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Sample records for soybean seed storage

  1. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  2. Engineering of soybean seed storage proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, C.D.; Floener, L.A.; Evans, R.P.; Nielsen, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    Protein engineering is one approach to the improvement of seed quality. With this in mind, a rapid in vitro system has been developed to assay the effect structural modifications have on the assembly of glycinin and β-conglycinin subunit complexes. Transcription plasmids were constructed for production of synthetic glycinin and β-conglycinin mRNAs by SP6 RNA-polymerase. Radiolabeled translation products from these messages were tested for their ability to form complexes. Gy4 and Gy5 proglycinins (group-2 subunits) and the a-subunit of β-conglycinin self-assembled into trimers. Proglycinin Gy2 (group-1 subunit) did not self-assemble, but assembled into mixed trimers in combination with Gy4 proglycinin. No assembly was observed for preproglycinins Gyl and Gy4, or for a Gy4 proglycinin which lacked 27 amino acids in a highly conserved internal sequence. Insertion of alternating MET-ARG residues in predicted turn regions of a hypervariable sequence in Gy4 proglycinin were tolerated when the string was short but inhibited trimer assembly as it became longer. The response to several different long deletions in this hypervariable region have also been tested. Different levels of trimer assembly were obtained and may depend on the secondary structures of the regions being joined in the engineered subunits. This system will be useful to study the assembly of storage protein complexes and to screen against modifications that interfere with subunit assembly

  3. Chemical properties of Aspergillus flavus-infected soybean seeds exposed to gamma-irradiation during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the chemical properties of Aspergillus flavus-infected soybean seeds exposed to different levels of gamma-irradiation; 0 1, 3 and 5 kGy, during storage. The results revealed that there was no effect of irradiation at different dose levels on moisture, protein, total lipids and amino acids content of the seeds for overall 60 days of storage under ambient temperature. At zero time, irradiation of A. flavus- infected-soybean seeds at 5.0 kGy caused a slight increase in peroxide value, no change in acid value, a slight decrease in saponification and iodine values in the crude oil extracted from the seeds. An increase in saturated fatty acids associated with a decrease in un-saturated fatty acids was also observed in the oil extracted from the seeds. Furthermore, at dose level 5 kGy the fungus growth was completely inhibited and there was no detection of aflatoxin B1 after 60 days of storage. It is concluded that gamma-irradiation of A. flavus-infected soybean seeds at dose level 5 kGY is sufficient to inhibit fungus growth and aflatoxin production over a storage period of 60 days without changes in major chemical properties of the seeds and the oil extracted from seeds

  4. Seed quality preservation advantage of gamma irradiation seed pre-treatment during long term storage in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha, Sameer Kumar; Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder

    2014-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to analyse the effect of gamma irradiation seed pre-treatment on insect damage and quality preservation of soybean seeds during long term storage at ambient temperature (27-42 ℃) and relative humidity (50-95%). Freshly harvested seeds of soybean (cv. Pusa-9814) were treated with control (0), 0.01, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 kGy gamma radiation on a Gamma irradiator (Gamma Chamber 5000, 60 Co source, activity 12000 Ci, BRIT, Mumbai, India) at the Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi and were stored over one year in cotton cloth bags under ambient conditions. Protein and oil per cent and fatty acid profile was measured in freshly harvested zero time unirradiated control, aged unirradiated control and other treatments of ionizing radiation. Seed oil was extracted through the soxhlet extraction method and oil profiling was done by gas chromatography. Change in saturated and unsaturated fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolic, linolenic acid and oleic to linoleic ratio was measured. Oil content of unirradiated stored seeds compared to that of the freshly harvested control was lower. However, radiation in general, helped in maintaining a higher seed oil during storage when compared with that of the aged unirradiated control and was insignificantly reduced over the fresh unirrradiated control. Further, gamma irradiation treatment did not yield any adverse affect on the seed protein even after prolonged storage. The results reveal a reduced rate of lipid degradation and improved seed hardness over untreated control with no significant change in fatty acid profile of the irradiated and the unirradiated seeds over a long term storage period. (author)

  5. Influence of foliar fertilization with manganese on germination, vigor and storage time of RR soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Leonardo Ignácio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the influence of foliar fertilizer doses containing Mn of phenological stages of suggested application in RR soybeans, to recover management damages with glyphosate at postemergence application on seed vigor in post-harvest and post six months storage. The seeds originated from a field experiment conducted , which included two applications of glyphosate, concomitant with foliar fertilizer in growth stages V4 and V6, with 0.00, 113.50 and 227.00 mg ha-1doses of Mn2+. Germination, GSI (Germination Speed Index, electrical conductivity tests and the first count of seeds were conducted. The application of Mn did not affect the physiological quality of RR soy in postharvest. However, in post-storage, higher doses of Mn had a negative effect on tests of abnormal seedlings, GSI and electrical conductivity. The applications of Mn, regardless of the developmental stage, did not interfere in the germination and first count tests, with and without storage. The electrical conductivity test showed a higher correlation with the seed germination test in the post-harvest treatment.

  6. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  7. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  8. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  9. Soybean seed viability and changes of fatty acids content as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of soybean seed chemical composition are related to specific processes occurring in seed during storage. These changes lead to seed aging during storage and affect seed vigour and content of fatty acids. In order to reveal severity of their influence, the following vigour tests were applied: Standard ...

  10. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  11. The Effect of Gamma radiation, microwave radiation, their interaction and storage on chemical composition, antinutritional factors and the activities of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase of soybean seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahim, E A; Abdel-Fatah, O M [Dept. of Biochem., Faculty of Agric., Cairo University. (Egypt); El-Adawy, M; Badea, M Y [Food Technol. Dept., National Center for Research and Radiation Technol., Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them; and storage of radiated soybean seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which had to the maximum reduction of antinutrional factors (Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at three doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 kGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min; and the storage of seeds was at temperature, R.H. 50-55% for six months. The data revealed that, effects of interaction treatments were more effective than the treatment with microwave or gamma radiation alone.

  12. The Effect of Gamma radiation, microwave radiation, their interaction and storage on chemical composition, antinutritional factors and the activities of trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase of soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rahim, E.A.; Abdel-Fatah, O.M.; El-Adawy, M.; Badea, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation, microwave radiation, interaction between them; and storage of radiated soybean seeds were investigated to find out the best treatment which had to the maximum reduction of antinutrional factors (Trypsin inhibitor and lipoxygenase activities) without significant effect on the chemical constituents. The gamma rays was used at three doses of 2.5, 5.0 and 8.0 kGy, microwave radiation was at 70 level power for 2 and 4 min; and the storage of seeds was at temperature, R.H. 50-55% for six months. The data revealed that, effects of interaction treatments were more effective than the treatment with microwave or gamma radiation alone

  13. Tratamento fungicida e peliculização de sementes de soja submetidas ao armazenamento Fungicide treatment and film coating of soybean seeds submitted to storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento de sementes de soja com fungicidas vem sendo utilizado como importante ferramenta no controle de patógenos. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o desempenho de sementes de soja tratadas com fungicidas e peliculizadas, antes e após o armazenamento. Foram utilizados cinco lotes de sementes, cultivar Monsoy 6101, submetidos aos tratamentos: thiabendazole+thiram sem polímero, carbendazin+thiram sem polímero, sem fungicida (testemunha sem polímero, além desses tratamentos realizados via peliculização (com polímero. A qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes foi avaliada inicialmente e após seis meses de armazenamento em condições ambientais, pelas seguintes determinações: teor de água, teste de germinação, emergência em bandeja, teste de frio e de sanidade. Conclui-se que a peliculização, em associação com fungicidas, não afeta a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja e o tratamento de lotes de sementes de soja com os fungicidas thiabendazole+thiram e carbendazin+thiram melhora seu desempenho e qualidade sanitária.The treatment of soybean seeds by fungicides has been used as an important tool in pathogen control. The objective of this work was to verify the performance of soybean seeds treated with fungicide and film coating, prior and after storage. Five seed lots, cultivar Monsoy 6101, were treated with thiabendazole+thiram without polymer, carbendazin+thiram without polymer, without fungicide (control, without polymer, and treatments by film coating (with polymer. The physiological and sanitary quality of the seeds was evaluated initially and after six months storage, under environmental conditions, according to the following characteristics: water content, test of germination and emergence on tray, blotter test and cold test. The film coating associated with fungicides does not affect the physiological quality of soybean seeds and the soybean seed treatment with the fungicides thiabendazole

  14. Individual electrical conductivity test for the assessment of soybean seed germination.

    OpenAIRE

    MATTIONI, N. M.; MERTZ, L. M.; BARBIERI, A. P. P.; HAESBAERT, F. M.; GIORDANI, W.; LOPES, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean seed quality is affected by many factors, which may occur during the production, processing, and storage phases. To ensure the quality of seeds, the adoption of fast and efficient methods to estimate seed viability in quality control programs is important. This study aimed to determine a partition point of the individual electrical conductivity test to predict soybean seed germination. Three lots each of five different soybean cultivars (Fundacep 57 RR, BMX Potência RR, BMX Força RR, ...

  15. Study on seed storage protein of offspring 60Co γ-rays induced mutants of soybean Jindou-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huifeng; Li Guiquan; Li Ling

    2008-01-01

    Seed of soybean variety Jindou-24 were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays and the offspring of mutants were used to research the relative contents of glycinin (11S) and β-conglycinin (7S), the composition of its subunits, the contents of different subunits and the rules of its variance by using SDS-PAGE technique. the results indicated that the content of different subunits or the same subunit of different varieties varied greatly in the offspring of mutants. Significant difference existed in the contents of different subunits of the same variety or the same subunits of different varieties. The content of 11S negatively correlated with that of 7S, and positively correlated with 11S/7S. Cluster analysis showed the mutants were divided into three groups (average 11S/7S rate 1.70, 1.25 and 0.79) according to the rate of 11S/7S. The results could provide theoretical guidance to breed new soybean varieties with the character of high quality and other special purpose. (authors)

  16. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  17. Seed-borne pathogens and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Luiza Wain-Tassi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Adequate procedures to evaluate seed vigor are important. Regarding the electrical conductivity test (EC, the interference in the test results caused by seed-borne pathogens has not been clarified. This research was carried out to study the influence of Phomopsis sojae (Leh. and Colletotrichum dematium (Pers. ex Fr. Grove var. truncata (Schw. Arx. fungi on EC results. Soybean seeds (Glycine max L. were inoculated with those fungi using potato, agar and dextrose (PDA medium with manitol (-1.0 MPa and incubated for 20 h at 25 °C. The colony diameter, index of mycelial growth, seed water content, occurrence of seed-borne pathogens, physiological potential of the seeds, measured by germination and vigor tests (seed germination index, cold test, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence were determined. The contents of K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the seed and in the soaking solution were also determined. A complete 2 × 4 factorial design with two seed sizes (5.5 and 6.5 mm and four treatments (control, seeds incubated without fungi, seeds incubated with Phomopsis and seeds incubated with Colletotrichum were used with eight (5.5 mm large seeds and six (6.5 mm large seeds replications. All seeds submitted to PDA medium had their germination reduced in comparison to the control seeds. This reduction was also observed when seed vigor and leached ions were considered. The presence of Phomopsis sojae fungus in soybean seed samples submitted to the EC test may be the cause of misleading results.

  18. Phenolics in the seed coat of wild soybean (Glycine soja) and their significance for seed hardness and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, San; Sekizaki, Haruo; Yang, Zhihong; Sawa, Satoko; Pan, Jun

    2010-10-27

    Hardseededness in annual wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. Et Zucc.) is a valuable trait that affects the germination, viability, and quality of stored seeds. Two G. soja ecotypes native to Shandong Province of China have been used to identify the phenolics in the seed coat that correlate with the seed hardness and seed germination. Three major phenolics from the seed coat were isolated and identified as epicatechin, cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside. Of the three phenolics, only the change of epicatechin exhibited a significant positive correlation with the change of hard seed percentages both under different water conditions during seed development and under different gas conditions during seed storage. Epicatechin also reveals a hormesis-like effect on the seed germination of G. soja. Epicatechin is suggested to be functionally related to coat-imposed hardseededness in G. soja.

  19. Physalis peruviana seed storage

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    Cíntia L. M. de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Physalis peruviana belongs to Solanaceae family and has a high nutritional and nutraceutical potential. The production is intended for fruit consumption and the propagation is mainly by seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of priming on the kinetics of germination of P. peruviana seeds stored at different temperatures. The seeds were stored at 5 and 25 °C in a chamber saturated with zinc chloride solution and in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C. Every 4 months, the seeds were removed from storage for evaluation of germination and moisture content in the laboratory and emergence and development of seedlings in greenhouse. During the last evaluation at 16 months, the seeds under the same conditions were subjected to salt stress. The moisture content varied during the storage period, but was always higher for seeds kept at -196 ºC. These seeds kept high germination percentage in water until 16 months, regardless of the tested temperature; however, in salt solution the germination percentage was significantly reduced.

  20. Effects of long-term storage on the quality of soybean, Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, is one of the five most important legumes in the tropics and provides the protein eaten by most people in the region. One of the major constraints to soybean production is that the seed quality deteriorates rapidly during storage. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of some storage ...

  1. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  2. Storage of sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Castro Lima

    Full Text Available The sunflower is among the top five crops in the world for the production of edible vegetable oil. The species displays rustic behavior, with an excellent edaphic and climatic adaptability index, being able to be cultivated throughout Brazil. Seed quality is the key to increasing production and productivity in the sunflower. The objective of this work was to monitor the viability of sunflower seeds with a view to their conservation when stored in different environments and packaging. The seeds were packed in paper bags, multilayered paper, black polyethylene and PET bottles; and stored for a period of twelve months in the following environments: dry cold room (10 ºC and 55% RH, the ambient conditions of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil (30-32 ºC and 75% RH, refrigerator (4 ºC and 38-43% RH and freezer (-20 ºC. Every three months, the water content of the seeds was determined and germination, accelerated ageing, speed of emergence index, and seedling dry weight were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a scheme of split-lots, with four replications. It can be concluded that the natural environment is not suitable for the storage of sunflower seeds. Sunflower seeds remain viable for 12 months when stored in a dry cold room, refrigerator or freezer, irrespective of the type of packaging used.

  3. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

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    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  4. Molecular mapping and genomics of soybean seed protein: a review and perspective for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Mian, Rouf; Vuong, Tri; Pantalone, Vince; Song, Qijian; Chen, Pengyin; Shannon, Grover J; Carter, Tommy C; Nguyen, Henry T

    2017-10-01

    Genetic improvement of soybean protein meal is a complex process because of negative correlation with oil, yield, and temperature. This review describes the progress in mapping and genomics, identifies knowledge gaps, and highlights the need of integrated approaches. Meal protein derived from soybean [Glycine max (L) Merr.] seed is the primary source of protein in poultry and livestock feed. Protein is a key factor that determines the nutritional and economical value of soybean. Genetic improvement of soybean seed protein content is highly desirable, and major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for soybean protein have been detected and repeatedly mapped on chromosomes (Chr.) 20 (LG-I), and 15 (LG-E). However, practical breeding progress is challenging because of seed protein content's negative genetic correlation with seed yield, other seed components such as oil and sucrose, and interaction with environmental effects such as temperature during seed development. In this review, we discuss rate-limiting factors related to soybean protein content and nutritional quality, and potential control factors regulating seed storage protein. In addition, we describe advances in next-generation sequencing technologies for precise detection of natural variants and their integration with conventional and high-throughput genotyping technologies. A syntenic analysis of QTL on Chr. 15 and 20 was performed. Finally, we discuss comprehensive approaches for integrating protein and amino acid QTL, genome-wide association studies, whole-genome resequencing, and transcriptome data to accelerate identification of genomic hot spots for allele introgression and soybean meal protein improvement.

  5. Physiological quality of vegetable soybean seeds produced with different fertilization and storage for twelve months = Potencial fisiológico de sementes de soja-hortaliça produzidas com diferentes adubações e armazenadas por doze meses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Espíndola Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The vegetable soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill has characteristics that permit utilization in food as a vegetablewhen the seeds are still immature (stage R6 and occupy 80-90% of the cavity filling the pod. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological potential of seeds of two vegetable soybean genotypes produced with different fertilization and stored for 12 months. In seed production field was used in the experimental design of randomized blocks with 5x2 factorial, five fertilization (conventional, intermediate, alternative, manipueira and rice hulls and two periods of evaluation (at 12 months of storage. Evaluations conducted under laboratory conditions included mass of a hundred seeds, vigor and physiological quality considering germination, germination first count, electrical conductivity, potassium leaching, sand emergence and emergence rate of seedlings. The seeds of both vegetable soybean genotype were stored in polyethylene terephthalate bottles for 12 months, as to assess physical and physiological quality under storage. Seeds of BR9452273 produced with carbonized ricehusk showed better quality at harvest and presented greater reduced of vigour after 12 months of storage. BRS 258 cultivar conventional fertilization showed seeds of less physiological quality and higher reduced the vigour after 12 months of storage. The two vegetable soybean cultivars have quality reduced during storage of seed of twelve months in bottles of polyethylene terephthalate. = Resumo – A soja-hortaliça (Glycine max (L. Merrill apresenta características que permitem utilização na alimentação humana como hortaliça, quando as sementes estão ainda imaturas (estádio R6 e ocupam 80 a 90% do preenchimento da cavidade da vagem. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça produzidas com diferentes adubações e armazenadas por 12 meses. O delineamento

  6. Mapping of the genomic regions controlling seed storability in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite interval mapping identified a total of three. QTLs on linkage ..... Soybean seeds decline in quality faster than seeds of other crops (Fabrizius et al. 1999). ... harvest and postharvest management practices (Lewis et al. 1998). Cho and ...

  7. Chemical Characteristics of Pumpkin Seed Tempeh From Soybean and Pumpkin Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Pujilestari, Shanti; Sandrasari, Diny A; Marida, Rimmaria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of the combination of soybean and pumpkin seeds on the chemical characteristics of pumpkin seed tempeh. The pumpkin seed tempeh samples were analyzed for its water, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and crude fiber. Meanwhile, support data were isoflavone and zinc. Sensory hedonic was conducted by 25 untrained panelists for selecting the best formulation of soybean and pumpkin seeds in tempeh. The result shows the formulation of soybean and pumpki...

  8. The Circadian Clock-controlled Transcriptome of Developing Soybean Seeds

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    Karen A. Hudson

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of metabolic and physiological processes in plants are controlled by the circadian clock, which enables a plant to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Relatively little is known about circadian rhythms in developing seeds, which may be important for determining the extent and timing of nutrient storage in grain. Microarray expression profiling was used to identify genes expressed in developing soybean ( seeds that are controlled by the circadian clock. Genes with predicted functions in protein synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and photosynthesis totaling 1.8% of the mRNAs detected in seed were found to be expressed in a circadian rhythm. Known circadian and light-controlled promoter elements were identified as over-represented in the promoters of clock-controlled seed genes, with the over-represented elements varying according to the phase of circadian expression. A subset of circadian-regulated genes were found to be expressed in different phases in developing seeds with respect to leaves from the same plants, many of which have roles in photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. These results help to characterize the genes and processes in seeds that may be regulated by the circadian clock, and provide some insight into organ-specific phasing of clock controlled gene expression.

  9. [The NIR spectra based variety discrimination for single soybean seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Guang-Hua; Hou, Rui-Feng; Wang, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    With the development of soybean producing and processing, the quality breeding becomes more and more important for soybean breeders. Traditional sampling detection methods for soybean quality need to destroy the seed, and does not satisfy the requirement of earlier generation materials sieving for breeding. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for soybean quality detection. However, all these applications were referred to mass samples, and they were not suitable for little or single seed detection in breeding procedure. In the present study, the acousto--optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectroscopy was used to measure the single soybean seed. Two varieties of soybean were measured, which contained 60 KENJIANDOU43 seeds and 60 ZHONGHUANG13 seeds. The results showed that NIR spectra combined with soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) could accurately discriminate the soybean varieties. The classification accuracy for KENJIANDOU43 seeds and ZHONGHUANG13 was 100%. The spectra of single soybean seed were measured at different positions, and it showed that the seed shape has significant influence on the measurement of spectra, therefore, the key point for single seed measurement was how to accurately acquire the spectra and keep their representativeness. The spectra for soybeans with glossy surface had high repeatability, while the spectra of seeds with external defects had significant difference for several measurements. For the fast sieving of earlier generation materials in breeding, one could firstly eliminate the seeds with external defects, then apply NIR spectra for internal quality detection, and in this way the influence of seed shape and external defects could be reduced.

  10. Qualidade das sementes de soja após a colheita com dois tipos de colhedora e dois períodos de armazenamento Soybean seed quality after harvesting with two types of harvester and two storage times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Arantes Rodrigues da Cunha

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A colheita mecanizada de soja pode acarretar perdas qualitativas nas sementes. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de sementes de soja colhidas mecanicamente por sistemas axial e tangencial de trilha, em diferentes velocidades de avanço da colhedora, antes e após o período de armazenamento de seis meses. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo, com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados os procedimentos de colheita e, nas subparcelas, as épocas de avaliação da qualidade da semente. Os procedimentos de colheita foram: colhedora com sistema de trilha axial, deslocando-se a 6, 8 e 10km h-1, colhedora com sistema de trilha tangencial (convencional, deslocando-se a 4 e 6km h-1, e colheita manual. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: germinação, porcentagem de plântulas fortes, índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, emergência em areia e injúria mecânica. Pôde-se concluir que o emprego das colhedoras com sistemas de trilha tangencial e axial não provocou diferenças no índice de velocidade de emergência, no vigor e na germinação das sementes de soja. No entanto, com relação à injúria mecânica, a colhedora axial mostrou-se superior à convencional. O incremento da velocidade de deslocamento, dentro dos parâmetros recomendados pelo fabricante, não alterou a qualidade das sementes. O armazenamento reduziu o vigor das sementes colhidas.Soybean mechanical harvest may bring qualitative losses to seeds. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of soybean seeds mechanically harvested by axial and conventional threshing systems, at different displacement speeds of the harvesters, before and after the storage period of six months. A randomized complete block design in a split-plot arrangement with four replications was used. The main plots were the harvest systems and the split-plots were the storage times. The harvest systems

  11. Role of nano-range amphiphilic polymers in seed quality enhancement of soybean and imidacloprid retention capacity on seed coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Shakil, Najam A; Pandey, Sushil

    2016-10-01

    Nano-size and wide-range solubility of amphiphilic polymers (having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks) can improve uniformity in seed coatings. An investigation was carried out to assess the positive effect of amphiphilic polymers over hydrophilic or hydrophobic polymers as seed coating agents and pesticide carriers. Amphiphilic polymers with 127.5-354 nm micelle size were synthesized in the laboratory using polyethylene glycols and aliphatic di-acids. After 6 months of storage, germination of uncoated soybean seeds decreased drastically from 97.80 to 81.55%, while polymer-coated seeds showed 89.44-95.92% germination. Similarly, vigour index-1 was reduced from 3841.10 to 2813.06 for control seeds but ranged from 3375.59 to 3844.60 for polymer-coated seeds after 6 months. The developed imidacloprid formulations retained more pesticide on soybean seed coatings than did a commercial formulation (Gaucho(®) 600 FS). The time taken for 50% release of imidacloprid from seed coatings in water was 7.12-9.11 h for the developed formulations and 0.41 h for the commercial formulation. Nano-range amphiphilic polymers can be used to protect soybean seeds from ageing. Formulations as seed treatments may produce improved and sustained efficacy with minimum environmental contamination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Enhanced seed viability and lipid compositional changes during natural aging by suppressing phospholipase Dα in soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Welti, Ruth; Roth, Mary; Schapaugh, William T.; Li, Jiarui; Trick, Harold N.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in phospholipid composition and consequent loss of membrane integrity are correlated with loss of seed viability. Furthermore, phospholipid compositional changes affect the composition of the triacylglycerols, i.e. the storage lipids. Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids to phosphatidic acid, and PLDα is an abundant PLD isoform. Although wild type seeds stored for 33 months were non-viable, 30 to 50% of PLDα-knockdown (PLD-KD) soybean seeds stored for 33 months germinated. Wild type and PLD-KD seeds increased in lysophospholipid levels and in triacylglycerol fatty acid unsaturation during aging, but the levels of lysophospholipids increased more in wild type than in PLD-KD seeds. The loss of viability of wild type seeds was correlated with alterations in ultrastructure, including detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall complex and disorganization of oil bodies. The data demonstrate that, during natural aging, PLDα affects the soybean phospholipid profile and the triacylglycerol profile. Suppression of PLD activity in soybean seed has potential for improving seed quality during long-term storage. PMID:21895945

  13. Enhanced seed viability and lipid compositional changes during natural ageing by suppressing phospholipase Dα in soybean seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghoon; Welti, Ruth; Roth, Mary; Schapaugh, William T; Li, Jiarui; Trick, Harold N

    2012-02-01

    Changes in phospholipid composition and consequent loss of membrane integrity are correlated with loss of seed viability. Furthermore, phospholipid compositional changes affect the composition of the triacylglycerols (TAG), i.e. the storage lipids. Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyses the hydrolysis of phospholipids to phosphatidic acid, and PLDα is an abundant PLD isoform. Although wild-type (WT) seeds stored for 33 months were non-viable, 30%-50% of PLDα-knockdown (PLD-KD) soybean seeds stored for 33 months germinated. WT and PLD-KD seeds increased in lysophospholipid levels and in TAG fatty acid unsaturation during ageing, but the levels of lysophospholipids increased more in WT than in PLD-KD seeds. The loss of viability of WT seeds was correlated with alterations in ultrastructure, including detachment of the plasma membrane from the cell wall complex and disorganization of oil bodies. The data demonstrate that, during natural ageing, PLDα affects the soybean phospholipid profile and the TAG profile. Suppression of PLD activity in soybean seed has potential for improving seed quality during long-term storage. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renake N; Ligterink, Wilco; França-Neto, José de B; Hilhorst, Henk W M; da Silva, Edvaldo A A

    2016-02-01

    Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in mature seeds and is associated with lower oil and seed quality, thus negatively impacting the production of soybean seeds. Here we show that heat and drought stress result in a "mild" stay-green phenotype and impaired expression of the STAY-GREEN 1 and STAY-GREEN 2 (D1, D2), PHEOPHORBIDASE 2 (PPH2) and NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1_1) genes in soybean seeds of a susceptible soybean cultivar. We suggest that the higher expression of these genes in fully mature seeds of a tolerant cultivar allows these seeds to cope with stressful conditions and complete chlorophyll degradation. The gene expression results obtained in this study represent a significant advance in understanding chlorophyll retention in mature soybean seeds produced under stressful conditions. This will open new research possibilities towards finding molecular markers for breeding programs to produce cultivars which are less susceptible to chlorophyll retention under the hot and dry climate conditions which are increasingly common in the largest soybean production areas of the world.

  15. Seed storage protein components are associated with curled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... analysis suggests that the two increased protein spots in mutants were ... The main objective of this work was to gain further understanding of the influence of curled cotyledon on the seed storage protein components in soybean by com- .... cotyledon formation during Arabidopsis embryogenesis: interaction.

  16. STORAGE OF Handroanthus umbellatus SEEDS

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    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815725Seed storage under controlled environmental conditions represents one of the most important lines of research to be applied on short-lived forest species as Handroanthus. The present research aimed to identify the most suitable seed storage conditions and longevity behavior of Handroanthus umbellatus seeds subject to the following storage treatments: packaging permeable paper bags under a no-controlled laboratory temperature and humidity (control and multiwall semipermeable bag at temperatures of -18 ºC, 1 ºC and 25 ºC. Seeds were dried to 6.3% of water content. Stored seeds were evaluated every three months until 24 months for water content, germination percentage and vigor utilizing first counting test. Seeds of T. umbellata are orthodox, with low longevity under natural conditions, once they remain viable for less than 5 months. The best conditions of seed preservation of these species were obtained by storage at -18° C in multiwall bags. Under these conditions physiological seed quality remains unchanged for a 24-month period.

  17. Size, physiological quality, and green seed occurrence influenced by seeding rate in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Sampaio Ferreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seeding rate influences the intraspecific competition, which might affect the development and quality of seeds in soybean. However, the impact of seeding rate on the physical and physiological qualities of soybean seeds needs to be better elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean plant density on the seed size as well as the effects of the interaction between the plant density and seed size on the seed mass, green seed occurence, and physiological seed quality. The experiments were carried out in the growing seasons of the years 2013/14 and 2014/15 in a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, under a randomized complete block design, using the NK 7059 RR cultivar with six replications. Four plant densities (150, 300, 440, and 560 thousand viable seeds ha–1 were evaluated. After the classification of seeds into four sizes, using a set of sieves, a 4 ×4 factorial scheme was used for the statistical analysis of the four plant densities and four seed sizes. The seed samples were evaluated for the seed mass, green seed percentage, germination, and vigor. Under thermal and water stress during seed development, an increase in the seeding rate led to a reduction in the green seed occurrence and an increase in the seed size and mass. However, in the absence of thermal and water stress, the seed size and mass were not altered by the seeding rate and, there was no occurrence of green seeds.

  18. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  19. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

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    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  20. Multiple loci condition seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and SMV-induced seed coat mottling in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domier, Leslie L; Hobbs, Houston A; McCoppin, Nancy K; Bowen, Charles R; Steinlage, Todd A; Chang, Sungyul; Wang, Yi; Hartman, Glen L

    2011-06-01

    Infection of soybean plants with Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), which is transmitted by aphids and through seed, can cause significant reductions in seed production and quality. Because seedborne infections are the primary sources of inoculum for SMV infections in North America, host-plant resistance to seed transmission can limit the pool of plants that can serve as sources of inoculum. To examine the inheritance of SMV seed transmission in soybean, crosses were made between plant introductions (PIs) with high (PI88799), moderate (PI60279), and low (PI548391) rates of transmission of SMV through seed. In four F(2) populations, SMV seed transmission segregated as if conditioned by two or more genes. Consequently, a recombinant inbred line population was derived from a cross between PIs 88799 and 548391 and evaluated for segregation of SMV seed transmission, seed coat mottling, and simple sequence repeat markers. Chromosomal regions on linkage groups C1 and C2 were significantly associated with both transmission of isolate SMV 413 through seed and SMV-induced seed coat mottling, and explained ≈42.8 and 46.4% of the variability in these two traits, respectively. Chromosomal regions associated with seed transmission and seed coat mottling contained homologues of Arabidopsis genes DCL3 and RDR6, which encode enzymes involved in RNA-mediated transcriptional and posttranscriptional gene silencing.

  1. Vegetable soybean: seed composition and production research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuying Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable soybean (edamame [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is a low input, high nutritional value, short crop cycle and soil-enriching profitable crop. It offers quick economic return and provides health benefits to the consumers. The market demand for edamame has begun to flourish and expand dramatically in recent decades due to increased awareness of nutritional properties, and the change in life styles towards healthier food. This article highlighted the importance of edamame as a nutraceutical and functional food-grade produce, summarised the research advances in seed composition and their roles, cultivar selection and crop establishment, planting date and fertilisation, weed management and harvesting. Current production problem of extensive labor at harvest and future research challenges in improving crop establishment, developing cultivars competitive to weed and resistant to pest insects/diseases, assessing biological activities of edamame elemental and phytochemical properties on cancer cell inhibition, and developing organic production system were also proposed with aims of enhancing farm profitability and expanding opportunities for extensive use of edamame.

  2. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  3. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  4. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Pierce

    Full Text Available The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  5. Integrated and comparative proteomics of high-oil and high-protein soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Ping; Liu, Hui; Tian, Lihong; Dong, Xiang Bai; Shen, Shi Hua; Qu, Le Qing

    2015-04-01

    We analysed the global protein expression in seeds of a high-oil soybean cultivar (Jiyu 73, JY73) by proteomics. More than 700 protein spots were detected and 363 protein spots were successfully identified. Comparison of the protein profile of JY73 with that of a high-protein cultivar (Zhonghuang 13, ZH13) revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins, including oil synthesis, redox/stress, hydrolysis and storage-related proteins. All redox/stress proteins were less or not expressed in JY73, whereas the expression of the major storage proteins, nitrogen and carbon metabolism-related proteins was higher in ZH13. Biochemical analysis of JY73 revealed that it was in a low oxidation state, with a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. Vitamin E was more active than antioxidant enzymes and protected the soybean seed in a lower oxidation state. The characteristics of high oil and high protein in soybean, we revealed, might provide a reference for soybean nutrition and soybean breeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enzyme activity and seedling growth of soybean seeds under accelerated aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollhhi Nooshabadi S.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed aging is the main problem of seed storage. Changes of bio-chemical and reduction of seedling growth are consequence of seed deterioration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of accelerated aging on soybean seed germination indexes and enzyme activity. Seeds were incubated in closed plastic boxes for the accelerated aging treatments. Three accelerate aging regimes were performed by placing seeds at 41°C and relative humidity (RH of 90-100 % for 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days periods. Our results showed that increasing aging duration resulted higher reduction in germination characteristics, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. Germination percentage, means time to germination, germination index, normal seedling percentage and enzyme activity decrease significantly.

  7. Discrimination of transgenic soybean seeds by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Discrimination of genetically modified organisms is increasingly demanded by legislation and consumers worldwide. The feasibility of a non-destructive discrimination of glyphosate-resistant and conventional soybean seeds and their hybrid descendants was examined by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system combined with chemometrics. Principal component analysis (PCA), least squares-support vector machines (LS-SVM) and PCA-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN) models with the first and second derivative and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation pre-treatments were applied to classify soybean seeds based on genotype. Results demonstrated clear differences among glyphosate-resistant, hybrid descendants and conventional non-transformed soybean seeds could easily be visualized with an excellent classification (accuracy was 88.33% in validation set) using the LS-SVM and the spectra with SNV pre-treatment. The results indicated that THz spectroscopy techniques together with chemometrics would be a promising technique to distinguish transgenic soybean seeds from non-transformed seeds with high efficiency and without any major sample preparation.

  8. Genetic similarity of soybean genotypes revealed by seed protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More accurate and complete descriptions of genotypes could help determinate future breeding strategies and facilitate introgression of new genotypes in current soybean genetic pool. The objective of this study was to characterize 20 soybean genotypes from the Maize Research Institute "Zemun Polje" collection, which have good agronomic performances, high yield, lodging and drought resistance, and low shuttering by seed proteins as biochemical markers. Seed proteins were isolated and separated by PAA electrophoresis. On the basis of the presence/absence of protein fractions coefficients of similarity were calculated as Dice and Roger and Tanamoto coefficient between pairs of genotypes. The similarity matrix was submitted for hierarchical cluster analysis of un weighted pair group using arithmetic average (UPGMA method and necessary computation were performed using NTSYS-pc program. Protein seed analysis confirmed low level of genetic diversity in soybean. The highest genetic similarity was between genotypes P9272 and Kador. According to obtained results, soybean genotypes were assigned in two larger groups and coefficients of similarity showed similar results. Because of the lack of pedigree data for analyzed genotypes, correspondence with marker data could not be determined. In plant with a narrow genetic base in their gene pool, such as soybean, protein markers may not be sufficient for characterization and study of genetic diversity.

  9. Identification of geneticaly modified soybean seeds resistant to glyphosate

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    Tillmann Maria Ângela André

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genetic engineering permit the modification of plants to be tolerant to certain herbicides that are usually not selective. For practical and commercial purposes, it is important to be able to detect the presence or absence of these traits in genotypes. The objective of this research was to develop a procedure for identifying genetically modified soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. with resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Two studies were conducted based on germination test. In the first study, soybean seeds were pre-imbibed in paper towel with the herbicide solutions, then transferred to moist paper towel for the germination test. In the second study, seeds were placed directly in herbicide solutions in plastic cups and tested for germination using the paper towel method. Eight soybean genotypes were compared: four Roundup Ready, that contained the gene resistant to the herbicide (G99-G725, Prichard RR, G99-G6682, and H7242 RR and four non-transgenic parental cultivars (Boggs, Haskell, Benning, and Prichard. In the first study, the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours at 25°C in herbicide concentrations between 0.0 and 1.5% of the glyphosate active ingredient. In the second, seeds were subjected to concentrations between 0.0 and 0.48%, for one hour, at 30°C. The evaluation parameters were: germination, hypocotyl length, root length and total length of the seedlings. Both methods are efficient in identifying glyphosate-resistant soybean genotypes. It is possible to identify the genetically modified soybean genotypes after three days, by imbibing the seed in 0.12% herbicide solution, and after six days if the substrate is pre-imbibed in a 0.6% herbicide solution. The resistance trait was identified in all cultivars, independent of the initial physiological quality of the seed.

  10. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  11. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  12. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  13. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  14. Gene expression profiling of the green seed problem in Soybean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nogueira Teixeira, Renake; Ligterink, Wilco; B. França-Neto, de José; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Silva, da E.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the climate change of the past few decades, some agricultural areas in the world are now experiencing new climatic extremes. For soybean, high temperatures and drought stress can potentially lead to the "green seed problem", which is characterized by chlorophyll retention in

  15. Storage requirements for sugar maple seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry W. Yawney; Clayton M., Jr. Carl

    1974-01-01

    Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2, and -10ºC) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significantly affected keeping ability, and these factors were highly interrelated. Seeds from all trees kept best...

  16. Constitutive expression of feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase increases methionine levels in soybean leaves and seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yang; HOU Wen-sheng; YaeI Hacham; SUN Shi; WU Cun-xiang; Ifat Matityahu; SONG Shikui; RacheI Amir; HAN Tian-fu

    2018-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a major crop that provides plant-origin protein and oil for humans and livestock. Although the soybean vegetative tissues and seeds provide a major source of high-quality protein, they suffer from low concentration of an essential sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, which significantly limits their nutritional quality. The level of methionine is mainly controlled by the first unique enzyme of methionine synthesis, cystathione γ-synthase (CGS). Aiming to elevate methionine level in vegetative tissues and seeds, we constitutively over-expressed a feedback-insensitive Arabidopsis CGS (AtD-CGS) in soybean cultivars, Zigongdongdou (ZD) and Jilinxiaoli 1 (JX). The levels of soluble methionine increased remarkably in leaves of transgenic soybeans compared to wild-type plants (6.6- and 7.3-fold in two transgenic ZD lines, and 3.7-fold in one transgenic JX line). Furthermore, the total methionine contents were significantly increased in seeds of the transgenic ZD lines (1.5- to 4.8-fold increase) and the transgenic JX lines (1.3- to 2.3-fold increase) than in the wild type. The protein contents of the transgenic soybean seeds were significantly elevated compared to the wild type, suggesting that the scarcity of methionine in soybeans may limit protein accumulation in soybean seeds. The increased protein content did not alter the profile of major storage proteins in the seeds. Generally, this study provides a promising strategy to increase the levels of methionine and protein in soybean through the breeding programs.

  17. A correlation between tocopherol content and antioxidant activity in seeds and germinating seeds of soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Young; Park, Hyang Mi; Hwang, Tae Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kim, Mi Jung; Lee, Seuk Ki; Seo, Min Jung; Kim, Kee Jong; Kwon, Young-Up; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Yul Ho

    2015-03-15

    Tocopherols are crucial lipid-soluble antioxidants and essential nutrients. There is increasing interest in the biofortification of crops with vitamin E for reducing micronutrient malnutrition. However, relatively little is known about the development of soybean cultivars with high levels of tocopherol through combined breeding. Tocopherol contents of seeds and germinating seeds of 28 Korean soybean cultivars were analyzed and evaluated for health-promoting activities. Total tocopherol concentrations ranged from 203.9 to 503.1 µg g⁻¹ in seeds and from 20.1 to 230.1 µg g⁻¹ in germinating seeds. The traditional landraces of HaNagari (HN, 503.1 µg g⁻¹), Orialtae (OL, 486.6 µg g⁻¹), SuMoktae (SM, 476.5 µg g⁻¹) and SoRitae (SR, 475.5 µg g⁻¹) showed high levels of tocopherol content. The contents of the four isomers of tocopherol in seeds and germinating seeds were correlated with lipid peroxidation. The γ- and δ-tocopherol contents in seeds were related to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (0.434; P tocopherol content was higher in soybean landraces as compared with modern cultivars developed by cross-breeding. These results suggest that soybean breeding is necessary to increase tocopherol levels. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. De novo Genome Assembly and Single Nucleotide Variations for Soybean Mosaic Virus Using Soybean Seed Transcriptome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV, infecting soybean by de novo transcriptome assembly followed by blast search. We assembled a nearly complete consensus genome sequence of SMV China using transcriptome data. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the consensus genome sequence of SMV China was closely related to SMV isolates from South Korea. We examined single nucleotide variations (SNVs for SMVs in the soybean seed transcriptome revealing 780 SNVs, which were evenly distributed on the SMV genome. Four SNVs, C-U, U-C, A-G, and G-A, were frequently identified. This result demonstrated the quasispecies variation of the SMV genome. Taken together, this study carried out bioinformatics analyses to identify viruses using soybean transcriptome data. In addition, we demonstrated the application of soybean transcriptome data for virus genome assembly and SNV analysis.

  19. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  20. Genetic improvement of soybean seed proteins by γ-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Keisuke

    1998-01-01

    Although soybeans have the highest protein content among seed crops, the protein quality is poor due to the low content of the sulfur-containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Soybean 7S globulin and 11S globulin are the two major protein components, accounting for about 70% of the total seed protein. The 11S globulin contains three to four times more methionine and cysteine per unit protein than that of the 7S globulin. Furthermore, the two globulins show considerable differences in food processing properties such as gel-making ability and emulsifying capacity. The 7S globulin is composed of three kinds of polypeptides, designated as α, α' and β subunits. A variety of soybean cv. Keburi, which lacks α' subunit was identified in a germplasm collection. An induced mutant line which lacks both α and α' subunits, was recently identified in the progeny of γ-ray-irradiated seeds from a line lacking α' subunit. On the other hand, the 11S globulin is composed of the A 1a B 2 , A 1b B 1b , A 2 B 1a , A 3 B 4 and A 4 A 5 B 3 subunits. It has become possible to breed soybeans with markedly modified protein composition from extremely high to extremely low 7S : 11S ratios using mutant genes for the subunits of the two globulins. Lipoxygenase catalyzes the hydroperoxydation of unsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated lipids. Soybean seeds contain three lipoxygenase isozymes, called L-1, L-2 and L-3, which are responsible for the generation of grassy-beany and bitter tastes, limiting the use of whole soybeans and soy proteins in certain food products. In the early 1980s, three types of spontaneous mutant soybean varieties lacking L-1, L-2 or L-3 were detected. Soybean cultivars having the lipoxygenase-null traits could become economically valuable for the manufacture of soy products such as soy milk due to their low levels of beany taste and their enhanced storage stability. (J.P.N.)

  1. Comparative Biochemical and Proteomic Analyses of Soybean Seed Cultivars Differing in Protein and Oil Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Chul Woo; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, So Wun; Lee, So Eui; Kim, Yong Chul; Bae, Dong Won; Han, Won Young; Lee, Byong Won; Ko, Jong Min; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Kim, Sun Tae

    2015-08-19

    This study develops differential protein profiles of soybean (Glycine max) seeds (cv. Saedanbaek and Daewon) varying in protein (47.9 and 39.2%) and oil (16.3 and 19.7%) content using protamine sulfate (PS) precipitation method coupled with a 2D gel electrophoresis (2DGE) approach. Of 71 detected differential spots between Daewon and Saedanbaek, 48 were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Gene ontology analysis revealed that up-regulated proteins in Saedanbaek were largely associated with nutrient reservoir activity (42.6%), which included mainly seed-storage proteins (SSPs; subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin). Similar results were also obtained in two cultivars of wild soybean (G. soja cv. WS22 and WS15) differing in protein content. Western blots confirmed higher accumulation of SSPs in protein-rich Saedanbaek. Findings presented and discussed in this study highlight a possible involvement of the urea cycle for increased accumulation of SSPs and hence the higher protein content in soybean seeds.

  2. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Shu; Ying Qi; Feng Chen; Yongjie Meng; Xiaofeng Luo; Haiwei Shuai; Wenguan Zhou; Jun Ding; Junbo Du; Jiang Liu; Feng Yang; Qiang Wang; Weiguo Liu; Taiwen Yong; Xiaochun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease i...

  3. Quantitative proteomics of seed filling in castor: comparison with soybean and rapeseed reveals differences between photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic seed metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Norma L; Hajduch, Martin; Thelen, Jay J

    2009-10-01

    Seed maturation or seed filling is a phase of development that plays a major role in the storage reserve composition of a seed. In many plant seeds photosynthesis plays a major role in this process, although oilseeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis), are capable of accumulating oil without the benefit of photophosphorylation to augment energy demands. To characterize seed filling in castor, a systematic quantitative proteomics study was performed. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to resolve and quantify Cy-dye-labeled proteins expressed at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks after flowering in biological triplicate. Expression profiles for 660 protein spot groups were established, and of these, 522 proteins were confidently identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry by mining against the castor genome. Identified proteins were classified according to function, and the most abundant groups of proteins were involved in protein destination and storage (34%), energy (19%), and metabolism (15%). Carbon assimilatory pathways in castor were compared with previous studies of photosynthetic oilseeds, soybean (Glycine max) and rapeseed (Brassica napus). These comparisons revealed differences in abundance and number of protein isoforms at numerous steps in glycolysis. One such difference was the number of enolase isoforms and their sum abundance; castor had approximately six times as many isoforms as soy and rapeseed. Furthermore, Rubisco was 11-fold less prominent in castor compared to rapeseed. These and other differences suggest some aspects of carbon flow, carbon recapture, as well as ATP and NADPH production in castor differs from photosynthetic oilseeds.

  4. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Influence of ionizing radiation and storage conditions upon some quality parameters of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beczner, J.; Kiss, I.; Peredi, J.

    1983-01-01

    Soyflour produced for animal feeding in a pilot plant was occasionally contaminated to an extent exceeding the microbiological standard set for human consumption. The suitability of ionizing radiation to reduce microbiological contamination was investigated. Soybeans of different moisture content (9 and 13%) were irradiated and stored in spaces of different relative humidity (55 and 75%) at 5-15 deg C or 20-25 deg C temperature. The soybeans samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy, resp. The storage experiments have shown the humidity of the storage room to be of extreme importance to the propagation of moulds. The inhibitory effect of a temperature of 5-10 deg C in itself is not sufficient, neither is the effect of the radiation dose applied during a longer storage period. It was established that the moisture content of the seeds affected strongly the quality of the extracted oil. The unfavourable effects increase at higher temperatures. The radiation doses applied in the experiments did not affect the quality of the oil. It was concluded that the microbial contamination of soybeans can be kept at the initial low value by treatment with 1 kGy radiation dose, even under unfavourable storage conditions for a period of 2 months. Thus, irradiation may be applied as a temporary solution to stabilize the microbiological state of soybeans. (author)

  6. Yield and acidity indices of sunflower and soybean oils in function of grain drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the best conditions for drying and storing soybeans and sunflower grains to maintain their quality. In the first experiment, the soybeans were found to have initial moisture contents of 25 and 19% (w.b. at different drying air temperatures (75, 90, 105, and 120°C. In the second step, the soybeans were evaluated after they were stored in paper bags and plastic polyethylene at temperatures of 3, 10 and 23°C for six months. In the third experiment, sunflower grains were tested after exposure to drying air temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C, and under storage conditions of 25°C and 50%, 20°C and 60%, 30°C and 40% RH over six months in paper bags and raffia. Drying the sunflower seeds at 45°C and storing them at 30°C and 40% RH led to higher oil yields and lower acid numbers. The oil that was extracted from the acid number was higher for soybean grains that were dried down from initial concentrations of 25% water at a drying air temperature of 120°C. The air temperature in storage at 3°C favored for yield and reduction of the soybean oil acidity.

  7. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja tratadas e armazenadas - Physiological quality of treated and stored soybean seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cruvinel Rocha

    2017-07-01

    During storage as seeds or grains may suffer in their chemical composition, because of the storage environment. In view of this, a production of high quality physiological seeds will depend on the sum of all genetic, physical, physiological and sanitary attributes. However, little is known about the effects of seeds by harvesting, drying, processing and storage for long periods of time. Therefore, it was conducted in the seed laboratory of the University of Rio Verde, in order to evaluate a physiological quality of seeds treated under different storage conditions. The experimental design was used for the completely randomized 2x5x7, two storage conditions (conventional and air conditioned warehouse, five seed treatments and seven evaluation periods, with four replications. At 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 days after an imposition of treatments for evaluated germination, emergence speed index, accelerated aging and root length. The chemical treatments applied in soybean seeds (cultivar M 7739 IPRO reduced seed vigor. Keywords: Glycine max, germination, vigor.

  8. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  9. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by

  10. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  11. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  13. Antifungal Activity of Leaf and Latex Extracts of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against Dominant Seed-Borne Storage Fungi of Some Oil Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Manoorkar V B; Mandge S V; B D Gachande

    2015-01-01

    In present study, aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) was tested for their antifungal activity against dominant storage seed-borne fungi of some oil seeds such as groundnut, soybean, sunflower and mustard. The antifungal effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf & latex of Calotropis procera (Ait.) against ten seed-borne dominant fungi viz., Cuvularia lunata, Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani, Penicillium chrysogenum, Asperg...

  14. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  15. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  16. Influence of He-Ne laser irradiation of soybean seeds on seed mycoflora, growth, nodulation, and resistance to Fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouf, S.A.; Abdel-Hady, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Laser irradiation of soybean seeds for 3 min caused a clear reduction in the number of seed-borne fungi which became more pronounced as the irradiation time was extended. Pretreatment of the seeds with methylene blue, methyl red and carmine enhanced the effect of laser. Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria tenuissima, Cercospora kikuchii and Colletotrichum truncatum were completely eliminated when the seeds were pretreated with a dye and irradiated for 10 min. Seed germination was stimulated on exposure of the seed to 1-min irradiation. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid content of developed plants differed, depending on the irradiation dose and dye treatment of the seeds. The number and dry mass of nodules were mostly greater (as compared to the corresponding control), when the seeds irradiated for 1 or 3 min were pretreated with methyl red, chlorophenol red, crystal violet and methylene blue. Irradiation of pre-sowing seeds greatly protected soybean stands against F. solani

  17. Weeding volatiles reduce leaf and seed damage to field-grown soybeans and increase seed isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiojiri, Kaori; Ozawa, Rika; Yamashita, Ken-Ichi; Uefune, Masayoshi; Matsui, Kenji; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Tokumaru, Susumu; Takabayashi, Junji

    2017-01-30

    Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2-3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant-plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary.

  18. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro derived shoots of olive cv. Moraiolo were employed in synthetic seeds preparation by alginate encapsulation, and then stored in artificial endosperm solution at cold (4°C) and room storage (21 ± 2°C) conditions in interaction with different storage intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days to evaluate the comparative ...

  19. Quality of second season soybean submitted to drying and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Pedro Hartmann Filho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying agricultural products reduces the moisture content to suitable levels for storage, in order to maintain the product quality. However, special care with the temperatures applied in the process is important for the integrity and longevity of the material. The present study aimed at determining the immediate and latent effect of air-drying temperatures on the quality of soybean produced as a second season crop. The grains were collected at the R8 stage, close to the physiological maturity, with moisture content of approximately 23 % (w.b., submitted to drying temperatures of 40 ºC, 50 ºC, 60 ºC, 70 ºC and 80 ºC, up to a moisture content of 12.5 ± 0.7 % (w.b., and then stored under non-controlled humidity and temperature for 180 days. Thereafter, quality was assessed every 45 days by determining the dry matter loss, color and crude protein and lipid contents, as well as the acidity and peroxide indices of the crude oil extracted. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the increase in the air-drying temperature affects the soybean quality and crude oil extracted, being this effect enhanced with the storage time; the soybean and crude oil quality decline with an increase in the air-drying temperature and storage time; the air temperature of 40 ºC has the least effect on the quality of soybean grains and crude oil extracted.

  20. Effects of Accelerated Aging on Soybean Seed Germination Indexes at Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra RASTEGAR; Mohammad SEDGHI; Saeid KHOMARI

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of seedling growth is a consequence of seed deterioration. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of duration of seed aging on soybean seed germination characteristics. Experiment conducted as completely randomized design with 4 replications. The seeds of �DPX� line of soybean with 15-16% moisture were incubated for 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 day at 40�C in sealed containers for ageing treatment and non aged seeds were considered as control. Results showed that rapid aging treatm...

  1. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Using the candidate gene approach for detecting genes underlying seed oil concentration and yield in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-07-01

    Increasing the oil concentration in soybean seeds has been given more attention in recent years because of demand for both edible oil and biodiesel production. Oil concentration in soybean is a complex quantitative trait regulated by many genes as well as environmental conditions. To identify genes governing seed oil concentration in soybean, 16 putative candidate genes of three important gene families (GPAT: acyl-CoA:sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, DGAT: acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and PDAT: phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase) involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis pathways were selected and their sequences retrieved from the soybean database ( http://www.phytozome.net/soybean ). Three sequence mutations were discovered in either coding or noncoding regions of three DGAT soybean isoforms when comparing the parents of a 203 recombinant inbreed line (RIL) population; OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe. The RIL population was used to study the effects of these mutations on seed oil concentration and other important agronomic and seed composition traits, including seed yield and protein concentration across three field locations in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. An insertion/deletion (indel) mutation in the GmDGAT2B gene in OAC Wallace was significantly associated with reduced seed oil concentration across three environments and reduced seed yield at Woodstock in 2010. A mutation in the 3' untranslated (3'UTR) region of GmDGAT2C was associated with seed yield at Woodstock in 2009. A mutation in the intronic region of GmDGAR1B was associated with seed yield and protein concentration at Ottawa in 2010. The genes identified in this study had minor effects on either seed yield or oil concentration, which was in agreement with the quantitative nature of the traits. However, the novel gene-specific markers designed in the present study can be used in soybean breeding for marker-assisted selection aimed at increasing seed yield and oil

  3. Recombinant expression of homodimeric 660 kDa human thyroglobulin in soybean seeds: an alternative source of human thyroglobulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rebecca; Hudson, Laura C; Lambirth, Kevin C; Luth, Diane; Wang, Kan; Bost, Kenneth L; Piller, Kenneth J

    2011-07-01

    Soybean seeds possess many qualities that make them ideal targets for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one quality often overlooked is their ability to stockpile large amounts of complex storage proteins. Because of this characteristic, we hypothesized that soybean seeds would support recombinant expression of large and complex proteins that are currently difficult or impossible to express using traditional plant and non-plant-based host systems. To test this hypothesis, we transformed soybeans with a synthetic gene encoding human thyroglobulin (hTG)-a 660 kDa homodimeric protein that is widely used in the diagnostic industry for screening and detection of thyroid disease. In the absence of a recombinant system that can produce recombinant hTG, research and diagnostic grade hTG continues to be purified from cadaver and surgically removed thyroid tissue. These less-than-ideal tissue sources lack uniform glycosylation and iodination and therefore introduce variability when purified hTG is used in sensitive ELISA screens. In this study, we report the successful expression of recombinant hTG in soybean seeds. Authenticity of the soy-derived protein was demonstrated using commercial ELISA kits developed specifically for the detection of hTG in patient sera. Western analyses and gel filtration chromatography demonstrated that recombinant hTG and thyroid-purified hTG are biologically similar with respect to size, mass, charge and subunit interaction. The recombinant protein was stable over three generations and accumulated to ~1.5% of total soluble seed protein. These results support our hypothesis that soybeans represent a practical alternative to traditional host systems for the expression of large and complex proteins.

  4. Computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in Nepalese mustard seed oil based on fatty acid composition

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Kshitij; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was carried out for the computational estimation of soybean oil adulteration in the mustard seed oil using chemometric technique based on fatty acid composition. Principal component analysis and K-mean clustering of fatty acid composition data showed 4 major mustard/rapeseed clusters, two of high erucic and two of low erucic mustard type. Soybean and other possible adulterants made a distinct cluster from them. The methodology for estimation of soybean oil adulteration was deve...

  5. Effect of high oleic acid soybean on seed oil, protein concentration, and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans with high oleic acid content are desired by oil processors because of their improved oxidative stability for broader use in food, fuel and other products. However, non-GMO high-oleic soybeans have tended to have low seed yield. The objective of this study was to test non-GMO, high-oleic s...

  6. Enviromental Effects on Oleic Acid in Soybean Seed Oil of Plant Introductions with Elevated Oleic Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] oil with oleic acid content >500 g per kg is desirable for a broader role in food and industrial uses. Seed oil in commercially grown soybean genotypes averages about 230 g per kg oleic acid (18:1). Some maturity group (MG) II to V plant introductions (PIs) have el...

  7. 31P NMR study of phosphate metabolites in intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, P.N.; Pande, P.C.; Ratcliffe, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The study of 31 P NMR spectra of intact developing seeds of wheat, soybean and mustard and its possible use for assessing the relative degree of hypoxia under in vivo conditions are reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  8. Distribution and utilization of nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules by plants during seeds developing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Severino Matias de

    1997-01-01

    An experiment was carried out, using radioisotopes, for evaluation of the leaf, schuck and seeds areas and, examination of the pattern which is used by the nitrogenated compounds explanted by the soybean nodules

  9. Modelamento da perda de qualidade de sementes de soja, em função das condições iniciais e da atmosfera no armazenamento Modeling of quality loss of soybean seeds as a function of initial conditions and of storage atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Afonso Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se predizer o potencial germinativo de sementes de soja durante o armazenamento, foi conduzido um experimento com sementes da variedade Santa Rosa, com umidade inicial 0,333 (base seca, que passaram por um processo de secagem a temperatura de 30 °C e 40 % de umidade relativa, até atingirem os teores de umidade de 0,111, 0,176 e 0,250 base seca. As sementes foram acondicionadas em sacos de papel e mantidas em diferentes temperaturas de armazenagem (5, 10, 20 e 30 °C e sua viabilidade foi avaliada depois da secagem e a cada 10 dias, durante 60 dias, empregando-se o teste-padrão de germinação. De maneira geral, para a maioria dos testes a temperatura e o teor de umidade afetaram a germinação das sementes de soja, durante o período de armazenamento, porém para as temperaturas de armazenagem de 5 e 10 °C, as sementes mantiveram a viabilidade em níveis satisfatórios, independente do teor de umidade do produto. Os resultados experimentais de germinação foram avaliados ajustando-se os modelos matemáticos: exponencial e probabilístico. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitiram concluir-se que a temperatura e o teor de umidade das sementes afetam a germinação das sementes de soja, durante o período de armazenamento, e que o modelo exponencial foi o que melhor se ajustou aos dados experimentais.In order to predict the germination potencial of soybean seeds of the Santa Rosa variety during storage, an experiment was conducted, The seeds with initial moisture content of 0.333 (dry basis were dried under an air temperature of 30 ºC and relative humidity of 40% until the moisture content of 0.111; 0.176 and 0.250 (dry basis were reached. The seeds were conditioned in paper bags and maintained under different storage temperatures (5, 10, 20 and 30 °C. The seed viability was evaluated just after drying and every 10 days, during 60 days, applying the standard germination test. In general, for the majority of the tests

  10. Physiological quality of soybean seeds produced in four edaphoclimatic regions of Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Frandoloso,Volmir; Meneghello,Géri Eduardo; André,Maria Ângela; Deuner,Cristiane; Menegaz,Winicius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:The production of soybeans in the state of Santa Catarina is quite significant in the national context, since the state is recognized for producing seeds with high standards of physiological quality, due to the use of modern technologies and favorable climatic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds produced by major companies in the state of Santa Catarina, analyzed in three seasons: harvesting (reception at UBS), after processing...

  11. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    OpenAIRE

    Gris,Cristiane Fortes; Pinho,Edila Vilela de Resende Von; Carvalho,Maria Laene de Moreira; Diniz,Rafael Parreira; Andrade,Thaís de

    2013-01-01

    Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the muni...

  12. Non-destructive analysis of the oil composition of soybean seeds by natural abundance carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Kano, H.; Ishida, N.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    The signals of fatty acids in the form of triglycerides were observed in the 13 C NMR spectrum of an intact soybean seed. The major fatty acid component composition of triglycerides in a soybean seed, which includes linoleic acid, oleic acid and palmitic acid, was estimated by subtracting the spectra of authentic fatty acids from the spectrum of the intact soybean seeds. The fatty acid compositions of seeds of 11 Japanese soybean cultivars and 5 lines bred at the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) were estimated by this rapid (within 1hr for one seed) and nondestructive analytical method. (author)

  13. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lu; Yong-Cai Lai; Wei-Guang Du; Wei-Qun Man; Shou-Yi Chen; Jin-Song Zhang; Qing Xiong; Tong Cheng; Qing-Tian Li; Xin-Lei Liu; Ying-Dong Bi; Wei Li; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic loci during domestication.Introgression of genes from wild soybeans could broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits.In this study,through whole-genome sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44,and mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed weight,we discovered that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase in seed weight/size.PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes.We found that PP2C-1 is associated with GmBZR1,a soybean ortholog of Arabidopsis BZR1,one of key transcription factors in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling,and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1.In contrast,the PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at the N-terminus did not exhibit this function.Moreover,we showed that GmBZR1 could promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants.Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions,we found that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele,suggesting that these accessions can be improved by introduction of this allele.Taken together,our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1,which can enhance seed weight and/or size in soybean,and pinpoints that manipulation of this allele by molecular-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  14. Electron beam irradiation: a novel technology to enhance the quality of soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, Shashi; Srinivasan, K.; Singh, Subadas; Thakur, Manju; Sharma, S.K.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, J.; Bapna, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Soybean seeds, rich in protein and oil, maintain their germinability only for short durations under ambient conditions. Loss of viability of stored seeds often hampers soybean production in harsh environments worldwide. Physiological factors favored by high temperature and high moisture content accelerate the seed deterioration in the tropics. Several chemical and physical treatments are being used to enhance quality. Irradiation is a novel technology for food preservation and is gaining importance all over the world. Low doses of irradiation bring about improvement in quality of food/seeds, which can be beneficial in several ways. Electron Beam (EB) irradiation is a new approach in this area. The objective of present study was to investigate the effect of EB irradiation in enhancing the quality of low vigour soybean seeds

  15. Water binding by soybean seeds as measured by pulsed NMR.

    OpenAIRE

    掛澤, 雅章; 望月, 務; 海老根, 英雄; MASAAKI, KAKEZAWA; TSUTOMU, MOCHIZUKI; HIDEO, EBINE; 中央味噌研究所; 東海物産株式会社; 中央味噌研究所; Central Miso Research Institute; Tokai Bussan, Co.; Central Miso Research Institute

    1983-01-01

    The water in soybean powder, soaked soybeans and cooked soybeans was fractionated into unfrozen water and freezable water from the data on the free induction decay freezing curve, and into bound and mobile fractions from the data on the spin-spin relaxation curve by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of soaking and cooking conditions on the state of water were examined. In soybean powder of several hydration levels, the freezing curves showed that the levels of unfrozen water were...

  16. Identification of a single gene for seed coat impermeability in soybean PI 594619.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Hirut; Smith, James R; Ray, Jeffery D

    2014-09-01

    Inheritance studies and molecular mapping identified a single dominant gene that conditions seed coat impermeability in soybean PI 594619. High temperatures during seed fill increase the occurrence of soybeans with impermeable seed coat, which is associated with non-uniform and delayed germination and emergence. This can be an issue in soybean production areas with excessively high-temperature environments. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the inheritance of impermeable seed coat under a high-temperature environment in the midsouthern United States and to map the gene(s) that affect this trait in a germplasm line with impermeable seed coat (PI 594619). Crosses were made between PI 594619 and an accession with permeable seed coat at Stoneville, MS in 2008. The parental lines and the segregating populations from reciprocal crosses were grown in Stoneville in 2009. Ninety-nine F2:3 families and parents were also grown at Stoneville, MS in 2011. Seeds were assayed for percent impermeable seed coat using the standard germination test. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and F2:3 families indicated that seed coat impermeability in PI 594619 is controlled by a single major gene, with impermeable seed coat being dominant to permeable seed coat. Molecular mapping positioned this gene on CHR 2 between markers Sat_202 and Satt459. The designation of Isc (impermeable seed coat) for this single gene has been approved by the Soybean Genetics Committee. Selection of the recessive form (isc) may be important in developing cultivars with permeable seed coat for high-heat production environments. The single-gene nature of impermeable seed coat may also have potential for being utilized in reducing seed damage caused by weathering and mold.

  17. Static magnetic field treatment of seeds improves carbon and nitrogen metabolism under salinity stress in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, Lokesh; Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, Kadur Narayan

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of magnetopriming was assessed for alleviation of salt-induced adverse effects on soybean growth. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with static magnetic field (SMF) of 200 mT for 1 h to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and yield of soybean plants under different salinity levels (0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl). The adverse effect of NaCl-induced salt stress was found on growth, yield, and various physiological attributes of soybeans. Results indicate that SMF pre-treatment significantly increased plant growth attributes, number of root nodules, nodules, fresh weight, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic performance under both non-saline and saline conditions as compared to untreated seeds. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at J-I-P phase. Nitrate reductase activity, PIABS , photosynthetic pigments, and net rate of photosynthesis were also higher in plants that emerged from SMF pre-treated seeds as compared to untreated seeds. Leghemoglobin content and hemechrome content in root nodules were also increased by SMF pre-treatment. Thus pre-sowing exposure of seeds to SMF enhanced carbon and nitrogen metabolism and improved the yield of soybeans in terms of number of pods, number of seeds, and seed weight under saline as well as non-saline conditions. Consequently, SMF pre-treatment effectively mitigated adverse effects of NaCl on soybeans. It indicates that magnetopriming of dry soybean seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for alleviating salinity stress. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Vernonia DGATs can complement the disrupted oil and protein metabolism in epoxygenase-expressing soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Tateno, Mizuki; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Hildebrand, David F

    2012-01-01

    Plant oils can be useful chemical feedstocks such as a source of epoxy fatty acids. High seed-specific expression of a Stokesia laevis epoxygenase (SlEPX) in soybeans only results in 3-7% epoxide levels. SlEPX-transgenic soybean seeds also exhibited other phenotypic alterations, such as altered seed fatty acid profiles, reduced oil accumulation, and variable protein levels. SlEPX-transgenic seeds showed a 2-5% reduction in total oil content and protein levels of 30.9-51.4%. To address these pleiotrophic effects of SlEPX expression on other traits, transgenic soybeans were developed to co-express SlEPX and DGAT (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) genes (VgDGAT1 & 2) isolated from Vernonia galamensis, a high accumulator of epoxy fatty acids. These side effects of SlEPX expression were largely overcome in the DGAT co-expressing soybeans. Total oil and protein contents were restored to the levels in non-transgenic soybeans, indicating that both VgDGAT1 and VgDGAT2 could complement the disrupted phenotypes caused by over-expression of an epoxygenase in soybean seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coregulation of Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Gene Expression by Methyl Jasmonate and Soluble Sugars 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Hugh S.; DeWald, Daryll B.; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668757

  20. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  1. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrin Abdullah; Ahdin Gassa; Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin; Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conduc...

  2. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Gassa, Ahdin; Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Agus, Nurariaty; Fattah, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted...

  3. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to study combinations of high doses of boron (B) and zinc (Zn) in the recoating of perennial soybean seeds, in order to provide these nutrients to the future plants. The physical, physiological and nutritional characteristics of the coated seeds and initial development of plants in a greenhouse ...

  5. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Shu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA1, GA3, and GA4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA1/ABA, GA3/ABA, and GA4/ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  6. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Qi, Ying; Chen, Feng; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shuai, Haiwei; Zhou, Wenguan; Ding, Jun; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Weiguo; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Yang, Wenyu

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease in the GA/ABA ratio. This study suggests that fluridone (FLUN), an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, might be a potential plant growth regulator that can promote soybean seed germination under saline stress. Different soybean cultivars, which possessed distinct genetic backgrounds, showed a similar repressed phenotype during seed germination under exogenous NaCl application. Biochemical analysis revealed that NaCl treatment led to high MDA (malondialdehyde) level during germination and the post-germinative growth stages. Furthermore, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase activities also changed after NaCl treatment. Subsequent quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction analysis showed that the transcription levels of ABA and GA biogenesis and signaling genes were altered after NaCl treatment. In line with this, phytohormone measurement also revealed that NaCl considerably down-regulated active GA 1 , GA 3 , and GA 4 levels, whereas the ABA content was up-regulated; and therefore ratios, such as GA 1 /ABA, GA 3 /ABA, and GA 4 /ABA, are decreased. Consistent with the hormonal quantification, FLUN partially rescued the delayed-germination phenotype caused by NaCl-treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate that NaCl stress inhibits soybean seed germination by decreasing the GA/ABA ratio, and that FLUN might be a potential plant growth regulator that could promote soybean seed germination under salinity stress.

  7. Pesticidal seed coats based on azadirachtin-A: release kinetics, storage life and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Keyath; Kumar, Jitendra; Arun Kumar, M B; Walia, Suresh; Shakil, Najam A; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

    2009-02-01

    Infestation of seeds by pests during storage leads to deterioration in quality. Seed coating is an effective option to overcome the menace. Unlike synthetic fungicidal seed coats, little is known of those based on botanicals. This study aims at developing azadirachtin-A-based pesticidal seed coats to maintain seed quality during storage. Polymer- and clay-based coats containing azadirachtin-A were prepared and evaluated for quality maintenance of soybean seed during storage. Gum acacia, gum tragacanth, rosin, ethyl cellulose, hydroxyethyl cellulose, polyethyl methacrylate, methyl cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and Agrimer VA 6 polymers and the clay bentonite were used as carriers. The time for 50% release (t(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A into water from the seeds coated with the different coats ranged from 8.02 to 21.36 h. The half-life (T(1/2)) of azadirachtin-A in the coats on seed ranged from 4.37 to 11.22 months, as compared with 3.45 months in azadirachtin-A WP, showing an increase by a factor of nearly 1.3-3.3 over the latter. The coats apparently acted as a barrier to moisture to reduce azadirachtin-A degradation and prevented proliferation of storage fungi. Polyethyl methacrylate, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were significantly superior to the other polymers. Azadirachtin-A showed a significant positive correlation with seed germination and vigour, and negative correlation with moisture content. Effective polymeric carriers for seed coats based on azadirachtin-A are reported. These checked seed deterioration during storage by acting as a barrier to moisture and reduced the degradation of azadirachtin-A.

  8. Relationship between color (instrumental and visual) and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnecker, Patrícia; Gomes, M Salete O; Arêas, José A G; Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M

    2002-07-03

    The correlation between chlorophyll content and quantitative color parameters was investigated in order to find an indirect method for predicting green pigment in ripening soybean seeds. Five Brazilian soybean varieties harvested at different maturity stages (R(6) to R(8) according to the scale of Fehr & Caviness) and dried under two conditions (in oven at 40 degrees C with circulating air and at ambient temperature around 25 degrees C) were analyzed in two consecutive years. The slow-dried seeds at 25 degrees C lost chlorophyll faster, whereas drying at 40 degrees C did not result in yellowing of seeds. High and significant linear correlations between a value and total chlorophyll were obtained over the whole maturation period and on both conditions of drying. From an industrial point of view it appears that a value, obtained by the CIE-L*a*b* method, seems to be a good tool to be applied for quality control and classifying soybean seeds for different purposes.

  9. New sources of soybean seed meal and oil composition traits identified through TILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilyeu Kristin D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several techniques are available to study gene function, but many are less than ideal for soybean. Reverse genetics, a relatively new approach, can be utilized to identify novel mutations in candidate genes; this technique has not produced an allelic variant with a confirmed phenotype in soybean. Soybean raffinose synthase genes and microsomal omega-6 fatty acid desaturase genes were screened for novel alleles in mutagenized soybean populations. Results Four mutations in independent lines were identified in the raffinose synthase gene RS2; two mutations resulted in amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed oligosaccharide phenotype. The resulting phenotype was an increase in seed sucrose levels as well as a decrease in both raffinose and stachyose seed oligosaccharide levels. Three mutations in independent lines were identified in the omega-6 fatty acid desaturase gene FAD2-1A; all three mutations resulted in missense amino acid mutations and one resulted in an altered seed fatty acid profile that led to an increase in oleic acid and a decrease in linoleic acid in the seed oil. Conclusion The oligosaccharide phenotype controlled by the novel RS2 allele is similar to previously observed seed oligosaccharide phenotypes in RS2 mutant (PI 200508 allele-containing lines. Due to the anti-nutritional characteristics of raffinose and stachyose, this represents a positive change in seed composition. The fatty acid phenotype controlled by the novel FAD2-1A allele controls an increase in oleic acid in the seed oil, a phenotype also observed in a line previously characterized to have a null allele of the FAD2-1A gene. Molecular marker assays were developed to reliably detect the inheritance of the mutant alleles and can be used in efficient breeding for these desired seed phenotypes. Our results serve as the first demonstration of the identification of soybean mutants controlling seed phenotypes discovered through the

  10. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis. PMID:26902640

  11. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun; Feng, Yuqi; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-02-23

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interestingly, KAR only retarded soybean seed germination under shaded conditions, rather than under dark and white light conditions, which differs from in Arabidopsis. Phytohormone quantification showed that KAR enhanced ABA biogenesis while impairing GA biosynthesis during the seed imbibition process, and subsequently, the ratio of active GA4 to ABA was significantly reduced. Further qRT-PCR analysis showed that the transcription pattern of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolic pathways are consistent with the hormonal measurements. Finally, fluridone, an ABA biogenesis inhibitor, remarkably rescued the delayed-germination phenotype of KAR-treatment; and paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Taken together, these evidences suggest that KAR inhibit soybean seed germination by mediating the ratio between GA and ABA biogenesis.

  12. Karrikins delay soybean seed germination by mediating abscisic acid and gibberellin biogenesis under shaded conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yongjie; Chen, Feng; Shuai, Haiwei; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jun; Tang, Shengwen; Xu, Shuanshuan; Liu, Jianwei; Liu, Weiguo; Du, Junbo; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Feng; Sun, Xin; Yong, Taiwen; Wang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    Karrikins (KAR) are a class of signal compounds, discovered in wildfire smoke, which affect seed germination. Currently, numerous studies have focused on the model plant Arabidopsis in the KAR research field, rather than on crops. Thus the regulatory mechanisms underlying KAR regulation of crop seed germination are largely unknown. Here, we report that KAR delayed soybean seed germination through enhancing abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, while impairing gibberellin (GA) biogenesis. Interest...

  13. Gene expression in the lignin biosynthesis pathway during soybean seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoni, A; Von Pinho, E V R; Fernandes, J S; Abreu, V M; Carvalho, M L M

    2013-02-28

    The study of gene expression in plants is fundamental, and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in important biological processes, such as biochemical pathways or signaling that are used or manipulated in improvement programs, are key for the production of high-quality soybean seeds. Reports related to gene expression of lignin in seeds are scarce in the literature. We studied the expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, 4-hydroxycinnamate 3-hydroxylase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes involved in lignin biosynthesis during the development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) seeds. As the endogenous control, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta gene was used in two biological replicates performed in triplicate. Relative quantitative expression of these genes during the R4, R5, R6, and R7 development stages was analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the gene expression study. The analyses were carried out in an ABI PRISM 7500 thermocycler using the comparative Ct method and SYBR Green to detect amplification. The seed samples at the R4 stage were chosen as calibrators. Increased expression of the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and PAL genes occurred in soybean seeds at the R5 and R6 development stages. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene was expressed during the final development phases of soybean seeds. In low-lignin soybean cultivars, the higher expression of the PAL gene occurs at development stages R6 and R7. Activation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway occurs at the beginning of soybean seed development.

  14. Partial improvements in the flavor quality of soybean seeds using intercropping systems with appropriate shading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Yang, Cai-qiong; Zhang, Qing; Lou, Ying; Wu, Hai-jun; Deng, Jun-cai; Yang, Feng; Yang, Wen-yu

    2016-09-15

    The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cobalt-60 gamma irradiation on viability of soybean (glycine max. l) seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addai, Isaac Kwahene

    2001-12-01

    The rapid rate of deterioration and low viability of soybean seeds particularly in storage is a major constraint to its production in the subtropical and tropical areas. Various approaches have been made to solve this problem but they have centred mainly on the control of the environment. Experimental mutagenesis is one of the ways by which genetic variability could be created to serve as basis for selection. In this study, induced mutations were used to create genetic variation and mutants with improved storability selected to provide a more lasting solution to this problem. Seeds of three soybean varieties - Gmx 92-6-10, Gmx 92-5-4E and TGX 87D- 1303 were subjected to four (4) months ambient storage and three accelerated ageing tests. The germination percentages computed 7 days after planting showed that 20% ethanol solution better mimicked ambient storage than 20% methanol solution and the 75°C hot water. In the radiation dosage response studies, dry seeds containing 10% moisture from the three varieties were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy doses of 60Co gamma rays at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and sown. The 250 Gy dose reduced both germination percentage and plant height by about 50% relative to the control and was used as the dosage appropriate for induced mutations for the varieties. Five thousand M2 plants were harvested and screened individually for improved storability using 20% ethanol solution, storing threshed seeds at ambient condition and storing seeds in pods also at ambient conditions. The 20% ethanol solution was less effective in selecting putative in mutants compared to the two ambient storage screening methods, but could be used as an initial screening method. The variety Gmx 92-6-10 was generally considered to give the greatest response to irradiation because it produce the largest proportion of putative mutant improved storability in two out of the three screening methods used at the M2 generation. Since TGX 87D 1

  16. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. �Sari� (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. �Sari�.

  17. Study of Different Priming Treatments on Germination Traits of Soybean Seed Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Reza ROUHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds are more susceptible to deterioration due to membrane disruption, high free fatty acid level in seeds and free radical production. These factors are tended to less vigorous seed. Priming treatments have been used to accelerate the germination and seedling growth in most of the crops under normal and stress conditions. For susceptible and low vigor soybean seed, this technique would be a promising method. At first, in separate experiment, effects of hydropriming for (12, 24, 36 and 48 h with control (none prime were evaluated on germination traits of soybean seed lots cv. Sari (include 2 drying method and 3 harvest moisture. Then, next experiment was conducted to determination the best combination of osmopriming in soybean seed lots, hence 3 osmotic potential level (-8, -10 and -12 bar at 4 time (12, 24, 36 and 48 h were compared. Analysis of variance showed that, except for seedling dry weight, the other traits include standard germination, germination rate, seedling length and vigor index were influenced by osmopriming. Hydropriming had no effect on these traits and decreased rate of germination. Finally the best combination of osmopriming were osmotic potential -12 bar at 12 hours for time, that submitted acceptable result in all conditions and recommended for soybean seed lots cv. Sari.

  18. Diagnosis and recommendation integrated system (DRIS of soybean seed oil content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castamann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS can improve interpretations of leaf analysis to determine the nutrient status. Diagnoses by this method require DRIS norms, which are however not known for oil content of soybean seeds. The aims of this study were to establish and test the DRIS method for oil content of soybean seed (maturity group II cultivars. Soybean leaves (207 samples in the full flowering stage were analyzed for macro and micro-nutrients, and the DRIS was applied to assess the relationship between nutrient ratios and the seed oil content. Samples from experimental and farm field sites of the southernmost Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul (28° - 29° southern latitude; 52° -53° western longitude were assessed in two growing seasons (2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The DRIS norms related to seed oil content differed between the studied years. A unique DRIS norm was established for seed oil content higher than 18.68 % based on data of the 2007/2008 growing season. Higher DRIS indices of B, Ca, Mg and S were associated with a higher oil content, while the opposite was found for K, N and P. The DRIS can be used to evaluate the leaf nutrient status of soybean to improve the seed oil content of the crop.

  19. eQTL Networks Reveal Complex Genetic Architecture in the Immature Soybean Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Tsi Bolon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The complex network of regulatory factors and interactions involved in transcriptional regulation within the seed is not well understood. To evaluate gene expression regulation in the immature seed, we utilized a genetical genomics approach on a soybean [ (L. Merr.] recombinant inbred line (RIL population and produced a genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL dataset. The validity of the dataset was confirmed by mapping the eQTL hotspot for flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes to a region containing repeats of chalcone synthase (CHS genes known to correspond to the soybean inhibitor locus that regulates seed color. We then identified eQTL for genes with seed-specific expression and discovered striking eQTL hotspots at distinct genomic intervals on chromosomes (Chr 20, 7, and 13. The main eQTL hotspot for transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis genes also coincided with regulation of oleosin genes. Transcriptional upregulation of genesets from eQTL with opposite allelic effects were also found. Gene–eQTL networks were constructed and candidate regulatory genes were identified from these three key loci specific to seed expression and enriched in genes involved in seed oil accumulation. Our data provides new insight into the complex nature of gene networks in the immature soybean seed and the genetic architecture that contributes to seed development.

  20. Rate and duration of seed filling and yield of soybean affected by water and radiation deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed filling and yield of soybean under water and radiation deficits were investigated during 2011 and 2012. Treatments were irrigations (I1, I2, I3 and I4 for irrigation after 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm evaporation from class A pan, respectively in main plots and light interceptions (L1: 100 %, L2: 65 % and L3: 25 % sunlight in sub-plots. Seeds per plant under I1 and I2 decreased, but under I3 and I4 increasedas a result of radiation deficit. Maximum seed weight and seed filling duration of plants under 25 % light interception (L3 were higher than those under full sunlight (L1 and 65 % light interception (L2. In contrast, plants under full sunlight had the highest seed filling rate, particularly under water stress. Seed filling duration under severe light deficit (L3 was about 9 days longer than that under full sunlight (L1, leading to 15.8 % enhancement in maximum seed weight. Decreasing seed yield of soybean under well watering and mild water stress and improving it under moderate and severe water deficit due to low solar radiation are directly related with changes in seed filling duration and consequently in seed weight and number of seeds per plant under these conditions.

  1. Does feeding by Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) reduce soybean seed quality and yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D R; Herbert, D A; Dively, G P; Reisig, D D; Kuhar, T P

    2013-06-01

    The nonnative brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), has become an abundant pest of mid-Atlantic soybean since its introduction in the mid-1990s. Currently, there is little information indicating how this new pest should be managed in soybean or if economic thresholds developed for native stink bugs should be adjusted. In 2010 and 2011, field cage studies were conducted in Beltsville, MD, and Suffolk, VA, to evaluate H. halys injury to three different soybean reproductive development stages. Cages were infested for 2 wk using densities of zero, one, two, four, or eight stink bugs (fifth instars and adults) per 0.3 row-m. Cage plots were harvested, and subsamples were taken to determine pod losses and seed quality. Feeding injury to soybean caused by H. halys was similar to that of native stink bugs, as evidenced by seed destruction, punctures, and destroyed pods. Densities of four stink bugs per 0.3 row-m resulted in significant seed damage in three of four experiments. The full flowering (R2) soybean development stage was least affected by H. halys feeding. The full pod (R4) and the full seed (R6) stage were similarly sensitive to injury. There was no significant yield loss was associated with stink bug densities at either location, although there were significant differences among stages in two of four experiments. The data do not indicate that threshold densities for H. halys should be different than for the native stink bugs.

  2. Effect of the vigour and of the fungicide treatment in the germination and sanity tests of soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Delineide Pereira; Barrozo, Leandra Matos; Souza, Apolyana Lorraine; Sader, Rubens [UNESP; Silva, Gilvania Campos [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Soybeans seeds with different levels of vigour, treated and or no with fungicide were submitted to the test of germination in the sand and roll substrates of paper and the test of sanity. In test of germination, there were only significant differences between treatments that used soybeans with high vigour and with low vigour, regardless of the presence or absence of fungicide treatment, in the two substrates. The soybeans with low vigour no treated provided the largest percentages of seed con...

  3. Seed Protein Content and Consistency of Tofu Prepared with Different Magnesium Chloride Concentrations in Six Japanese Soybean Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Kyoko; Ono, Tomotada; Kitamura, Keisuke; Hajika, Makita; Takahashi, Koji; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between the protein content of soybean seeds and the consistency of tofu was examined for six Japanese soybean varieties, Enrei, Fukuyutaka, Sachiyutaka, Ayakogane, Hatayutaka and Tachinagaha. The seed protein content was estimated by determining the nitrogen content using the Dumas method. Tofu was prepared from a raw homogenate of water-soaked soybeans by heating and by the addition of MgCl_2 as a coagulant. The tofu consistency was evaluated by measuring the breaking stres...

  4. Silicon application to the soil on soybean yield and seed physiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of quality seeds, balanced plant nutrition and the adoption of adequate cultivation techniques are critical to the success of the soybean crop. Use of silicon (Si is a clean technology from an environmental point of view, which can confer several benefits to the plants as stimulate growth and plant production, improve tolerance of plants to attack by insects and diseases, reduce perspiration and increase the photosynthetic rate and protect against abiotic stresses. The goal was to evaluate the effect of soil Si application derived from rice husk ash on the agronomic characteristics, productivity and physiological quality of soybean cultivars seeds. The experiment was conducted in pots of 18 L filled with soil, under a randomized block design with four replications. The soybean cultivars were BMX Turbo RR and NA 5909 RR, grown under five doses of silicon (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha-1. Agronomic traits and seed yield were evaluated (total number of pods on branches, total number of seeds on the branches, the total number of pods on the main stem, total number of seeds on the main stem, total number of pods per plant, total number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and seed weight of 1000. Physiological seed quality was evaluated by germination and vigor tests (first count of germination, cold test, accelerated aging, shoot length and root. The soil application of silicon is beneficial for the soybean crop, improving the main agronomic characteristics (total number of pods on branches, total number of seeds in the branches, total number of pods per plant, weight of seeds per plant and increasing seed yield per plant in soybean cultivar BMX Turbo RR. The mass of a thousand seeds is positively influenced by the dose of 1.67 t ha-1 for the cultivar BMX Turbo RR and up to a dose of 2.32 t ha-1 for the cultivar NA 5909 RR. Cultivar BMX Turbo RR seed vigor is increased with the use of silicon in the soil.

  5. Expression of genes SBP and leginsulin in contrasting soybean seed coats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Bahry

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Evaluation of differential candidate gene expression in contrasting soybean seeds is an auxiliary tool in the partial elucidation of processes involved in seeds formation, as well as it contributes to the generation of new information that can be used in future research or in the development of r genetic superior constitutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of two candidate genes, SBP and leginsulin genes, possibly involved in seed quality, in contrasting coats of four soybean genotypes. Two cultivars of yellow soybeans were used, BMX Potência RR and CD 202, and two lines of black soybean, TP and IAC. Gene expression was evaluated using qPCR in seven stages of development from seed coats for four genotypes, at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 days after anthesis. The design was completely randomized, with three replications. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey's test at 5% probability. SBP and leginsulin gene have higher expression in the early phases of development from seed coats of BMX Potência RR cultivar, followed by the IAC line. These genotypes are therefore of interest for further research involving these genes.

  6. Estimates of genetics and phenotypics parameters for the yield and quality of soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambiazzi, E V; Bruzi, A T; Guilherme, S R; Pereira, D R; Lima, J G; Zuffo, A M; Ribeiro, F O; Mendes, A E S; Godinho, S H M; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-09-27

    Estimating genotype x environment (GxE) parameters for quality and yield in soybean seed grown in different environments in Minas Gerais State was the goal of this study, as well as to evaluate interaction effects of GxE for soybean seeds yield and quality. Seeds were produced in three locations in Minas Gerais State (Lavras, Inconfidentes, and Patos de Minas) in 2013/14 and 2014/15 seasons. Field experiments were conducted in randomized blocks in a factorial 17 x 6 (GxE), and three replications. Seed yield and quality were evaluated for germination in substrates paper and sand, seedling emergence, speed emergency index, mechanical damage by sodium hypochlorite, electrical conductivity, speed aging, vigor and viability of seeds by tetrazolium test in laboratory using completely randomized design. Quadratic component genotypic, GXE variance component, genotype determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and environmental variation coefficient were estimated using the Genes software. Percentage analysis of genotypes contribution, environments and genotype x environment interaction were conducted by sites combination two by two and three sites combination, using the R software. Considering genotypes selection of broad adaptation, TMG 1179 RR, CD 2737 RR, and CD 237 RR associated better yield performance at high physical and physiological potential of seed. Environmental effect was more expressive for most of the characters related to soybean seed quality. GxE interaction effects were expressive though genotypes did not present coincidental behavior in different environments.

  7. Quantitative trait loci controlling sulfur containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine, in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthee, D R; Pantalone, V R; Sams, C E; Saxton, A M; West, D R; Orf, J H; Killam, A S

    2006-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is the single largest source of protein in animal feed. However, a major limitation of soy proteins is their deficiency in sulfur-containing amino acids, methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys). The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with Met and Cys concentration in soybean seed. To achieve this objective, 101 F(6)-derived recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a population developed from a cross of N87-984-16 x TN93-99 were used. Ground soybean seed samples were analyzed for Met and Cys concentration using a near infrared spectroscopy instrument. Data were analyzed using SAS software and QTL Cartographer. RIL differed (Pseed dry weight) for Cys and 4.4-8.8 (g kg(-1) seed dry weight) for Met. Heritability estimates on an entry mean basis were 0.14 and 0.57 for Cys and Met, respectively. A total of 94 polymorphic simple sequence repeat molecular genetic markers were screened in the RIL. Single factor ANOVA was used to identify candidate QTL, which were confirmed by composite interval mapping using QTL Cartographer. Four QTL linked to molecular markers Satt235, Satt252, Satt427 and Satt436 distributed on three molecular linkage groups (MLG) D1a, F and G were associated with Cys and three QTL linked to molecular markers Satt252, Satt564 and Satt590 distributed on MLG F, G and M were associated with Met concentration in soybean seed. QTL associated with Met and Cys in soybean seed will provide important information to breeders targeting improvements in the nutritional quality of soybean.

  8. Producing the target seed: Seed collection, treatment, and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Karrfalt

    2011-01-01

    The role of high quality seeds in producing target seedlings is reviewed. Basic seed handling and upgrading techniques are summarized. Current advances in seed science and technology as well as those on the horizon are discussed.

  9. Oxyradical accumulation and rapid deterioration of soybean seeds due to field weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sanjeev; Bhatia, V S; Guruprasad, K N

    2006-02-01

    The effect of field weathering on oxyradical accumulation and subsequent changes were studied in the seeds of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cv. JS 71-05. Electron spin resonance (ESR) quantification of oxyradical revealed that field weathering plays an important role in acceleration of their accumulation. One week of weathering increased the accumulation of oxyradicals to almost 2-fold and triggered the deteriorative cascade, by enhancing the lipid peroxidation and membrane perturbation, leading to cell death in seed tissues and poor germinability and vigour of soybean seeds. Thus, the weather conditions at the time of physiological maturity to harvesting of crop are very crucial and the field weathering plays a critical role for the maintenance of seed quality.

  10. Genetic mapping and validation of the loci controlling 7S α' and 11S A-type storage protein subunits in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Jeffrey D; Nguyen, Vi; Tashiro, Rebecca M; Anderson, Dale; Shi, Chun; Wu, Xiaoguang; Woodrow, Lorna; Yu, Kangfu; Cui, Yuhai; Li, Zenglu

    2018-03-01

    Four soybean storage protein subunit QTLs were mapped using bulked segregant analysis and an F 2 population, which were validated with an F 5 RIL population. The storage protein globulins β-conglycinin (7S subunit) and glycinin (11S subunits) can affect the quantity and quality of proteins found in soybean seeds and account for more than 70% of the total soybean protein. Manipulating the storage protein subunits to enhance soymeal nutrition and for desirable tofu manufacturing characteristics are two end-use quality goals in soybean breeding programs. To aid in developing soybean cultivars with desired seed composition, an F 2 mapping population (n = 448) and an F 5 RIL population (n = 180) were developed by crossing high protein cultivar 'Harovinton' with the breeding line SQ97-0263_3-1a, which lacks the 7S α', 11S A 1 , 11S A 2 , 11S A 3 and 11S A 4 subunits. The storage protein composition of each individual in the F 2 and F 5 populations were profiled using SDS-PAGE. Based on the presence/absence of the subunits, genomic DNA bulks were formed among the F 2 plants to identify genomic regions controlling the 7S α' and 11S protein subunits. By utilizing polymorphic SNPs between the bulks characterized with Illumina SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChips at targeted genomic regions, KASP assays were designed and used to map QTLs causing the loss of the subunits. Soybean storage protein QTLs were identified on Chromosome 3 (11S A 1 ), Chromosome 10 (7S α' and 11S A 4 ), and Chromosome 13 (11S A 3 ), which were also validated in the F 5 RIL population. The results of this research could allow for the deployment of marker-assisted selection for desired storage protein subunits by screening breeding populations using the SNPs linked with the subunits of interest.

  11. Sucrose and raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) in soybean seeds as influenced by genotype and growing location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Goyal, Lokesh; Dixit, Amit Kumar; Manjaya, J G; Dev, Jai; Swamy, M

    2010-04-28

    Sucrose content in soybean seeds is desired to be high because as a sweetness-imparting component, it helps in wider acceptance of soy-derived food products. Conversely, galactosyl derivatives of sucrose, that is, raffinose and stachyose, which are flatulence-inducing components, need to be in low concentration in soybean seeds not only for augmenting utilization of the crop in food uses but also for delivering soy meal with improved metabolizable energy for monogastric animals. In the present study, analysis of 148 soybean genotypes for sucrose and total raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) contents revealed a higher variation (4.80-fold) for sucrose than for RFOs content (2.63-fold). High-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed ranges of 0.64-2.53 and 2.09-7.1 mmol/100 g for raffinose and stachyose contents, respectively. As information concerning the environmental effects on the sucrose and RFOs content in soybean seeds is not available, we also investigated a set of seven genotypes raised at widely different geographical locations for these quality traits. Sucrose content was found to be significantly higher at cooler location (Palampur); however, differences observed for raffinose and stachyose contents across the growing locations were genotype-dependent. The results suggest that soybean genotypes grown at cooler locations may be better suited for processing soy food products with improved taste and flavor.

  12. Uptake and translocation of imidacloprid, clothianidin and flupyradifurone in seed-treated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Mitchell D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Baxendale, Frederick P; Siegfried, Blair D; Blankenship, Erin E; Nauen, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Seed treatment insecticides have become a popular management option for early-season insect control. This study investigated the total uptake and translocation of seed-applied [(14) C]imidacloprid, [(14) C]clothianidin and [(14) C]flupyradifurone into different plant parts in three soybean vegetative stages (VC, V1 and V2). The effects of soil moisture stress on insecticide uptake and translocation were also assessed among treatments. We hypothesized that (1) uptake and translocation would be different among the insecticides owing to differences in water solubility, and (2) moisture stress would increase insecticide uptake and translocation. Uptake and translocation did not follow a clear trend in the three vegetative stages. Initially, flupyradifurone uptake was greater than clothianidin uptake in VC soybeans. In V1 soybeans, differences in uptake among the three insecticides were not apparent and unaffected by soil moisture stress. Clothianidin was negatively affected by soil moisture stress in V2 soybeans, while imidacloprid and flupyradifurone were unaffected. Specifically, soil moisture stress had a positive effect on the distribution of flupyradifurone in leaves. This was not observed with the neonicotinoids. This study enhances our understanding of the uptake and distribution of insecticides used as seed treatments in soybean. The uptake and translocation of these insecticides differed in response to soil moisture stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Effect of abscisic acid on amino acid uptake and efflux in developing soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldan, S.J.; Brun, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating growth of developing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds is not fully understood. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of ABA on the in vitro uptake of asparagine and glutamine by isolated immature cotyledons in three soybean plant introduction (PI) lines with genotypic differences in seed growth rate and final seed weight. Cotyledons were incubated in uptake buffer solutions plus 14 C-asparagine or 14 C-glutamine and treatment concentrations of ABA. The ABA levels in the uptake solutions were 0, 10 -7 , 10 -6 , and 10 -5 M. The uptake rate of glutamine was approximately three times that of asparagine. Among PI lines, the heavy seeded line had a greater rate of asparagine uptake while the light seeded line had a greater rate of glutamine uptake. For asparagine, 10 -6 M ABA depressed uptake compared to the control. For glutamine, ABA enhanced uptake compared to the control at both 10 -6 and 10 -5 M. In an additional experiment, the authors observed no effect of ABA and K on the release of labeled asparagine from excised soybean seed coats. These data indicate that amino acid uptake rates are genotypically dependent and may be influenced by ABA concentration

  14. Lignification of the plant and seed quality of RR soybeans sprayed with herbicide glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Fortes Gris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differences in levels of lignin in the plant between conventional and transgenic cultivars RR has been reported by several authors, however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of spraying of glyphosate on the lignin in the plant and RR soybean seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological quality of RR transgenic soybean seeds and the lignin contents of plants sprayed with the herbicide glyphosate. The assays were conducted both in greenhouse and field in the municipality of Lavras, MG, in the agricultural year 2007/08. The experiment was arranged in a splitplot design with four replicates, considering the treatments hand weeding and herbicide glyphosate as plots, and five RR soybean cultivars (BRS 245 RR, BRS 247 RR, Valiosa RR, Silvânia RR and Baliza RR as splitplots. In the greenhouse, the cultivars tested were BRS 245 RR and Valiosa RR in a randomized block design with four replicates. The sprayings were carried out at stages V3, V7 and early R5 (3L/ha. The 1000 seed weight, mechanical injury, germination and germination velocity index, emergence velocity index, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and water soaking seed test, lignin content in the seed coat, in the stem and legumes were determined. The spraying of glyphosate herbicide, in greenhouse and field, did not alter the physiological quality of seeds and the lignin contents in the plant.

  15. Impact of Environment on the Biomass Composition of Soybean (Glycine max) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tamara; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Osmark, Veronika; McHale, Leah K; Alonso, Ana Paula

    2017-08-16

    Factors including genetics, fertilization, and climatic conditions, can alter the biomass composition of soybean seeds, consequently impacting their market value and usage. This study specifically determined the content of protein and oil, as well as the composition of proteinogenic amino acids and fatty acids in seeds from 10 diverse soybean cultivars grown in four different sites. The results highlighted that different environments produce a different composition for the 10 cultivars under investigation. Specifically, the levels of oleic and linoleic acids, important contributors to oil stability, were negatively correlated. Although the protein and oil contents were higher in some locations, their "quality" was lower in terms of composition of essential amino acids and oleic acid, respectively. Finally, proteinogenic histidine and glutamate were the main contributors to the separation between Central and Northern growing sites. Taken together, these results can guide future breeding and engineering efforts aiming to develop specialized soybean lines.

  16. Gene divergence of homeologous regions associated with a major seed protein content QTL in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji eLestari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding several modes of duplication contributing on the present genome structure is getting an attention because it could be related to numerous agronomically important traits. Since soybean serves as a rich protein source for animal feeds and human consumption, breeding efforts in soybean have been directed toward enhancing seed protein content. The publicly available soybean sequences and its genomically featured elements facilitate comprehending of quantitative trait loci (QTL for seed protein content in concordance with homeologous regions in soybean genome. Although parts of chromosome (Chr 20 and Chr 10 showed synteny, QTLs for seed protein content present only on Chr 20. Using comparative analysis of gene contents in recently duplicated genomic regions harboring QTL for protein/oil content on Chrs 20 and 10, a total of 27 genes are present in duplicated regions of both chromosomes. Notably, 4 tandem duplicates of the putative homeobox protein 22 (HB22 are present only on Chr 20 and this Medicago truncatula homolog expressed in endosperm at seed filling stage. These tandem duplicates could contribute on the protein/oil QTL of Chr 20. Our study suggests that non-shared gene contents within the duplicated genomic regions might lead to absence/presence of QTL related to protein/oil content.

  17. Adaptation of an ecdysone-based genetic switch for transgene expression in soybean seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semenyuk, E.G.; Schmidt, M.A.; Beachy, R.N.; Moravec, Tomáš; Woodford-Thomas, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2010), s. 987-999 ISSN 0962-8819 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Inducible expression * Soybean * Seed-specific genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.569, year: 2010

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy used to predict soybean seed germination and vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for differentiating levels in germination, vigor, and electrical conductivity of soybean seeds was investigated. For the 243 spectral data collected using the Perten DA7200, stratified sampling was used to obtain three calibration sets consisti...

  19. Inositol metabolism and phytase activity in normal and low phytic acid soybean seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic basis for the low seed phytic acid trait in soybean lines derived from the low phytic acid line (CX1834) of Wilcox et al (2000) is under investigation in several laboratories. Our objective was to measure metabolite levels associated with the phytic acid and raffinosaccharide biosyntheti...

  20. Soybean (Glycine max) WRINKLED1 transcription factor, GmWRI1a, positively regulates seed oil accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zheng, Yuhong; Dong, Zhimin; Meng, Fanfan; Sun, Xingmiao; Fan, Xuhong; Zhang, Yunfeng; Wang, Mingliang; Wang, Shuming

    2018-04-01

    Soybean is the world's most important leguminous crop producing high-quality protein and oil. Elevating oil accumulation in soybean seed is always many researchers' goal. WRINKLED1 (WRI1) encodes a transcription factor of the APETALA2/ethylene responsive element-binding protein (AP2/EREBP) family that plays important roles during plant seed oil accumulation. In this study, we isolated and characterized three distinct orthologues of WRI1 in soybean (Glycine max) that display different organ-specific expression patterns, among which GmWRI1a was highly expressed in maturing soybean seed. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and yeast one-hybrid experiments demonstrated that the GmWRI1a protein was capable of binding to AW-box, a conserved sequence in the proximal upstream regions of many genes involved in various steps of oil biosynthesis. Transgenic soybean seeds overexpressing GmWRI1a under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter showed the increased total oil and fatty acid content and the changed fatty acid composition. Furthermore, basing on the activated expressions in transgenic soybean seeds and existence of AW-box element in the promoter regions, direct downstream genes of GmWRI1a were identified, and their products were responsible for fatty acid production, elongation, desaturation and export from plastid. We conclude that GmWRI1a transcription factor can positively regulate oil accumulation in soybean seed by a complex gene expression network related to fatty acid biosynthesis.

  1. Changes in nutritional composition of soybean seed caused by feeding of pentatomid (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and alydid bugs (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Soon Do; Kim, Hyun Ju; Mainali, Bishwo Prasad

    2014-06-01

    Changes in protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content, and the weight loss of soybean seeds caused by the feeding of 6- to 7-d-old unmated male adults of the pentatomids Peizodorous hybneri (Gmelin) and Halymorpha halys (Stål), and an alydid, Riptortus pedestris (F.), were examined in the laboratory. Our goals were to determine which species had the greatest capacity to damage soybean seed and to measure the effect of that damage on the nutritional composition of soybean seed. Individuals of the three species were provided with a preweighed dry soybean seed and allowed to feed for 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 d, after which the remaining seed was analyzed for any change in weight, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate concentration. Lipids, carbohydrates, and seed weights were reduced by bug feeding, and the reduction was directly proportional to feeding duration. H. halys was found to be the most voracious feeder, reducing soybean seed weight by 42% after 24 d of feeding. There was a significant interaction between species and feeding duration for changes in nutritional components. Seeds fed on by H. halys had the highest incremental increase in protein content (13%) after 24 d of feeding, followed by those fed on by R. pedestris and P. hybneri. However, carbohydrates and lipid content of the soybean seeds fed by the tested insect species were found to decrease significantly. Soybean pods at mature stages remain in the field for a long period, and findings of our study suggest that longer exposure of the mature soybean pods to these pest species in the field may lead to low-quality seeds and lower yields, and may even affect the germination potential of the seeds.

  2. A novel FAD2-1 A allele in a soybean plant introduction offers an alternate means to produce soybean seed oil with 85% oleic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Lee, Jeong-Dong; Shannon, J Grover; Bilyeu, Kristin D

    2011-09-01

    The alteration of fatty acid profiles in soybean to improve soybean oil quality has been a long-time goal of soybean researchers. Soybean oil with elevated oleic acid is desirable because this monounsaturated fatty acid improves the nutrition and oxidative stability of soybean oil compared to other oils. In the lipid biosynthetic pathway, the enzyme fatty acid desaturase 2 (FAD2) is responsible for the conversion of oleic acid precursors to linoleic acid precursors in developing soybean seeds. Two genes encoding FAD2-1A and FAD2-1B were identified to be expressed specifically in seeds during embryogenesis and have been considered to hold an important role in controlling the seed oleic acid content. A total of 22 soybean plant introduction (PI) lines identified to have an elevated oleic acid content were characterized for sequence mutations in the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genes. PI 603452 was found to contain a deletion of a nucleotide in the second exon of FAD2-1A. These important SNPs were used in developing molecular marker genotyping assays. The assays appear to be a reliable and accurate tool to identify the FAD 2-1A and FAD2-1B genotype of wild-type and mutant plants. PI 603452 was subsequently crossed with PI 283327, a soybean line that has a mutation in FAD2-1B. Interestingly, soybean lines carrying both homozygous insertion/deletion mutation (indel) FAD2-1A alleles and mutant FAD2-1B alleles have an average of 82-86% oleic acid content, compared to 20% in conventional soybean, and low levels of linoleic and linolenic acids. The newly identified indel mutation in the FAD2-1A gene offers a simple method for the development of high oleic acid commercial soybean varieties.

  3. VARIABILITY IN PHENOTYPIC EXPRESSION OF SEED QUALITY TRAITS IN SOYBEAN GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the genetic variability of chosen soybean lines in seed quality by determining diversity in phenotypic expression of 1000 seed weight, as well as protein and oil concentrations in the seed. Field trials were set up in a randomized, complete block design with two replications, at the Agricultural Institute Osijek during three growing seasons (2010-2012. Each year, after harvest, 1000 seed weight, and protein and oil concentrations in the seed were determined. Statistical analyses of the results included: calculating basic measures of variation and analysis of variance. The analyzed data showed the existence of plant material's diversity in phenotypic expression of investigated seed quality traits, as well as the existence of statistically significant genotype and year effects.

  4. Soybean seeds expressing feedback-insensitive cystathionine γ-synthase exhibit a higher content of methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shikui; Hou, Wensheng; Godo, Itamar; Wu, Cunxiang; Yu, Yang; Matityahu, Ifat; Hacham, Yael; Sun, Shi; Han, Tianfu; Amir, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial flow and 3.0 mm, 15 mm and 3.0 mm for a combine with tangential flow and three cylinder rotations on the quality of soybean seeds harvested at two moisture contents. Soybean seeds of cultivar 'ND 4910' were harvested at 16.6% moisture (mid - morning and 13.7% moisture in the afternoon. The seeds quality was evaluated by germination tests, germination speed index (GSI, germination rate, moisture content, percentage of purity and vigor by tetrazolium test. Despite the combine, the results showed that the mechanical injury has most reduced seeds quality, at 16.6% moisture content, concave opening of 30 mm (axial and 10 mm (tangential and cylinder rotation of 1100 rpm (axial and 1000 (tangential, both with the highest rotations used. The combine with tangential flow had the highest degree of seeds purity. When seeds moisture content at harvest was close to 13.7%, there was the highest seed injury, while, at 16.6%, there was the highest number of crushed soybeans, regardless the combine adjustment.

  6. Storage Potential of Local Brazilian Pine Seed Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhyane Garcia Araldi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazilian pine seeds (Araucaria angustifolia are recalcitrant, and there are no studies evaluating the longevity of their different varieties. Our objective was to evaluate the capacity of different varieties of Brazilian pine seeds to maintain their physiological quality during storage. Seeds of the varieties: sancti josephi (I, angustifolia (II, caiova (III and indehiscens (IV were collected from two populations located in Santa Catarina, and stored under laboratory conditions and in a cold room for 90 days. On average, freshly harvested seeds showed 88% viability, and varieties II and III maintained the greatest viability (with the greatest vigor for variety II after 90 days in storage. Varieties I and II maintained their pre-germinative metabolism for a longer period than the other varieties during storage. Therefore, seeds from the angustifolia variety (II have higher storage potential than the other varieties, maintaining approximately 61% viability at 90 days of storage.

  7. Electrical conductivity of the seed soaking solution and soybean seedling emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Roberval Daiton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vigor of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds can be evaluated by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC of the seed soaking solution, which has shown a satisfactory relationship with field seedling emergence, but has not had aproper definition of range yet. This work studies the relationship between EC and soybean seedling emergence both in the field and laboratory conditions, using twenty two seed lots. Seed water content, standard germination and vigor (EC, accelerated aging and cold tests were evaluated under laboratory conditions using -0.03; -0.20; -0.40 and -0.60 MPa matric potentials, and field seedling emergence was also observed. There was direct relationship between EC and field seedling emergence (FE. Under laboratory conditions, a decreasing relationship was found between EC and FE as water content in the substrate decreased. Relationships between these two parameters were also found when -0.03; -0.20 and -0.40 MPa matric potentials were used. EC tests can be used successfully to evaluate soybean seed vigor and identify lots with higher or lower field emergence potential.

  8. Viability of soybean seed produced under different agro-meteorological conditions in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaković Milka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the time of soybean seed sowing in the field, a high soil moisture, low soil and air temperatures, and crasts formation may occur, which can lead to slow germination, poor seedling establishment, and in some cases to loss of seed vigor. Due to the importance and prevalence of soybean the aim of this study was to determine the quality and seed viability of different genotypes produced at three locations in Vojvodina during 2009 and 2010. Eight soybean varieties (Afrodita, Valjevka, Balkan, Novosadjanka, Ravnica, Ana, Vojvodjanka and Venera produced in Vrbas, Senta and Inđija during 2009 and 2010 were tested. Seed germination was determined using Standard laboratory test, and vigor tests (cold test, and accelerated aging test. Studied genotypes baheved differently in different years and at different localities. Genotype Venera achieved high germination values in all applied tests in 2009, while genotype Afrodita had high values of the tested parameter when conventional laboratory test was applied, and the lowest values were recorded when vigor tests were applied. Values obtained in 2010 when all tests were applied were above the prescribed minimum. Locality of Vrbas proved to be more favorable for seed production in relation to localities of Indjija and Senta due to better rainfall distribution.

  9. Evaluation of seed chemical quality traits and sensory properties of natto soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yoko; Chen, Pengyin; Zhang, Bo; Scaboo, Andrew; Orazaly, Moldir

    2014-06-15

    Natto is a popular soyfood in Japan, and the U.S. is the largest supplier of natto soybeans. However, information on natto seed chemical and sensory properties is very limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of seed chemical and sensory properties among natto types and determine heritability and correlation. A total of 15 small-seeded natto genotypes (three superior, nine moderate and three inferior) were evaluated for protein, oil, calcium, manganese, boron and sugar content and processed into a natto product to evaluate appearance, stickiness, flavor, texture and shelf-life. The superior natto group had a higher sugar content but lower protein plus oil, calcium, manganese and boron content than other two groups. Most seed quality traits exhibited high heritability. The natto sensory preference was positively correlated with sucrose and oil content, but negatively correlated with seed hardness, protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron contents. Selecting soybean lines with low protein, protein plus oil, calcium, manganese, and boron content while with high sucrose will be an effective approach for soybean breeding for natto production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Non-destructive technique for determining the viability of soybean (Glycine max) seeds using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, Dewi; Lee, Hoonsoo; Lohumi, Santosh; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2018-03-01

    The viability of seeds is important for determining their quality. A high-quality seed is one that has a high capability of germination that is necessary to ensure high productivity. Hence, developing technology for the detection of seed viability is a high priority in agriculture. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy is one of the most popular devices among other vibrational spectroscopies. This study aims to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to determine the viability of soybean seeds. Viable and artificial ageing seeds as non-viable soybeans were used in this research. The FT-NIR spectra of soybean seeds were collected and analysed using a partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to classify viable and non-viable soybean seeds. Moreover, the variable importance in projection (VIP) method for variable selection combined with the PLS-DA was employed. The most effective wavelengths were selected by the VIP method, which selected 146 optimal variables from the full set of 1557 variables. The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR spectral analysis with the PLS-DA method that uses all variables or the selected variables showed good performance based on the high value of prediction accuracy for soybean viability with an accuracy close to 100%. Hence, FT-NIR techniques with a chemometric analysis have the potential for rapidly measuring soybean seed viability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  12. Identification of differentially expressed genes between developing seeds of different soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongshuang Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of protein and oil and a primary feedstock for biodiesel production. Research on soybean seed composition and yield has revealed that protein, oil and yield are controlled quantitatively and quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified for each of these traits. However, very limited information is available regarding the genetic mechanisms controlling seed composition and yield. To help address this deficiency, we used Affymetrix Soybean GeneChips® to identify genes that are differentially expressed between developing seeds of the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars, which differ in seed weight, yield, protein content and oil content. A total of 700 probe sets were found to be expressed at significantly different (defined as having an adjusted p-value below or equal to 0.05 and an at least 2-fold difference levels between the two cultivars at one or more of the three developmental stages and in at least one of the two years assayed. Comparison of data from soybeans collected in two different years revealed that 97 probe sets were expressed at significantly different levels in both years. Functional annotations were assigned to 78% of these 97 probe sets based on the SoyBase Affymetrix™ GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array Annotation. Genes involved in receptor binding/activity and protein binding are overrepresented among the group of 97 probe sets that were differentially expressed in both years assayed. Probe sets involved in growth/development, signal transduction, transcription, defense/stress response and protein and lipid metabolism were also identified among the 97 probe sets and their possible implications in the regulation of agronomic traits are discussed. As the Minsoy and Archer soybean cultivars differ with respect to seed size, yield, protein content and lipid content, some of the differentially expressed probe sets identified in this study may thus play important roles in controlling these traits

  13. Mass spectrometry characterisation of fatty acids from metabolically engineered soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Machado, Alex M; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Coelho, Cíntia M; Lacerda, Valquiria A M; Coelho, Marly C; Rech, Elibio L

    2014-05-01

    Improving the quality and performance of soybean oil as biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of its fatty acids and requires an increase in monounsaturated acids and a reduction in polyunsaturated acids. Despite its current use as a source of biofuel, soybean oil contains an average of 25 % oleic acid and 13 % palmitic acid, which negatively impacts its oxidative stability and freezing point, causing a high rate of nitrogen oxide emission. Gas chromatography and ion mobility mass spectrometry were conducted on soybean fatty acids from metabolically engineered seed extracts to determine the nature of the structural oleic and palmitic acids. The soybean genes FAD2-1 and FatB were placed under the control of the 35SCaMV constitutive promoter, introduced to soybean embryonic axes by particle bombardment and down-regulated using RNA interference technology. Results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 94.58 %) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and non-transgenic oil extracts.

  14. Identification of miRNAs and their target genes in developing soybean seeds by deep sequencing

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    Chen Shou-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs regulate gene expression by mediating gene silencing at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in higher plants. miRNAs and related target genes have been widely studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice; however, the number of identified miRNAs in soybean (Glycine max is limited, and global identification of the related miRNA targets has not been reported in previous research. Results In our study, a small RNA library and a degradome library were constructed from developing soybean seeds for deep sequencing. We identified 26 new miRNAs in soybean by bioinformatic analysis and further confirmed their expression by stem-loop RT-PCR. The miRNA star sequences of 38 known miRNAs and 8 new miRNAs were also discovered, providing additional evidence for the existence of miRNAs. Through degradome sequencing, 145 and 25 genes were identified as targets of annotated miRNAs and new miRNAs, respectively. GO analysis indicated that many of the identified miRNA targets may function in soybean seed development. Additionally, a soybean homolog of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SLIENCING 3 (AtSGS3 was detected as a target of the newly identified miRNA Soy_25, suggesting the presence of feedback control of miRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We have identified large numbers of miRNAs and their related target genes through deep sequencing of a small RNA library and a degradome library. Our study provides more information about the regulatory network of miRNAs in soybean and advances our understanding of miRNA functions during seed development.

  15. Seed Nutrition and Quality, Seed Coat Boron and Lignin Are Influenced by Delayed Harvest in Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines under High Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Smith, James R; Mengistu, Alemu

    2017-01-01

    The timing of harvest is a major factor affecting seed quality in soybean, particularly in Midsouthern USA, when rain during harvest period is not uncommon. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of time of harvest on soybean seed quality (seed composition, germination, seed coat boron, and lignin) in high germinability (HG) breeding lines (50% exotic) developed under high heat. The hypothesis was that seeds of HG lines possess physiological and genetic traits for a better seed quality at harvest maturity and delayed harvest. A 2-year field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions. Results showed that, at harvest maturity, the exotic HG lines had higher seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin, but lower seed oil compared with the non-exotic checks (Control), confirming our hypothesis. At 28 days after harvest maturity (delayed harvest), the content of seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, seed coat boron, and seed coat lignin were higher in some of the HG lines compared with the checks, indicating a possible involvement of these seed constituents, especially seed coat boron and seed coat lignin, in maintaining seed coat integrity and protecting seed coat against physical damage. Highly significant positive correlations were found between germination and seed protein, oleic acid, sugars, and seed coat boron and seed coat lignin. Highly significant negative correlation was found between germination and oil, linoleic acid, seed coat wrinkling, shattering, and hard seed. Yields of some HG lines were competitive with checks. This research demonstrated that time of harvesting is an important factor influencing seed protein and oil production. Also, since high oleic acid is desirable for oxidative stability, shelf-life and biodiesel properties, using HG lines could positively influence these important traits. This result should suggest to breeders of some of the advantages of selecting for high seed coat boron and

  16. Studies on carotenoids and oxidative stability of winter squash seed and soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmy, H. E.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter squash seed and soybean oils were extracted with commercial hexane. Carotenoids and other pigments m the oils were studied using spectrophotometric and thin layer chromatographic analysis. Three types of pigments were identified: carotenoids. mainly lutein and β-carotene, chlorophyll and some unidentified pigments. Carotenoids content were 70, 60, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed oil, and 80, 65, 0 ppm in crude, refined and bleached soybean oil respectively. Stability was evaluated for crude, refined and bleached winter squash seed and soybean oils and an 1:1 admixture. Mixing winter squash seed oil with soybean oil increased the stability of soybean oil. Crude oil showed greater stability than refined and bleached oils.

    Se han extraído con hexano comercial aceites de semilla de calabaza y de soja. Usando análisis espectrofotométrico y cromatografía en capa fina se han estudiado en estos aceites tres tipos de pigmentos: carotenoides, principalmente luteína y β-caroteno, clorofilas y otros no identificados. Los contenidos en carotenoides fueron 70, 60, 0 ppm en aceite de semilla de calabaza de invierno crudo, refinado y decolorado, y 80, 65, 0 ppm en aceite de soja crudo, refinado y decolorado respectivamente. Se ha evaluado la estabilidad de aceites de semilla de calabaza de invierno, soja y una mezcla 1:1 de ambos, en sus estados crudo, refinado y decolorado. La mezcla de semilla de calabaza de invierno con aceite de soja aumentó la estabilidad de este último. El aceite crudo mostró una mayor estabilidad que los aceites refinados y decolorados.

  17. Photoperiodic control of soybean 14C-assimilate partitioning during the seed filling period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Photoperiod not only controls the timing of flowering, but also affects later stages of seed development. To study its effect on assimilate partitioning, soybean plants were kept in short days (SD) or night interrupted (NI) during seed filling. The source-sink ratio was fixed to one leaflet-one pod per node. The node was girdle-isolated and its leaflet was pulse labelled with 14 CO 2 . SD plants partitioned more 14 C into seeds, while NI plants showed higher proportions in the petiole, stem and carpel. Seed growth rate and final seed dry weight were increased by 40% in SD. The sugar/starch ratio was increased in cotyledons and decreased in leaves of SD plants. In contrast, NI plants showed more 14 C incorporation into proteins. No changes were detected in carbon exchange ratio, dark respiration and total node dry weight. Thus, photoperiodic induced changes in carbohydrate and protein partitioning occurred without changes in the overall assimilatory process

  18. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  19. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SOYBEAN SEED CULTIVARS AND ADJUSTED MODELS OF LEAKAGE CURVES ALONG THE TIME

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    ADRIANA RITA SALINAS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the behavior of ten soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivars using the electrical conductivity (EC test by the comparison of curves of the accumulative electrolyte leakage along the time and to establish the statistical model that allow the best adjust of the curves. Ten soybean cultivars were used and they were mechanically harvested in 2004 in the EEA Oliveros, Santa Fe, Argentina. Measurements of EC were made for 100 individual seeds of each cultivar during 20 hours of immersion at intervals of 1 hour using an equipment that permit an individual seed analysis (Seed Automatic Analyzer SAD 9000S. There were proposed two statistical models to study the EC along the time of the 10 cultivars studied using SAS Statistics Program, to select the model that better allow us to understand the EC behavior along the time. Model 1 allowed to make comparisons of EC along the time between cultivars and to study the influence of the production environment on the physiological quality of soybean seeds. The time to reach the stabilization of the EC must not be lower than 19 hours for the different cultivars.

  20. Inference of Transcription Regulatory Network in Low Phytic Acid Soybean Seeds

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    Neelam Redekar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A dominant loss of function mutation in myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS gene and recessive loss of function mutations in two multidrug resistant protein type-ABC transporter genes not only reduce the seed phytic acid levels in soybean, but also affect the pathways associated with seed development, ultimately resulting in low emergence. To understand the regulatory mechanisms and identify key genes that intervene in the seed development process in low phytic acid crops, we performed computational inference of gene regulatory networks in low and normal phytic acid soybeans using a time course transcriptomic data and multiple network inference algorithms. We identified a set of putative candidate transcription factors and their regulatory interactions with genes that have functions in myo-inositol biosynthesis, auxin-ABA signaling, and seed dormancy. We evaluated the performance of our unsupervised network inference method by comparing the predicted regulatory network with published regulatory interactions in Arabidopsis. Some contrasting regulatory interactions were observed in low phytic acid mutants compared to non-mutant lines. These findings provide important hypotheses on expression regulation of myo-inositol metabolism and phytohormone signaling in developing low phytic acid soybeans. The computational pipeline used for unsupervised network learning in this study is provided as open source software and is freely available at https://lilabatvt.github.io/LPANetwork/.

  1. Application of mutagenesis for the improvement of an indigenous black seeded soybean variety of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.S.; Tiwari, S.P.; Prabhakar

    1990-01-01

    Full text: The large scale cultivation of soybean in India (nearly 2 million ha at present) with yellow seeded varieties is a comparatively recent development. In early times, black seeded soybean was grown on a limited area, under local names like ''Bhat'', ''Bhatmash'', ''Kalitur'' or ''Kala Hulga''. These indigenous varieties are characterised by small black seeds, the ability to thrive well under suboptimal conditions, good seed germinability and organoleptic suitability for certain indigenous food preparations. However, they show low yield, long duration, high pod-shattering, vulnerability to insect-pests and diseases. Dry seeds of the variety ''Bhat'' were treated with gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 k) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hours at 260 nm). In M 2 , the frequency of viable mutations ranged from 0.42 to 5.64%. Both macro- and micro-mutations were identified in the M 2 and M 3 generations. Agronomically useful mutants were evaluated in replicated trials for three consecutive years. A mutant ''T 1 54'', resulting from 20kR + UV, surpassed the parent and local checks in yield. Besides, the mutant has other improved desirable attributes viz., yellow seed coat, early maturity (110 days) and tolerance to yellow mosaic and bacterial pustules. The mutant has retained the good seed viability and tolerance to stress conditions as observed in the parent. It is semi-determinate in nature and possesses white flowers in contrast to purple flowers found in the parent variety ''Bhat''. This mutant, later named ''NRC-1'', was entered in the multi-locational varietal trials under the All-India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean in 1988. It has faired well in three zones to enmerit its promotion for large scale evaluation in the northern plain zone, the central zone and the southern zone. It has yielded up to 3.64 t/ha at Parbhani in the Central Zone. (author)

  2. IMPORTANCE OF STORAGE CONDITIONS AND SEED TREATMENT FOR SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS SEEDS GERMINATION

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    Goran Krizmanić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have determined germination energy and germination of seeds of sunflower hybrids ‘Luka’ and ‘Apolon’, at the beginning of storage and 6, 12 and 18 months after of storage period (2011-2012 in the floor concrete storage at two different air temperatures and humidity (S-1: air temperature 15-18°C and relative air humidity 65-70% as well as in climate chamber (S-2: air temperature 10-12°C and relative air humidity 60-65%, stored in four treatments (Control: processed-untreated seed; T-1: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M; T-2: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. imidacloprid and T-3: treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M + A.I. clothianidin. Based on the obtained results we have determined that sunflower hybrid ‘Luka’, compared to hybrid ‘Apolon’, in the given storage conditions and with the same seed treatment has 5-8% higher germination energy and seed germination and that in climate chamber both hybrids have 5-7% higher germination energy. Seed treatment of both sunflower hybrids with A.I. imidacloprid maximally reduced initial germination energy and seed germination in all tested periods and conditions of storage. On the average, natural seed, after 18 months of storage did not have better seed quality compared to seed treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M while other treatments had more significant influence on reduction of germination energy and seed germination, 6-15%. On the average, compared to other variants, seeds treated with A.I. metalaxyl-M after 18 months of storage in both storage conditions had higher germination energy by 4-15%, and seed germination by 2-12%.

  3. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

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    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  4. Canonical correlations between agronomic traits and seed physiological quality in segregating soybean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, E M; Silva, F M; Val, B H P; Pizolato Neto, A; Mauro, A O; Martins, C C; Unêda-Trevisoli, S H

    2017-04-13

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between agronomic traits and physiological traits of seeds in segregating soybean populations by canonical correlation analysis. Seven populations and two commercial cultivars in three generations were used: F 3 plants and F 4 seeds; F 4 plants and F 5 seeds, and F 4 seeds and plants. The following agronomic traits (group I) were evaluated: number of days to maturity, plant height at maturity, insertion height of first pod, number of pods, grain yield, and oil content. The physiological quality of seeds (group II) was evaluated using germination, accelerated aging, emergence, and emergence rate index tests. The results showed that agronomic traits and physiological traits of seeds are not independent. Intergroup associations were established by the first canonical pair for the generation of F 3 plants and F 4 seeds, especially between more productive plants with a larger pod number and high oil content and seeds with a high germination percentage and emergence rate. For the generation of F 4 plants and F 5 seeds, the first canonical pair indicated an association between reduced maturity cycle, seeds with a high emergence percentage and a high percentage of normal seedlings after accelerated aging. According to the second canonical pair, more productive and taller plants were associated with seed vigor. For the generation of F 4 seeds and plants, the associations established by the first canonical pair occurred between seed vigor and more productive plants with high oil content and reduced maturity cycle, and those established by the second canonical pair between seeds of high physiological quality and tall plants.

  5. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  6. A role for seed storage proteins in Arabidopsis seed longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Thu-Phuong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328228818; Cueff, Gwendal; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Rajjou, Loïc; Bentsink, Leónie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241338735

    2015-01-01

    Proteomics approaches have been a useful tool for determining the biological roles and functions of individual proteins and identifying the molecular mechanisms that govern seed germination, vigour and viability in response to ageing. In this work the dry seed proteome of four Arabidopsis thaliana

  7. Entomofauna associated to soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] in direct seeding and conventional tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahis Cruz Limonte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research work was to investigate the effect of the direct seeding and conventional tillage of soybean on the incidence of plagues and natural enemies. The study was carried out on the farm “Día y Noche” of the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “28 de Octubre” (UBPC, for its Spanish acronym, and in the Laboratories of the Agricultural Research Center of Central University of Las Villas. Field experiments were conducted on an Inceptisol, since November 2013 to May 2014. The soybean cultivar Incasoy – 27 was used. The insects in relation to the development stages of the plant were identified and quantified. In both systems 10 species of phytophagous insects and one of entomophagous insects were quantified; Hedylepta indicata L. stands out with more presence in the direct seeding, while Diabrotica balteata LeConte and the species belong to the family Pentatomidae caused most damage to the plants in conventional tillage.

  8. Root-to-seed transport and metabolism of fixed nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The great energetic demand of nitrogen fixation to support growth of the exceptionally high-N seeds is certainly a major yield barrier for soybeans. Transport of carbohydrate energy supplies to the root and of fixed nitrogen (N) from the root appear to contribute to the yield barrier, also. N is loaded into the soybean xylem stream principally as allantoin (ALL), and allantonic acid (ALLA), but xylem carries only dilute N and cannot reach the seeds at sufficient rate to support their N needs. Explants consisting of stem and a few leaves and pods were allowed to take up 14 C- and/or 15 N-ALL/ALLA in synthetic xylem sap. The 14 C label was found to become fairly quantitatively immobilized in leaves. The N (and 15 N label) almost certainly is separated from the C( 14 C label) at this time

  9. 7个大豆品种种子活力持续力比较%Comparison of seed vigor sustainability between seven soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯伦; 陈立军; 谢皓

    2017-01-01

    [目的]种子活力持续力是比较种子耐贮藏的一个关键因素.[方法]以7个大豆品种为研究材料,比较在2个贮藏时间条件下不同品种间种子活力的差异,利用种子活力、种子发芽率等指标的变异度推断品种的种子活力持续力的高低.[结果]结果表明,在相同的贮藏条件下,随着贮藏时间的延长,种子活力、种子发芽率等幼苗质量指标均呈降低趋势;齐茶1号、齐黑1号、草头红和延庆黑豆品种的种子活力持续力较高,而齐茶2号、观8和7014-7相对较低.[结论]贮藏时间之间种子活力指数的比较可以作为测定大豆品种种子活力持续力的方法之一.%[Objective]Seed vigor sustainability is a key factor to compare seed storability.[Methods] Seven soybean cultivars were used in this study to compare the differences of the seed vigor in two storage time.Seed vigor sustainability of the varieties was deduced using the variation range of seed vigor,seed germination rate and other indicators.[Results]Results showed that the seed vigor,seed germination rate and seedling quality indicators were exhibited a decreasing trend with the extension of storage time under the same storage conditions.Seed vigor sustainabilities of Qicha 1,Qihei 1,Caotuohong and Yanqingheidou were higher,but those of Qicha 2,Guan8 and 7014-7 were relative lower.[Conclusion]The comparisons of seed vigor index between some storage times can be as one of method for evaluating seed vigor sustainability in soybean.

  10. Phosphorus Partitioning of Soybean Lines Containing Different Mutant Alleles of Two Soybean Seed-Specific Adenosine Triphosphate-Binding Cassette Phytic Acid Transporter Paralogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D. Gillman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed phytate is a repository of P and minerals in soybean [ (L. Merr.] seeds that limits P and mineral bioavailability for monogastric animals (e.g., humans, swine [], and poultry [especially chicken, ] due to insufficient digestive tract phytase activity. We previously identified epistatic recessive mutations affecting two paralogous adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette phytic acid transporter genes (one a nonsense mutation in and the other a missense mutation in as the molecular genetic basis in the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS-induced mutant low phytate soybean line M153. An additional mutant low phytate line, M766, contained one single nucleotide polymorphism within the ninth intron of the locus as well as a nonsense mutation in . The objectives of this research were to clarify the genetics underlying the low phytate phenotype in line M766 and to determine P partitioning in new combinations of mutant alleles from M766 and M153. Inheritance of nonsense alleles affecting both ( genes (one from M153 and one from M766 led to the production of viable seeds that contained transgressive reductions in total seed phytate and significantly higher levels of inorganic phosphate than has been reported for nontransgenic soybean material and will allow efficient molecular selection of soybeans with even greater reductions of phytate for improved quality soybean meal.

  11. Economic governance of property rights: comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in genetically modified soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fowler de Avila Monteiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the governance of property rights on genetically modified (GM soybean seeds. Specifically, the article undertakes a comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in GM soybean seeds in the U.S. and Brazil. For each country, the authors describe the regulatory framework governing the protection of biotechnology innovations in agriculture and investigate the mechanisms of royalty collection in GM soybean seeds. The paper also offers econometric evidence linking the capture of value on biotech innovations and the protection mechanisms deployed by biotech firms. The results suggest that, subject to the institutional environment, firms may choose to transact a GM attribute separated from the seed, building specialized governance structures framed around the genetic attribute and not around the seed as a whole.

  12. Quantitative Conversion of Phytate to Inorganic Phosphorus in Soybean Seeds Expressing a Bacterial Phytase1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Zeng, Peiyu; Coello, Patricia; Zhang, Zhanyuan J.; Krishnan, Hari B.; Bailey, April; Beuselinck, Paul R.; Polacco, Joe C.

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) contains the major portion of the phosphorus in the soybean (Glycine max) seed and chelates divalent cations. During germination, both minerals and phosphate are released upon phytase-catalyzed degradation of PA. We generated a soybean line (CAPPA) in which an Escherichia coli periplasmic phytase, the product of the appA gene, was expressed in the cytoplasm of developing cotyledons. CAPPA exhibited high levels of phytase expression, ≥90% reduction in seed PA, and concomitant increases in total free phosphate. These traits were stable, and, although resulted in a trend for reduced emergence and a statistically significant reduction in germination rates, had no effect on the number of seeds per plant or seed weight. Because phytate is not digested by monogastric animals, untreated soymeal does not provide monogastrics with sufficient phosphorus and minerals, and PA in the waste stream leads to phosphorus runoff. The expression of a cytoplasmic phytase in the CAPPA line therefore improves phosphorus availability and surpasses gains achieved by other reported transgenic and mutational strategies by combining in seeds both high phytase expression and significant increases in available phosphorus. Thus, in addition to its value as a high-phosphate meal source, soymeal from CAPPA could be used to convert PA of admixed meals, such as cornmeal, directly to utilizable inorganic phosphorus. PMID:18162589

  13. Molecular approaches for genetic improvement of seed quality and characterization of genetic diversity in soybean: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Niraj; Khare, Dhirendra

    2016-10-01

    Soybean is an economically important leguminous crop. Genetic improvements of soybeans have focused on enhancement of seed and oil yield, development of varieties suited to different cropping systems, and breeding resistant/tolerant varieties for various biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant breeders have used conventional breeding techniques for the improvement of these traits in soybean. The conventional breeding process can be greatly accelerated through the application of molecular and genomic approaches. Molecular markers have proved to be a new tool in soybean breeding by enhancing selection efficiency in a rapid and time-bound manner. An overview of molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of soybean seed quality parameters, considering recent applications of marker-assisted selection and 'omics' research, is provided in this article.

  14. Oil accumulation in soybean seeds grown in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The soybean seed presents around 20% of oil and 40% of protein. These levels, during the filling of the seeds, can be influenced by environmental conditions, where are produced changes on its biochemistry composition. The higher temperatures promote the accumulation of protein, and the moderate temperatures favor the oil accumulation. Under in vivo growing conditions the control of these factors is difficult. The in vitro procedure can help the research, because the seed can be isolated from the mother plant in controlled environment. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the oil content of BRS184 and BRS282in vitro and in vivo. The in vivo procedure, occurred in the greenhouse, with 3plantsper potand seed collectionin R8, and in vitro procedure, developed in the laboratory, where the immature seeds were taken from the mother plant in R5 stage, cultured with a liquid culture medium containing 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM glutamine, with a constant agitation, during eight days at 25 ± 0.2 °C, and sucrose concentration of 204.5 mM. After the in vitro cultivation time for, the fresh weight gain of the seeds was evaluated, and after both experiments, was determined by the oil content for cultivation in R5, and R8. The accumulation of oil in soybean seeds presents a complex interaction, ranging between the genotype and the environmental conditions, under in vivo and in vitro cultivation. There is a positive correlation between production and oil content in seeds.

  15. Comparison of in Situ and in Vitro Regulation of Soybean Seed Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Daniel J.; Cotterman, C. Daniel; Cotterman, Josephine C.

    1987-01-01

    The growth characteristics of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) embryos in culture and seeds in situ were found to be similar, but developmental differences were observed. Embryos placed in culture when very small (grow indefinitely, reaching dry weights far in excess of seeds matured in situ. Apparently, maternal factors were important in early and late development during the determination of maximum growth rate and the cessation of growth. Embryo growth rate was not affected by substituting glucose plus fructose for sucrose in the medium, nor by hormone treatments, including abscisic acid. Glutamine was found to give substantially better growth than glutamate, however. Contrary to prior reports, the response of soybean embryo growth rate to irradiance was found to be primarily an artifact of the effect of irradiance on media temperature. Across seven genotypes the correlation coefficient between seed growth rate in situ and embryo growth rate in vitro was 0.94, indicating essentially all of the variability of in situ seed growth rate between cultivars could be attributed to inherent growth rate differences associated with the embryos. The response to temperature was very similar for both embryos in culture and seeds in situ at temperatures below 30°C. Beyond that temperature, embryo growth rate continued to increase, while seed growth rate did not. The implication is that in situ seed growth rate is determined by the inherent growth potential of the embryo at low to moderate temperatures; however, at higher temperatures, the maternal plant is unable to support the rapid growth rates that the embryo is capable of attaining under conditions of unlimited assimilate supply. PMID:16665434

  16. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  17. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

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    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  18. Irradiation and storage effect on some characteristics of soy seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Ascheri, Diego Palmiro; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    The irradiation has been applied frequently in seeds conservation to obtain reduction of losses caused by physiologic processes, besides reducing the microbial load. However, the irradiation process for X-rays is not a common practice in seeds; for that, it is necessary to study that process, in order to know irradiation effect on the soy seeds quality. The objective of this work was to verify the irradiation effect of X-rays and the storage period on the water, oil and protein contends of soy seeds (Glycine max L.) variety Emgopa 302. The experiment was represented by the combination of two factors: X-rays dosage with four irradiation levels [0, 50, 65 and 70 kV] and storage period in laboratory atmosphere with five levels (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days). The water content, oil and protein in seeds were assayed in the beginning and every 15 days of storage. The results showed the seeds quality stayed unaffected in irradiation function in the beginning of the experience, with alterations after 15 days, was verified a quality decreasing with the increasing of the X-rays dosage. The soy seeds irradiated had reduced quality in elapsing of the storage period. (author)

  19. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of factorial combinations of four storage duration (in days after seed extraction) and surface sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were studied. Storage duration significantly influenced days to seedling emergence, ...

  20. Subunit composition of seed storage proteins in high-protein soybean genotypes Composição de subunidades de proteínas de reserva em genótipos de soja com alto teor de proteína

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    Ksenija Taski-Ajdukovic

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to quantify the accumulation of the major seed storage protein subunits, β-conglycinin and glycinin, and how they influence yield and protein and oil contents in high-protein soybean genotypes. The relative accumulation of subunits was calculated by scanning SDS-PAGE gels using densitometry. The protein content of the tested genotypes was higher than control cultivar in the same maturity group. Several genotypes with improved protein content and with unchanged yield or oil content were developed as a result of new breeding initiatives. This research confirmed that high-protein cultivars accumulate higher amounts of glycinin and β-conglycinin. Genotypes KO5427, KO5428, and KO5429, which accumulated lower quantities of all subunits of glycinin and β-conglycinin, were the only exceptions. Attention should be given to genotypes KO5314 and KO5317, which accumulated significantly higher amounts of both subunits of glycinin, and to genotypes KO5425, KO5319, KO539 and KO536, which accumulated significantly higher amounts of β-conglycinin subunits. These findings suggest that some of the tested genotypes could be beneficial in different breeding programs aimed at the production of agronomically viable plants, yielding high-protein seed with specific composition of storage proteins for specific food applications.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o acúmulo das principais subunidades de proteínas de reserva da soja, β-conglicinina e glicinina, e como elas influenciam a produtividade e os conteúdos de proteína e de óleo em genótipos de soja com alto conteúdo de proteína. A acumulação relativa de subunidades foi calculada por escaneamento em géis SDS-PAGE, com uso de densitometria. O conteúdo de proteínas dos genótipos testados foi maior que o da cultivar controle dentro do mesmo grupo de maturação. Vários genótipos com conteúdo de proteína aumentado, mas com produtividade ou conteúdo de

  1. Enhanced Single Seed Trait Predictions in Soybean (Glycine max) and Robust Calibration Model Transfer with Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Gustin, Jeffery L; Louisma, Jean; Armstrong, Paul; Peter, Gary F; Walker, Alejandro R; Settles, A Mark

    2016-02-10

    Single seed near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy predicts soybean (Glycine max) seed quality traits of moisture, oil, and protein. We tested the accuracy of transferring calibrations between different single seed NIR analyzers of the same design by collecting NIR spectra and analytical trait data for globally diverse soybean germplasm. X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT) was used to collect seed density and shape traits to enhance the number of soybean traits that can be predicted from single seed NIR. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression gave accurate predictive models for oil, weight, volume, protein, and maximal cross-sectional area of the seed. PLS models for width, length, and density were not predictive. Although principal component analysis (PCA) of the NIR spectra showed that black seed coat color had significant signal, excluding black seeds from the calibrations did not impact model accuracies. Calibrations for oil and protein developed in this study as well as earlier calibrations for a separate NIR analyzer of the same design were used to test the ability to transfer PLS regressions between platforms. PLS models built from data collected on one NIR analyzer had minimal differences in accuracy when applied to spectra collected from a sister device. Model transfer was more robust when spectra were trimmed from 910 to 1679 nm to 955-1635 nm due to divergence of edge wavelengths between the two devices. The ability to transfer calibrations between similar single seed NIR spectrometers facilitates broader adoption of this high-throughput, nondestructive, seed phenotyping technology.

  2. Pattern of zinc-65 incorporation into soybean seeds by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybean seeds of plants grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application was studied. Stem injection resulted in the greatest (64.5% of dose) accumulation of 65 Zn while incorporation of 65 Zn through root absorption was the least (23.4%) and through foliar application was intermediate (37.5%). Regardless of the labeling techniques, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of zinc incorporation did not change appreciably as a result of the labeling technique. The major portion of the soluble zinc was not associated with the major proteins (11S and 7S) of soybeans but either was free or was associated with very low molecular weight amino acids, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid. Zinc in soybean seems to be ionically bound, and this association is affected by the pH of the extracting buffer

  3. Comparative Analysis of Tocopherol Biosynthesis Genes and Its Transcriptional Regulation in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Vinutha; Bansal, Navita; Kumari, Khushboo; Prashat G, Rama; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Krishnan, Veda; Kumari, Sweta; Dahuja, Anil; Lal, S K; Sachdev, Archana; Praveen, Shelly

    2017-12-20

    Tocopherols composed of four isoforms (α, β, γ, and δ) and its biosynthesis comprises of three pathways: methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP), shikimate (SK) and tocopherol-core pathways regulated by 25 enzymes. To understand pathway regulatory mechanism at transcriptional level, gene expression profile of tocopherol-biosynthesis genes in two soybean genotypes was carried out, the results showed significantly differential expression of 5 genes: 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-P-reductoisomerase (DXR), geranyl geranyl reductase (GGDR) from MEP, arogenate dehydrogenase (TyrA), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) from SK and γ-tocopherol methyl transferase 3 (γ-TMT3) from tocopherol-core pathways. Expression data were further analyzed for total tocopherol (T-toc) and α-tocopherol (α-toc) content by coregulation network and gene clustering approaches, the results showed least and strong association of γ-TMT3/tocopherol cyclase (TC) and DXR/DXS, respectively, with gene clusters of tocopherol biosynthesis suggested the specific role of γ-TMT3/TC in determining tocopherol accumulation and intricacy of DXR/DXS genes in coordinating precursor pathways toward tocopherol biosynthesis in soybean seeds. Thus, the present study provides insight into the major role of these genes regulating the tocopherol synthesis in soybean seeds.

  4. Preinoculation of Soybean Seeds Treated with Agrichemicals up to 30 Days before Sowing: Technological Innovation for Large-Scale Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ricardo Silva; da Cruz, Sonia Purin; Souchie, Edson Luiz; Martin, Thomas Newton; Nakatani, André Shigueyoshi; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-01-01

    The cultivation of soybean in Brazil experienced an expressive growth in the last decades. Soybean is highly demanding on nitrogen (N) that must come from fertilizers or from biological fixation. The N supply to the soybean crop in Brazil relies on the inoculation with elite strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, B. elkanii, and B. diazoefficiens , which are able to fulfill the crop's N requirements and enrich the soil for the following crop. The effectiveness of the association between N 2 -fixing bacteria and soybean plants depends on the efficacy of the inoculation process. Seed treatment with pesticides, especially fungicides or micronutrients, may rapidly kill the inoculated bacteria, affecting the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis. The development of technologies that allow inoculation to become a successful component of industrial seed treatment represents a valuable tool for the seed industry, as well as for the soybean crop worldwide. In this article, we report the results of new technologies, developed by the company Total Biotecnologia Indústria e Comércio S/A of Brazil, for preinoculation of soybean seeds with bradyrhizobia, in the presence of agrichemicals. Our results demonstrate improved bacterial survival for up to 30 days after inoculation, without compromising nodulation, N 2 -fixation, and yield in the field.

  5. Teste de condutividade elétrica em sementes de soja armazenadas sob diferentes temperaturas Electrical conductivity test of soybean seeds stored under different temperatures

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    Simone Aparecida Fessel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados do teste de condutividade elétrica podem ser influenciados pela temperatura de armazenamento, particularmente as mais baixas, como em condições de câmara fria (10 ºC. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura e do período de armazenamento na condutividade elétrica e na composição química da solução de embebição de sementes de soja. Para tanto, foram determinados o teor de água, a germinação, o vigor (testes de envelhecimento acelerado, de frio e de condutividade elétrica e a composição química (K+, Ca2+ e Mg2+ da solução de embebição. Foram utilizados dois lotes de sementes, da cultivar FT-20, com níveis distintos de vigor. As avaliações foram realizadas a cada três meses, durante 15 meses. Tanto a temperatura como o período de armazenamento influenciaram o vigor das sementes. A lixiviação dos íons K+, Ca2+ e Mg2+ foi influenciada pelos mesmos fatores. Pelos resultados concluiu-se que o teste de condutividade elétrica não é indicado para avaliar o vigor de sementes de soja armazenadas sob baixa temperatura (10 ºC e o K+ é o íon lixiviado em maior quantidade de semente de soja, independentemente da temperatura de armazenamento.There are some results showing that the electrical conductivity test can be influenced by low temperature of seed storage, such as 10 ºC. This work was carried out in order to study the effect of temperature and period of storage on electrical conductivity and chemical composition of the imbibing solution of soybean seeds. For that, seed water content, germination, vigor (accelerated aging, cold test and electrical conductivity, and chemical composition (K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ of the imbibing solution were determined. Two soybean seed lots of cultivar FT-20 with high and low vigor were used. The evaluations were performed at every three months intervals, during 15 months. Both temperature and storage period influenced seed vigor, as well as the ions leakage. It

  6. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-10-03

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represses soybean seed germination by enhancing ABA biosynthesis, while impairing GA biogenesis, and finally decreasing GA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA ratios. Microscope observation showed that auxin treatment delayed rupture of the soybean seed coat and radicle protrusion. qPCR assay revealed that transcription of the genes involved in ABA biosynthetic pathway was up-regulated by application of auxin, while expression of genes involved in GA biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated. Accordingly, further phytohormone quantification shows that auxin significantly increased ABA content, whereas the active GA 1 and GA 4 levels were decreased, resulting insignificant decreases in the ratiosGA 1 /ABA and GA 4 /ABA.Consistent with this, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone reversed the delayed-germination phenotype associated with auxin treatment, while paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited soybean seed germination. Altogether, exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination by mediating ABA and GA biosynthesis.

  7. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  8. Experimental silo-dryer-aerator for the storage of soybean grains

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    Paulo C. Coradi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the capacity of silo-dryer-aerator prototype equipment operating as a silo-storage-aerator for soybean quality analysis. Soybeans with water content of 17% (wet basis – w.b. were dried and stored in a silo-dryer-aerator system that was designed using a drying chamber, four independent storage cells, and a static capacity of 164 kg. Another batch of grains was stored in a silo-storage-aerator with a capacity of 1,200 kg. The experiment was set up in a completely randomized factorial 5 × 4 experimental design including five grain batches stored after being dried at 30, 40, and 50 °C (mixed grains were dried at three temperatures in the silo-dryer-aerator cells and one mixed grain batch stored in the silo-storage-aerator system under ambient air conditions for four storage times (zero, one, two, and three months. There was no difference between the grains stored in the silo-dryer-aerator and silo-storage-aerator at the end of the three-month storage in terms of the physico-chemical quality. The storage time associated with drying at 50 °C caused a reduction in the physical-chemical quality of the grains. The silo-dryer-aerator system was presented as a possible alternative to store soybean (Glycine max L. grains.

  9. Genome-wide association mapping for seed protein and oil contents using a large panel of soybean accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Wenbin; Xie, Futi

    2018-01-08

    Soybean is globally cultivated primarily for its protein and oil. The protein and oil contents of the seeds are quantitatively inherited traits determined by the interaction of numerous genes. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular foundation of soybean protein and oil content for the marker-assisted selection (MAS) of high quality traits, a population of 185 soybean germplasms was evaluated to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the seed protein and oil contents. Using specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology, a total of 12,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.05 were detected across the 20 chromosomes (Chr), with a marker density of 78.7 kbp. A total of 31 SNPs located on 12 of the 20 soybean chromosomes were correlated with seed protein and oil content. Of the 31 SNPs that were associated with the two target traits, 31 beneficial alleles were identified. Two SNP markers, namely rs15774585 and rs15783346 on Chr 07, were determined to be related to seed oil content both in 2015 and 2016. Three SNP markers, rs53140888 on Chr 01, rs19485676 on Chr 13, and rs24787338 on Chr 20 were correlated with seed protein content both in 2015 and 2016. These beneficial alleles may potentially contribute towards the MAS of favorable soybean protein and oil characteristics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja submetidas ao hidrocondicionamento = Soybean seed physiological quality after hydro-conditioning

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    Maria Izabel Krüger Giurizatto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de hidratação controlada de sementes vem sendo utilizada como método de condicionamento fisiológico, tanto para sementes deterioradas como para sementes altamente sensíveis à embebição rápida, ou a interação entre ambas, objetivando melhorar o desempenho destas no campo. A hidratação pode ser seguida por secagem, se assementes não tiverem atingido a fase III da germinação, facilitando, assim, o subseqüente manuseio, armazenamento e semeadura no campo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do hidrocondicionamento na qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja,sendo estas sementes hidrocondicionadas por períodos de 0, 20 e 24h, secas e armazenadas por 0, 90, 180 e 270 dias em câmara seca, com umidade e temperatura controladas. O hidrocondicionamento teve efeito benéfico na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de soja,suas vantagens se tornaram mais evidentes com o envelhecimento natural das sementes durante o armazenamento.Controlled hydration of seeds has been used as a physiological conditioning method, both for deteriorated seeds as well as seeds that are highly sensitive to soaking, or an interaction among both, aiming to improving their performance after sowing in the field. Thehydration must be followed by drying, in case the seeds have not reached yet phase III of germination, thus facilitating subsequent handling, storage and sowing operations. This work aimed to evaluate the hydro-conditioning effect (0, 20 and 24 hours, followed by seeddrying on the physiological quality of soybean seeds, stored in dry chamber under controlled conditions (relative humidity and temperature during 0, 90, 180 and 270 days. Hydro-conditioning has revealed positive effects on the physiological quality of those seedsand its advantage became more evident according to natural aging of the seeds during the storage.

  11. Determination and Comparison of Seed Oil Triacylglycerol Composition of Various Soybeans (Glycine max (L. Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

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    Won Woo Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using 1H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln, linoleic (L, and oleic (O ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%–50.1%, and 15.7%–34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the 1H-NMR method.

  12. Determination and comparison of seed oil triacylglycerol composition of various soybeans (Glycine max (L.)) using ¹H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Woo; Rho, Ho Sik; Hong, Yong Deog; Yeom, Myung Hun; Shin, Song Seok; Yi, Jun Gon; Lee, Min-Seuk; Park, Hye Yoon; Cho, Dong Ha

    2013-11-21

    Seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of 32 soybean varieties were determined and compared using ¹H-NMR. The contents of linolenic (Ln), linoleic (L), and oleic (O) ranged from 10.7% to 19.3%, 37.4%-50.1%, and 15.7%-34.1%, respectively. As is evident, linoleic acid was the major fatty acid of soybean oil. Compositional differences among the varieties were observed. Natural oils containing unsaturated groups have been regarded as important nutrient and cosmetic ingredients because of their various biological activities. The TAG profiles of the soy bean oils could be useful for distinguishing the origin of seeds and controlling the quality of soybean oils. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in which the TAG composition of various soybean oils has been analyzed using the ¹H-NMR method.

  13. Evaluation of the chemical quality traits of soybean seeds, as related to sensory attributes of soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Li, Bin; Han, Fenxia; Yan, Shurong; Wang, Lianzheng; Sun, Junming

    2015-04-15

    The soybean seed chemical quality traits (including protein content, oil content, fatty acid composition, isoflavone content, and protein subunits), soymilk chemical character (soluble solid), and soymilk sensory attributes were evaluated among 70 genotypes to determine the correlation between seed chemical quality traits and soymilk sensory attributes. Six sensory parameters (i.e., soymilk aroma, smoothness in the mouth, thickness in the mouth, sweetness, colour and appearance, and overall acceptability) and a seven-point hedonic scale for each parameter were developed. Significant positive correlations were observed between overall acceptability and the other five evaluation parameters, suggesting that overall acceptability is an ideal parameter for evaluating soymilk flavour. The soymilk sensory attributes were significantly positively correlated with the characteristics of the glycinin (11S)/beta-conglycinin (7S) protein ratio, soluble solid, and oil content but negatively correlated with glycitein and protein content. Our results indicated that soymilk sensory attributes could be improved by selecting the desirable seed chemical quality traits in practical soybean breeding programs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. PRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN ORTHIC QUARTZARENIC NEOSOIL OF THE CERRADO REGION

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    CHARLINE ZARATIN ALVES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the sowing periods in production , productivity component and physiological quality of seeds of three soybean cultivars (TMG133RR, P98Y70RR and NS7670RR in Orthic Quartzarenic Neosoil in the cerrado region. The design used was a randomized block a factorial scheme design with four repetitions, and each plot with useful space consisted of three rows of four meters length, spaced at 0.45 meters. Field evaluations were the final stand, the height of the plants, height of the first pod insertion, the mass of 100 seeds and productivity. Already in the lab seeds were evaluated for germination and vigor (first germination count, emergency, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of the aerial part of the plant and roots, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging and tetrazolium test. It concludes that it is possible to use Orthic Quartzarenic Neosoils , located in the Cerrado region at altitudes higher than 600 m, in years and places with good water distribution in the spring - summer seasons, for grain and soybeans production, but as a first goal, the crop should be sown in the first 20 days of November otherwise it should take place in early December.

  15. Proteomic analysis of mature soybean seeds from the Chernobyl area suggests plant adaptation to the contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Rashydov, Namik M; Berezhna, Valentyna V; Mátel, L'ubomír; Salaj, Terézia; Pret'ová, Anna; Hajduch, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The explosion in one of the four reactors of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP, Chernobyl) caused the worst nuclear environmental disaster ever seen. Currently, 23 years after the accident, the soil in the close vicinity of CNPP is still significantly contaminated with long-living radioisotopes, such as (137)Cs. Despite this contamination, the plants growing in Chernobyl area were able to adapt to the radioactivity, and survive. The aim of this study was to investigate plant adaptation mechanisms toward permanently increased level of radiation using a quantitative high-throughput proteomics approach. Soybeans of a local variety (Soniachna) were sown in contaminated and control fields in the Chernobyl region. Mature seeds were harvested and the extracted proteins were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). In total, 9.2% of 698 quantified protein spots on 2-D gel were found to be differentially expressed with a p-value Chernobyl soil conditions was proposed. Our results suggest that adaptation toward heavy metal stress, protection against radiation damage, and mobilization of seed storage proteins are involved in plant adaptation mechanism to radioactivity in the Chernobyl region.

  16. The Interactomic Analysis Reveals Pathogenic Protein Networks in Phomopsis longicolla Underlying Seed Decay of Soybean

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    Shuxian Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD in soybean, Glycine max (L. Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein–protein interactions (PPI and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins. There were 1,414 pathogenicity related genes in P. longicolla identified using the pathogen host interaction (PHI database. Additionally, 149 plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE were detected. The network captured five different classes of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, including the auxiliary activities, carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, and carbohydrate binding molecules. From the PPI analysis, novel interacting partners were determined for each of the PCWDE classes. The most predominant class of PCWDE was a group of 60 glycoside hydrolases proteins. The glycoside hydrolase subnetwork was found to be interacting with 1,442 proteins within the network and was among the largest clusters. The orthologous proteins FUS3, HOG, CYP1, SGE1, and the g5566t.1 gene identified in this study could play an important role in pathogenicity. Therefore, the P. longicolla protein interactome (PiPhom generated in this study can lead to a better understanding of PPIs in soybean pathogens. Furthermore, the PPI may aid in targeting of genes and proteins for further studies of the pathogenicity mechanisms.

  17. Joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculants in the treatment of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Cristiane Buhl Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interference of the joint application of pesticides with seed inoculation on the survival of Bradyrhizobium has been reported in the last years. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculant in the treatment of soybean seeds on various parameters of Bradyrhizobium nodulation in soybean as well as on crop productivity parameters. The experiment was conducted during the 2013/2014 crop in the experimental field of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso - Campo Novo do Parecis Campus. The seeds of TMG 133 RR variety were sown in pots. It was used a randomized block design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial, four fungicides (1: fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M, 2: carboxine + thiram, 3: difeconazole and 4: carbendazim + thiram, four insecticides (1: fipronil 250 SC, 2: thiamethoxam, 3: imidacloprid + thiodicarpe and 4: imodacloprid 600 FC and an inoculant (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080, common to all treatments, with three replications. The experiment was not repeated. The joint application of fungicide and insecticide with inoculant does not affect nodulation, foliar N content and vegetative growth of the plants as well as the masses of grains per plant and 100-grain mass. The use of the carbendazim + thiram mixed with fipronil and carbendazim + thiram mixed with imidacloprid provides less number of pods per plant and grains per plant, reflecting in reductions in the production of soybean grains. In this way, the fungicide carbendazim + thiram, regardless of the combined applied insecticide, is the most harmful to Bradyrhizobium spp.

  18. Impact of heat stress during seed development on soybean seed metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed development is a temperature-sensitive process that is much more vulnerable than vegetative tissues to abiotic stresses. Climate change is expected to increase the incidence and severity of summer heatwaves, and the impact of heat stress on seed development is expected to become more widespread...

  19. Soybean seed treatment with nickel improves biological nitrogen fixation and urease activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José eLavres Junior

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel (Ni is an essential micronutrient required for plants’ metabolism due to its role as a structural component of urease and hydrogenase, which in turn perform nitrogen (N metabolism in many legume species. Seed treatment with cobalt, molybdenum and Bradyrhizobium strains has been widely practiced to improve crops. Additionally, seed treatment together with Ni fertilization of soybean might improve the efficiency of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, boosting grain dry matter yield and N content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of soybean seed treatment with Ni rates (0, 45, 90,135, 180, 360 and 540 mg kg-1 on biological nitrogen fixation (BNF, directly by the 15N natural abundance method (δ15N‰ and by measurement of urease [E.C. 3.5.1.5] activity, as well as indirectly by nitrogenase (N-ase activity [E.C. 1.18.6.1]. Soybean plants (cultivar BMX Potência RR were grown in a sandy soil up to the R7 developmental stage (grain maturity, at which point the nutrient content in the leaves, chlorophyll content, urease and N-ase activities, Ni and N content in the grains, nodulation (at R1 - flowering stage, as well as the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (δ15N ‰, were evaluated. The proportion of N derived from N2 fixation varied from 77 to 99% using the natural 15N abundance method and non-nodulating Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris canariensis as references. A Ni rate of 45 mg kg-1 increased BNF by 12% compared to the control. The increased N uptake in the grains was closely correlated with chlorophyll content in the leaves, urease and N-ase activities, as well as with nodulation. Grain dry matter yield and aerial part dry matter yield increased, respectively, by 84% and 51% in relation to the control plants at 45 mg kg-1 Ni via seed treatment. Despite, Ni concentration was increased with Ni-seed treatment, Ni rates higher than 135 mg kg-1 promoted negative effects on plant growth and yield. In these

  20. Endophytic fungal communities associated with field-grown soybean roots and seeds in the Huang-Huai region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants depend on beneficial interactions between roots and fungal endophytes for growth, disease suppression, and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the endophytic fungal communities associated with the roots and corresponding seeds of soybeans grown in the Huang-Huai region of China. For the roots, we identified 105 and 50 genera by culture-independent and culture-dependent (CD methods, respectively, and isolated 136 fungal strains (20 genera from the CD samples. Compared with the 52 soybean endophytic fungal genera reported in other countries, 28 of the genera we found were reported, and 90 were newly discovered. Even though Fusarium was the most abundant genus of fungal endophyte in every sample, soybean root samples from three cities exhibited diverse endophytic fungal communities, and the results between samples of roots and seeds were also significantly different. Together, we identified the major endophytic fungal genera in soybean roots and seeds, and revealed that the diversity of soybean endophytic fungal communities was influenced by geographical effects and tissues. The results will facilitate a better understanding of soybean–endophytic fungi interaction systems and will assist in the screening and utilization of beneficial microorganisms to promote healthy of plants such as soybean.

  1. Stress, storage and survival of neem seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.

    2000-01-01

    Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) is an important multipurpose tropical tree species, frequently used in planting programmes in the arid tropics. However, its seeds are difficult to store for extended periods of time, as are those of many other tropical species which display

  2. Influence of planting date on seed protein oil sugars minerals and nitrogen metabolism in soybean under irrigated and non-irrigated enviroments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the effect of planting date and irrigation on soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition in the Early Soybean Production System is deficient, and what is available is inconclusive. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date on seed protein, o...

  3. Varying response of the concentration and content of soybean seed mineral elements, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, protein, and oil to phosphorus starvation and CO2 enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed investigation of the concentration (g-1 seed weight) and content (g plant-1) of seed mineral elements and metabolic profile under phosphorus (P) starvation at ambient (aCO2) and elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2) in soybean is limited. Soybean plants were grown in a controlled environment at ...

  4. Use of bioactivator, biostimulant and complex of nutrients in soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Adolfo Binsfeld

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available New discoveries have stimulated the use of different substances with physiologic effects, in order to develop agricultural crops. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating seeds treated with biostimulant, bioactivator and nutrients, in the initial development of soybean seeds. Two lots of seeds (high and low vigor, BMX Potência RR cultivar were used. The products tested were an insecticide with bioactivator effect, a plant growth regulator with biostimulant effect, a complex of nutrients and a control. Under laboratory conditions, the parameters water content, germination, first germination counting, accelerated aging, cold test, length and dry matter weight of seedlings were evaluated. Under greenhouse conditions, evaluations included emergence, emergence speed index, length and dry matter weight of seedlings. The efficiency of the products tested was affected by the seed physiologic quality, with a more pronounced effect for the products in high vigor lots. In general, the treatment with best results for initial performance was the complex of nutrients, followed by the plant growth regulator with biostimulant effect. The bioactivator had negative effect on seeds germination and seedling development.

  5. Accumulation of proanthocyanidins and/or lignin deposition in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats may lead to frequent defective cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Mineo; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Hiraoka, Miho; Kawada, So; Iiyoshi, Ryota; Yamashita, Kazuki; Sonoki, Tomonori; Maeda, Hayato; Kawasaki, Michio

    2017-03-01

    Defective cracking frequently occurs in buff-pigmented soybean seed coats, where proanthocyanidins accumulate and lignin is deposited, suggesting that proanthocyanidins and/or lignin may change physical properties and lead to defective cracking. In the seed production of many yellow soybean (Glycine max) cultivars, very low percentages of self-pigmented seeds are commonly found. This phenomenon is derived from a recessive mutation of the I gene inhibiting seed coat pigmentation. In Japan, most of these self-pigmented seeds are buff-colored, and frequently show multiple defective cracks in the seed coat. However, it is not known why cracking occurs specifically in buff seed coats. In this study, quantitative analysis was performed between yellow and buff soybean seed coats. Compared with yellow soybeans, in which defective cracking rarely occurs, contents of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and lignin were significantly higher in buff seed coats. Histochemical data of PAs and lignin in the seed coats strongly supported this result. Measurements of the physical properties of seed coats using a texture analyzer showed that a hardness value was significantly decreased in the buff seed coats. These results suggest that PA accumulation and/or lignin deposition may affect the physical properties of buff seed coats and lead to the defective cracking. This work contributes to understanding of the mechanism of defective cracking, which decreases the seed quality of soybean and related legumes.

  6. Water fluxes in maize, millet and soybean plant-residue mulches used in direct seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernando Antonio Macena da; Pinto, Hilton Silveira; Scopel, Eric; Corbeels, Marc; Affholder, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of crop residue mulches from maize, millet and soybean on water storage capacity, water evaporation, soil cover, solar radiation interception and surface water run-off as well as to incorporate these effects in a crop growth model. The mulch of millet and maize presented higher capacity for water storage than soybean mulch: 3.26, 3.24 and 2.62 g of water per gram of dry matter, respectively. Water losses from wet mulches were related to the potential evapotranspiration. The soil cover levels were similar among the three types of material. The three types of mulch intercepted similar quantities of photosynthetically active radiation and infrared radiation. The mulch of maize straw was slightly more efficient in intercepting radiation than that from millet or soybean. Mulching with millet residues was efficient in the control of surface water run-off: only 45.5 mm of water (out of 843.5 mm rainfall) was lost through runoff under the no-till system with millet as cover crop, whereas 222.5 mm of water was lost in the conventional system with tillage. Most of the relations derived in this work could be described by exponential models. (author)

  7. Transgenic soybean plants overexpressing O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase accumulate enhanced levels of cysteine and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor in seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Seok; Chronis, Demosthenis; Juergens, Matthew; Schroeder, Amy C; Hyun, Seung Won; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2012-01-01

    Soybeans provide an excellent source of protein in animal feed. Soybean protein quality can be enhanced by increasing the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids. Previous attempts to increase the concentration of sulfur-containing amino acids through the expression of heterologous proteins have met with limited success. Here, we report a successful strategy to increase the cysteine content of soybean seed through the overexpression of a key sulfur assimilatory enzyme. We have generated several transgenic soybean plants that overexpress a cytosolic isoform of O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). These transgenic soybean plants exhibit a four- to tenfold increase in OASS activity when compared with non-transformed wild-type. The OASS activity in the transgenic soybeans was significantly higher at all the stages of seed development. Unlike the non-transformed soybean plants, there was no marked decrease in the OASS activity even at later stages of seed development. Overexpression of cytosolic OASS resulted in a 58-74% increase in protein-bound cysteine levels compared with non-transformed wild-type soybean seeds. A 22-32% increase in the free cysteine levels was also observed in transgenic soybeans overexpressing OASS. Furthermore, these transgenic soybean plants showed a marked increase in the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor, a cysteine-rich protein. The overall increase in soybean total cysteine content (both free and protein-bound) satisfies the recommended levels required for the optimal growth of monogastric animals.

  8. The effect of exposure rate of the growth of soybean seedlings grown from gamma irradiated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof, A.; Grunewald, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the gamma ( 137 Cs) total exposure rate of 25 kR delivered at three different exposure rates (887 R/min, 159 R/min and 48 R/min) on soybean seeds was studied by measuring seedling height, cotyledon area, fresh weight, dry weight, Co 2 fixation and RuDP carboxylase activity. The dry weight, CO 2 fixation and irradiated imbibed groups did not show any correlation with exposure rate. Exposure rate effect was shown for the first stage out, no further correlation was observed in the subsequent stages, probably due to the recovery and repair mechanisms that take place as the seedling increases with age. The absence of an exposure rate effect on irradiated imbibed group may be explained in terms of non-detectable damage at a very high dose, since these seedlings exhibited effects that are similar to the effects of seeds exposed to an acute radiation dose. (author)

  9. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAIANE M. DRESCH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH, 5°C (34% RH, 15°C (60% RH and 25°C (34% RH, during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L−1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L−1 for 144 hours.

  10. Effect of storage in overcoming seed dormancy of Annona coriacea Mart. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresch, Daiane M; Scalon, Silvana P Q; Masetto, Tathiana E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-treatments on overcoming dormancy of A. coriacea seeds. Seeds were processed and stored in polyethylene bags at temperatures of at -18°C (42% RH), 5°C (34% RH), 15°C (60% RH) and 25°C (34% RH), during 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days. After storage, seeds were immersed in 350 mg.L-1 gibberellic acid for 144 hours. Sowing was carried out in plastic bags containing Red Latosol + Bioplant®. Moisture content, emergence percentage, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings, were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial with four replications of 50 seeds each. The seed storage at 5°C and subsequent immersion in gibberellic acid was efficient to reach high percentage, emergence speed and plant growth. A. coriacea seeds showed non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy wherein the physiological component can be overcome after the seeds are storage at 5°C for a maximum period of 53 days and subsequent immersed in exogenous GA (350 mg.L-1 for 144 hours).

  11. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... comparative regrowth and conversion capacity of synthetic seeds. Cold stored .... solution for 35 min. After complexation, the hardened alginate ... difference (LSD) test at 5% probability level (Steel et al., 1997). RESULTS AND ..... dure already proposed by Roussos and Pontikis (2002) that simplified the ...

  12. Differential Contribution of Malic Enzymes during Soybean and Castor Seeds Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel Claudia Gerrard Wheeler

    Full Text Available Malic enzymes (ME catalyze the decarboxylation of malate generating pyruvate, CO2 and NADH or NADPH. In some organisms it has been established that ME is involved in lipids biosynthesis supplying carbon skeletons and reducing power. In this work we studied the MEs of soybean and castor, metabolically different oilseeds. The comparison of enzymatic activities, transcript profiles and organic acid contents suggest different metabolic strategies operating in soybean embryo and castor endosperm in order to generate precursors for lipid biosynthesis. In castor, the malate accumulation pattern agrees with a central role of this metabolite in the provision of carbon to plastids, where the biosynthesis of fatty acids occurs. In this regard, the genome of castor possesses a single gene encoding a putative plastidic NADP-ME, whose expression level is high when lipid deposition is active. On the other hand, NAD-ME showed an important contribution to the maturation of soybean embryos, perhaps driving the carbon relocation from mitochondria to plastids to support the fatty acids synthesis in the last stages of seed filling. These findings provide new insights into intermediary metabolism in oilseeds and provide new biotechnological targets to improve oil yields.

  13. Lack of Globulin Synthesis during Seed Development Alters Accumulation of Seed Storage Proteins in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The major seed storage proteins (SSPs in rice seeds have been classified into three types, glutelins, prolamins, and globulin, and the proportion of each SSP varies. It has been shown in rice mutants that when either glutelins or prolamins are defective, the expression of another type of SSP is promoted to counterbalance the deficit. However, we observed reduced abundances of glutelins and prolamins in dry seeds of a globulin-deficient rice mutant (Glb-RNAi, which was generated with RNA interference (RNAi-induced suppression of globulin expression. The expression of the prolamin and glutelin subfamily genes was reduced in the immature seeds of Glb-RNAi lines compared with those in wild type. A proteomic analysis of Glb-RNAi seeds showed that the reductions in glutelin and prolamin were conserved at the protein level. The decreased pattern in glutelin was also significant in the presence of a reductant, suggesting that the polymerization of the glutelin proteins via intramolecular disulfide bonds could be interrupted in Glb-RNAi seeds. We also observed aberrant and loosely packed structures in the storage organelles of Glb-RNAi seeds, which may be attributable to the reductions in SSPs. In this study, we evaluated the role of rice globulin in seed development, showing that a deficiency in globulin could comprehensively reduce the expression of other SSPs.

  14. Embryo-specific expression of soybean oleosin altered oil body morphogenesis and increased lipid content in transgenic rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen Xian; Liu, Hua Liang; Qu, Le Qing

    2013-09-01

    Oleosin is the most abundant protein in the oil bodies of plant seeds, playing an important role in regulating oil body formation and lipid accumulation. To investigate whether lipid accumulation in transgenic rice seeds depends on the expression level of oleosin, we introduced two soybean oleosin genes encoding 24 kDa proteins into rice under the control of an embryo-specific rice promoter REG-2. Overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice leads to an increase of seed lipid content up to 36.93 and 46.06 % higher than that of the non-transgenic control, respectively, while the overall fatty acid profiles of triacylglycerols remained unchanged. The overexpression of soybean oleosin in transgenic rice seeds resulted in more numerous and smaller oil bodies compared with wild type, suggesting that an inverse relationship exists between oil body size and the total oleosin level. The increase in lipid content is accompanied by a reduction in the accumulation of total seed protein. Our results suggest that it is possible to increase rice seed oil content for food use and for use as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel by overexpressing oleosin in rice seeds.

  15. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  16. Profiling and relationship of water-soluble sugar and protein compositions in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomin; Yuan, Fengjie; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Danhua

    2016-04-01

    Sugar and protein are important quality traits in soybean seeds for making soy-based food products. However, the investigations on both compositions and their relationship have rarely been reported. In this study, a total of 35 soybean germplasms collected from Zhejiang province of China, were evaluated for both water-soluble sugar and protein. The total water-soluble sugar (TWSS) content of the germplasms studied ranged from 84.70 to 140.91 mg/g and the water-soluble protein (WSP) content varied from 26.5% to 36.0%. The WSP content showed positive correlations with the TWSS and sucrose contents but negative correlations with the fructose and glucose contents. The clustering showed the 35 germplasms could be divided into four groups with specific contents of sugar and protein. The combination of water-soluble sugar and protein profiles provides useful information for future breeding and genetic research. This investigation will facilitate future work for seed quality improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  18. Application of Polymerase Chain Reaction for High Sensitivity Detection of Roundup Ready™ Soybean Seeds and Grains in Varietal Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong increase in the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs observed over the years has led to a consolidation of transgenic seed industries worldwide. The dichotomy between the evaluated risk and the perceived risk of transgenic use has defined their level of acceptability among different global societies. GMOs have been widely applied to agricultural commodities, among them the Roundup Ready™ (RR™ soybean line GTS 40-3-2 has become the most prevalent transgenic crop in the world. This variety was developed to confer plant tolerance against glyphosate-based agricultural herbicide Roundup Ready™. Issues related to detection and traceability of GMOs have gained worldwide interest due to their increasing global diffusion and the related socioeconomic and health implications. Also, due to the widespread use of GMOs in food production, labelling regulations have been established in some countries to protect the right of consumers and producers. Besides regulatory demand, consumer concern issues have resulted in the development of several methods of detecting and quantifying foods derived from genetically engineered crops and their raw materials. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been proven to be the method of choice to detect the presence or absence of the introduced genes of GMOs at DNA level. The present paper aims to verify whether the PCR technique can detect RR™ soybean seeds among conventional ones to further certification as non-GM soybean seeds and grains. This analysis could be accomplished through the development of new methodology called 'intentional contamination' of soybean conventional seeds or grains with the respective RR™ soybeans. The results show that the PCR method can be applied with high sensitivity in order to certify conventional soybean seeds and grains.

  19. Amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Soledad Carrera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to perform a quantitative analysis of the amino acid composition of soybean seeds as affected by climatic variables during seed filling. Amino acids were determined from seed samples taken at harvest in 31 multi-environment field trials carried out in Argentina. Total amino acids ranged from 31.69 to 49.14%, and total essential and nonessential amino acids varied from 12.83 to 19.02% and from 18.86 to 31.15%, respectively. Variance components expressed as the percentage of total variation showed that the environment was the most important source of variation for all traits, followed by the genotype x environment interaction. Significant explanatory linear regressions were detected for amino acid content regarding: average daily mean air temperature and cumulative solar radiation, during seed filling; precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration, during the whole reproductive period; and the combinations of these climatic variables. Each amino acid behaves differently according to environmental conditions, indicating compensatory effects among them.

  20. Genetic variation of soybean agronomic characters induced by irradiation of seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhihong; Wang Jinling

    1988-02-01

    Dry seeds of three soybean varieties were irradiated by 60 Co γ ray with dosage of 4.1C/kg. The varieties irradiated were Fengshou No. 10, Donghong 74-403 and Heinong No. 26, and nonirradiated seeds of the corresponding variety was used as a control. The following genetic parameters of the nine agronomic characters were estimated, including genotypic coefficient of variation, genotypic variance, broad sense heritanility and genetic advance expected through selection. Three types of plant in M 2 and M 3 were used for the estimation of these parameters which comprise semisterility (MS), fertility (MF) in M 1 and control (CK). The genetic advance expected through selection was compared with the actual effect of selection for date of maturity, seed weigh per plant and 100 seed wight. The pattern of the genetic variation in the early generations of the induced population was analysed. Problems of selection for main agronomic characters in the early generations, and significance of fertility of M 1 plants for mutation breeding were discussed

  1. Variação da composição química de sementes de três cultivares de soja, durante o armazenamento Variations in the chemical composition of seeds of three cultivars of soybeans during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo F. Teixeira

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados os constituintes principais de sementes dos cultivares Santa-Rosa, IAC-3 e UFV-1 de soja, armazenadas por doze meses em condições ambientes. Ao final do armazenamento, os teores de extrato etéreo e de açúcares solúveis totais aumentaram, ao contrário do teor de polissacarídeos, viabilidade e vigor das sementes, que diminuíram.Chemical analyses were made on seeds of cultivars Santa-Rosa, IAC-1 and UFV-1 which were stored for 12 months under normal storage conditions. The percentage of ether extract and total sugar increased with time of storage, whereas, the percentage of polysaccharides, seed germination and vigor decreased.

  2. A major and stable QTL associated with seed weight in soybean across multiple environments and genetic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shin; Sayama, Takashi; Fujii, Kenichiro; Yumoto, Setsuzo; Kono, Yuhi; Hwang, Tae-Young; Kikuchi, Akio; Takada, Yoshitake; Tanaka, Yu; Shiraiwa, Tatsuhiko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2014-06-01

    We detected a QTL for single seed weight in soybean that was stable across multiple environments and genetic backgrounds with the use of two recombinant inbred line populations. Single seed weight (SSW) in soybean is a key determinant of both seed yield and the quality of soy food products, and it exhibits wide variation. SSW is under genetic control, but the molecular mechanisms of such control remain unclear. We have now investigated quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SSW in soybean and have identified such a QTL that is stable across multiple environments and genetic backgrounds. Two populations of 225 and 250 recombinant inbred lines were developed from crosses between Japanese and US cultivars of soybean that differ in SSW by a factor of ~2, and these populations were grown in at least three different environments. A whole-genome panel comprising 304 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci was applied to mapping in each population. We identified 15 significant QTLs for SSW dispersed among 11 chromosomes in the two populations. One QTL located between Sat_284 and Sat_292 on chromosome 17 was detected (3.6 soybean.

  3. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  4. Physiological and transcriptomic responses in the seed coat of field-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) to abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisner, Courtney P; Yendrek, Craig R; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2017-12-12

    Understanding how intensification of abiotic stress due to global climate change affects crop yields is important for continued agricultural productivity. Coupling genomic technologies with physiological crop responses in a dynamic field environment is an effective approach to dissect the mechanisms underpinning crop responses to abiotic stress. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. Pioneer 93B15) was grown in natural production environments with projected changes to environmental conditions predicted for the end of the century, including decreased precipitation, increased tropospheric ozone concentrations ([O 3 ]), or increased temperature. All three environmental stresses significantly decreased leaf-level photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to significant losses in seed yield. This was driven by a significant decrease in the number of pods per node for all abiotic stress treatments. To understand the underlying transcriptomic response involved in the yield response to environmental stress, RNA-Sequencing analysis was performed on the soybean seed coat, a tissue that plays an essential role in regulating carbon and nitrogen transport to developing seeds. Gene expression analysis revealed 49, 148 and 1,576 differentially expressed genes in the soybean seed coat in response to drought, elevated [O 3 ] and elevated temperature, respectively. Elevated [O 3 ] and drought did not elicit substantive transcriptional changes in the soybean seed coat. However, this may be due to the timing of sampling and does not preclude impacts of those stresses on different tissues or different stages in seed coat development. Expression of genes involved in DNA replication and metabolic processes were enriched in the seed coat under high temperate stress, suggesting that the timing of events that are important for cell division and proper seed development were altered in a stressful growth environment.

  5. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Selected aspects of tiny vetch [Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F.] seed ecology: generative reproduction and effects of seed maturity and seed storage on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kucewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vicia hirsuta (L. Gray S.F. (tiny vetch is a common and persistent segetal weed. Tiny vetch seeds and pods reach different stages of maturity during the crop harvest season. Some seeds that mature before cereal harvest are shed in the field and deposited in the soil seed bank, while others become incorporated into seed material. The objective of this study was to describe selected aspects of tiny vetch seed ecology: to determine the rate of individual reproduction of vetch plants growing in winter and spring grain crops and to evaluate the germination of seeds at different stages of maturity, subject to storage conditions. The seeds and pods of V. hirsuta were sorted according to their development stages at harvest and divided into two groups. The first group was stored under laboratory conditions for two months. In the autumn of the same year, the seeds were subjected to germination tests. The remaining seeds were stored in a storeroom, and were planted in soil in the spring. The germination rate was evaluated after 8 months of storage. Potential productivity (developed pods and flowers, fruit buds was higher in plants fruiting in winter wheat than in spring barley. Vetch plants produced around 17-26% more pods (including cracked, mature, greenish-brown and green pods and around 25% less buds in winter wheat than in spring barley. Immature seeds were characterized by the highest germination capacity. Following storage under laboratory conditions and stratification in soil, mature seeds germinated at a rate of several percent. After storage in a storeroom, seeds at all three development stages broke dormancy at a rate of 72- 75%. The high germination power of tiny vetch seeds stored in a storeroom indicates that this plant can be classified as an obligatory speirochoric weed species.

  7. Heme oxygenase-1 and abscisic acid effects MAPK´s gene expression in soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometti, R.; Santa Cruz, D.; Noriega, G.; Balestrasse, K.

    2012-01-01

    In soybean previous studies enabled the identification of MAPK3 and 6 whose activity is enhanced within the signaling pathway leading to defense reactions. In this study the effects of different compounds related to hemeoxygenase (HO-1) biosynthesis on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK’s) genes expression in soybean seeds were tested. To this end, 20μM hemine, 22μM ZnPPIX, 0.5mM furidine or 100μM 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br) were added to pre-hydrated seeds for 5 days. MAPK’s genes expression was enhanced in seeds treated with hemine. This result indicates that heme catabolism could be involved in the signaling mediated by this cascade pathway. To confirm this hypothesis experiments were carried out in the precsence of ZnPPIX, a potent irreversible HO-1 inhibitor. In this case, no gene induction was observed. On the other hand, 8Br, a cGMP analog, induced HO-1 gene expression but did not modulate MAPK’s, indicating that this effect could not be mediated by cGMP. When the action of furidine, an abscisic acid inhibitor, was tested a diminution of HO-1 gene expression was observed. In this regard, MAPK’s showed a different response, being MAPK6 the only transcript that showed a diminished respect to controls, while MAPK3 mRNA as well as MAPKK1 was enhanced. These results were confirmed by western blotting and activity determinations. (authors)

  8. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  9. Effects of pulsed magnetic field treatment of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Leelapriya, Thasari; Kumari, Bollipo Diana Ranjitha

    2012-12-01

    The effects of magnetic field (MF) treatments of soybean seeds on calli growth, cell damage, and biochemical changes under salt stress were investigated under controlled conditions. Soybean seeds were exposed to a 1.0 Hz sinusoidal uniform pulsed magnetic field (PMF) of 1.5 µT for 5 h/day for 20 days. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. For callus regeneration, the embryonic axis explants were taken from seeds and inoculated in a saline medium with a concentration of 10 mM NaCl for calli growth analysis and biochemical changes. The combined treatment of MF and salt stress was found to significantly increase calli fresh weight, total soluble sugar, total protein, and total phenol contents, but it decreased the ascorbic acid, lipid peroxidation, and catalase activity of calli from magnetically exposed seeds compared to the control calli. PMF treatment significantly improved calli tolerance to salt stress in terms of an increase in flavonoid, flavone, flavonole, alkaloid, saponin, total polyphenol, genistein, and daidzein contents under salt stress. The results suggest that PMF treatment of soybean seeds has the potential to counteract the adverse effects of salt stress on calli growth by improving primary and secondary metabolites under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pod Mildew on Soybeans Can Mitigate the Damage to the Seed Arising from Field Mold at Harvest Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Deng, Juncai; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Haijun; Yang, Caiqiong; Zhang, Xiaowen; Du, Junbo; Shu, Kai; Yang, Wenyu

    2016-12-07

    Seedpods are the outermost barrier of legume plants encountered by pests and pathogens, but research on this tissue, especially regarding their chemical constituents, is limited. In the present study, a mildew-index-model-based cluster analysis was used to evaluate and identify groups of soybean genotypes with different organ-specific resistance against field mold. The constituents of soybean pods, including proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and isoflavones, were analyzed. Linear regression and correlation analyses were also conducted between these main pod constituents and the organ-specific mildew indexes of seed (MIS) and pod (MIP). With increases in the contents of infection constituents, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids, the MIP increased and the MIS decreased. The MIS decreased with increases in the contents of glycitein (GLE)-type isoflavonoids, which act as antibiotic constituents. Although the infection constituents in the soybean pods caused pod mildew, they also helped mitigate the corresponding seed mildew to a certain extent.

  11. EPR imaging and HPLC characterization of the pigment-based organic free radical in black soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Maeda, Hayato

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the location and distribution of paramagnetic species in dry black, brown, and yellow (normal) soybean seeds using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), X-band (9 GHz) EPR imaging (EPRI), and HPLC. EPR primarily detected two paramagnetic species in black soybean. These two different radical species were assigned as stable organic radical and Mn 2+  species based on the g values and hyperfine structures. The signal from the stable radical was noted at g ≈ 2.00 and was relatively strong and stable. Subsequent noninvasive two-dimensional (2D) EPRI of the radical present in black soybean revealed that the stable radical was primarily located in the pigmented region of the soybean coat, with very few radicals observed in the soybean cotyledon (interior). Pigments extracted from black soybean were analyzed using HPLC. The major compound was found to be cyanidin-3-glucoside. Multi-EPR and HPLC results indicate that the stable radical was only found within the pigmented region of the soybean coat, and it could be cyanidin-3-glucoside or an oxidative decomposition product.

  12. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  13. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as N. virescens 80.38 N. lugens 67.17 S. incertulas 66.5 and L. oratorius 93.46 when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos.

  14. Gamma-ray induction of a mutant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] line lacking all seed lipoxygenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajika, Makita; Suda, Ikuo; Sakai, Shinji; Takahashi, Masakazu

    1997-01-01

    Induction of a soybean line lacking all isozymes of seed lipoxygenase was attempted using γ-radiation and of 1,813 seeds in M 3 generation, only one was identified as a seed lacking all the isozymes by SDS-PAGE. This line did not present any physiological abnormality over 10 generations or more (M 4 -M 14 ) and no significant influence of the enzyme on the agricultural traits was observed during the performance test in fields. In the resistance test against insect pests, significant differences were not found among the varieties and the lines tested. These results suggest that deletion of all lipoxygenase isozymes would not affect the soybean production in practice. The lipoxygenase activity was not detected in the leaves as well as the seeds of this line, suggesting that this enzyme are not indispensable for the soybean growth. The validity of this line in food processing fields was examined through determining the levels of hexanal production and DETBA. This line was found able to improve the taste of soybean cookies and use in combination with other materials as flour, egg, etc. because the line has no lipoxygenase activity. (M.N.)

  15. Development of SSR markers for genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of Phomopsis longicolla causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. The genome of P. longicolla type strain TWH P74 represents one of the important fungal pathogens in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. In this study, th...

  16. Evaluation of Seed Germination and Seed Vigor of Different Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. Cultivars Under Different Planting Dates in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gorzin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean seed germination and seed vigor potential is lower compared with other crops, and it often greatly reduces at the planting time. The occurrence of unfavorable conditions during seed formation in field causes severe deterioration of seeds and reduces the seed quality. Planting date is one of the most important influencing factors on seed quality of soybean in field conditions. Since planting date affect seed quality by changing the environmental conditions including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall during seed development and maturation. Materials and Methods To evaluate the seed germination and seed vigor of soybean seeds wshich were obtained from various planting dates, a field experiment was conducted with a split plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design in three replications in Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Main plot included five planting dates April 20, May 13, June 3, June 29 and July 22, and sub plot consisted of three cultivars (Williams, Sahar and DPX. About 50 plants were selected and harvested during R7 (physiological maturity stage from each plot, and their pods were removed by hand. Then, pods were dried in shade. To avoid mechanical damage, the seeds were removed by hand from the pods. Ultimately, seed quality was assessed by seed germination and seed vigor including accelerated aging, seedling growth rate (SGR and electrical conductivity tests. Results and Discussion According to obtained results, the use of different planting dates caused the change at the beginning and ending time of seed filling period (R5-R7 of all three cultivars. This event in turn leads to creation different conditions in terms of temperature, rainfall and relative humidity during seed filling period in all three cultivars. Therefore Williams cultivar coincided with high temperatures more than two other cultivars, especially in the early planting dates. While DPX that

  17. Genome-wide association study, genomic prediction and marker-assisted selection for seed weight in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaoping; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-two loci for soybean SW and candidate genes conditioning seed development were identified; and prediction accuracies of GS and MAS were estimated through cross-validation and validation with unrelated populations. Soybean (Glycine max) is a major crop for plant protein and oil production, and seed weight (SW) is important for yield and quality in food/vegetable uses of soybean. However, our knowledge of genes controlling SW remains limited. To better understand the molecular mechanism underlying the trait and explore marker-based breeding approaches, we conducted a genome-wide association study in a population of 309 soybean germplasm accessions using 31,045 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and estimated the prediction accuracy of genomic selection (GS) and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for SW. Twenty-two loci of minor effect associated with SW were identified, including hotspots on Gm04 and Gm19. The mixed model containing these loci explained 83.4% of phenotypic variation. Candidate genes with Arabidopsis orthologs conditioning SW were also proposed. The prediction accuracies of GS and MAS by cross-validation were 0.75-0.87 and 0.62-0.75, respectively, depending on the number of SNPs used and the size of training population. GS also outperformed MAS when the validation was performed using unrelated panels across a wide range of maturities, with an average prediction accuracy of 0.74 versus 0.53. This study convincingly demonstrated that soybean SW is controlled by numerous minor-effect loci. It greatly enhances our understanding of the genetic basis of SW in soybean and facilitates the identification of genes controlling the trait. It also suggests that GS holds promise for accelerating soybean breeding progress. The results are helpful for genetic improvement and genomic prediction of yield in soybean.

  18. Germination and storage of caranda seeds (Copernicia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caranda is a Brazilian native palm tree, belonging to Arecaceae family and occurring, predominan,t in the Brazilian Swampland. This work studied the germination and the caranda seeds storage behavior. The germination study was carried out in the temperatures of 25ºC and 30ºC in constant white light and the alternate temperature of 20/30ºC with 10 hours of darkness for the lowest temperature and 14 hours of light for the highest temperature, using paper and paper roll as substratum. At the end of test, the germination percentage, germination speed index, germination medium time and the primary root length were evaluated. After the seeds improvement, it was obtained two sub-samples destined for 30 days storage in two invironments: cold and dry chamber (16ºC/55% UR and freezer (-18ºC. The following tests, water content, germination, germination medium time and primary root length were evaluated. The caranda seeds germination in paper roll and on paper is favored by the temperature of 20/30ºC in paper roll and on paper and paper roll on 30ºC. The freezing and cold camera storage during 30 days are efficient to reduce the germination medium time of caranda seeds and to keep the germination percentage.

  19. Assessment of Soybean Flowering and Seed Maturation Time in Different Latitude Regions of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugalieva, Saule; Didorenko, Svetlana; Anuarbek, Shynar; Volkova, Lubov; Gerasimova, Yelena; Sidorik, Ivan; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is still a minor crop in Kazakhstan despite an increase in planting area from 4,500 to 11,400 km2 between 2006 and 2014. However, the Government's recently accepted crop diversification policy projects the expansion of soybean cultivation area to more than 40,000 km2 by 2020. The policy is targeting significant expansion of soybean production in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of Kazakhstan. Successful realization of this policy requires a comprehensive characterization of plant growth parameters to identify optimal genotypes with appropriate adaptive phenotypic traits. In this study 120 soybean accessions from different parts of the World, including 18 accessions from Kazakhstan, were field tested in South-eastern, Eastern, and Northern regions of the country. These studies revealed positive correlation of yield with flowering time in Northern Kazakhstan, with seed maturity time in Eastern Kazakhstan, and with both these growth stages in South-eastern Kazakhstan. It was determined that in South-eastern, Eastern and Northern regions of Kazakhstan the majority of productive genotypes were in maturity groups MGI, MG0, and MG00, respectively. The accessions were genotyped for four major maturity genes (E1, E2, E3, and E4) in order to assess the relationship between E loci and agronomic traits. The allele composition of the majority of accessions was e1-as/e2/E3/E4 (specific frequencies 57.5%, 91.6%, 65.0%, and 63.3%, respectively). Accessions with dominant alleles in either E3 or E4 genes showed higher yield in all three regions, although the specific genotype associated with greatest productivity was different for each site. Genotype-environment interaction studies based on yield performances suggest that South-east and East regions formed one mega-environment, which was well separated from North Kazakhstan where significantly earlier time to maturation is required. The results provide important insights into the relationship between genetic and

  20. Isolation and sequencing analysis on the seed-specific promoter from soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAIYIN Qinggele; LI Mingchun; WEI Dongsheng; CAI Yi; XING Laijun

    2007-01-01

    The low level of foreign genes' expression in transgenic plants is a key factor that limits plant genetic engineering.Because of the critical regulatory activity of the promoters on gene transcription,they are studied extensively to improve the efficiency of the plant transgenic system.The constitutive promoters,such as CaMV 35S promoter,are usually used in plant genetic engineering.But those constitutive promoters continuously express their downstream genes during the whole life span in all the tissues of the host plants.This is not only wasteful to host plant's energy,but also harmful to host plants and usually affects their agronomic characteristics.In contrast,the seed-specific promoter only expresses its downstream genes from mid to late stage of seed maturation,and there is no expression or much lower expression in other tissues.So the seed-specific promoters are distinguished for their improvement and what they have brought to plant quality engineering.The aim of this article is to characterize a new seed-specific promoter and improve grain quality.The promoter region of β-conglycinin α-subunit gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of soybean Jilin 43 by PCR method,and successfully extended this fragment by TAIL PCR method and obtained the promoter fragment BCSP666.Sequencing analysis showed that the cloned fragment BCSP666 contained all of the motifs,such as RY repeat element,AG/CCCCA motif,TACACAT motif,ACGTmotif,A/T rich motif and E-box etc.,which constituted the seed-specific promoter activity.Based on this sequencing analysis,the seed-specific promoter activity of the fragment BCSP666 was predicted.And then the seed-specific expression vector pBI121-666,which contained GUS reporter gene,was constructed with the fragment BCSP666.Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Agrobacterium-mediated floral-dip method with the recombined vector pBI121-666was conducted.The transgenic plants were selected on the kanamycin-resistant MS medium

  1. Evaluation of four improved soybean varieties under different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... emergence of soybean seeds in the field from year to year such that plant population densities cannot be met. (McGee et al., 1980). The causes of these problems include the use of poor quality seeds (Nangju et al.,. 1980), poor storage conditions (Delouche, 1981), increased incidence of seed-borne ...

  2. Influence of pulsed magnetic field on soybean (Glycine max L.) seed germination, seedling growth and soil microbial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kumari, Bollipo Dyana Ranjitha

    2013-08-01

    The effects of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) treatment of soybean (Glycine max L. cv CO3) seeds were investigated on rate of seed germination, seedling growth, physico-chemical properties of seed leachates and soil microbial population under laboratory conditions. Seeds were exposed to PMF of 1500 nT at 0.1, 1.0 10.0 and 100.0 Hz for 5 h per day for 20 days, induced by enclosure coil systems. Non-treated seeds were considered as controls. All PMF treatments significantly increased the rate of seed germination, while 10 and 100 Hz PMFs showed the most effective response. The 1.0 and 10 Hz PMFs remarkably improved the fresh weight of shoots and roots, leaf area and plant height from seedlings from magnetically-exposed seeds compared to the control, while 10 Hz PMF increased the total soluble sugar, total protein and phenol contents. The leaf chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll were higher in PMF (10 and 100 Hz) pretreated plants, as compared to other treatments. In addition, activities of alpha-amylase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, nitrate reductase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase were increased, while beta-amylase and protease activities were declined in PMF (10 Hz)-exposed soybean plants. Similarly, the capacity of absorbance of water by seeds and electrical conductivity of seed leachates were significantly enhanced by 10 Hz PMF exposure, whereas PMF (10 Hz) pretreated plants did not affect the microbial population in rhizosphere soil. The results suggested the potential of 10 Hz PMF treatment to enhance the germination and seedling growth of soybean.

  3. Meta-Analyses of QTLs Associated with Protein and Oil Contents and Compositions in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Kyujung; McHale, Leah K

    2017-06-01

    Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a valuable and nutritious crop in part due to the high protein meal and vegetable oil produced from its seed. Soybean producers desire cultivars with both elevated seed protein and oil concentrations as well as specific amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Numerous studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed composition traits, but validation of these QTLs has rarely been carried out. In this study, we have collected information, including genetic location and additive effects, on each QTL for seed contents of protein and oil, as well as amino acid and fatty acid compositions from over 80 studies. Using BioMercator V. 4.2, a meta-QTL analysis was performed with genetic information comprised of 175 QTLs for protein, 205 QTLs for oil, 156 QTLs for amino acids, and 113 QTLs for fatty acids. A total of 55 meta-QTL for seed composition were detected on 6 out of 20 chromosomes. Meta-QTL possessed narrower confidence intervals than the original QTL and candidate genes were identified within each meta-QTL. These candidate genes elucidate potential natural genetic variation in genes contributing to protein and oil biosynthesis and accumulation, providing meaningful information to further soybean breeding programs.

  4. Experimental study and simulation of mass distribution of the covering layer of soybean seeds coated in a spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte C. R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work, it was observed that the covering of soybean seeds with bacteria and micronutrients enhances vigorous growth of the plant thereby avoiding use of ammoniacal fertilizers. In the spouted bed covering can be done by pulverization of the coater slurry on the soybean seeds using a pneumatic atomizer. The optimum thickness of the cover allows the fundamental gaseous interchanges for germination and provides the ideal conditions for bacterium activity. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the process variables on thickness of the cover. A simulation of the mass distribution of seeds was obtained using a population balance model. Through the results obtained the operational conditions under which the coating layer distribution were determined has the greatest uniformity.

  5. Adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars for grain yield and seed quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K B; Bruzi, A T; Zambiazzi, E V; Soares, I O; Pereira, J L A R; Carvalho, M L M

    2017-05-10

    This study aimed at verifying the adaptability and stability of soybean cultivars, considering the grain yield and quality of seeds, adopting univariate and multivariate approaches. The experiments were conducted in two crops, three environments, in 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 crop seasons, in the county of Inconfidentes, Lavras, and Patos de Minas, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. We evaluated 17 commercial soybean cultivars. For adaptability and stability evaluations, the Graphic and GGE biplot methods were employed. Previously, a selection index was estimated based on the sum of the standardized variables (Z index). The data relative to grain yield, mass of one thousand grain, uniformity test (sieve retention), and germination test were standardized (Z ij ) per cultivar. With the sum of Z ij , we obtained the selection index for the four traits evaluated together. In the Graphic method evaluation, cultivars NA 7200 RR and CD 2737 RR presented the highest values for selection index Z. By the GGE biplot method, we verified that cultivar NA 7200 RR presented greater stability in both univariate evaluations, for grain yield, and for selection index Z.

  6. A genome-wide association study of seed protein and oil content in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Song, Qijian; Jia, Gaofeng; Specht, James E; Hyten, David L; Costa, Jose; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-01-02

    Association analysis is an alternative to conventional family-based methods to detect the location of gene(s) or quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provides relatively high resolution in terms of defining the genome position of a gene or QTL. Seed protein and oil concentration are quantitative traits which are determined by the interaction among many genes with small to moderate genetic effects and their interaction with the environment. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed protein and oil concentration in 298 soybean germplasm accessions exhibiting a wide range of seed protein and oil content. A total of 55,159 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using various methods including Illumina Infinium and GoldenGate assays and 31,954 markers with minor allele frequency >0.10 were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions. In euchromatic regions, the mean LD (r2) rapidly declined to 0.2 within 360 Kbp, whereas the mean LD declined to 0.2 at 9,600 Kbp in heterochromatic regions. The GWAS results identified 40 SNPs in 17 different genomic regions significantly associated with seed protein. Of these, the five SNPs with the highest associations and seven adjacent SNPs were located in the 27.6-30.0 Mbp region of Gm20. A major seed protein QTL has been previously mapped to the same location and potential candidate genes have recently been identified in this region. The GWAS results also detected 25 SNPs in 13 different genomic regions associated with seed oil. Of these markers, seven SNPs had a significant association with both protein and oil. This research indicated that GWAS not only identified most of the previously reported QTL controlling seed protein and oil, but also resulted in narrower genomic regions than the regions reported as containing these QTL. The narrower GWAS-defined genome regions will allow more precise

  7. The storage capacity of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao L.) through giving Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) in the various of storage container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahay, R. R.; Misrun, S.; Sipayung, R.

    2018-02-01

    Cocoa is plant which it’s seed character is recalcitrant. Giving PEG and using various of storage containers was hoped to increase storage capacity of cocoa seeds as long as period of saving. The reseach was aimed to identify the storage capacity of cocoa seeds through giving PEG in the various of storage containers. Research took place in Hataram Jawa II, Kabupaten Simalungun, Propinsi Sumatera Utara, Indonesia. The method of this research is spit-split plot design with 3 replication. Storage period was put on main plot which was consisted of 4 level, PEG concentration was put on sub plot, consisted of 4 level and storage container was put on the sub sub plot consisted of 3 types. The results showed that until 4 days at storage with 45 % PEG concentration at all storage container, percentage of seed germination at storage can be decreased to be 2.90 %, and can be defensed until 16 days with 45 % PEG concentration at perforated plastic storage container. Percentage of molded seeds and seed moisture content were increased with added period of storage but seed moisture content was increased until 12 days at storage and was decreased at 16 days in storage.

  8. Relationship of low phytate trait with seed germination and carbohydrates content in soybean mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Fengjie; Dong Dekun; Li Baiquan; Fu Xujun; Zhu Danhua; Zhu Shenlong

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the low phytate mutation with seed germination and carbohydrate content homozygous F 5 lines with/without lpa gene derived from mutant and different wild type parents were analyzed. The results showed that LPA (low phytic acid)/HPA (high phytic acid) lines developed in autumn had higher seed germination rate than that developed in spring. LPA lines had lower seed germination rate than HPA lines when they all developed in spring. However, in all crosses LPA lines with higher seed germination rate than mutant parent Gm-lpa-TW-1 was observed. No significant difference was detected between LPA and HPA lines when they developed in autumn. Homozygous LPA lines derived from vegetable soybean had lower seed germination than those from non-vegetable varieties. There was no significant difference in total carbohydrate content between LPA and HPA homozygous lines, but the sugar content of LPA homozygous lines was significant higher than HPA lines. On the contrary, oligosaccharides content with LPA lines were significant lower than those with HPA homozygous lines in all planting environment. It is concluded that seeds field germination rate were affected by low phytate mutation gene and planting environment, and lower seed germination rate phenotype of LPA lines could be improved by genetic method. Mutant Gm-lpa-TW-1 of LPA phenotype was genetic linkage with high sugar and low oligosaccharides phenotype, so it should be benefit to breed new soybean varieties with better quality. (authors)

  9. Inhibition of aflatoxin B production of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from soybean seeds by certain natural plant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Y L; Shashikala, J

    2006-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cowdung fumes, Captan, leaf powder of Withania somnifera, Hyptis suaveolens, Eucalyptus citriodora, peel powder of Citrus sinensis, Citrus medica and Punica granatum, neem cake and pongamia cake and spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger on aflatoxin B(1) production by toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus isolated from soybean seeds was investigated. Soybean seed was treated with different natural products and fungicide captan and was inoculated with toxigenic strain of A. flavus and incubated for different periods. The results showed that all the treatments were effective in controlling aflatoxin B(1) production. Captan, neem cake, spore suspension of T. harzianum, A. niger and combination of both reduced the level of aflatoxin B(1) to a great extent. Leaf powder of W. somnifera, H. suaveolens, peel powder of C. sinensis, C. medica and pongamia cake also controlled the aflatoxin B(1) production. All the natural product treatments applied were significantly effective in inhibiting aflatoxin B(1) production on soybean seeds by A. flavus. These natural plant products may successfully replace chemical fungicides and provide an alternative method to protect soybean and other agricultural commodities from aflatoxin B(1) production by A. flavus.

  10. Evaluation of the Protective Role of Glycine max Seed Extract (Soybean Oil) in Drug-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Anand; Jothivel, Nandhakumar; Das, Saibal; Swapna, A; Albert, Alice Padmini; Barnwal, Preeti; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-09-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of Glycine max seed extract (soybean oil) against gentamicin- and rifampicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats and to compare its effects with those of vitamin E, which has well-established antioxidant and nephroprotective effects. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (body weight 150-210 g) were divided into 10 groups. The first five groups were treated for 14 consecutive days with normal saline (5 ml/kg, by mouth [p.o.]); gentamicin (80 mg/kg intraperitoneally [i.p.]); gentamicin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) + vitamin E (250 mg/kg p.o.); gentamicin (80 mg/kg i.p.) + soybean oil (2.5 ml/kg p.o.); and gentamicin (80 mg/kg, i.p.) + soybean oil (5 ml/kg p.o.), respectively. For the next five groups, the same group allocation was done, but gentamicin was replaced with rifampicin (1 g/kg i.p.). Various biomarkers for nephrotoxicity in serum and urine were evaluated along with histopathological examination of kidneys. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done following Tukey's multiple comparison test; p Soybean oil in both doses significantly (p Soybean oil also showed strong antioxidant effects, causing significant (p Soybean oil demonstrated good nephroprotective activity due to antioxidant effects.

  11. Effect of polyethylene glycol 6000 and storage period on seed quality of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiti Rahayu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased productivity of cocoa needs high quality of cocoa seeds which are generally provided by certified seed gardens located far from smallholders farm, where seed delivery takes long time and may reduce physiological quality of seeds. One effort to maintain the seed quality is by treatment the seeds with polyethylene glycol6000 (PEG 6000. This study was aimed to study the interaction of PEG 6000 concentration and storage period on cocoa seed quality, and to determine the best concentration of PEG 6000 and storage period to maintain cocoa seed quality. The research was conducted in seed storage room, seed laboratory and green houseof PPPPTK, Cianjur. The experimental design used was a factorial completely randomized design and each combination treatment repeated three times. The first factor was concentration of PEG 6000 of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60%, and the second factor was the storage period of 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 9 weeks, and 12 weeks. The results showed that concentration of PEG 60% with three weeks storage period was able to minimize the number of moldy seeds. The concentration of PEG 20%, 40%, and 60% were able to prevent seed germination in storage until six weeks. Concentration of PEG 6000 20% was able to maintain moisture content, seed germination, and germination rate.Key words:cocoa seed, storage, recalcitrant, PEG

  12. Reduced abscisic acid content is responsible for enhanced sucrose accumulation by potassium nutrition in vegetable soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bingjie; Liu, Changkai; Tian, Bowen; Zhang, Qiuying; Liu, Xiaobing; Herbert, Stephen J

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the physiological mechanism of potassium (K) application in enhancing sugar content of vegetable soybean seeds, pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with two vegetable soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars (c.v. Zhongkemaodou 1 and c.v. 121) under normal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus application. Three potassium (K) fertilization treatments were imposed: No K application (K0), 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seeding (K1), and 120 kg K 2 SO 4 ha -1 at seedling + 1% K 2 SO 4 foliar application at flowering (K2). Contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GA), cytokinins (ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) in seeds were determined from 4 to 8 weeks after flowering. K fertilization increased the contents of IAA, GA, ZR, soluble sugar, sucrose and fresh pod yield, but reduced ABA content consistently. When the contents of soluble sugar and sucrose reached the highest level at 7 weeks after flowering for the 2 cultivars, the contents of IAA、GA、ZR all reached the lowest level in general. The content of ABA in seed was negatively correlated with the sucrose content (P abscisic acid content plays a critical role in enhancing sucrose content, which might be a partial mechanism involved in K nutrition to improve the quality of vegetable soybean.

  13. Analysis of the genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla: a fungal pathogen causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxian; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Musungu, Bryan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2017-09-05

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is a seed-borne fungus causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. This disease is one of the most devastating diseases reducing soybean seed quality worldwide. To facilitate investigation of the genomic basis of pathogenicity and to understand the mechanism of the disease development, the genome of an isolate, MSPL10-6, from Mississippi, USA was sequenced, de novo assembled, and analyzed. The genome of MSPL 10-6 was estimated to be approximately 62 Mb in size with an overall G + C content of 48.6%. Of 16,597 predicted genes, 9866 genes (59.45%) had significant matches to genes in the NCBI nr database, while 18.01% of them did not link to any gene ontology classification, and 9.64% of genes did not significantly match any known genes. Analysis of the 1221 putative genes that encoded carbohydrate-activated enzymes (CAZys) indicated that 715 genes belong to three classes of CAZy that have a direct role in degrading plant cell walls. A novel fungal ulvan lyase (PL24; EC 4.2.2.-) was identified. Approximately 12.7% of the P. longicolla genome consists of repetitive elements. A total of 510 potentially horizontally transferred genes were identified. They appeared to originate from 22 other fungi, 26 eubacteria and 5 archaebacteria. The genome of the P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 represented the first reported genome sequence in the fungal Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex causing soybean diseases. The genome contained a number of Pfams not described previously. Information obtained from this study enhances our knowledge about this seed-borne pathogen and will facilitate further research on the genomic basis and pathogenicity mechanism of P. longicolla and aids in development of improved strategies for efficient management of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean.

  14. Quality characteristics of irradiated sesame seeds during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of using gamma radiation 60 Co on the microbial load , presence of some pathogens, viscosity, oil, fatty acids and amino acids properties of sesame seeds were investigated.The condition storage at ambient temperature (20-28 deg c) was held for one year. Pre-packaged sesame seeds were found to be heavily contaminated with bacteria and fungi. The total bacterial counts were 1,9x10 4 cfu/g,whereas total fungal counts were 3.4x10 4 cfu/g.Samples showed low number of the pathogenic bacterial in control . It was found that the microbiological population greatly reduced with a dose of 10 kGy without affecting their quality attributes , irradiation doses used linearly reduced the viscosity of sesame seeds samples. These irradiation doses caused a decrease in the content of some fatty acids and amino acids and increase in others. At the end of storage period, it is clear that , irradiation dose of 10 kGy greatly reduced the counts of total bacterial count, total fungal count and spore former bacterial to less than 10 cfu/ g. The average counts of faecal coliforms , staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis did not detected in samples receiving 5 and 10 kGy . the flow index (n) and consistency index (k) were decreased after 12 month of storage in irradiated sesame with 10 kGy. Also, there was a slight increase in acid and peroxide value of oil extracted from sesame seeds treatment with 10 kGy. Meanwhile, there was a decrease in iodine, saponification value and very little decrease in the refractive index. It was found that slightly decreased in total unsaturated fatty acid (0.12%) and total amino acid (0.63%)in sesame irradiated at 10 kGy . so, it can be concluded that 10 kGy of γ-radiation suffice the purpose of this work

  15. Tratamento de sementes de soja com micronutrientes Soybean seeds treated with micronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Assis Librelotto Rubin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos na Estação Experimental de Júlio de Castilhos, RS, nos anos agrícolas 1990/91 e 1991/92, a fim de verificar a resposta da soja à aplicação de zinco, boro, molibdênio e cobalto nas sementes, em duas doses de calcário no solo Passo Fundo (LE. Utilizou-se o delineamento blocos ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas com três repetições, estabelecendo-se nas parcelas duas doses de calcário (sem e com 17,7t/ha e nas subparcelas formulações de zinco, boro, molibdênio e cobalto (0,875; 0,062; 0,150 e 0,012g/kg de sementes aplicadas nas sementes junto com o inoculante. Os tratamentos constaram de testemunha, molibdênio e zinco isolados, combinados entre si e associados a boro e cobalto, nas formulações em forma de pó (Biocrop Soja e fluída (fonte experimental MIQL 44-90A. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que, na condição sem calcário, os tratamentos de sementes com molibdênio aumentam o rendimento de grãos. Na condição com calcário, não há resposta a aplicação dos micronutrientes.The expenment was conducted in the Julio de Castilhos Experimental Station, RS, in 1990/91 and 1991/92 seasons. The effect of soybean seeds treated with zinc, boron, molybdenum and cobait, in two lime doses in Passo Fundo soil was evaluated. A completely randomized design with split plot with three replications was used. The lime doses formed the mam plots (zero and 17.71/ha and zinc, boron, molybdenum and cobait formulation (0.875; 0.062; 0.150 and 0.012gkg of seeds were the sub-plots. The treatments were contlol, molybdenum and zinc isolated and combinated with boron and cobait, with powder (Soybean Biocrop and solution (MIQL 44-90A formulation. The results indicate that withouth lime application, seeds treated with molybdenum had an increment in grain yield. However witht liming no difference in grain yield was observed.

  16. The Effect of Storage on Some Properties of 3 Different Ground Poppy Seed Fats

    OpenAIRE

    Maden, Besim; Yalçın, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Thepoppy seed is a traditional product in Afyon. There are there type poppy seed. Theseare white poppy seed, yellow poppy seed and gray poppy seed. The objective of thisstudy is to investigate the effect of storage at 15-20⁰C for several times (0, 7,15, 30, 45 and 60 days) on some properties of 3 different poppy seed fats. In thisstudy, fats were obtained from white poppy seed (TMO1), yellow poppy seed (TMO2)and gray poppy seed (Afyon-95). Then free fatty acid amount (%), peroxide value(meq O...

  17. Imidacloprid seed treatments affect individual ant behavior and community structure but not egg predation, pest abundance or soybean yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Hannah J; Dale, Andrew M

    2017-08-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments are under scrutiny because of their variable efficacy against crop pests and for their potential negative impacts on non-target organisms. Ants provide important biocontrol services in agroecosystems and can be indicators of ecosystem health. This study tested for effects of exposure to imidacloprid plus fungicide or fungicide-treated seeds on individual ant survival, locomotion and foraging capabilities and on field ant community structure, pest abundance, ant predation and yield. Cohorts of ants exposed to either type of treated seed had impaired locomotion and a higher incidence of morbidity and mortality but no loss of foraging capacity. In the field, we saw no difference in ant species richness, regardless of seed treatment. Blocks with imidacloprid did have higher species evenness and diversity, probably owing to variable effects of the insecticide on different ant species, particularly Tetramorium caespitum. Ant predation on sentinel eggs, pest abundance and soybean growth and yield were similar in the two treatments. Both seed treatments had lethal and sublethal effects on ant individuals, and the influence of imidacloprid seed coating in the field was manifested in altered ant community composition. Those effects, however, were not strong enough to affect egg predation, pest abundance or soybean yield in field blocks. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Seed storage-mediated dormancy alleviation in Fabaceae from campo rupestre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Nativel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe studied the effects of seed storage on germination and dormancy alleviation in three species of Fabaceae endemic to campo rupestrein southeastern Brazil. Fresh seeds of Collaea cipoensis, Mimosa maguirei and Mimosa foliolosawere set to germinate and germination of seeds after four, five and 13 years of storage was tested. Seed viability was maintained for all species after the full storage period. Seed storage significantly increased germination percentage and decreased germination time for C. cipoensisand M. foliolosa, suggesting the alleviation of physical dormancy with storage. However, we did not find evidence of dormancy alleviation in M. maguirei since stored seeds showed a decrease in germination in comparison to that of fresh seeds. Our data indicate species-specific storage-mediated dormancy alleviation, which will have important implications for restoration of campo rupestre.

  19. Effects of foliar boron application on seed composition, cell wall boron, and seed δ15N and δ13C isotopes in water-stressed soybean plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Hu, Yanbo; Mengistu, Alemu; Kassem, My A.; Abel, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of foliar boron (B) application on soybean seed composition. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of foliar B on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars). Our hypothesis was that since B is involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism, it may impact seed composition. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted where half of the soybean plants was exposed to water stress (WS) and the other half was well-watered. Foliar boron (FB) in the form of boric acid was applied twice at a rate of 1.1 kg ha−1. The first application was during flowering stage, and the second application was during seed-fill stage. Treatments were water stressed plants with no FB (WS–B); water stressed plants with FB (WS+B); watered plants without FB (W–B), and watered plants with FB (W+B). The treatment W–B was used as a control. Comparing with WS–B plants, B concentration was the highest in leaves and seed of W+B plants (84% increase in leaves and 73% in seed). Seeds of W+B plants had higher protein (11% increase), oleic acid (27% increase), sucrose (up to 40% increase), glucose, and fructose comparing with W–B. However, seed stachyose concentrations increased by 43% in WS–B plants seed compared with W–B plants. Cell wall (structural) B concentration in leaves was higher in all plants under water stress, especially in WS–B plants where the percentage of cell wall B reached up to 90%. Water stress changed seed δ15N and δ13C values in both B applied and non-B applied plants, indicating possible effects on nitrogen and carbon metabolism. This research demonstrated that FB increased B accumulation in leaves and seed, and altered seed composition of well-watered and water stressed plants, indicating a possible involvement of B in seed protein, and oleic and linolenic fatty acids. Further research is needed to explain mechanisms of B involvement in seed protein and fatty acids. PMID:23888163

  20. Oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol retention in soybean oil with lemon seed extract (Citrus limon) under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2009-11-01

    The synergistic effect of lemon seed extract with tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) in soybean oil subjected to thermoxidation by Rancimat was investigated, and the influence of these antioxidants on a-tocopherol degradation in thermoxidized soybean oil. Control, LSE (2400 mg/kg Lemon Seed Extract), TBHQ (50 mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180 degrees C for 20 h. Samples were taken at time 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analysed for oxidative stability and alpha-tocopherol content. LSE and Mixtures 1 and 2 showed the capacity of retarding lipid oxidation when added to soya oil and also contributed to alpha-tocopherol retention in oil heated at high temperatures. However, Mixtures 1 and 2 added to the oil presented a greater antioxidant power, consequently proving the antioxidants synergistic effect.

  1. Identification and characterization of large DNA deletions affecting oil quality traits in soybean seeds through transcriptome sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettel, Wolfgang; Ramirez, Martha; Upchurch, Robert G; An, Yong-Qiang Charles

    2016-08-01

    Identification and characterization of a 254-kb genomic deletion on a duplicated chromosome segment that resulted in a low level of palmitic acid in soybean seeds using transcriptome sequencing. A large number of soybean genotypes varying in seed oil composition and content have been identified. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these variations is important for breeders to effectively utilize them as a genetic resource. Through design and application of a bioinformatics approach, we identified nine co-regulated gene clusters by comparing seed transcriptomes of nine soybean genotypes varying in oil composition and content. We demonstrated that four gene clusters in the genotypes M23, Jack and N0304-303-3 coincided with large-scale genome rearrangements. The co-regulated gene clusters in M23 and Jack mapped to a previously described 164-kb deletion and a copy number amplification of the Rhg1 locus, respectively. The coordinately down-regulated gene clusters in N0304-303-3 were caused by a 254-kb deletion containing 19 genes including a fatty acyl-ACP thioesterase B gene (FATB1a). This deletion was associated with reduced palmitic acid content in seeds and was the molecular cause of a previously reported nonfunctional FATB1a allele, fap nc . The M23 and N0304-304-3 deletions were located in duplicated genome segments retained from the Glycine-specific whole genome duplication that occurred 13 million years ago. The homoeologous genes in these duplicated regions shared a strong similarity in both their encoded protein sequences and transcript accumulation levels, suggesting that they may have conserved and important functions in seeds. The functional conservation of homoeologous genes may result in genetic redundancy and gene dosage effects for their associated seed traits, explaining why the large deletion did not cause lethal effects or completely eliminate palmitic acid in N0304-303-3.

  2. Viability and Biochemical Content Changes in Seed Storage of Jabon Putih (Anthocephalus Cadamba (Roxb Miq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naning Yuniarti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed deterioration is the process of deteriorated seed in view of viability that changed the physiological and chemical content. The aim of this research is to find out the effect of moisture content and storage on viability and biochemical content of jabon putih seed. Completely Randomized Design was used for decreasing moisture content based on seed drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours, and Completely Randomized Factorial Design was used for the combination of moisture content (drying time for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 hours and room storage (ambient room, air-conditioned room, refrigerator. The results of this research are: (1 seed drying time and seed storage affected the change of seed viability and biochemical content, (2 seed drying time and seed storage influence significantly the value of moisture content, germination percentage, and biochemical content (lipid, carbohydrate, protein, (3 The longer time of seed drying and seed storage has decreased the seed moisture content, germination percentage, and the carbohydrate content, but it has increased the content of lipid and protein, and (4 the seeds were stored in refrigerator has better viability compared to dry cold storage and ambient room.

  3. Effects of two low phytic acid mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng-Jie; Zhu, Dan-Hua; Deng, Bo; Fu, Xu-Jun; Dong, De-Kun; Zhu, Shen-Long; Li, Bai-Quan; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2009-05-13

    Reduction of phytic acid in soybean seeds has the potential to improve the nutritional value of soybean meal and lessen phosphorus pollution in large scale animal farming. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of two new low phytic acid (LPA) mutations on seed quality and nutritional traits. Multilocation/season comparative analyses showed that the two mutations did not affect the concentration of crude protein, any of the individual amino acids, crude oil, and individual saturated fatty acids. Among other traits, Gm-lpa-TW75-1 had consistently higher sucrose contents (+47.4-86.1%) and lower raffinose contents (-74.2 to -84.3%) than those of wild type (WT) parent Taiwan 75; Gm-lpa-ZC-2 had higher total isoflavone contents (3038.8-4305.4 microg/g) than its parent Zhechun # 3 (1583.6-2644.9 microg/g) in all environments. Further tests of homozygous F(3) progenies of the cross Gm-lpa-ZC-2 x Wuxing # 4 (WT variety) showed that LPA lines had a mean content of total isoflavone significantly higher than WT lines. This study demonstrated that two LPA mutant genes have no negative effects on seed quality and nutritional traits; they instead have the potential to improve a few other properties. Therefore, these two mutant genes are valuable genetic resources for breeding high quality soybean varieties.

  4. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research. PMID:27214227

  5. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research.

  6. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs. In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1. Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research.

  7. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  8. Influences of Soaking Temperature and Storage Conditions on Hardening of Soybeans (Glycine max) and Red Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takako; Sato, Yoko; Iijima, Kumiko; Kasai, Midori

    2017-07-01

    The influences of soaking treatment and storage conditions on the softening of cooked beans, namely, soybeans and red kidney beans, were investigated. It was revealed that the softening of fresh soybeans and fresh red kidney beans was suppressed during subsequent boiling after soaking treatment at 50 and 60 °C. Furthermore, in treated aged soybeans and red kidney beans that were subjected to storage at 30 °C/75% relative humidity for 6 mo and soaking treatment at 50 to 60 °C, the hardness during cooking was further amplified. This suggested that the mechanism of softening suppression differs depending on the influences of soaking and storage. Analysis of the pectin fraction in alcohol insoluble solid showed insolubilization of metal ions upon storage at high temperature and high humidity in both soybeans and red kidney beans, which suggests interaction between Ca ions and hemicellulose or cellulose as cell wall polysaccharides. The results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that aged soybeans exhibited a shift in the thermal transition temperature of glycinin-based protein to a higher temperature compared with fresh soybeans. From the results of DSC and scanning electron microscopy for aged red kidney beans, damaged starch is not conspicuous in the raw state after storage but is abundant upon soaking treatment. As for the influence of soaking at 60 °C, it can be suggested that its influence on cell wall crosslinking was large in soybeans and red kidney beans in both a fresh state and an aged state. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  10. Design of Soybean Seed Selecting Machine and Its Improvement%大豆种子清选机的设计及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军

    2015-01-01

    在简介国内外大豆清选技术的基础上,设计3LD-ZP型大豆种子清选机。介绍大豆种子清选机的结构组成、工作过程及主要影响因素,提出结构改进方案,为提高大豆种子的分选质量提供适用机具。%In the article, it designed type 3LD-ZP soybean seed selecting machine on the basis of briefly introducing the technology of soybean selecting at home and abroad. It introduced structure components, operating process and main influence factors of soybean seed selecting machine, raised improvement plan for the structure, in order to provide suitable machinery for increasing selecting quality of soybean seed.

  11. THE EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON YIELD COMPONENTS AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF SOYBEANS [(GLYCINE MAX (L. MERR.] SEEDS

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    Milan Macak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was carry out at experimental farm Oponice West Slovakia, 48 28 N, 18 9E in 2004 2007. The aim of the work was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen fertilization treatments on yield and yield component and selected quality parameters proteins, oil, fibre, isoflavones of soybeen seeds variety Korada, in agri environmental condition of western part of Slovakia. The fertilization treatments were as follows I unfertilized treatment; II application of nitrogen fertilizers LAV 27 ammonium nitrate with lime 40 kg ha 1 nitrogen in the vegetative stage V2; III Humix complet in split application of total dose 4 +4 L ha 1 applied in growth stage of V2 and in reproductive growth stage of R1 beginning bloom. Humix complet contain bioactive ingredient and nutrients for plant nutrition with 2.5 of humic acids, 4.0 total N, 0.5 P2O5, 3 K2O, and micronutrients. Result showed the highest variation of pods per plant in dependence of year condition range 17.8-24.7. No significant differences between numbers of seeds were noted 2.13-2.29. The split application of Humic complet significantly influence the higher number of pods per plant 24.8 while keeping the number of seeds per pod 2.13. The yield of seeds was significantly influenced by weather conditions 2.84 t ha 1 4.68 t ha 1 and by fertilization treatments. Supplemental ammonium nitrate with lime treatments II in the vegetative stage of V2 or Humix complet treatment III applied in V2 and R1 stages significantly increased yield of soybean seeds up to 3.91 t ha 1 and 4.27 t ha 1 with comparison to control treatment 3.49 t ha 1. Content of protein, oil and fibre was not significantly differing between fertilization treatments. In spite of significantly higher soybean yield in Humic complet treatment, content of protein 37.67, oil 15.83 and fibre 9.47 was at the same level as lower yielded treatments. Soybean seeds from higher yielded fertilization treatments have significantly less content of

  12. Economic governance of property rights: comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in genetically modified soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Fowler de Avila Monteiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the governance of property rights on genetically modified (GM soybean seeds. Specifically, the article undertakes a comparative analysis on the collection of royalties in GM soybean seeds in the U.S. and Brazil. For each country, the authors describe the regulatory framework governing the protection of biotechnology innovations in agriculture and investigate the mechanisms of royalty collection in GM soybean seeds. The paper also offers econometric evidence linking the capture of value on biotech innovations and the protection mechanisms deployed by biotech firms. The results suggest that, subject to the institutional environment, firms may choose to transact a GM attribute separated from the seed, building specialized governance structures framed around the genetic attribute and not around the seed as a whole.Este artigo examina a governança de direitos de propriedade em sementes transgênicas de soja. Especificamente, o estudo empreende uma análise comparativa sobre a cobrança de royalties em sementes transgênicas de soja nos EUA e no Brasil. Para cada país, os autores descrevem a estrutura regulatória que rege a proteção de inovações biotecnológicas na agricultura e investigam os mecanismos de cobrança de royalties em sementes transgênicas de soja. O artigo também examina evidências econométricas que relacionam a captura de valor sobre inovações biotecnológicas e os mecanismos de proteção utilizados por firmas de biotecnologia. Os resultados sugerem que, com base no ambiente institucional, uma firma pode optar por transacionar um atributo transgênico separado da semente, estabelecendo estruturas especializadas de governança que se emolduram em torno do atributo e não da semente em si.

  13. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  14. Leucaena allelopathy on weeds and soybean seed germination / Alelopatia de Leucena sobre soja e plantas invasoras

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    Raquel Leszczynski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of agriculture, there was consequent rising in environment degradation. Therefore, It is interesting the use of plants which have in their chemical composition substances capable of helping in the control of weeds to minimize the use of pesticides. Hence, the objective of this paper was to evaluate solutions of leucena extract on weeds that are frequent on soybean crop. The treatments were leucena extracts at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% at room temperature water and water heated to 80°C. The extracts were obtained by crushing 200g of leucena leaves and mixing them with one liter of distilled water with the help of a blender. Seeds were kept in B.O.D. at a temperature of 25°C, with a photoperiod of 12 hours of light. Evaluations were done on a daily basis, from the first to the last day of the experiment, varying according to the species. Results show a negative interference of the extracts, both hot and cold, in the root length of Ipomoea grandifolia, in the percentage of germination and in the root length of Arrowleaf sida and Hair beggarticks. There was no negative interference in the analyzed parameters for soybean seeds. Thus, the results indicate allelopatic potential of Leucaena leuucocephala as an alternative for the management of weeds without interfering on the development of the soybean crop.Com o desenvolvimento da agricultura surgiram os conseqüentes aumentos na degradação ambiental. Assim, estuda-se a utilização de plantas que possuam em sua composição química substâncias capazes de auxiliar no controle de plantas invasoras, amenizando o uso de agrotóxicos. Desta forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar soluções de extratos de leucena sobre plantas invasoras que freqüentemente ocorrem na cultura da soja. Foram utilizados como tratamentos os seguintes extratos de leucena nas proporções de: 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% com água à temperatura ambiente e com água aquecida à 80°C. Os extratos foram

  15. Physiological behavior of bean's seeds and grains during storage

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    FLÁVIA D.R. CASSOL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beans are one of the most used foods to meet the energy needs of the Brazilian diet, requiring farmers to use high seed physiological potential. The aim was to evaluate the physiological quality of beans stored for 360 days. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days after receiving the seeds (S1 and S2 and grains (G1 and G2 of BRS Splendor. Tests of germination, accelerated aging, cold, speed of germination, average length of shoots, and root were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized split-plot in time and the means were compared through Tukey test at 5% probability. Seed germination was not affected in S2, while the drop in S1 and G1 was significant. The vigor of grains from field 1 declined from 91 to 50% and from 93% to 76% by accelerated aging and cold, respectively, after 360 days. The germination speed tests performed showed a decreased during the experiment. The grains from field 1 had lower physiological quality. The accelerated aging and cold tests, through the speed of germination parameter, showed decrease in the vigor of the Splendor BRS. The storage period influenced the physiological quality of the beans tested.

  16. Physiological behavior of bean's seeds and grains during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Flávia D R; Fortes, Andréa M T; Mendonça, Lorena C; Buturi, Camila V; Marcon, Thaís R

    2016-05-31

    Beans are one of the most used foods to meet the energy needs of the Brazilian diet, requiring farmers to use high seed physiological potential. The aim was to evaluate the physiological quality of beans stored for 360 days. Analyses were performed at 0, 30, 90, 180, 270, and 360 days after receiving the seeds (S1 and S2) and grains (G1 and G2) of BRS Splendor. Tests of germination, accelerated aging, cold, speed of germination, average length of shoots, and root were performed. The experimental design was completely randomized split-plot in time and the means were compared through Tukey test at 5% probability. Seed germination was not affected in S2, while the drop in S1 and G1 was significant. The vigor of grains from field 1 declined from 91 to 50% and from 93% to 76% by accelerated aging and cold, respectively, after 360 days. The germination speed tests performed showed a decreased during the experiment. The grains from field 1 had lower physiological quality. The accelerated aging and cold tests, through the speed of germination parameter, showed decrease in the vigor of the Splendor BRS. The storage period influenced the physiological quality of the beans tested.

  17. Roles of Soybean Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein GmPIP2;9 in Drought Tolerance and Seed Development

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    Linghong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins play an essential role in water uptake and transport in vascular plants. The soybean genome contains a total of 22 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP genes. To identify candidate PIPs important for soybean yield and stress tolerance, we studied the transcript levels of all 22 soybean PIPs. We found that a GmPIP2 subfamily member, GmPIP2;9, was predominately expressed in roots and developing seeds. Here, we show that GmPIP2;9 localized to the plasma membrane and had high water channel activity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using transgenic soybean plants expressing a native GmPIP2;9 promoter driving a GUS-reporter gene, it was found high GUS expression in the roots, in particular, in the endoderm, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the roots of transgenic plants. In addition, GmPIP2;9 was also highly expressed in developing pods. GmPIP2;9 expression significantly increased in short term of polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated drought stress treatment. GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased tolerance to drought stress in both solution cultures and soil plots. Drought stress in combination with GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased net CO2 assimilation of photosynthesis, stomata conductance, and transpiration rate, suggesting that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing transgenic plants were less stressed than wild-type (WT plants. Furthermore, field experiments showed that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants had significantly more pod numbers and larger seed sizes than WT plants. In summary, the study demonstrated that GmPIP2;9 has water transport activity. Its relative high expression levels in roots and developing pods are in agreement with the phenotypes of GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants in drought stress tolerance and seed development.

  18. Genetic mapping of QTLs associated with seed macronutrients accumulation in 'MD96-5722' by 'Spencer' recombinant inbred lines of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research of genetic mapping of QTLs for macronutrient accumulation in soybean seed is limited. Therefore, the objective of this research was to identify QTLs related to macronutrients (N, C, S, P, K, Ca, and Mg) in seeds in 92 F5:7 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between MD 96-5722 (...

  19. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  20. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

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    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  2. Tratamento fungicida de sementes de soja inoculadas com Colletotrichum truncatum Fungicide treatment of soybean seeds inoculated with Colletotrichum truncatum

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    Carlos Eduardo Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade sanitária e o potencial fisiológico de sementes de soja são fatores determinantes para o estabelecimento de estandes adequados. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho das sementes de soja e o crescimento das plantas após inoculação das sementes com Colletotrichum truncatum e tratamento fungicida via peliculização. As sementes foram inoculadas com C. truncatum utilizando técnica de restrição hídrica e, posteriormente, tratadas com fungicidas e polímero. Os tratamentos utilizados foram carbendazin, fludioxonil+mefenoxan, thiabendazol+thiram, tiofanato metílico, caboxin+thiram e sementes não tratadas. As sementes foram tratadas com e sem polímero. Foram realizadas avaliações de germinação das sementes, teste de frio, emergência de plântulas e sanidade das sementes por meio do Blotter test. As plantas, cultivadas em vasos, foram avaliadas pelo comprimento da parte aérea, da matéria seca de raízes e da parte aérea. O tratamento das sementes de soja com fludioxonil+mefenoxan e thiabendazole+thiram é eficiente no controle de Colletotrichum truncatum e melhora o desempenho fisiológico das sementes. O desempenho das sementes de soja e o crescimento das plantas são reduzidos quando as sementes são tratadas com tiofanato metílico. A peliculização não afeta o potencial fisiológico e a qualidade sanitária das sementes de soja.The sanitary and physiological qualities of soybean seeds are determining factors for the establishment of appropriate stands. This research aimed to evaluate the soybean seed performance and plants growth after seed inoculation with Colletotrichum truncatum and fungicide treatment by film-coating. The seeds were inoculated whit C. truncatum by water restriction technique and then treated with fungicides and polymer. The used treatments were carbendazin, fludioxonil+mefenoxan, thiabendazole+thiram, thiophanate methyl, caboxin+thiram and untreated seeds. The seeds were treated with and

  3. Studies on the Vigour of Soybean Seeds : II. Varietal Differences in Seed Coat Quality and Swelling Components of Seed during Moisture Imbibition

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnisjah, Wahju Qamara; Shimano, Itaru; Matsumoto, Shigeo; 島野, 至; 松本, 重男

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory experiment was conducted to elucidate the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed coat quality with varietal differences in seed vigour, and to pursue an alternative on the mechanism of varietal differences in seed resistance to field weathering. Results of this study revealed that seed polymer change (seed volume change minus seed weight change during moisture imbibition) was the physiological factor determining the association of seed size and seed ...

  4. Effects of boron nutrition and water stress on nitrogen fixation, seed δ15N and δ13C dynamics, and seed composition in soybean cultivars differing in maturities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Mengistu, Alemu

    2015-01-01

    Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG) cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W - B), well-watered with foliar B (W + B), water-stressed with no foliar B (WS - B), and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B). Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg · ha(-1) and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W - B, WS + B, and WS - B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS - B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ (15)N and δ (13)C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

  5. Effects of Boron Nutrition and Water Stress on Nitrogen Fixation, Seed δ15N and δ13C Dynamics, and Seed Composition in Soybean Cultivars Differing in Maturities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therefore, the objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of foliar B nutrition on seed protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars under water stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using different maturity group (MG cultivars. Plants were well-watered with no foliar B (W − B, well-watered with foliar B (W + B, water-stressed with no foliar B (WS − B, and water-stressed with foliar B (WS + B. Foliar B was applied at rate of 0.45 kg·ha−1 and was applied twice at flowering and at seed-fill stages. The results showed that seed protein, sucrose, fructose, and glucose were higher in W + B treatment than in W − B, WS + B, and WS − B. The increase in protein in W + B resulted in lower seed oil, and the increase of oleic in WS − B or WS + B resulted in lower linolenic acid. Foliar B resulted in higher nitrogen fixation and water stress resulted in seed δ15N and δ13C alteration. Increased stachyose indicated possible physiological and metabolic changes in carbon and nitrogen pathways and their sources under water stress. This research is beneficial to growers for fertilizer management and seed quality and to breeders to use 15N/14N and 13C/12C ratios and stachyose to select for drought tolerance soybean.

  6. Armazenamento de soja em silos tipo bolsa Soybean storage in bag type silos

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    Lêda R. A. Faroni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as principais alterações qualitativas de soja armazenada em silos tipo bolsa e do óleo bruto extraído de soja com teores de água de 17,4% e 13,3%, armazenada em dois silos tipo bolsa, por 180 dias. Realizaram-se amostragens no dia do enchimento das bolsas, aos 30; 90 e 180 dias de armazenamento. Analisaram-se o teor de água, a condutividade elétrica, o percentual de germinação, a massa específica aparente da soja, além do teor de ácidos graxos livres e o índice de peróxido do óleo bruto extraído dela. Os teores de água da soja armazenada úmida e seca mantiveram-se próximos dos valores obtidos no início do período de armazenamento. Observou-se tendência de elevação da condutividade elétrica e decréscimo do percentual de germinação somente na soja úmida, principalmente após 90 dias de armazenamento. Não foi verificado decréscimo da massa específica aparente do material armazenado úmido e seco. Com relação aos parâmetros qualitativos do óleo bruto, observou-se que os valores obtidos se mantiveram abaixo do limite máximo exigido pela legislação para a comercialização de óleo bruto de soja. Pode-se concluir que os silos tipo bolsa representam alternativa viável do ponto de vista qualitativo para armazenagem de soja, e esse tipo de estrutura não ocasiona alterações qualitativas significativas no óleo bruto obtido desse material, em condições similares àquelas deste estudo.This study reports major qualitative changes in the soybean grains and the extracted crude oil when stored in bag type silos. Grains with moisture content of 17.4 or 13.3% were stored in two bag type silos. Samples were taken 30, 90 and 180 days of storage , to determine moisture content, electric conductivity of the grain leachate, germination percentage, apparent specific grain mass, and free fatty acid content, and peroxide index of the crude oil extracted from these grains. The wet and dry grains remained with

  7. Transcriptome Profile of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines for β-Conglycinin α-Subunit Deficiency during Seed Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; An, Lixin; Han, Yanjing; Gao, Hongxiu; Ren, Hongbo; Zhao, Xue; Wei, Xiaoshuang; Krishnan, Hari B; Liu, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing, backcrossing, and molecular marker-assisted background selection produced a soybean (Glycine max) near-isogenic line (cgy-2-NIL) containing the cgy-2 allele, which is responsible for the absence of the allergenic α-subunit of β-conglycinin. To identify α-null-related transcriptional changes, the gene expressions of cgy-2-NIL and its recurrent parent DN47 were compared using Illumina high-throughput RNA-sequencing of samples at 25, 35, 50, and 55 days after flowering (DAF). Seeds at 18 DAF served as the control. Comparison of the transcript profiles identified 3,543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes, with 2,193 genes downregulated and 1,350 genes upregulated. The largest numbers of DEGs were identified at 55 DAF. The DEGs identified at 25 DAF represented a unique pattern of GO category distributions. KEGG pathway analyses identified 541 altered metabolic pathways in cgy-2-NIL. At 18DAF, 12 DEGs were involved in arginine and proline metabolism. The cgy-2 allele in the homozygous form modified the expression of several Cupin allergen genes. The cgy-2 allele is an alteration of a functional allele that is closely related to soybean protein amino acid quality, and is useful for hypoallergenic soybean breeding programs that aim to improve seed protein quality.

  8. Responses of nitrogen metabolism and seed nutrition to drought stress in soybean genotypes differing in slow-wilting phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in soybean breeding have resulted in genotypes that express the slow-wilting phenotype (trait under drought stress conditions. The physiological mechanisms of this trait remain unknown due to the complexity of trait × environment interactions. The objective of this research was to investigate nitrogen metabolism and leaf and seed nutrients composition of the slow-wilting soybean genotypes under drought stress conditions. A repeated greenhouse experiment was conducted using check genotypes: NC-Roy (fast wilting, Boggs (intermediate in wilting; and NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 (slow-wilting, SLW genotypes. Plants were either well-watered or drought stressed. Results showed that under well-watered conditions, nitrogen fixation (NF, nitrogen assimilation (NA, and leaf and seed composition differed between genotypes. Under drought stress, NF and NA were higher in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 than in NC-Roy and Boggs. Under severe water stress, however, NA was low in all genotypes. Leaf water potential was significantly lower in checks (-2.00 MPa than in the SLW genotypes (-1.68 MPa. Leaf and seed concentrations of K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, B were higher in SLW genotypes than in the checks under drought stress conditions. Seed protein, oleic acid, and sugars were higher in SLW genotypes, and oil, linoleic and linolenic acids were lower in SLW genotypes. This research demonstrated that K, P, Ca, Cu, Na, and B may be involved in SLW trait by maintaining homeostasis and osmotic regulation. Maintaining higher leaf water potential in NTCPR94-5157 and N04-9646 under drought stress could be a possible water conservation mechanism to maintain leaf turgor pressure. The increase in osmoregulators such as minerals, raffinose and stachyose, and oleic acid could be beneficial for soybean breeders in selecting for drought stress tolerance.

  9. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  10. Tratamento de sementes de soja com inseticidas e um bioestimulante Soybean seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e um bioestimulante na germinação no crescimento da planta e raiz de soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que as sementes foram tratadas com aldicarb, thiametoxan, imidacloprid e duas testemunhas: uma sem produto e uma com bioestimulante. Em laboratório, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de rolos de papel toalha com sementes de soja, para avaliar o vigor, a germinação, as plantas anormais e mortas, o comprimento de radículas e de plântulas. Nos testes em casa de vegetação, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de tubos de PVC, com volume de 16 dm³, e foram avaliados: os teores de N, P e K; a matéria seca; o comprimento, a área e o raio médio radicular; a eficiência de absorção de N, P e K; e a taxa de crescimento radicular da soja. Os tratamentos de sementes de soja com os inseticidas e o bioestimulante levam à formação de raízes mais finas, o que caracteriza um efeito tônico. O produto aldicarb, na dose empregada, prejudica o vigor e a germinação das sementes de soja. O tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e bioestimulante não proporciona maior crescimento das raízes das plantas de soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant on soybean germination and plant and root growth. Two experiments were performed in complete randomized blocks, in which seeds were treated with aldicarb, thiamethoxan, imidacloprid and two checks: one without treatment and one treated with biostimulant. The experimental units at the laboratory were germination sheet rolls with soybean seeds. Plantlet vigor, germination, normal and abnormal plantlets, root and hypocotyl lengths were evaluated. For the greenhouse study PVC pots with 16 dm-3 were used, and determinations were made for: N, P and K contents; dry matter yield; root length

  11. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruiting; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xiaoyue; Xu, Shaochun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Lin, Haiying; Xu, Shuai; Yue, Shidong; Zhu, Shuyu

    2018-01-01

    Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass) populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1) wet storage at a salinity of 30-40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2) dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22%) of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3) R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C) and desiccation; (4) there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  12. Tolerance of Ruppia sinensis Seeds to Desiccation, Low Temperature, and High Salinity With Special Reference to Long-Term Seed Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiting Gu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seeds are important materials for the restoration of globally-threatened marine angiosperm (seagrass populations. In this study, we investigated the differences between different Ruppia sinensis seed types and developed two feasible long-term R. sinensis seed storage methods. The ability of R. sinensis seeds to tolerate the short-term desiccation and extreme cold had been investigated. The tolerance of R. sinensis seeds to long-term exposure of high salinity, cold temperature, and desiccation had been considered as potential methods for long-term seed storage. Also, three morphological and nine physiological indices were measured and compared between two types of seeds: Shape L and Shape S. We found that: (1 wet storage at a salinity of 30–40 psu and 0°C were the optimal long-term storage conditions, and the proportion of viable seeds reached over 90% after a storage period of 11 months since the seeds were collected from the reproductive shoots; (2 dry condition was not the optimal choice for long-term storage of R. sinensis seeds; however, storing seeds in a dry condition at 5°C and 33 ± 10% relative humidity for 9 months had a relatively high percentage (74.44 ± 2.22% of viable seeds, consequently desiccation exposure could also be an acceptable seed storage method; (3 R. sinensis seeds would lose vigor in the interaction of extreme cold (-27°C and desiccation; (4 there were significant differences in seed weight, seed curvature, and endocarp thickness between the two types of seeds. These findings provided fundamental physiological information for R. sinensis seeds and supported the long-term storage of its seeds. Our results may also serve as useful reference for seed storage of other threatened seagrass species and facilitate their ex situ conservation and habitat restoration.

  13. Effect of baking and storage on the fatty acid composition of cookies with chia seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed is an ancient crop of the Aztecs that has recently gained interest as a functional food. Chia seeds are a good source of polyphenolic compounds with antioxidant activity. However, the effect of baking and storage on the antioxidant properties of chia seed meal is not ...

  14. 11S Storage globulin from pumpkin seeds: regularities of proteolysis by papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakova, A S; Rudakov, S V; Kakhovskaya, I A; Shutov, A D

    2014-08-01

    Limited proteolysis of the α- and β-chains and deep cleavage of the αβ-subunits by the cooperative (one-by-one) mechanism was observed in the course of papain hydrolysis of cucurbitin, an 11S storage globulin from seeds of the pumpkin Cucurbita maxima. An independent analysis of the kinetics of the limited and cooperative proteolyses revealed that the reaction occurs in two successive steps. In the first step, limited proteolysis consisting of detachments of short terminal peptides from the α- and β-chains was observed. The cooperative proteolysis, which occurs as a pseudo-first order reaction, started at the second step. Therefore, the limited proteolysis at the first step plays a regulatory role, impacting the rate of deep degradation of cucurbitin molecules by the cooperative mechanism. Structural alterations of cucurbitin induced by limited proteolysis are suggested to generate its susceptibility to cooperative proteolysis. These alterations are tentatively discussed on the basis of the tertiary structure of the cucurbitin subunit pdb|2EVX in comparison with previously obtained data on features of degradation of soybean 11S globulin hydrolyzed by papain.

  15. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Effects of Storage on Germination Characteristics and Enzyme Activity of Sorghum Seeds

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    Azadi M.S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed moisture content (MC and storage temperature are the most important factors affecting seed longevity and vigor. Exposure to warm, moist air is principally responsible for this. Proper storage and optimum seed moisture content can affect the grain quality significantly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the different storage treatments on seed quality of sorghum. The seed materials were fresh without any storage period. For storage treatments, 3 seed moisture contents (6, 10, 14 % were stored for 8 month in 0.5 L capacity sealed aluminum foil packet in 0.3 bar inside incubators set at 4 temperatures (5, 15, 25, 35 °C. After storage time, the higher the storage temperature, the lower was the grain quality of sorghum. The highest germination percentage, germination index, normal seedling percentage were achieved in control conditions (0 day of storage. Our results showed that increasing storage duration resulted higher reduction in germination characteristics. Also our results showed that, germination percentage, means time to germination, germination index, normal seedling percentage decrease significantly by storage. Enzyme activity decrease significantly by increased in storage.

  17. QTLs for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay are associated with days to maturity in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Suli; Kim, Moon Young; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Yin-Won; Li, Baodu; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2013-08-01

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD), primarily caused by Phomopsis longicolla, is a major contributor to poor soybean seed quality and significant yield loss, particularly in early maturing soybean genotypes. However, it is not yet known whether PSD resistance is associated with early maturity. This study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to PSD and days to maturity using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between the PSD-resistant Taekwangkong and the PSD-susceptible SS2-2. Based on a genetic linkage map incorporating 117 simple sequence repeat markers, QTL analysis revealed two and three QTLs conferring PSD resistance and days to maturity, respectively, in the RIL population. Two QTLs (PSD-6-1 and PSD-10-2) for PSD resistance were identified in the intervals of Satt100-Satt460 and Sat_038-Satt243 on chromosomes 6 and 10, respectively. Two QTLs explained phenotypic variances in PSD resistance of 46.3 and 14.1 %, respectively. At the PSD-6-1 QTL, the PSD-resistant cultivar Taekwangkong contributed the allele with negative effect decreasing the infection rate of PSD and this QTL does not overlap with any previously reported loci for PSD resistance in other soybean genotypes. Among the three QTLs for days to maturity, two (Mat-6-2 and Mat-10-3) were located at positions similar to the PSD-resistance QTLs. The identification of the QTLs linked to both PSD resistance and days to maturity indicates a biological correlation between these two traits. The newly identified QTL for resistance to PSD associated with days to maturity in Taekwangkong will help improve soybean resistance to P. longicolla.

  18. Characterization of seed storage protein patterns of Heliotropium digynum

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    Mona Soliman Alwhibi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium digynum, is a shrub that has ecological importance. The height of the plant differs from one population to another and the difference in length of the inflorescence can be attributed to environmental factors, such as rainfall or type of soil and temperature. To date, no study has shed light on estimation in seed samples of H. digynum in Saudi Arabia. So, the aim is to evaluate and characterize the protein patterns of seed storage proteins of H. digynum to be used as fingerprint of this plant in Saudi Arabia. It is collected from different locations in the central region of Saudi Arabia and total protein extraction from plant was compared in SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationships among all cultivars were analyzed using UPGMA and NJ using Total Lab TL and in the same way using Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram using STATISTICA (ver.8 software. Results, our data show that amounts of protein are different, although they are of the same type or from the same geographical region. Amounts ranged between 22 and 1.5 mg/g of dry weight. Less amount of protein was obtained from the group of samples collected from Dir’iyah area, and the highest amount of protein was from the group of samples collected from Dyrab area in general.

  19. Characterization of seed storage protein patterns of Heliotropium digynum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwhibi, Mona Soliman

    2017-09-01

    Heliotropium digynum , is a shrub that has ecological importance. The height of the plant differs from one population to another and the difference in length of the inflorescence can be attributed to environmental factors, such as rainfall or type of soil and temperature. To date, no study has shed light on estimation in seed samples of H. digynum in Saudi Arabia. So, the aim is to evaluate and characterize the protein patterns of seed storage proteins of H. digynum to be used as fingerprint of this plant in Saudi Arabia. It is collected from different locations in the central region of Saudi Arabia and total protein extraction from plant was compared in SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationships among all cultivars were analyzed using UPGMA and NJ using Total Lab TL and in the same way using Jaccard Similarity Coefficient dendrogram using STATISTICA (ver.8) software. Results, our data show that amounts of protein are different, although they are of the same type or from the same geographical region. Amounts ranged between 22 and 1.5 mg/g of dry weight. Less amount of protein was obtained from the group of samples collected from Dir'iyah area, and the highest amount of protein was from the group of samples collected from Dyrab area in general.

  20. EFFECTS OF NATURAL LONG STORAGE DURATION ON SEED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lep

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... germination and viability, seed vigor index and seed vigor under a 7.3% moisture content when .... containing two disks of Whatman filter papers soaked in distilled water. ..... desiccation tolerance (Review Update). Seed Sci.

  1. CACTA-superfamily transposable element is inserted in MYB transcription factor gene of soybean line producing variegated seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fan; Di, Shaokang; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2015-08-01

    The R gene of soybean, presumably encoding a MYB transcription factor, controls seed coat color. The gene consists of multiple alleles, R (black), r-m (black spots and (or) concentric streaks on brown seed), and r (brown seed). This study was conducted to determine the structure of the MYB transcription factor gene in a near-isogenic line (NIL) having r-m allele. PCR amplification of a fragment of the candidate gene Glyma.09G235100 generated a fragment of about 1 kb in the soybean cultivar Clark, whereas a fragment of about 14 kb in addition to fragments of 1 and 1.4 kb were produced in L72-2040, a Clark 63 NIL with the r-m allele. Clark 63 is a NIL of Clark with the rxp and Rps1 alleles. A DNA fragment of 13 060 bp was inserted in the intron of Glyma.09G235100 in L72-2040. The fragment had the CACTA motif at both ends, imperfect terminal inverted repeats (TIR), inverse repetition of short sequence motifs close to the 5' and 3' ends, and a duplication of three nucleotides at the site of integration, indicating that it belongs to a CACTA-superfamily transposable element. We designated the element as Tgm11. Overall nucleotide sequence, motifs of TIR, and subterminal repeats were similar to those of Tgm1 and Tgs1, suggesting that these elements comprise a family.

  2. Ectopic expression of soybean gmsbh1 confers aba sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling establishment in transgenic arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, S.; Chen, M.; Huang, L.; Ma, H.

    2017-01-01

    The class I KNOX homeobox transcription factors are known to play an important role in maintenance of plant phenotype, especially leaves and flowers. In this study, a soybean KNOX I homeobox transcription factor, GmSBH1, was analyzed and confirmed to play important roles in the process of seed germination and developing. Real time quantitative PCR assay showed that the transcript level of GmSBH1 in soybean seedlings was modulated by plant hormones, such as IAA, GA, MeJA and ABA.Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that GmSBH1 could bind to the ABRE cis-element. Overexpression of GmSBH1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the abnormal phenotype of flowers and siliques. In GmSBH1 transgenic lines, both seed germination and seedlings growth showed hypersensitive to ABA. Moreover, the expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as ABI3 and ABI5, were increased in the transgenic line seedlings. Taken together, ectopic expression of GmSBH1 could alter the morphology and confer ABA sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth in transgenic Arabidopsis. (author)

  3. A comparison of protein and phenolic compounds in seed from GMO and non-GMO soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean protein is a valuable and important component in human and animal diets. Approximately 94% of the soybean planted in the US is genetically modified (GM) to enhance quality and productivity. Since value-added traits are continuously being developed by genetic modification, it is important t...

  4. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  5. A Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in an Endo-1,4-β-Glucanase Gene Controls Seed Coat Permeability in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Jin Jang

    Full Text Available Physical dormancy, a structural feature of the seed coat known as hard seededness, is an important characteristic for adaptation of plants against unstable and unpredictable environments. To dissect the molecular basis of qHS1, a quantitative trait locus for hard seededness in soybean (Glycine max (L Merr., we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL of a permeable (soft-seeded cultivar, Tachinagaha, containing a hard-seed allele from wild soybean (G. soja introduced by successive backcrossings. The hard-seed allele made the seed coat of Tachinagaha more rigid by increasing the amount of β-1,4-glucans in the outer layer of palisade cells of the seed coat on the dorsal side of seeds, known to be a point of entrance of water. Fine-mapping and subsequent expression and sequencing analyses revealed that qHS1 encodes an endo-1,4-β-glucanase. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP introduced an amino acid substitution in a substrate-binding cleft of the enzyme, possibly reducing or eliminating its affinity for substrates in permeable cultivars. Introduction of the genomic region of qHS1 from the impermeable (hard-seeded NIL into the permeable cultivar Kariyutaka resulted in accumulation of β-1,4-glucan in the outer layer of palisade cells and production of hard seeds. The SNP allele found in the NIL was further associated with the occurrence of hard seeds in soybean cultivars of various origins. The findings of this and previous studies may indicate that qHS1 is involved in the accumulation of β-1,4-glucan derivatives such as xyloglucan and/or β-(1,3(1,4-glucan that reinforce the impermeability of seed coats in soybean.

  6. Enhancement of germination, growth, and photosynthesis in soybean by pre-treatment of seeds with magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, M B; Guruprasad, K N; Anand, Anjali

    2011-09-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of static magnetic fields on the seeds of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr. var: JS-335) by exposing the seeds to different magnetic field strengths from 0 to 300 mT in steps of 50 mT for 30, 60, and 90 min. Treatment with magnetic fields improved germination-related parameters like water uptake, speed of germination, seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigor indices of soybean seeds under laboratory conditions. Improvement over untreated control was 5-42% for speed of germination, 4-73% for seedling length, 9-53% for fresh weight, 5-16% for dry weight, and 3-88% and 4-27% for vigor indices I and II, respectively. Treatment of 200 mT (60 min) and 150 mT (60 min), which were more effective than others in increasing most of the seedling parameters, were further explored for their effect on plant growth, leaf photosynthetic efficiency, and leaf protein content under field conditions. Among different growth parameters, leaf area, and leaf fresh weight showed maximum enhancement (more than twofold) in 1-month-old plants. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at the J-I-P phase. The total soluble protein map (SDS-polyacrylamide gel) of leaves showed increased intensities of the bands corresponding to a larger subunit (53 KDa) and smaller subunit (14 KDa) of Rubisco in the treated plants. We report here the beneficial effect of pre-sowing magnetic treatment for improving germination parameters and biomass accumulation in soybean. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Phisyological quality of Pinus elliotti Engelm. seeds subjected to differents storage methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Geraldo Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for forest products, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the tree species of economic importance, especially in relation to seed storage. One method to study forest species is the storage of seeds. Cryopreservation is the cheapest and the most efficient method of seed preservation. The objective of this study was to test the behavior of Pinus elliottii Engelm. seeds storaged on liquid nitrogen; laboratory environment and refrigerator. The experiment was conducted in the seed Laboratory of the Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The seeds were donated by Rigesa Ltda on June 2007. Three types of storage were tested: 1 liquid nitrogen temperature of -196 º C, 2 laboratory environment, 3 refrigerator. All treatments were evaluated at 0, 40, 80 and 120 days of storage. The vigor, germination and germination rate tests were mounted on gerbox with blotters and moistened with distilled water and kept in BOD incubator chamber at 25 º C. Seeds length, green mass and dry mass were also evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. It was found that there was loss of quality of the Pinus elliottii seeds in all treatments. Cryopreservation of P. elliotii seeds can be used as an alternative of storage in genebanks.

  8. Genetic variation of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene contributes to elevated α-tocopherol content in soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, Maria S; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sato, Masako; Abe, Jun; Kitamura, Keisuke

    2011-11-07

    Improvement of α-tocopherol content is an important breeding aim to increase the nutritional value of crops. Several efforts have been conducted to improve the α-tocopherol content in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] through transgenic technology by overexpressing genes related to α-tocopherol biosynthesis or through changes to crop management practices. Varieties with high α-tocopherol content have been identified in soybean germplasms. The heritability of this trait has been characterized in a cross between high α-tocopherol variety Keszthelyi Aproszemu Sarga (KAS) and low α-tocopherol variety Ichihime. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the high α-tocopherol content trait of KAS was elucidated. Through QTL analysis and fine mapping in populations from a cross between KAS and a Japanese variety Ichihime, we identified γ-TMT3, which encodes γ-tocopherol methyltransferase, as a candidate gene responsible for high α-tocopherol concentration in KAS. Several nucleotide polymorphisms including two nonsynonymous mutations were found in the coding region of γ-TMT3 between Ichihime and KAS, but none of which was responsible for the difference in α-tocopherol concentration. Therefore, we focused on transcriptional regulation of γ-TMT3 in developing seeds and leaves. An F5 line that was heterozygous for the region containing γ-TMT3 was self-pollinated. From among the progeny, plants that were homozygous at the γ-TMT3 locus were chosen for further evaluation. The expression level of γ-TMT3 was higher both in developing seeds and leaves of plants homozygous for the γ-TMT3 allele from KAS. The higher expression level was closely correlated with high α-tocopherol content in developing seeds. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring GUS gene under the control of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS or Ichihime. The GUS activity assay showed that the activity of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS was higher than that of Ichihime. The genetic variation in γ-TMT3

  9. Genetic variation of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene contributes to elevated α-tocopherol content in soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Jun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of α-tocopherol content is an important breeding aim to increase the nutritional value of crops. Several efforts have been conducted to improve the α-tocopherol content in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] through transgenic technology by overexpressing genes related to α-tocopherol biosynthesis or through changes to crop management practices. Varieties with high α-tocopherol content have been identified in soybean germplasms. The heritability of this trait has been characterized in a cross between high α-tocopherol variety Keszthelyi Aproszemu Sarga (KAS and low α-tocopherol variety Ichihime. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the high α-tocopherol content trait of KAS was elucidated. Results Through QTL analysis and fine mapping in populations from a cross between KAS and a Japanese variety Ichihime, we identified γ-TMT3, which encodes γ-tocopherol methyltransferase, as a candidate gene responsible for high α-tocopherol concentration in KAS. Several nucleotide polymorphisms including two nonsynonymous mutations were found in the coding region of γ-TMT3 between Ichihime and KAS, but none of which was responsible for the difference in α-tocopherol concentration. Therefore, we focused on transcriptional regulation of γ-TMT3 in developing seeds and leaves. An F5 line that was heterozygous for the region containing γ-TMT3 was self-pollinated. From among the progeny, plants that were homozygous at the γ-TMT3 locus were chosen for further evaluation. The expression level of γ-TMT3 was higher both in developing seeds and leaves of plants homozygous for the γ-TMT3 allele from KAS. The higher expression level was closely correlated with high α-tocopherol content in developing seeds. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring GUS gene under the control of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS or Ichihime. The GUS activity assay showed that the activity of γ-TMT3 promoter from KAS was higher than that of

  10. Relationships among oil content, protein content and seed size in soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marega Filho

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available During 1995/96 and 1996/97, experiments were carried out at Londrina State University, aiming at quantifying the oil and protein contents in two groups of soybean genotypes; estimating the phenotypic, genotypic and environmental correlations existent among oil, protein content and seed size, and identifying genotypes for direct human consumption with high protein content. The evaluated characters were Weight of a Hundred Seeds (WHS, expressed in grams/100 seeds, Oil Content (OC and Protein Content (PC, expressed in %. In the experiment carried out in the field, OC ranged from 12 to 20.37 % and PC from 35.66 to 41.75% while in the experiment carried out in the greenhouse OC ranged from 12.26 to 21.79 % and PC from 32.95 to 41.56 % . The correlations between oil and protein were negative and significant. The relationship among WHS with OC and PC was low and higly affected by the time effect. Due to their high protein content and stability to oil and protein contents, there were distinction among the treatments carried out in the field (GA23 and GA20, and those carried out in the greenhouse (PI408251, Waseda, B6F4 (L-3 less, PI423909 and Tambagura.Durante 1995/96 e 1996/97, foram conduzidos experimentos na Universidade Estadual de Londrina, visando: quantificar os teores de óleo e proteína em dois grupos de genótipos de soja tipo alimento; estimar as correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas existentes entre os teores de óleo, proteína e tamanho das sementes; e, identificar genótipos para consumo humano de forma direta, com elevado teor de proteína. Foram avaliados os caracteres Peso de Cem Sementes (PCS, expresso em gramas / 100 sementes, Teor de Óleo (TO, e Teor de Proteína (TP, expressos em %. Na população conduzida a campo, a característica TO variou de 12 a 20,4 %, e TP de 35,7 a 41,8 %. A população conduzida em casa de vegetação apresentou uma variação de 12,3 a 21,8 % para TO, e de 33 a 41,6 % para TP. As correla

  11. Characterization of soybean genomic features by analysis of its expressed sequence tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Ai-Guo; Wang, Jun; Cui, Peng

    2004-01-01

    to be fast-evolving. Soybean unigenes with no match to genes within the Arabidopsis genome were identified as soybean-specific genes. These genes were mainly involved in nodule development and the synthesis of seed storage proteins. In addition, we also identified 61 genes regulated by salicylic acid, 1...

  12. Activity of water content and storage temperature on the seed-borne mycoflora of lens culinaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, S.; Dawar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Storage of seeds with high water content and temperatures favors the growth of mould fungi which in turn affect the germination of seeds while low temperature with low water content prevent the growth of storage fungi and help in maintaining seed viability for longer duration of time. Seed sample from Sukkur district was stored at 4 degree C and room temperature (25-30 degree C) with water content of 8, 13 and 17% for about 80 days. The fungi were isolated at 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 days intervals. Highest infection percentage of fungi was observed at 13 and 17% water contents at room temperature after 20 days of storage. High infection percentage of storage fungi affected the germination of seeds. Aspergillus spp were the most dominant fungi. (author)

  13. Development of Insertion and Deletion Markers based on Biparental Resequencing for Fine Mapping Seed Weight in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-hui Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As a complement to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and simple sequence repeats (SSRs, biallelic insertions and deletions (InDels represent powerful molecular markers with desirable features for filling the gap in current genetic linkage maps. In this study, 28,908 small InDel polymorphisms (1–5 base pair, bp distributed genome-wide were identified and annotated by comparison of a whole-genome resequencing data set from two soybean [ (L. Merr.] genotypes, cultivar Zhonghunag13 (ZH and line Zhongpin03-5373 (ZP. The physical distribution of InDel polymorphisms in soybean genome was uneven, and matched closely with the distribution of previously annotated genes. The average density of InDel in the arm region was significantly higher than that in the pericentromeric region. The genomic regions that were fixed between the two elites were elucidated. With this information, five InDel markers within a putative quantitative trait locus (QTL for seed weight (SW, , were developed and used to genotype 254 recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from the cross of ZP × ZH. Adding these five InDel markers to previously used SNP and SSR markers facilitated the discovery of further recombination events allowing fine-mapping the QTL to a 0.5 Mbp region. Our study clearly underlines the high value of InDel markers for map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection in soybean.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST SEEDS REGARDING THE DESICCATION TOLERANCE AND STORAGE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Carvalho Mayrinck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to classify forest seeds native to the Alto Rio Grande region regarding the desiccation tolerance and storage behaviour. Germination and water content tests were performed in seeds of different species. The tests were conducted immediately after seed processing, at 12% and 5% of water content, and at 5% after 3 months of storage in -18°C. Based on the results obtained, seeds were classified into recalcitrant, intermediate and orthodox class. Seeds of Brosimum gaudichaudii, Erythroxylum deciduum, Eugenia pleurantha, Myrcia venulosa, Nectandra megapotamica were classified as recalcitrant (22.7% of all species. Seeds of Aegiphila sellowiana, Aspidosperma parvifolium, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Casearia lasiophylla, Cassia occidentalis, Dalbergia miscolobium, Diospyros brasiliensis, Diospyros hispida, Ilex brevicuspis, Ilex cerasifolia, Myrocarpus fastigiatus, Senna aversiflora, Senna splendida e Blepharocalyx salicifolius were classified as intermediate (59.1% of all species. Seeds of Miconia albicans, Platycyamus regnellii, Styrax camporum and Piptadenia gonoacantha were classified as orthodox (18.2% of all species.

  15. Correlation of maturity groups with seed composition in soybeans, as influenced by genotypic variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 19 soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups V, VI or VII were analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acids and sterols. Protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash contents varied between 344-463 g kg-1, 178-233 g kg-1, 234-338 g kg-1, and 40.0-49.3 g kg-1 of dry matter, respectively. Fatty acid profiles revealed that the major acids were palmitic (9.2-12.5%, oleic (17.7-22.1% and linoleic (53.6-56.9%. Linolenic acid ranged from 8.6 to 10.4%. Sitosterol (48.1-56.8% was the main component of the sterol fraction, followed by campesterol (18.4-21.7% and stigmasterol (13.4-18.0%. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were found for the majority of parameters evaluated, but there are not significant variations among maturity groups.

    Se analizaron la humedad, contenido en proteínas, carbohidratos, grasas y cenizas, y las composiciones en ácidos grasos y esteróles de las semillas de 19 cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez V, VI o VIl. Los contenidos de proteínas, aceites, carbohidratos y cenizas variaron entre 344-463 g kg-1, 178-233 g kg-1, 234-338 g kg-1 y 40.0-49.3 g kg-1 de materia seca, respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron palmítico (9.2-12.5%, oleico (17.7-22.1% y linoleico (53.6-56.9%. El porcentaje de ácido linolénico varió desde 8.6 hasta 10.4%. El principal componente de la fracción de esteroles del aceite fue el sitosterol (48.1-56.8%, seguido por el campesterol (18.4-21.7% y el estigmasterol (13.4-18.0%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los genotipos para la mayoría de los parámetros evaluados, pero no hubo variaciones significativas entre grupos de madurez.

  16. Changes in Protein Content and Urease Activity Due to Soaking Treatment of gamma irradiated Soybean Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The total protein measurement revealed that both soaking time and radiation affected protein content of soybean seeds. Amount of protein content increased gradually with time up to 6 h. The amount recorded 388, 396 and 465 mg/g.d.wt in control, 10, 25, 50 Gy, respectively. Then the amount decreased at and 24 h whereas, protein content of cotyledonary leaves (120 h) increased by 25 and 50 Gy reaching 7305 and 80.6 mg/g.d.wt as compared to 68.5 mg/g.d wt in case on control. On comparison with control samples, 10 Gy appeared to have no effect on protein content while 25 and 50 Gy increased protein in a dose dependant matter. Maximum increase in urease activity was recorded at 6 h of soaking (1110, 1162 and 1200 unit/g f.wt in control, 10, 25 and 50 Gy respectively) Moreover, the 25 and 50 Gy increased urease activity at all time intervals. After sodium dodecyl sulfate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied, bands could be segregated into high molecular weight bands they are represented from band No 1 with 200 KDa to band No 8 with 100 kDa. On the other hand low molecular weight are presented from band No 9 with 75 kDa to band No 14 with 10 kDa. Characteristic bands No 4 and 10 were common in all samples and several other bands were characteristic to the time or gamma-radiation applied. Calculated similarity index (SI) showed similarity between control and 25 Gy treated samples (except at 6 h). In contrast, the similarity index between control and 50 Gy decreased from zero up to 6 h then increased to 1 at 120 h (the same trend was also observed between 25 and 50 Gy). From similarity index study it could be concluded that at cotyledonary stage(120 h) there were no differences between different samples, thus indicating a recovery from the effect of gamma irradiation

  17. Rebalance between 7S and 11S globulins in soybean seeds of differing protein content and 11SA4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A; Yu, X; Zheng, A; James, A T

    2016-11-01

    Protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean seeds affect the quality of soy foods. In this proteomic study, the protein profile of soybean seeds with high (∼45.5%) or low (∼38.6%) protein content and with or without the glycinin (11S) subunit 11SA4 was examined. 44 unique proteins and their homologues were identified and showed that both protein content and 11SA4 influenced the abundance of a number of proteins. The absence of 11SA4 exerted a greater impact than the protein content, and led to a decreased abundance of glycinin G2/A2B1 and G5/A5A4B3 subunits, which resulted in lower total 11S with a concomitant higher total β-conglycinin (7S). Low protein content was associated with higher glycinin G3/A1aB1b and lower glycinin G4/A5A4B3. Using the proteomic approach, it was demonstrated that 11SA4 deficiency induced compensatory accumulation of 7S globulins and led to a similar total abundance for 7S+11S irrespective of protein content or 11SA4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Feeding Oxidized Soybean Oil against Antioxidant role of Pomegranate Seed on Physiology and Metabolism of Periparturient Saanen Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p

  19. Soybean protein-based microparticles for oral delivery of probiotics with improved stability during storage and gut resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrero, C; Irache, J M; González-Navarro, C J

    2018-01-15

    The present work describes the encapsulation of probiotics using a by-product as wall material and a process feasible to be scaled-up: coacervation of soybean protein concentrate (SPC) by using calcium salts and spray-drying. SPC was extracted from soybean flour, produced during the processing of soybean milk, by alkaline extraction following isoelectric precipitation. Two probiotic strains were selected for encapsulation (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 475) in order to evaluate the ability of SPC to encapsulate and protect bacteria from stress conditions. The viability of these encapsulated strains under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions and shelf-life during storage were compared with the most common forms commercialized nowadays. Results show that SPC is a feasible material for the development of probiotic microparticles with adequate physicochemical properties and enhanced significantly both probiotic viability and tolerance against simulated gastrointestinal fluids when compared to current available commercial forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating effect of biofertilizer on nodulation and soybean (Glycine max L plants growth characteristics under water deficit stress of seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tajik Khaveh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of biofertilizer on soybean (Glycine max L. seed vigor that produced under water deficit condition and related traits, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based of complete randomized block design with four replications at the research greenhouse of Aboureihan campus- Tehran University, Iran. Experimental treatments were include biofertilizer (seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Pseudomonas fluorescens, co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae, Cultivar (Zalta Zalha and Clark×Hobbit line and water deficit stress [irrigation plants after 50 (normal irrigation, 100 (medium stress, 150 (sever stress mm evaporation from pan class A, in parents field]. Results showed that the water deficit stress had negative effects on seed quality and seedling emergence percentage, mean daily seedling emergence, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of nodule were decreased. ZaltaZalha cultivar had higher shoot dry weight and number of leaf compared with other cultivars. Applications of biofertilzer was effective on stem diameter, root, leaf and shoot dry weight, number of leaf and nodule and those attributes increased by co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae. Also, use of biofertilizer in stress levels was effective on stem dry weight. Stem dry weight was increased by Co-inoculation of cultivar seeds with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Glomus mosseae.

  1. Simplificação da equação de viabilidade para predizer a longevidade de sementes de milho e soja Simplification of viability equation to predict seed longevity of corn and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Andreoli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A equação de Ellis & Roberts utiliza a temperatura, a umidade e a qualidade inicial da semente para predizer sua longevidade, porém exige experimentos complexos e demorados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi simplificar a equação de viabilidade para predizer a longevidade da semente de milho e soja em condições de armazenamento aberto. A equação simplificada é explicada pelo modelo Vp = Vi - (tgbeta.p, em que Vp é a viabilidade em probit no período p, Vi é a germinação inicial do lote e tgb é a taxa de deterioração da semente para cada espécie. Sementes de milho BRS201 e BRS206 e soja cultivar IAC-8 e MG/BR 46 (Conquista foram embaladas em sacos de papel e armazenadas por 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300 e 360 dias, em galpões abertos, em Sete Lagoas, MG, e Brasília, DF. Os dados foram transformados em 'probit' e a declividade da reta (tgbeta foi calculada entre 0 e 30 dias. O coeficiente (tgbeta variou de 1,4767.10-3 a 2,687.10-3 em milho e de 2,868.10-3 a 3,617.10-3 em soja, dependendo das condições climáticas do armazém. A germinação da semente de soja declinou mais rapidamente que a de milho. O modelo prediz com precisão a longevidade das sementes de milho e soja em armazém aberto.Temperature, moisture and initial quality are important factors in Ellis and Roberts' equation to predict seed longevity, however it relies on complex experiments of seed aging. The objective of this work was to simplify the equation for predicting changes in seed viability during open warehouse storage. The simplified equation proposed is given by the model Vp = Vi - (tgbeta.p, in which Vp is seed viability in probit for a period p (days, Vi is the initial seed viability in probit and tgbeta is the seed deterioration rate for each specie at determined storage conditions. Seeds of hybrid corn BRS201 and BRS206 and soybean varieties IAC-8 and MG/BR 46 (Conquista were packed in multiwall paper bags and stored for 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150

  2. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ultrahigh pressure homogenization (pressure, protein concentration, oil phase fraction, pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and storage on the properties of nanoemulsions (100-500nm range), which were stabilized by laboratory-prepared soybean protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The nanoemulsions made with SPI, 7S and 11S proteins exhibited considerable stability over various ionic strengths (0-500mM NaCl), pH (7), thermal treatments (30-60°C) and storage (0-45days). The far-UV spectra of SPI, 7S, 11S dispersions, and SPI-, 7S-, 11S protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were analyzed for the protein structural changes following lipid removal. The ultra-high pressure homogenization changed the secondary structure of SPI, 7S, 11S proteins in the nanoemulsions, and enhanced their stability. This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Seed origin, storage conditions, and gibberellic acid on in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It might help seed conservation and species propagation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro germination of guavira seeds collected from different sites and stored under different conditions. Also, the sowing of these seeds in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3) was ...

  4. Soybean farm-saved seed viability and vigor as influenced by agro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... Journal of Applied Biosciences 101:9634 – 9642. ISSN 1997–5902 .... electrode dip type cell (Fisons Scientific Equipment). The ... agroecology UM2 (10.0%) had significantly higher seed ..... Seed Testing International. 131:32.

  5. Feeding dairy cows with full fat extruded or toasted soybean seeds as replacement of soybean meal and effects on milk yield, fatty acid profile and CLA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of about 70% of soybean meal (SBM with extruded(ES or toasted (TS full-fat soybean seeds in diets for lactating cows on milk quality, fatty acid profile, and conjugatedlinoleic acid (CLA content. Eighteen lactating cows were assigned to 3 groups which received a basal diet, supplementedwith 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 kg/head, respectively, of SBM, ES and TS. There was no significant effect on milk yield,calculated as the difference between daily yield during the experimental period and the mean of the last 5 days of adaptation(-1.65, -1.29 and -0.20 kg/d, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; P>0.10 and milk quality parameters (fat, protein,urea and cheese making parameters among treatments. In the ES group there was a decrease in the short chainFA content (from C4 to C13 in milk fat (9.2 vs 11.0 and 10.8 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, SBM and TS; PMedium chain FA (from C14 to C17 content in milk fat was lower for ES and TS groups compared with SBM (46.8 and48.0 vs 54.8 g/100 g lipids respectively; PSBM group compared to the others (34.3 vs 44.2 and 41.2 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for SBM, ES and TS; PThe replacement of SBM with ES enhanced oleic and linoleic acid and, particularly, CLA content. Intermediate values wereobserved for the TS group. CLA content (0.91, 0.62 and 0.56 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pincreased throughout the trial in all groups. ES also reduced the proportion of SFA with respect to SBM (65.2, 68.2 and70.9 g/100 g lipids, respectively, for ES, TS and SBM; Pin the same order; Pimproving the health-quality of milk. The various soybean products did not affect either metabolic profile (protein, urea,glucose, cholesterol, NEFA, triglycerides, liver parameters and mineral serum content or rumen parameters (pH, ammoniaand VFAs. The replacement of SBM with ES and TS permitted an improvement in the nutritional properties of milkwithout negatively

  6. Modeling Biometric Traits, Yield and Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Seeds of Three Soybean Cultivars Through the Application of Biostimulant Containing Seaweed and Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attempts have been made to use preparations that allow obtaining high and good quality yields, while reducing the application of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. These include biostimulants that are safe for the natural environment and contribute to the improvement of yield size and quality, especially after the occurrence of stressors. Their use is advisable in the case of crops sensitive to such biotic stress factors like low temperatures or drought. One of these is soybean which is a very important plant from the economic viewpoint. Field experiments were established in the years 2014-2016 in a random block design in four replicates on experimental plots of 10 m2. Three soybean cultivars: Annushka, Mavka, and Atlanta were planted in the third decade of April. Fylloton biostimulant was used at 0.7% or 1% concentrations as single spraying (BBCH 13-15 or double spraying (BBCH 13-15, BBCH 61 in the vegetation period. The number of seeds per 1 m2, seed yield, thousand seed weight, number of pods per plant, number of nodes in the main shoot, height of plants, and protein and fat contents in seeds were determined. The content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antioxidant effect of soybean seeds were assayed as well. Foliar treatment of soybean with Fylloton stimulated the growth and yield of plants without compromising their nutritional and nutraceutical properties. The double application of the higher concentration of Fylloton was favorable for the plant height, seed number and soybean yield. Moreover, the highest number of pods was obtained after single treatment of plants with the lower biostimulant concentration. There was also a positive effect of using this biostimulant on the content and activity of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics and flavonoids, and on the reducing power.

  7. Perennial soybean seeds coated with high doses of boron and zinc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucas

    2016-09-14

    Sep 14, 2016 ... hot-air blower was switched on at the temperature of 40ºC for 2 min. As stuffing .... not a significant difference in this variable (p<0.05) between ... water content of the seeds after they are coated, and in. Figure 3 it is .... Germ ination / Em ergence (%. ) Germination. Dead seeds. Soaked seeds. Emergence a b.

  8. Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Storage Stability of Milled Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hanisah Juhari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Milled Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds of the UMKL cultivar were analyzed for proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacity, and the influence of storage conditions on storage stability. The storage stability was determined under four types of conditions: light/oxygen (air (LO, light/nitrogen (LN, darkness/oxygen (air (DO, and darkness/nitrogen (DN while monitoring for seven consecutive months. During the storage period, the formation of volatiles was determined using dynamic headspace sampling and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. In total, 85 volatiles were identified, mainly aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, furans, and acids indicating lipid oxidation. It is recommended that milled Roselle seeds should be flushed with nitrogen and stored in darkness. Under these conditions, the seeds can be stored for at least three months without changes in volatile profile. This is important to ensure the good quality of milled Roselle seeds for further commercialization.

  9. Physicochemical Properties and Oxidative Storage Stability of Milled Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2018-02-11

    Milled Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seeds of the UMKL cultivar were analyzed for proximate composition, water and oil absorption capacity, and the influence of storage conditions on storage stability. The storage stability was determined under four types of conditions: light/oxygen (air) (LO), light/nitrogen (LN), darkness/oxygen (air) (DO), and darkness/nitrogen (DN) while monitoring for seven consecutive months. During the storage period, the formation of volatiles was determined using dynamic headspace sampling and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. In total, 85 volatiles were identified, mainly aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, furans, and acids indicating lipid oxidation. It is recommended that milled Roselle seeds should be flushed with nitrogen and stored in darkness. Under these conditions, the seeds can be stored for at least three months without changes in volatile profile. This is important to ensure the good quality of milled Roselle seeds for further commercialization.

  10. Efficacy of traditional maize (Zea mays L.) seed storage methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of traditional maize (Zea mays L.) seed storage methods in western Kenya. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development.

  11. Seed storage protein polymorphism in ten elite rice (Oryza sativa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... for several economical traits by conserving landrace genotypes and ... plasm, seed storage protein analysis represents a valid alternative ... of each variety was taken and ground into fine powder using pestle and mortal and ...

  12. Production of Escherichia coli heat labile toxin (LT) B subunit in soybean seed and analysis of its immunogenicity as an oral vaccine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Tomáš; Schmidt, M.A.; Herman, E.M.; Woodford-Thomas, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2007), s. 1647-1657 ISSN 0264-410X Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship(XE) MOIF CT 2005-008692 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Microbial toxin * Plant-based vaccines * Transgenic soybean seed Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.377, year: 2007

  13. Transfer and targeted overexpression of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) gene using seed-specific promoter improves tocopherol composition in Indian soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Muthukrishnan; Subramanyam, Kondeti; Theboral, Jeevaraj; Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Rajesh, Manoharan; Kapil Dev, Gnanajothi; Jaganath, Balusamy; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Girija, Shanmugam; Ganapathi, Andy

    2014-02-01

    Soybean oil contains high levels of tocopherols which are an important source of vitamin E in human diet. The conversion of γ- to α-tocopherol catalyzed by γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) is found to be the rate limiting factor in soybean which influences the tocopherol composition. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, we overexpressed the γ-TMT gene of Perilla frutescens under the control of the seed-specific promoter vicillin in cultivar Pusa 16. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed in five independently transformed GUS positive soybean plants by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern hybridization, and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that overexpression of Pf-γ-TMT resulted in efficient conversion of γ-tocopherol to α-tocopherol and concomitant increase in seed α-tocopherol content in RT-PCR positive plants. The protocol was successfully applied to three more cultivars PK 416, Gujarat soybean 1, and VL soya 1 in which seeds of transformed plants showed elevated level of α-tocopherol than wild-type seeds.

  14. The effect of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with graded levels of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal on growth performances and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melesse, Aberra; Alemu, Temesgen; Banerjee, Sandip; Berihun, Kefyalew

    2016-06-30

    This study was designed to assess the effects of partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf meal (SPLM) on growth performances and carcass components of broiler chickens. The experiment was a completely randomized design consisting of five dietary treatments replicated four times with ten chicks each. The control diet (treatment 1, T1) contained roasted soybean seed as the major protein source without SPLM and treatment diets containing SPLM at the levels of 30 g/kg (treatment 2, T2), 60 g/kg (treatment 3, T3), 90 g/kg (treatment 4, T4) and 120 g/kg (treatment 5, T5) by partially substituting the roasted soybean seed in the control diet. The results indicated that the body weight gain in chickens reared in T1 was (pchickens reared in T1 was (pchickens fed on T1 was (pChickens fed with T2 diet had numerically higher values of slaughter, dressed carcass and breast than those reared in T4 and T5 diets. It can be concluded that the partial substitution of roasted soybean seed with sweet potato leaf might be economically feasible feeding strategy of broiler chickens in smallholder poultry farm settings.

  15. Organic Oils as Seed Treatments for Soybeans to Inhibit Fungal Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Burgett, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Producing organic crops has become essential to satisfy the desires of the end consumer. To completely fulfill this task and meet the requirements of the National Organic Program in the U.S., the seeds planted must be organic. Seeds succumb to fungal infections without seed treatments. Organic seed treatments are not common. The purpose of this study is to test the ability of three organic oils (tea tree, coconut, and lemon) to act as organic seed treatments to inhibit fungal growth on soybea...

  16. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  17. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Sara; González-Benito, M Elena; Hill, Lisa M; Walters, Christina

    2010-09-01

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed ageing rates. Over 30 volatile compounds were detected from lettuce seeds during storage at 35 degrees C at water contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.09 g H(2)O g(-1) dw. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in volatile composition were noted as a function of water content, and these differences were apparent before signs of deterioration were visible. Seeds stored at high water content (L >or=0.06 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) emitted molecular species indicative of glycolysis (methanol+ethanol), and evidence of peroxidation was apparent subsequent to viability loss. Seeds containing less water (0.03-0.05 g H(2)O g(-1) dw) produced volatiles indicative of peroxidation and survived longer compared with seeds stored under more humid conditions. Production of glycolysis-related by-products correlated strongly with deterioration rate when measured as a function of water content. This correlation may provide a valuable non-invasive means to predict the duration of the early, asymptomatic stage of seed deterioration.

  18. Alternative procedure for the cold test for soybean seeds Procedimento alternativo para o teste de frio em semente de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guilherme Torres Licursi Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds requires a precise seed quality control system from the seed industry. One way to accomplish this is by improving vigor testing. Cold test has been traditionally employed for corn seeds. However, it has also been used for other seed crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp., soybean (Glycine Max, dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and pea (Pisum sativum. This study was carried out with the objective of adjusting an alternative procedure for the cold test to determine soybean seed vigor. Six commercial soybean seed lots of the cultivar BRS 133 were used. The physiological potential of the seed lots was evaluated by germination on paper towel and sand box, seedling field emergence, tetrazolium, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests. Seed moisture content was also determined. The temperature used for the cold test procedures was 10ºC during five days. Four cold test procedures were evaluated: i plastic boxes with soil; ii rolled paper towel with soil; iii rolled paper towel without soil, and iv an alternative procedure, using rolled paper towel without soil under cold water. A completely randomized experimental design with eight replications was used and the means were compared by the Tukey test (p = 0.05. To verify the dependence between the alternative test and others single linear correlation was used. All cold test procedures had similar coefficients of variation (CV, highlighting that rolled paper towel with soil and the alternative procedure had the best performance, with an average of 94% and 93% normal seedlings and CV of 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The alternative procedure has satisfactory results for estimating soybean seed vigor, yielding consistent results compared to the traditional procedure.A crescente demanda por semente de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] de alta qualidade tem requerido da indústria de sementes um controle de qualidade mais preciso

  19. The interaction of the soybean seed high oleic acid oil trait with other fatty acid modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil value is determined by the functional qualities imparted from the fatty acid profile. Soybean oil historically had excellent utilization in both food and industrial uses, but the need to increase the stability of the oil without negative health consequences has led to a significant decline in s...

  20. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  1. 大豆籽粒的化学-力学特性灰色关联度及本构模拟%Gray relation degree and constitutive modeling of chemo-mechanical properties for soybean seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 张锋伟; 孙伟; 孙步功; 王婷; 吴建民

    2017-01-01

    placing.Different compression types and shear directions had highly significant influence on the crippling strength and ultimate shear force (P<0.01).Force-deformation curves from the test fitted the simulation quite well,and the maximum deviation of flat placing,side placing and stand placing were 12.24%,6.96%,and 9.55% respectively,which meant that the soybean seed constitutive modeling could reflect the crushing features.Through the chemical composition determination test,the results showed that crude protein and crude fat were the main chemical composition of soybean seed,and the average values of their mass fractions were 40.84% and 20.23% respectively.The contents of chemical components in different varieties were significantly different (P<0.01).The gray relation analysis indicated that in mechanical indices,hardness and contact stiffness were most closely related to the chemical content,the related degree of hardness with crude protein content,crude fat content,crude starch content and crude cellulose content was 0.309 4,0.327 8,0.171 9 and 0.191 8 respectively,and the related degree of contact stiffness with crude protein content,crude fat content,crude starch content and crude fiber content was 0.220 6,0.283 7,0.186 9 and 0.133 4 respectively.The crude protein content and crude fat content of soybean seed had a significant influence on hardness and contact stiffness,and the influence of crude starch content and crude cellulose content was lighter.Therefore the result has a great application potential in soybean seed storage and processing industry,and especially can offer a new method and basic for quality prediction and variety identification.%为研究大豆籽粒在不同受载情况下的力学特性,探索其化学-力学特性之间的关系,该文选择11种大豆籽粒在含水率为8.65%下对其进行化学组分、针尖压入、剪切、压缩试验,并借助Abaqus软件建立本构模型,对压缩试验过程进行模拟仿真.力

  2. Seed and Foliar Application of Amino Acids Improve Variables of Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Soybean Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Walquíria F; Fagan, Evandro B; Soares, Luis H; Soares, Jérssica N; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D

    2018-01-01

    The application of amino acids in crops has been a common practice in recent years, although most of the time they are associated with products based on algae extracts or on fermented animal or vegetable wastes. However, little is known about the isolated effect of amino acids on the development of crops. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the in some steps of the soybean nitrogen metabolism and on productivity. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and glycine (Gly) and as a set (Glu+Phe+Cys+Gly), as seed treatment (ST), as foliar application (FA) and both (ST+FA), at the V 4 growth stage. Evaluations consisted of nitrate reductase and urease activities, nitrate, ureide, total amino acids and total nitrogen content in leaves, and productivity. The application of Glu to leaves, Cys as ST and a mixture of Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as ST+FA in the greenhouse experiment increased the total amino acids content. In the field experiment all treatments increased the amino acid content in leaves. At the V 6 stage in the field experiment, all modes of Gly application, Glu as ST and FA, Cys and Phe as ST+FA and Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as FA increased the nitrate content in leaves. In the greenhouse, application of Cys and Phe as ST increased the production of soybean plants by at least 21%. The isolated application of Cys, Phe, Gly, Glu and the set of these amino acids as ST increased the productivity of soybean plants in the field experiment by at least 22%.

  3. Seed and Foliar Application of Amino Acids Improve Variables of Nitrogen Metabolism and Productivity in Soybean Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Walquíria F.; Fagan, Evandro B.; Soares, Luis H.; Soares, Jérssica N.; Reichardt, Klaus; Neto, Durval D.

    2018-01-01

    The application of amino acids in crops has been a common practice in recent years, although most of the time they are associated with products based on algae extracts or on fermented animal or vegetable wastes. However, little is known about the isolated effect of amino acids on the development of crops. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the application of isolated amino acids on the in some steps of the soybean nitrogen metabolism and on productivity. Experiments were carried out in a greenhouse and in the field with the application of the amino acids glutamate (Glu), phenylalanine (Phe), cysteine (Cys) and glycine (Gly) and as a set (Glu+Phe+Cys+Gly), as seed treatment (ST), as foliar application (FA) and both (ST+FA), at the V4 growth stage. Evaluations consisted of nitrate reductase and urease activities, nitrate, ureide, total amino acids and total nitrogen content in leaves, and productivity. The application of Glu to leaves, Cys as ST and a mixture of Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as ST+FA in the greenhouse experiment increased the total amino acids content. In the field experiment all treatments increased the amino acid content in leaves. At the V6 stage in the field experiment, all modes of Gly application, Glu as ST and FA, Cys and Phe as ST+FA and Glu+Cys+Phe+Gly as FA increased the nitrate content in leaves. In the greenhouse, application of Cys and Phe as ST increased the production of soybean plants by at least 21%. The isolated application of Cys, Phe, Gly, Glu and the set of these amino acids as ST increased the productivity of soybean plants in the field experiment by at least 22%. PMID:29643860

  4. Enhanced stresses tolerance of soybean during seed germination by maize / soybean intercropping system%玉米/大豆间作增强大豆种子在萌发期间的抗逆能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋; 舒凯; 刘鑫; 孟永杰; 帅海威; 周文冠; 杨峰; 刘卫国; 雍太文; 杨文钰

    2017-01-01

    In maize - soybean intercropping system,soybean was shaded by the taller crop maize,and conse-quently,soybean seeds were under shade stress conditions during their entire developmental stages. The objectives of this study were to find out whether and how the shade stress influence the abiotic stresses tolerance of soybean seeds during germination. Soybean cultivar "Hedou 19"and maize cultivar "Jundan 26"were employed as the ex-perimental materials. The maize - soybean intercropping (IC)system was two rows of maize and soybean crossed planting (1: 1),and the soybean monocropping (MC)was as control. After soybean was harvested,the quality traits including 100 - seed weight,protein content and fat content were measured and the ability of resisting adver-sity (high temperature,mannitol,glucose,PEG,NaCl and abscisic acid)during germination was analyzed. The expression of genes related to signal transduction of ABA was further analyzed by qRT - PCR assay. Results showed that there was no significant difference in 100 - seed weight,fat content and protein content between monocropping and intercropping soybean seeds. Intercropping soybean seeds germinated faster than monocropping soybean seeds under abiotic stresses conditions (high temperature,mannitol,glucose,PEG,NaCl and ABA)and showed strong resistance to abiotic stresses. qRT - PCR demonstrated that the transcription levels of GmABI4 and GmABI5,posi-tive regulators in abscisic acid (ABA)signaling pathway,in the intercropping soybean seeds were lower than that in monocropping soybean seeds. Therefore soybean quality did not change in maize - soybean intercropping system, it could enhance the abiotic stresses tolerance during germination processes,maybe primarily through weakening ABA signaling strength.%玉米/大豆间作模式下,低位作物大豆受到高位作物玉米的遮荫,导致大豆种子在发育期间受到荫蔽胁迫.为研究荫蔽胁迫对大豆种子在随后的萌发期间抗逆性的影响,

  5. Structure of soybean seed coat peroxidase: a plant peroxidase with unusual stability and haem-apoprotein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A; Mirza, O; Indiani, C

    2001-01-01

    Soybean seed coat peroxidase (SBP) is a peroxidase with extraordinary stability and catalytic properties. It belongs to the family of class III plant peroxidases that can oxidize a wide variety of organic and inorganic substrates using hydrogen peroxide. Because the plant enzyme is a heterogeneous...... glycoprotein, SBP was produced recombinant in Escherichia coli for the present crystallographic study. The three-dimensional structure of SBP shows a bound tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane molecule (TRIS). This TRIS molecule has hydrogen bonds to active site residues corresponding to the residues that interact...... with the small phenolic substrate ferulic acid in the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPC):ferulic acid complex. TRIS is positioned in what has been described as a secondary substrate-binding site in HRPC, and the structure of the SBP:TRIS complex indicates that this secondary substrate-binding site could...

  6. Biorhythms in conifer seed germination during extended storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; N.I. Marnonov

    1989-01-01

    A proportion of sound seeds of conifer species do not germinate during certain periods of the year, even when conditions are favorable. Mamonov et al. (1986) report that the non-germinating seeds have apparently undergone physiological changes that affected germination. This phenomenon may be due to seasonal periodicity, or biorhythms. As early as the mid-1930'...

  7. Shaping of the fungal communities isolated from yellow lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. throughout storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment were seeds of two traditional cultivars of yellow lupin (Juno and Amulet cultivated in 1999 in two crop-rotation with 20% and 33% yellow lupine contribution. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the fungal community colonizing the seeds were determined in the laboratory conditions after 0.5-, 1.5- and 2.5-year of storage time. In total 1077 fungal colonies were isolated from the lupin seeds. Fungi representing the species of Penicillium - 29.3%, Alternaria alternata - 26.7% and Rhizopus nigricans - 12.7% were isolated most widely. Among the fungi pathogenic to lupin, the species of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (16.3% isolates was dominant. The crop rotation with 20% lupin reduced the number of fungal colonies colonizing the seeds including the pathogens from the species of C. gloeosporioides. Seed disinfection decreased the total number of fungal colonies isolated from both cultivars. Higher number of C. gloeosporioides isolates was found in the combination with disinfected seeds. More fungal colonies were obtained from seeds of cv. Amulet than from those of cv. Juno. The storage duration had an effect on the population and the composition of species of fungi isolated from seeds of yellow lupine. With longer storage population of Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp. increased, whereas the population of C. gloeosporioides decreased.

  8. Electrical conductivity testing of corn seeds as influenced by temperature and period of storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fessel,Simone Aparecida; Vieira,Roberval Daiton; Cruz,Mara Cristina Pessoa da; Paula,Rinaldo Cesar de; Panobianco,Maristela

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of temperature (10, 20, 30, 20/10 and 30/10ºC) and period of storage on electrical conductivity (EC) in four seed lots of corn (Zea mays L.), as well as the mineral composition of the soaking solution. EC test determines indirectly the integrity of seed membrane systems, and is used for the assessment of seed vigor, because this test detects the seed deterioration process since its early phase. The research comprised determinations o...

  9. Pine seeds radiosensitivity as depended upon their humidity and the term of storage after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porozova, O.A.

    1983-01-01

    The seeds of pine (Pinus silvestris L.) have been used to study the effect of average and so called ''low doses'' of ionizing radiation at different levels of seed humidity (3-4%-dried a little, 6-7%-aerially-dry and 9-10%-humid). The Seeds of every humidity level are irradiated in May in a rather wide dose range 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 Gy from a gamma source of 137 Cs at the dose rate of 0.96 Gy/min. After irradiation part of seeds was sown. It is shown that seeds with relatively high water content are more stable to the effect of gamma-radiation. The first indices of radiation injury in humid seeds (9-10% humidity) in the criteria of laboratory growing-out are noticed at the dose of 20 Gy while in dried seeds (3-4% hymidity) - at the dose of 2 Gy. Radiation injury of aerially-dried and dried seeds increases with the increase of radiation dose and periods of their storage. In humid seeds this effect depends on radiation dose alone; their storage for eight months did not produce a noticeable effect on growing-out

  10. Identification of Major Quantitative Trait Loci for Seed Oil Content in Soybeans by Combining Linkage and Genome-Wide Association Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yongce; Li, Shuguang; Wang, Zili; Chang, Fangguo; Kong, Jiejie; Gai, Junyi; Zhao, Tuanjie

    2017-01-01

    Soybean oil is the most widely produced vegetable oil in the world and its content in soybean seed is an important quality trait in breeding programs. More than 100 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for soybean oil content have been identified. However, most of them are genotype specific and/or environment sensitive. Here, we used both a linkage and association mapping methodology to dissect the genetic basis of seed oil content of Chinese soybean cultivars in various environments in the Jiang-Huai River Valley. One recombinant inbred line (RIL) population (NJMN-RIL), with 104 lines developed from a cross between M8108 and NN1138-2 , was planted in five environments to investigate phenotypic data, and a new genetic map with 2,062 specific-locus amplified fragment markers was constructed to map oil content QTLs. A derived F 2 population between MN-5 (a line of NJMN-RIL) and NN1138-2 was also developed to confirm one major QTL. A soybean breeding germplasm population (279 lines) was established to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 59,845 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism markers. In the NJMN-RIL population, 8 QTLs were found that explained a range of phenotypic variance from 6.3 to 26.3% in certain planting environments. Among them, qOil-5-1, qOil-10-1 , and qOil-14-1 were detected in different environments, and qOil-5-1 was further confirmed using the secondary F 2 population. Three loci located on chromosomes 5 and 20 were detected in a 2-year long GWAS, and one locus that overlapped with qOil-5-1 was found repeatedly and treated as the same locus. qOil-5-1 was further localized to a linkage disequilibrium block region of approximately 440 kb. These results will not only increase our understanding of the genetic control of seed oil content in soybean, but will also be helpful in marker-assisted selection for breeding high seed oil content soybean and gene cloning to elucidate the mechanisms of seed oil content.

  11. Effect of hybrid, storage conditions and seed protection on sunflower field emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed emergence under field conditions decisively and directly determines the number of plants per hectare, which is one of three basic components of yield in the plant world. Influence of chemical treatment on field emergence of three commercial sunflower hybrids stored in different conditions was tested in 2007 and 2008 on experimental field of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. On average, hybrid H1 had the highest value of field emergence (88.79% and for chemical treatment fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (87.71%. Seed kept in common storage had the highest emergence value in fi eld (87.92%. Seed treated with fl udioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid and stored for one year in common storage had the highest field emergence (90.18%. Considering interaction between storage conditions and genotype, hybrid H1 seed sown after chemical treatment had the highest field emergence (91.82% and seed kept in common storage (90.48%. Hybrid H1 seed compared with other two had the highest field emergence treated with fludioxonil + metalaxyl + imidacloprid (91.84%.

  12. Effects of UV-B radiation on soybean yield and seed quality: a 6-year field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.; Lydon, J.

    1990-01-01

    Two soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars, Essex and Williams, were grown in the field for 6 consecutive seasons under ambient and supplemental levels of ultravio-Set-B radiation to determine the potential for alterations in yield or seed quality with a reduction in the stratospheric ozone column. The supplemental UV-B fluences simulated a 16 or 25% ozone depletion. The data presented here represent the first field experiment conducted over multiple seasons which assesses the effects of increased UV-B radiation on seed yield. Overall, the cultivar Essex was found to be sensitive to UV-B radiation (yield reductions of 20%) while the cultivar Williams was tolerant. However, the effectiveness of UV-B radiation in altering yield was strongly influenced by the seasonal microclimate, and the 2 cultivars responded differently to these changing factors. Yield was reduced most in Essex during seasons in which water availability was high and was reduced in Williams only when water was severely limiting. The results of these experiments demonstrate the necessity for multiple-year experiments and the need to increase our understanding of the interaction between UV-B radiation and other environmental stresses in order to assess the potential consequences of stratospheric ozone depletion. (author)

  13. Fatty acids profile and alteration of lemon seeds extract (Citrus limon) added to soybean oil under thermoxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2013-10-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating fatty acids profile and the total alteration of lemon seeds extract added to soybean oil under thermoxidation, verifying the isolated and synergistic effect of these antioxidants. Therefore, Control treatments, LSE (2,400 mg/kg Lemon Seeds Extract), TBHQ (mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180°C for 20 h. Samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analyzed as for fatty acid profile and total polar compounds. Results were subjected to variance analyses and Tukey tests at a 5% significance level. An increase in the percentage of saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated, and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, regardless of the treatments studied. For total polar compounds, it was verified that Mixtures 1 and 2 presented values lower than 25% with 20 h of heating, not surpassing the limits established in many countries for disposal of oils and fats under high temperatures, thus proving the synergistic effect of antioxidants.

  14. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS UNDER MECHANICAL INJURIES CAUSED BY COMBINES

    OpenAIRE

    FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO; LÚCIA HELENA PEREIRA NÓBREGA; GISLAINE PICOLLO DE LIMA; MÁRCIA SANTORUM; WALTER BOLLER; LORIVAN FORMIGHIERI

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical harvesting causes injuries on seeds and may affect their quality. Different threshing mechanisms and their adjustments may also affect the intensity of impacts that machines cause on seeds. So, this study aimed at diagnosing and evaluating the effect of two combines: the first one with a threshing system of axial flow and the other one with a threshing system of tangential flow, under adjustments of concave opening (10 mm, 30 mm and 10 mm for a combine with axial ...

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita [National Research Centre for Soybean, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India); Manjaya, J.G. [Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Bhatnagar, Deepak, E-mail: bhatnagarbio@yahoo.co [School of Biochemistry, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road, Indore-452017 (India)

    2011-04-15

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on lipoxygenases, trypsin inhibitor, raffinose family oligosaccharides and nutritional factors of different seed coat colored soybean (Glycine max L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Dixit, Amit; Kumar, Vineet; Rani, Anita; Manjaya, J.G.; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Three soybean genotypes Kalitur, Hara soya and NRC37 with black, green and yellow seed coat color, respectively, were gamma irradiated at 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 kGy and tested for antinutritional and nutritional factors. Gamma irradiation at all doses reduced the level of lipoxygenase isomers, trypsin inhibitor (TI) and ascorbic acid in all the 3 soybean genotypes as compared to the unirradiated control. However, irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy increased the sucrose content of the soybean genotypes. No significant change was observed in oil, protein fatty acids and total tocopherol content of the 3 genotypes at any irradiation dose. It is suggested that inhibition of lipoxygenase, reduction in TI and ascorbic acid may be due to the breakage or oxidation of protein structure by the gamma irradiation. Similarly, gamma irradiation at higher doses may break glycosidic linkages in oligosaccharides to produce more sucrose and decrease the content of flatulence causing oligosaccharides.

  17. Multi-Population Selective Genotyping to Identify Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Seed Protein and Oil QTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phansak, Piyaporn; Soonsuwon, Watcharin; Hyten, David L; Song, Qijian; Cregan, Perry B; Graef, George L; Specht, James E

    2016-06-01

    Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which is mainly protein and oil, in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort. Though genome-wide association offers one such approach, selective genotyping of multiple biparental populations offers a complementary alternative, and was evaluated here, using 48 F2:3 populations (n = ∼224 plants) created by mating 48 high protein germplasm accessions to cultivars of similar maturity, but with normal seed protein content. All F2:3 progeny were phenotyped for seed protein and oil, but only 22 high and 22 low extreme progeny in each F2:3 phenotypic distribution were genotyped with a 1536-SNP chip (ca 450 bimorphic SNPs detected per mating). A significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) on one or more chromosomes was detected for protein in 35 (73%), and for oil in 25 (52%), of the 48 matings, and these QTL exhibited additive effects of ≥ 4 g kg(-1) and R(2) values of 0.07 or more. These results demonstrated that a multiple-population selective genotyping strategy, when focused on matings between parental phenotype extremes, can be used successfully to identify germplasm accessions possessing large-effect QTL alleles. Such accessions would be of interest to breeders to serve as parental donors of those alleles in cultivar development programs, though 17 of the 48 accessions were not unique in terms of SNP genotype, indicating that diversity among high protein accessions in the germplasm collection is less than what might ordinarily be assumed. Copyright © 2016 Phansak et al.

  18. Plasticity and innovation of regulatory mechanisms underlying seed oil content mediated by duplicated genes in the palaeopolyploid soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dajian; Zhao, Meixia; Li, Shuai; Sun, Lianjun; Wang, Weidong; Cai, Chunmei; Dierking, Emily C; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Many plants have undergone whole genome duplication (WGD). However, how regulatory networks underlying a particular trait are reshaped in polyploids has not been experimentally investigated. Here we show that the regulatory pathways modulating seed oil content, which involve WRINKLED1 (WRI1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), and LEC2 in Arabidopsis, have been modified in the palaeopolyploid soybean. Such modifications include functional reduction of GmWRI1b of the GmWRI1a/GmWRI1b homoeologous pair relevant to WRI1, complementary non-allelic dosage effects of the GmLEC1a/GmLEC1b homoeologous pair relevant to LEC1, pseudogenization of the singleton GmLEC2 relevant to LEC2, and the rise of the LEC2-like function of GmABI3b, contrasting to its homoeolog GmABI3a, which maintains the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3)-like function in modulating seed maturation and dormancy. The function of GmABI3b in modulating seed oil biosynthesis was fulfilled by direct binding to a RY (CATGCA) cis-regulatory element in the GmWRI1a promoter, which was absent in the GmWRI1b promoter, resulting in reduction of the GmWRI1b expression. Nevertheless, the three regulators each exhibited similar intensities of purifying selection to their respective duplicates since these pairs were formed by a WGD event that is proposed to have occurred approximately 13 million years ago (mya), suggesting that the differentiation in spatiotemporal expression between the duplicated genes is more likely to be the outcome of neutral variation in regulatory sequences. This study thus exemplifies the plasticity, dynamics, and novelty of regulatory networks mediated by WGD. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of Nano-Zinc oxide and Seed Inoculation by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Filling Period of Soybean (Glycine max L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seyed Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Utilizing biological fertilizer is a proper and cheap method for crop production. Potentially, soybean can be used as biological fertilizers and seed inoculation. Zinc is an essential element that have positive effects on plant growth and its development. Canola, sunflower, soybean and safflower are the main cultivated oilseeds in Iran. Soybean production in Iran is very low as compared to other countries. One of the most effective factor in increasing the soybean yield is seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and application of Zinc fertilizer. Some of the benefits provided by PGPR are the ability to produce gibberellic acid, cytokinins and ethylene, N2 fixation, solubilization of mineral phosphates and other nutrients (56. Numerous studies have shown a substantial increase in dry matter accumulation and seed yield following inoculation with PGPR. Seyed Sharifi (45 reported that seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 increased all of the growth indices such as total dry matter, crop growth rate and relative growth rate. Increasing and extending the role of biofertilizers such as Rhizobium can reduce the need for chemical fertilizers and decrease adverse environmental effects. Therefore, in the development and implementation of sustainable agricultural techniques, biofertilization has great importance in alleviating environmental pollution and deterioration of the nature. As a legume, soybean can obtain a significant portion (4-85% of its nitrogen requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation when grown in association with effective and compatible Rhizobium strains. Since there is little available information on nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on yield in the agro-ecological growing zones of Ardabil province of Iran. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate the effects of nano-zinc oxide and seed inoculation with plant growth

  20. EFFECTS OF STORAGE PERIODS AND METHODS OF OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN SEEDS OF PASSIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Miranda dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of storage period and treatement with hot water at 50ºC or scarification on dormancy break down on Passiflora mucronata seeds. The storage periods were 0, 1, 4 and 12 months. The seeds were sown onto Germitest paper roll and incubated in a germination chamber under 20ºC/8h-30ºC/16h alternate temperature, at 16-h photoperiod (fluorescent light at 32 mol m-2 s-1 irradiance. The percent germination was evaluated, and the seeds germinated on moistened Germitest paper rolls in distilled water at a ratio of two and a half times the paper weight. The seeds were transferred to a germination chamber with alternating temperatures of 20-30º C and photoperiod of 16 h until the end of the experiment at 31 days. The experiment was analyzed as completely randomized designed with four replications, in which each plot was constituted by 50 seeds. The storage periods had significant effect on the variable studied, where the higher germination was obtained at freshly harvested seeds. At the first month of evaluation the germination decreased. After 4 and 12 months of storage, no germination was detected. The treatment with hot water at 50º or scarification favored the germination of the Passiflora seeds stored by one and four months, however even with the stimulus of the treatments, the values of final germination were low. The treatments were not efficient to stimulate the seed germination stored by 12 months.

  1. Genotypic variability and mutant identification in cicer arietinum L. by seed storage protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Iqbal, N.; Shah, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    A collection of thirty-four chickpea genotypes, including five kabuli and twenty-nine desi, were analyzed by SDS-PAGE for seed storage protein profiling. Total soluble seed proteins were resolved on 12% gels. A low level of variability was observed in desi as compared to kabuli genotypes. Dendrogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the thirty-four genotypes in four major groups. As large number of desi genotypes illustrated identical profiles, therefore could not be differentiated on the basis of seed storage protein profiles. One kabuli genotype ILC-195 found to be the most divergent showing 86% similarity with all other genotypes. ILC-195 can be distinguished from its mutant i.e., CM-2000 and other kabuli genotypes on the basis of three peptides i.e. SSP-66, SSP-43 and SSP-39. Some proteins peptides were found to be genotype specific like SSP-26 for ICCV-92311. Uniprot and NCBI protein databases were searched for already reported and characterized seed storage proteins in chickpea. Among 33 observed peptides, only six seed storages proteins from chickpea source were available in databases. On the basis of molecular weight similarity, identified peptides were SSP-64 as Serine/Threonine dehydratase, SSP-56 as Alpha-amylase inhibitor, SSP-50 as Provicillin, SSP-39 as seed imbibition protein, SSP-35 as Isoflavane reductase and SSP-19 as lipid transport protein. Highest variability was observed in vicillin subunits and beta subunits of legumins and its polymorphic forms. In conclusion, seed storage profiling can be economically used to asses the genetic variation, phylogenetic relationship and as markers to differentiate mutants from their parents. (author)

  2. Identification and validation of quantitative trait loci for seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianzhi; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Green, Marci; Scott, Roy A; Song, Qijian; Hyten, David L; Cregan, Perry B

    2014-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of oil and protein, and are the important sources of vegetable oil and plant protein for human consumption and livestock feed. Increased seed yield, oil and protein contents are the main objectives of soybean breeding. The objectives of this study were to identify and validate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed yield, oil and protein contents in two recombinant inbred line populations, and to evaluate the consistency of QTLs across different environments, studies and genetic backgrounds. Both the mapping population (SD02-4-59 × A02-381100) and validation population (SD02-911 × SD00-1501) were phenotyped for the three traits in multiple environments. Genetic analysis indicated that oil and protein contents showed high heritabilities while yield exhibited a lower heritability in both populations. Based on a linkage map constructed previously with the mapping population and using composite interval mapping and/or interval mapping analysis, 12 QTLs for seed yield, 16 QTLs for oil content and 11 QTLs for protein content were consistently detected in multiple environments and/or the average data over all environments. Of the QTLs detected in the mapping population, five QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and five QTLs for protein content were confirmed in the validation population by single marker analysis in at least one environment and the average data and by ANOVA over all environments. Eight of these validated QTLs were newly identified. Compared with the other studies, seven QTLs for seed yield, eight QTLs for oil content and nine QTLs for protein content further verified the previously reported QTLs. These QTLs will be useful for breeding higher yield and better quality cultivars, and help effectively and efficiently improve yield potential and nutritional quality in soybean.

  3. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario. Seed moisture content (mc was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It was shown that the rate of seed aging depended on the species and seed moisture content. The fastest decrease of germinability upon storage was observed in seed with the highest moisture level. Complete germinability loss for winter rye, winter triticale cv. Fidelio, winter triticale cv. Woltario and spring wheat seed with mc 0.10 g H2O/g dm3 occurred after 81, 81, 101 and 133 weeks, respectively. Fructose, glucose, galactose, myo-inositol, sucrose, galactinol, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were the main soluble carbohydrates found in the seed. The obtained data on the contents of specific sugars and the composition of soluble sugars fraction in seed of rye, wheat and triticale did not corroborate any profound effect of reducing sugars, sucrose and oligosaccharides on seed longevity.

  4. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-03

    Aug 3, 2006 ... probably due to little or no compaction of the potting medium (ricehull). A previous study (Baiyeri, 2003) and a more recent one (Baiyeri and Mbah, 2006), using soil- based and soilless media recorded relatively lower percent seedling emergence, probably because germinated seeds in those studies could ...

  5. Protease purification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor from Egyptian varieties of soybean seeds and its efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-latif Ashraf Oukasha Abd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine inhibitors have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom. Trypsin inhibitors are the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of four Egyptian varieties of soybean (Glycine max. The soybean variety, Giza 22, was found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested soybean varieties. For this reason, Giza 22 was selected for further purification studies which used ammonium sulphate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Soybean purified proteins showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to a molecular mass of 17.9 kDa. The purified inhibitor was stable at temperatures below 60°C and was active at a wide range of pH, from 2 to 12 pH. The kinetic analysis revealed a non-competitive type of inhibition against trypsin and chymotrypsin enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki values suggested that the inhibitor has higher affinity toward a trypsin enzyme than to a chymotrypsin enzyme. Purified inhibitor was found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis. It may be concluded, that soybean protease inhibitor gene(s could be potential targets for those future studies which are concerned with developing insect resistant transgenic plants

  6. Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Vuong, Tri D; Kale, Sandip; Valliyodan, Babu; Deshmukh, Rupesh; Zhu, Chengsong; Wu, Xiaolei; Bai, Yonghe; Yungbluth, Dennis; Lu, Fang; Kumpatla, Siva; Grover Shannon, J; Varshney, Rajeev K; Nguyen, Henry T

    2018-04-04

    The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil and high sucrose. In this study, an inter-specific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3x depth. Based on 91,342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4,070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, QTL analysis for protein, oil and sucrose was performed using 3,343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 Kb to 50 Kb). A total of 5, 9 and 4 QTLs were identified for protein, oil and sucrose content, respectively and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil was mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL was identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbors putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association (GWAS) using 91,342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL based haplotype using whole genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytogenetic effects of electron-beam radiation on dry seed storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baojiang, G.; Qishen, P.; Kohlman, A.

    1989-01-01

    Dry seeds of Viciafaba were exposed to 5 MeV electron beam (10–30 Krad) and stored afterwards during 20,40 and 60 days- Induction of chromosomal aberrations in root-tip cells of irradiated seeds has been found dose-dependent. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (particularly, the bridges and the rings) and the frequency of micronucleated cells is proportional to the length of storage time, but is not significantly influenced by low temperatures (0–6°C) during storage. (author)

  8. Whole genome-wide transcript profiling to identify differentially expressed genes associated with seed field emergence in two soybean low phytate mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fengjie; Yu, Xiaomin; Dong, Dekun; Yang, Qinghua; Fu, Xujun; Zhu, Shenlong; Zhu, Danhua

    2017-01-18

    Seed germination is important to soybean (Glycine max) growth and development, ultimately affecting soybean yield. A lower seed field emergence has been the main hindrance for breeding soybeans low in phytate. Although this reduction could be overcome by additional breeding and selection, the mechanisms of seed germination in different low phytate mutants remain unknown. In this study, we performed a comparative transcript analysis of two low phytate soybean mutants (TW-1 and TW-1-M), which have the same mutation, a 2 bp deletion in GmMIPS1, but show a significant difference in seed field emergence, TW-1-M was higher than that of TW-1 . Numerous genes analyzed by RNA-Seq showed markedly different expression levels between TW-1-M and TW-1 mutants. Approximately 30,000-35,000 read-mapped genes and ~21000-25000 expressed genes were identified for each library. There were ~3900-9200 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in each contrast library, the number of up-regulated genes was similar with down-regulated genes in the mutant TW-1and TW-1-M. Gene ontology functional categories of DEGs indicated that the ethylene-mediated signaling pathway, the abscisic acid-mediated signaling pathway, response to hormone, ethylene biosynthetic process, ethylene metabolic process, regulation of hormone levels, and oxidation-reduction process, regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic process and regulation of abscisic acid-activated signaling pathway had high correlations with seed germination. In total, 2457 DEGs involved in the above functional categories were identified. Twenty-two genes with 20 biological functions were the most highly up/down- regulated (absolute value Log2FC >5) in the high field emergence mutant TW-1-M and were related to metabolic or signaling pathways. Fifty-seven genes with 36 biological functions had the greatest expression abundance (FRPM >100) in germination-related pathways. Seed germination in the soybean low phytate mutants is a very complex process

  9. Storage on the vigor and viability of macauba seeds from two provenances of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Pereira de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Macauba palm stands out for having favorable features to biodiesel production such as the high oil content of its fruit. Considering the great potential of the species and their applicability in the renewable energy field, it becomes indispensable to establish the right conditions for storing the seeds for propagation purpose. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of seed moisture content, packaging, and storage conditions such as temperature and relative humidity on the quality of seeds from Minas Gerais State, during a 12-month storage period. The research had two independent assays: (I the seeds were stored with three moisture contents/ranges 4.0≤6.0%; 6.0≤8.0% and 8.0≤10.0% in impermeable packages, under room temperature and at 10ºC; (II seeds with approximately 5.9% of moisture content were stored in three different types of packages: a permeable, b semi-permeable and c impermeable. Three storing conditions were tested: a room temperature and RH under laboratory conditions; b 15ºC and 45% RH; c 20ºC and 55% RH. Water content, germination rate and germination speed index were evaluated at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of storing. The best germination results were obtained with the moisture range of 6.0≤8.0%, with seeds kept at room temperature; while the seeds stored at 10ºC, regardless the moisture range, did not survive. The stored seeds with 5.9% moisture content and at both 15ºC/45%RH and 20ºC/55% RH conditions, independently of the package type used, showed the best results. Thus, macaw palm seeds can be classified as intermediates seeds.

  10. Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Soybean Seeds, Somatic Embryos and Single Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T; AOCS 94th Meeting, Kansas

    2002-01-01

    Novel methodologies are currently being developed and established for the chemical analysis of soybean seeds, embryos and single cells by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence and High-Resolution NMR (HR-NMR). The first FT-NIR chemical images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are presented here. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such 400 MHz 1H NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. ~20%) compared to non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monitored by FT-NIR with a precision ...

  11. 大豆种子寄藏真菌病害和寄藏真菌检测技术%Seed-Borne Fungi Disease and Detection Methods in Soybean Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志勇; 战丽莉; 潘凤娟; 许艳丽

    2012-01-01

    Seed-borne fungi can parasitize the seed coat, embryo and endosperm by infecting the seed, leaf, stem, bean pod and flower. Those fungi can directly affect seed germination and reduce seedling vigor, and se- riously influence the soybean production by affecting the quality and yield. This paper described the genera of soybean seed-borne fungi, new research of Phomopsis spp., Cercospora spp. and Colletotrichum spp., the de- tection and control methods of seed-borne fungi. It will be very helpful to the forecast and control of soybean disease.%大豆种子寄藏真菌通过侵染大豆种子、叶、茎、豆荚和花,寄藏于大豆种子的种皮、胚和胚乳等组织中,直接影响种子萌发或降低幼苗活力,导致大豆品质下降、产量降低,严重影响大豆的生产。文章介绍了大豆寄藏真菌的种类,重要寄藏真菌拟茎点菌属(Phomopsisspp.)、尾孢属(Cercosporaspp.)和刺盘~(Colletotrichumspp.)的研究现状,寄藏真菌的检测方法和防治技术,对于大豆病害的预测、预报和防治具有重要的意义。

  12. Absence of storage effects on radiation damage after thermal neutron irradiation of dry rice seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowyama, Y. [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan); Saito, M.; Kawase, T.

    1987-09-15

    Storage effects on dry rice seeds equilibrated to 6.8% moisture content were examined after irradiation with X-rays of 5, 10, 20 and 40 kR and with thermal neutrons of 2.1, 4.2, 6.3 and 8.4×10{sup 13}N{sub th}/cm{sup 2}. Reduction in root growth was estimated from dose response curves after storage periods of 1 hr to 21 days. The longer the storage period, the greater enhancement of radiation damages in X-irradiated seeds. There were two components in the storage effect, i. e., a rapid increase of radiosensitivity within the first 24 hr and a slow increase up to 21 days. An almost complete absence of a storage effect was observed after thermal neutron exposure, in spite of considerably high radioactivities of the induced nuclides, {sup 56}Mn, {sup 42}K and {sup 24}Na, which were detected from gamma-ray spectrometry of the irradiated seeds. The present results suggest that the contributions of gamma-rays from the activated nuclides and of inherent contaminating gamma-rays are little or negligible against the neutron-induced damage, and that the main radiobiological effects of thermal neutrons are ascribed to in situ radiations, i, e., heavy particles resulting from neutron-capture reaction of atom. A mechanism underlying the absence of storage effect after thermal neutron irradiation was briefly discussed on the basis of radical formation and decay. (author)

  13. The effects of rapeseed meal and legume seeds as substitutes for soybean meal on productivity and gastrointestinal function in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Zwoliński, Cezary; Żary-Sikorska, Ewa; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of soybean meal (SBM) substitution by a mixture of rapeseed meal (RSM), white lupine seeds (WLS) and pea seeds (PS) on productivity, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and gastrointestinal function in Hyplus rabbits. The Control diet (SBM 15 ) contained 15% SBM, whereas Diet SBM 7.5 contained 7.5% SBM, 5% RSM, 4% WLS and 3% PS. In Diet SBM 0, SBM was completely replaced by RSM, WLS and PS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively). A production trial was performed on 90 Hyplus rabbits aged from 35 to 84 d (45 each sex; 953 ± 4.6 g). A digestion and balance trial was conducted on 30 rabbits. Additionally, several parameters of the gastrointestinal tracts from eight animals from each group were analysed, where special attention was paid to the enzymatic activity of microbiota and the short-chain fatty acids concentration in caecum and colon. The experimental diets did not cause significant differences regarding performance parameters evaluated in vivo and post-mortem, and in the nutrient and energy digestibility or nitrogen retention. The observed changes in the enzymatic activity of large gut microbiota, including the selective increase in secretion of glycoside hydrolases by bacterial cells, seem to be responsible for the unchanged growth performance of rabbits fed diets where SBM was substituted by a mixture of RSM, WLS and PS. The obtained results indicate that in rabbit diets SBM may be, partially or completely, successfully replaced by a feed mixture of RSM, WLS and PS.

  14. Determination of degradability of germinated and heated soybean seeds and its proteins fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behruz Alizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on the sensitivity of watermelon variety Bojura to mutagenic agents was carried out in 2013-2014. The goal was to establish effective doses for mutagenic treatment of dry seeds with 60Co gamma rays (80, 100, 200, 250, 350 and 450 Gy and swollen seeds with water for 24 hours were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS at a concentration of 2%. Dominant mutations were not observed in the M1 generation. Morphological changes in 14 of 1395 M2 plants were observed. Phenotypic variations changes were the colour of the seed coat, chlorophyll disorders of cotyledons, leaves, petals, and alterations of the location of the fruit set in the central stem. Visible changes of the morphological characteristics of the fruit were not observed. The doses induced certain morphological changes, however, higher doses or combined gamma rays 60Co and EMS treatments would induce mutations more efficiently. Subsequent experiments are required to obtain mutants with changes that affect flowers and fruits. The results are important for increasing mutation efficiency in watermelon breeding.

  15. Molecular structure, dynamics and hydration studies of soybean storage proteins and model systems by nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakalis, L.T.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of high-resolution 13 C NMR for the characterization of soybean storage proteins was explored. The spectra of a commercial soy protein isolate as well as those of alkali-denatured 7S and 11S soybean globulins were well resolved and tentatively assigned. Relaxation measurements indicated fast motion for several side chains and the protein backbone. Protein fractions (11S and 7S) were also investigated at various states of molecular association. The large size of the multisubunit soybean storage proteins affected adversely both the resolution and the sensitivity of their 13 C NMR spectra. A comparison of 17 O and 2 H NMR relaxation rates of water in solutions of lysozyme (a model system) as a function of concentration, pH and magnetic field suggested that only 17 O monitors directly the hydration of lysozyme. Analysis of 17 O NMR lysozyme hydration data in terms of a two-state, fast-exchange, anisotropic model resulted in hydration parameters which are consistent with the protein's physico-chemical properties. The same model was applied to the calculation of the amount and mobility of bound water in soy protein dispersions by means of 17 O NMR relaxation measurements as a function of protein concentration. The protein concentration dependences of 1 H transverse NMR relaxation measurements at various pH and ionic strength values were fitted by a viral expansion. The interpretation of the data was based on the effects of protein aggregation, salt binding and protein group ionization on the NMR measurements. In all cases, relaxation rates showed a linear dependence on protein activity

  16. Effect of Oxidized Soybean Oil against Pomegranate Seed as Antioxidant on the in vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is an inevitable consequence of intensive production due to mismatched balance between free radical production and natural antioxidant capacity of animals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS refers to a group of free radicals produced by oxidative energy cycle and also recently demonstrated to be as a weapon for macrophage cells. Moreover, feed processing phenomena such as extruding and pelleting is one of the major sources of ROS production in feed due to lipid peroxidation and notably oxidation cascades in unstable organic matters of feed. Although ROS could be a source of adverse effect on fiber degradation in the gut of ruminant by reducing microbial population counts and diversity, because rumen bacterial, protozoal and fungal community as well as eukaryotes are susceptible to oxidative damages. Therefore, using plant or feed base antioxidant in the diet of dairy animals would be necessary in further feeding strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of pomegranate seed against the adverse effect of peroxide content of feed that induced by supplementation of oxidized soybean oil as energy and fiber source in preparturient dairy goats. Materials and Methods The gas production experiment and batch culture degradability test were carried out to investigate the effects of fresh soybean oil (FSO, oxidized soybean oil (OSO and biologically active constituents of pomegranate seed (PS on microbial fermentation characteristics, kinetics of gas production, methane and carbon dioxide production, in vitro dry matter degradation (DMD, t 0.5, and lag time. Also, the calculated parameters e.g. microbial protein, molar proportion of volatile fatty acids, metabolizable energy (ME, and organic matter digestibility (OMD % were evaluated for different treatments. The parameters were analyzed through the completely randomized design with repeated measurements. The treatments were 1 base diet and FSO (4% of dry

  17. Sensitivity of Canola Seeds Associated Fungi to Gamma Rays During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botros, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using the gamma radiation to elongate the storage periods of canola seeds (Brassica naps L.). In this respect, canola seeds were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy gamma rays and stored at room temperature for periods 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The isolated fungi from non-irradiated post-harvest canola seeds included different species identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. condidus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium oxysporium, F. moniliforme, Penicillium expansum, P. crysogenum, Alternaria brassicae, A. raphani and Trichoderma spp. It was noticed that the predominant species were A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. niger and F. oxysporium at percentages 16.18, 14.73, 11.00 and 10.53%, respectively. The effective gamma irradiation on the predominant fungi (the sub-lethal dose) was 3.5 kGy for A. ochraceus and 5.0 kGy for F. oxysporium and F. moniliforme. Increasing the irradiated dose up to 7.5 kGy decreased significantly the growth of most isolated fungi. The data also showed that there was a decrease in the total fungal count in stored seeds under the effect of gamma rays for 12 months storage. Also, mycotoxins at the stored seeds were not detected after 12 months storage

  18. Effect of storage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds from reaping time on turbidity removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanbagh, M; Ahamad, I S; Idris, A; Yunus, R

    2011-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an indigenous plant to Malaysia whose seeds are used for water purification. Many studies on Moringa oleifera have shown that it is highly effective as a natural coagulant for turbidity removal. In this study, two different methods for extraction of Moringa's active ingredient were investigated. Results of sodium chloride (NaCl) and distilled water extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds showed that salt solution extraction was more efficient than distilled water in extracting Moringa's active coagulant ingredient. The optimum dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds extracted by the NaCl solution was comparable with that of the conventional chemical coagulant alum. Moreover, the turbidity removal efficiency was investigated for shelled Moringa oleifera seeds before drying in the oven under different storage conditions (i.e. open and closed containers at room temperature, 27 °C) and durations (fresh, and storage for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the time the seeds were picked from the trees). Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in coagulation efficiencies and, accordingly, turbidity removals between the examined storage conditions and periods.

  19. The technology of storage of a geno-fund of seeds of plants and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombayev, A.M.; Tokhanov, M.T.; Burtebayeva, D.T.; Burtebayev, N.

    2002-01-01

    Because of an absent of special storages a geno-fund of plants seeds are stored mainly in usual unpractical laboratory conditions (in paper packs, in fabric bags, in metal boxes and so on). And during the first year of the storage the many Kinds of seeds begin to reduce a capacity of an inter-growth, and after several years they became to be useless to a sowing. As result, plant - breeders are forced to carry out frequent transplanting of collection samples, but it is connected with both significant material expenditures and a possible loss of a valuable geno-fund of seeds. But, from other hand, it is well known, that for a creation of only one new breed of animals it is necessary to carry out some experiments of during with from 15 to 30 years. With some economical reforms in Kazakhstan high - productive breeds of animals are on the brink of a disappearance. In connection with this the problem of the creation of the storage for the geno-fund of the seeds of the plants and of high - productive breeds of animals in Kazakhstan begins being an actual one. National storages, created in USA, Japan, Italy, Turkey, countries of SIS, correspond to definite standards, where there are maintained strict parameters for the storage active ventilation, storage in cooling state, a storage without of an access for air, a freezing in liquid nitrogen and in other coolants). Our investigations has established, that the storage of seeds of plants in gaseous medium with below-average content of oxygen increases a germinating power of seed. F.e. seeds of arid food plant of 'izen, Kochia prostrata', by natural way, keep the germinating power of seed, during about (6-8) months, and in gaseous medium its germinating power of seed reaches up to 5.5 years. Besides, at maturity of micro -organisms, there ore exterminated insects- pests and rodents. In order to improve mobility and a frost resistance of sperms of high productive stud-rams we had investigated the influence of electromagnetic

  20. Pruebas de vigor y calidad fisiológica de semillas de soja Vigor tests and physiological quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rita Salinas

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones producidas por el deterioro en semillas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill utilizando diferentes pruebas de vigor. Se utilizaron semillas de soja de diferentes cultivares en 1997 y 1998, las cuales fueron sometidas a la prueba de germinación y diferentes pruebas de vigor: envejecimiento acelerado; conductividad eléctrica; deterioro controlado y tetrazolio. El deterioro controlado en semillas con 22% de humedad mostró ser un mejor indicador de la disminución del vigor de la semilla de soja que el envejecimiento acelerado. La conductividad eléctrica en semillas individuales podría ser considerada una buena prueba de vigor para detectar alteraciones producidas en las membranas citoplasmáticas en un estadio temprano del deterioro de las semillas. La clasificación de la viabilidad y el vigor a través de la prueba de tetrazolio está dada por el lugar donde se produce el daño y no por el tipo de daño que sufre la semilla.The objective of this work was to study soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed alterations produced by deterioration using different vigor tests. Soybean seeds of different cultivars were used in 1997 and 1998, which were submitted to standard germination test and the vigor tests: accelerated aging; electric conductivity; controlled deterioration and tetrazolium. The controlled deterioration with an elevation of the seed humidity to 22%, showed to be a better indicator of the diminishing of soybean seed vigor than the accelerated aging. The electric conductivity in individual seeds would be considered a good vigor test to detect the alterations produced in the cytoplasmic membranes in an early stage of the seed deterioration. The tetrazolium test by the evaluation of the different kinds of injuries suffered by the seeds, depends on the place where the seed is damaged not on the kind of injury suffered by the seed.

  1. Carob seed germ meal as a partial soybean meal replacement in the diets of red hybrid tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalbast H.I. Fadel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of carob seed germ meal (CSGM as a soybean meal (SBM replacement in the diet of red tilapia hybrid was evaluated in an 8-week feeding trial. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets with increasing CSGM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, at the expense of SBM, were fed to triplicated groups of tilapia fingerlings. Their growth, feeding efficiency, whole body proximate composition, selected plasma biochemical parameters, and liver and gut histopathology were assessed. The survival and growth of red tilapia were unaffected by the dietary CSGM inclusion up to 30%. Growth and feeding efficiencies were significantly reduced at 40% CSGM inclusion. Hematocrit and body crude lipid were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in fish fed 30–40% CSGM while plasma ALT and protein were significantly higher compared to the control (0% CSGM. In addition, some instances of lipofuscin and cellular degradation were shown in liver while morphological changes were observed in fish fed 30 and 40% CSGM. Some of these included a 60% and 34% reduction in goblet cell prevalence and villi length, respectively, as well as a thickening of the intestinal mucosal and submucosa layers of 51 and 27%, respectively as dietary CSGM increased from 0 to 40%, that was likely due to increased anti-nutritional factors. In conclusion, a dietary inclusion of only up to 20% untreated CSGM was recommended for red hybrid tilapia.

  2. Pulse seed germination improves antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minwei; Jin, Zhao; Peckrul, Allen; Chen, Bingcan

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds extracted from germinated pulse seed including chickpeas, lentils and yellow peas. Phenolic compounds were extracted at different germination time and total phenolic content was examined by Folin Ciocalteu's reaction. Antioxidative activity of extracts was characterized by in vitro assay including 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), iron-binding assay, and in stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions. The results suggested that germination time is critical for phenolic compounds production. The form variation of phenolic compounds influenced the antioxidative activity of phenolic compounds both in vitro assay and in emulsion systems. Soluble bound phenolic compounds showed higher antioxidative ability in emulsion system with the order of chickpea > yellow pea > lentil. On the basis of these results, soluble bound phenolic compounds may be considered as a promising natural antioxidant to prevent lipid oxidation in foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Incidence of fungus and physiological quality of seeds of Jatropha curcas L. after cryogenic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Goldfarb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the incidence of fungi in stored seeds of Jatropha curcas. The research was carried out at Cryogenic/UFCG, Sanity/UFPB and Cotton/Embrapa. The material for analysis showed an 8% water level, and 200 seeds were stored for treatment in cryogenic containers with nitrogen in the vapor and liquid phases. Four periods of crioconservation (0, 30, 60 and 90 days, were employed. After each period, the seeds were tested for sanity (Blotter test and germination. Superficial disinfestation, was carried out and seeds were distributed in Petri dishes, for incubation at 25 ± 2ºC, over a period of 7 days. The evaluation of the incidence of fungi was carried out in a stereoscopic microscope with observation of fungal structures, and values were expressed as percentages of seeds with fungus. The statistical experiment was completely randomized with temperature x days of storage. Analysis of variance was conducted and the means were compared by Tukey’s test at 5%. After 30 days of cryogenic storage, a greater incidence of Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. was detected. It was concluded that crioconservation at cryogenic temperatures did not reduce the incidence of fungus on Jatropha curcas seeds. The physiological quality was preserved during the cryoconservation.

  4. Effect of liquid nitrogen storage on seed germination of 51 tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill R. Barbour; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    Two liquid nitrogen storage experiments were performed on 51 tree species. In experiment 1, seeds of 9western tree species were placed in a liquid nitrogen tank for 3 time periods: 24 hours, 4 weeks, and 222 days. A corresponding control sample accompanied each treatment. For three species,Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jefferyi, and ...

  5. Oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils d baking process and storage of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of bread lipids during baking and storage reduces the nutritional value of the product and leads to the formation of off-flavors and off-odors. In this research, oxidative stability of rice bran, corn, canola, sunflower and soybean oils during Brotchen bread baking process and storage was evaluated. Baking process caused a significant increase in oxidative indices such as peroxide, anisidine, Totox and thiobarbitoric acid values and free fatty acid content. However, storage of breads for 6 days in room temperature did not affect the value of the indices. Generaly, the value of the indices in bread containing rice bran oil was lower than those of the other breads, which indicated the higher oxidative stability of rice bran oil in baking process and storage. Pure oils treated in simulated baking process and storage had an oxidative quality similar to that of breads. This means that bread ingridients may not have an effect on oil oxidative stability. Bread containing rice bran oil gained also higher scores in sensory evaluation, which of course were in agree with its better oxidative status.

  6. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC 50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  7. QTL that underlie seed protein, oil, fatty and amino acids content in the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recombinant inbred line population of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving seed composition and quality, including protein, oil, fatty acids, and amino acids content is an important goal of soybean farmers and breeders. Our previous research identified novel QTLs associated with seed isoflavones. The aim of this study was to use the ‘Hamilton’ by ‘Spencer’ recomb...

  8. Identification and characterisation of seed storage protein transcripts from Lupinus angustifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goggin Danica E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In legumes, seed storage proteins are important for the developing seedling and are an important source of protein for humans and animals. Lupinus angustifolius (L., also known as narrow-leaf lupin (NLL is a grain legume crop that is gaining recognition as a potential human health food as the grain is high in protein and dietary fibre, gluten-free and low in fat and starch. Results Genes encoding the seed storage proteins of NLL were characterised by sequencing cDNA clones derived from developing seeds. Four families of seed storage proteins were identified and comprised three unique α, seven β, two γ and four δ conglutins. This study added eleven new expressed storage protein genes for the species. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of NLL conglutins with those available for the storage proteins of Lupinus albus (L., Pisum sativum (L., Medicago truncatula (L., Arachis hypogaea (L. and Glycine max (L. permitted the analysis of a phylogenetic relationships between proteins and demonstrated, in general, that the strongest conservation occurred within species. In the case of 7S globulin (β conglutins and 2S sulphur-rich albumin (δ conglutins, the analysis suggests that gene duplication occurred after legume speciation. This contrasted with 11S globulin (α conglutin and basic 7S (γ conglutin sequences where some of these sequences appear to have diverged prior to speciation. The most abundant NLL conglutin family was β (56%, followed by α (24%, δ (15% and γ (6% and the transcript levels of these genes increased 103 to 106 fold during seed development. We used the 16 NLL conglutin sequences identified here to determine that for individuals specifically allergic to lupin, all seven members of the β conglutin family were potential allergens. Conclusion This study has characterised 16 seed storage protein genes in NLL including 11 newly-identified members. It has helped lay the foundation for efforts to use

  9. Laser light and magnetic field stimulation effect on biochemical, enzymes activities and chlorophyll contents in soybean seeds and seedlings during early growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Tehseen; Jamil, Yasir; Iqbal, Munawar; Zia-Ul-Haq; Abbas, Mazhar

    2016-12-01

    Laser and magnetic field bio-stimulation attracted the keen interest of scientific community in view of their potential to enhance seed germination, seedling growth, physiological, biochemical and yield attributes of plants, cereal crops and vegetables. Present study was conducted to appraise the laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatment effects on soybean sugar, protein, nitrogen, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) ascorbic acid (AsA), proline, phenolic and malondialdehyde (MDA) along with chlorophyll contents (Chl "a" "b" and total chlorophyll contents). Specific activities of enzymes such as protease (PRT), amylase (AMY), catalyst (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxides (POD) were also assayed. The specific activity of enzymes (during germination and early growth), biochemical and chlorophyll contents were enhanced significantly under the effect of both laser and magnetic pre-sowing treatments. Magnetic field treatment effect was slightly higher than laser treatment except PRT, AMY and ascorbic acid contents. However, both treatments (laser and magnetic field) effects were significantly higher versus control (un-treated seeds). Results revealed that laser and magnetic field pre-sowing seed treatments have potential to enhance soybean biological moieties, chlorophyll contents and metabolically important enzymes (degrade stored food and scavenge reactive oxygen species). Future study should be focused on growth characteristics at later stages and yield attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of cold storage, heat, smoke and charcoal on breaking seed dormancy of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Ericaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, E; Márquez-Linares, M; Flores, J

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cold storage and fire-related cues on seed germination of Arctostaphylos pungens HBK (Mexican Manzanita), a common shrub in poorly managed pine-oak forests in Durango, Mexico. Because this shrub has a high density in previously burnt forests, we investigated the effect that high temperatures, smoke and charcoal might have on seed germination of this species. Seeds were collected fresh from the shrubs. The highest germination was 30% for seeds that had been cold stor...

  11. Mature forms of the major seed storage albumins in sunflower: A mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Bastian; Colgrave, Michelle L; Mylne, Joshua S; Rosengren, K Johan

    2016-09-16

    Seed storage albumins are abundant, water-soluble proteins that are degraded to provide critical nutrients for the germinating seedling. It has been established that the sunflower albumins encoded by SEED STORAGE ALBUMIN 2 (SESA2), SESA20 and SESA3 are the major components of the albumin-rich fraction of the common sunflower Helianthus annuus. To determine the structure of sunflowers most important albumins we performed a detailed chromatographic and mass spectrometric characterization to assess what post-translational processing they receive prior to deposition in the protein storage vacuole. We found that SESA2 and SESA20 each encode two albumins. The first of the two SESA2 albumins (SESA2-1) exists as a monomer of 116 or 117 residues, differing by a threonine at the C-terminus. The second of the two SESA2 albumins (SESA2-2) is a monomer of 128 residues. SESA20 encodes the albumin SESA20-2, which is a 127-residue monomer, whereas SESA20-1 was not abundant enough to be structurally described. SESA3, which has been partly characterized previously, was found in several forms with methylation of its asparagine residues. In contrast to other dicot albumins, which are generally matured into a heterodimer, all the dominant mature sunflower albumins SESA2, SESA20-2, SESA3 and its post-translationally modified analogue SESA3-a are monomeric. Sunflower plants have been bred to thrive in various climate zones making them favored crops to meet the growing worldwide demand by humans for protein. The abundance of seed storage proteins makes them an important source of protein for animal and human nutrition. This study explores the structures of the dominant sunflower napin-type seed storage albumins to understand what structures evolution has favored in the most abundant proteins in sunflower seed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of micronized pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.) as a substitute of soybean meal on tissue fatty acid composition and quality of broiler chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiczorowska, Bożena; Samolińska, Wioletta; Andrejko, Dariusz

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of micronized pea seeds introduced into feed mixes for broilers on the slaughter yield, blood lipid parameters, content of fatty acids in selected tissues, and meat quality. The studies involved 150 1-day-old Ross 308 chicks split into three groups (for 42 days). The feed rations differed in terms of the source of proteins: in the control group (C), it was post-extraction soybean meal (SBM) 100%; in group I, SBM 50% and micronized peas 50%; and in group II, micronized peas only, 100%. Irradiated pea seeds added to the feed ration for chicks reduced the fattening grade of carcasses (P seeds in feed mixes decreased the share of saturated fatty acids in the muscles and abdominal fat and had a positive effect on the n-6/n-3 ratio, hypocholesterolemic / hypercholesterolemic ratio, as well as the atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (P < 0.05). © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Radiation pre-treatment of seed imparts metabolic stability and quality protection during storage under accelerated aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumedha; Singh, Bhupinder; Singhal, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of seed is known to deteriorate due to unfavoured temperature and relative humidity during accelerated aging. Protecting the seed quality during storage is thus a priority challenge for the seed industry till the seeds end up with the end user. Gamma radiation treatment has been shown to improve source to sink transport of photosynthates during terminal heat stress in cereals. An experiment was conducted to measure seed irradiation induced biochemical changes in groundnut cultivar TG-37A stored under accelerated aging at 45±2 ℃ and 95-100 % humidity for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 days to aging. The gamma irradiation doses were control (0), 0.005, 0.025, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Seed samples were periodically evaluated for oil and fatty acid profile by the soxhlet extraction method and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy respectively. Here alike earlier studies variation in fatty acid profile of seed was used as an indicator of seed health under harsh storage conditions of accelerated aging. In the majority of plant species having oil rich seeds, the lipids that are at risk of auto-oxidation contain oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) fatty acid chain. Degree of unsaturation has a significant influence on degree of degradation. Decreased total lipid content in aged sunflower seeds have been reported. Auto-oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids was noticed, especially for linoleic acid in seed of oil crop after seven years of storage. Our results showed radiation treatment did not cause any significant change in oleic (C18:1), linoleic acids (C18:2) and linolenic (C18:3) acid content of seeds. This shows that gamma radiation essentially slows down the lipid peroxidation which essentially protects membrane permeability and reduces the rate of seed deterioration at high temperature and RH. Radiation treatment imparts metabolic stability in seeds during storage under accelerated aging conditions. (author)

  14. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  15. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  16. 不同环境条件下大豆籽粒蛋白质和油分含量与指数的遗传效应分析%Analysis of Genetic Effects on Contents and Indexed of Protein and Oil in Soybean Seeds in Different Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁海龙; 李文霞; 李文滨; 王继安

    2005-01-01

    Protein and oil are two of the important quantitative traits closely related to the nutrient quality in soybean(Glycine max [L. ] Merry). The content and yield of protein and oil have become one of the main goals in soybean breeding. For soybean breeding programs, understanding the inheritance is of importance. Genetic analyses of protein and oil content in soybean seed have been reported. Most of the studies showed that protein and oil content are quantitatively inherited. Genetic effects, heritability and correlation of protein and oil content in soybean seeds have been estimated.

  17. Development, Validation, and Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Quantitative Multiplexing Method To Assess Levels of Ten Endogenous Allergens in Soybean Seed and Its Application to Field Trials Spanning Three Growing Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan C; Oman, Trent J; Wang, Xiujuan; Shan, Guomin; Schafer, Barry; Herman, Rod A; Tobias, Rowel; Shippar, Jeff; Malayappan, Bhaskar; Sheng, Li; Xu, Austin; Bradshaw, Jason

    2017-07-12

    As part of the regulatory approval process in Europe, comparison of endogenous soybean allergen levels between genetically engineered (GE) and non-GE plants has been requested. A quantitative multiplex analytical method using tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to measure 10 potential soybean allergens from soybean seed. The analytical method was implemented at six laboratories to demonstrate the robustness of the method and further applied to three soybean field studies across multiple growing seasons (including 21 non-GE soybean varieties) to assess the natural variation of allergen levels. The results show environmental factors contribute more than genetic factors to the large variation in allergen abundance (2- to 50-fold between environmental replicates) as well as a large contribution of Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 to the total allergen profile, calling into question the scientific rational for measurement of endogenous allergen levels between GE and non-GE varieties in the safety assessment.

  18. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected in these accessions. In-gel protein expression patterns revealed three protein spots as upregulated and three other as downregulated. Using trypsin in-gel digestion, these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS which showed 45% amino acid homology of chickpea seed storage proteins with Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. Seed-storage Mycoflora of Peanut Cultivars Grown in Nigerian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwankiti, AO.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of peanut is increasingly becoming important both among growers and users of the crop in Nigerian savanna. The aim is to sell the produce and maximize benefits accruing from the crops during scarcity. Very often, these envisaged advantages fail due to unfavourable market forces, thus compelling them to sell at a loss or store them across seasons for periods ranging from one to two years. However, information on fungi associated with storage of such peanuts in Nigerian savanna and its attendant problems are yet to be investigated. Thus, the seed mycoflora and viability seven common peanut cultivars stored under conditions similar to traditional settings were investigated using different isolating techniques. The peanut cultivars were RMP 12, RMP 91, RRB, 48-115B, M554-76, 55-437 Ex-Dakar and a local cultivar. None of these cultivars possessed resistance to in vitro colonization by fungi. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer were consistently isolated from all the cultivars from almost all isolating techniques. Other fungi were Fusarium chlamydosporium, F. roseum, F. oxysporium, Penicillium spp., Curvularia spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and Sclerotium rolfsii. Relative percentages, however, varied with individual fungi and peanut cultivars. The test with seven different types of growth media gave the highest fungi recovery rate than the blotter paper technique. Seed viability was lower with peanut seeds stored for two years. Also, the relative percentage occurrence of individual fungi was significantly higher with seeds stored for two years. While we recommend the use of growth media for recovery and study of seed mycoflora, peanut seeds should not be stored for more than one year.

  20. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins from Chickpea Using 2D Electrophoresis Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Pramod Kumar; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Chaturvedi, Krishna; Sharma, Bechan; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was employed to map the seed storage protein network in landrace and cultivated chickpea accessions. Protein extracts were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) across a broad range 3.0–10.0 immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips. Comparative elucidation of differentially expressed proteins between two diverse geographically originated chickpea accessions was carried out using 2D-GE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 600 protein spots were detected ...

  1. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Ambiente, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  2. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  3. Effects of gamma radiation and storage on cooked pine seed (Araucaria angustifollia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Lucia A.C.S.; Modolo, Debora M.; Martinez, Patricia; Piero, Edson A. di; Bigide, Priscila; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The Araucaria angustifolia, is known as the Pinheiro-do-Parana Brazilian pine, Pine, Pine Tree Monkey, emerges as the main representative of the Rain Forest, also known as Araucaria Forest, part of the Atlantic Forest biome (Decree Law 750/1993). Despite being appreciated nutritious food, the gear has been widely used in Brazilian cook as other seeds, and its consumption in the more usual way roasted or boiled, however, certain foods have been developed, such as flour, pine seeds, artisan produced only due to poor commercial expression. Because of this, the aim of this work was to study the effect of storage under vacuum and gamma radiation on samples cooked pinion. Pine seeds after cooking were stored in vacuum packaging and polypropylene irradiated with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 kGy. Later they were stored at a temperature of 6 degree C. Analyzes were performed to characterize physical (weight, temperature, percentage of losses) and proximate composition (Humidity, fat, protein, ash and weight loss) of A. angustifolia (Bert.) pine seed after three months of storage. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between treatments at protein parameter. About the other parameters there was an increase humidity and decrease with ash and fat with the treatments. (author)

  4. The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    Presently, chemical seed treatments are in discussion due to their directly or indirectly impacts on human health or other living organisms. They may also negatively affect the ecosystem and the food chain. In rice seeds, chemicals may cause phytotoxic effects including seed degradation. Eugenol is the main component of clove (Eugenia caryophillis) oil, which was proved to act simultaneously as bactericide, virocide and especially fungicide. The in vitro study was aimed to compare the inhibitory effect of the following seed treatment substances against seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during 12 months of storage; conventional captan (CA), chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL), eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) and control (CO). The obtained results of fungi inhibition were classified in three groups, which showed at first that CA treatment led to a better, i.e., longer, inhibitory effect on Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger than E+CL. Secondly, E+CL coating polymer showed the longest inhibitory effect against Bipolaris oryzae and Nigrospora oryzae compared to CA and CL coating polymer. Finally, both CA and E+CL coating polymer had non-significant difference inhibitory effect on Fusarium moniliforme. The variant of CL coating polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage.

  5. Gut-bone axis response to dietary replacement of soybean meal with raw low-tannin faba bean seeds in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Klebaniuk, Renata; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Tomczyk-Warunek, Agnieszka; Szymańczyk, Sylwia; Kowalik, Sylwester; Milczarek, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Muszyński, Siemowit

    2018-01-01

    It seems that faba bean (FB) seeds could be a good protein-energy component in animal feed, but the presence of anti-nutritional substances limits their use as a substitute of soybean meal. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of different concentrations of raw, low-tannin, FB seeds on the gut-bone axis in Ross 308 broilers. One-day old chickens were randomly subjected to one of the 3 dietary treatments: the control group was fed standard diet based on soybean meal and without FB seeds, and two groups were fed 8%/15% and 16%/22% of raw low-tannin FB seeds in the starter and grower, respectively. On the 35th day, hematological and serum biochemical analyses as well histomorphometry of the small intestine and liver tissue and bone mechanical tests were performed. The diet type had no effect on the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. However, the basal intestinal structures were significantly reduced in birds fed the lower concentration of FB. The enlargement of nerve plexuses was dependent on the concentration used in the diet and, additionally, on the kind of plexus and location in the intestinal tract. The liver was characterized by an increase in non-hepatocytes. There was no influence of the low-tannin FB seeds on most of the analyzed serum parameters in the 35-day-old broiler chickens, except the decreased concentration of total cholesterol and Ca in both experimental groups, triglycerides in group I, and P and uric acid in group II. Furthermore, the increasing concentration of the dietary low-tannin FB did not influence the activities of AspAT (except the group fed the higher amount of FB), ALAT, and LDH. The broiler chickens had no visible leg lesions and no problem in the locomotor function, but the tibiae were lighter mainly in birds fed the higher concentration of FB seeds. Geometric analysis revealed reduction of the cross section area and wall thickness, indicating a decline in the bone midshaft, which influenced the densitometric

  6. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-04-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Jianyexianfeng No. 1') seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (Pseeds than in ungerminated 25°C seeds. Gene expression of 12 of those proteins correlated well with the protein accumulation. Methionine metabolism, ethylene production, lipid mobilization, cell elongation, and detoxification of aldehydes were revealed to be potentially related to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labbé, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

    2014-06-01

    To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11 kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and β-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6 mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9 % in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean.

  8. Role of relative humidity in processing and storage of seeds and assessment of variability in storage behaviour in Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, A; Sreenivasan, Kalyani; Singh, A K; Radhamani, J

    2013-01-01

    The role of relative humidity (RH) while processing and storing seeds of Brassica spp. and Eruca sativa was investigated by creating different levels of relative humidity, namely, 75%, 50%, 32%, and 11% using different saturated salt solutions and 1% RH using concentrated sulphuric acid. The variability in seed storage behaviour of different species of Brassica was also evaluated. The samples were stored at 40 ± 2°C in sealed containers and various physiological parameters were assessed at different intervals up to three months. The seed viability and seedling vigour parameters were considerably reduced in all accessions at high relative humidity irrespective of the species. Storage at intermediate relative humidities caused minimal decline in viability. All the accessions performed better at relative humidity level of 32% maintaining seed moisture content of 3%. On analyzing the variability in storage behaviour, B. rapa and B. juncea were better performers than B. napus and Eruca sativa.

  9. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  10. Influences of Harvest Date on Yield, Quality and Resistance to Seed Deterioration of Spring Soybean in South%收获期对南方春大豆产量、品质及抗劣变性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小红; 谢运河; 郑贵辰; 阳小凤; 王业建

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the influences of harvest date on the yield, quality and resistance to seed deterioration were studied u-sing four cultivated spring soybean varieties of Hunan province. Results showed we could get the highest 100 - grain seed weight and seed weight per plant at full - ripe stage. If the soybean was harvested too early, the protein content and protein — fat total content in the seed were low. If the soybean was harvested too late, the fat content in the seed was low. Higher germination potential and germination rate of seeds could be harvested at ripening to full - ripe stage. It was also showed that the resistance to seed deterioration of spring soybean was high when the soybean was harvested more early in its harvest period.%通过田间试验,研究了收获期对湖南省主栽的4个春大豆品种产量、品质及抗劣变性的影响.结果表明:在完熟期收获的大豆百粒重和单株粒重均最高;过早收获时种子蛋白质含量、蛋脂总含量低,过迟收获时则脂肪含量低;在成熟期至完熟期收获能获得具有较高发芽势和发芽率的种子;收获期适当提前有利于增强大豆种子的抗劣变性.

  11. Optimization of Cultivation and Storage Conditions on Red Cabbage Seed Sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, K.H.; Jo, D.J.; Park, J.H.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, G.R.; Lee, G.D.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, Y.R.; Han, B.S.; Yoon, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to find the optimal conditions for red cabbage seed sprouts in terms of their physicochemical and sensory qualities by electron-beam irradiation, cultivation and storage using the response surface methodology (RSM). Moisture content (R2 = 0.9638) was affected by irradiation dose and cultivation time. Total phenolics content (R2 = 0.9117) was mainly affected by irradiation dose, but carotenoid content (R2 = 0.8338) was affected in the order of irradiation dose, cultivation time and storage time. Sensory properties were also affected by irradiation dose, and thus scores decreased as irradiation dose increased. The optimum conditions estimated by superimposing total phenolics content and overall acceptance were 2.2-3.8 kGy of the irradiation dose, 3.0-4.0 days of cultivation and 2.0-3.0 days of storage

  12. Development and Evaluation of Low Phytic Acid Soybean by siRNA Triggered Seed Specific Silencing of Inositol Polyphosphate 6-/3-/5-Kinase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansi Punjabi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is one of the leading oilseed crop in the world and is showing a remarkable surge in its utilization in formulating animal feeds and supplements. Its dietary consumption, however, is incongruent with its existing industrial demand due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors in sufficiently large amounts. Phytic acid in particular raises concern as it causes a concomitant loss of indigestible complexed minerals and charged proteins in the waste and results in reduced mineral bioavailability in both livestock and humans. Reducing the seed phytate level thus seems indispensable to overcome the nutritional menace associated with soy grain consumption. In order to conceive our objective we designed and expressed a inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-/5-kinase gene-specific RNAi construct in the seeds of Pusa-16 soybean cultivar. We subsequently conducted a genotypic, phenotypic and biochemical analysis of the developed putative transgenic populations and found very low phytic acid levels, moderate accumulation of inorganic phosphate and elevated mineral content in some lines. These low phytic acid lines did not show any reduction in seedling emergence and displayed an overall good agronomic performance.

  13. Soybean adaptation in Chernobyl area (what happen to soybean if something happen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajduch, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with transfer of cesium-137 and strontium-90 by the soybeans into the seeds and analysis of production of proteins on the contaminated sites of Chernobyl and Fukushima areas. The results indicate that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Lettuce Seed Germination and Thermoinhibition by Sampling of Individual Seeds at Germination and Removal of Storage Proteins by Polyethylene Glycol Fractionation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yue; Liu, Shu-Jun; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, germinated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated seeds at 25°C, a thermoinhibitory temperature. Before two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis, storage proteins (greater than 50% of total extractable protein) were removed by polyethylene glycol precipitation, which significantly improved the detection of less abundant proteins on two-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased the sensitivity of germination to abscisic acid. MVA pathway-derived products, cytokinins, partially reversed the lovastatin inhibition of germination and released seed thermoinhibition at 25°C. We conclude that the MVA pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis is involved in lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. PMID:25736209

  15. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndihokubwayo, Noel; Nguyen, Viet-Thang; Cheng, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north-eastern and south-western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  16. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Ndihokubwayo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae, a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C, seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C and seasons (in summer or autumn were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6% was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C, and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations.

  17. Essential oil and their microconstituents of cumin and coriander seeds during storage under the effect of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabash, M.T.M.; Abdullah, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Both cumin and coriander seeds were treated with gamma irradiation (10 KGy). The volatile oil and micro constituents were identified over seven months of storage. No marked changes were noticed regarding the volatile oil content and oil components between irradiated and non-irradiated of the two spices during the storage period at egyptian ambient temperature

  18. GIBBERELLINS, FUNGICIDES AND STORAGE EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF Genipa americana L. (RUBIACEAE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of different doses of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg.L-1, of fungicides of the groups chemical benzimidazol (0, 25, 50 and 100 g.L-1 and ditiocarbamato (0, 1,25, 2,50 and 5,00 g.L-1 on seed germination. Viability of those seeds was evaluated through germination tests at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse. The experimental design was fully randomized one, with five replicates per treatment. The traits evaluated were emergence and index of emergence speed. The treatment with GA3 didn't provide significant so much differences among the germination rates as well as for the emergence speed. It was verified that the use of the fungicides in smaller concentrations (25 g.L-1 of benzimidazol and 1,25 g.L-1 of ditiocarbamato promoted a better germination speed. The seeds of G. americana possess viability period relatively short, with germination absence 60 days period of storage, and it could be associated to the humidity tenors presented by the seeds in this period.

  19. Manipulation of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference-mediated silencing of β-amyrin synthase gene expression in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kyoko; Nishizawa, Keito; Hirose, Aya; Kita, Akiko; Ishimoto, Masao

    2011-10-01

    Soybean seeds contain substantial amount of diverse triterpenoid saponins that influence the seed quality, although little is known about the physiologic functions of saponins in plants. We now describe the modification of saponin biosynthesis by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing targeted to β-amyrin synthase, a key enzyme in the synthesis of a common aglycon of soybean saponins. We identified two putative β-amyrin synthase genes in soybean that manifested distinct expression patterns with regard to developmental stage and tissue specificity. Given that one of these genes, GmBAS1, was expressed at a much higher level than the other (GmBAS2) in various tissues including the developing seeds, we constructed two RNAi vectors that encode self-complementary hairpin RNAs corresponding to the distinct regions of GmBAS1 under the control of a seed-specific promoter derived from the soybean gene for the α' subunit of the seed storage protein β-conglycinin. These vectors were introduced independently into soybean. Six independent transgenic lines exhibited a stable reduction in seed saponin content, with the extent of saponin deficiency correlating with the β-amyrin synthase mRNA depletion. Although some transgenic lines produced seeds almost devoid of saponins, no abnormality in their growth was apparent and the antioxidant activity of their seeds was similar to that of control seeds. These results suggest that saponins are not required for seed development and survival, and that soybean seeds may therefore be amenable to the modification of triterpenoid saponin content and composition through molecular biologic approaches.

  20. Effects of storage conditions of Moringa oleifera seeds on its performance in coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayon, S; Noor, M J Megat Mohd; Asma, M; Ghani, L A Abdul; Thamer, A M; Azni, I; Ahmad, J; Khor, B C; Suleyman, A M

    2006-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose seeds have coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. In this study the coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in different storage conditions were studied. The Moringa oleifera seeds were stored at different conditions and durations; open container and closed container at room temperature (28 degrees C) and refrigerator (3 degrees C) for durations of 1, 3 and 5 months. Comparison between turbidity removal efficiency of Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature revealed that there was no significant difference between them. The Moringa oleifera kept in refrigerator and room temperature for one month showed higher turbidity removal efficiency, compared to those kept for 3 and 5 months, at both containers. The coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found to be dependent on initial turbidity of water samples. Highest turbidity removals were obtained for water with very high initial turbidity. In summary coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera was found independent of storage temperature and container, however coagulation efficiency of Moringa oleifera decreased as storage duration increased. In addition, Moringa oleifera can be used as a potential coagulant especially for very high turbidity water.

  1. 基于高光谱图像处理的大豆品种识别%Identification of soybean seed varieties based on hyperspectral image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭克竹; 柴玉华; 宋伟先; 曹晓达

    2014-01-01

    Different soybean seed varieties have different components (oil, protein, fat etc.) content. Identification of soybean seed varieties is a critical factor that improves the quality of produced soybean. In this study, hyperspectral image technique was applied in order to classify soybean seeds based on their varieties. The spectral reflectance data was collected using the optical sensor system with spectral region of 1000-2500nm. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce the dimensionality of the data and remove the redundancy. Scores of four PCs were used as input features in the classification algorithm. Four texture feature parameters (angular second moment, energy, entropy and correlation) were extracted from each feature image selected by PCA. For the extraction of specific features, four significant feature parameters were computed from the 16 characteristic variables. Artificial neural network (ANN) classifier was employed for classification using top selected features. The obtained average training accuracy rate was 97.50%and the average testing accuracy rate was 93.88%. Thus, the results confirmed that hyperspectral image technique in-conjunction with BP neural network could be useful for soybean seed varieties classification.%大豆组分(油,蛋白质,脂肪等)在不同的大豆品种间差异很大。对于提高大豆品质来说,大豆品种识别是一个关键因素。该文利用高光谱图像技术对不同的大豆品种进行识别。利用高光谱成像系统获取大豆样本1000~2500 nm范围的光谱反射数据;应用主成分分析法(PCA,principal component analysis)对获取到的光谱数据进行数据降维并去除冗余数据;在分类算法中将得分高的主成分值作为输入特征,通过PCA方法从每个特征图像中提取4个特征变量(能量、熵、惯性矩和相关性);对于具体特征提取,从16个特征变量中提取8个重要特征参数;根据选择的

  2. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  3. 我国大豆精量播种机械发展现状及趋势%Development Status and Trends of Soybean Precision Seeding Machinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓刚; 刘伟; 余永昌

    2012-01-01

      大豆播种机械作为大豆机械化生产中的主要工具,其性能的优劣直接影响到播种质量及大豆产量。介绍了我国东北地区、黄淮海区域和南方区域大豆精密播种技术的应用现状,阐述了大豆精量排种器以及免耕防堵技术的理论研究现状,指出我国大豆精密播种技术需要解决的关键问题,从而为我国大豆精量播种机械的发展方向提供参考。%  As the main tool of soybean mechanization production, the quality performance of the soybean planting machinery, directly influences the sowing quality and soybean yield. This article reviewed the present situation of soybean precision seeding technology application in Northeastern, Huang-huai-hai and the Southern regions, and elaborated the theoretical status on soybean precise metering device and no-tillage block-up defense technology in China. Key problems in soybean precision planting technology were pointed out, which provided a reference for the development of soybean precision sowing machinery in China.

  4. Effects of Storage and Exogenous Ga3 on Lychee Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Orika Ono

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of storage time and exogenous gibberellic acid on lychee seeds germination were studied. The seeds were removed from ripe fruits, washed, dried, stored at 8°C for 0, 15 and 30 days, and soaked during 24 hours in water and GA3 at 50, 100 and 200 mg.L-1 solutions. As the storage period increased, the germination capacity was lost, and the seeds had a short germinability after 30-day storage period. Gibberellic acid had not significant effect on enhancing both the germination percentage and rate.O trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo de armazenamento e de tratamentos com ácido giberélico, no processo germinativo de sementes de lichieira (Litchi chinensis Sonn.. As sementes foram retiradas de frutos maduros, lavadas, secas à sombra e colocadas para germinar imediatamente ou então, armazenadas em geladeira (8°C por 15 e 30 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam à imersão das sementes por 24 horas nas seguintes soluções com aeração: água, GA3 a 50, 100 e 200 mg.L-1. Através dos resultados obtidos, observou-se que as sementes perderam o poder germinativo, à medida que aumentou-se o tempo de armazenamento, sendo a porcentagem de germinação muito baixa (7% aos 30 dias de armazenamento. O tempo médio de germinação foi menor após 15 dias de armazenamento.

  5. Fertilization types and times of evaluation in health and viability of seeds of vegetable soybeans=Tipos de adubação e épocas de avaliação na sanidade e viabilidade de sementes de soja-hortaliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Espíndola Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of vegetable soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill, the same species as the common soybean, have some special characteristics, such as: flavor, texture differentiated for use as vegetable, being consumed when the seeds are still immature at the R6 stage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five types of fertilization and evaluation times in the health and viability of seeds of vegetable soybeans cultivar BRS 258, and lineage BR 9452273. The experimental design was a randomized block, 5 x 2 factorial design with four replications. The factors consisted of five types of fertilizer and two evaluation periods (after harvest and the twelve months of storage. For treatments with twelve months of storage, the seeds of vegetable soybeans of both genotypes were stored in polyethylene bottles terephthalate (Pet. Seeds were subjected to stringent health and germination tests. The average reduction in seed quality during storage was 4% for BRS 258 and 23% for BR 9452273. The reduction in seed quality of the two genotypes was not affected by the fertilization method used, nor by pathogens and bacteria saprophytes, but by the storage in polyethylene terephthalate bottles for 12 months=As sementes de soja-hortaliça, mesma espécie da soja comum, possuem características especiais, tais como: sabor, textura diferenciada para utilização na alimentação humana como hortaliça, quando as sementes estão imaturas, no estádio R6. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de cinco tipos de adubação e duas épocas de avaliação na sanidade e a viabilidade de sementes de soja-hortaliça, cultivar BRS 258 e linhagem BR 9452273. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores consistiram de cinco tipos de adubação e duas épocas de avaliação (após a colheita e aos doze meses de armazenamento. Para os tratamentos com doze meses de armazenamento, as

  6. 大豆籽粒蛋白质含量相关QTL定位研究进展%Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Seed Protein Content in Soybean: Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐波; 杨加银

    2017-01-01

    籽粒蛋白质含量是大豆品质性状改良的主要目标之一.笔者介绍了大豆遗传图谱的构建与基因组测序发展历程,从基于分离群体的连锁分析和基于自然群体的关联分析两方面阐述了大豆籽粒蛋白质含量QTL定位研究进展,进而讨论了大豆蛋白质含量MAS育种存在的问题,最后展望了大豆蛋白质含量分子遗传改良的研究趋势.以期为大豆高蛋白育种提供参考.%Seed protein content is one of the main objectives of soybean quality improvement.In this paper,the authors summarized the development of soybean genetic map construction and genome sequencing,and clarified the progress of QTL mapping of soybean seed protein content from linkage analysis based on the segregating population and association analysis based on the natural population.Furthermore,the authors discussed the existing problem of marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding for seed protein content in soybean.Finally,the future research trend of molecular genetic improvement of seed protein content in soybean was discussed.It is expected that this paper will provide a reference for the selection of new soybean varieties with high protein content.

  7. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  8. Evaluation of Clausena pentaphylla (Roxb.) DC oil as a fungitoxicant against storage mycoflora of pigeon pea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Palni, Uma T; Tripathi, Nijendra N

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of 30 essential oils against four dominant fungi Aspergillus flavus Link., A. niger van Tieghem, A. ochraceus Wilhelm and A. terreus Thom of stored pigeon pea seeds at a concentration of 0.36 µL mL(-1). Various fungitoxic properties, such as minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration and fungitoxic spectrum, of the most potent oil were determined. The efficacy of the most potent oil in preservation of pigeon pea seeds for 6 months was also carried out by storing 1 kg of seeds in the oil vapour. Clausena pentaphylla and Citrus limon oils were more effective against all the fungi tested, which exhibited 100% per cent mycelial inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration of C. pentaphylla oil was determined as 0.07 µL mL(-1) against all the test fungi and was found to be more toxic than Citrus limon oil. C. pentaphylla oil exhibited a broad range of fungitoxicity against 16 other storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. C. pentaphylla oil significantly protected 1 kg seeds of pigeon pea from fungal deterioration and was superior to synthetic fumigants. The oil did not show any phytotoxicity and the protein content of the seeds was significantly retained for up to 6 months of storage. Thus, C. pentaphylla oil may be used as an effective fumigant in the ecofriendly management of storage fungi of pigeon pea seeds. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides in cocoa seed (Theobroma cacao) storage using various local adsorbent media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiyani, S. A.; Sunawan; Pawestri, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    Cocoa seeds are recalcitrant (the water content is more than 40%) that require special handling. The use of adsorbent media to reduce the decrease in the quality of cocoa seeds and extend their shelf life in this storage has not been widely done. Local adsorbent media such as sawdust, sand and ash have the potential to maintain the viability of cocoa seeds. The objective of this research was to determine the interaction of the application of neem (Azadirachta indica) as biological pesticides and the use of various natural adsorbent media in the storage of cocoa seeds (Theobroma cacao). It was an experimental study with a factorial design composed of three factors. The first factor was the medium adsorbent type for the storage of cocoa seed, which consists of three levels (river sand, ash, and sawdust). The second factor was the concentration of neem leaves for pre-storage treatment with three levels (10, 20, and 30%). The third factor was the storage time (10 and 20 days). The results of the study indicated that the combination of the three factors showed a significant interaction in the height of the plant and the diameter of the stem of the seedling at 28 days after sowing. The fresh weight of the seedlings of the seeds that were stored in ash media gave a better result than the seedlings of seeds that had been stored in the river sand and the sawdust as adsorbent media. The application of 20% extract of neem leaves gave the best influence for the seeds that were stored for 20 days.

  10. Desempenho de sementes de soja peliculizadas em solo com diferentes teores de água Performance of film coated soybean seeds in soil with different water contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Emiliorelli Evangelista

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de polímeros hidrofóbicos, tem sido recomendado para tratamento de sementes de espécies que absorvem água rapidamente, causando danos por embebição, como é o caso da soja. Quando a semeadura é realizada em solos com baixa capacidade de infiltração, pode ocorrer redução significativa do estande caso a semeadura coincida com alto índice pluviométrico. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de sementes de soja peliculizadas em solos com diferentes teores de água. As sementes foram tratadas com o fungicida Tegram (thiabendazole + thiram na dosagem de 200 mL/100 kg de sementes associadas aos polímeros. Para peliculização das sementes foram utilizados os polímeros L201 e L204, os quais foram aplicados nas dosagens de 0 mL, 200 mL e 400 mL/100 kg de sementes. Após o tratamento as sementes foram semeadas em solos com 50, 70 e 90% da capacidade de campo para avaliações nos testes de emergência em bandeja e teste de frio. Foram feitas ainda avaliações por meio do teste de germinação, submersão, emergência em canteiro. Verificou-se que a peliculização promove um aumento no índice e no percentual de emergência quando em condições ideais, independente do polímero utilizado. Em condições de estresse a peliculização reduz o vigor das sementes.The use of polymers has been recommended for the treatment of seeds of those species that absorb water quickly, causing seed damage by imbibition, such as the soybean case. When the sowing is accomplished in soils with a low drainage capacity, a significant reduction in the seedling emergence may occur if sowing coincides with the high pluviometric index. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of film coated soybean seeds in soils with different water contents. Seeds were treated with the fungicide Tegram (thiabendazole + thiram at a dosage of 200mL/100kg of seeds associated to the polymers. For the film coating of the seeds the

  11. Exogenous auxin represses soybean seed germination through decreasing the gibberellin/abscisic acid (GA/ABA) ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Shuai, Haiwei; Meng, Yongjie; Luo, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Wenguan; Dai, Yujia; Qi, Ying; Du, Junbo; Yang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Yang, Wenyu; Shu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Auxin is an important phytohormone which mediates diverse development processes in plants. Published research has demonstrated that auxin induces seed dormancy. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of auxin on seed germination need further investigation, especially the relationship between auxins and both abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs), the latter two phytohormones being the key regulators of seed germination. Here we report that exogenous auxin treatment represse...

  12. Effects of storage and soaking on wheat seeds exposed to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, N.O.

    1975-07-01

    Wheat seeds, variety Starke II, of water content 11,5 per cent of dry weight, irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays over a wide range of absorbed doses were sowed in wet sand. When analysed after eight days, seedling growth was found to have decreased with increasing dose, very rapidly within the first 40 krad and more slowly thereafter until that dose, 500 krad, which made the shoot and the root fail to develop. Storage over three weeks was found to produce greater reduction in the seelding growth at doses below 40 krad, and lowering of the dose at which the seedling failed to develop from about 500 krad to 300 krad. Soaking the irradiated seeds immediately after irradiation for one hour before planting was found to improve the seedling growth in the low dose region compared to when seeds were immediately sowed. It is suggested that the water absorbed during soaking permits the free radicals to recombine and DNA-damage to be repaired. It is thought that radiation seriously affects cellular multiplication and the production of growth promoting homones of the embryo. On the other hand elongation of surviving, presumably non-mitotic cells, is apparently taking place even at high doses, in fact up to 500 krad. (author)

  13. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  14. Control of quality and silo storage of sunflower seeds using near infrared technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Martin, I.; Vilaescusa-Garcia, V.; Lopez-Gonzalez, F.; Oiz-Jimenez, C.; Lobos-Ortega, I. A.; Gordillo, B.; Hernandez-Hierro, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This work assesses the application of near infrared spectroscopy technology for the quality control of sunflower seeds direct from farmers and from a storage silo. The results show that the analytical method employing near infrared spectroscopy can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the determination of moisture, fat and high/low oleic acid contents in samples of sunflower seeds. The ranges obtained were comparable to those reported for classic chemical methods, and were between 4.6-21.4% for moisture; 38.4-49.6% for fat, and 60.0-93.1% for oleic acid expressed as percentage of total fatty acids. A stepwise discriminant analysis was performed to determine the most useful wavelengths for classifying sunflower seeds in terms of their (high/low) oleic acid composition. The discriminant model allows the acid contents, with a prediction rate of 90.5% for internal validation and of 89.4% for cross-validation. (Author) 23 refs.

  15. Effects of Ultrasonic Treatment on Germination of Soybean Seeds%超声波处理对黄豆种子萌发过程的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萌萌; 崔向军; 汪斌; 刘旭辉

    2013-01-01

    The soybean seeds were retreated with ultrasonic,and then their germination rate was determined,meanwhile,the changes in contents of soluble sugar,total flavonoids,vitamin C and protein and in activities of amylase and protease during germination process were compared.The results showed that ultrasonic treatment in a certain time can promote germination rate,germination index,vitality index and hypocotyl length and was beneficial for quality of soybean sprout.Among all of the ultrasonic treatments,the treatment with 25 minutes had the best results.%采用超声波对黄豆种子进行预处理,测定其萌发率,比较了萌发过程中可溶性糖、总黄酮、VC、蛋白质的含量,以及淀粉酶和蛋白酶活力的变化.结果表明:一定时间的超声波处理对黄豆萌发率、发芽指数、活力指数、胚轴长度均有促进作用,对萌发后黄豆芽的品质具有增益效应,其中以超声波处理25 min效果最理想.

  16. Bound residues of 14C-carbofuran and 14C-malathion in stored soybean seeds and their toxicological effects on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdy, F.; Taha, H.

    2005-01-01

    Soybeans treated with 1 4C -carbofuran or 1 4C -malathion at a dose of 30 mg/kg and stored for 30 weeks showed that the organophosphorus insecticide malathion had a higher binding tendency to soybean seeds than the carbamate insecticide carbofuran. The amount of malathion bound 1 4C -residues were almost three times higher (as percentage of applied dose) than carbofuran bound residues. Sub-chronic feeding experiments on mice for 90 days with a diet containing the bound 1 4C -residues at a dose of 0.91 and 2.39 ppm/day/mouse for carbofuran and malathion, respectively, caused non-significant symptoms of toxicity during the period of the experiment. A slight inhibition in plasma and erythrocyte choline esterase activities was observed during the second and third months in both treated mice fed on carbofuran or malathion. Liver enzymes, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, triglycerides and kidney functions showed non-significant differences from control values in case of mice fed on 1 4C -bound carbofuran residues. However, these mentioned blood parameters showed only slight increase, as compared with controls, in treated mice fed on 1 4C -bound malathion residues

  17. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( Pcontent of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  18. combining high seed number and weight to improve seed yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ABSTRACT. Increasing seed size and seed weight is an important trait for trade, yield component and adaptation of chickpea ... determining yield or quality, and the development of rapid and ..... C.G. 1981. Control of seed growth in soybeans.

  19. Effectivity of Sugar-Apple (Annona squamosa) Seed Extract with a Different Length of Storage against Culec quinquefasciatus Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Heni Prasetyowati; Wisnu Satria

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic insecticide have been used to control Culex quinquefasciatus, but the prolonged usage of synthetic insecticide has a bad impact on the environment and may caused resistance. Sugar apple’s (Annona squamosa) seeds which contain alkaloid can be used as an alternative insecticide that was safe for environment. This research aims is to know the effect of sugar apple’s seeds with different length of storage as C. quinquefasciatus larvacide. This research was an experimental study with a r...

  20. Development of a Threshold Model to Predict Germination of Populus tomentosa Seeds after Harvest and Storage under Ambient Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Song, Song-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Effects of temperature, storage time and their combination on germination of aspen (Populus tomentosa) seeds were investigated. Aspen seeds were germinated at 5 to 30°C at 5°C intervals after storage for a period of time under 28°C and 75% relative humidity. The effect of temperature on aspen seed germination could not be effectively described by the thermal time (TT) model, which underestimated the germination rate at 5°C and poorly predicted the time courses of germination at 10, 20, 25 and 30°C. A modified TT model (MTT) which assumed a two-phased linear relationship between germination rate and temperature was more accurate in predicting the germination rate and percentage and had a higher likelihood of being correct than the TT model. The maximum lifetime threshold (MLT) model accurately described the effect of storage time on seed germination across all the germination temperatures. An aging thermal time (ATT) model combining both the TT and MLT models was developed to describe the effect of both temperature and storage time on seed germination. When the ATT model was applied to germination data across all the temperatures and storage times, it produced a relatively poor fit. Adjusting the ATT model to separately fit germination data at low and high temperatures in the suboptimal range increased the models accuracy for predicting seed germination. Both the MLT and ATT models indicate that germination of aspen seeds have distinct physiological responses to temperature within a suboptimal range. PMID:23658654

  1. Identification of QTLs for seed germination capability after various storage periods using two RIL populations in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhu; Lee, Joohyun; Jin, Yong-Mei; Qiao, Yongli; Piao, Rihua; Jang, Sun Mi; Woo, Mi-Ok; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Liu, Xianhu; Pan, Hong-Yu; Du, Xinglin; Koh, Hee-Jong

    2011-04-01

    Seed germination capability of rice is one of the important traits in the production and storage of seeds. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seed germination capability in various storage periods was identified using two sets of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) which derived from crosses between Milyang 23 and Tong 88-7 (MT-RILs) and between Dasanbyeo and TR22183 (DT-RILs). A total of five and three main additive effects (QTLs) associated with seed germination capability were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. Among them, six QTLs were identified repeatedly in various seed storage periods designated as qMT-SGC5.1, qMT-SGC7.2, and qMT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 5, 7, and 9 in MT-RILs, and qDT-SGC2.1, qDT-SGC3.1, and qDT-SGC9.1 on chromosomes 2, 3, and 9 in DT-RILs, respectively. The QTL on chromosome 9 was identified in both RIL populations under all three storage periods, explaining up to 40% of the phenotypic variation. Eight and eighteen pairs additive × additive epistatic effect (epistatic QTL) were identified in MT-RILs and DT-RILs, respectively. In addition, several near isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm six repeatable QTL effects using controlled deterioration test (CDT). The identified QTLs will be further studied to elucidate the mechanisms controlling seed germination capability, which have important implications for long-term seed storage.

  2. Envelhecimento acelerado como teste de vigor para sementes de milho e soja Accelerated aging as test of vigor for corn and soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alek Sandro Dutra

    2004-06-01

    control program and the accelerated aging test an important procedure for that. This work was carried out in order to search for specific methodologies of evaluation of seed vigor, in laboratory, based on the accelerated aging test. The research was conducted using six seed lots of corn and soybean species, with commercially accepted quality patterns (germination. The prior established conditions for aging were 42ºC/96h and 45ºC/72h for corn and 41ºC/48 and 72h and 42ºC/48 and 72h for soybean. For each combination of temperature and aging periods, the seeds were placed into plastic boxes (gerbox, with 40mL of distilled water, distributed on the screen, using single layer and based on the seed weight. For the aging, two chamber types, BOD and water jacketed were used. The moisture content and germination of seed lots, after aging, were determined. The water uptake considering the combinations of temperature/exposure period, the two chamber types and the two procedures of determining seed moisture content was higher when the seeds were conditioned in a single layer compared to weight (constant mass. For the corn, the combination of 45ºC/72h with the conditioning of the seeds in only layer was the most efficient method for the separation of the lots with relationship to the vigor. For soybean, the combination 42ºC/48h was more efficient in the separation of the lots, not having interference of the method of conditioning of the seeds, in the screen. Considering the results it can be concluded that the single layer distribution should be used for corn and soybean and the BOD chambers should also be used for accelerated aging test for both species.

  3. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  4. Effect of pre-plant treatments of yam (Dioscorea rotundata setts on the production of healthy seed yam, seed yam storage and consecutive ware tuber production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Olufunmilayo Claudius-Cole

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous pests and diseases of yams are perpetuated from season to season through the use of infected seed material. Developing a system for generating healthy seed material would disrupt this disease cycle and reduce losses in field and storage. The use of various pre-plant treatments was evaluated in field experiments carried out at three sites in Nigeria. Yam tubers of four preferred local cultivars were cut into 100 g setts and treated with pesticide (fungicide + insecticide mixture, neem extract (1 : 5 w/v, hot water (20 min at 53 °C or wood ash (farmers practice and compared with untreated setts. Pesticide treated setts sprouted better than all other treatments and generally led to lower pest and disease damage of yam tubers. Pesticide treatment increased tuber yields over most treatments, depending on cultivar, but effectively doubled the production as compared to the control. Pesticide and hot water treated setts produced the healthiest seed yams, which had lower storage losses than tubers from other treatments. These pre-treated seed yams produced higher yields corresponding to 700 % potential gain compared to the farmers usual practice. Treatments had no obvious influence on virus incidence, although virus-symptomatic plants yielded significantly less than nonsymptomatic plants. This study demonstrated that pre-plant treatment of setts with pesticide is a simple and effective method that guarantees more, heavier and healthier seed yam tubers.

  5. The Effects of Seed Inoculation with Rhizobium and Nitrogen Application on Yield and some Agronomi Characterstics of Soybean (Glycine max L. under Ardabil Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N Seiedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of seed inoculation with rhizobium and nitrogen application on yield and some agronomic characterstics of soybean (Glycine max L., a spilt plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2011 at the research farm of the Islamic Azad University, Ardabil Branch. Factors were inorganic nitrogen fertilizer urea at four levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg urea/ha in the main plot and two levels of inoculation with Rhizobium japanicum bacteria (with and without inoculation assigned to the sub plots. Study the growth indices showed that the maximum total dry matter (435.4 gr/m2 , crop growth rate (6.75 gr/m2.day and relative growth rate (0.1003 gr/gr.day were obtained from compound of treatments high levels of urea application × inoculation with rhizobium while, the minimum values of these indices recorded in without nitrogen application×non inoculation with rhizobium. The highest plant height, number of pod per plant and grain yield were obtained from the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer (90 kg/ha urea and seed inoculation with rhizobium. Number and dry weight of nodules per plant increased significantly with increasing nitrogen application till 60 kg/ha in seed inoculation with rhizobium. The lowest values of these traits recorded in non application of urea×non inoculation with rhizobium. Inoculation with rhizobium bacteria increased the number and dry weight of nodules per plant. Thus, it can be suggested that in order to increasing of grain yield, seed can be inoculated with rhizobium bacteria × application of 60 kg urea/ha in conditions of Ardabil region.

  6. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  7. Storage on maternal plants affects light and temperature on requirements during germination in two small seeded halophytes in the arabian deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Gairola, S.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds are either stored in a soil seed bank or retained on maternal plants until they are released (aerial seed bank). Though there are extensive studies on the germination requirements of seeds in soil banks of saline habitats, studies conducted for halophytes with aerial seed banks are rare. We assessed the impact of aerial and room-temperature storages on the light and temperature requirements during germination in two small-seeded halophytes: Halocnmum strobilaceum having a short-term aerial seed bank (less than one year) and Halopeplis perfoliata having a longer term aerial seed bank (up to two years). Seed storage in the aerial bank reduced the germination in H. strobilaceum, but either increased it (5-months storage) or had no effect (17-months storage) in H. perfoliata. Seeds of both species that were stored in aerial bank germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, indicating that considerable portions of the seed populations are light sensitive. Seeds of H. perfoliata attained less than 5.0 percentage germination in darkness at higher temperatures, compared to more than 90.0 percentage in light. The results support the hypothesis that the aerial seed bank is an adaptive strategy for survival in the saline habitats of the two species. (author)

  8. Radition mutagenesis in lavender. Part 2. Effect of heat shock, moisture and post radiation storage on lavender seed radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, R.C. (Institute of the Rose, Essential Oil and Medicinal Plants, Kazanlyk (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    The influence of three factors which increase radiation tolerance of lavender seeds and reduce the biological injuries with lethal effect in case of gamma-irradiation (Cs/sup 137/) was investigated. Irradiation at -65 deg C increased radiation tolerance and led to increased doses and higher mutagenic effect. Seeds with lowered moisture had higher radiosensitivity in comparison to these having 4.5-5 times more water. Post-radiation storage at 20-22 deg C without loss of moisture increased radiation injuries, which grew along with the prolongation of the period from seed irradiation to germination.

  9. Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacterial co-inoculation on seed and seedling of soybean seeds produced under deficit water condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Hadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of free and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria on seed and seedling produced seeds under deficit irrigation was conducted in laboratory and field experiments in 2006. In laboratory of karaj’s Seed and Plant Research and Certificate Institute an experiment was conducted based on factorial in form of completely randomized design with four replications and in field’s of Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch were split factorial in form of randomized completely block design with three replications. Treatments included water stress [Irrigation after 50 (Normal irrigation, 100 (Middle stress, 150 (Severe stress mm evaporation from pan class A], Cultivar [Manokin & Williams and SRF×T3 Line] and inoculation [Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium japonicum co-inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum, No seed inoculation]. Results showed that drought stress decreased the uniformity and germination speed and seedling emergence. Bacteria increased leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, leaf area and seedling vigor index but had no effect on emergence. In irrigation levels inoculated treatments had higher seedling length, leaf, stem, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor. Severs stress seeds inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum had higher root dry weight than control. Therefore in seeds which were produced under deficit irrigation conditions, bacteria increased seedlings vigor.

  10. 菜用大豆籽粒发育过程中Vc及矿物质含量分析%Analysis on vitamin C and mineral content during seeds development process in vegetable soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈华涛; 陈新; 袁星星; 顾和平; 张红梅; 崔晓艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解菜用大豆籽粒发育过程中Vc及矿物质含量的变化规律,为优质菜用大豆的选育和生产提供理论依据.[方法]以熟期相近的9份菜用大豆品种为供试材料,在菜用大豆籽粒发育期分析籽粒Vc及钾、镁、钙、铁等矿物质元素的含量变化.[结果]随着菜用大豆籽粒的不断发育,其Vc含量呈先上升后下降的变化趋势,在花后50 d最高;钾元素含量呈一直下降的变化趋势,而钙元素含量呈逐渐上升的变化趋势;籽粒百粒鲜重、镁和铁元素平均含量呈现先上升后下降的变化趋势,其最高值出现在花后55 d.[结论]菜用大豆籽粒百粒鲜重、镁和铁、Vc含量的变化规律较相似,而钾和钙元素的含量变化规律有所不同.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to analyze the changes in vitamin C and mineral content during seeds development process in vegetable soybean to provide practical basis for high-quality vegetable soybean production. [Method]Nine vegetable soybean varieties with similar growth duration were used to analyze the contents of vitamin C (Vc), potassium (K) , magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in seeds during seed development. [Result]With the development of seeds in vegetable soybean, 100-seed weight, Vc, Mg and Fe contents increased and then showed a decreasing trend. Vc content was found the highest at 50 days after flowering, while 100-seed weight, Mg and Fe contents were the highest at 55 days. The K content showed a declining trend, while Ca content showed an increasing trend. [Conclusion]The weight of 100 seeds, and Vc, Mg and Fe contents showed similar trends of change during seed development process, while K and Ca behaved differently. The results may provide the help in breeding programs tailored to develop fine vegetable soybean varieties.

  11. INTERCROPPING OF BRAQUIARIA WITH SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Bulegon, Lucas Guilherme; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Rossol, Charles Douglas; Berte, Luiz Neri; Rabello de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio; Neres, Marcela Abbado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the intercropping of Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu with soybeans. The experiment has been planted in a 3 year prevailing area with no-tillage, in eutrophic Oxisol at Maripa - PR. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. For the forage study, four treatments were performed which consisted of seeding times brachiaria [early ( seven days before planting soybeans) joint (same day of soybean planting) and after (at stages V-3 an...

  12. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AMONG SOYBEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Analysis, Resource use efficiency, Farmers, production function analysis, Benue, Nigeria. ... Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis, and this ..... Manual for training in Seed Technology.

  13. The Effect of Temperature and Water Potential on Seed Germination of Asian spiderflower (Cleome viscose L.: As Invasive Weed in Soybean Fields in Golestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shirdel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleome viscose Linn. with a common name as “Asian spiderflower”, belongs to the Capparidacea family. It is an annual, sticky herb found as a common weed all over the tropical regions of the world. It is a very competitive weed of annual crops. This plant is currently introduced as an invasive plant in soybean fields of Golestan province. There is no management recommendation to control Asian spider flower. Thus large quantities of soybean destroyed by this weed every year. Germination and emergence are the two most important stages in the life cycle of plants. Environmental factors such as temperature, light, pH, planting depth and soil moisture are known to affect seed germination and emergence of weeds. An understanding of the germination biology of Asian spider flower would facilitate the development of better management strategies for this weed. Therefore, the purposes of this research were to study the effects of temperature and water potential on Asian spider flower seed germination. Material and Methods: To evaluate the effect of temperature and water potential on seed germination and determination of seed germination cardinal temperatures of Asian spider flower, an experiment was conducted as Factorial Experiment in Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications in Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center of Golestan Province during 2013. Treatments were included temperatures with seven levels (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 38 and 400C and water potentials with six levels (0, -2, -4, -6, -8 and -10 bar. Germination was monitored daily until germination discontinued and the number of the germinated seeds was recorded. Seeds were observed twice daily and considered germinated when the radical was approximately >2mm long. To quantify the response of germination rate to temperature and to determine the cardinal temperatures for germination original beta, and modified beta, segmented and dent models were used. Water

  14. Interactions of protein content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins in relation to tofu gel properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew T; Yang, Aijun

    2016-03-01

    The content and globulin subunit composition of soybean proteins are known to affect tofu quality and food-grade soybeans usually have higher levels of proteins. We studied the tofu quality of soybeans with high (44.8%) or low (39.1%) protein content and with or without the 11S globulin polypeptide, 11SA4. Both protein content and 11SA4 significantly affected tofu gel properties. Soybeans containing more protein had smaller seeds which produced significantly firmer (0.663 vs.0.557 N, pseed size, tofu hardness and water holding capacity and led to significant changes to the profile of storage protein subunits, which may have contributed to the improvement in tofu gel properties. These results suggest that, in combination with higher protein content, certain protein subunits or their polypeptides can also be targeted in selecting soybeans to further improve soy food quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of Population Structure in Coriander Populations Based on SDS (Seed Storage Protein Page Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Yaldiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation is prerequisite for plant breeding. Nothing information existed in the literature for available diversity of Coriander accession in Turkey. Plant breeding activities are negligible in Turkey. So in order to start effective plant breeding program in Turkey, information on the available genetic diversity is viable. Therefore we planned to study the genetic variation and population structure of 29 Coriander accessions by seed storage protein (SDS. SDS analysis elaborated the lack of population structure and genetic bottleneck in the Coriander accessions in Turkey. Based on the results of this study, it was clear that sampling strategy was not appropriate and plant introduction should be made from different sources and diverse genotypes should be used as parents to initialize the effective Turkish Coriander breedin