%), there was a significant increase in serum level of lipid peroxidation, while glutathione transferase decreased significantly. Interestingly, GM soyabean increased not only the percentage of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE), but also the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes to normochromatic erythrocytes (PEC/NEC); however, the amount of DNA and NCE were significantly decreased. Importantly, the combination of EV olive oil and GM soyabean significantly altered the tested parameters towards normal levels. This may suggest an important role for EV olive oil on rodents' organs and warrants further investigation in humans.

  13. Comparative studies focusing on transgenic through cp4EPSPS gene and non-transgenic soybean plants: an analysis of protein species and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Sandra C C; Barbosa, Herbert S; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2013-11-20

    This work evaluates the activity of a few key enzymes involved in combating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic and non-transgenic soybean leaves. Additionally, differential protein species from leaves of both genotypes were evaluated by applying a regulation factor of ≥1.8 to further corroborate the hypothesis that genetic modification itself can be a stress factor for these plants. For this task, transgenic soybean plants were obtained from seeds modified with the cp4EPSPS gene. The results revealed higher activities of all evaluated enzymes in transgenic than in non-transgenic soybean leaves (ranging from 13.8 to 70.1%), as well as higher concentrations of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic soybean leaves, clearly indicating a condition of oxidative stress established in the transgenic genotype. Additionally, 47 proteins were differentially abundant when comparing the leaves of both plants, with 26 species accurately identified, including the protein involved in the genetic modification (CP4EPSPS). From these results, it is possible to conclude that the plant is searching for a new equilibrium to maintain its metabolism because the stress condition is being maintained within levels that can be tolerated by the plant. The present paper is the first one in the literature where are shown translational aspects involving plant stress and the genetic modification for soybean involving the cp4 EPSPS gene. The main biological importance of this work is to make possible the demystification of the genetic modification, allowing answers for some questions that still remain unknown, and enlarge our knowledge about genetically modified organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright

  14. Soybean hull and enzyme inclusion effects on diet digestibility and growth performance in beef steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-06-01

    A beef feedlot study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean hull (SH) inclusion and enzyme addition on diet digestibility and animal performance. The hypothesis was SH inclusion and enzyme addition would increase fiber digestibility with no negative effect on animal performance. Eight treatments (TRT) were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial using four diets and two enzyme (ENZ) inclusion rates. The diets were composed primarily of whole shell corn (WSC) with 0%, 7%, 14%, or 28% SH replacing corn. The ENZ was a commercial proprietary mix of , and (Cattlemace, R&D Life Sciences, Menomonie, WI) included in the diets at 0% (S0, S7, S14, S28) or 0.045% DM basis (S0e, S7e, S14e, S28e). Eighty steers (287 ± 31 kg, SD) were stratified by weight and blocked into pens with 1 heavy and 1 light pen per TRT (2 pen/TRT, 5 steers/pen). Steers were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diets for the final 15 d. Fecal samples were collected on d 70 to determine diet digestibility. Diets were balanced for AA and RDP requirement based on available ME. Individual DMI was measured using a GrowSafe system. Diet, ENZ, and diet × ENZ effects were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Initial BW was applied as a covariate for final BW (FBW), and DMI was included as a covariate for all digestibility measures. The diet × ENZ interaction had no effect on FBW, ADG, DMI, or any digestibility measure ( ≥ 0.11). Steers fed ENZ tended to have greater FBW ( = 0.09) and had numerically greater ADG than steers not fed ENZ. Diet influenced DMI ( digestibility ( ≥ 0.2). Diet had an effect on NDF and ADF digestibility ( ≤ 0.04) which decreased as SH inclusion increased. The addition of ENZ tended to decrease NDF digestibility ( = 0.08) but had no effect on ADF digestibility ( = 0.8). Fiber digestibility in WSC diets did not improve with SH inclusion or ENZ addition but steers fed diets with 14% to 28% of WSC replaced by SH and the addition of 0.045% ENZ

  15. Main: 2AAK [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Molecule: Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme; Chain: Null; Synonym: Ubc1; Engineered: Yes Ubiquitin Conjugation 6....TPARKRLMRDFKRLQQDPPAGISGAPQDNNIMLWNAVIFGPDDTPWDGGTFKLSLQFSEDYPNKPPTVRFVSRMFHPNIYADGSICLDILQNQWSPIYDVAAILTSIQSLLCDPNPNSPANSEAARMYSESKREYNRRVRDVVEQSWTAD arabi_2AAK.jpg ...

  16. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  18. Purification of SUMO conjugating enzymes and kinetic analysis of substrate conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Ali A.; Lima, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMO conjugation to protein substrates requires the concerted action of a dedicated E2 ubiquitin conjugation enzyme (Ubc9) and associated E3 ligases. Although Ubc9 can directly recognize and modify substrate lysine residues that occur within a consensus site for SUMO modification, E3 ligases can redirect specificity and enhance conjugation rates during SUMO conjugation in vitro and in vivo. In this chapter, we will describe methods utilized to purify SUMO conjugating enzymes and model substrates which can be used for analysis of SUMO conjugation in vitro. We will also describe methods to extract kinetic parameters during E3-dependent or E3-independent substrate conjugation. PMID:19107417

  19. Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  20. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  1. Dietary inclusion of raw faba bean instead of soybean meal and enzyme supplementation in laying hens: Effect on performance and egg quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Abd El-Hack

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 160 Hisex Brown laying hens to evaluate the effect of different inclusion levels of faba bean (FB and enzyme supplementation on productive performance and egg quality parameters. The experimental diets consisted of five levels of FB: 0% (control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, substituting soybean meal (SBM, and two levels of enzyme supplementation (0 or 250 mg/kg. Each dietary treatment was assigned to four replicate groups and the experiment lasted 22 weeks. A positive relationship (P  0.05. The main effect of FB levels replacing for SBM affected (P < 0.05 yolk and shell percentages, yolk index, yolk to albumen ratio, shell thickness and egg shape index. It can be concluded that FB and enzyme supplementation could be included in hens diet at less than 50% instead of SBM to support egg productive performance, however higher raw FB levels negatively affected egg production indices and quality.

  2. 3D confocal Raman imaging of oil-rich emulsion from enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of extruded soybean powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longkun; Wang, Limin; Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Xiaonan; Chen, Fusheng; Li, Yang; Sui, Xiaonan; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2018-05-30

    The understanding of the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion from enzyme-assisted extraction processing (EAEP) was a critical step to break the oil-rich emulsion structure in order to recover oil. Albeit EAEP method has been applied as an alternative way to conventional solvent extraction method, the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion was still unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the structure morphology of oil-rich emulsion from EAEP using 3D confocal Raman imaging technique. With increasing the enzymatic hydrolysis duration from 1 to 3 h, the stability of oil-rich emulsion was decreased as visualized in the 3D confocal Raman images that the protein and oil were mixed together. The subsequent Raman spectrum analysis further revealed that the decreased stability of oil-rich emulsion was due to the protein aggregations via SS bonds or protein-lipid interactions. The conformational transfer in protein indicated the formation of a compact structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MANNAN OLIGOSACCHARIDES AND ENZYMES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL BASED-DIETS FOR BROILERS MANANOLIGOSSACARÍDEOS E ENZIMAS EM DIETAS À BASE DE MILHO E FARELO DE SOJA PARA AVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Maria Barbosa de Moraes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Mannan oligosaccharides, as an alternative to an-tibiotics, show promising results related to bird perfor-mance, immunity stimulus and improvement of intestinal mucosa. Enzyme inclusion in diets containing mannan oli-gosaccharides could improve these results. Poultry diets consist of corn and soybean meal, and approximately 30% of the phosphorus (P in these ingredients is bound to phytic acid. Phytase is capable of release not only the P but also other nutrients that can be better used by the birds while corn is relatively free of viscosous nonstarch poly-saccharides (NSP, soybean has about 20% of NSP, whose digestibility is almost null. NSP`s insoluble component of corn and soybean encapsulate nutrients and are responsive to exogenous enzymes. Negative environmental and nutri-tional consequences of dietary phytic acid are reduced by phytase inclusion in monogastric diets. Additionally, the enzymatic complex supplementation improves the nutri-tional value of feedstuffs through higher digestibility in birds. Finally, the use of exogenous enzymes allows re-duction in feed costs.

    KEY-WORDS: Animal nutrition, enzymatic supplementation, prebiotic.

    Os mananoligossacarídeos, como alternativa aos antibióticos, têm apresentado resultados promissores no que se refere tanto ao desempenho das aves quanto ao estímulo da imunidade e à melhora da mucosa intestinal. A inclusão de enzimas nas dietas contendo mananoligossacarídeos poderia melhorar ainda mais esses resultados. As dietas para aves são compostas de milho e farelo de soja, principalmente, e cerca de 30% do fósforo (P desses in-gredientes estão ligados ao ácido fítico. A fitase libera não só o P, mas também outros nutrientes para que sejam me-lhor utilizados pelas aves. O milho é relativamente isento de polissacarídeos não-amiláceos (PNAs viscosos e a soja apresenta cerca de 20% de PNAs, com digestibilidade praticamente nula. Os componentes insolúveis dos PNAs do

  4. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  5. Elisa development for detection of glyphosat resistant gm soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Геннадійович Спиридонов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During research we have utilized recombinant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS, conferring resistance to glyphosate for GM soybean, for the hen immunization and obtaining specific yolk antibodies IgY. Stages of ELISA development that can detect at least 0,1 % of GM-soybean resistant to glyphosate were present

  6. The Endosome-associated Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP8 Regulates BACE1 Enzyme Ubiquitination and Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Eniola Funmilayo Aduke; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-07-22

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-β, the toxic peptide that accumulates in the brain of subjects affected by Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that that depletion of the trafficking molecule Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding protein 3 (GGA3) results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation. We also determined that GGA3 regulation of BACE1 levels requires its ability to bind ubiquitin. Accordingly, we reported that BACE1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 501 and that lack of ubiquitination at lysine 501 produces BACE1 stabilization. Ubiquitin conjugation is a reversible process mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8), an endosome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, regulates the ubiquitination, trafficking, and lysosomal degradation of several plasma membrane proteins. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated depletion of USP8 reduced levels of both ectopically expressed and endogenous BACE1 in H4 human neuroglioma cells. Moreover, USP8 depletion increased BACE1 ubiquitination, promoted BACE1 accumulation in the early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, and decreased levels of BACE1 in the recycling endosomes. We also found that decreased BACE1 protein levels were accompanied by a decrease in BACE1-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage and amyloid-β levels. Our findings demonstrate that USP8 plays a key role in the trafficking and degradation of BACE1 by deubiquitinating lysine 501. These studies suggest that therapies able to accelerate BACE1 degradation (e.g. by increasing BACE1 ubiquitination) may represent a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The Endosome-associated Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP8 Regulates BACE1 Enzyme Ubiquitination and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Eniola Funmilayo Aduke; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-β, the toxic peptide that accumulates in the brain of subjects affected by Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that that depletion of the trafficking molecule Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding protein 3 (GGA3) results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation. We also determined that GGA3 regulation of BACE1 levels requires its ability to bind ubiquitin. Accordingly, we reported that BACE1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 501 and that lack of ubiquitination at lysine 501 produces BACE1 stabilization. Ubiquitin conjugation is a reversible process mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8), an endosome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, regulates the ubiquitination, trafficking, and lysosomal degradation of several plasma membrane proteins. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated depletion of USP8 reduced levels of both ectopically expressed and endogenous BACE1 in H4 human neuroglioma cells. Moreover, USP8 depletion increased BACE1 ubiquitination, promoted BACE1 accumulation in the early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, and decreased levels of BACE1 in the recycling endosomes. We also found that decreased BACE1 protein levels were accompanied by a decrease in BACE1-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage and amyloid-β levels. Our findings demonstrate that USP8 plays a key role in the trafficking and degradation of BACE1 by deubiquitinating lysine 501. These studies suggest that therapies able to accelerate BACE1 degradation (e.g. by increasing BACE1 ubiquitination) may represent a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. PMID:27302062

  8. H2A-DUBbing the mammalian epigenome: expanding frontiers for histone H2A deubiquitinating enzymes in cell biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Jad I; Nijnik, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone H2A through the attachment of ubiquitin or poly-ubiquitin conjugates are common in mammalian genomes and play an important role in the regulation of chromatin structure, gene expression, and DNA repair. Histone H2A deubiquitinases (H2A-DUBs) are a group of structurally diverse enzymes that catalyze the removal ubiquitin from histone H2A. In this review we provide a concise summary of the mechanisms that mediate histone H2A ubiquitination in mammalian cells, and review our current knowledge of mammalian H2A-DUBs, their biochemical activities, and recent developments in our understanding of their functions in mammalian physiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The deubiquitylating enzyme USP44 counteracts the DNA double-strand break response mediated by the RNF8 and RNF168 ubiquitin ligases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anna; Lukas, Claudia; Bekker-Jensen, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Protein recruitment to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) relies on ubiquitylation of the surrounding chromatin by the RING finger ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168. Flux through this pathway is opposed by several deubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs), including OTUB1 and USP3. By analyzing the effect...... of individually overexpressing the majority of human DUBs on RNF8/RNF168-mediated 53BP1 retention at DSB sites, we found that USP44 and USP29 powerfully inhibited this response at the level of RNF168 accrual. Both USP44 and USP29 promoted efficient deubiquitylation of histone H2A, but unlike USP44, USP29...... displayed non-specific reactivity towards ubiquitylated substrates. Moreover, USP44 but not other H2A DUBs was recruited to RNF168-generated ubiquitylation products at DSB sites. Individual depletion of these DUBs only mildly enhanced accumulation of ubiquitin conjugates and 53BP1 at DSBs, suggesting...

  10. Purification and characterization of a strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) in the vegetable cheese natto, a popular soybean fermented food in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, M; Nomura, K; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Asada, A; Nishimuro, S

    1993-12-30

    A strong fibrinolytic enzyme (nattokinase) was purified from the vegetable cheese natto. Nattokinase was extracted from natto with saline and isolated by sequential use of hydrophobic chromatography on Butyl-Toyopearl, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Toyopearl, and gel-filtration on Sephadex G-50. The isolated protein gave a single sharp band on SDS-PAGE either before or after reduction. The sequence, as determined by automated Edman degradation of the uncleaved molecule and its enzymatically derived peptide, consisted of a total 275 amino acid residues (M.W = 27,728) and exhibited a high homology with the subtilisins. The purified nattokinase digested not only fibrin but also several synthetic substrates. Among the synthetic substrates, the most sensitive substrate was Suc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA for subtilisin. PMSF inhibited both the fibrinolytic activity and the amidolytic activity. The results indicate that nattokinase is a subtilisin-like serine protease.

  11. soybeans yoghurt production using starter culture from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    On kilogram (lkg) of soybeans used produced soy-milk ... production and the vegetable oil industry can not be overemphasised .... cost. Four genera ut microorgamsms were isolated from the fennented cow milk ... The bacteria involved might have enzyme systems capable of metabolizing .... A Textbook of Economic Botany.

  12. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  13. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  14. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  15. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  16. PEMBUATAN PEPTON DARI BUNGKIL KEDELAI DAN KHAMIR DENGAN ENZIM PAPAIN UNTUK MEDIA PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI [Peptone Production From Soybean Press Cake and Yeast By Papain Enzyme For The Bacterial Growth Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachraniah1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptone can be produced from soybean press cake and yeast by enzymatic hydrolysis with papain. The activity of papain used in this experiment against casein is indicated by Vm (2000 unit and Km (0.8%. The process condition for soybean press cake was : [S] = 3.72%, [E] = 0.4%, 60 0C, pH 6.2-6.3, 5 hours, while for yeast was [S] = 4.76%, [E] = 0.2%, 60 0C, pH 5.8-5.9, 5 hours. The yield of the hydrolysis process of soybean press cake peptone was 12.1%, while that of yeast was 18.9%. The peptone obtained was brownish yellow in color with moisture content of 3 and 5%, ash content 6 and 7 %, total protein 9 and 11%, solubility 98%, amino nitrogen 1.9 and 2.82, and AN/TN ratio = 26.47 and 27.62%, respectively. The chromatographic pattern of the peptone using gel filtration column of Superdex-75 appeared to be the same as that of the commercial soy pepton. Growth test with E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis showed that soybean press cake and yeast peptone could be used as component in media for microbial growth.

  17. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  18. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  19. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean plants were taller when intercropped with NR 8212 or with TMS 30572 than in sole soybean, which had similar height with soybean in soybean/TMS 91934 mixture. The soybean canopy diameter, number of leaves per plant and LAI were higher with sole soybean. Within the soybean intercrops, canopy diameter, ...

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods, Chungkookjang and Doenjang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.-W.; Son, J.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Jo, Cheorun; Kim, D.-H.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on the physiological activity of Korean soybean fermented foods were investigated. Chungkookjang, the whole cooked soybean product and Doenjang, soybean paste were purchased and irradiated at 5, 10 and 20 kGy of absorbed doses. The physiological activity was evaluated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, xanthine oxidase inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition and radical scavenging ability and results indicated that at 10 kGy or below did not show any significant change on physiological activities by irradiation

  1. Produção de complexos enzimáticos por A. niger a partir de soja por fermentação em estado sólido=Enzyme complexes production by A. niger from soybean under solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Din Mahmud Hasan

    2012-04-01

    of filamentous fungi and enzymes production. In this way, this study compared the production of different types of enzymes through solid-state fermentation, using different types of soybean cultures (organic, transgenic and conventional with the fungus A. niger. We accomplished the characterization of the substrates for the production of amylase, protease and lipase, evaluation of the growth curves of the microorganism and the optimal conditions of enzymes production using experimental design. The highest enzyme activities in the study of fermentation parameters were observed for the protease, using conventional soybeans with initial moisture of 50%, 144h of fermentation, initial inoculum concentration of 4.106 spores g-1 and particle size of 0.6 mm. The study of process optimization indicated that the best results of enzyme activity for the protease were obtained at pH 3.0 and particle size of soybean fragmentation of 0.6 mm.

  2. Enzymatic extractability of soybean meal proteins and carbohydrates : heat and humidity effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, M.; Kofod, L.V.; Schols, H.A.; Piersma, S.R.; Gruppen, H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2001-01-01

    To study the incomplete enzymatic extractability of proteins and carbohydrates of thermally treated soybean meals, one unheated and three heat-treated soybean meals were produced. To obtain truly enzyme-resistant material, the meals were extracted by a repeated hydrolysis procedure using excessive

  3. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  4. Resistência de biótipos de Euphorbia heterophylla l. Aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima ALS utilizados na cultura de soja Resistance of Euphorbia heterophylla l. Biotypes to ALS enzyme inhibitor herbicides used in soybean crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERSON AUGUSTO GELMINI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas constituem-se na principal medida de controle de plantas daninhas na cultura de soja; no entanto, a pressão de seleção causada pelo uso contínuo de produtos com o mesmo mecanismo de ação pode provocar a seleção de biótipos resistentes, como ocorreu com Euphorbia heterophylla L., que se mostrou resistente aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acetolactato sintase (ALS em áreas dos Estados do Paraná e Rio Grande do Sul. Para comprovar possíveis novos casos, bem como alternativas para prevenção e manejo, coletaram-se sementes de plantas de E. heterophylla L., na região de Assis (SP, que sobreviveram a tratamentos, em que esses herbicidas foram sistematicamente aplicados nos últimos anos. Desenvolveu-se o experimento em casa de vegetação, comparando-se o biótipo resistente ao suscetível, quando submetido aos diversos herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência. Aplicaram-se quando as plantas encontravam-se no estádio de duas a quatro folhas verdadeiras, nas doses zero, uma, duas, quatro e oito vezes a recomendada. Aos 20 dias após a aplicação, avaliaram-se os parâmetros relativos ao controle e produção de fitomassa epígea visando ao estabelecimento de curvas de doses-resposta, à obtenção dos fatores de resistência com base nos valores da DL50 e GR50, e à verificação da ocorrência de resistência múltipla. O biótipo resistente apresentou diferentes níveis de resistência aos herbicidas chlorimuron-ethyl e imazethapyr, demonstrando resistência cruzada aos inibidores da ALS dos grupos das sulfoniluréias e imidazolinonas. No entanto, foi eficientemente controlado nos tratamentos com fomesafen (250 g.ha-1, lactofen (120 g.ha-1, flumiclorac-pentil (40 g.ha-1, glufosinato de amônio (150 g.ha-1 e glyphosate (360 g.ha-1.Herbicides are the main tool for weed control in soybean crop, but the selection pressure attributed to the repeated application of the same herbicides and the same mechanism of action can

  5. The integral and extrinsic bioactive proteins in the aqueous extracted soybean oil bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luping; Chen, Yeming; Cao, Yanyun; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-10-09

    Soybean oil bodies (OBs), naturally pre-emulsified soybean oil, have been examined by many researchers owing to their great potential utilizations in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and other applications requiring stable oil-in-water emulsions. This study was the first time to confirm that lectin, Gly m Bd 28K (Bd 28K, one soybean allergenic protein), Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI), and Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) were not contained in the extracted soybean OBs even by neutral pH aqueous extraction. It was clarified that the well-known Gly m Bd 30K (Bd 30K), another soybean allergenic protein, was strongly bound to soybean OBs through a disulfide bond with 24 kDa oleosin. One steroleosin isoform (41 kDa) and two caleosin isoforms (27 kDa, 29 kDa), the integral bioactive proteins, were confirmed for the first time in soybean OBs, and a considerable amount of calcium, necessary for the biological activities of caleosin, was strongly bound to OBs. Unexpectedly, it was found that 24 kDa and 18 kDa oleosins could be hydrolyzed by an unknown soybean endoprotease in the extracted soybean OBs, which might give some hints for improving the enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction processing of soybean free oil.

  6. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  7. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  8. Efeito da suplementação enzimática em rações à base de milho/farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de poedeiras comerciais Effect of the enzyme supplementation of corn/soybean meal based diets on the performance of commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito do uso de um complexo enzimático comercial (alfa-amilase, xilanase e protease específico para dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de poedeiras comerciais. Cento e vinte e oito poedeiras da linhagem Hy-Line, com 68 semanas de idade e no segundo ciclo de postura, foram alojadas em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições de quatro aves por bloco, totalizando 32 aves por tratamento. Duas dietas isoprotéicas, porém com diferentes níveis de EM, foram formuladas à base de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de trigo e suplementadas ou não com enzimas. Os tratamentos foram: T1 - dieta contendo 2850 kcal EM/kg; T2 - dieta contendo 2850 kcal EM/kg, com 0,1% enzima; T3 - dieta contendo 2750 kcal EM/kg; e T4 - dieta contendo 2750 kcal EM/kg, com 0,1% enzima. O experimento teve duração de 112 dias, divididos em quatro períodos de 28 dias, e as variáveis estudadas foram: porcentagem de postura (ave/dia, consumo de ração (g/ave/dia, peso dos ovos (g, conversão alimentar (kg de ração/kg de ovo, ganho de peso das poedeiras (g e custo com alimentação (R$. A análise de variância dos dados demonstrou que não existiu efeito dos tratamentos sobre as variáveis estudadas. A suplementação enzimática das dietas nos níveis estudados não afetou o desempenho das poedeiras.This experiment was conducted to study the effect of the inclusion of a commercial enzyme complex (alpha-amylase, xylanase and proteases especific for corn and soybean meal based diets, on laying hens performance. One hundred and twenty eight Hy-line White Leghorns hens with 68 weeks of age, in the 2nd cycle of production were assigned to a completely randomized block design with four replications of four birds per block, totalizing 32 birds per treatment. Two isonitrogenous diets with different levels of metabolizable energy (ME were formulated based on corn, soybean meal, wheat

  9. Antioxidant properties of soybean seedlings inoculated with Trichoderma asperellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manojlović Ana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to assess the effect of inoculation of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds with Trichoderma asperellum, followed by mites (Tetranychus urticae exposure on lipid peroxidation (LP process and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. T. urticae is an occasional pest of soybean that causes biotic stress. Biotic stress leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS which may cause damage to vital biomolecules. Enzymatic antioxidant defense systems protect plants against oxidative stress. T. asperellum is commonly used as biocontrol agent against plant pathogens. It has been suggested that previous inoculation of seeds with T. asperellum may cause induced resistance against biotic stress. The aim of this study was to determine LP intensity and antioxidant enzymes activity in inoculated and non-inoculated soybean seedlings with and without exposure to mites. Noticeably higher LP intensity was detected in non-inoculated group treated with mites compared to control group. Inoculated soybean seedlings treated with mites had lower LP intensity compared to noninoculated group. Also, it has been noticed that inoculation with Trichoderma asperellum itself, produced mild stress in plants. In addition, positive correlation between enzymes activity and LP was noticed. The level of oxidative stress in plants was followed by the change of LP intensity. According to results obtained, it was concluded that the greatest oxidative stress occurred in non-inoculated group treated with mites and that inoculation successfully reduced oxidative stress. The results indicate that inoculation of soybean seeds with T. asperellum improves resistance of soybean seedlings against mites attack. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31022

  10. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Steven; Jentsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    With the discovery in the late 1980s that the DNA-repair gene RAD6 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, it became clear that protein modification by ubiquitin conjugation has a much broader significance than had previously been assumed. Now, two decades later, ubiquitin and its cousin SUMO are

  11. Proteomic analysis of soybean hypocotyl during recovery after flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-21

    Soybean is a nutritionally important crop, but exhibits reduced growth and yields under flooding stress. To investigate soybean responses during post-flooding recovery, a gel-free proteomic technique was used to examine the protein profile in the hypocotyl. Two-day-old soybeans were flooded for 2 days and hypocotyl was collected under flooding and during the post-flooding recovery period. A total of 498 and 70 proteins were significantly changed in control and post-flooding recovering soybeans, respectively. Based on proteomic and clustering analyses, three proteins were selected for mRNA expression and enzyme activity assays. Pyruvate kinase was increased under flooding, but gradually decreased during post-flooding recovery period at protein abundance, mRNA, and enzyme activity levels. Nucleotidylyl transferase was decreased under flooding and increased during post-flooding recovery at both mRNA expression and enzyme activity levels. Beta-ketoacyl reductase 1 was increased under flooding and decreased during recovery at protein abundance and mRNA expression levels, but its enzyme activity gradually increased during the post-flooding recovery period. These results suggest that pyruvate kinase, nucleotidylyl transferase, and beta-ketoacyl reductase play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean hypocotyl by promoting glycolysis for the generation of ATP and regulation of secondary metabolic pathways. This study analyzed post-flooding recovery response mechanisms in soybean hypocotyl, which is a model organ for studying secondary growth, using a gel-free proteomic technique. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins extracted from soybean hypocotyls identified 20 common proteins between control and flooding-stressed soybeans that changed significantly in abundance over time. The hypocotyl proteins that changed during post-flooding recovery were assigned to protein, development, secondary metabolism, and glycolysis categories. The analysis revealed that three

  12. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2011-09-01

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the conversion of oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors in developing soybean seeds. Two genes encoding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were identified to be expressed specifically in seeds during embryogenesis and have been considered to hold an important role in controlling the seed oleic acid content. A total of 22 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines identified to have an elevated oleic acid content were characterized for sequence mutations in the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. PI 603452 was found to contain a deletion of a nucleotide in the second exon of FAD2-1A. These important SNPs were used in developing molecular marker genotyping assays. The assays appear to be a reliable and accurate tool to identify the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genotype of wild-type and mutant plants. PI 603452 was subsequently crossed with PI 283327, a soybean line that has a mutation in FAD2-1B. Interestingly, soybean lines carrying both homozygous insertion/deletion mutation (indel) FAD2-1A alleles and mutant FAD2-1B alleles have an average of 82-86% oleic acid content, compared to 20% in conventional soybean, and low levels of linoleic and linolenic acids. The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties.

  13. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  14. Influência do potássio e da calagem na composição química, qualidade fisiológica e na atividade enzimática de sementes de soja Influence of potassium and liming on chemical composition, physiological quality and enzyme activities of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Delly Veiga

    2010-08-01

    several enzymes present in plants. These enzymes are necessary in a number of reactions involved in the utilization of energy, starch synthesis, nitrogen metabolism and respiration. The effects of potassium fertilization and liming on the chemical composition, physiological quality and enzymes activities of soybean seeds were evaluated. The research was developed in the Seed Analysis Laboratory of the Agriculture Department and in the Plant Production Laboratory in the Food Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras, Lavras (UFLA. In soybean seeds of cultivar Msoy 8001 produced under two levels of base saturation (48% and 85% and four doses. ha-1 of K2O, 0, 50, 100 and 200, oil and protein contents, seed germination, aging test and the activity of some enzymes involved in the seed germination and deterioration processes were evaluated. Seed germination and vigor are not influenced by fertilization with potassium. However, base saturation increases the vigor of soybean seeds. Highert doses of potassium increase oil content and reduce protein in soybean seeds. High base saturation level increases the protein content. The activities of the enzymes piruvate kinase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase are altered by the doses of potassium and levels of soil base saturation.

  15. INTERCROPPING OF BRAQUIARIA WITH SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Bulegon, Lucas Guilherme; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Rossol, Charles Douglas; Berte, Luiz Neri; Rabello de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio; Neres, Marcela Abbado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the intercropping of Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu with soybeans. The experiment has been planted in a 3 year prevailing area with no-tillage, in eutrophic Oxisol at Maripa - PR. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. For the forage study, four treatments were performed which consisted of seeding times brachiaria [early ( seven days before planting soybeans) joint (same day of soybean planting) and after (at stages V-3 an...

  16. Mutation breeding in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    In Indonesia, soybean is one of the important crop after rice. It is generally cultivated in the lowlands and rarely in the highlands. Seeds of soybean variety ORBA were treated with various doses of fast neutrons, gamma rays, EMS and NaN 3 with the aims of studying the mutagen effects in M-1 and M-2 generations and also to select mutants adapted to highland conditions. D-50 doses for gamma rays, fast neutrons and EMS were around 23 krad, 2,300 rad, 0.3%, respectively. Much higher chlorophyll mutation frequency was observed in EMS treatment of 0.3%. Seven mutants were shorter and four early mutants matured from 4 to 20 days earlier than the control plants. Two early mutants were quite adaptable in both the low and highlands and produced better yields than the parental material. (author)

  17. Trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by Fusarium oxysporum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lidong; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Long; Fan, Xiaoning; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Ke; He, Yuting; Chen, Chen; Ji, Xiue

    2017-03-01

    An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F. oxysporum growth. Meanwhile, T-soybean treatment obviously reduced disease severity and induced quickly the H 2 O 2 and O 2 - burst as well as pathogenesis related protein gene (PR3) expression after F. oxysporum inoculation, and subsequently diminished the cell damage in soybean caused by the pathogen challenge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity analysis showed that the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in T-soybean pretreated plants. These results suggested that T-soybean treatment induced resistance in soybean seedlings to F. oxysporum by companying the production of ROS and the increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activity as well as PR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and characterization of amine oxidase from soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, F; Di Paolo, M L; Stevanato, R; Gasparini, R; Rigo, A

    1993-11-15

    A simple and rapid procedure for purification of soybean seedling amine oxidase is reported. The crude enzyme, obtained by ammonium sulfate fractionation was purified by ion-exchange chromatography on a cellulose phosphate column and batch affinity chromatography on 6-aminohexyl-Sepharose. Cyclohexylamine, a competitive inhibitor, was utilized to elute the enzyme. A homogeneous enzyme was obtained with a yield higher than 25%, the content of minor components being lauryl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme is a dimer and contains two Cu2+ ion per molecule. Its EPR spectrum is typical of Cu2+ in a tetragonal symmetry. The enzyme oxidizes cadaverine at high rate, the specific activity being 4.3 mukat/mg. Molecular, spectroscopic, and kinetic properties of this enzyme are reported.

  19. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Pierce

    Full Text Available The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  20. Enzymatic solubilisation and degradation of soybean fibre demonstrated by viscosity, fibre analysis and microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jonas Laukkonen; Martens, Helle Juel; Pettersson, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of a commercial multienzyme product obtained by fermentation from Aspergillus aculeatus on soybean and soybean meal was investigated using viscosity measurements, dietary fibre component analysis and different microscopy techniques utilizing histochemical dyes and antibody labelling....... The results obtained demonstrated a strong viscosity reducing effect of the enzyme preparation on soluble galactomannan and xyloglucan polysaccharides and in addition non-starch polysaccharide analysis demonstrated a notable solubilisation of all polysaccharide constituents. The degradation...

  1. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  2. SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian soybean production almost never moved, even tended to decrease. Indonesia does not have a specific area of land for planting soybeans. Soybean are generally just a byproduct of plant or land filling vacant after farmers grow rice. In addition soybean price fluctuations that affect tofu and tempe entrepreneurs, it turns soybean farmers are often losers. Policy biased to the consumer sector than soybean production, cause national soybean production declining. The decrease occurred primarily because of the narrowing of soybean plantation land owned by farmers, this happens because soy is less interesting than the business side so that the farmers based on rationality, farmers prefer the other commodities, especially rice. Increasing decline in domestic soybean production resulted in the growing dependence on imports which would deplete foreign exchange. Procurement policies of national soybean stocks through imports is easy to do but its adverse implications for the development of domestic agricultural production, especially soybeans, very bad.

  3. Pancreatic Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Pancreatic enzymes Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer ... and see a registered dietitian. What are pancreatic enzymes? Pancreatic enzymes help break down fats, proteins and ...

  4. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  5. Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing DAS-68416-4 soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Dunville, Christina M; Juberg, Daland R; Fletcher, Dale W; Cromwell, Gary L

    2011-01-01

    Broiler chickens are a fast growing monogastric animal commonly used to evaluate the equivalence between transgenic and non-transgenic grains as part of the human safety assessment process. While commonly viewed like other livestock feeding trials, such studies are performed with transgenic crops with input traits (that are not designed to improve nutrition) to aid regulatory authorities in evaluating safety. Studies of this type are actually more similar to toxicology studies in purpose, with sensitive endpoints like growth used to detect metabolic perturbations. DAS-68416-4 soybean expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-12 (AAD-12) enzyme which inactivates 2,4-diclorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and provides DAS-68416-4 soybeans tolerance to this herbicide. DAS-68416-4 also expresses the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme from Streptomyces viridochromogenes which confers tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicides. A 6-week broiler study was conducted with diets containing toasted DAS-68416-4 soybean meal (40, 36, and 32% in starter, grower and finisher diets, respectively) to evaluate nutritional wholesomeness and safety compared with conventional comparators. Toasting soybean meal is required to inactivate endogenous antinutrients making soybean suitable for consumption by monogastric animals like broiler chickens. Toasting was found to denature both the AAD-12 and PAT proteins rendering them non-detectable by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays. Broiler growth and performance parameters were measured over a 6-week period of exposure to diets containing different sources of toasted soybean meal, and results indicate that DAS-68416-4 soybean is nutritionally equivalent to non-transgenic soybean.

  6. Desempenho de Frangos de Corte Alimentados com Dietas à Base de Milho e Farelo de Soja, com ou sem Adição de Enzimas Performance of Broilers Fed Corn Soybean Meal Based Diets, with or without Inclusion of Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2002-01-01

    cocktail was added with the ration of 1 kg per 200 kg of soybean meal. Two thousand and forty female Ross chicks were distributed in eight treatments with seven replicates each. A split-plot experimental design was used. Treatments consisted of T1 -- control (no enzyme added, T2 -- diet five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids, without enzyme addition. T3 -- control (no enzyme added up to 28 days and with enzyme from 29 to 35 days of age, T4 -- control (without enzyme up to 21 days and with enzyme from 22 to 35 days of age, T5 -- control (plus enzyme addition, T6 -- control (plus enzyme addition up to 28 days of age, and five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids, with enzyme addition from 29 to 35 days of age. T7 -- control (with enzyme addition up 21 days of age and five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids, with enzyme from 22 to 35 days of age, and T8 -- five percent lower in energy, protein and amino acids. During the first experimental period, except for T2, body weight, body weight gain and feed intake were not influenced by dietary treatments. Feed conversion and factor of production differed statistically. During the fourth week of experimental period, birds fed T2 were the only ones to differ in body weight and body weight gain. Feed intake, feed conversion and factor of production were not statistically different. During the last week of experimental period, most differences among treatments were observed. The results indicate that Vegpro enzymatic cocktail was not effective in growth performance improvement.

  7. Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase accumulate enhanced levels of cysteine and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Chronis, Demosthenis; Juergens, Matthew; Schroeder, Amy C; Hyun, Seung Won; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2012-01-01

    Soybeans provide an excellent source of protein in animal feed. Soybean protein quality can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids. Previous attempts to increase the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids through the expression of heterologous proteins have met with limited success. Here, we report a successful strategy to increase the cysteine content of soybean seed through the overexpression of a key sulfur assimilatory enzyme. We have generated several transgenic soybean plants that overexpress a cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). These transgenic soybean plants exhibit a four- to tenfold increase in OASS activity when compared with non-transformed wild-type. The OASS activity in the transgenic soybeans was significantly higher at all the stages of seed development. Unlike the non-transformed soybean plants, there was no marked decrease in the OASS activity even at later stages of seed development. Overexpression of cytosolic OASS resulted in a 58-74% increase in protein-bound cysteine levels compared with non-transformed wild-type soybean seeds. A 22-32% increase in the free cysteine levels was also observed in transgenic soybeans overexpressing OASS. Furthermore, these transgenic soybean plants showed a marked increase in the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, a cysteine-rich protein. The overall increase in soybean total cysteine content (both free and protein-bound) satisfies the recommended levels required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals.

  8. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  9. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  11. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  12. Metabolic profiles of flooding-tolerant mechanism in early-stage soybean responding to initial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Nishimura, Minoru; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Metabolomic analysis of flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid-treated soybeans suggests that accumulated fructose might play a role in initial flooding tolerance through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress, which markedly reduces plant growth. To explore the mechanism underlying initial-flooding tolerance in soybean, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was performed using flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic-acid treated soybeans. Among the commonly-identified metabolites in both flooding-tolerant materials, metabolites involved in carbohydrate and organic acid displayed same profile at initial-flooding stress. Sugar metabolism was highlighted in both flooding-tolerant materials with the decreased and increased accumulation of sucrose and fructose, respectively, compared to flooded soybeans. Gene expression of hexokinase 1 was upregulated in flooded soybean; however, it was downregulated in both flooding-tolerant materials. Metabolites involved in carbohydrate/organic acid and proteins related to glycolysis/tricarboxylic acid cycle were integrated. Increased protein abundance of phosphofructokinase was identified in both flooding-tolerant materials, which was in agreement with its enzyme activity. Furthermore, sugar metabolism was pointed out as the tolerant-responsive process at initial-flooding stress with the integration of metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics. Moreover, application of fructose declined the increased fresh weight of plant induced by flooding stress. These results suggest that fructose might be the critical metabolite through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase to confer initial-flooding stress in soybean.

  13. Effect on isoflavone of soybean seedlings by 532nm laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Jin, L. H.; Li, J. M.; Shen, B. J.; Wang, C. Y.; Lu, X.; Zhao, X. L.

    2010-02-01

    We took soybeans as experimental substance to study how the 532nm laser with different power density and irradiation time affected the pullulation ratio of the soybeans, average height of seedlings and the isoflavone content of seedlings' cotyledon and laminae. The mechanism that laser pretreatment of soybean seeds could increase the isoflavone content of the seedlings was discussed in such both aspects as the efficiency of the photosynthesis and the activity of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) as an initial enzyme for synthesizing the isoflavone. The results showed that after the soybean seeds were pretreated by laser, the activity of the PAL and the resultants of the photosynthesis such as the sugar of dissolubility, the sucrose, and the amylum all increased with the soybean seeds irradiated by laser in which the effect on the soybean seeds pretreated by 15mW/mm2 laser for 5 min was the most obvious. As a result, the photosynthesis efficiency of the soybean seedlings increased after being pretreated by laser, which might offer the foundation for accumulating a large amount of isoflavone.

  14. Effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme complex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... and protein escape digestion, reach the midgut and undergo fermentation ... soybean broiler starter diet with an enzyme preparation containing a mixture .... due to the rapid food rate and the deficiency of the necessary innate ...

  15. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  16. The Tomato U-Box Type E3 Ligase PUB13 Acts With Group III Ubiquitin E2 Enzymes to Modulate FLS2-Mediated Immune Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangjun Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Arabidopsis and rice, the ubiquitin ligase PUB13-mediated protein degradation plays a significant role in plant pattern-triggered immunity (PTI and flowering time control. The Arabidopsis PUB13 has been shown to attenuate the pattern recognition receptor FLS2-mediated immune signaling by ubiquitinating FLS2 and consequently promoting its degradation by the 26S proteasome. Nevertheless, the cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2 with which PUB13 acts to modulate FLS2-mediated PTI are unknown. To address this question, we investigate here the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum homolog of PUB13, SlPUB13 by utilizing the recently characterized complete set of tomato E2s. Of the 13 groups of tomato E2s, only members in group III are found to interact and act with SlPUB13. Knocking-down of the group III E2 genes enhances callose deposition and induction of the RbohB gene in the immunity-associated, early oxidative burst after flg22 treatment. The group III E2s are also found to work with SlPUB13 to ubiquitinate FLS2 in vitro and are required for PUB13-mediated degradation of FLS2 in vivo upon flg22 treatment, suggesting an essential role for group III E2s in the modulation of FLS2-mediated immune signaling by PUB13. Additionally, another immunity-associated E3, NtCMPG1 is shown to also work specifically with members of group III E2 in the in vitro ubiquitination assay, which implies the group III E2 enzymes may cooperate with many E3 ligases to regulate different aspects of PTI. Taken together, these data corroborate the notion that group III E2 enzymes play an important role in PTI and build a foundation for further functional and mechanistic characterization of tomato PUB13.

  17. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bo; Damude, Howard G.; Everard, John D.; Booth, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm. Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. PMID:27208257

  18. An Improved Variant of Soybean Type 1 Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase Increases the Oil Content and Decreases the Soluble Carbohydrate Content of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Keith; Shen, Bo; Bermudez, Ericka; Li, Changjiang; Hunt, Joanne; Damude, Howard G; Ripp, Kevin G; Everard, John D; Booth, John R; Castaneda, Leandro; Feng, Lizhi; Meyer, Knut

    2016-06-01

    Kinetically improved diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) variants were created to favorably alter carbon partitioning in soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Initially, variants of a type 1 DGAT from a high-oil, high-oleic acid plant seed, Corylus americana, were screened for high oil content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nearly all DGAT variants examined from high-oil strains had increased affinity for oleoyl-CoA, with S0.5 values decreased as much as 4.7-fold compared with the wild-type value of 0.94 µm Improved soybean DGAT variants were then designed to include amino acid substitutions observed in promising C. americana DGAT variants. The expression of soybean and C. americana DGAT variants in soybean somatic embryos resulted in oil contents as high as 10% and 12%, respectively, compared with only 5% and 7.6% oil achieved by overexpressing the corresponding wild-type DGATs. The affinity for oleoyl-CoA correlated strongly with oil content. The soybean DGAT variant that gave the greatest oil increase contained 14 amino acid substitutions out of a total of 504 (97% sequence identity with native). Seed-preferred expression of this soybean DGAT1 variant increased oil content of soybean seeds by an average of 3% (16% relative increase) in highly replicated, single-location field trials. The DGAT transgenes significantly reduced the soluble carbohydrate content of mature seeds and increased the seed protein content of some events. This study demonstrated that engineering of the native DGAT enzyme is an effective strategy to improve the oil content and value of soybeans. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. ELISA analysis of soybean trypsin inhibitors in processed foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, D L; Bates, A H; Friedman, M

    1991-01-01

    Soybean proteins are widely used in human foods in a variety of forms, including infant formulas, flour, protein concentrates, protein isolates, soy sauces, textured soy fibers, and tofu. The presence of inhibitors of digestive enzymes in soy proteins impairs the nutritional quality and possibly the safety of soybeans and other legumes. Processing, based on the use of heat or fractionation of protein isolates, does not completely inactivate or remove these inhibitors, so that residual amounts of inhibitors are consumed by animals and humans. New monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays can measure low levels of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and the Bowman-Birk trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BBI) and the Bowman-Birk foods. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the inhibitor content of soy concentrates, isolates, and flours, both heated and unheated; a commercial soy infant formula; KTI and BBI with rearranged disulfide bonds; browning products derived from heat-treatment of KTI with glucose and starch; and KTI exposed to high pH. The results indicate that even low inhibitor isolates contain significant amounts of specific inhibitors. Thus, infants on soy formula consume about 10 mg of KTI plus BBI per day. The immunoassays complement the established enzymatic assays of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, and have advantages in (a) measuring low levels of inhibitors in processed foods; and (b) differentiating between the Kunitz and Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The significance of our findings for food safety are discussed.

  20. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  1. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  3. Soybean phospholipase D activity determination. A comparison of two methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ré, E.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to a discrepancy between previously published results, two methods to determine the soybean phospholipase D activity were evaluated. One method is based on the extraction of the enzyme from whole soybean flour, quantifying the enzyme activity on the extract. The other method quantifies the enzymatic activity on whole soybean flour without enzyme extraction. In the extraction-based-method, both the extraction time and the number of extractions were optimized. The highest phospholipase D activity values were obtained from the method without enzyme extraction. This method is less complex, requires less running-time and the conditions of the medium in which phospholipase D acts resemble the conditions found in the oil industrySe evaluaron dos métodos para determinar la actividad de la fosfolipasa D en soja debido a que existe discrepancia entre los resultados publicados. Un método se basa en la extracción de la enzima de la harina resultante de la molienda del grano de soja entero, cuantificando la actividad sobre el extracto. En el otro método, la cuantificación se realiza sobre la harina del grano entero molido, sin extraer la enzima. En el método de extracción se optimizaron tanto el tiempo como el número de extracciones. Los mayores valores de actividad de la fosfolipasa D se obtuvieron por el método sin extracción de la enzima. Este método es más simple, exige menos tiempo de ejecución y las condiciones del medio en que actúa la fosfolipasa D se asemejan a las condiciones encontradas en la industria aceitera.

  4. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  5. Enzyme Hydrolysis of Soybean Oil in a Slug Flow Microsystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čech, J.; Schrott, W.; Slouka, Z.; Přibyl, M.; Brož, M.; Kuncová, Gabriela; Šnita, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, AUG 15 (2012), s. 194-202 ISSN 1369-703X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 892 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : lipase * microemulsion * micromixing Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2012

  6. Enzyme Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  7. Induced mutation for soybean quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiying; Xu Dechun; Guo Yuhong; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan

    2000-01-01

    Gamma rays of acute and chronic radiation, thermal neutrons as well as ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN 3 ) of chemical mutagens were used to improve the quality of soybean seed. Some mutants of better quality were selected. 'Heinong No.41' With protein and oil content of 45.23% and 18.80% respectively was tolerant to akali-saline and had a higher yield potential; 90-3527 with earlier mature (110 days of growth period) and high protein content (47.53%) had a resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and frog-eye lief spot of soybean. The mutants with higher linoleic acid content (more than 60%) and lower linolenic acid content (less than 3.5%) were developed

  8. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  9. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  10. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Yu

    Full Text Available Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering. Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  11. Acquisition of Cry1Ac Protein by Non-Target Arthropods in Bt Soybean Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults) and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering). Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean. PMID:25110881

  12. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds Induced by Herbivory of the Soybean Looper Chrysodeixis includens in Transgenic Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean and the Behavioral Effect on the Parasitoid, Meteorus rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapasson, Priscila; Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Da Silva Gomes, Sandra M; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2016-08-01

    Transgenic soybean plants (RR) engineered to express resistance to glyphosate harbor a variant of the enzyme EPSPS (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) involved in the shikimic acid pathway, the biosynthetic route of three aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. The insertion of the variant enzyme CP4 EPSPS confers resistance to glyphosate. During the process of genetic engineering, unintended secondary effects are likely to occur. In the present study, we quantified volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted constitutively or induced in response to herbivory by the soybean looper Chrysodeixis includens in transgenic soybean and its isogenic (untransformed) line. Since herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to play a role in the recruitment of natural enemies, we assessed whether changes in VOC profiles alter the foraging behavior of the generalist endoparasitic larval parasitoid, Meteorus rubens in the transgenic line. Additionally, we assessed whether there was a difference in plant quality by measuring the weight gain of the soybean looper. In response to herbivory, several VOCs were induced in both the conventional and the transgenic line; however, larger quantities of a few compounds were emitted by transgenic plants. Meteorus rubens females were able to discriminate between the odors of undamaged and C. includens-damaged plants in both lines, but preferred the odors emitted by herbivore-damaged transgenic plants over those emitted by herbivore-damaged conventional soybean plants. No differences were observed in the weight gain of the soybean looper. Our results suggest that VOC-mediated tritrophic interactions in this model system are not negatively affected. However, as the preference of the wasps shifted towards damaged transgenic plants, the results also suggest that genetic modification affects that tritrophic interactions in multiple ways in this model system.

  14. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  15. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  16. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of D-Myo-Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Gene Family Members in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Laura Lee

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to isolate genes encoding isoforms of the enzyme D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. 5.5.1.4) from soybean and to characterize their expression, especially with respect to their involvement in phytic acid biosynthesis. A MIPS-homologous cDNA, designated GmMIPS1, was isolated via PCR using total RNA from developing seeds. Southern blot analysis and examination of MIPS-homologous soybean EST sequences suggested that GmMIPS1 is part of a multigene...

  18. Changes in RNA Splicing in Developing Soybean (Glycine max Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delasa Aghamirzaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing soybean seeds accumulate oils, proteins, and carbohydrates that are used as oxidizable substrates providing metabolic precursors and energy during seed germination. The accumulation of these storage compounds in developing seeds is highly regulated at multiple levels, including at transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. RNA sequencing was used to provide comprehensive information about transcriptional and post-transcriptional events that take place in developing soybean embryos. Bioinformatics analyses lead to the identification of different classes of alternatively spliced isoforms and corresponding changes in their levels on a global scale during soybean embryo development. Alternative splicing was associated with transcripts involved in various metabolic and developmental processes, including central carbon and nitrogen metabolism, induction of maturation and dormancy, and splicing itself. Detailed examination of selected RNA isoforms revealed alterations in individual domains that could result in changes in subcellular localization of the resulting proteins, protein-protein and enzyme-substrate interactions, and regulation of protein activities. Different isoforms may play an important role in regulating developmental and metabolic processes occurring at different stages in developing oilseed embryos.

  19. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  20. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... practice and procedure; Advertising; Agricultural research; Marketing agreements; Soybeans and soybean...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...

  1. Effect of hemicellulolytic enzymes on mesophilic methane fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, S; Matsui, Y; Iizuka, M; Yamamoto, T

    1977-01-01

    Mesophilic methane fermentation was examined using soybean seed coat, a waste from soybean processing for oil manufacture, with or without treatment with hemicellulolytic enzymes of Aspergillus niger, and the following results were obtained: (1) The methane fermentation bacteria acclimated to soybean seed coat medium were shown to consume monosaccharides and evolve methane in the following decreasing order: glucose, fructose, mannose > xylose, galactose, glucosamine, galacturonic acid > arabinose. The bacteria were also shown to form methane from a gas mixture of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. (2) In fermentation of soybean seed coat treated with the fungal enzyme, about 70% of the total sugar content as consumed in four weeks, and the gas evolution was about twice that without the fungal enzyme. The gas evolved was composed of 60% methane and 36% carbon dioxide. In general, vigorous evolution of hydrogen and carbon dioxide occurred at a very early stage of fermentation, and was followed by formation of methane. The maximum gas evolution of the enzyme-treated mash took place in 6 days while that of untreated mash occurred one week later. Chemical oxygen demand of the supernatant of the former mash was decreased by fermentation to 7.0% of the initial level.

  2. The kinetics of interaction of porcine - alpha-, and porcine - beta -trypsin with intact and modified soybean trypsin inhibitor (kunitz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The association of porcine trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) resulted in characteristic changes in absorption spectrum, indicating an alteration of the micro environments of the enzyme chromophores as a consequence of the interaction. The rates of formation of the stable trypsin - inhibitor complexes from porcine - alpha - trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor and from porcine - beta - trypsin and either intact or modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were measured by mixing the equimolar concentration of the reactants in a Stopped - Flow apparatus at pH (4.5 to 10.0). The reaction of trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor was of first order with respect to the concentration of the reactants used. The rates of dissociation of the stable complexes, alpha - trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor, beta -trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor and beta -trypsin modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were also measured at pH (1.92 to 3.58). The values of first order rate constant, k/sub D/ obtained for the dissociation of all the three complexes were identical with one another. The kinetics results obtained for the porcine trypsin were compared with those of bovine trypsin system and it was suggested that the reaction mechanisms in both these systems were identical. (author)

  3. Enzymes are a sweet way to do business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-04

    The use of enzymes in industry is growing steadily. This artic discusses some areas of enzyme research: included are enzyme treatments for the production of high-fructose corn syrup and ethanol for gasohol blends, enzyme research focusing on cellulose breakdown, especially from municipal waste and pulp and paper waste to produce ethanol and the conversion of soybeans into a protein-rich powder. The enzymatic process for nitrogen fixation in the nodules of certain leguminous plants and in medical diagnostics are also mentioned.

  4. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  5. Leaf development of soybean and bean crops and weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Santos, Jose Barbosa do; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the emission rate and expansion of the leaves, duration of the leaf area (DLA) and the extinction coefficient (k) for the crops soybean and of the bean, and for the weeds Euphorbia heterophylla sensitive and Euphorbia heterophylla resistant to the herbicides inhibiting of the ALS enzyme, Bidens pilosa and Desmodium tortuosum. The experiment was developed in the field, in soil classified as Red-Yellow Claysoil, in the period of october of 2000 to march of 2001. Each plant species consisted of a treatment. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The mensurations of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were accomplished in two points of the plants: above and bellow the canopy, by means of a light ceptometer. The emission rate and the expansion of leaves was calculated at the end of the cycle of the crops. The DLA and k were calculated before and after the plant flowering. It was not observed differences in the development of the biotypes of E. heterophylla with relation to the rate of appearance of leaves, expansion rate, DLA or k. Among the cultures, the bean presented smaller leaf emission rate (0.591 / day) compared to the soybean (0.933 / day). Among the weeds, the largest leaf emission rate was with D. tortuosum (0.699 / day). The leaf expansion rate observed by the soybean was superior to all the other species (6.77 cm 2 .day-1). All plant species presented larger value for DLA after the flowering compared before flowering. The soybean presented larger value of k (before and after the flowering 0.52 and 0.93, respectively) compared to the other species, demonstrating high potential of interception of solar radiation. (author)

  6. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars under salt stress. Murat Tunçturk1* ... Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the extent of ... INTRODUCTION. Soybean is a ..... A general approach. Science 210: ...

  7. Gamma Radiation-Induced Mutations in Soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of soybean radiation experiments was to create genetic variability in soybeans of various cultivars, mutants and mutation-derived lines with the aim of producing superior breeding lines with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyhrizi Syd.) It took altogether 12 generations over six years after gamma irradiation if soybean seeds to produce the best resistant line (81-1-038) which a variety could be developed from it. This Line 81-1-038 showed a very good specific resistance to soybean rust, Thai race 2 and moderately resistance to Thai race 1. In the rainy season of 1985, Line 81-1-038 out yielded S.J.4 (a mother line) by 868 kg/ha in a yield trail at Suwan Farm, Pak Chong, Nakorn Rajchasima. This soybean rust mutant was later named D oi Kham

  8. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  9. Low Lactose Milk Production of Soybean by Fermentation Technique Using Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an important food for baby that contains lactose. Normally, a baby could produce lactase enzyme that digest lactose, but in the diarrhea case lactose could not be digested. So, Low Lactose Milk is needed. Low Lactose Milk usually produced from rice or almonds that have low protein. Soybean (Glycine max is the commodity with rich of protein and also contains raffinose and stachyose, which can lead flatulence. Raffinose and stachyose could be reduced by Rhizopus oryzae at tempe process from lamtoro beans.  So the aim in this research is to know the optimum time of soybean fermentation with R. oryzae to reduce stachyiose  and raffinose. The research was done with innoculation of R. oryzae isolate in the soybeans fermentation for 72 hours. N index, raffinose and stachyose level was tested. The result shows that optimum fermentation time is 48 hour and using 5% skim milk as filler.

  10. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  11. Discovery of a seventh Rpp soybean rust resistance locus in soybean accession PI 605823

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd, is a disease threat to soybean production in regions of the world with mild winters. Host plant resistance to P. pachyrhizi conditioned by Rpp genes has been found in numerous soybean accessions, and at...

  12. Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on serum enzyme activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of citric acid and microbial phytase on serum enzyme activities and plasma minerals retention in broiler chicks. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... An experiment was conducted to study the effect of microbial phytase supplementation and citric acid in broiler chicks fed corn-soybean meal base diets on enzyme ...

  13. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  14. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  15. Spectroscopic measurements of soybeans used to parameterize physiological traits in the AgroIBIS ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Serbin, S.; Kucharik, C. J.; Townsend, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Ecosystem models such AgroIBIS require detailed parameterizations of numerous vegetation traits related to leaf structure, biochemistry and photosynthetic capacity to properly assess plant carbon assimilation and yield response to environmental variability. In general, these traits are estimated from a limited number of field measurements or sourced from the literature, but rarely is the full observed range of variability in these traits utilized in modeling activities. In addition, pathogens and pests, such as the exotic soybean aphid (Aphis glycines), which affects photosynthetic pathways in soybean plants by feeding on phloem and sap, can potentially impact plant productivity and yields. Capturing plant responses to pest pressure in conjunction with environmental variability is of considerable interest to managers and the scientific community alike. In this research, we employed full-range (400-2500 nm) field and laboratory spectroscopy to rapidly characterize the leaf biochemical and physiological traits, namely foliar nitrogen, specific leaf area (SLA) and the maximum rate of RuBP carboxylation by the enzyme RuBisCo (Vcmax) in soybean plants, which experienced a broad range of environmental conditions and soybean aphid pressures. We utilized near-surface spectroscopic remote sensing measurements as a means to capture the spatial and temporal patterns of aphid impacts across broad aphid pressure levels. In addition, we used the spectroscopic data to generate a much larger dataset of key model parameters required by AgroIBIS than would be possible through traditional measurements of biochemistry and leaf-level gas exchange. The use of spectroscopic retrievals of soybean traits allowed us to better characterize the variability of plant responses associated with aphid pressure to more accurately model the likely impacts of soybean aphid on soybeans. Our next steps include the coupling of the information derived from our spectral measurements with the Agro

  16. Efeito da adição de enzimas em dietas de frangos de corte à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre a digestibilidade ileal de nutrientes Effect of enzymes supplementation in corn soybean meal broiler diets on ileal digestibility of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Atencio Tejedor

    2001-06-01

    digestibility coefficient (DC of dry mater (DM, crude protein (CP, energy (E, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P in corn soybean meal diets with different level of Ca and available P (Pa. Chromic oxide (0,5% was added to the diets, as an indigestible marker, to estimate ileal digestibility. All chicks were killed at the end of the experiments (19 days to collect the ileal content. The first experiment was a factorial arrangement of 2 x 2, with six replicates (n=240, 10 chicks per unit. Diets were formulated to contain two levels of Ca and Pa normal (1%Ca/0.45%Pa and low (0.70%Ca/0.32%Pa x two level of phytase (Phy enzyme (0 and 1 kg/t of diet. The second experiment was a factorial arrangement of 2 x 3, six replicates (n=360, 10 chicks per unit. Diets were formulated with two levels of Ca and Pa normal (1%Ca/0.45%Pa and low (0.70%Ca/0.32%Pa x three combination of a multienzyme complex (MC. The combination were 0 kg/t for the control (C, 2 kg/t (MC and 2 kg/t of the MC plus 1 kg/t of phy (MC+phy. In the first experiment the diets with Phy had a higher digestibility for DM (5.2%, CP (2.4% and GE (3,8%. Phytase improve the digestibility of P and Ca in both levels of Ca and Pa. In the second experiment, the addition of the MC improved DC of CP, P and Ca in 3%; 4.7 and 7.8%, respectively. The association of MC + Phy improved Ca and P digestibility. Interaction was observed in the energy digestibility. The addition of the MC improved the digestibility in both Ca and P levels, however the addition of the CM+Phy improved energy DC only in the diets with low Ca and P levels.

  17. Lipoxygenase activity of soybean and protein evaluation of soy milk produced from irradiated grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Erica A.; Broetto, Fernando; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean and its derivative are considered as a functional food because it has high quality protein and are used for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. The irradiation technique is used in soybeans to increase shelf life and avoid problems in plant products consumed raw or processed. However, the controversy in the literature that the irradiation dose up 10 kGy food can alter the functional properties and structures of macronutrients. With the prospect of more information on the use of radiation on soybeans, the objective of this study was to determine the activity of lipoxygenase in soybeans and to evaluate possible changes in the protein content of soymilk processed from grain-BRS 213, BRS 258 and Embrapa 48 subjected to dosages of 2.5 , 5.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. The soybean cultivars were wrapped in plastic bags and subjected to gamma radiation source 60 Co, Gammacell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.), except the control. The grains irradiated induced reduction of enzyme activity. The results for the protein content of soymilk were similar, appropriate to that required by ANVISA and showed little protein solubility for cultivars BRS-258 and Embrapa48. It was concluded that the technique of irradiation beyond to keep the nutritional value of soy can contribute to the organoleptic quality of soymilk. (author)

  18. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1, which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71% and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3% in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts.

  19. Chemical composition and lipoxygenase activity in soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) submitted to gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Érica Amanda de; Broetto, Fernando; Bressan, Dayanne F.; Sartori, Maria M. P.; Costa, Vladimir E.

    2014-05-01

    Soybeans are an important food due to their functional and nutritional characteristics. However, consumption by western populations is limited by the astringent taste of soybeans and their derivatives which results from the action of lipoxygenase, an enzyme activated during product processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation on the chemical composition and specific activity of lipoxygenase in different soybean cultivars. Soybeans were stored in plastic bags and irradiated with doses of 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy. The chemical composition (moisture, protein, lipids, ashes, crude fiber, and carbohydrates) and lipoxygenase specific activity were determined for each sample. Gamma irradiation induced a small increase of protein and lipid content in some soybean cultivars, which did not exceed the highest content of 5% and 26%, respectively, when compared to control. Lipoxygenase specific activity decreased in the three cultivars with increasing gamma irradiation dose. In conclusion, the gamma irradiation doses used are suitable to inactivate part of lipoxygenase while not causing expressive changes in the chemical composition of the cultivars studied.

  20. Lipoxygenase activity of soybean and protein evaluation of soy milk produced from irradiated grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Erica A., E-mail: ericabarros@fca.unesp.br [UNESP - Fazenda Experimental Lageado, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Broetto, Fernando, E-mail: broetto@ibb.unesp.br [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Quimica e Bioquimica; Costa, Vladimir E., E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br [UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Fisica e Biofisica

    2011-07-01

    Soybean and its derivative are considered as a functional food because it has high quality protein and are used for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. The irradiation technique is used in soybeans to increase shelf life and avoid problems in plant products consumed raw or processed. However, the controversy in the literature that the irradiation dose up 10 kGy food can alter the functional properties and structures of macronutrients. With the prospect of more information on the use of radiation on soybeans, the objective of this study was to determine the activity of lipoxygenase in soybeans and to evaluate possible changes in the protein content of soymilk processed from grain-BRS 213, BRS 258 and Embrapa 48 subjected to dosages of 2.5 , 5.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. The soybean cultivars were wrapped in plastic bags and subjected to gamma radiation source {sup 60}Co, Gammacell 220 (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.), except the control. The grains irradiated induced reduction of enzyme activity. The results for the protein content of soymilk were similar, appropriate to that required by ANVISA and showed little protein solubility for cultivars BRS-258 and Embrapa48. It was concluded that the technique of irradiation beyond to keep the nutritional value of soy can contribute to the organoleptic quality of soymilk. (author)

  1. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of broiler performance when fed diets containing event DP-3O5423-1, nontransgenic near-isoline control, or commercial reference soybean meal, hulls, and oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, J; Roberts, M; Smith, B; Rice, D; Hinds, M; Sanders, C; Layton, R; Lamb, I; Delaney, B

    2008-12-01

    DP-3Ø5423-1 (305423) is a genetically modified soybean that was produced by biolistic insertion of the gm-fad2-1 gene fragment and gm-hra genes into the germline of soybean seeds. Expression of gm-fad2-1 results in greater concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) by suppressing expression of the endogenous FAD2-1 gene, which encodes an n-6 fatty acid desaturase enzyme that catalyzes desaturation of 18:1 to linoleic acid (18:2). The GM-HRA protein expressed by the gm-hra gene is a modified version of the soybean acetolactate synthase enzyme that is used as a selectable marker during transformation. A 42-d feeding trial was conducted with broiler chickens to compare the nutritional performance of 305423 soybeans with nontransgenic soybeans. Diets were prepared using processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from 305423 soybean plants. For comparison, additional diets were produced with soybean fractions obtained from a nontransgenic near-isoline (control) and nontransgenic commercial Pioneer brand varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Diets were fed to Ross x Cobb broilers (n = 120/group, 50% male and 50% female) in 3 phases. Starter, grower, and finisher diets contained 26.5, 23, and 21.5% soybean meal, respectively. Soybean hulls and oil were added at 1.0 and 0.5%, respectively, across all diets in each phase. No statistically significant differences were observed in growth performance (BW, mortality, feed efficiency), organ yield (liver and kidney), or carcass yield (breast, thigh, leg, wing, and abdominal fat) variables between broilers consuming diets prepared with isolated fractions from 305423 or near-isoline control soybean. Additionally, all performance and carcass variables from control and 305423 soybean treatment groups fell within tolerance intervals constructed for each response variable using data from broilers fed diets prepared with reference soybean fractions. Based on the results from this study, it was concluded that 305423 soybeans were nutritionally

  3. Oxidative cleavage and hydrolytic boosting of cellulose in soybean spent flakes by Trichoderma reesei Cel61A lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Wichmann, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9) copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) from Trichoderma reesei (EG4; TrCel61A) was investigated for its ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides from soybean. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was assessed against a variety of ...

  4. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  5. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  6. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  7. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  8. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  9. Constitutive expression of feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase increases methionine levels in soybean leaves and seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; HOU Wen-sheng; YaeI Hacham; SUN Shi; WU Cun-xiang; Ifat Matityahu; SONG Shikui; RacheI Amir; HAN Tian-fu

    2018-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major crop that provides plant-origin protein and oil for humans and livestock. Although the soybean vegetative tissues and seeds provide a major source of high-quality protein, they suffer from low concentration of an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, which significantly limits their nutritional quality. The level of methionine is mainly controlled by the first unique enzyme of methionine synthesis, cystathione γ-synthase (CGS). Aiming to elevate methionine level in vegetative tissues and seeds, we constitutively over-expressed a feedback-insensitive Arabidopsis CGS (AtD-CGS) in soybean cultivars, Zigongdongdou (ZD) and Jilinxiaoli 1 (JX). The levels of soluble methionine increased remarkably in leaves of transgenic soybeans compared to wild-type plants (6.6- and 7.3-fold in two transgenic ZD lines, and 3.7-fold in one transgenic JX line). Furthermore, the total methionine contents were significantly increased in seeds of the transgenic ZD lines (1.5- to 4.8-fold increase) and the transgenic JX lines (1.3- to 2.3-fold increase) than in the wild type. The protein contents of the transgenic soybean seeds were significantly elevated compared to the wild type, suggesting that the scarcity of methionine in soybeans may limit protein accumulation in soybean seeds. The increased protein content did not alter the profile of major storage proteins in the seeds. Generally, this study provides a promising strategy to increase the levels of methionine and protein in soybean through the breeding programs.

  10. Non-antibiotic selection systems for soybean somatic embryos: the lysine analog aminoethyl-cysteine as a selection agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanyuen Prachuab

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soybean somatic embryo transformation, the standard selection agent currently used is hygromycin. It may be preferable to avoid use of antibiotic resistance genes in foods. The objective of these experiments was to develop a selection system for producing transgenic soybean somatic embryos without the use of antibiotics such as hygromycin. Results When tested against different alternate selection agents our studies show that 0.16 μg/mL glufosinate, 40 mg/L isopropylamine-glyphosate, 0.5 mg/mL (S-(2 aminoethyl-L-cysteine (AEC and the acetolactate synthase (ALS inhibitors Exceed® and Synchrony® both at 150 μg/mL inhibited soybean somatic embryo growth. Even at the concentration of 2 mg/mL, lysine+threonine (LT were poor selection agents. The use of AEC may be preferable since it is a natural compound. Unlike the plant enzyme, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS from E. coli is not feed-back inhibited by physiological concentrations of lysine. The dapA gene which codes for E. coli DHPS was expressed in soybean somatic embryos under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. Following introduction of the construct into embryogenic tissue of soybean, transgenic events were recovered by incubating the tissue in liquid medium containing AEC at a concentration of 5 mM. Only transgenic soybeans were able to grow at this concentration of AEC; no escapes were observed. Conclusion Genetically engineered soybeans expressing a lysine insensitive DHPS gene can be selected with the non-antibiotic selection agent AEC. We also report here the inhibitory effects of glufosinate, (isopropylamine-glyphosate (Roundup®, AEC and the ALS inhibitors Exceed® and Synchrony® against different tissues of soybean

  11. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  12. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  13. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  14. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  15. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  16. Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M

    2003-05-01

    Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in GM crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, including soybean, have not been shown to add any additional allergenic risk beyond the intrinsic risks already present. Biotechnology can be used to characterize and eliminate allergens naturally present in crops. Biotechnology has been used to remove a major allergen in soybean demonstrating that genetic modification can be used to reduce allergenicity of food and feed. This provides a model for further use of GM approaches to eliminate allergens.

  17. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  18. Purification and characterization of a fibrinolytic enzyme of Bacillus subtilis DC33, isolated from Chinese traditional Douchi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.T.; Ji, B.P.; Li, B.; Nout, M.J.R.; Li, P.L.; Ji, H.; Chen, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis DC33 producing a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was isolated from Ba-bao Douchi, a traditional soybean-fermented food in China. The strong fibrin-specific enzyme subtilisin FS33 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using the combination of various chromatographic steps. The

  19. Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Proteins in Biophoton Emission in Roots of Soybean Plants under Flooding Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanism of biophoton emission, ROS and mitochondrial proteins were analyzed in soybean plants under flooding stress. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission were increased in the flooding stress samples when assayed in reaction mixes specific for antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species; although the level of the hydroxyl radicals was increased at day 4 (2 days of flooding) compared to nonflooding at day 4, the emission of biophotons did not change. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the roots of soybean plants grown under flooding stress by using a Percoll gradient, and proteins were analyzed by a gel-free proteomic technique. Out of the 98 mitochondrial proteins that significantly changed abundance under flooding stress, 47 increased and 51 decreased at day 4. The mitochondrial enzymes fumarase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased at day 4 in protein abundance and enzyme activity. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission decreased at day 4 by the assay of lipoxygenase under stress. Aconitase, acyl CoA oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, and NADH ubiquinone dehydrogenase were up-regulated at the transcription level. These results indicate that oxidation and peroxide scavenging might lead to biophoton emission and oxidative damage in the roots of soybean plants under flooding stress.

  20. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Baratali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-06-06

    Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominately affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root in response to flooding and drought. Notably, the tricarboxylic acid cycle was suppressed in leaf and root under both stresses. Moreover, 17 proteins, including beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5, were identified in soybean seedlings under both stresses. The protein abundances of beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5 were increased in leaf and root under both stresses. Additionally, the gene expression of beta-amylase 5 was upregulated in leaf exposed to the flooding and drought, and the expression level was highly correlated with the protein abundance. These results suggest that beta-amylase 5 may be involved in carbohydrate mobilization to provide energy to the leaf of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought. This study examined the effects of flooding and drought on soybean seedlings in different organs using a gel-free/label-free proteomic approach. Physiological responses indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were increased in leaf and root of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought for 6days. Functional analysis of acquired protein profiles exhibited that proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominated affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root

  1. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  2. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiqiu, Gu; Yuxuan, Geng; Baogo, Zhu [Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M{sub 2} population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  3. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AMONG SOYBEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Analysis, Resource use efficiency, Farmers, production function analysis, Benue, Nigeria. ... Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis, and this ..... Manual for training in Seed Technology.

  4. Physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Kim, J.O.; Yook, H.S.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    Some physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kCy) were investigated. Proximate components, fatty acid compositions and minerals of the soybeans irradiated at 2.5 - 20 kGy shrived no difference from the nonirradiated control. Irradiation doses above 10 kGy and long term storage caused decrease in extractable phenols and phytate content, whereas increases in acid value and organic acid content. The total amino acids content of the soybeans irradiated up to 10 kGy was not changed as compared with the nonirradiated control. Sulfur-containing amino acids, however, were changed by 10 and 20 kGy irradiaton. Gamma irradiation and long term storage caused minor changes in the color attributes of soybeans. Hunter's 'L' (lightness) and 'b' (yellowness) values were decreased whereas 'a' (redness) value was increased with increasing dose levels and the elapse of the storage period

  5. Clone and characterization of photolyase-gene from soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najrana, T.; Hirouchi, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and pyrimidine [6-4] pyrimidone photoproduct (6-4pp) are the major products of UV-radiation. Both CPD and 6-4pp posses lethal as well as mutagenic property. Excision repair and photoreactivation are involved as major pathways in repairing those photoproducts. To repair those products plant uses photoreactivation as a major pathway. In photoreactivation process photolyase (enzyme encoded by PHR-gene) catalyzes the splitting of the dimer into a monomer under blue light. Photolyase is specific for damage CPD or 6-4pp. The CPD and 6-4pp photolyases are responsible for repairing CPD and 6-4pp lesions respectively. Several investigators reported that removal of CPD lesion is necessary for survival in higher plants in the early development. Thus one should realize the importance of clone and characterization of CPD-photolyase gene from plants especially from those are lying in the list of foods such as wheat, corn, soybean etc. cDNA library (pSPORT-P) of soybean was amplified using the primers that designated as common for CPD-photolyase gene for plants. These primers gave the desire size of PCR product. Desirable PCR product inserted into TA-cloning vector and sequenced. Amino acid sequence revealed considerable homology with CPD-photolyases of rice, arabidopsis thaliana. Then using dilution-PCR amplification method (Hirouchi et al., MGG in press) I have identified the true clone from cDNA library of soybean that containing the full length of CPD-photolyase gene. Full length of cloned gene is about 1698 bps long and exist start and stop codon. Amino acid sequence of the cloned gene shows more than 70% homology with rice, arabidopsis thaliana. Cloned gene enables to complement the E. coli ( phr-uvrA-recA-) system that is completely defective in photoreactivation. The size of CPD-photolyase of soybean is about 56 KDa as identified by 12% SDS PAGE

  6. Fermented soybean meal improves the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and microbial flora in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase nutritive values of soybean meal (SBM, 3 species of microbes were used to ferment SBM. Through a 3 × 3 orthogonal design and parameter measurements of soybean peptide and anti-nutritional factor contents in the fermented soybean meal (FSBM, it was estimated that the best microbial proportion of Bacillus subtilis, Hansenula anomala and Lactobacillus casei was 2:1:2 for SBM fermentation (P  0.05. However, newly-weaned piglets (d 28–38 fed 10% FSBM and different levels of plasma protein obtained higher average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, compared with those without FSBM but with 6% plasma protein (P < 0.05. Piglets (d 38–68 fed diets supplemented with FSBM and soybean protein concentrate (SBPC at 3.75% and 7.5% respectively increased nutrient digestibility, fecal enzyme activity and lactic acid bacteria counts, and decreased fecal Escherichia coli counts (P < 0.05, compared with the control. These data indicated that FSBM had positive effects on nutrient digestibility and fecal microflora for piglets.

  7. Enzymatic Hydrolysis Does Not Reduce the Biological Reactivity of Soybean Proteins for All Allergic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Tetteh, Afua O; Pramod, Siddanakoppalu N; Goodman, Richard E

    2015-11-04

    Many soybean protein products are processed by enzymatic hydrolysis to attain desirable functional food properties or in some cases to reduce allergenicity. However, few studies have investigated the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of soybean products. In this study the allergenicity of soybean protein isolates (SPI) hydrolyzed by Alcalase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, bromelain, or papain was evaluated by IgE immunoblots using eight soybean-allergic patient sera. The biological relevance of IgE binding was evaluated by a functional assay using a humanized rat basophilic leukemia (hRBL) cell line and serum from one subject. Results indicated that hydrolysis of SPI by the enzymes did not reduce the allergenicity, and hydrolysis by chymotrypsin or bromelain has the potential to increase the allergenicity of SPI. Two-dimensional (2D) immunoblot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of the chymotrypsin-hydrolyzed samples indicated fragments of β-conglycinin protein are responsible for the apparent higher allergenic potential of digested SPI.

  8. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and...

  9. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-e...

  10. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  11. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  12. Soybean in China: adaptating to the liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Jean-Paul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 and its opening, China has undergone a process of nutrition transition, animal products taking an increasing share. Anxious to ensure a certain level of food independence, Chinese authorities have developed national livestock production. The increase in volumes and the development of large scale breeding have increased the demand for commercial feed and thus soymeal. Meanwhile, edible oil consumption rose sharply, accentuating the demand for soybeans. To meet this demand, soybean imports were liberalized early, leading the country to become heavily dependent. China has indeed made the choice to maintain its independence in cereals at the expense of other grains, such as soybeans. Competition between corn and soybeans has turned in favor of the cereal, soybean production levelling off then regressing. China’s dependence extends to the crushing sector, controlled by foreign companies. Public supports in place, such as minimum prices, have resulted in increasing the price gap with imported products, leading to a reform of soybean policy in 2014.

  13. Protease purification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor from Egyptian varieties of soybean seeds and its efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-latif Ashraf Oukasha Abd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine inhibitors have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom. Trypsin inhibitors are the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of four Egyptian varieties of soybean (Glycine max. The soybean variety, Giza 22, was found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested soybean varieties. For this reason, Giza 22 was selected for further purification studies which used ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Soybean purified proteins showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 17.9 kDa. The purified inhibitor was stable at temperatures below 60°C and was active at a wide range of pH, from 2 to 12 pH. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki values suggested that the inhibitor has higher affinity toward a trypsin enzyme than to a chymotrypsin enzyme. Purified inhibitor was found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis. It may be concluded, that soybean protease inhibitor gene(s could be potential targets for those future studies which are concerned with developing insect resistant transgenic plants

  14. Assessment of the effects of Hirsutella minnesotensis on Soybean Cyst Nematode and growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsutella minnesotensis is a fungal endoparasite of nematodes juvenile and parasitizes soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) with high frequency. In this study, the effects of two H. minnesotensis isolates on population and distribution of SCN and growth of soybean were evaluated. Experiments were conducted...

  15. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  16. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using lipases immobilized on highly crystalline PVA microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamasco, Juliana; Araujo, Marcelo V. de; Vasconcellos, Adriano de; Luizon Filho, Roberto A.; Hatanaka, Rafael R.; Giotto, Marcus V.; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Nery, José G.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres with different degree of crystallinity were used as solid supports for Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilization, and the enzyme-PVA complexes were used as biocatalysts for the transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). The amounts of immobilized enzyme on the polymeric supports were similar for both the amorphous microspheres (PVA4) and the high crystalline microspheres (PVA25). However, the enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzymes was depended on the crystallinity degree of the PVA microspheres: enzymes immobilized on the PVA4 microspheres have shown low enzymatic activity (6.13 U mg −1 ), in comparison with enzymes immobilized on the high crystalline PVA25 microspheres (149.15 U mg −1 ). A synergistic effect was observed for the enzyme-PVA25 complex during the transesterification reaction of soybean oil to FAEE: transesterification reactions with free enzyme with the equivalent amount of enzyme that were immobilized onto the PVA25 microspheres (5.4 U) have yielded only 20% of FAEE, reactions with the pure highly crystalline microsphere PVA25 have not yielded FAEE, however reactions with the enzyme-PVA25 complexes have yielded 66.3% of FAEE. This synergistic effect of an immobilized enzyme on a polymeric support has not been observed before for transesterification reaction of triacylglycerides into FAEE. Based on ATR-FTIR, 23 Na- and 13 C-NMR-MAS spectroscopic data and the interaction of the polymeric network intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the lipases residual amino acids a possible explanation for this synergistic effect is provided. Highlights: • Rhizomucor miehei lipase was immobilized on PVA microspheres (PVA4, PVA12, PVA25). • Polymer-enzyme complex was characterized by XDR, SEM, ATR-FTIR, 13 C-CPMAS-NMR, 23 Na-MAS-NMR. • Polymer-enzymes (PVA12 and PVA25) enzymes yielded considerable amount of ethyl esters. • Synergistic effect was observed for the polymer-enzyme complexes

  17. The strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Rauf, A.; Rahmawaty; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research was to analyze both internal and external factors influencing the strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera. SWOT analysis was used as the method of the research through identifying internal factors in the development of sustainable soybean the strategy to increase soybean production in research area is aggressive strategy or strategy of SO (Strengths - Oppurtunities) that is using force to exploit existing opportunity with activities as follows: (1). Use certified seeds in accordance with government regulations and policies. (2). Utilizing the level of soil fertility and cropping patterns to be able to meet the demand for soybeans. (3). Utilizing human resources by becoming a member of farmer groups.

  18. Differential proteomics analysis to identify proteins and pathways associated with male sterility of soybean using iTRAQ-based strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiajia; Ding, Xianlong; Han, Shaohuai; He, Tingting; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Longshu; Yang, Shouping; Gai, Junyi

    2016-04-14

    To further elucidate the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in soybean, a differential proteomic analysis was completed between the CMS line NJCMS1A and its maintainer NJCMS1B using iTRAQ-based strategy. As a result, 180 differential abundance proteins (DAPs) were identified, of which, 60 were down-regulated and 120 were up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared with NJCMS1B. Bioinformatic analysis showed that 167 DAPs were annotated in 41 Gene Ontology functional groups, 106 DAPs were classified into 20 clusters of orthologous groups of protein categories, and 128 DAPs were enrichment in 53 KEGG pathways. Fifteen differential level proteins/genes with the same expression pattern were identified in the further conjoint analysis of DAPs and the previously reported differential expression genes. Moreover, multiple reaction monitoring test, qRT-PCR analysis and enzyme activity assay validated that the iTRAQ results were reliable. Based on functional analysis of DAPs, we concluded that male sterility in NJCMS1A might be related to insufficiencies in energy supply, unbalance of protein synthesis and degradation, disruption of flavonoid synthesis, programmed cell death, abnormalities of substance metabolism, etc. These results might facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind CMS in soybean. Soybean is an important global crop that provides protein and oil. Heterosis is a significantly potential approach to increase the yield of soybean. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) plays a vital role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of male sterility in soybean still need to be further elucidated. In the present paper, a differential proteomic analysis was carried out and the results showed that several key proteins involved in key pathways were associated with male sterility in soybean. This work provides a new insight to understand the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying CMS in soybean

  19. Production of soybean isoflavone genistein in non-legume plants via genetically modified secondary metabolism pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Hu, Yuanlei; Li, Jialin; Lin, Zhongping

    2007-01-01

    Genetic modification of secondary metabolic pathways to produce desirable natural products is an attractive approach in plant biotechnology. In our study, we attempted to produce a typical soybean isoflavone genistein, a well-known health-promoting metabolite, in non-legume plants via genetic engineering. Both overexpression and antisense suppression strategies were used to manipulate the expression of several genes encoding key enzymes in the flavonoids/isoflavonoids pathway in transgenic tobacco, lettuce, and petunia. Introducing soybean isoflavone synthase (IFS) into these plants, which naturally do not produce isoflavonoids due to a lack of this leguminous enzyme, resulted in genistein biosynthesis in tobacco petals, petunia leaves and petals, and lettuce leaves. In tobacco, when flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) expression was suppressed by its antisense gene while soybean IFS was overexpressed at the same time, genistein yield increased prominently. In addition, overexpression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) also led to an enhanced genistein production in tobacco petals and lettuce leaves in the presence of IFS than in the plants that overexpressed only IFS.

  20. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  1. Insight into Enzymatic Degradation of Corn, Wheat, and Soybean Cell Wall Cellulose Using Quantitative Secretome Analysis of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma Ghimire, Prakriti; Ouyang, Haomiao; Wang, Qian; Luo, Yuanming; Shi, Bo; Yang, Jinghua; Lü, Yang; Jin, Cheng

    2016-12-02

    Lignocelluloses contained in animal forage cannot be digested by pigs or poultry with 100% efficiency. On contrary, Aspergillus fumigatus, a saprophytic filamentous fungus, is known to harbor 263 glycoside hydrolase encoding genes, suggesting that A. fumigatus is an efficient lignocellulose degrader. Hence the present study uses corn, wheat, or soybean as a sole carbon source to culture A. fumigatus under animal physiological condition to understand how cellulolytic enzymes work together to achieve an efficient degradation of lignocellulose. Our results showed that A. fumigatus produced different sets of enzymes to degrade lignocelluloses derived from corn, wheat, or soybean cell wall. In addition, the cellulolytic enzymes produced by A. fumigatus were stable under acidic condition or at higher temperatures. Using isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) approach, a total of ∼600 extracellular proteins were identified and quantified, in which ∼50 proteins were involved in lignocellulolysis, including cellulases, hemicellulases, lignin-degrading enzymes, and some hypothetical proteins. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004670. On the basis of quantitative iTRAQ results, 14 genes were selected for further confirmation by RT-PCR. Taken together, our results indicated that the expression and regulation of lignocellulolytic proteins in the secretome of A. fumigatus were dependent on both nature and complexity of cellulose, thus suggesting that a different enzyme system is required for degradation of different lignocelluloses derived from plant cells. Although A. fumigatus is a pathogenic fungus and cannot be directly used as an enzyme source, as an efficient lignocellulose degrader its strategy to synergistically degrade various lignocelluloses with different enzymes can be used to design enzyme combination for optimal digestion and absorption of corn, wheat, or soybean that are used as forage of pig and poultry.

  2. De novo Genome Assembly and Single Nucleotide Variations for Soybean Mosaic Virus Using Soybean Seed Transcriptome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV, infecting soybean by de novo transcriptome assembly followed by blast search. We assembled a nearly complete consensus genome sequence of SMV China using transcriptome data. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the consensus genome sequence of SMV China was closely related to SMV isolates from South Korea. We examined single nucleotide variations (SNVs for SMVs in the soybean seed transcriptome revealing 780 SNVs, which were evenly distributed on the SMV genome. Four SNVs, C-U, U-C, A-G, and G-A, were frequently identified. This result demonstrated the quasispecies variation of the SMV genome. Taken together, this study carried out bioinformatics analyses to identify viruses using soybean transcriptome data. In addition, we demonstrated the application of soybean transcriptome data for virus genome assembly and SNV analysis.

  3. Gamma-ray induction of a mutant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] line lacking all seed lipoxygenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajika, Makita; Suda, Ikuo; Sakai, Shinji; Takahashi, Masakazu

    1997-01-01

    Induction of a soybean line lacking all isozymes of seed lipoxygenase was attempted using γ-radiation and of 1,813 seeds in M 3 generation, only one was identified as a seed lacking all the isozymes by SDS-PAGE. This line did not present any physiological abnormality over 10 generations or more (M 4 -M 14 ) and no significant influence of the enzyme on the agricultural traits was observed during the performance test in fields. In the resistance test against insect pests, significant differences were not found among the varieties and the lines tested. These results suggest that deletion of all lipoxygenase isozymes would not affect the soybean production in practice. The lipoxygenase activity was not detected in the leaves as well as the seeds of this line, suggesting that this enzyme are not indispensable for the soybean growth. The validity of this line in food processing fields was examined through determining the levels of hexanal production and DETBA. This line was found able to improve the taste of soybean cookies and use in combination with other materials as flour, egg, etc. because the line has no lipoxygenase activity. (M.N.)

  4. Water binding by soybean seeds as measured by pulsed NMR.

    OpenAIRE

    掛澤, 雅章; 望月, 務; 海老根, 英雄; MASAAKI, KAKEZAWA; TSUTOMU, MOCHIZUKI; HIDEO, EBINE; 中央味噌研究所; 東海物産株式会社; 中央味噌研究所; Central Miso Research Institute; Tokai Bussan, Co.; Central Miso Research Institute

    1983-01-01

    The water in soybean powder, soaked soybeans and cooked soybeans was fractionated into unfrozen water and freezable water from the data on the free induction decay freezing curve, and into bound and mobile fractions from the data on the spin-spin relaxation curve by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of soaking and cooking conditions on the state of water were examined. In soybean powder of several hydration levels, the freezing curves showed that the levels of unfrozen water were...

  5. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  6. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  7. Virtual water embodied in international trade of soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Thomsen, Marianne

    This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated.......This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated....

  8. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  9. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.

    1987-01-01

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of 65 Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble 65 Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more 65 Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet

  10. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  11. Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkemoi, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Weed Compete for limited growth factors with crop plants. This result in loss of crop vigour and hence reduces crop yields. A study was conducted in 1997 and 2001 to evaluate the use of herbicides and hand hoeing for weed control in soybeans. Crop establishment was by hand planting. The herbicides were applied using CP3 Knap sack sprayer calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 150l/ha. Hand weeding treatment were done as appropriate. The trial layout was randomised complete block design with four replications in both years. The tested herbicides did not satisfactorily control the weeds present at the experimental site in both years. Hand weeding on the other hand gave good control of the weeds which were reflected in high soybean yields. In these trials yields were negatively correlated with the number of weeds present. The tested herbicides alone appeared to be inadequate in controlling weeds in soybean. Compared with the weed-free treatment a single application of soil-applied or post-emergence herbicides did not control a broad spectrum of weeds and reduced soybean yields. It can also be inferred that soybean yield losses are minimised if they are kept weed free for at most 6 weeks after emergence

  12. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  13. Effects of dietary supplementation of multi-enzyme complex on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of REAP® enzyme into corn-soybean diet on the energy utilization in poultry and performance of broiler chicks. In the first experiment, a total of 16 50 weeks adult roosters (ISA-Brown) were divided into 4 groups with 4 birds per replicate ...

  14. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  15. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  16. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  17. Agressiveness of Phomopsis longicolla and other Phomopsis species on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality of soybean seeds. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. In this study, aggressiveness of isolates of P. longicolla from soybean and other Phomopsis spp. from other hosts were compared by inoculat...

  18. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    95, xx–xx]. Introduction. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide accounting for about 30% of the vegetable oil and 60% of the vegetable protein in world production. However, the sustain- ability of soybean production has been challenged by inten- sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst.

  19. Effects of diets containing alkali-treated Soybeans on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing alkali-treated Soybeans on performance traits, nutrient digestibility and cost benefits of broiler chickens. ... These factors accounted for the overall best performance recorded in 1% K2CO3 - treated soybeans which was closely followed by 1% Na2CO3 treated soybean base diets. Keywords: ...

  20. Factors affecting the line-shape of the EPR signal of high-spin Fe(III) in soybean lipoxygenase-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slappendel, S.; Aasa, R.; Malmström, B.G.; Verhagen, J.; Veldink, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1982-01-01

    The yellow form of soybean lipoxygenase-1 (linoleate:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.13.11.12), obtained upon addition of one molar equivalent of acid (13--HPOD) to the native enzyme, shows a complex EPR signal around g 6 which results from contributions of different high-spin Fe(III) species with

  1. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of soybean lipoxygenase-1 : Influence of lipid hydroperoxide activation and lyophilization on the structure of the non-heme iron active site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Heijdt, L.M. van der; Feiters, M.C.; Navaratnam, S.; Nolting, H.-F.; Hermes, C.; Veldink, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectra at the Fe K-edge of the non-heme iron site in Fe(II) as well as Fe(III) soybean lipoxygenase-1, in frozen solution or lyophilized, are presented; the latter spectra were obtained by incubation of the Fe(II) enzyme with its product hydroperoxide. An edge shift of about 23 eV

  2. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...... by that enzyme...

  3. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushal Brijwani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics—crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  4. Cellulolytic Enzymes Production via Solid-State Fermentation: Effect of Pretreatment Methods on Physicochemical Characteristics of Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijwani, Khushal; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of pretreatment on the physicochemical characteristics-crystallinity, bed porosity, and volumetric specific surface of soybean hulls and production of cellulolytic enzymes in solid-state fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus oryzae cultures. Mild acid and alkali and steam pretreatments significantly increased crystallinity and bed porosity without significant change inholocellulosic composition of substrate. Crystalline and porous steam-pretreated soybean hulls inoculated with T. reesei culture had 4 filter paper units (FPU)/g-ds, 0.6 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 45 IU/g-ds endocellulase, whereas untreated hulls had 0.75 FPU/g-ds, 0.06 IU/g-ds β-glucosidase, and 7.29 IU/g-ds endocellulase enzyme activities. In A. oryzae steam-pretreated soybean hulls had 47.10 IU/g-ds endocellulase compared to 30.82 IU/g-ds in untreated soybean hulls. Generalized linear statistical model fitted to enzyme activity data showed that effects of physicochemical characteristics on enzymes production were both culture and enzyme specific. The paper shows a correlation between substrate physicochemical properties and enzyme production.

  5. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  6. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Woo Byun; Il-Jun Kang; Joong-Ho Kwon; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (author)

  7. Physiochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

    1995-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexagonal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (Author)

  8. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1220 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-12-0022] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To... in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act (Act... members from 69 to 70. These changes would be reflected in the Soybean Promotion and Research Order (Order...

  9. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  10. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition

  11. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  12. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation.......This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America...

  13. Processing quality of NS soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current NS soybean varieties are of satisfactory technological quality, and also significant technological diversity. Varieties Triumf and Venera possess higher oil content. Variety Sava has a balanced oil and protein content, and can be used for obtaining different soy products. Variety Rubin has the highest protein content and is suitable for new high protein products. Estimated processing value is a good parameter to describe the processing quality of soybeans. Based on several years and spatial analysis, it is possible to separate the geographic regions with prevailing favourable conditions for obtaining higher protein or oil content.

  14. Induced marker gene mutations in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Non-fluorescent root mutants in soybean are useful as markers in genetic studies. 13 such mutants were detected among more than 150 000 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with 6 mutagens. One of them, derived from variety 'Williams' treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to the already known spontaneous non-fluorescent mutants. It was assigned the identification no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5. The other mutants corresponded with known loci fr1, fr2 or fr4. (author)

  15. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  16. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  17. Induced mutations and marker assisted breeding in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotechuen, Somsong [Prachinburi Rice Research Center, Prachinburi (Thailand); Srisombun, Somsak [Department of Agriculture, Field Crops Research Institute, Bangkok (Thailand); Lamseejan, Siranut [Kasetsart Univ., Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    Soybean is one of the important crops in Thailand. Constraints to soybean production include low yield potential, susceptibility to diseases and insects, and non-adoption of appropriate management practices. Mutation induction has been used to improve soybean yield and resistance to major diseases such as rust, purple seed, crinkle leaf, anthracnose and green seed. This paper reviews previous work and achievements of induced mutations in soybean. Successful examples are the release of a soybean variety, Doi Kham, and the development of a mutant CM 60-10kr-71; both are resistant to rust disease. The paper also gives example of the use of soybean SSR markers to identify QTL associated with pod shattering, and emphasizes the integration of mutation techniques and marker assisted selection for soybean improvement. (author)

  18. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  19. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  20. Structural studies on the development of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) in susceptible soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.; Ebrahim-Nesbat, F.; Hoppe, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Where soybeans are cultivated in the tropics, soybean rust may cause heavy crop losses. Resistance found so far was only of local and temporary value. More substantial breeding efforts are needed, but these may require a better understanding of the pathogen's biology and evolutionary capacity, the infection process and the host-pathogen relationships. The report deals with the infection process and the development of the fungus in a susceptible host variety. (author)

  1. Gibberellic acid promoting phytic acid degradation in germinating soybean under calcium lactate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Qianru; Wang, Mian; Wang, Pei; Ma, Ya; Gu, Zhenxin; Yang, Runqiang

    2018-01-01

    Phytic acid as a phosphorus storage vault provides phosphorus for plant development. It is an anti-nutritional factor for humans and some animals. However, its degradation products lower inositol phosphates have positive effects on human health. In this study, the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on phytic acid degradation under calcium lactate (Ca) existence was investigated. The results showed that Ca + GA treatment promoted the growth status, hormone metabolism and phytic acid degradation in germinating soybean. At the same time, the availability of phosphorus, the activity of phytic acid degradation-associated enzyme and phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) increased. However, the relative genes expression of phytic acid degradation-associated enzymes did not vary in accordance with their enzymes activity. The results revealed that GA could mediate the transport and function of calcium and a series of physiological and biochemical changes to regulate phytic acid degradation of soybean sprouts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Management of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines with combinations of different rhizobacterial strains on soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most damaging soybean pest worldwide. To improve soybean resistance to SCN, we employed a soybean seed-coating strategy through combination of three rhizobacterial strains, including Bacillus simple, B. megaterium and Sinarhizobium fredii at various ratios. We found seed coating by such rhizobacterial strains at a ratio of 3:1:1 (thereafter called SN101 produced the highest germination rate and the mortality of J2 of nematodes. Then, the role of soybean seed coating by SN101 in nematode control was evaluated under both greenhouse and two field conditions in Northeast China in 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that SN101 treatment greatly reduced SCN reproduction and significantly promoted plant growth and yield production in both greenhouse and field trials, suggesting that SN101 is a promising seed-coating agent that may be used as an alternative bio-nematicide for controlling SCN in soybean fields. Our findings also demonstrate that combination of multiple rhizobacterial strains needs to be considered in the seed coating for better management of plant nematodes.

  3. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  4. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of β-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kita, Akiko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2011-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to β-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon of soybean saponins. We identified two putative β-amyrin synthase genes in soybean that manifested distinct expression patterns with regard to developmental stage and tissue specificity. Given that one of these genes, GmBAS1, was expressed at a much higher level than the other (GmBAS2) in various tissues including the developing seeds, we constructed two RNAi vectors that encode self-complementary hairpin RNAs corresponding to the distinct regions of GmBAS1 under the control of a seed-specific promoter derived from the soybean gene for the α' subunit of the seed storage protein β-conglycinin. These vectors were introduced independently into soybean. Six independent transgenic lines exhibited a stable reduction in seed saponin content, with the extent of saponin deficiency correlating with the β-amyrin synthase mRNA depletion. Although some transgenic lines produced seeds almost devoid of saponins, no abnormality in their growth was apparent and the antioxidant activity of their seeds was similar to that of control seeds. These results suggest that saponins are not required for seed development and survival, and that soybean seeds may therefore be amenable to the modification of triterpenoid saponin content and composition through molecular biologic approaches.

  6. Studies on the enzymes produced by Basidiomycetes. Part 1. The production of crude enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J. S.; Kim, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulase, protease, and xylanase, formation by the basidiomycetes, Pleurotus ostreatus 301 and Lentinus edodes 3-1 in growth on rice straw medium were studied. Cultural conditions adequate for enzyme production and effects of various materials and inorganic salts added to the rice straw media were investigated. Lentinus edodes 3-1 was an excellent producer of cellulase and xylanase, and Pleurotus ostreatus 301 of protease. The optimum conditions for enzyme production were 30 degrees for cellulase production and at 25 degrees for xylanase and protease production, with 75% moisture content and initial pH of 5.0-6.0. The appropriate incubation times for enzyme production were 30 days and 35 days for Pleurotus ostreatus 301 and Lentinus edodes 3-1, respectively. Among the various materials added, defatted soybean, defatted rape seed, or defatted sesame were all effective in enzyme production but reduced mycelial growth. Rice bran was also effective, particularly at a 30% concentration. The addition of inorganic salts enhanced enzyme production. Among inorganic salts, the optimum concentration of CaCO3 was 5%, and that of CaSO4 was 2%.

  7. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  8. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  9. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  10. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). ... discriminatory analysis, principal components, coordinate and cluster analysis .... were employed with 10.000 simulations to attribute significance values to ...... association analysis of protein and oil content in food-grade soybeans ...

  11. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  12. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  13. Effects of Enzyme Complex Supplementation to a Paddy-based Diet on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Meat-type Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paddy rice is rarely used as a feed because of its high fiber content. In this study, two experiments were conducted to study the effects of supplementing an enzyme complex consisting of xylanase, beta-glucanase and cellulase, to paddy-based diets on the performance and nutrient digestibility in meat-type ducks. In the both experiments, meat-type ducks (Cherry Valley were randomly assigned to four treatments. Treatment 1 was a basal diet of corn-soybean; treatment 2 was a basal diet of corn-paddy-soybean; treatment 3, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean basal diet at levels of 0.5 g/kg diet; and treatment 4, had enzyme complex added to the corn-paddy-soybean diet at levels of 1.0 g/kg diet. The results showed that the enzyme complex increased the ADG, and decreased the ADFI and F/G significantly (p0.05. The outcome of this research indicates that the application of enzyme complex made up of xylanase, beta-glucanase, and cellulase, in the corn-paddy-soybean diet, can improve performance and nutrition digestibility in meat-type ducks.

  14. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  15. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  16. Physiological and Proteomics Analyses Reveal Low-Phosphorus Stress Affected the Regulation of Photosynthesis in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shanshan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Xiangqian; Yu, Kaiye; Chao, Maoni; Han, Suoyi; Zhang, Dan

    2018-06-06

    Previous studies have revealed a significant genetic relationship between phosphorus (P)-efficiency and photosynthesis-related traits in soybean. In this study, we used proteome profiling in combination with expression analysis, biochemical investigations, and leaf ultrastructural analysis to identify the underlying physiological and molecular responses. The expression analysis and ultrastructural analysis showed that the photosynthesis key genes were decreased at transcript levels and the leaf mesophyll and chloroplast were severely damaged after low-P stress. Approximately 55 protein spots showed changes under low-P condition by mass spectrometry, of which 17 were involved in various photosynthetic processes. Further analysis revealed the depression of photosynthesis caused by low-P stress mainly involves the regulation of leaf structure, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, absorption and transportation of CO₂, photosynthetic electron transport, production of assimilatory power, and levels of enzymes related to the Calvin cycle. In summary, our findings indicated that the existence of a stringent relationship between P supply and the genomic control of photosynthesis in soybean. As an important strategy to protect soybean photosynthesis, P could maintain the stability of cell structure, up-regulate the enzymes’ activities, recover the process of photosystem II (PSII), and induce the expression of low-P responsive genes and proteins.

  17. The Sg-1 Glycosyltransferase Locus Regulates Structural Diversity of Triterpenoid Saponins of Soybean[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Takashi; Ono, Eiichiro; Takagi, Kyoko; Takada, Yoshitake; Horikawa, Manabu; Nakamoto, Yumi; Hirose, Aya; Sasama, Hiroko; Ohashi, Mihoko; Hasegawa, Hisakazu; Terakawa, Teruhiko; Kikuchi, Akio; Kato, Shin; Tatsuzaki, Nana; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Ishimoto, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Triterpene saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Saponins usually are glycosylated, which gives rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In the group A saponins of soybean (Glycine max), differences in the terminal sugar species located on the C-22 sugar chain of an aglycone core, soyasapogenol A, were observed to be under genetic control. Further genetic analyses and mapping revealed that the structural diversity of glycosylation was determined by multiple alleles of a single locus, Sg-1, and led to identification of a UDP-sugar–dependent glycosyltransferase gene (Glyma07g38460). Although their sequences are highly similar and both glycosylate the nonacetylated saponin A0-αg, the Sg-1a allele encodes the xylosyltransferase UGT73F4, whereas Sg-1b encodes the glucosyltransferase UGT73F2. Homology models and site-directed mutagenesis analyses showed that Ser-138 in Sg-1a and Gly-138 in Sg-1b proteins are crucial residues for their respective sugar donor specificities. Transgenic complementation tests followed by recombinant enzyme assays in vitro demonstrated that sg-10 is a loss-of-function allele of Sg-1. Considering that the terminal sugar species in the group A saponins are responsible for the strong bitterness and astringent aftertastes of soybean seeds, our findings herein provide useful tools to improve commercial properties of soybean products. PMID:22611180

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  19. Effect of Phellinus baumii-Biotransformed Soybean Powder on Lipid Metabolism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Ik; Kim, Kil Soo; Kang, Ji Hyuk; Kim, Hye Jeong

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of biotransformed soybean powder (BTS; Phellinus baumii-fermented soybean) on lipid metabolism in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into basal diet group (BA), high fat diet group (HF), high fat diet containing 10% BTS group (10 BTS), and high fat diet containing 20% BTS group (20 BTS). Changes in the content of various isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, within the soybean after fermentation to BTS were investigated. The levels of daidzein and genistein were 149.28 μg/g and 364.31 μg/g, respectively. After six weeks experimental period, Food efficiency ratio in the 10 and 20 BTS group was significantly lower than the HF group (PBTS group were significantly lower than the HF group. The levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were significantly lower in the groups that received 10% and 20% BTS than the HF. The activities of SOD and CAT were significantly higher in the 10 and 20 BTS group than the HF group. The activity of XO in the 10 and 20 BTS group was significantly lower than in the HF group by 20% and 23%, respectively. In conclusion, these data suggest that BTS is an effective agent in improving lipid metabolism and antioxidant enzyme system.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Tocopherol Biosynthesis Genes and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Vinutha; Bansal, Navita; Kumari, Khushboo; Prashat G, Rama; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Krishnan, Veda; Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Lal, S K; Sachdev, Archana; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-12-20

    Tocopherols composed of four isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) and its biosynthesis comprises of three pathways: methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), shikimate (SK) and tocopherol-core pathways regulated by 25 enzymes. To understand pathway regulatory mechanism at transcriptional level, gene expression profile of tocopherol-biosynthesis genes in two soybean genotypes was carried out, the results showed significantly differential expression of 5 genes: 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P-reductoisomerase (DXR), geranyl geranyl reductase (GGDR) from MEP, arogenate dehydrogenase (TyrA), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) from SK and γ-tocopherol methyl transferase 3 (γ-TMT3) from tocopherol-core pathways. Expression data were further analyzed for total tocopherol (T-toc) and α-tocopherol (α-toc) content by coregulation network and gene clustering approaches, the results showed least and strong association of γ-TMT3/tocopherol cyclase (TC) and DXR/DXS, respectively, with gene clusters of tocopherol biosynthesis suggested the specific role of γ-TMT3/TC in determining tocopherol accumulation and intricacy of DXR/DXS genes in coordinating precursor pathways toward tocopherol biosynthesis in soybean seeds. Thus, the present study provides insight into the major role of these genes regulating the tocopherol synthesis in soybean seeds.

  1. Salicylic Acid Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity in Soybean Roots through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L. exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM and SA (10 μM/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H, and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  2. Lanthanum (III) regulates the nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedlings under ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-320 nm) radiation has seriously affected the growth of plants. Finding the technology/method to alleviate the damage of UV-B radiation has become a frontal topic in the field of environmental science. The pretreatment with rare earth elements (REEs) is an effective method, but the regulation mechanism of REEs is unknown. Here, the regulation effects of lanthanum (La(III)) on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) under ultraviolet-B radiation were investigated to elucidate the regulation mechanism of REEs on plants under UV-B radiation. UV-B radiation led to the inhibition in the activities of the key enzymes (nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase) in the nitrogen assimilation, the decrease in the contents of nitrate and soluble proteins, as well as the increase in the content of amino acid in soybean seedlings. The change degree of UV-B radiation at the high level (0.45 W m(-2)) was higher than that of UV-B radiation at the low level (0.15 W m(-2)). The pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) La(III) could alleviate the effects of UV-B radiation on the activities of nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, promoting amino acid conversion and protein synthesis in soybean seedlings. The regulation effect of La(III) under UV-B radiation at the low level was better than that of UV-B radiation at the high level. The results indicated that the pretreatment with 20 mg L(-1) La(III) could alleviate the inhibition of UV-B radiation on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedlings.

  3. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean roots through modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-11-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  4. Expression of an Arabidopsis molybdenum cofactor sulphurase gene in soybean enhances drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun; Zhang, Jiachang; Zhang, Juan; Hao, Ling; Hua, Jinping; Duan, Liusheng; Zhang, Mingcai; Li, Zhaohu

    2013-08-01

    LOS5/ABA3 gene encoding molybdenum cofactor sulphurase is involved in aldehyde oxidase (AO) activity in Arabidopsis, which indirectly regulates ABA biosynthesis and increased stress tolerance. Here, we used a constitutive super promoter to drive LOS5/ABA3 overexpression in soybean (Glycine max L.) to enhance drought tolerance in growth chamber and field conditions. Expression of LOS5/ABA3 was up-regulated by drought stress, which led to increasing AO activity and then a notable increase in ABA accumulation. Transgenic soybean under drought stress had reduced water loss by decreased stomatal aperture size and transpiration rate, which alleviated leaf wilting and maintained higher relative water content. Exposed to drought stress, transgenic soybean exhibited reduced cell membrane damage by reducing electrolyte leakage and production of malondialdehyde and promoting proline accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activities. Also, overexpression of LOS5/ABA3 enhanced expression of stress-up-regulated genes. Furthermore, the seed yield of transgenic plants is at least 21% higher than that of wide-type plants under drought stress conditions in the field. These data suggest that overexpression of LOS5/ABA3 could improve drought tolerance in transgenic soybean via enhanced ABA accumulation, which could activate expression of stress-up-regulated genes and cause a series of physiological and biochemical resistant responses. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A Novel Phytase with Sequence Similarity to Purple Acid Phosphatases Is Expressed in Cotyledons of Germinating Soybean Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegeman, Carla E.; Grabau, Elizabeth A.

    2001-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) is the major storage form of phosphorus in plant seeds. During germination, stored reserves are used as a source of nutrients by the plant seedling. Phytic acid is degraded by the activity of phytases to yield inositol and free phosphate. Due to the lack of phytases in the non-ruminant digestive tract, monogastric animals cannot utilize dietary phytic acid and it is excreted into manure. High phytic acid content in manure results in elevated phosphorus levels in soil and water and accompanying environmental concerns. The use of phytases to degrade seed phytic acid has potential for reducing the negative environmental impact of livestock production. A phytase was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from cotyledons of germinated soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.). Peptide sequence data generated from the purified enzyme facilitated the cloning of the phytase sequence (GmPhy) employing a polymerase chain reaction strategy. The introduction of GmPhy into soybean tissue culture resulted in increased phytase activity in transformed cells, which confirmed the identity of the phytase gene. It is surprising that the soybean phytase was unrelated to previously characterized microbial or maize (Zea mays) phytases, which were classified as histidine acid phosphatases. The soybean phytase sequence exhibited a high degree of similarity to purple acid phosphatases, a class of metallophosphoesterases. PMID:11500558

  6. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  7. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  8. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek

    2016-01-01

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste

  9. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  10. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  11. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  12. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  13. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  14. Influence of continuous cropping on corn and soybean pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzi, Camila; Camera, Juliane Nicolodi; Deuner, Carolina Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two tillage programs (conventional and no-tillage) and different rotations with soybeans and corn on the occurrence of Fusarium species. The work was conducted in the experimental field and Seed Laboratory at Iowa State University. The treatments were: tillage (no-tillage and conventional tillage), crop (corn and soybeans) and three different cropping sequences for corn and soybeans, respectively. Treatment with corn: (1) t...

  15. Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 –29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to ...

  16. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES CONCÓRDIA CARRÃO-PANIZZI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  17. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  18. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  19. RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF GOOSEGRASS BIOTYPES AND SOYBEAN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADER JOB FRANCO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he goosegrass ( Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn is an annual plant that has a low - level resistance to glyphosate (LLRG, resulting in control failure in genetically modified soybean crops for resistance to this herbicide. Alleles related to resistance may cause changes in the plant biotype, such as inferior competitive ability. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluated the competitive ability of soybean crops and susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. Replacement series experiments were conducted with soybean crops and goosegrass biotypes. The ratios of soybean to susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass plants were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 481 plants m - 2 . The leaf area, plant height and shoot dry weight were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the soybean crops and weeds. The soybean crop had superior competitive ability to the susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The soybean crop showed similar competitive ability in both competitions, either with the susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The intraspecific competition was more harmful to the soybean crop, while the interspecific competition caused greater damage to the goosegrass biotypes competing with the soybean crop

  20. Interaction of Heterodera glycines and Glomus mosseae on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C; Winkler, H E; Wilson, G W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on Heterodera glycines-soybean interactions were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soybean cultivars that were either resistant or susceptible to H. glycines were exposed to initial nematode population densities (Pi) of 0, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 eggs and infective juveniles. Soybean growth, nematode reproduction, and AM fungal colonization were determined after 35 (experiment I) and 83 (experiment II) days. Soybean shoot and root weights were reduced an average 29% across H. glycines Pi but were 36% greater overall in the presence of G. mosseae. Analyses of variance indicated that root colonization and stimulation of soybean growth by G. mosseae were inhibited at high H. glycines Pi, while the combined effects of the nematode and fungus on soybean growth were best described as additive in linear regression models. No evidence for increased nematode tolerance of mycorrhizal soybean plants was observed. Nematode population densities and reproduction were lower on a nematode-resistant soybean cultivar than on a susceptible cultivar, but reproduction was comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Root colonization by G. mosseae was reduced at high nematode Pi. The results suggest that nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a more likely consequence of interactions between H. glycines and AM fungi on soybean than is nematode suppression by the fungus.

  1. Response of Glycine max to drought stress in relation to growth parameters and some key enzymes of carbon and nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nasr Esfahani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the major constraints for production and yield of soybean (Glycine max. For this reason, identifying mechanisms associated with drought tolerance in soybean is very impotent for improving and increasing drought resistance by genetic engineering methods. In this study, the effect of drought on growth traits (plant height, fresh and dry weight of shoot and also fresh and dry weight of root and enzyme activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrate reductase (NR were assessed in drought sensitive and tolerant cultivars of soybean. The results showed that growth indicators are higher in drought tolerant cultivar under water availability (control and water deficient when compared with those of drought sensitive cultivar. An increase in the activity of ICDH was observed in both the cultivars under drought stress as compared with their respective control plants but this activity was higher in tolerant cultivar. The activities of PEPC, MDH, GS and NR were significantly decreased in drought sensitive cultivar whereas the activities of these enzymes were higher in another cultivar. In general, the results of this study showed different behavior in the activities of assayed enzymes in two sets of soybean cultivars differing in drought tolerance and also decline of the activities of these enzymes in drought sensitive cultivar due to water deficit stress may be one of the possible reasons for decreased growth of the soybean plants under drought.

  2. The Interactomic Analysis Reveals Pathogenic Protein Networks in Phomopsis longicolla Underlying Seed Decay of Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD in soybean, Glycine max (L. Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein–protein interactions (PPI and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins. There were 1,414 pathogenicity related genes in P. longicolla identified using the pathogen host interaction (PHI database. Additionally, 149 plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE were detected. The network captured five different classes of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, including the auxiliary activities, carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, and carbohydrate binding molecules. From the PPI analysis, novel interacting partners were determined for each of the PCWDE classes. The most predominant class of PCWDE was a group of 60 glycoside hydrolases proteins. The glycoside hydrolase subnetwork was found to be interacting with 1,442 proteins within the network and was among the largest clusters. The orthologous proteins FUS3, HOG, CYP1, SGE1, and the g5566t.1 gene identified in this study could play an important role in pathogenicity. Therefore, the P. longicolla protein interactome (PiPhom generated in this study can lead to a better understanding of PPIs in soybean pathogens. Furthermore, the PPI may aid in targeting of genes and proteins for further studies of the pathogenicity mechanisms.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  4. INFLUENCE OF SOWING SPEED ON SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Tiesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso state is the largest producer of soybeans in the country, therefore is the focus of several studies and research in order to improve and increase the production. For an activity that reduces the movements on the field, the no-tillage is a great activity when it done properly. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of speed of sowing on soybean crop, with pneumatic system type for seed metering. The experiment was conducted at São Luiz Farm, in Sinop city, in the northern of Mato Grosso state. The experimental adopted was the randomized blocks design with four treatments and four replications. The seeding speeds studied were 3; 5; 7 and 9 km h-1. The variables evaluated were: initial plant population, longitudinal distribution and yield components. The data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. The speed of 3 km h-1 show the best performance for acceptable spacing, flawed, plant stand on the pre-established area, number of pods per plant, thousand grain mass and yield. The speeds rate used for sowing did not influence the establishment of soybean crop, but affected the beans productivity.

  5. Effect of stationary magnetic field strengths of 150 and 200 mT on reactive oxygen species production in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

    2012-07-01

    Our previous investigation reported the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. In this study, soybean seeds treated with static magnetic fields of 150 and 200 mT for 1 h were evaluated for reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Superoxide and hydroxyl radicals were measured in embryos and hypocotyls of germinating seeds by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and kinetics of superoxide production; hydrogen peroxide and antioxidant activities were estimated spectrophotometrically. Magnetic field treatment resulted in enhanced production of ROS mediated by cell wall peroxidase while ascorbic acid content, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased in the hypocotyl of germinating seeds. An increase in the cytosolic peroxidase activity indicated that this antioxidant enzyme had a vital role in scavenging the increased H(2)O(2) produced in seedlings from the magnetically treated seeds. Hence, these studies contribute to our first report on the biochemical basis of enhanced germination and seedling growth in magnetically treated seeds of soybean in relation to increased production of ROS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pulsed magnetic field: a contemporary approach offers to enhance plant growth and yield of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Ranjitha Kumari, Bollipo Diana

    2012-02-01

    The possible involvement of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) pretreatment in development and yield of soybean was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 20 days with 1500 nT at 10.0 Hz of PMF for 5 h per day. PMF pretreatment increased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, and protein content with the changes of protein profile in 8 days old seedlings. In addition, activity of enzymes such as β-amylase, acid phosphatase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase was enhanced while α-amylase, alkaline phosphatase, protease and nitrate reductase activities declined due to PMF exposure. However, a considerable increment of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mg, K and Na contents with reduced level of Ca was found in PMF treated seedlings. The number of leaves, pods, seeds and length of pods, and weight of seeds were also remarkably higher in PMF treatment in contrast to controls. The results suggest that pretreatment of PMF plays important roles in improvement of crop productivity of soybean through the enhancement of protein, mineral accumulation and enzyme activities which leads to increase the growth and yield. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with [1- 14 C] acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction

  8. Major soybean maturity gene haplotypes revealed by SNPViz analysis of 72 sequenced soybean genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Langewisch

    Full Text Available In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species.

  9. Enzyme inhibition by iminosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Óscar; Qing, Feng-Ling; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Imino- and azasugar glycosidase inhibitors display pH dependant inhibition reflecting that both the inhibitor and the enzyme active site have groups that change protonation state with pH. With the enzyme having two acidic groups and the inhibitor one basic group, enzyme-inhibitor complexes...

  10. Genome-Wide Identification of Chalcone Reductase Gene Family in Soybean: Insight into Root-Specific GmCHRs and Phytophthora sojae Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Sepiol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr is one of the main grain legumes worldwide. Soybean farmers lose billions of dollars’ worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the disease, however, these methods have proven ineffective in the long term. A more cost effective and durable approach is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of phytoalexin glyceollins in soybean. Glyceollins are isoflavonoids, synthesized via the legume-specific branch of general phenylpropanoid pathway. The first key enzyme exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis is chalcone reductase (CHR which coacts with chalcone synthase for the production of isoliquiritigenin, the precursor for glyceollin biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of 14 putative CHR genes in soybean where 11 of them are predicted to be functional. Our results show that GmCHRs display tissue-specific gene expression, and that only root-specific GmCHRs are induced upon P. sojae infection. Among 4 root-specific GmCHRs, GmCHR2A is located near a QTL that is linked to P. sojae resistance suggesting GmCHR2A as a novel locus for partial resistance that can be utilized for resistance breeding.

  11. Chemical interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: Influence of the reaction time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical interesterification is an important alternative to produce zero trans fats. In practice, however, excessive reaction times are used to ensure complete randomization. This work evaluated the influence of the reaction time on the interesterification of soybean oil/fully hydrogenated soybean oil blend, carried out in the following conditions: 100 deg C, 500 rpm stirring speed, 0.4% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst. The triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content and melting point analysis showed that the reaction was very fast, reaching the equilibrium within 5 min. This result suggests the interesterification can be performed in substantially lower times, with reduction in process costs. (author)

  12. Fluorescence imaging of soybean flavonol isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Edward H.; Mulchi, Charles L.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Rowland, Randy A.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the fluorescence emission of leaves from four soybean ('Harosoy') plants containing different concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol glycosides). The investigation utilized genetically mutated soybean flavonol isolines grown in a constant environment, thus limiting factors known to affect fluorescence emission characteristics other than different kaempferol glycosides concentrations. Flavonol isolines included OX922, OX941, OX942, OX944. The first two isolines contain kaempferol (K) glycosides; K3, K6, and K9, and the latter two did not have K3, K6, and K9. A fluorescence imaging system (FIS) was used to characterize steady state florescence images of the sample leaves measured at wavelengths centered at 450, 550, 680, and 740 nm with an excitation at 360 nm. Images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by characterizing the spatial variation of fluorescence within leaves. We also acquired fluorescence emission spectra to characterize spectral features of the soybean flavonol isolines. The emission spectral shape of the fluorescence emission characteristics were not significantly different between the soybeans that contain kaempferol glycosides and the ones that do not contain kaempferol glycosides. Typical emission maxima of green vegetation in the blue, green, red, and far-red bands were noticed in all four soybean isolines. However, plants containing kaempferol glycosides, OX922 and OX941 had significantly lower intensities throughout the wavelength regions. These results imply that fluorescence emission intensities in the fluorescence emission bands studied are significantly affected by the presence and absence of kaempferol glycosides concentrations (UV radiation screening compounds). Pure kaempferol glycoside dissolved in solution show minimal fluorescence emission when excited with the absorption maximum radiation at 365 nm. However, a broad band emission can be seen in the green

  13. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  14. Enhancement of antioxidative activity and cardiovascular protection in hamsters by camellia oil and soybean-camellia blended oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Yi; Lu, Yi-Fa; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of several vegetable oils and blended oil composed of soybean and camellia oils on blood lipid reduction and antioxidative activity. Forty male hamsters were fed an AIN-93 G diet for 1 wk, followed by dividing into five groups: control group-1 was fed a low-fat diet containing 5% oil for 6 wk, and the other four groups were fed high-fat diets with group-2 containing 14% palm oil, group-3 containing 14% camellia oil, group-4 containing 14% soybean oil, and group-5 containing 14% blended oil (8.4% soybean oil and 5.6% camellia oil) along with 0.2% cholesterol and 0.1% bile acid. High-fat diets raised serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and aspartate aminotransferase in hamsters without affecting alanine aminotransferase. Compared with palm oil-containing diet, the other three high-fat diets reduced serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with an opposite trend for liver total cholesterol. However, compared with the control group, the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level was raised for all four high-fat diets. The higher the degree of oil unsaturation, the higher the serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the lower the liver triacylglycerol level and activities of fatty acid synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzymes. Both soybean and blended oils lowered the antioxidative activity of liver. Camellia and blended oils were more efficient than soybean oil in elevating serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreasing the ratio of low-density lipoprotein to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hamsters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of a new GmFAD3A allele in Brazilian CS303TNKCA soybean cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Claudio Costa; Bueno, Rafael Delmond; da Matta, Loreta Buuda; Pereira, Pedro Henrique Scarpelli; Mayrink, Danyelle Barbosa; Piovesan, Newton Deniz; Sediyama, Carlos Sigueyuki; Fontes, Elizabeth Pacheco Batista; Cardinal, Andrea J; Dal-Bianco, Maximiller

    2018-05-01

    We molecularly characterized a new mutation in the GmFAD3A gene associated with low linolenic content in the Brazilian soybean cultivar CS303TNKCA and developed a molecular marker to select this mutation. Soybean is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Soybean oil has 13% palmitic acid, 4% stearic acid, 20% oleic acid, 55% linoleic acid and 8% linolenic acid. Breeding programs are developing varieties with high oleic and low polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) to improve the oil oxidative stability and make the varieties more attractive for the soy industry. The main goal of this study was to characterize the low linoleic acid trait in CS303TNKCA cultivar. We sequenced CS303TNKCA GmFAD3A, GmFAD3B and GmFAD3C genes and identified an adenine point deletion in the GmFAD3A exon 5 (delA). This alteration creates a premature stop codon, leading to a truncated protein with just 207 residues that result in a non-functional enzyme. Analysis of enzymatic activity by heterologous expression in yeast support delA as the cause of low linolenic acid content in CS303TNKCA. Thus, we developed a TaqMan genotyping assay to associate delA with low linolenic acid content in segregating populations. Lines homozygous for delA had a linolenic acid content of 3.3 to 4.4%, and the variation at this locus accounted for 50.83 to 73.70% of the phenotypic variation. This molecular marker is a new tool to introgress the low linolenic acid trait into elite soybean cultivars and can be used to combine with high oleic trait markers to produce soybean with enhanced economic value. The advantage of using CS303TNKCA compared to other lines available in the literature is that this cultivar has good agronomic characteristics and is adapted to Brazilian conditions.

  16. Transesterification of Waste Frying Oil and Soybean Oil by Combi-lipases Under Ultrasound-Assisted Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Jakeline Kathiele; Matte, Carla Roberta; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

    2018-04-21

    This work describes the use of an ultrasound system for the enzymatic transesterification of oils using combi-lipases as biocatalyst. The reactions were carried out evaluating the individual use of waste oil and fresh soybean oil, and the immobilized lipases CALB, TLL, and RML were used as biocatalysts. It was performed in a mixture design of three factors to obtain the ideal mixture of lipases according to the composition of fatty acids present in each oil, and the main reaction variables were optimized. After 18 h of reaction, ultrasound provided a biodiesel yield of about 90% when using soybean oil and 70% using the waste oil. The results showed that ultrasound technology, in combination with the application of enzyme mixtures, known as combi-lipases, and the use of waste oil, could be a promising route to reduce the overall process costs of enzymatic production of biodiesel.

  17. Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-02-01

    To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC-MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.

  18. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  20. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  1. Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... redox and immune status of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, which were divided into four groups. Birds in Group I (control) received soybean oil and synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate in their feed mixture. Group II received soybean oil and natural RRR-d-alpha-tocopherol.

  2. Agro-ecological Differentials in Soybean Crop Evapotranspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated soybean crop evapotranspiration from weather data using the cropwat model. The effects of reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, and yield response factor were quantified for three different agroecological zones in Cameroon. The evapotranspiration of soybean was observed to be 281.03 ...

  3. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  4. Evaluation of microbial content of some soybean milk products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the microbiological content of soybean milk, highly consumed by the public is the aim of this research work. Ten samples of soybean milk, locally prepared by different manufacturers were used for the study. The microbial load and identity of the microorganisms present were determined using standard ...

  5. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The average genetic diversity index of wild soybeans and landraces was 1.5421 and ... genetic identity (0.5265) and gene flow (1.8338) between wild soybeans and cultivars ..... The project was financed by the National Natural Science .... Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Alberta.

  6. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  7. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  8. Soybean Peptide as Additive on Yellow Feather Broiler Chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GM soybean and sold on the Chinese market by China CF Duqing (Heze) Biotech Co. Ltd, Shandong Prov-ince, China. For the purpose of this study, the peptide was designated marketed soybean peptide (MSBP). In order to show its efficacy ...

  9. The research on super absorption resin made from irradiation soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiao'nan; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong

    2012-01-01

    The research is based on the products made from the fermentation of soybean. Using γ-ray to irradiate the products made from the fermentation of soybean to make super absorption resin, and the result is that the products irradiated by 20 kGy can absorb nearly 2000 times of its volume. (authors)

  10. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of neutral black liquor and moisture heating treatments ... The most commonly used methods of protecting protein include ..... Induced non-enzymatic browning of soybean meal for enhancing efficiency of ... ammonia relase of soluble soybean meal proterin.

  11. The nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences in identical positions. Comparison of the coding sequences with known amino-acid sequences of soybean leghemoglobins suggest that the two genes...

  12. Effect of Soybean Population and Spatial Arrangement on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, to determine the effect of soybean population and spatial arrangement on the productivity of ginger/soybean intercrop in South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised ...

  13. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenach, A M; Chalamet, A; Pachiaudi, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1979-07-16

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of /sup 15/N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference.

  14. The research on super absorption resin made from irradiated soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong

    2011-01-01

    The research is based on the products made from the fermentation of soybean. Using γ-ray to irradiate the products made from the fermentation of soybean to make super absorption resin, and the result is that the products irradiated by 20 KGy can absorb nearly 2000 times of its volume. (authors)

  15. Rheological properties of soybean protein isolate gels containing emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.H.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Rheological properties of soybean protein gels containing various volume fractions oil droplets have been studied at small and large deformations. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of soybean protein isolate gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction of oil droplets stabilised by the

  16. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  17. Chemical, physical and tribological investigation of polymercaptanized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO) was investigated for its chemical, physical and tribological properties relative to soybean oil (SO) and also as a potential multi-functional lubricant additive in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO). Analytical investigations showed that PMSO is obtained by convers...

  18. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  19. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  20. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  1. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  2. Soybean Proteome Database 2012: Update on the comprehensive data repository for soybean proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eOhyanagi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soybean Proteome Database (SPD was created to provide a data repository for functional analyses of soybean responses to flooding stress, thought to be a major constraint for establishment and production of this plant. Since the last publication of the SPD, we thoroughly enhanced the contents of database, particularly protein samples and their annotations from several organelles. The current release contains 23 reference maps of soybean (Glycine max cv. Enrei proteins collected from several organs, tissues and organelles including the maps for plasma membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and mitochondrion, which were electrophoresed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Furthermore, the proteins analyzed with gel-free proteomics technique have been added and available online. In addition to protein fluctuations under flooding, those of salt and drought stress have been included in the current release. An omics table also has been provided to reveal relationships among mRNAs, proteins and metabolites with a unified temporal-profile tag in order to facilitate retrieval of the data based on the temporal profiles. An intuitive user interface based on dynamic HTML enables users to browse the network as well as the profiles of multiple omes in an integrated fashion. The SPD is available at: http://proteome.dc.affrc.go.jp/Soybean/.

  3. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  4. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  5. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  6. Improving protein quality of soybean through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most economical and nutritious food packed with basic nutrients that combat diseases stemming from mal- and under-nutrition. Despite its rich nutritional profile, use of soybean in food has been limited because soybean proteins are often associated with compounds, which could exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) is one of the important anti-nutritional factors that exert negative effect by causing growth inhibition. Soybean cultivar VLS-2 was irradiated with 250 Gy gamma rays in a gamma cell (200) with 60 Co source installed at BARC to induce mutations for low trypsin inhibitor content. Three mutants with lower levels of TI content were identified and can be utilized for developing elite varieties of soybean. (author)

  7. Effect of space mutation on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiaonan; Liu Qi

    2011-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soybean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 > SP 3 > SP 4 > CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  8. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  9. Enhanced resistance to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in transgenic soybean by silencing putative CLE receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Chronis, Demosthenis; De La Torre, Carola M; Smeda, John; Wang, Xiaohong; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2015-08-01

    CLE peptides are small extracellular proteins important in regulating plant meristematic activity through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signalling module. Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular cambium are controlled by CLE signalling pathways. Interestingly, plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLE-like effector proteins, which act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful parasitism. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis CLE receptors CLAVATA1 (CLV1), the CLAVATA2 (CLV2)/CORYNE (CRN) heterodimer receptor complex and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which transmit the CLV3 signal in the SAM, are required for perception of beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii CLEs. Reduction in nematode infection was observed in clv1, clv2, crn, rpk2 and combined double and triple mutants. In an effort to develop nematode resistance in an agriculturally important crop, orthologues of Arabidopsis receptors including CLV1, CLV2, CRN and RPK2 were identified from soybean, a host for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. For each of the receptors, there are at least two paralogues in the soybean genome. Localization studies showed that most receptors are expressed in the root, but vary in their level of expression and spatial expression patterns. Expression in nematode-induced feeding cells was also confirmed. In vitro direct binding of the soybean receptors with the HgCLE peptide was analysed. Knock-down of the receptors in soybean hairy roots showed enhanced resistance to SCN. Our findings suggest that targeted disruption of nematode CLE signalling may be a potential means to engineer nematode resistance in crop plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.S.; Prabhakar; Tiwari, S.P.; Sandhu, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M 2 , a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M 2 and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T 2 14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  11. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P S; Prabhakar,; Tiwari, S P; Sandhu, J S [National Research Centre for Soybean, Indore (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M{sub 2}, a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M{sub 2} and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T{sub 2}14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  12. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  13. The effect of soybean meal replacement with raw full-fat soybean in diets for broiler chickens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rada, V.; Lichovníková, M.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2016), s. 112-117 ISSN 0971-2119 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raw full-fat soybean * soybean meal * broiler * growth * digestibility Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2016

  14. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  15. Photosynthate partitioning and distribution in soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latche, J.; Cavalie, G.

    1983-01-01

    Plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber and fed with a modified Hoagland solution containing nitrate as nitrogen source (N+ medium). Soybeans, 33 days old (flowering stage), 45 and 56 days old (pods formation and filling stages) were used for experimentation. In each experiment, the eight trifoliated leaf (F 8 ) was exposed to 14 CO 2 (10 μCi; 400 vpm), in the light (80 W x m -2 ) for 30 min. After a 6 h chase period (22 - 25 0 C; 80 W x m -2 ), the radiocarbon distribution among plant parts was determined and labelled compounds were identified. (orig.)

  16. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  17. Immobilized enzymes and cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucke, C; Wiseman, A

    1981-04-04

    This article reviews the current state of the art of enzyme and cell immobilization and suggests advances which might be made during the 1980's. Current uses of immobilized enzymes include the use of glucoamylase in the production of glucose syrups from starch and glucose isomerase in the production of high fructose corn syrup. Possibilities for future uses of immobilized enzymes and cells include the utilization of whey and the production of ethanol.

  18. Profiling the orphan enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing generates an incredible amount of sequence and great potential for new enzyme discovery. Despite this huge amount of data and the profusion of bioinformatic methods for function prediction, a large part of known enzyme activities is still lacking an associated protein sequence. These particular activities are called “orphan enzymes”. The present review proposes an update of previous surveys on orphan enzymes by mining the current content of public databases. While the percentage of orphan enzyme activities has decreased from 38% to 22% in ten years, there are still more than 1,000 orphans among the 5,000 entries of the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification. Taking into account all the reactions present in metabolic databases, this proportion dramatically increases to reach nearly 50% of orphans and many of them are not associated to a known pathway. We extended our survey to “local orphan enzymes” that are activities which have no representative sequence in a given clade, but have at least one in organisms belonging to other clades. We observe an important bias in Archaea and find that in general more than 30% of the EC activities have incomplete sequence information in at least one superkingdom. To estimate if candidate proteins for local orphans could be retrieved by homology search, we applied a simple strategy based on the PRIAM software and noticed that candidates may be proposed for an important fraction of local orphan enzymes. Finally, by studying relation between protein domains and catalyzed activities, it appears that newly discovered enzymes are mostly associated with already known enzyme domains. Thus, the exploration of the promiscuity and the multifunctional aspect of known enzyme families may solve part of the orphan enzyme issue. We conclude this review with a presentation of recent initiatives in finding proteins for orphan enzymes and in extending the enzyme world by the discovery of new

  19. Development and phenotypic screening of an ethyl methane sulfonate mutant population in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important oil-producing crop in the Fabaceae family and is utilized in various industries. With increasing demands for soybean oil and other soybean products, its production must be increased. Genetic improvement of the crop is important to meet the increasing demands for soybean. A ne...

  20. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  1. Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal

    2018-05-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.

  2. Management of Anthracnose in Soybean using Fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on soybean (Glycine max L. Meril were carried out aiming to control anthracnose (pod blight caused by fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum with five treatments represented by different fungicidal sprays against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the higher Percent Disease Control (PDC and Percent Yield Increase (PYI were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% followed by Mancozeb fungicides. The mean Pod Infection (PI was low in plots treated with SAAF followed by Mancozeb. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2013. The lower Percent Disease Index (PDI was 46.25% and mean PI was 29.67% with higher yield value of 2431.25 kg/ha obtained from the plots sprayed with SAAF then by Mancozeb. The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides, SAAF followed by Mancozeb were effective to control anthracnose or pod blight disease of soybean to increase the yield.

  3. Induced mutations for soybean rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    Soybean mutation experiments for inducing rust resistance in the cultivars G 8375, Wakashima mutant number 10, Taichung N, S.J.2, S.J.4, BM 50, BM 98, G 8377, G 8586 and G 8587 have been carried out since 1979. Six pods from each of 4438 control and 43,907 M 1 plants were randomly harvested. M 2 seeds of each cultivar of different doses were bulked (M 2 bulk). In addition, 270 good M 1 plants were selected and threshed singly (M 2 single). M 2 -bulk and M 2 -single seeds were advanced to M 3 . Both, M 3 -bulk and M 3 -single plants, together with the remaining M 2 -bulk seeds were screened for rust resistance in the rainy season of 1980 in Nong Hoi Valley (altitude about 1000 m above sea level) and at Mae Joe Station, both in Chiang Mai Province (latitude 18 deg. 31'-19 deg. N). Based on the IWGSR rating system, soybean plants with slow growth of rust were selected from both locations. The results were as follows: Six plants were selected from a total of 2802 control plants, and 115 from a total of 28,834 M 2 and M 3 plants. Further evaluation of these selections for rust resistance will be carried out in the rainy season of 1981 in Nong Hoi Valley, Chiang Mai. (author)

  4. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  5. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  6. Against Drought Stress Effect of Antioxidant Enzymes of Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Doğan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean seeds (Glycine max. L., cv., “A3935 were grown under controlled conditions (25±2 C composed of different boron compounds. In the experiment, 5 groups were determined respectively as potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, ammonium tetraborate tetrahydrate (1 mg/1, sodium boron hydride (1 mg/1, lithium tetraborate tetrahydrate (100 mg/1, and sodium tetraborate decahydrate (100 mg/1. The doses used in this study were determined according to the results of a preliminary study. Soybean seeds were exposed to different amounts of drought stress based on time (control, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 days. Activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.15.1.1, glutathione reductase (GR: EC 1.6.4.2, ascorbate peroxidase (APX: EC 1.11.1.11 and catalase (CAT: EC 1.11.1.6 measured. According to the results stress+potassium tetraborate tetrahydrate environment has increased the amount of CAT, decreased the amount GR, APX and SOD. Potassium tetraborate 0.1 mg / l dose administration is the most appropriate critical value, and the most important indicator of drought CAT enzyme found to give the best results.

  7. Artificial Enzymes, "Chemzymes"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jeannette; Rousseau, Cyril Andre Raphaël; Pedersen, Lavinia Georgeta M

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models that successf......Enzymes have fascinated scientists since their discovery and, over some decades, one aim in organic chemistry has been the creation of molecules that mimic the active sites of enzymes and promote catalysis. Nevertheless, even today, there are relatively few examples of enzyme models...... that successfully perform Michaelis-Menten catalysis under enzymatic conditions (i.e., aqueous medium, neutral pH, ambient temperature) and for those that do, very high rate accelerations are seldomly seen. This review will provide a brief summary of the recent developments in artificial enzymes, so called...... "Chemzymes", based on cyclodextrins and other molecules. Only the chemzymes that have shown enzyme-like activity that has been quantified by different methods will be mentioned. This review will summarize the work done in the field of artificial glycosidases, oxidases, epoxidases, and esterases, as well...

  8. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.pospiskova@upol.cz [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Safarik, Ivo, E-mail: ivosaf@yahoo.com [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Nanobiology and Structural Biology of GCRC, Na Sadkach 7, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (−20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties. - Highlights: • Cross-linked enzyme powders were prepared in various liquid media. • Insoluble enzymes were magnetized using iron oxides particles. • Magnetic iron oxides particles were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. • Magnetic modification was performed under low (freezing) temperature. • Cross-linked powdered trypsin and lipase can be used repeatedly for reaction.

  9. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  10. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  12. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying

    1989-01-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3 H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  13. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shikui; Hou, Wensheng; Godo, Itamar; Wu, Cunxiang; Yu, Yang; Matityahu, Ifat; Hacham, Yael; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins.

  14. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  15. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haicui Suo

    Full Text Available Gibberellic acids (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3 once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  16. Overexpression of AtDREB1A causes a severe dwarf phenotype by decreasing endogenous gibberellin levels in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Haicui; Ma, Qibin; Ye, Kaixin; Yang, Cunyi; Tang, Yujuan; Hao, Juan; Zhang, Zhanyuan J; Chen, Mingluan; Feng, Yuqi; Nian, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellic acids (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and developmental processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that three key enzymes of GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox are involved in GA biosynthesis. In this study, the Arabidopsis DREB1A gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was introduced into soybean plants by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results showed that the transgenic soybean plants exhibited a typical phenotype of GA-deficient mutants, such as severe dwarfism, small and dark-green leaves, and late flowering compared to those of the non-transgenic plants. The dwarfism phenotype was rescued by the application of exogenous GA(3) once a week for three weeks with the concentrations of 144 µM or three times in one week with the concentrations of 60 µM. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of the GA synthase genes were higher in the transgenic soybean plants than those in controls, whereas GA-deactivated genes except GmGA2ox4 showed lower levels of expression. The transcript level of GmGA2ox4 encoding the only deactivation enzyme using C(20)-GAs as the substrates in soybean was dramatically enhanced in transgenic plants compared to that of wide type. Furthermore, the contents of endogenous bioactive GAs were significantly decreased in transgenic plants than those of wide type. The results suggested that AtDREB1A could cause dwarfism mediated by GA biosynthesis pathway in soybean.

  17. [The NIR spectra based variety discrimination for single soybean seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Guang-Hua; Hou, Rui-Feng; Wang, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    With the development of soybean producing and processing, the quality breeding becomes more and more important for soybean breeders. Traditional sampling detection methods for soybean quality need to destroy the seed, and does not satisfy the requirement of earlier generation materials sieving for breeding. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for soybean quality detection. However, all these applications were referred to mass samples, and they were not suitable for little or single seed detection in breeding procedure. In the present study, the acousto--optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectroscopy was used to measure the single soybean seed. Two varieties of soybean were measured, which contained 60 KENJIANDOU43 seeds and 60 ZHONGHUANG13 seeds. The results showed that NIR spectra combined with soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) could accurately discriminate the soybean varieties. The classification accuracy for KENJIANDOU43 seeds and ZHONGHUANG13 was 100%. The spectra of single soybean seed were measured at different positions, and it showed that the seed shape has significant influence on the measurement of spectra, therefore, the key point for single seed measurement was how to accurately acquire the spectra and keep their representativeness. The spectra for soybeans with glossy surface had high repeatability, while the spectra of seeds with external defects had significant difference for several measurements. For the fast sieving of earlier generation materials in breeding, one could firstly eliminate the seeds with external defects, then apply NIR spectra for internal quality detection, and in this way the influence of seed shape and external defects could be reduced.

  18. Heme oxygenase behavior in ultraviolet-B irradiated soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannarelli, G.G.; Noriega, G.O.; Tomaro, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has a negative impact on plant cells, and leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Heme oxygenase (HO) plays a protective role against oxidative stress in mammals, but little is known about this issue in plants. Here, we report for the first time the response of HO in leaves of soybean plants subjected to UV-B radiation. HO activity, protein and gene expression, as well as stress markers were evaluated. Under lower UV-B doses (7.5 and 15 kJ m -2 ), the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) remained unaltered, while quantitative RT-PCR revealed that HO and catalase (CAT) transcripts were increased 40% and 20% after 8 h, respectively. Treatment with 30 kJ m -2 brought about a 90% enhancement in TBARS indicating that an oxidative burst occurred, and a downregulation in gene expression was observed. Immunoblot analysis showed a 4.3 and 3.7-fold increase in HO protein after irradiation with 75 and 15 kJ m -2 , respectively. HO and CAT enzymes activities were enhanced at these doses but diminished at 30 kJ m -2 UV-B. These results indicate that the up regulation of HO and CAT genes at the lower doses occurred as a signal of cell protection against oxidative damage. On the other hand, irradiation with 30 kJ m -2 overcome the cellular antioxidant capacity and repressed the response as a result of ROS overproduction. (author)

  19. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat; Enkerlin, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  20. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  1. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  2. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina: Myths and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, S; Jelsoee, E; Paul, H; Tomei, J; Joensen, L; Monti, M

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel alternatives. To ensure that the production of biofuels is 'sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. In this paper, we question the validity of these proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. We highlight the negative environmental and social impacts of intensive soybean production, and conclude that certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address the detrimental impacts of increased biofuel production and trade.

  3. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Ø Jensen, Erik; Marcker, Kjeld A

    1984-01-01

    During the early stages of soybean nodule development the leghemoglobin (Lb) genes are activated sequentially in the opposite order to which they are arranged in the soybean genome. At a specific stage after the initial activation of all the Lb genes, a large increment occurs in the transcription...... of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...

  4. Monitoring of monooctanoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) method was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML-type: L-long chain fatty acids; M-medium chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid....... It was found that the structured PC fractionated into 2-3 distinct bands on both plate thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These 3 bands represented PC of LL-type, ML-type and MM-type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage...

  5. Comparison of soybean cultivars for enhancement of the polyamine contents in the fermented soybean natto using Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Horii, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kubo, Yuji; Koguchi, Kumiko; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Soda, Kuniyasu

    2017-03-01

    Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.

  6. Cyclic ADP-ribose and IP3 mediate abscisic acid-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the roles of ABA-cADPR-Ca 2+ and ABA-IP3-Ca 2+ signaling pathways in UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts were investigated. Results showed that abscisic acid (ABA) up regulated cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. Furthermore, cADPR and IP3, as second messengers of UV-B-triggered ABA, induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating proteins and genes expression and activity of isoflavone biosynthetic-enzymes (chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS). After Ca 2+ was chelated by EGTA, isoflavone content decreased. Overall, ABA-induced cADPR and IP3 up regulated isoflavone accumulation which was mediated by Ca 2+ signaling via enhancing the expression of proteins and genes participating in isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. - Highlights: • UV-B-induced cADPR and IP3 synthesis was mediated by ABA. • cADPR and IP3 were involved in UV-B-ABA-induced isoflavone accumulation. • cADPR and IP3-induced isoflavone accumulation may be mediated by Ca 2+ . • ABA, cADPR, IP3 and Ca 2+ could activate proteins expression of CHS and IFS.

  7. Effect of γ-irradiated soybean on various physico-chemical characteristics with respect to ruminal feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Veena; Chandra, Prakash

    2003-01-01

    Soybean seeds (Glycine max.) were irradiated at dose levels of 0, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 k Gy and different physical and chemical properties of irradiated soybean seeds were studied. Water activity (a w ) decreased with the increasing dose while browning index increased u up to 5 kGy dose and thereafter declined gradually. Proximate composition, cell wall constituents, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, mineral composition, total soluble sugar and starch content did not reveal any significant change due to 20 kGy level irradiation. N-solubility in different buffers decreased with increased dose levels, however, differences were significant only at higher (10 and 20 kGy) levels. The proteins also indicated similar subunit gel pattern in all the samples. α-amino nitrogen was increased gradually from 50.29 to 56.40 μg/100 mg and trypsin inhibitor activity was diminished up to 28 per cent, if irradiation dose increased up to 20 kGy level. Lipoxygenase activity also depicted inactivation of enzyme up to 36 per cent at 20 kGy as compared to un-irradiated soybean. Free fatty acid and acidity increased with increasing dose but at 20 kGy level the value decreased. (author)

  8. Soybean hull induced production of carbohydrases and protease among Aspergillus and their effectiveness in soy flour carbohydrate and protein separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Loman, Abdullah Al; Coffman, Anthony M; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2017-04-20

    Soybean hull consists mainly of three major plant carbohydrates, i.e., cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin. It is inexpensive and a good potential substrate for carbohydrase production because it is capable of inducing a complete spectrum of activities to hydrolyze complex biomass. Aspergillus is known for carbohydrase production but no studies have evaluated and compared, among Aspergillus species and strains, the soybean hull induced production of various carbohydrases. In this study, A. aculeatus, A. cinnamomeus, A. foetidus, A. phoenicis and 11 A. niger strains were examined together with T. reesei Rut C30, another known carbohydrase producer. The carbohydrases evaluated included pectinase, polygalacturonase, xylanase, cellulase, α-galactosidase and sucrase. Growth morphology and pH profiles were also followed. Among Aspergillus strains, morphology was found to correlate with both carbohydrase production and pH decrease profile. Filamentous strains gave higher carbohydrase production while causing slower pH decrease. The enzyme broths produced were also tested for separation of soy flour carbohydrate and protein. Defatted soy flour contains about 53% protein and 32% carbohydrate. The enzymatic treatment can increase protein content and remove indigestible oligo-/poly-saccharides, and improve use of soy flour in feed and food. Protease production by different strains was therefore also compared for minimizing protein degradation. A. niger NRRL 322 and A. foetidus NRRL 341 were found to be the most potent strains that produced maximal carbohydrases and minimal protease under soybean hull induction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced Productivity of Serine Alkaline Protease by Bacillus sp. Using Soybean as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh, S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth and protease production by Bacillus sp. (SBP-29 was examined for poultry processing industries. The maximum protease activity was 3028 U/mL using 1.5% (w/v of soybean meal as substrate. Soybean meal is an inexpensive and readily available, thus it can be used as the cost effective crude material for the production of an extracellular protease. Inorganic nitrogen sources proved to be less favorable, for protease production as strong catabolic repression was observed with ammonium ions. A maximum of 3208 U/mL of protease was produced in 18 h in a 10L bioreactor. The enzyme has temperature and pH optima of 60°C and 9.5 respectively. However, the temperature stability range is from 20-90 °C and pH stability range is from 6.0–12.0. The protease was completely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF and diodopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP, with little increase (10-15% in the production of upon addition of Ca++ and Mg++.

  10. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E.; Guedes, R.N.C.; Oliveira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  11. Phytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes in soybean as determined by interactions with micronutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytseva, Olga, E-mail: olga.zaytseva@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Crop Science (340h), Faculty of Agriculture (Germany); Wang, Zhengrui [Academia Sinica, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center (China); Neumann, Günter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Crop Science (340h), Faculty of Agriculture (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Carbon nanomaterials released into the environment exert extremely variable effects on living organisms. In this study, we used soybean (Glycine max) to investigate early responses to seed exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, outer diameter 20–70 nm, inner diameter 5–10 nm, length of >2 μm). Soybean seeds were imbibed with deionised water (control) or MWCNT suspension (1000 mg L{sup −1}) and were analysed for MWCNT contamination using light microscopy. The seedlings vitality status was evaluated by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and measurement of oxidative stress indicators in the root tissue. Micronutrient (Zn, Mn, Cu) availability in different seedling organs was assessed and the effects of antioxidants, and micronutrient supplementation was investigated. Oxidative stress induction by MWCNTs was detectable in radicle tips, coincided with MWCNTs accumulation and was reverted by external application of proline as antioxidant and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) as cofactors for various enzymes involved in oxidative stress defence. Accordingly, SOD activity increased after Zn supplementation. During germination, the MWCNT treatments reduced Zn translocation from the cotyledons to the seedling and MWCNTs exhibited adsorption potential for Zn and Cu, which may be involved in internal micronutrients immobilisation. This study demonstrates for the first time that MWCNT phytotoxicity is linked with oxidative stress-related disturbances of micronutrient homeostasis.

  12. The substrate specificities of sunflower and soybean phospholipases D using transphosphatidylation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkafi Slim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phospholipase D (PLD belongs to a lipolytic enzyme subclass which catalyzes the hydrolysis and transesterification of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. Results In this work, we have studied the substrate specificity of PLDs from germinating sunflower seeds and cultured-soybean cells, using their capacity of transphosphatidylation. In the presence of a nucleophilic acceptor, such as [14C]ethanol, PLD catalyzes the production of phosphatidyl-[14C]-ethanol. The resulting product is easily identified since it is well separated from the other lipids by thin-layer chromatography. The main advantage of this assay is that the phospholipid used as substrate does not need to be radiolabelled and thus allow us a large choice of polar heads and fatty acids. In vitro, we observed that sunflower and soybean cell PLD show the following decreasing order of specificity: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol; while phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol are utilized much less efficiently. Conclusions The substrate specificity is modulated by the fatty acid composition of the phosphatidylcholine used as well as by the presence of other charged phospholipids.

  13. Biochemical response of Anticarsia gemmatalis fed with soybean plants pulverized with the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.A.; Pilon, A.M.; Pilon, F.M.; Ribeiro, F.R.; Silva, F.C.; Ribon, A.O.B.; Reis, A.P.; Visotto, L.E. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Biologia Molecular; Guedes, R.N.C. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Insects are responsible for severe crop losses. New alternatives for pest control other than agrochemicals have been investigated. Protease inhibitors are one of the prime candidates effective against insect pests. In this work we studied the effect of the synthetic trypsin inhibitor benzamidine on the development of Anticarsia gemmatalis, an important pest of the soybean culture. Larvae were reared on soybean plants containing 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.45, 0.60 and 0.75% (w/w) of benzamidine. After 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of feeding midgut extracts were prepared and assayed for enzymatic activity (proteolytic, amidasic and stearic). Benzamidine altered the activity patterns but was not able to totally abolish enzyme activity. The proteolytic, amidasic and stearic activity showed the higher time of inhibition in 48 h in concentration of 0,75%, the inhibition was the around 93%, 63.1% and 36.6%, respectively. We suggest that the presence of inhibitor has made insects to adapt and produce proteases which are insensitive to the action of benzamidine. (author)

  14. Phytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes in soybean as determined by interactions with micronutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytseva, Olga; Wang, Zhengrui; Neumann, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials released into the environment exert extremely variable effects on living organisms. In this study, we used soybean (Glycine max) to investigate early responses to seed exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, outer diameter 20–70 nm, inner diameter 5–10 nm, length of >2 μm). Soybean seeds were imbibed with deionised water (control) or MWCNT suspension (1000 mg L"−"1) and were analysed for MWCNT contamination using light microscopy. The seedlings vitality status was evaluated by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and measurement of oxidative stress indicators in the root tissue. Micronutrient (Zn, Mn, Cu) availability in different seedling organs was assessed and the effects of antioxidants, and micronutrient supplementation was investigated. Oxidative stress induction by MWCNTs was detectable in radicle tips, coincided with MWCNTs accumulation and was reverted by external application of proline as antioxidant and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) as cofactors for various enzymes involved in oxidative stress defence. Accordingly, SOD activity increased after Zn supplementation. During germination, the MWCNT treatments reduced Zn translocation from the cotyledons to the seedling and MWCNTs exhibited adsorption potential for Zn and Cu, which may be involved in internal micronutrients immobilisation. This study demonstrates for the first time that MWCNT phytotoxicity is linked with oxidative stress-related disturbances of micronutrient homeostasis.

  15. Resistance of a soybean cell line to oxyfluorfen by overproduction of mitochondrial protoporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warabi, E; Usui, K; Tanaka, Y; Matsumoto, H

    2001-08-01

    The diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl 3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) which catalyzes the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen) to protoporphyrin IX (Proto IX), the last step of the common pathway to chlorophyll and haeme biosynthesis. We have selected an oxyfluorfen-resistant soybean cell line by stepwise selection methods, and the resistance mechanism has been investigated. No growth inhibition was observed in resistant cells at a concentration of 10(-7) M oxyfluorfen, a concentration at which normal cells did not survive. While the degree of inhibition of total extractable Protox by oxyfluorfen was the same in both cell types, the enzyme activity in the mitochondrial fraction from non-treated resistant cells was about nine-fold higher than that from normal cells. Northern analysis of mitochondrial Protox revealed that the concentration of mitochondrial Protox mRNA was much higher in resistant cells than that in normal cells. There were no differences in the absorption and metabolic breakdown of oxyfluorfen. The growth of resistant cells was also insensitive to oxadiazon [5-tert-butyl-3-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)- one], the other chemical class of Protox inhibitor. Therefore, the resistance of the selected soybean cell line to oxyfluorfen is probably mainly due to the overproduction of mitochondrial Protox.

  16. Oxidative stability of soybean oil in oleosomes as affected by pH and iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Yao, Linxing; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Tong; Murphy, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    The oxidative stability of oil in soybean oleosomes, isolated using the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process (EAEP), was evaluated. The effects of ferric chloride, at two concentration levels (100 and 500 μM), on lipid oxidation, was examined under pH 2 and 7. The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value of oil, in oleosome suspensions stored at 60 °C, were measured over a 12 day period. The presence of ferric chloride significantly (Poil in the isolated oleosome, as measured by the PV and TBARS. Greater lipid oxidation occurred under an acidic pH. In the pH 7 samples, the positively charged transition metals were strongly attracted to the negatively charged droplets. However, the low ζ-potential and the high creaming rate at this pH, may have limited the oxidation. Freezing, freeze-drying or heating of oleosomes have an insignificant impact on the oxidative stability of oil in isolated soybean oleosomes. Manufacturers should be cautious when adding oleosomes as ingredients in food systems containing transition metal ions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 1: Structure, Production and Environmental Effects of Soybean Protein Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz YILDIRIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean fiber (SPF is a protein based botanic fibre. These fibers exhibit very good physical properties such as brightness, softness and drape. Moreover, SPF has a variety of health functionalities and anti-bacterial properties. Fibers were first produced in the 20th mid-century. However due to the significant challenges encountered during the production of SPF, interest for these fibers was decreased. At the end of the 20 th century, SPF re-captured attention due to an increased awakening on ecological, renewable and sustainable fiber concept. Soybean is cheap and abundant. Tenacity of SPF was improved by including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Therefore, the production and the usage of SPF are increasing rapidly because of these key advantages. Soybean fibers usually is used in blends with other fibers. In Turkey, a variety of different products are produced from this special fiber. This review, about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and its enviromental effects have been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areas of SPF have been described. The purpose of this review is to fill a gap in the Turkish literature about this bio-degradable, renewable and sustainable SPF. 

  18. Genetic and bibliographic information: UBE2N [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available UBE2N ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N (UBC13 homolog, yeast) human Skin Neoplasms ...(MeSH) Neoplasms (C04) > Neoplasms by Site (C04.588) > Skin Neoplasms (C04.588.805) Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases (C17) > Skin... Diseases (C17.800) > Skin Neoplasms (C17.800.882) 03A0584544 ...

  19. NMR characterization of foldedness for the production of E3 RING domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, A.; de Jong, R.N.; Folkers, G.E.; Boelens, R.

    2010-01-01

    We summarize the use of NMR spectroscopy in the production and the screening of stability and foldedness of protein domains, and apply it to the RING domains of E3 ubiquitin-ligases. RING domains are involved in specific interactions with E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and thus play an essential

  20. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  1. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    김성진

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abbreviations: SCR, Soybean curd residue; HPLC, high- performance liquid ... amino acids, and tocopherol which have several active functions (Ryoo et al., 2004; Kim and ..... of grape seeds extracts.' MS thesis, Sungshin ...

  2. Effect of space mutation of photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiao'nan; Liu Qi

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photo synthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soy bean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 >SP 3 >SP 4 >CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  3. Glyphosate tolerance of soybean mutant gained after boarding on satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lingxue; Ren Honglei; Zhang Hongyan; Liu Zhangxiong; Jin Longguo; Guo Yong; Qiu Lijuan; Tao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant germplasm and genetic variation characteristics of SP 2 and SP 3 soybean varieties boarded on Shijian No.8 satellite were analyzed after treated by herbicide glyphosate in the field. Abundant variations of traits were produced, and the resistance within and among cultivars were different in their offspring of space mutagenesis. Plant height and maturity were used as index to screen glyphosate tolerant materials. Space mutation increased of soybean 661 SP 3 of Zhongpin, and one glyphosate-resistance variant was screened from Zhongpin 661 SP 3 . It showed that glyphosate tolerance was different among offspring of different space mutagenesis soybean materials. It is feasible to systemically screen elite traits soybean by applying space mutation breeding. (authors)

  4. Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, R L; Brown, J C; Tiffin, L O

    1972-08-01

    The contrasting Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) chelating properties of the synthetic chelators ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) and 4,7-di(4-phenylsulfonate)-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate) (BPDS) were used to determine the valence form of Fe absorbed by soybean roots supplied with Fe(3+)-chelates. EDDHA binds Fe(3+) strongly, but Fe(2+) weakly; BPDS binds Fe(2+) strongly but Fe(3+) weakly. Addition of an excess of BPDS to nutrient solutions containing Fe(3+)-chelates inhibited soybean Fe uptake-translocation by 99+%; [Fe(II) (BPDS)(3)](4-) accumulated in the nutrient solution. The addition of EDDHA caused little or no inhibition. These results were observed with topped and intact soybeans. Thus, separation and absorption of Fe from Fe(3+)-chelates appear to require reduction of Fe(3+)-chelate to Fe(2+)-chelate at the root, with Fe(2+) being the principal form of Fe absorbed by soybean.

  5. Mapping of the genomic regions controlling seed storability in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite interval mapping identified a total of three. QTLs on linkage ..... Soybean seeds decline in quality faster than seeds of other crops (Fabrizius et al. 1999). ... harvest and postharvest management practices (Lewis et al. 1998). Cho and ...

  6. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... a role in buffering mechanisms in C and N metabolism, cyto- solic pH ... been suggested that calcium-dependent GABA homeostasis regulates pollen ... has been analysed in soybean, suggesting that the salt-induced.

  7. Soybean breeding through cross breeding combined with irradiation mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiutian; Zheng Yanhai; Yang Xiufeng; Zhang Kunpu; Jia Aijun

    2005-01-01

    Using 'Heidou 2' which immune to the race 2 of Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) crossbreeded with 'Huangsha soybean' which has high yield characteristic. The authors obtained some better cultivars of soybean. Then, the authors used laser irradiation to these cultivars and selected a variety with high yield, good quality, resistance to the race 2 of SCN, called 'Dedou 99-16' which in black seed coat. In the year 2001 to 2003, the authors joined the variety comparison and regional test of Shandong province. Its yield hit 2739.0 kg/hm 2 , crude protein and crude oil content had reached the governmental standard of good quality soybean, and it had high resistance to the race 2 of SCN. It is suitable for planting in Huanghuaihai area. (authors)

  8. Genetic divergence of roundup ready (RR) soybean cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity in 74 RR soybean cultivars from different Brazilian breeding programs. ... chosen SSR markers were effective in assessing the genetic diversity among genotypes, besides proving to be ...

  9. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  10. Limited hydrolysis of soybean protein concentrate and isolate with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... world, since its proteins have high biological value while its cost is ... literatures that limited proteolysis of soybean protein pro- ducts offered a ..... hydrolysis of soluble protein present in waste liquors from soy processing.

  11. Natural occurrence of heavy metal, fungi and mycotoxins in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Heavy metals are a definite human health hazard be- cause of their .... The mean values of nutrient composition of the soybean meal samples ..... A food borne disease outbreak due to the consumption of moldy sorghum and.

  12. The chromosomal arrangement of six soybean leghemoglobin genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Kirsten; Abildsten, Dorte; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1983-01-01

    Clones containing six leghemoglobin (Lb) genes have been isolated from two genomic libraries of soybean. They encompass two independent DNA regions: a 40-kb region containing four genes in the order 5' Lba-Lbc(1)-[unk]Lb-Lbc(3) 3' with the same transcriptional polarity, and another 40-kb region...... containing two genes in the order 5' Lbc(4)-Lbc(2) 3' with the same polarity. The order in which the Lb genes are arranged in the soybean genome imply that they are activated in the opposite order to which they are arranged on the chromosome. There is a close similarity between corresponding DNA regions...... differs from that of the Lb genes. The existence of two very similar Lb gene clusters in soybean suggest that soybean may have evolved from an ancestral form by genome duplication. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  13. Soybean hulls as an iron source for bread enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Berry, M.F.; Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean hulls, a concentrated source of iron, may have potential as a source of iron fortification in baked products. Retention of 59 Fe in rats from white bread containing intrinsically labeled soybean hulls did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from extrinsically labeled white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate (70.4 and 63.1%, respectively). Physical and sensory evaluations of bread containing up to 5% soybean hulls did not differ from white bread in loaf volume, cross-sectional area, tenderness or overall acceptance. These results suggest that soybean hulls are a good source of available iron and may be added to bakery products without deleterious effects in baking performance and sensory acceptability

  14. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) plants mediated via whisker-supersonic (WSS) method. MM Khalafalla, HA El-Shemy, SM Rahman, M Teraishi, H Hasegawa, T Terakawa, M Ishimoto ...

  15. The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Soybean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to replace egg yolk in the .... with a selective staining of the whole acrosome; 2) negative sper- .... The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved.

  16. Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, ... death- and signal transduction-related proteins suggest that they have a role to play during stress. ...... work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under.

  17. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  18. Improvement of Soybean Products Through the Response Mechanism Analysis Using Proteomic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    Soybean is rich in protein/vegetable oil and contains several phytochemicals such as isoflavones and phenolic compounds. Because of the predominated nutritional values, soybean is considered as traditional health benefit food. Soybean is a widely cultivated crop; however, its growth and yield are markedly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Proteomic techniques make it feasible to map protein profiles both during soybean growth and under unfavorable conditions. The stress-responsive mechanisms during soybean growth have been uncovered with the help of proteomic studies. In this review, the history of soybean as food and the morphology/physiology of soybean are described. The utilization of proteomics during soybean germination and development is summarized. In addition, the stress-responsive mechanisms explored using proteomic techniques are reviewed in soybean. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G A; Fuertes, A B; Sevilla, M

    2015-11-16

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g(-1) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm(-3) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g(-1) in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg(-1) at a high power density of ~2 kW kg(-1).

  20. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-11-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g-1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm-3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg-1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg-1.

  1. Enzymic lactose hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J J; Brand, J C

    1980-01-01

    Acid or enzymic hydrolysis can be used to hydrolyze lactose. Advantages of both are compared and details of enzymic hydrolysis using yeast or fungal enzymes given. The new scheme outlined involves recycling lactase. Because lactose and lactase react to ultrafiltration (UF) membranes differently separation is possible. Milk or milk products are ultrafiltered to separate a concentrate from a lactose-rich permeate which is treated with lactase in a reactor until hydrolysis reaches a required level. The lactase can be removed by UF as it does not permeate the membrane, and it is recycled back to the reactor. Permeate from the second UF stage may or may not be recombined with the concentrate from the first stage to produce a low lactose product (analysis of a typical low-lactose dried whole milk is given). Batch or continuous processes are explained and a batch process without enzyme recovery is discussed. (Refs. 4).

  2. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  3. Enzyme Vs. Extremozyme -32 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enzymes are biocatalytic protein molecules that enhance the rates of ... to physical forces (hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic 1, electrostatic and Van der ... conformation. In 1995 ... surface against 14.7% in Klenow poll (some of the hydrophobic.

  4. Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Soybean Production in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugbabe, OO.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and collaborating partners have been introducing and disseminating short season soybean varieties among farm households in the Sudan savannas of Northern Nigeria since 2008. Yet, there is no empirical information on the profitability and technical efficiency of soybean production. This study estimated the profitability and efficiency of production of the early maturing soybean. Nine hundred soybean farming households in thirty communities from three Local Government Areas (LGAs in Kano State were sampled for the study. Partial budget technique and stochastic frontier production function were used to analyze the data elicited from the sampled farm households. Results from the study established the profitability of soybean production in all the three LGAs of Kano State. The highest profit of N178,613/ha and returns per naira invested of 2.5 respectively was earned by the soybean producing households of Dawakin-Tofa LGA. Net profit was N157,261in Shanono with a returns of 1.75 per naira invested. In Bunkure, net benefit was N143,342 with returns of 1.66 per Naira invested. The mean technical efficiency was highest for the Dawakin-Tofa LGA soybean growing households (87%, followed by Bunkure LGA (68%, and Shanono LGA (59%. This result implies that given the current level of resources available to the soybean producing households, they can increase their soybean output in the short run by a margin 13%, 32% and 41% in Dawakin-Tofa, Bunkure and Shanono LGAs respectively through efficient utilization of their available resources. Farmer-specific efficiency factors, which comprise age, education, access to credit, extension contact and farming experience, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the farmers in the 3 LGAs. It was recommended that the soybean farmers through the assistance of extension agents should be encouraged to adhere

  5. Analysis of the genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla: a fungal pathogen causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxian; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Musungu, Bryan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2017-09-05

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is a seed-borne fungus causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. This disease is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean seed quality worldwide. To facilitate investigation of the genomic basis of pathogenicity and to understand the mechanism of the disease development, the genome of an isolate, MSPL10-6, from Mississippi, USA was sequenced, de novo assembled, and analyzed. The genome of MSPL 10-6 was estimated to be approximately 62 Mb in size with an overall G + C content of 48.6%. Of 16,597 predicted genes, 9866 genes (59.45%) had significant matches to genes in the NCBI nr database, while 18.01% of them did not link to any gene ontology classification, and 9.64% of genes did not significantly match any known genes. Analysis of the 1221 putative genes that encoded carbohydrate-activated enzymes (CAZys) indicated that 715 genes belong to three classes of CAZy that have a direct role in degrading plant cell walls. A novel fungal ulvan lyase (PL24; EC 4.2.2.-) was identified. Approximately 12.7% of the P. longicolla genome consists of repetitive elements. A total of 510 potentially horizontally transferred genes were identified. They appeared to originate from 22 other fungi, 26 eubacteria and 5 archaebacteria. The genome of the P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 represented the first reported genome sequence in the fungal Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex causing soybean diseases. The genome contained a number of Pfams not described previously. Information obtained from this study enhances our knowledge about this seed-borne pathogen and will facilitate further research on the genomic basis and pathogenicity mechanism of P. longicolla and aids in development of improved strategies for efficient management of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

  6. Production of Hypoallergenic Antibacterial Peptides from Defatted Soybean Meal in Membrane Bioreactor: A Bioprocess Engineering Study with Comprehensive Product Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arij it Nath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoallergenic antibacterial low-molecular-mass peptides were produced from defatted soybean meal in a membrane bioreactor. In the fi rst step, soybean meal proteins were digested with trypsin in the bioreactor, operated in batch mode. For the tryptic digestion of soybean meal protein, optimum initial soybean meal concentration of 75 g/L, temperature of 40 °C and pH=9.0 were determined. Aft er enzymatic digestion, low-molecular-mass peptides were purifi ed with cross-fl ow fl at sheet membrane (pore size 100 μm and then with tubular ceramic ultrafi ltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 5 kDa. Eff ects of transmembrane pressure and the use of a static turbulence promoter to reduce the concentration polarization near the ultrafi ltration membrane surface were examined and their positive eff ects were proven. For the fi ltration with ultrafi ltration membrane, transmembrane pressure of 3•105 Pa with 3-stage discontinuous diafi ltration was found optimal. The molecular mass distribution of purifi ed peptides using ultrafi ltration membrane was determined by a liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-fl ight mass spectrometry setup. More than 96 % of the peptides (calculated as relative frequency from the ultrafi ltration membrane permeate had the molecular mass M≤1.7 kDa and the highest molecular mass was found to be 3.1 kDa. The decrease of allergenic property due to the tryptic digestion and membrane fi ltration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and it was found to exceed 99.9 %. It was also found that the peptides purifi ed in the ultrafi ltration membrane promoted the growth of Pediococcus acidilactici HA6111-2 and they possessed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus.

  7. Influence of soybean and corn gluten proteins as substitutes for milk protein in milk replacers on growth, liver and thyroid functions in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, A.E.; EL-Ashry, M.A.; Ibrahim, I.I.; Fekry, A.E.; Elwan, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty suckling buffalo calves (3 weeks old) were allotted to four nutritional groups: Control group, fed 100% skim milk based replacer (Group a); and in the other three groups 50% of milk protein was substituted by american soybean flour (Group B) Egyptian soybean meal (Group C) and corn gluten (Group D). Fat was added to all replacers at the rate of 20% on dry basis. Calf starter and hay were offered ad libitum with the liquid diets from the fourth week. Body weight was recorded weekly. Serum proteins, cholesterol, T 4, T 3, and the enzymic activities of GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase were determined at 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age. The use of american soybean and corn gluten proteins resulted, approximately, in the same body weight gain as in skim milk fed group (A), indicating that whole milk can be reserved from human consumption and the calves can be reared on milk replacers containing plant proteins. Substitution of milk protein with soybean and corn gluten protein resulted in a significant increase in each of serum globulins, A/G ratio and cholesterol, significant decrease in serum total proteins and GPT activity, and no change in growth rate and thyroid function

  8. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  9. Effect of enzymatic (thermostable α-amylase) treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded rice incorporated with soybean flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Wu, Zhengzong; Pan, Xiaowei; Long, Jie; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-04-15

    In order to determine the effect of enzymatic extrusion on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice/soybean mixture, different mass ratios (100/0, 95/5, 85/15, 70/30, 50/50 and 25/75%, w/w) were treated with thermostable α-amylase. The reduced special mechanical energy and the enhanced product temperature were closely and regularly linked with the increase of soybean content. The bulk density and water solubility index increased, and the water absorption index and viscosities decreased remarkably after enzymatic extrusion, however, the modification caused by α-amylase were dramatically eliminated with the increase of soybean content to ∼50%. Moreover, the addition of enzyme exhibited an improvement of the total phenolic/flavonoid content (TPC/TFC) and antioxidant capacities compared to traditional extrusion. The TPC/TFC retention of extrudate (ratios of 85/15 and 70/30%) attained over 90%, but dramatically decreased (72.91 and 67.81%, respectively) with soybean added to 75%, probably due to the great reduction of starch substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, W D; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, O

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a simple, quick and reliable method for determining the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) activity in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) roots using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The method includes a single extraction of the tissue and conduction of the enzymatic reaction at 30 degrees C with cinnamaldehydes (coniferyl or sinapyl), substrates of CAD. Disappearance of the substrates in the reaction mixture is monitored at 340 nm (for coniferaldehyde) or 345 nm (for sinapaldehyde) by isocratic elution with methanol/acetic acid through a GLC-ODS (M) column. This HPLC technique furnishes a rapid and reliable measure of cinnamaldehyde substrates, and may be used as an alternative tool to analyze CAD activity in enzyme preparation without previous purification.

  11. Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

    2014-06-17

    Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

  12. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.

  13. Replenishment of Cultivated Soybean Varietes Market (Glycine hispida Maxim, Moench..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Безручко

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There provided ways of using valuable protein crop, soybean, as well as its production worldwide growth rates during recent years, possibility and necessity of attaching to the crop a strategic importance in our State and the tasks and outlooks of soybeanrecourses generation. A complete description of new soybean varieties listed in the Register of Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine has also been provided.

  14. Induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max L.) breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.

    1984-01-01

    The induced mutation in soybean (Glycine max, L.) breeding is studied. Seed treatment with gamma-rays or methanesulfonic acid ethyl ester (EMs) is used in the following varieties: Parana, Santa Rosa, UFV-1, Foscarin 31 and IAC-8. The study to obtain resistance to the soybean bud blight virus and mutants resistant to rust was done. Early mutants are also researched. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Effect Of Soil Acidity On Some Soybean Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hanafiah, Diana Sofia; Lubis, Alida; Asmarlaili

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the mechanism of adaptation and morphophysiology character of soybean genotypes to soil acidity levels. Research using randomized block design with four replications, the first factor consists of soybean varieties: Tanggamus varieties, Detam 2, Anjasmoro and Detam 1, while the second factor is the media's treatment consisted of medium acid soils and limed soil. The results showed that the low level acidity of planting medium will affect the growth and ...

  16. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  17. Genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation in maize and soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatou, Osamu; Amano, Etsuo; Takahashi, Tan.

    1992-01-01

    Somatic mutation on leaves of maize and soybean were observed to investigate genetic effects of heavy ion irradiation. Maize seeds were irradiated with N, Fe and U ions and soybean seeds were irradiated with N ions. This is a preliminary report of the experiment, 1) to examine the mutagenic effects of the heavy ion irradiation, and 2) to evaluate the genetic effects of cosmic ray exposure in a space ship outside the earth. (author)

  18. Irradiation effects on the variability of yield characteristics of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, K.; Egri, K.; Toeroek, Z.; Bornemiszane, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The seeds of soybean varieties 'Merit' and 'S-1346' were irradiated by fast neutrons with doses between 4 and 174 Gy. The doses in the range of 57-174 Gy proved to be lethal. After low dose irradiation, shorter breeding time and the stimulation of plant growth could be observed. The effects of irradiation on the oil and protein contents of soybeans were contradictory. (V.N.)

  19. Immediate catalytic upgrading of soybean shell bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, Melisa; Sedran, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of soybean shell and the immediate catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over an equilibrium FCC catalyst was studied in order to define its potential as a source for fuels and chemicals. The experiments of pyrolysis and immediate catalytic upgrading were performed at 550 °C during 7 min with different catalysts to oil relationships in an integrated fixed bed pyrolysis-conversion reactor. The results were compared under the same conditions against those from pine sawdust, which is a biomass source commonly used for the production of bio-oil. In the pyrolysis the pine sawdust produced more liquids (61.4%wt.) than the soybean shell (54.7%wt.). When the catalyst was presented, the yield of hydrocarbons increased, particularly in the case of soybean shell, which was four time higher than in the pyrolysis. The bio-oil from soybean shell produced less coke (between 3.1 and 4.3%wt.) in its immediate catalytic upgrading than that from pine sawdust (between 5 and 5.8%wt.), due to its lower content of phenolic and other high molecular weight compounds (three and five times less, respectively). Moreover, soybean shell showed a higher selectivity to hydrocarbons in the gasoline range, with more olefins and less aromatic than pine sawdust. - Highlights: • Soybean shell is a possible source of fuels with benefits as compared to pine sawdust. • Bio-oils upgraded over FCC catalyst in an integrated pyrolysis-conversion reactor. • Pine sawdust bio-oil had more phenols than soybean shell bio-oil. • Soybean shell bio-oil produced more hydrocarbons in gasoline range and less coke.

  20. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  1. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  2. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renake N; Ligterink, Wilco; França-Neto, José de B; Hilhorst, Henk W M; da Silva, Edvaldo A A

    2016-02-01

    Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in mature seeds and is associated with lower oil and seed quality, thus negatively impacting the production of soybean seeds. Here we show that heat and drought stress result in a "mild" stay-green phenotype and impaired expression of the STAY-GREEN 1 and STAY-GREEN 2 (D1, D2), PHEOPHORBIDASE 2 (PPH2) and NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1_1) genes in soybean seeds of a susceptible soybean cultivar. We suggest that the higher expression of these genes in fully mature seeds of a tolerant cultivar allows these seeds to cope with stressful conditions and complete chlorophyll degradation. The gene expression results obtained in this study represent a significant advance in understanding chlorophyll retention in mature soybean seeds produced under stressful conditions. This will open new research possibilities towards finding molecular markers for breeding programs to produce cultivars which are less susceptible to chlorophyll retention under the hot and dry climate conditions which are increasingly common in the largest soybean production areas of the world.

  3. Resistance of Advanced Soybean Lines to Pod Borrer (Etiella zinckenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Kuswantoro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing and stabilizing of soybean product in Indonesia face many limitations. One of the limiting factors is pod borrer (Etiella zinckenella Treitschke infestation that is able to cause yield loss up to 80%. Objective of the research was to find out some advanced soybean lines that resistant to pod borrer. Design was randomized complete block with three replications. Soybean lines were grown gradualy to ensure the simultanously flowering. The plants were caged at 35 days after planting (DAT and infested with the imago of E. zinckenella at 56 DAT. Results showed that different soybean lines affected imago population, eggs population, larvae population, infected pods and infected seeds. Some genotypes were consistantly resistant to E. zinckenella. The resistance of those genotypes were non preference resistance based on eggs population, larvae population, infected pod and infected seeds. This study discovered nine soybean lines that is resistant to E. zinckenella, so that it can be beneficial for improving soybean resistance to this pest through releasing as a new resistant pod borer variety after tested further in potential yield and genetic x environment interaction trials. In addition, there were three varieties and two germplasm accessions that can be used as gene sources for improving the resistance of the varieties. The three varieties are able to be cultivated directly in field to decrease the E. zinckenella occurrence. 

  4. Drought stress responses in soybean roots and nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kunert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  5. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  6. A new soybean variety ''Ichihime''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajika, M.; Takahashi, M.; Igita, K.; Sakai, S.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Ichihime, a new soybean variety registered as ''Soybean Norin 103'', was developed at Kyushu National Agricultural Experiment Station in 1995. It was selected from the progeny induced by a cross between Kankei 2 and Kankei 1 using gamma-ray irradiation. ''Ichihime'' is a medium-early maturing variety with determinate growth. It has broad leaflets, and purple flowers. The color of its pubescence is light tawny and its pods are dark brown. The main stem length, number of main stem nodes, and seed size are medium. It has strong resistance to the soybean mosaic virus (SMV), medium resistance to the soybean cyst nematode, and medium resistance to purple seed stain. The yield of Ichihime is slightly lower than Suzuyutaka, but classified as medium. The protein components of its seeds are medium and the firmness of the tofu (soybean curd) is the same as that of Suzuyutaka. Ichihime lacks all seed lipoxygenase isozymes and is recommended for new type of soybean food processing materials. Ichihime is suitable for growth in the southern part of the Tohoku area and the northern part of the Kanto area

  7. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  8. Genome-wide identification of soybean microRNA responsive to soybean cyst nematodes infection by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bin; Wang, Shichen; Todd, Timothy C; Johnson, Charles D; Tang, Guiliang; Trick, Harold N

    2017-08-02

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is one of the most devastating diseases limiting soybean production worldwide. It is known that small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), play important roles in regulating plant growth and development, defense against pathogens, and responses to environmental changes. In order to understand the role of soybean miRNAs during SCN infection, we analyzed 24 small RNA libraries including three biological replicates from two soybean cultivars (SCN susceptible KS4607, and SCN HG Type 7 resistant KS4313N) that were grown under SCN-infested and -noninfested soil at two different time points (SCN feeding establishment and egg production). In total, 537 known and 70 putative novel miRNAs in soybean were identified from a total of 0.3 billion reads (average about 13.5 million reads for each sample) with the programs of Bowtie and miRDeep2 mapper. Differential expression analyses were carried out using edgeR to identify miRNAs involved in the soybean-SCN interaction. Comparative analysis of miRNA profiling indicated a total of 60 miRNAs belonging to 25 families that might be specifically related to cultivar responses to SCN. Quantitative RT-PCR validated similar miRNA interaction patterns as sequencing results. These findings suggest that miRNAs are likely to play key roles in soybean response to SCN. The present work could provide a framework for miRNA functional identification and the development of novel approaches for improving soybean SCN resistance in future studies.

  9. Effect of dietary soybean oil and soybean protein concentration on the concentration of digestible amino acids in soybean products fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Pahm, S K; Stein, H H

    2008-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effect of adding soybean oil to soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of CP and AA by growing pigs. A second objective was to compare AID and SID of AA in a new high-protein variety of full fat soybeans (FFSB) to values obtained in other soybean products. Commercial sources of FFSB (FFSB-CV), SBM, and SPC, and of a new high-protein variety of FFSB (FFSB-HP) were used in the experiment. Four diets were prepared using each soybean product as the sole source of CP and AA in 1 diet. Two additional diets were formulated by adding soybean oil (7.55 and 7.35%, respectively) to the diets containing SBM and SPC. A nitrogen-free diet was also used to measure basal endogenous losses of CP and AA. The 2 sources of FFSB were extruded at 150 degrees C before being used in the experiment. Seven growing barrows (initial BW = 26.2 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 7 x 7 Latin square design. Ileal digesta were collected from the pigs on d 6 and 7 of each period. All digesta samples were lyophilized and analyzed for DM, CP, AA, and chromium, and values for AID and SID of CP and AA were calculated. The addition of oil improved (P oil and SPC, but these values were lower (P oil. In conclusion, the addition of oil improved the SID of most AA in SBM and SPC fed to growing pigs, and the SID of AA in FFSB-HP were greater than in SBM and similar to the SID of AA in SBM with oil and in SPC.

  10. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  11. A comparative study on the activity of fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases for the depolymerization of cellulose in soybean spent flakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierce, Brian; Wittrup Agger, Jane; Zhang, Zhenghong

    2017-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are copper-dependent enzymes capable of the oxidative breakdown of polysaccharides. They are of industrial interest due to their ability to enhance the enzymatic depolymerization of recalcitrant substrates by glycoside hydrolases. In this paper, twenty......-four lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) expressed in Trichoderma reesei were evaluated for their ability to oxidize the complex polysaccharides in soybean spent flakes, an abundant and industrially relevant substrate. TrCel61A, a soy-polysaccharide-active AA9 LPMO from T. reesei, was used...... as a benchmark in this evaluation. In total, seven LPMOs demonstrated activity on pretreated soy spent flakes, with the products from enzymatic treatments evaluated using mass spectrometry and high performance anion exchange chromatography. The hydrolytic boosting effect of the top-performing enzymes...

  12. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  13. Effects of lanthanum(III) on nitrogen metabolism of soybean seedlings under elevated UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui; Huang, Xiao-hua; Zhou, Qing; Cheng, Xiao-ying

    2007-01-01

    The hydroponic culture experiments of soybean bean seedlings were conducted to investigate the effect of lanthanum (La) on nitrogen metabolism under two different levels of elevated UV-B radiation (UV-B, 280-320 nm). The whole process of nitrogen metabolism involves uptake and transport of nitrate, nitrate assimilation, ammonium assimilation, amino acid biosynthesis, and protein synthesis. Compared with the control, UV-B radiation with the intensity of low level 0.15 W/m2 and high level 0.45 W/m2 significantly affected the whole nitrogen metabolism in soybean seedlings (p nitrogen-metabolism-related enzymes, such as: nitrate reductase (NR) to the nitrate reduction, glutamine systhetase (GS) and glutamine synthase (GOGAT) to the ammonia assimilation, while it increased the content of free amino acids and decreased that of soluble protein as well. The damage effect of high level of UV-B radiation on nitrogen metabolism was greater than that of low level. And UV-B radiation promoted the activity of the anti-adversity enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), which reduced the toxicity of excess ammonia in plant. After pretreatment with the optimum concentration of La (20 mg/L), La could increase the activity of NR, GS, GOGAT, and GDH, and ammonia assimilation, but decrease nitrate and ammonia accumulation. In conclusion, La could relieve the damage effect of UV-B radiation on plant by regulating nitrogen metabolism process, and its alleviating effect under low level was better than that under the high one.

  14. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  15. Polymorphism of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Gene in Soybean Cultivars from Northeastern China and Japan%中国东北大豆与日本大豆品种PEPCase基因的多态性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振宇; 马晓萍; 山中直树

    2005-01-01

    @@ Soybeans in Northeast of China are one of the most important genetic resources in the world.In order to use them effectively in soybean breeding, it is necessary to evaluate the main characteristics,especially the quality characteristics such as seed protein content.It is reported that the PEPCase activity in soybean seeds is positively correlated with the seed protein content and negatively correlated with the lipid content[1].PEPCase is also present in seeds of different species[2~4],and may play an important role in auino acid biosynthesis.PEPCase was detected in the protein bodies of developing wheat grains,possibly contributing to storage-protein biosynthesis[5]. A strong correlation between PEPCase activity and protein concentration in seeds of 13 soybean cultivars[1]indicates a possible rate-limiting role of the enzyme in seed storage-protein accumulation.In soybean,PEPCase is encoded by a small family of at least four highly homologous genes[6]and PEPCase catalyzes the carboxylation of phosphonenopyruvate to oxalacetic acid,which increases the number of carbon skeletons of amino acids.

  16. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 2: Soybean Fibres Properties and Application Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz Yıldırım

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein fibres (SPF, which is a protein based botanic fibre, has various beneficialproperties such as softness, brightness, smoothness, drape, UV and bacterial resistance. These fibers areused in production of various yarn blends, woven, knit and nonwoven fabrics to manufature apperal andhome textiles such as t-shirts, bedding, sweater and baby dress due to these superior properties. This review,about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and itsenviromental effects had been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areasof SPF have been described.

  17. Soybean adaptation in Chernobyl area (what happen to soybean if something happen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with transfer of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by the soybeans into the seeds and analysis of production of proteins on the contaminated sites of Chernobyl and Fukushima areas. The results indicate that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  18. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  19. SoyDB: a knowledge database of soybean transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valliyodan Babu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors play the crucial rule of regulating gene expression and influence almost all biological processes. Systematically identifying and annotating transcription factors can greatly aid further understanding their functions and mechanisms. In this article, we present SoyDB, a user friendly database containing comprehensive knowledge of soybean transcription factors. Description The soybean genome was recently sequenced by the Department of Energy-Joint Genome Institute (DOE-JGI and is publicly available. Mining of this sequence identified 5,671 soybean genes as putative transcription factors. These genes were comprehensively annotated as an aid to the soybean research community. We developed SoyDB - a knowledge database for all the transcription factors in the soybean genome. The database contains protein sequences, predicted tertiary structures, putative DNA binding sites, domains, homologous templates in the Protein Data Bank (PDB, protein family classifications, multiple sequence alignments, consensus protein sequence motifs, web logo of each family, and web links to the soybean transcription factor database PlantTFDB, known EST sequences, and other general protein databases including Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology, KEGG, EMBL, TAIR, InterPro, SMART, PROSITE, NCBI, and Pfam. The database can be accessed via an interactive and convenient web server, which supports full-text search, PSI-BLAST sequence search, database browsing by protein family, and automatic classification of a new protein sequence into one of 64 annotated transcription factor families by hidden Markov models. Conclusions A comprehensive soybean transcription factor database was constructed and made publicly accessible at http://casp.rnet.missouri.edu/soydb/.

  20. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goruroglu Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases play an important role in many biological processes such as embriogenesis, tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in some pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis, arthritis and cancer. Currently, 24 genes have been identified in humans that encode different groups of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes. This review discuss the members of the matrix metalloproteinase family and their substrate specificity, structure, function and the regulation of their enzyme activity by tissue inhibitors. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 209-220

  2. Study of physical and tribology properties of soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil-based grease formulated with polysoaps, which was synthesized from polymeric epoxdized soybean oil, was investigated. Greases were prepared using a mixture of lithium soap and triethanolammonium polysoap. Grease properties investigated were: hardness, using cone penetration procedure (AS...

  3. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  4. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between the Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line NJCMS1A and Its Maintainer NJCMS1B in Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Li

    Full Text Available The utilization of soybean heterosis is probably one of the potential approaches in future yield breakthrough as was the situation in rice breeding in China. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS plays an important role in the production of hybrid seeds. However, the molecular mechanism of CMS in soybean remains unclear.The comparative transcriptome analysis between cytoplasmic male sterile line NJCMS1A and its near-isogenic maintainer NJCMS1B in soybean was conducted using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 88,643 transcripts were produced in Illumina sequencing. Then 56,044 genes were obtained matching soybean reference genome. Three hundred and sixty five differentially expressed genes (DEGs between NJCMS1A and NJCMS1B were screened by threshold, among which, 339 down-regulated and 26 up-regulated in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B. Gene Ontology (GO annotation showed that 242 DEGs were annotated to 19 functional categories. Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG annotation showed that 265 DEGs were classified into 19 categories. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that 46 DEGs were assigned to 33 metabolic pathways. According to functional and metabolic pathway analysis combined with reported literatures, the relations between some key DEGs and the male sterility of NJCMS1A were discussed. qRT-PCR analysis validated that the gene expression pattern in RNA-Seq was reliable. Finally, enzyme activity assay showed that energy supply was decreased in NJCMS1A compared to in NJCMS1B.We concluded that the male sterility of NJCMS1A might be related to the disturbed functions and metabolism pathways of some key DEGs, such as DEGs involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription factors, regulation of pollen development, elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS, cellular signal transduction, and programmed cell death (PCD etc. Future research will focus on cloning and transgenic function validation of

  6. The surface science of enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Thomas Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2002-01-01

    One of the largest challenges to science in the coming years is to find the relation between enzyme structure and function. Can we predict which reactions an enzyme catalyzes from knowledge of its structure-or from its amino acid sequence? Can we use that knowledge to modify enzyme function......? To solve these problems we must understand in some detail how enzymes interact with reactants from its surroundings. These interactions take place at the surface of the enzyme and the question of enzyme function can be viewed as the surface science of enzymes. In this article we discuss how to describe...... catalysis by enzymes, and in particular the analogies between enzyme catalyzed reactions and surface catalyzed reactions. We do this by discussing two concrete examples of reactions catalyzed both in nature (by enzymes) and in industrial reactors (by inorganic materials), and show that although analogies...

  7. a-galactosidase: general aspects and its application on soybean oligosaccharides/ a-galactosidase: aspectos gerais e sua aplicação em produtos a base de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Luiz Ribeiro

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available This literature review has the aim to present topics related to a-galactosidase, considering its general characteristics, sources, functions and methods used in its determination. This enzyme, lacking in the human digestive tract, hydrolises µ-(1,6 bonds from oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. These carbohydrates, called flatulents, are found in leguminoses like soybean, a rich source of protein. However, due to the presence of these flatulents sugars, antinutritional factors are attributed to soyben, decreasing its consumption. a-galactosidase produced by some microorganisms and vegetables can be used in soybean based foods to reduce the interaction of the intestinal flora with the oligosaccharides, decreasing in this way the flatulence.This literature review has the aim to present topics related to a-galactosidase, considering its general characteristics, sources, functions and methods used in its determination. This enzyme, lacking in the human digestive tract, hydrolises µ-(1,6 bonds from oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. These carbohydrates, called flatulents, are found in leguminoses like soybean, a rich source of protein. However, due to the presence of these flatulents sugars, antinutritional factors are attributed to soyben, decreasing its consumption. a-galactosidase produced by some microorganisms and vegetables can be used in soybean based foods to reduce the interaction of the intestinal flora with the oligosaccharides, decreasing in this way the flatulence.

  8. Nitrogen assimilation in soybean nodules, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuji; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the pathways to assimilate the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation in soybean nodules, 15 N-labeled compounds were administered to intact nodules or nodule slices pretreated with various inhibitors of nitrogen assimilation. After exposure to 15 N 2 , 15 N-incorporation into various nitrogenous compounds was investigated in attached nodules injected with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or azaserine (AS). MSX treatment increased the 15 N content of ammonia more than 6 times, however, depressed 15 N content of most of amides and amino acids. AS treatment enhanced 15 N content of amido-N of glutamine as well as ammonia, but decreased amino-N of glutamine and most of amino acids. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with MSX or AS solution and then fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia or amido- 15 N of glutamine showed the same trends. Aminooxyacetate inhibited nitrogen flow from glutamic acid to other amino acids. These results strongly indicate that the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation is assimilated by GS/GOGAT system to glutamic acid and then transaminated to various amino acids in situ. 15 N-incorporation patterns in nodule slices fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia, hydroxylamine, nitrite were similar, but nitrate seemed to be reduced in a definite compartment and assimilated similarly as in intact nodules fed with 15 N 2 (author)

  9. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  10. Effect of solar radiation on severity of soybean rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Heather M; George, Sheeja; Narváez, Dario F; Srivastava, Pratibha; Schuerger, Andrew C; Wright, David L; Marois, James J

    2012-08-01

    Soybean rust (SBR), caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is a damaging fungal disease of soybean (Glycine max). Although solar radiation can reduce SBR urediniospore survival, limited information is available on how solar radiation affects SBR progress within soybean canopies. Such information can aid in developing accurate SBR prediction models. To manipulate light penetration into soybean canopies, structures of shade cloth attenuating 30, 40, and 60% sunlight were constructed over soybean plots. In each plot, weekly evaluations of severity in lower, middle, and upper canopies, and daily temperature and relative humidity were recorded. Final plant height and leaf area index were also recorded for each plot. The correlation between amount of epicuticular wax and susceptibility of leaves in the lower, middle, and upper canopies was assessed with a detached leaf assay. Final disease severity was 46 to 150% greater in the lower canopy of all plots and in the middle canopy of 40 and 60% shaded plots. While daytime temperature within the canopy of nonshaded soybean was greater than shaded soybean by 2 to 3°C, temperatures recorded throughout typical evenings and mornings of the growing season in all treatments were within the range (10 to 28.5°C) for SBR development as was relative humidity. This indicates temperature and relative humidity were not limiting factors in this experiment. Epicuticular wax and disease severity in detached leaf assays from the upper canopy had significant negative correlation (P = 0.009, R = -0.84) regardless of shade treatment. In laboratory experiments, increasing simulated total solar radiation (UVA, UVB, and PAR) from 0.15 to 11.66 MJ m(-2) increased mortality of urediniospores from 2 to 91%. Variability in disease development across canopy heights in early planted soybean may be attributed to the effects of solar radiation not only on urediniospore viability, but also on plant height, leaf area index, and epicuticular wax, which influence

  11. In Vitro assessment of the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwakeel Eman A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available about the nutritive value of expanded soybean meal, which is produced by expansion of soybeans prior to solvent extraction of the oil. During processing, expanded soybean meal is subjected to additional heat, which might increase the concentration of ruminally undegraded protein. Processing of soybeans with heat during oil extraction could affect lysine availability by increasing ruminally undegraded protein or by impairing intestinal digestion. Our objective was to compare solvent and expanded soybeans with regard to chemical composition and nutritive value for dairy cattle. Samples of expanded soybean meal (n = 14 and solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 5 were obtained from People's Republic of China to study effects of the expansion process on nutritive value for dairy cattle. Solvent-extracted soybean meal (n = 2 and mechanically extracted (heated soybean meal (n = 2 from the United States served as references for comparison. Samples were analyzed for crude fat, long-chain fatty acids, crude protein, amino acids, chemically available lysine, in situ ruminal protein degradation, and in vitro intestinal digestibility. No differences were found between solvent-extracted soybean meals from China and expanded soybean meals from China for crude fat, crude protein, amino acids, or chemically available lysine. In situ disappearance of nitrogen, ruminally undegraded protein content, and in vitro intestinal digestion of the ruminally undegraded protein were generally similar between solvent-extracted soybean meals made in China and expanded soybean meals made in China; variation among soybean meals was small. Results indicate that the additional heat from the expansion process was not great enough to affect the nutritive value of soybean meal protein for ruminants. Although expansion may improve the oil extraction process, the impact on the resulting soybean meal is minimal and does not require consideration

  12. Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinloch, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

  13. Ecotoxicological assessment of Roundup-ready soybean agriculture investigated in a D. magna model

    OpenAIRE

    Cuhra, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Paper III of this thesis is not available i Munin: III: M. Cuhra, T. Traavik & T. Bøhn. 2014. 'Life cycle fitness differences in Daphnia magna fed Roundup-Ready soybean or conventional soybean or organic soybean', available in Aquaculture Nutrition Transgenic glyphosate tolerant soybeans are constituents of an industrial production system with specific agricultural practices and supplementary agrochemicals as interwoven additional elements. Thus the material produced should not be see...

  14. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospišková, K.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 380, APR 2015 (2015), s. 197-200 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13021 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : enzyme powders * cross-linking * magnetic modification * magnetic separation * magnetic iron oxides particles * microwave-assisted synthesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.357, year: 2015

  15. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L.N.; Dalboge, H.; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet

  16. Implantable enzyme amperometric biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanen, Christian N; Moussy, Francis Gabriel; Carrara, Sandro; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2012-05-15

    The implantable enzyme amperometric biosensor continues as the dominant in vivo format for the detection, monitoring and reporting of biochemical analytes related to a wide range of pathologies. Widely used in animal studies, there is increasing emphasis on their use in diabetes care and management, the management of trauma-associated hemorrhage and in critical care monitoring by intensivists in the ICU. These frontier opportunities demand continuous indwelling performance for up to several years, well in excess of the currently approved seven days. This review outlines the many challenges to successful deployment of chronically implantable amperometric enzyme biosensors and emphasizes the emerging technological approaches in their continued development. The foreign body response plays a prominent role in implantable biotransducer failure. Topics considering the approaches to mitigate the inflammatory response, use of biomimetic chemistries, nanostructured topographies, drug eluting constructs, and tissue-to-device interface modulus matching are reviewed. Similarly, factors that influence biotransducer performance such as enzyme stability, substrate interference, mediator selection and calibration are reviewed. For the biosensor system, the opportunities and challenges of integration, guided by footprint requirements, the limitations of mixed signal electronics, and power requirements, has produced three systems approaches. The potential is great. However, integration along the multiple length scales needed to address fundamental issues and integration across the diverse disciplines needed to achieve success of these highly integrated systems, continues to be a challenge in the development and deployment of implantable amperometric enzyme biosensor systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in enzyme bioelectrochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRESSA R. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bioelectrochemistry can be defined as a branch of Chemical Science concerned with electron-proton transfer and transport involving biomolecules, as well as electrode reactions of redox enzymes. The bioelectrochemical reactions and system have direct impact in biotechnological development, in medical devices designing, in the behavior of DNA-protein complexes, in green-energy and bioenergy concepts, and make it possible an understanding of metabolism of all living organisms (e.g. humans where biomolecules are integral to health and proper functioning. In the last years, many researchers have dedicated itself to study different redox enzymes by using electrochemistry, aiming to understand their mechanisms and to develop promising bioanodes and biocathodes for biofuel cells as well as to develop biosensors and implantable bioelectronics devices. Inside this scope, this review try to introduce and contemplate some relevant topics for enzyme bioelectrochemistry, such as the immobilization of the enzymes at electrode surfaces, the electron transfer, the bioelectrocatalysis, and new techniques conjugated with electrochemistry vising understand the kinetics and thermodynamics of redox proteins. Furthermore, examples of recent approaches in designing biosensors and biofuel developed are presented.

  18. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  19. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  20. Photoperiodism and Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Orlando; Morel, Claudine

    1974-01-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system. PMID:16658749

  1. ISFET based enzyme sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoot, Bart H.; Bergveld, Piet

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the results that have been reported on ISFET based enzyme sensors. The most important improvement that results from the application of ISFETs instead of glass membrane electrodes is in the method of fabrication. Problems with regard to the pH dependence of the response and the

  2. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  3. The soybean and mungbean improvement programs at AVRDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugasundaram, S.; Ahn, G.S.

    1983-01-01

    At the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. and mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek are included in the Legume Program for improvement. Germplasm collection in soybean and mungbean are 9,524 and 5,108 respectively. Developing improved selections with early, uniform maturity, high yield, wide adaptability and resistance to diseases and insects are the major breeding objectives for the tropics and subtropics. Genetic diversity and genetic resources are available in the germplasm for most of the desired traits both in soybean as well as mungbean. However, for traits such as soybean rust resistance in soybean and resistance to insects in mungbean are rare. Limited amount of radiation breeding is being employed in cooperation with Korean Atomic Energy Agency to obtain desirable genes in both species. A number of AVRDC identified accessions and breeding lines are being used by the national programs to develop improved cultivars. AVRDC developed breeding selections have been released as new cultivars in Costa Rica, Fiji, Korea, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Taiwan. (author)

  4. Genetic similarity of soybean genotypes revealed by seed protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More accurate and complete descriptions of genotypes could help determinate future breeding strategies and facilitate introgression of new genotypes in current soybean genetic pool. The objective of this study was to characterize 20 soybean genotypes from the Maize Research Institute "Zemun Polje" collection, which have good agronomic performances, high yield, lodging and drought resistance, and low shuttering by seed proteins as biochemical markers. Seed proteins were isolated and separated by PAA electrophoresis. On the basis of the presence/absence of protein fractions coefficients of similarity were calculated as Dice and Roger and Tanamoto coefficient between pairs of genotypes. The similarity matrix was submitted for hierarchical cluster analysis of un weighted pair group using arithmetic average (UPGMA method and necessary computation were performed using NTSYS-pc program. Protein seed analysis confirmed low level of genetic diversity in soybean. The highest genetic similarity was between genotypes P9272 and Kador. According to obtained results, soybean genotypes were assigned in two larger groups and coefficients of similarity showed similar results. Because of the lack of pedigree data for analyzed genotypes, correspondence with marker data could not be determined. In plant with a narrow genetic base in their gene pool, such as soybean, protein markers may not be sufficient for characterization and study of genetic diversity.

  5. Optimization of prebiotics in soybean milk using mixture experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongkarn Kijroongrojana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A mixture experiment was used to optimize prebiotic mixtures in soybean milk formulation. Inulin (I, galactooligosaccharides(GOS, and isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO were the prebiotic ingredients added (4% w/v to soybean milk. Thirteen formulations of soybean milk were compared using the general descriptive analysis and the growth of probiotics(Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456, Lactobacillus plantarum TISTR 875, and Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 1034. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 in all sensory attributes (color, thickness, beany flavor, sweetness, viscosity, sweetness aftertaste among the samples. Various mixtures of the prebiotics had only a slight effect on the soybean milk color and viscosity (p0.05. The soybean milk supplemented with the optimized prebiotic mixture had higher (p<0.05carbohydrates, total soluble solid, total solid content, and viscosity than the control (without prebiotic. However, it had a lower L* value (lightness and a higher a* value (redness than the control (p<0.05.

  6. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID

  7. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2011-11-22

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.

  8. Inheritance and Gene Mapping of Resistance to Soybean Mosaic Virus Strain SC14 in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Chao Li; Hai-Jian Zhi; Jun-Yi Gai; Dong-Quan Guo; Yan-Wei Wang; Kai Li; Li Bai; Hua Yang

    2006-01-01

    Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) is one of the most broadly distributed diseases worldwide. It causes severe yield loss and seed quality deficiency in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). SMV Strain SC14 isolated from Shanxi Province, China, was a newly identified virulent strain and can infect Kefeng No. 1, a source with wide spectrum resistance. In the present study, soybean accessions, PI96983, Qihuang No. 1 and Qihuang No. 22 were identified to be resistant (R) and Nannong 1138-2, Pixianchadou susceptible (S) to SC14. Segregation analysis of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 indicated that a single dominant gene (designated as Rsc14) controlled the resistance to SC14 at both V2 and R1 developmental stages. The same results were obtained for the crosses of Qihuang No. 1 × Nannong 1138-2 and Qihuang No. 22 × Nannong 1138-2 as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 at V2 stage, but at R1 stage,the F1 performed as necrosis (a susceptible symptom other than mosaic), F2 segregated in a ratio of 1R:2N:1S,and the progenies of necrotic (N) F2 individuals segregated also in R, N and S. It indicated that a single gene (designated as Rsc14o, to be different from that of PI96983) controlled the resistance to SC14, its dominance was the same as in PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2 (without symptoms) at V2 stage and not the same at R1 stage. The tightly linked co-dominant simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker Satt334 indicated that all the heterozygous bands were completely corresponding to the necrotic F2 individuals, or all the necrotic F2 individuals were heterozygotes.It was inferred that necrosis might be due to the interaction among SMV strains, resistance genes, genetic background of the resistance genes, and plant development stage. Furthermore, the bulked segregant analysis (BSA) of SSR markers was conducted to map the resistance genes. In F2 of PI96983 × Nannong 1138-2, five SSR markers, Sat_297, Sat_234, Sat_154, Sct_033 and Sat_120, were found closely linked to Rsc14, with genetic distances of 14

  9. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in early life is associated with obesity in adulthood and soybean products may have a beneficial effect on its prevention and treatment. This study evaluated body composition, serum leptin and energy balance in adult rats subjected to protein restriction during the intrauterine stage and lactation and recovering on a soybean flour diet. Methods Five groups of the Wistar strain of albino rats were used: CC, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed the same diet after weaning; CS, offspring born to and suckled by mothers fed a control diet and fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning; LL, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet and fed the same diet after weaning; LC, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a control diet after weaning; LS, offspring of mothers fed a low protein diet, but fed a soybean diet with 17% protein after weaning. Food intake, body, perirenal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were measured in grams. Leptin was quantified using the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA and insulin by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Carcass composition was determined by chemical methods and energy expenditure was calculated by the difference between energy intake and carcass energy gain. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The LC and LS groups had higher energetic intake concerning body weight, lower energy expenditure, proportion of fat carcass and fat pads than CC and CS groups. The LS group showed reduced body weight gain and lower energy efficiency, which was reflected in less energy gain as protein and the proportion of carcass protein, and lower energy gain as lipid than in the LC groups, although both groups had eaten the same amount of diet and showed equal energy expenditure. Serum leptin did not differ among groups and was unrelated to food or energy intake and energy expenditure. Serum insulin was higher in the LS than in the LC

  10. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  11. Analysis of soybean supply to price changes in the domestic market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study showed that farmers' responses were not encouraging in the production and supply of soybean in the domestic markets with respect to the dictate of prices, price expectations and price of groundnut as a chosen competitive enterprise. Keywords: Response, soybean supply, price changes, soybean market, ...

  12. Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum causing soybean root rot in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important edible legume cultivated around the world. However, soybean production is seriously impacted by the widespread occurrence of root rot disease. In this study, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot of soybean in Heilongjiang province...

  13. Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of butralin in soybean and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congdi; Liu, Rong; Li, Li; Li, Wei; He, Yujian; Yuan, Longfei

    2017-08-29

    Dissipation behavior, final residue, and risk assessment of butralin in soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil were investigated. Butralin residues were extracted with acetonitrile and then soybean samples were detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and soil samples were determined with GC with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg/kg for soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil. Average recoveries ranged from 90.4 ~ 98.2% for green soybean, 86.2 ~ 86.6% for soybean, 86.0 ~ 98.8% for plant, and 85.0 ~ 106.8% for soil. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.0 ~ 7.2% for green soybean, 2.0 ~ 3.0% for soybean, 3.1 ~ 8.1% for plant, and 1.8 ~ 6.6% for soil. Half-lives of butralin in soil samples varied in the range of 11-22 days. At harvest time, final residues of butralin in soybean and green soybean were lower than LOQ. Risk assessment demonstrated that, at recommended dosage and frequency, butralin would not induce significant harm on humans. The study could be used as a quantitative basis for application of butralin on soybean.

  14. Characterization and product innovation of sufu - a Chinese fermented soybean food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.

    2003-01-01

     Over the centuries, Chinese people have consumed soybeans in various forms of traditional fermented soybean foods. Sufu ( Furu ), a cheese-like product originating in China, is one of the most popular fermented soybean foods in China, and is becoming popular

  15. Extruded linseed and linseed oil as alternative to soybean meal and soybean oil in diets for fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Caputi Jambrenghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of replacing soybean meal and soybean oil respectively with extruded linseed and linseed oil on the productive performances and meat quality traits in lambs slaughtered at 90 days. Lambs weaned at 40 days were divided into 3 groups (N.=10 fed ad libitum for 6 weeks as follows: C (control, commercial feed containing soybean meal and soybean oil; LO (feed containing linseed oil instead of soybean oil; EL (feed containing extruded linseed. Meat quality traits were evaluated on the Longissimus lumborum (Ll and Semimembranosus (Sm muscles. The lambs’ growth performances and the slaughtering and sectioning data did not differ between groups. The redness of meat was significantly higher (P<0.05 for the LO and EL groups compared to the control for both the muscles tested. Ll meat samples of the EL group showed a greater cooking loss compared to LO (P<0.01 and to the control (P<0.05. The amount of linoleic acid in raw Ll meat samples was significantly (P<0.01 lower in both LO and EL groups with respect to control. The concentration of α-linolenic acid was significantly (P<0.01 higher in the EL group and this positively affected the total content of ω3 as well as the ω6/ω3 ratio.

  16. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Reham M; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Bauchan, Gary R; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2013-04-25

    The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes.

  17. Relationship between Protein Accumulation Regulation and Yield Formation in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lihua; LI Jie; LIU Lijun; ZU Wei

    2006-01-01

    Three different genotypes soybeans were adopted in this experiment under three fertilizer levels.The object of this study was to investigate protein accumulation regulation of soybean cultivars under the condition of different nutrient levels, and their effects on soybean yield and quality, and to provide theoretical evidence for breed, cultivation and agricultural production, also man-powered controllable locations. The concentration of N in the leaves declined after seedling stage, then increased again at stage of early flowering, and started to decrease up to leaf senescence, declined rapidly from seed-filling season to stage of yellow ripeness. The concentration of N in the stems and pod walls declined with growth stage. High seed protein genotypes exhibited higher N assimilating and partitioning during whole growth stages. Pod walls were media of N partitioning. Protein was accumulated mainly during the later period of reproductive growth stage up to harvest, so plant growth after stage of yellow ripeness could not be neglected.

  18. Soybean diet breast tumor incidence in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troll, W.; Wiesner, R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between feeding a diet rich in protease inhibitors and the reduction of mammary cancer induced by x-irradiation in Sprague-Dawley rats was examined. Of a total of 145 irradiated animals, 44% of the 45 rats fed a raw soybean diet containing a high concentration of protease inhibitor developed mammary tumors as compared to 74% of 50 rats fed a casein diet containing no protease inhibitor. Animals fed Purina rat chow which contained low levels of protease inhibitor exhibited a 70% mammary tumor incidence. No spontaneous neoplasms were found in any of the non-irradiated animals on the raw soybean diet whereas about 10% of the animals on the protease-free diet developed tumors. Thus, soybeans which are rich in protease inhibitors reduced the induction of mammary cancer in x-irradiated rats. This suggested that diets rich in protease inhibitors may contribute to reducing cancer incidence in man. (author)

  19. Combustion of soybean oil and diesel mixtures for heating purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Adriana Correa; Sanz, Jose Francisco [European University Miguel de Cervantes, Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: acorrea@uemc.es; Hernandez, Salvador; Navas, Luis Manuel; Rodriguez, Elena; Ruiz, Gonzalo [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Agricultural and Forest Engineering; San Jose, Julio [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Energetic Engineering; Gomez, Jaime [University of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Communications and Signal Theory and Telematics Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Using blends of vegetable oils with petroleum derivates for heating purposes has several advantages over other energy application for vegetable oils. This paper presents the results of an investigation by use of soybean oil and diesel mixture as fuel for producing heat in conventional diesel installation. The paper is set out as follows: properties characterization of soybean oil as fuel and of diesel oil, as well as the mixture of both; selection of the mixture according to their physical chemical properties and how they adapt to conventional combustion installation; experimentation with the selected mixture, allowing the main combustion parameters to be measured; processing the collected data, values of combustion, efficiency and reduction of emissions. Conclusions show that the use of soybean oil and diesel mixture for producing heat energy in conventional equipment is feasible and beneficial for reduction emissions. (author)

  20. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  1. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soertini, G.; Hendratno

    1988-01-01

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  2. Stability studies on refined soybean oil stored in various conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arawande, J.O.; Amoo, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The 12 months stability study of freshly produced refined soybean oil revealed that refined soybean oil stored in plastic containers in dark was more hydrolytically and oxidatively stable than that stored in other containers in light condition. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 in free fatty acids and acid value of oil stored under light and dark conditions in tin and glass containers but there was significant difference at P < 0.05 in peroxide value of oil stored in light and dark conditions in all the storage containers. Light increased the degree of oxidative rancidity of refined soybean oil, the most in tin containers, followed by glass containers and the least in plastic containers. (author)

  3. Methyl jasmonate induced resistance in cheniere rice and soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) is a compound naturally occurring in certain plants that aids in plant defense. In this study, we examined the difference in herbivory of fall armyworm (FAW) on control plants (treated without MJ) and MJ-treated plants. Seeds of cheniere rice and soybean were soaked in MJ overnight and planted in the greenhouse, although the soybean never grew. Therefore, only the mature plant leaves of cheniere rice were fed to FAW and the difference in herbivory was looked at. Our results show there is no statistical difference in the herbivory of the cheniere rice plant leaves.

  4. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  5. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  6. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the leve...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  7. The observation of soybean yield components in Ml generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.

    1978-01-01

    Some properties of the soybean yield component in Ml generation were investigated. Soybean seed variety of Taichung were irradiated with gamma rays from the cobalt source at the Gamma Atomic Energy Research Centre, Yogyakarta. Seven different doses at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 krads were used. Subsequent growth of the irradiated seed was carried out in the field and the ages of flowering, seedling height number of pods, number of fertile and infertile pods and percentage of sterility were recorded. It was found that the significant effect on the above variables was observed due to the gamma radiation doses between 8-12 krads. (author)

  8. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  9. Heat balance characteristics and water use efficiency of soybean community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Im, J.N.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study seasonal evapotranspiration above soybean canopy and its relationship with dry matter production by the Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The soybean ''Paldalkong'' was sown with the space of 40 * 10 cm at Suwon on May 27, 1988. The daily net radiation ranged from 59 to 76 percents of the total shortwave radiation under cloudless conditions, which was lower than cloud overcast condition with record 63 to 83 percents. The latent heat flux under overcast condition was sometimes larger than the sum of net radiation, implying transportation of energy by advection of ambient air

  10. Research of composite mutagenesis on Soybean HeFeng25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Guo Tai; Wang Zhixin; Wu Xiuhong; Li Candong; Liu Zhongtang; Zhang Maoming; Han Shifeng; Liu Yuhong

    2011-01-01

    On the research four main strains agronomic characters of M2 are analyzed, using space launch and gamma radiation 60 Co-γ composite process for the test materials Soybean HeFeng25. The results show that: the plant height, the first pod hight, number of node, number of plant pod and seed were significant or highly significantlevel. There were only one strain has mutation rate. Other strains on number of node variation is not obvious. Plant hight, the first pod hight, number of plant pod, number of plant seed have different levels of mutation rate. It can be used for soybean breeding. (authors)

  11. Effect of substitution of low linolenic acid soybean oil for hydrogenated soybean oil on fatty acid intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiRienzo, Maureen A; Astwood, James D; Petersen, Barbara J; Smith, Kim M

    2006-02-01

    Low linolenic acid soybean oil (LLSO) has been developed as a substitute for hydrogenated soybean oil to reduce intake of trans FA while improving stability and functionality in processed foods. We assessed the dietary impact of substitution of LLSO for hydrogenated soybean oil (HSBO) used in several food categories. All substitutions were done using an assumption of 100% market penetration. The impact of this substitution on the intake of five FA and trans FA was assessed. Substitution of LLSO for current versions of HSBO resulted in a 45% decrease in intake of trans FA. Impacts on other FA intakes were within the realm of typical dietary intakes. No decrease in intake of alpha-linolenic acid was associated with the use of LLSO in place of HSBO because LLSO substitutes for HSBO that are already low in alpha-linolenic acid.

  12. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  13. Exogenous 5-Aminolevulenic Acid Promotes Antioxidative Defence System, Photosynthesis and Growth in Soybean against Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe MANAFI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the possibility of enhancing cold stress tolerance of young soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr by exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA was investigated. ALA was applied at various concentrations (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mM by seed priming and foliar application method. After ALA treatment, the plants were subjected to cold stress at 10 ± 0.5 °C for 72 h. Cold stress significantly decreased plant growth, relative water content, chlorophyll, photosynthesis and stomatal conductivity, while it increased electrolyte leakage and proline accumulation. ALA at low concentrations (0.3 mM protected plants against cold stress, enhancing plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductivity as well as relative water content. Increase of electrolyte leakage was also prevented by 0.6 mM ALA. ALA also enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities at 0.6 mM concentration especially under cold stress conditions. Proline increased with increasing in ALA concentration under both temperature conditions. In most cases, application of ALA by spraying method was better than seed priming method. Results showed that ALA, which is considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator, can be used effectively to protect soybean plants from the damaging effects of cold stress, by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes, protecting cell membrane against reactive oxygen species and finally by promoting chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more intense photosynthesis and more carbon fixation, without any adverse effect on the plant growth.

  14. Characterization of Natural and Simulated Herbivory on Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. for Use in Ecological Risk Assessment of Insect Protected Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Goto

    Full Text Available Insect-protected soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. was developed to protect against foliage feeding by certain Lepidopteran insects. The assessment of potential consequences of transgene introgression from soybean to wild soybean (Glycine soja Seib. et Zucc. is required as one aspect of the environmental risk assessment (ERA in Japan. A potential hazard of insect-protected soybean may be hypothesized as transfer of a trait by gene flow to wild soybean and subsequent reduction in foliage feeding by Lepidopteran insects that result in increased weediness of wild soybean in Japan. To assess this potential hazard two studies were conducted. A three-year survey of wild soybean populations in Japan was conducted to establish basic information on foliage damage caused by different herbivores. When assessed across all populations and years within each prefecture, the total foliage from different herbivores was ≤ 30%, with the lowest levels of defoliation (< 2% caused by Lepidopteran insects. A separate experiment using five levels of simulated defoliation (0%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% was conducted to assess the impact on pod and seed production and time to maturity of wild soybean. The results indicated that there was no decrease in wild soybean plants pod or seed number or time to maturity at defoliation rates up to 50%. The results from these experiments indicate that wild soybean is not limited by lepidopteran feeding and has an ability to compensate for defoliation levels observed in nature. Therefore, the potential hazard to wild soybean from the importation of insect-protected soybean for food and feed into Japan is negligible.

  15. The effects of yellow soybean, black soybean, and sword bean on lipid levels and oxidative stress in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jae Soon; Han, Young Sun; Lee, Sang Sun

    2010-04-01

    Soy isoflavones have been reported to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. However, the effects of dietary consumption of soybean have not been explored. In this study, we evaluated the effects of consuming yellow soybeans, black soybeans (Glycine max), or sword beans (Canavalia gladiate) on lipid and oxidative stress levels in an ovariectomized rat model. Forty-seven nine-week-old female rats were ovariectomized, randomly divided into four groups, and fed one of the following diets for 10 weeks: a diet supplemented with casein (NC, n = 12), a diet supplemented with yellow soybean (YS, n = 12), a diet supplemented with black soybean (BS, n = 12), or a diet supplemented with sword bean (SB, n = 11). Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in the BS and SB groups were significantly lower than that in the NC group. Notably, the BS group had significantly lower plasma total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels than the other groups. Hepatic total lipid levels were significantly lower in the YS and SB groups, and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the SB group than in the NC group. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly higher in the groups fed beans compared to the NC group. Hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were also significantly lower in the BS and SB groups than the NC group. In conclusion, our results suggest that consumption of various types of beans may inhibit oxidative stress in postmenopausal women by increasing antioxidant activity and improving lipid profiles. Notably, intake of black soybean resulted in the greatest improvement in risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  16. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  17. Soybean Resistance to White Mold: Evaluation of Soybean Germplasm Under Different Conditions and Validation of QTL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Ramkrishna; Chen, Charles Y.; Grau, Craig R.; Dorrance, Ann E.; Liu, Jean Q.; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dechun

    2018-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Barry), is a devastating fungal disease in the Upper Midwest of the United States and southern Canada. Various methods exist to evaluate for SWM resistance and many quantitative trait loci (QTL) with minor effect governing SWM resistance have been identified in prior studies. This study aimed to predict field resistance to SWM using low-cost and efficient greenhouse inoculation methods and to confirm the QTL reported in previous studies. Three related but independent studies were conducted in the field, greenhouse, and laboratory to evaluate for SWM resistance. The first study evaluated 66 soybean plant introductions (PIs) with known field resistance to SWM using the greenhouse drop-mycelium inoculation method. These 66 PIs were significantly (P greenhouse inoculation methods with disease severity index (DSI) in field evaluations. Moderate correlation (r) between PM under drop-mycelium method and DSI in field trials (r = 0.65, p greenhouse inoculation methods and DSI across field trials. These findings suggest that greenhouse inoculation methods could predict the field resistance to SWM. The third study attempted to validate 33 QTL reported in prior studies using seven populations that comprised a total of 392 F4 : 6 lines derived from crosses involving a partially resistant cultivar “Skylla,” five partially resistant PIs, and a known susceptible cultivar “E00290.” The estimates of broad-sense heritability (h2) ranged from 0.39 to 0.66 in the populations. Of the seven populations, four had h2 estimates that were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05). Single marker analysis across populations and inoculation methods identified 11 significant SSRs (p < 0.05) corresponding to 10 QTL identified by prior studies. Thus, these five new PIs could be used as new sources of resistant alleles to develop SWM resistant commercial cultivars. PMID:29731761

  18. NRSA enzyme decomposition model data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Microbial enzyme activities measured at more than 2000 US streams and rivers. These enzyme data were then used to predict organic matter decomposition and microbial...

  19. Cellulase enzyme and biomass utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... human population grows and economic development. However, the current .... conditions and the production cost of the related enzyme system. Therefore ... Given the importance of this enzyme to these so many industries,.

  20. Aspergillus Associated with Meju, a Fermented Soybean Starting Material for Traditional Soy Sauce and Soybean Paste in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Samson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus is an important fungal genus used for the fermentation of Asian foods; this genus is referred to as koji mold in Japan and China. A. oryzae, A. sojae, and A. tamari are used in the production of miso and shoyu in Japan, but a comprehensive taxonomic study of Aspergillus isolated from Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for traditional soy sauce and soybean paste in Korea, has not been conducted. In this study, various Aspergillus species were isolated during a study of the...