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Sample records for soybean root nodules1cwoa

  1. Proteome analysis of soybean roots under waterlogging stress at an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    To gain better insight into how soybean roots respond to waterlogging stress, ... death- and signal transduction-related proteins suggest that they have a role to play during stress. ...... work cooperatively to establish a new homeostasis under.

  2. Drought stress responses in soybean roots and nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kunert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  3. Drought Stress Responses in Soybean Roots and Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Karl J; Vorster, Barend J; Fenta, Berhanu A; Kibido, Tsholofelo; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-01-01

    Drought is considered to be a major threat to soybean production worldwide and yet our current understanding of the effects of drought on soybean productively is largely based on studies on above-ground traits. Although the roots and root nodules are important sensors of drought, the responses of these crucial organs and their drought tolerance features remain poorly characterized. The symbiotic interaction between soybean and rhizobia facilitates atmospheric nitrogen fixation, a process that provides essential nitrogen to support plant growth and development. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is important for sustainable agriculture, as it sustains plant growth on nitrogen-poor soils and limits fertilizer use for crop nitrogen nutrition. Recent developments have been made in our understanding of the drought impact on soybean root architecture and nodule traits, as well as underpinning transcriptome, proteome and also emerging metabolome information, with a view to improve the selection of more drought-tolerant soybean cultivars and rhizobia in the future. We conclude that the direct screening of root and nodule traits in the field as well as identification of genes, proteins and also metabolites involved in such traits will be essential in order to gain a better understanding of the regulation of root architecture, bacteroid development and lifespan in relation to drought tolerance in soybean.

  4. Field Phenotyping of Soybean Roots for Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu A. Fenta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Root architecture was determined together with shoot parameters under well watered and drought conditions in the field in three soybean cultivars (A5409RG, Jackson and Prima 2000. Morphology parameters were used to classify the cultivars into different root phenotypes that could be important in conferring drought tolerance traits. A5409RG is a drought-sensitive cultivar with a shallow root phenotype and a root angle of <40°. In contrast, Jackson is a drought-escaping cultivar. It has a deep rooting phenotype with a root angle of >60°. Prima 2000 is an intermediate drought-tolerant cultivar with a root angle of 40°–60°. It has an intermediate root phenotype. Prima 2000 was the best performing cultivar under drought stress, having the greatest shoot biomass and grain yield under limited water availability. It had abundant root nodules even under drought conditions. A positive correlation was observed between nodule size, above-ground biomass and seed yield under well-watered and drought conditions. These findings demonstrate that root system phenotyping using markers that are easy-to-apply under field conditions can be used to determine genotypic differences in drought tolerance in soybean. The strong association between root and nodule parameters and whole plant productivity demonstrates the potential application of simple root phenotypic markers in screening for drought tolerance in soybean.

  5. Root growth in corn and soybeans: effects of cadmium and lead on lateral root initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, C P; Miller, R J; Koeppe, D E

    1978-02-01

    This study examines the previously reported inhibitory effects of Cd on root growth. In hydroponic experiments, 100 ..mu..g Cd/l effected a 33% inhibition of lateral root initiation of corn. The growth of corn and soybean primary roots was not reduced at Cd concentrations of 1 mg/l, and the number of lateral root initials in soybeans was not reduced at 2 mg Cd/l. The toxic effects of Cd were ameliorated by additions of Zn or by additions of Fe citrate to nutrient growth solutions. While both Zn and Fe additions did result in increased lateral root initiation, the number of initials was significantly lower than the controls. Lead had no effect on the initiation of soybean lateral roots at a concentration of 100 ..mu..g Pb/l. However, 5 mg Pb/l did effect a 21% decrease in corn lateral root initials, but this decrease could not be demonstrated with higher Pb concentrations.

  6. Analysis of gene expression profiles for cell wall modifying proteins and ACC synthases in soybean cyst nematode colonized roots, adventitious rooting hypocotyls, root tips, flooded roots, and IBA and ACC treatment roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that soybean cyst nematode (SCN) co-opts a part or all of one or more innate developmental process in soybean to establish its feeding structure, syncytium, in soybean roots. The syncytium in soybean roots is formed in a predominantly lateral direction within the vascular bundle by ...

  7. Pathogenicity and genetic diversity of Fusarium oxysporum causing soybean root rot in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important edible legume cultivated around the world. However, soybean production is seriously impacted by the widespread occurrence of root rot disease. In this study, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum associated with root rot of soybean in Heilongjiang province...

  8. Water movement near the soybean root by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Tsuruno, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) was applied to investigate the water movement in soil during the growth of the soybean plant, non-destructively. The plant was grown in a thin aluminum container and was set to the cassete where an X-ray film and a gadrinium converter were sealed in vacuum. Periodically, the sample was taken to the nuclear reactor, JRR-3, installed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Total neutron flux irradiated was 1.9 x 10 7 n/cm 2 . After irradiation the X-ray film was developed and the sample image was scanned to get the water image. The darkness of the image was corresponded well with the water amount and the resolution was found to be about 15 μm. Scanning of the image along with the horizontal line showed that much amount of water in the soil was decreased at the part adjacent to the root, compared to that of 1-2 mm far from the root. It was also shown that there is the unsymmetrical water uptake of the root at the same depth position. To know the water movement, especially around the secondary root, three dimensional water image was depicted. When the secondary root began to develop, the large water movement around the primary root was observed especially at the opposite side of the secondary root. (author)

  9. Improved Soybean Root Association of N-Starved Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    López-García, Silvina L.; Vázquez, Tirso E. E.; Favelukes, Gabriel; Lodeiro, Aníbal R.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the effects of N limitation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum for its association with soybean roots. The wild-type strain LP 3001 grew for six generations with a growth rate of 1.2 day−1 in a minimal medium with 28 mM mannitol as the carbon source and with the N source [(NH4)2SO4] limited to only 20 μM. Under these conditions, the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity was five to six times higher than in similar cultures grown with 1 or 0.1 mM (NH4)2SO4. The NtrBC-inducibl...

  10. Increased root production in soybeans grown under space flight conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Piastuch, W. C.

    The GENEX ({Gen}e {Ex}pression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87) was developed to investigate whether direct and/or indirect effects of microgravity are perceived as an external stimulus for soybean seedling response. Protocols were designed to optimize root and shoot formation, gas exchange and moisture uniformity. Six surface sterilized soybean seeds (Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to each pouch (thereby initiating the process of seed germination on-orbit), and subsequently transferred them to four passive, light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight material, (2) the corresponding ground control population, plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions. No significant growth differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is open to speculation. Funded under NASA Contract NAS10-12180.

  11. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and ACC synthase expression in soybean roots, root tips, and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)-infected roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark L; Xue, Ping; Yang, Ronghui

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of plant roots by root knot and cyst nematodes requires a functional ethylene response pathway. However, ethylene plays many roles in root development and whether its role in nematode colonization is direct or indirect, for example lateral root initiation or root hair growth, is not known. The temporal requirement for ethylene and localized synthesis of ethylene during the life span of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) on soybean roots was further investigated. Although a significant increase in ethylene evolution was not detected from SCN-colonized roots, the concentration of the immediate precursor to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), was higher in SCN-colonized root pieces and root tips than in other parts of the root. Moreover, expression analysis of 17 ACC synthase (ACS) genes indicated that a select set of ACS genes is expressed in SCN-colonized root pieces that is clearly different from the set of genes expressed in non-colonized roots or root tips. Semi-quantitative real-time PCR indicated that ACS transcript accumulation correlates with the high concentration of ACC in root tips. In addition, an ACS-like sequence was found in the public SCN nucleotide database. Acquisition of a full-length sequence for this mRNA (accession GQ389647) and alignment with transcripts for other well-characterized ACS proteins indicated that the nematode sequence is missing a key element required for ACS activity and therefore probably is not a functional ACS. Moreover, no significant amount of ACC was found in any growth stage of SCN that was tested.

  12. Overexpression of four Arabidopsis thaliana NHLgenes in soybean (Glycine max) roots and their effect over resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the US, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean. Currently grown soybean varieties are not resistant to all field populations of SCN. We genetically engineered soybean roots so they expressed genes from the model plant, Arabidopsis. When the Arabidopsis genes, ...

  13. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Reham M; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Bauchan, Gary R; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2013-04-25

    The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes.

  14. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  15. Effect of root contact on N uptake distribution in intercropped soybean and hedgerow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhonglu; Cai Chongfa; Zhong Cheng; Wang Zhongmin

    2012-01-01

    Below-ground for nutrients and water can be clue to the cause of the reduction of crops yields. Root interaction plays on important role in estimating the effect of below-ground competition. However, little information had been known about these hedgerows-crops interaction in contour hedgerow agroforestry. Pot experiments were conducted to study the effect of root contact on N absorption and transfer in purple soil of two hedges-soybean intercropping systems with two different methods of 15 N foliar-feeding and 15 N soil labeling methods, along with root partition, i. e., a sheet barrier treatment, a mesh barrier, and no barrier treatment. Results showed that the growth of Amorpha. fruticosa was suppressed without root barrier, leading to lower biomass and N acquisition than those with mesh and sheet barrier; the biomass and N acquisition of Vertiveria zizanioide and soybean without root barrier were the highest in Vertiver intercropping system. The 15 N abundance is higher in soybean and A. fruticosa with mesh barrier, but 15 N abundance is higher in Vertiver without root barrier, which suggested that the Vertiver is a stronger competitor in Vertiver/soybean intercropping system. N transfer from soybean to hedge species was obvious using 15 N direct labeling methods, which suggested that competition between of A. fruticosa or Vertiver for nitrogen fertilizer was stronger. Interspecific inhibition did exist in A. fruticosa-soybean intercropping, and the growth of A. fruticosa and soybean were suppressed; the complementary nitrogen use did exist in Vertiver-soybean intercropping, and both competition and facilitation occurred in Vertiver-soybean intercropping which enhanced the growth of Vertiver and soybean. (authors)

  16. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti...

  17. Early transcriptional response of soybean contrasting accessions to root dehydration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ribamar Costa Ferreira Neto

    Full Text Available Drought is a significant constraint to yield increase in soybean. The early perception of water deprivation is critical for recruitment of genes that promote plant tolerance. DeepSuperSAGE libraries, including one control and a bulk of six stress times imposed (from 25 to 150 min of root dehydration for drought-tolerant and sensitive soybean accessions, allowed to identify new molecular targets for drought tolerance. The survey uncovered 120,770 unique transcripts expressed by the contrasting accessions. Of these, 57,610 aligned with known cDNA sequences, allowing the annotation of 32,373 unitags. A total of 1,127 unitags were up-regulated only in the tolerant accession, whereas 1,557 were up-regulated in both as compared to their controls. An expression profile concerning the most representative Gene Ontology (GO categories for the tolerant accession revealed the expression "protein binding" as the most represented for "Molecular Function", whereas CDPK and CBL were the most up-regulated protein families in this category. Furthermore, particular genes expressed different isoforms according to the accession, showing the potential to operate in the distinction of physiological behaviors. Besides, heat maps comprising GO categories related to abiotic stress response and the unitags regulation observed in the expression contrasts covering tolerant and sensitive accessions, revealed the unitags potential for plant breeding. Candidate genes related to "hormone response" (LOX, ERF1b, XET, "water response" (PUB, BMY, "salt stress response" (WRKY, MYB and "oxidative stress response" (PER figured among the most promising molecular targets. Additionally, nine transcripts (HMGR, XET, WRKY20, RAP2-4, EREBP, NAC3, PER, GPX5 and BMY validated by RT-qPCR (four different time points confirmed their differential expression and pointed that already after 25 minutes a transcriptional reorganization started in response to the new condition, with important

  18. Expression of a complete soybean leghemoglobin gene in root nodules of transgenic Lotus corniculatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, J; Petersen, T E; Marcker, K A

    1987-01-01

    The complete soybean leghemoglobin lbc(3) gene was transferred into the legume Lotus corniculatus using an Agrobacterium rhizogenes vector system. Organ-specific expression of the soybean gene was observed in root nodules formed on regenerated transgenic plants after infection with Rhizobium loti....... The primary transcript was processed in the same way as in soybean nodules and the resulting mRNA was translated into Lbc(3) protein. Quantitative determination of the Lbc(3) protein in nodules of transgenic plants indicated that the steady-state level of the soybean protein is comparable...

  19. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of soybean primary root under varying water-deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Prince, Silvas; Valliyodan, Babu; Joshi, Trupti; Maldonado dos Santos, Joao V; Wang, Jiaojiao; Lin, Li; Wan, Jinrong; Wang, Yongqin; Xu, Dong; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-01-15

    Soybean is a major crop that provides an important source of protein and oil to humans and animals, but its production can be dramatically decreased by the occurrence of drought stress. Soybeans can survive drought stress if there is a robust and deep root system at the early vegetative growth stage. However, little is known about the genome-wide molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root system architecture. This study was performed to gain knowledge on transcriptome changes and related molecular mechanisms contributing to soybean root development under water limited conditions. The soybean Williams 82 genotype was subjected to very mild stress (VMS), mild stress (MS) and severe stress (SS) conditions, as well as recovery from the severe stress after re-watering (SR). In total, 6,609 genes in the roots showed differential expression patterns in response to different water-deficit stress levels. Genes involved in hormone (Auxin/Ethylene), carbohydrate, and cell wall-related metabolism (XTH/lipid/flavonoids/lignin) pathways were differentially regulated in the soybean root system. Several transcription factors (TFs) regulating root growth and responses under varying water-deficit conditions were identified and the expression patterns of six TFs were found to be common across the stress levels. Further analysis on the whole plant level led to the finding of tissue-specific or water-deficit levels specific regulation of transcription factors. Analysis of the over-represented motif of different gene groups revealed several new cis-elements associated with different levels of water deficit. The expression patterns of 18 genes were confirmed byquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method and demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of RNA-Seq. The primary root specific transcriptome in soybean can enable a better understanding of the root response to water deficit conditions. The genes detected in root tissues that were associated with

  20. Effect of localized nitrogen availability to soybean half-root systems on photosynthate partitioning to roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, P.W.; van Kessel, C.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Davis) was grown in a split-root growth system designed to maintain control of the root atmosphere. Two experiments were conducted to examine how 80% Ar:20%, O 2 (Ar:O 2 ) and air (Air) atmospheres affected N assimilation (NH 4 NO 3 and N 2 fixation) and the partitioning of photosynthate to roots and nodules. Application of NH 4 NO 3 to nonnodulated half-root systems enhanced root growth and root respiration at the site of application. A second experiment applied Ar:O 2 or air to the two sides of nodulated soybean half-root systems for 11 days in the following combinations: (a) Air to both sides (Air/Air); (b) Air to one side, Ar:O 2 to the other (Air/Ar:O 2 ), and (c) Ar:O 2 to both sides (Ar:O 2 /Ar:O 2 ). Results indicated that dry matter and current photosynthate ( 14 C) were selectively partitioned to nodules and roots where N 2 was available. Both root and nodule growth on the Air side of Air/Ar:O 2 plants was significantly greater than the Ar:O 2 side. The relative partitioning of carbon and current photosynthate between roots and nodules on a half-root system was also affected by N 2 availability. The Ar:O 2 sides partitioned relatively more current photosynthate to roots (57%) than nodules (43%), while N 2 -fixing root systems partitioned 36 and 64% of the carbon to roots and nodules, respectively. The Ar:O 2 atmosphere decreased root and nodule respiration by 80% and nitrogenase activity by 85% compared to half-root systems in Air while specific nitrogenase activity in Ar:O 2 was 50% of nodules supplied Air. Results indicated that nitrogen assimilation, whether from N 2 fixation or inorganic sources, had a localized effect on root development

  1. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses of soybean root tips under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nakamura, Takuji; Sugimoto, Yurie; Sakamoto, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is one of the serious problems for soybean plants because it inhibits growth. Proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used to determine whether proteins and metabolites are altered in the root tips of soybeans under flooding stress. Two-day-old soybean plants were flooded for 2 days, and proteins and metabolites were extracted from root tips. Flooding-responsive proteins were identified using two-dimensional- or SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis- based proteomics techniques. Using both techniques, 172 proteins increased and 105 proteins decreased in abundance in the root tips of flood-stressed soybean. The abundance of methionine synthase, heat shock cognate protein, urease, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase was significantly increased by flooding stress. Furthermore, 73 flooding-responsive metabolites were identified using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. The levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine, NADH2, and phosphoenol pyruvate were increased by flooding stress. Taken together, these results suggest that synthesis of phosphoenol pyruvate by way of oxaloacetate produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle is activated in soybean root tips in response to flooding stress, and that flooding stress also leads to modulation of the urea cycle in the root tips.

  2. Phosphoproteomics reveals the effect of ethylene in soybean root under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Flooding has severe negative effects on soybean growth. To explore the flooding-responsive mechanisms in early-stage soybean, a phosphoproteomic approach was used. Two-day-old soybean plants were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and root tip proteins were then extracted and analyzed at each time point. After 3 h of flooding exposure, the fresh weight of soybeans increased, whereas the ATP content of soybean root tips decreased. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, a total of 114 phosphoproteins were identified in the root tip samples, and 34 of the phosphoproteins were significantly changed with respect to phosphorylation status after 3 h of flooding stress. Among these phosphoproteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factors were dephosphorylated, whereas several protein synthesis-related proteins were phosphorylated. The mRNA expression levels of sucrose phosphate synthase 1F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G were down-regulated, whereas UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase mRNA expression was up-regulated during growth but down-regulated under flooding stress. Furthermore, bioinformatic protein interaction analysis of flooding-responsive proteins based on temporal phosphorylation patterns indicated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G was located in the center of the network during flooding. Soybean eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G has homology to programmed cell death 4 protein and is implicated in ethylene signaling. The weight of soybeans was increased with treatment by an ethylene-releasing agent under flooding condition, but it was decreased when plants were exposed to an ethylene receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role, via the protein phosphorylation, in mechanisms of plant tolerance to the initial stages of flooding stress in soybean root tips.

  3. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean plants contain two urease isozymes which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (HAP1 and HAP2) differ in: (1) native gel electrophoretic mobility, (2) pH optima, and (3) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the embryo-specific urease. By these parameters HAP1 is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme while HAP2 resembles the ubiquitous urease, found in all soybean tissues previously examined (embryo, seed coat, cultured cells). Roots of mutant soybean plants lacking the seed urease contain no HAP1 urease activity, whereas roots of mutants lacking the ubiquitous urease contain no HAP2 urease activity. However, adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack HAP1 urease activity. Furthermore, [ 35 S] methionine labelling shows no de novo synthesis of the HAP1 urease in the root, and total root HAP1 urease activity decreases sharply following germination. We conclude: (1) HAP1 is a remnant of the seed urease accumulated in the embryonic root axis during seed development, and (2) HAP2 is ubiquitous urease synthesized de novo in the root

  4. Water accumulation in the vicinity of a soybean root imbedded in soil revealed by neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Yoko; Furukawa, Jun; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    2002-01-01

    We present nondestructive water movement near the root of a soybean plant imbedded in soil by neutron beam analysis. A soybean plant was grown in an aluminum container (35mm φ x 200mm) and was periodically irradiated with thermal neutrons. While irradiation the sample was rotated to get 180 projection images, through a cooled CCD camera, to construct CT images. Then a spatial image was prepared for the analysis by piling up CT images. The whiteness in the image was calibrated well to the water amount. Water holding capacity near the root was shifted downward with the root development, suggesting the movement of the active site in the root. Though there was a minimum in the water gradient near the root, about 1.0mm far from the root surface. Then from this point, the water amount was sharply increased toward the surface. The root surface was highly wet, more than 0.5mg/mm 3 of water. When Al (10 mM) was applied to soil, root development as well as water holding activity of a root was decreased. This is the first study to perform the direct measurement of water within 1.0mm from the root surface. (author)

  5. Utilization of 15NO3− by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypox...

  6. Analysis of soybean root proteins affected by gibberellic acid treatment under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myeong Won; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a serious abiotic stress for soybean because it restricts growth and reduces grain yields. To investigate the effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on soybean under flooding stress, root proteins were analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins were extracted from the roots of 4-days-old soybean seedlings exposed to flooding stress in the presence and absence of exogenous GA3 for 2 days. A total of 307, 324, and 250 proteins were identified from untreated, and flooding-treated soybean seedlings without or with GA3, respectively. Secondary metabolism- and cell-related proteins, and proteins involved in protein degradation/synthesis were decreased by flooding stress; however, the levels of these proteins were restored by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Fermentation- and cell wall-related proteins were not affected by GA3 supplementation. Furthermore, putative GA-responsive proteins, which were identified by the presence of a GA-responsive element in the promoter region, were less abundant by flooding stress; however, these proteins were more abundant by GA3 supplementation under flooding. Taken together, these results suggest that GA3 affects the abundance of proteins involved in secondary metabolism, cell cycle, and protein degradation/synthesis in soybeans under flooding stress.

  7. Genetic analyses of nonfluorescent root mutants induced by mutagenesis in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Nonfluorescent root mutants in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] are useful as markers in genetic studies and in tissue culture research. Our objective was to obtain mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutants and to conduct genetic studies with them. Thirteen nonfluorescent mutants were detected among 154016 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with six mutagens. One of these mutants, derived from Williams treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to any of the known (standard) nonfluorescent spontaneous mutants. This is the first mutagen-induced nonfluorescent root mutant in soybean. It was assigned Genetic Type Collection no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5 fr5. The fr5 allele was not located on trisomics A, B, or C and was not linked to five chlorophyll-deficient mutants (y9, y11, y12, y13, and y20-k2) or flower color mutant w1. The remaining nonfluorescent root mutants were at the same loci as known spontaneous mutants; i.e., four had the fr1 allele, five had the fr2 allele, and three had the fr4 allele

  8. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  9. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  10. Root-to-seed transport and metabolism of fixed nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    The great energetic demand of nitrogen fixation to support growth of the exceptionally high-N seeds is certainly a major yield barrier for soybeans. Transport of carbohydrate energy supplies to the root and of fixed nitrogen (N) from the root appear to contribute to the yield barrier, also. N is loaded into the soybean xylem stream principally as allantoin (ALL), and allantonic acid (ALLA), but xylem carries only dilute N and cannot reach the seeds at sufficient rate to support their N needs. Explants consisting of stem and a few leaves and pods were allowed to take up 14 C- and/or 15 N-ALL/ALLA in synthetic xylem sap. The 14 C label was found to become fairly quantitatively immobilized in leaves. The N (and 15 N label) almost certainly is separated from the C( 14 C label) at this time

  11. Salicylic Acid Alleviates Aluminum Toxicity in Soybean Roots through Modulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism

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    Ning Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L. exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM and SA (10 μM/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H, and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  12. Salicylic acid alleviates aluminum toxicity in soybean roots through modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Song, Fengbin; Zhu, Xiancan; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Li, Xiangnan

    2017-11-01

    As an important signal molecule, salicylic acid (SA) improves plant tolerance to aluminum (Al) stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exogenous SA application on the dynamics of endogenous SA and reactive oxygen species in soybean (Glycine max L.) exposed to Al stress. The roots of soybean seedlings were exposed to a combination of AlCl3 (30 μM) and SA (10 μM)/PAC (100 μM, paclobutrazol, SA biosynthesis inhibitor) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Al stress induced an increase in endogenous SA concentration in a time-dependent manner, also verified by the up-regulated expression of GmNPR1, an SA-responsive gene. Al stress increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid 2-hydroxylase (BA2H), and the contents of SA, O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the root apex. The application of exogenous SA increased PAL and BA2H, and reduced O2- and MDA contents in soybean roots under Al stress. PAC inhibited the SA induced increase in BA2H activity. In addition, the SA application resulted in a rapid increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration under Al stress, followed by a sharp decrease. Compared with the plants exposed to Al alone, Al+SA plants possessed higher activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase, and lower catalase activity, indicating that SA alleviated Al-induced oxidative damage. These results suggested that PAL and BA2H were involved in Al-induced SA production and showed that SA alleviated the adverse effects of Al toxicity by modulating the cellular H2O2 level and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the soybean root apex.

  13. Endophytic fungal communities associated with field-grown soybean roots and seeds in the Huang-Huai region of China

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    Hongjun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants depend on beneficial interactions between roots and fungal endophytes for growth, disease suppression, and stress tolerance. In this study, we characterized the endophytic fungal communities associated with the roots and corresponding seeds of soybeans grown in the Huang-Huai region of China. For the roots, we identified 105 and 50 genera by culture-independent and culture-dependent (CD methods, respectively, and isolated 136 fungal strains (20 genera from the CD samples. Compared with the 52 soybean endophytic fungal genera reported in other countries, 28 of the genera we found were reported, and 90 were newly discovered. Even though Fusarium was the most abundant genus of fungal endophyte in every sample, soybean root samples from three cities exhibited diverse endophytic fungal communities, and the results between samples of roots and seeds were also significantly different. Together, we identified the major endophytic fungal genera in soybean roots and seeds, and revealed that the diversity of soybean endophytic fungal communities was influenced by geographical effects and tissues. The results will facilitate a better understanding of soybean–endophytic fungi interaction systems and will assist in the screening and utilization of beneficial microorganisms to promote healthy of plants such as soybean.

  14. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from [ 35 S]methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root

  15. Regulatory interplay between soybean root and soybean cyst nematode during a resistant and susceptible reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are obligate parasites that feed on the roots of living host plants. Often, these nematodes can lay hundreds of eggs, each capable of surviving in the soil for as long as 12 years. When it comes to wreaking havoc on agricultural yield, few nematodes can c...

  16. Characterization of phospholipid composition and its control in the plasma membrane of developing soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The phospholipid composition of plasma membrane enriched fractions from developing soybean root and several mechanisms which may regulate it have been examined. Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from meristematic and mature sections of four-day-old dark grown soybean roots (Glycine max [L.] Merr. Cult. Wells II). Analysis of lipid extracts revealed two major phospholipid classes: phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Minor phospholipid classes were phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylgylcerol and diphosphatidylgylcerol. Phospholipid composition was similar at each developmental stage. Fatty acids of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were 16:0, 18:0, 18:2, and 18:3. Fatty acid composition varied with both phospholipid class and the developmental stage of the root. The degradation of phosphatidylcholine by endogenous phospholipase D during membrane isolation indicated that this enzyme might be involved in phospholipid turnover within the membrane. Phospholipase D activity was heat labile and increasing the pH of the enzyme assay from 5.3 to 7.8 resulted in 90% inhibition of activity. The turnover of fatty acids within the phospholipids of the plasma membrane was studied. Mature root sections were incubated with [1- 14 C] acetate, 1 mM Na acetate and 50 μg/ml chloramphenicol. Membrane lipid extracts analyzed for phospholipid class and acyl chain composition revealed that the long incubation times did not alter the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane enriched fraction

  17. Influence of fertilizer placements on the root and shoot growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments have been carried out to obtain data of soybean growth in relation to fertilizer placements in the soil. Treatments in these two experiments were: fertilizer (N, P, and K) placements at the soil surface, 5, 10, and 15 cm beneath the soil surface and the plants were harvested at the age of 51, 58, and 65 days after seed planting, in the first experiment, and in the second experiment plants were harvested at the age of 37, 44, and 51 days after seed planting. The parameter for root growth was the percentage of roots in soil depths at: 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm, respectively, while for shoot growth the parameters were the dry weight of the shoot, plant height, and number of flowers and pods. Data obtained from these two experiments showed that fertilizer placements at several soil depths have no influence on the growth of root and shoot. The highest shoot growth was at 0-5 cm soil depth, but this does not cause highest shoot growth. Different harvest time do not effect root growth, but it has a highly siginificant on shoot growth. The soybean plants were planted in PVC pots with a 6 kg soil capacity, and the pots were placed outside the green house. (author)

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals that peroxidases play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mudassar Nawaz; Sakata, Katsumi; Hiraga, Susumu; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Soybean is an important legume crop that exhibits markedly reduced growth and yields under flooding conditions. To unravel the mechanisms involved in recovery after flooding in soybean root, gel-free proteomic analysis was performed. Morphological analysis revealed that growth suppression was more severe with increased flooding duration. Out of a total of 1645 and 1707 identified proteins, 73 and 21 proteins were changed significantly during the recovery stage following 2 and 4 days flooding, respectively. Based on the proteomic, clustering, and in silico protein-protein interaction analyses, six key enzymes were analyzed at the mRNA level. Lipoxygenase 1, which was increased at the protein level during the recovery period, was steadily down-regulated at the mRNA level. The peroxidase superfamily protein continuously increased in abundance during the course of recovery and was up-regulated at the mRNA level. HAD acid phosphatase was decreased at the protein level and down-regulated at the transcript level, while isoflavone reductase and an unknown protein were increased at both the protein and mRNA levels. Consistent with these findings, the enzymatic activity of peroxidase was decreased under flooding stress but increased significantly during the recovery sage. These results suggest that peroxidases might play key roles in post-flooding recovery in soybean roots through the scavenging of toxic radicals.

  19. Pattern of zinc-65 incorporation into soybean seeds by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybean seeds of plants grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn by root absorption, stem injection, and foliar application was studied. Stem injection resulted in the greatest (64.5% of dose) accumulation of 65 Zn while incorporation of 65 Zn through root absorption was the least (23.4%) and through foliar application was intermediate (37.5%). Regardless of the labeling techniques, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of zinc incorporation did not change appreciably as a result of the labeling technique. The major portion of the soluble zinc was not associated with the major proteins (11S and 7S) of soybeans but either was free or was associated with very low molecular weight amino acids, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid. Zinc in soybean seems to be ionically bound, and this association is affected by the pH of the extracting buffer

  20. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  1. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Barbosa Lima

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G and syringyl (S monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1 cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2 cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S content; 3 when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H, cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4 when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxycinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL, p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  2. A comparison study of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for root-specific promoter analysis in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifeng; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Xiurong; Liao, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Both in vitro and in vivo hairy root transformation systems could not replace whole plant transformation for promoter analysis of root-specific and low-P induced genes in soybean. An efficient genetic transformation system is crucial for promoter analysis in plants. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most popular method to produce transgenic hairy roots or plants. In the present study, first, we compared the two different Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation methods using either constitutive CaMV35S or the promoters of root-preferential genes, GmEXPB2 and GmPAP21, in soybean, and found the efficiency of in vitro hairy root transformation was significantly higher than that of in vivo transformation. We compared Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated whole plant transformation systems. The results showed that low-phosphorous (P) inducible GmEXPB2 and GmPAP21 promoters could not induce the increased expression of the GUS reporter gene under low P stress in both in vivo and in vitro transgenic hairy roots. Conversely, GUS activity of GmPAP21 promoter was significantly higher at low P than high P in whole plant transformation. Therefore, both in vitro and in vivo hairy root transformation systems could not replace whole plant transformation for promoter analysis of root-specific and low-P induced genes in soybean.

  3. Gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis of root tip of soybean over time under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Oh, MyeongWon; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-01-01

    Growth in the early stage of soybean is markedly inhibited under flooding and drought stresses. To explore the responsive mechanisms of soybean, temporal protein profiles of root tip under flooding and drought stresses were analyzed using gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Root tip was analyzed because it was the most sensitive organ against flooding, and it was beneficial to root penetration under drought. UDP glucose: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase was decreased and increased in soybean root under flooding and drought, respectively. Temporal protein profiles indicated that fermentation and protein synthesis/degradation were essential in root tip under flooding and drought, respectively. In silico protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the inductive and suppressive interactions between S-adenosylmethionine synthetase family protein and B-S glucosidase 44 under flooding and drought, respectively, which are related to carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, biotin/lipoyl attachment domain containing protein and Class II aminoacyl tRNA/biotin synthetases superfamily protein were repressed in the root tip during time-course stresses. These results suggest that biotin and biotinylation might be involved in energy management to cope with flooding and drought in early stage of soybean-root tip. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of 32P to study root growth of soybean as affected by soil compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisworo, Elsje L.; Sisworo, Widjang H.; Syaukat, Sri Harti; Wemay, Johannis; Haryanto

    1996-01-01

    Two greenhouse and two field experiments have been conducted to study the effect of soil compaction on root and plant growth of soybean, by using 32 P in the form of carrier free KH 2 32 PO 4 solution. In the greenhouse experiment it was clearly shown that by increasing soil compaction the growth of roots and shoots was increasingly inhibited. The growth of roots was expressed in √% arcsin converted from 32 P activity (counts per minute, cpm) in the shoots and 32 P activity in the shoots (cpm) without convertion. Plant growth was expressed in plant height, number of leaves, dry weight of pods and shoots. In the field experiment, it was shown distinctively that root growth in the 15 cm soil depth was inhibited whith the increase of soil compaction. Similar with the greenhouse experiments the of plants of roots was expressed in cpm 32 P of roots, shoots, and pods, while, the growth of plants was expressed in plant height, number of pods, and dry weight of pods, seeds, and stover. (author). 19 refs, 4 tabs, 6 figs

  5. Characterization of proteins in soybean roots under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, MyeongWon; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-01-30

    Flooding and drought affect soybean growth because soybean is a stress-sensitive crop. In 2-day-old plants exposed to 2-day flooding or drought, the fresh weight of roots was markedly suppressed, although the root morphology clearly differed between two conditions. To understand the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses, a gel-free proteomic technique was used. A total of 97 and 48 proteins were significantly changed in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to flooding and drought stresses, respectively. The mRNA expression levels of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes displayed a similar tendency to the changes in protein abundance. These results suggest that S-adenosylmethionine synthetase is involved in the regulation of stress response because it was changed in response to flooding and drought stresses. This study reported on the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding and drought stresses using the gel-free proteomic technique. Proteins involved in protein synthesis were decreased by flooding stress and increased by drought. Glycolysis-related proteins were increased in roots by both flooding and drought stresses. Fermentation, stress, and cell wall-related proteins were increased in response to flooding stress, whereas cell organization and redox-related proteins were increased under drought stress. Among the identified proteins, three S-adenosylmethionine synthetases were commonly decreased and increased in response to

  6. Probability Models Based on Soil Properties for Predicting Presence-Absence of Pythium in Soybean Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitnick-Anderson, Kimberly K; Norland, Jack E; Del Río Mendoza, Luis E; Fortuna, Ann-Marie; Nelson, Berlin D

    2017-10-01

    Associations between soil properties and Pythium groups on soybean roots were investigated in 83 commercial soybean fields in North Dakota. A data set containing 2877 isolates of Pythium which included 26 known spp. and 1 unknown spp. and 13 soil properties from each field were analyzed. A Pearson correlation analysis was performed with all soil properties to observe any significant correlation between properties. Hierarchical clustering, indicator spp., and multi-response permutation procedures were used to identify groups of Pythium. Logistic regression analysis using stepwise selection was employed to calculate probability models for presence of groups based on soil properties. Three major Pythium groups were identified and three soil properties were associated with these groups. Group 1, characterized by P. ultimum, was associated with zinc levels; as zinc increased, the probability of group 1 being present increased (α = 0.05). Pythium group 2, characterized by Pythium kashmirense and an unknown Pythium sp., was associated with cation exchange capacity (CEC) (α < 0.05); as CEC increased, these spp. increased. Group 3, characterized by Pythium heterothallicum and Pythium irregulare, were associated with CEC and calcium carbonate exchange (CCE); as CCE increased and CEC decreased, these spp. increased (α = 0.05). The regression models may have value in predicting pathogenic Pythium spp. in soybean fields in North Dakota and adjacent states.

  7. Investigation of the Fusarium virguliforme Transcriptomes Induced during Infection of Soybean Roots Suggests that Enzymes with Hydrolytic Activities Could Play a Major Role in Root Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Binod B; Baumbach, Jordan L; Singh, Prashant; Srivastava, Subodh K; Yi, Xiaoping; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2017-01-01

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by the fungal pathogen, Fusarium virguliforme, and is a major threat to soybean production in North America. There are two major components of this disease: (i) root necrosis and (ii) foliar SDS. Root symptoms consist of root necrosis with vascular discoloration. Foliar SDS is characterized by interveinal chlorosis and leaf necrosis, and in severe cases by flower and pod abscission. A major toxin involved in initiating foliar SDS has been identified. Nothing is known about how root necrosis develops. In order to unravel the mechanisms used by the pathogen to cause root necrosis, the transcriptome of the pathogen in infected soybean root tissues of a susceptible cultivar, 'Essex', was investigated. The transcriptomes of the germinating conidia and mycelia were also examined. Of the 14,845 predicted F. virguliforme genes, we observed that 12,017 (81%) were expressed in germinating conidia and 12,208 (82%) in mycelia and 10,626 (72%) in infected soybean roots. Of the 10,626 genes induced in infected roots, 224 were transcribed only following infection. Expression of several infection-induced genes encoding enzymes with oxidation-reduction properties suggests that degradation of antimicrobial compounds such as the phytoalexin, glyceollin, could be important in early stages of the root tissue infection. Enzymes with hydrolytic and catalytic activities could play an important role in establishing the necrotrophic phase. The expression of a large number of genes encoding enzymes with catalytic and hydrolytic activities during the late infection stages suggests that cell wall degradation could be involved in root necrosis and the establishment of the necrotrophic phase in this pathogen.

  8. Organization of the nucleoli of soybean root meristematic cells at different states of their activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiński, Dariusz

    2010-06-01

    Internal organization of a nucleolus changes along with rRNA transcriptional activity. These changes mainly concern qualitative and quantitative alternations of three main nucleolar components: fibrillar centres (FC), dense fibrillar component (DFC) and granular component (GC). In the present work quantitative measurements of the number and sizes of FCs and DFCs in nucleoli of root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings grown at (1) chilling conditions that reduce transcriptional activity of soybean nucleoli (temp. of 10 degrees C) and at (2) conditions that increase this activity (recovery at optimal temp. of 25 degrees C after previous chilling), even more than (3) the control, have been carried out. Morphometric measurements showed that the highest number of FCs and DFCs was in the most active nucleoli, while the smallest number - in those with the lowest activity. The average size of an individual FC was similar in all nucleoli regardless of their transcriptional activity, that of the individual DFC varied, being bigger in the nucleoli of the chilled plants and smallest in those of the recovered plants. The numbers of FCs and DFCs seem to be indicators of transcriptional activity of plant nucleoli - the higher number of FCs and DFCs the more active nucleoli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transcriptomic characterization of soybean (Glycine max) roots in response to rhizobium infection by RNA sequencing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Li, Z.; Wang, S.; Huang, S.; Yang, H.

    2018-01-01

    Legumes interacting with rhizobium to convert N2 into ammonia for plant use has attracted worldwide interest. However, the plant basal nitrogen fixation mechanisms induced in response to Rhizobium, giving differential gene expression of plants, have not yet been fully realized. The differential expressed genes of soybean between inoculated and mock-inoculated were analyzed by a RNA-Seq. The results of the sequencing were aligned against the Williams 82 genome sequence, which contain 55787 transcripts; 280 and 316 transcripts were found to be up- and down-regulated, respectively, for inoculated and mock-inoculated soybean roots at stage V1. Gene ontology (GO) analyses detected 104, 182 and 178 genes associated with the cell component category, molecular function category and biological process category, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed that 98 differentially expressed genes (115 transcripts) were involved in 169 biological pathways. We selected 19 differentially expressed genes and analyzed their expressions in mock-inoculated, inoculated USDA110 and CCBAU45436 using qRT-PCR. The results were in accordance with those obtained from rhizobia infected RNA-Seq data. These showed that the results of RNA-Seq had reliability and universality. Additionally, this study showed some novel genes associated with the nitrogen fixation process in comparison to previously identified QTLs. (author)

  10. Utilization of (15)NO3 (-) by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-07-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypoxia in comparison with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate. A study was conducted with (15)N labelled nitrate supplied on waterlogging for a period of 48 h using both nodulated and non-nodulated plants of different physiological ages. Enrichment of N was found in roots and leaves with incorporation of the isotope in amino acids, although to a much smaller degree under hypoxia than normoxia. This demonstrates that nitrate is taken up under hypoxic conditions and assimilated into amino acids, although to a much lesser extent than for normoxia. The similar response obtained with nodulated and non-nodulated plants indicates the rapid metabolic adaptation of nodulated plants to the presence of nitrate under hypoxia. Enrichment of N in nodules was very much weaker with a distinct enrichment pattern of amino acids (especially asparagine) suggesting that labelling arose from a tissue source external to the nodule rather than through assimilation in the nodule itself.

  11. High performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity in soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, W D; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, O

    2006-01-01

    This study proposes a simple, quick and reliable method for determining the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) activity in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) roots using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The method includes a single extraction of the tissue and conduction of the enzymatic reaction at 30 degrees C with cinnamaldehydes (coniferyl or sinapyl), substrates of CAD. Disappearance of the substrates in the reaction mixture is monitored at 340 nm (for coniferaldehyde) or 345 nm (for sinapaldehyde) by isocratic elution with methanol/acetic acid through a GLC-ODS (M) column. This HPLC technique furnishes a rapid and reliable measure of cinnamaldehyde substrates, and may be used as an alternative tool to analyze CAD activity in enzyme preparation without previous purification.

  12. Changes in Amino Acid Profile in Roots of Glyphosate Resistant and Susceptible Soybean (Glycine max) Induced by Foliar Glyphosate Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, Carlos Alberto; Cantarelli, Miguel Angel; Camiña, José Manuel; Tsai, Siu Mui; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2017-10-11

    Amino acid profiles are useful to analyze the responses to glyphosate in susceptible and resistant soybean lines. Comparisons of profiles for 10 amino acids (Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Ser, His, Gly, Thr, Tyr, Leu) by HPLC in soybean roots were performed in two near isogenic pairs (four varieties). Foliar application of glyphosate was made to soybean plants after 5 weeks of seeding. Roots of four varieties were collected at 0 and 72 h after glyphosate application (AGA) for amino acid analysis by HPLC. Univariate analysis showed a significant increase of several amino acids in susceptible as well as resistant soybean lines; however, amino acids from the major pathways of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism, such as Asp, Asn, Glu and Gln, and Ser, increased significantly in susceptible varieties at 72 h AGA. Multivariate analysis using principal component analysis (2D PCA and 3D PCA) allowed different groups to be identified and discriminated based on the soybean genetic origin, showing the amino acid responses on susceptible and resistant varieties. Based on the results, it is possible to infer that the increase of Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, and Ser in susceptible varieties would be related to the deregulation of C and N metabolism, as well as changes in the growth mechanisms regulated by Ser.

  13. Soybean root growth and crop yield in reponse to liming at the beginning of a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the soil near crop roots may reveal limitations to growth and yield even in a no-tillage system. The purpose of the present study was to relate the chemical and physical properties of soil under a no-tillage system to soybean root growth and plant yield after five years of use of different types of limestone and forms of application. A clayey Oxisol received application of dolomitic and calcitic limestones and their 1:1 combination in two forms: surface application, maintained on the soil surface; and incorporated, applied on the surface and incorporated mechanically. Soil physical properties (resistance to mechanical penetration, soil bulk density and soil aggregation, soil chemical properties (pH, exchangeable cations, H+Al, and cation exchange capacity and plant parameters (root growth system, soybean grain yield, and oat dry matter production were evaluated five years after setting up the experiment. Incorporation of lime neutralized exchangeable Al up to a depth of 20 cm without affecting the soil physical properties. The soybean root system reached depths of 40 cm or more with incorporated limestone, increasing grain yield an average of 31 % in relation to surface application, which limited the effect of lime up to a depth of 5 cm and root growth up to 20 cm. It was concluded that incorporation of limestone at the beginning of a no-tillage system ensures a favorable environment for root growth and soybean yield, while this intervention does not show long-term effects on soil physical properties under no-tillage. This suggests that there is resilience in the physical properties evaluated.

  14. Naringenin inhibits the growth and stimulates the lignification of soybean root

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    Graciene de Souza Bido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavanone naringenin, an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis, was tested for its effect on root growth, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and peroxidase (POD activities, as well as phenolic compounds and lignin contents in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seedlings. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0, with or without 0.1 to 0.4 mM naringenin in a growth chamber (25°C, 12-h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 µmol m-2 s-1 for 24 h. Inhibitory effects on root growth (length, weight, cell viability, PAL and soluble POD activities were detected after naringenin treatments. These effects were associated with stimulatory activity of the cell wall-bound POD followed by an increase in the lignin contents, suggesting that naringenin-induced inhibition in soybean roots could be due to the lignification process.Os efeitos de naringenina, um intermediário da biossíntese de flavonóides, foram avaliados sobre o crescimento das raízes, as atividades da fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL e peroxidases, bem como sobre os teores de compostos fenólicos e de lignina em plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, meia-força (pH 6,0, contendo ou não, naringenina 0,1 a 0,4 mM, em uma câmara de germinação (25°C, fotoperíodo de 12 h, 280 µmol m-2 s-1 durante 24 h. Efeitos inibitórios no crescimento das raízes (comprimento, massa e viabilidade celular e nas atividades da PAL e POD solúvel foram constatados após os tratamentos com naringenina. Estes efeitos foram associados com atividade estimulatória da POD ligada à parede celular, seguido por aumento nos teores de lignina, sugerindo que a inibição do crescimento das raízes pode ser devido ao processo de lignificação.

  15. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg-1 dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress. The results showed that water stress and low P, respectively, significantly reduced grain yield by 60 and 40%, daily water use by 66 and 31%, P accumulation by 40 and 80%, and N accumulation by 39 and 65%. The cultivar ZH with the lowest daily water use had the highest grain yield at P60 and P120 under drought. Increased root length was positively associated with N and P accumulation in both the WW and WS treatments, but not with grain yield under water and P deficits. However, in the WS treatment, high adventitious and lateral root densities were associated with high N and P uptake per unit root length which in turn was significantly and positively associated with grain yield. Our results suggest that (1) genetic variation of grain yield, daily water use, P and N accumulation, and root morphology and architecture were observed among the soybean cultivars and ZH had the best yield performance under P and water limited conditions; (2) water has a major influence on nutrient uptake and grain yield, while additional P supply can modestly increase yields under drought in some soybean genotypes; (3) while conserved water use plays an important role in grain yield under drought

  16. Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed soybean roots differ in their nodulation and nitrogen fixation response to genistein and salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Modarres Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Ghanati, Faezeh; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated response differences of normal and transformed (so-called 'hairy') roots of soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.), cv L17) to the Nod-factor inducing isoflavone genistein and salinity by quantifying growth, nodulation, nitrogen fixation and biochemical changes. Composite soybean plants were generated using Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of non-nodulating mutant nod139 (GmNFR5α minus) with complementing A. rhizogenes K599 carrying the wild-type GmNFR5α gene under control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter. We used genetic complementation for nodulation ability as only nodulated roots were scored. After hairy root emergence, primary roots were removed and composite plants were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum (strain CB1809) pre-induced with 10 μM genistein and watered with NaCl (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM). There were significant differences between hairy roots and natural roots in their responses to salt stress and genistein application. In addition, there were noticeable nodulation and nitrogen fixation differences. Composite plants had better growth, more root volume and chlorophyll as well as more nodules and higher nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) compared with natural roots. Decreased lipid peroxidation, proline accumulation and catalase/peroxidase activities were found in 'hairy' roots under salinity stress. Genistein significantly increased nodulation and nitrogen fixation and improved roots and shoot growth. Although genistein alleviated lipid peroxidation under salinity stress, it had no significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In general, composite plants were more competitive in growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation than normal non-transgenic even under salinity stress conditions.

  17. The Early Entry of Al into Cells of Intact Soybean Roots (A Comparison of Three Developmental Root Regions Using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Imaging).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazof, D. B.; Goldsmith, J. G.; Rufty, T. W.; Linton, R. W.

    1996-11-01

    Al localization was compared in three developmental regions of primary root of an Al-sensitive soybean (Glycine max) genotype using secondary ion mass spectrometry. In cryosections obtained after a 4-h exposure to 38 [mu]M [Al3+], Al had penetrated across the root and into the stele in all three regions. Although the greatest localized Al concentration was consistently at the root periphery, the majority of the Al in each region had accumulated in cortical cells. It was apparent that the secondary ion mass spectrometry 27Al+ mass signal was spread throughout the intracellular area and was not particularly intense in the cell wall. Inclusion of some cell wall in determinations of the Al levels across the root radius necessitated that these serve as minimal estimates for intracellular Al. Total accumulation of intracellular Al for each region was 60, 73, and 210 nmol g-1 fresh weight after 4 h, increasing with root development. Early metabolic responses to external Al, including those that have been reported deep inside the root and in mature regions, might result directly from intracellular Al. These responses might include ion transport events at the endodermis of mature roots or events associated with lateral root emergence, as well as events within the root tip.

  18. Incidence of root rot diseases of soybean in Multan Pakistan and its management by the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, M.I.; Tahir, M.I.; Mahmood, S.

    2012-01-01

    Eight villages in Multan district were surveyed to record incidence of disease and losses of soybean (Glycine max L.) caused by root rot fungi. The root incidence ranged 10-17% and losses ranged 6.75-15.5%. The evaluation of four PGPR isolates was used in combination with organic amendment for the management of root-rot disease incidence and to reduce the population of root pathogenic fungi and to increase the yield in field. This study demonstrated effective biological control by the PGPR isolates tested, thereby indicating the possibility of application of rhizobacteria for control of soil bor ne diseases of soybean in Pakistan and other countries. (author)

  19. Timecourse microarray analyses reveal global changes in gene expression of susceptible Glycine max (soybean) roots during infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Klink, Vincent P; Chouikha, Imed B; Beard, Hunter S; MacDonald, Margaret H; Meyer, Susan; Knap, Halina T; Khan, Rana; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2006-09-01

    Changes in gene expression within roots of Glycine max (soybean), cv. Kent, susceptible to infection by Heterodera glycines (the soybean cyst nematode [SCN]), at 6, 12, and 24 h, and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days post-inoculation were monitored using microarrays containing more than 6,000 cDNA inserts. Replicate, independent biological samples were examined at each time point. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using T-tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). These analyses allow the user to query the data in several ways without importing the data into third-party software. RT-PCR confirmed that WRKY6 transcription factor, trehalose phosphate synthase, EIF4a, Skp1, and CLB1 were differentially induced across most time-points. Other genes induced across most timepoints included lipoxygenase, calmodulin, phospholipase C, metallothionein-like protein, and chalcone reductase. RT-PCR demonstrated enhanced expression during the first 12 h of infection for Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and sucrose synthase. The stress-related gene, SAM-22, phospholipase D and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase were also induced at the early time-points. At 6 and 8 dpi there was an abundance of transcripts expressed that encoded genes involved in transcription and protein synthesis. Some of those genes included ribosomal proteins, and initiation and elongation factors. Several genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport were also more abundant. Those genes included glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and sucrose synthase. These results identified specific changes in gene transcript levels triggered by infection of susceptible soybean roots by SCN.

  20. Nucleolar chromatin organization at different activities of soybean root meristematic cell nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2013-06-01

    Nucleolar chromatin, including nucleolus-associated chromatin as well as active and inactive condensed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) chromatin, derives mostly from secondary constrictions known as nucleolus organizer regions containing rDNA genes on nucleolus-forming chromosomes. This chromatin may occupy different nucleolar positions being in various condensation states which may imply different rDNA transcriptional competence. Sections of nucleoli originating from root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings grown at 25 °C (the control), then subjected to chilling stress (10 °C), and next transferred again to 25 °C (the recovery) were used to measure profile areas occupied by nucleolar condensed chromatin disclosed with sodium hydroxide methylation-acetylation plus uranyl acetate technique. The biggest total area of condensed chromatin was found in the nucleoli of chilled plants, while the smallest was found in those of recovered plants in relation to the amounts of chromatin in the control nucleoli. The condensed nucleolar chromatin, in the form of different-sized and different-shaped clumps, was mainly located in fibrillar centers. One can suppose that changes of condensed rDNA chromatin amounts might be a mechanism controlling the number of transcriptionally active rDNA genes as the nucleoli of plants grown under these experimental conditions show different transcriptional activity and morphology.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals molecular mechanism of seedling roots of different salt tolerant soybean genotypes in responses to salinity stress

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    Hongyu Ma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit agricultural yield. To understand salt-responsive protein networks in soybean seedling, the extracted proteins from seedling roots of two different genotypes (Lee 68 and Jackson were analyzed under salt stress by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sixty-eight differentially expressed proteins were detected and identified. The identified proteins were involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Proteins correlated to brassinosteroid and gilbberellin signalings were significantly increased only in the genotype Lee 68 under salt stress; abscisic acid content was positively correlated with this genotype; proteins that can be correlated to Ca2+ signaling were more strongly enhanced by salt stress in the seedling roots of genotype Lee 68 than in those of genotype Jackson; moreover, genotype Lee 68 had stronger capability of reactive oxygen species scavenging and cell K+/Na+ homeostasis maintaining in seedling roots than genotype Jackson under salt stress. Since the genotype Lee 68 has been described in literature as being tolerant and Jackson as sensitive, we hypothesize that these major differences in the genotype Lee 68 might contribute to salt tolerance. Combined with our previous comparative proteomics analysis on seedling leaves, the similarities and differences between the salt-responsive protein networks found in the seedling leaves and roots of both the genotypes were discussed. Such a result will be helpful in breeding of salt-tolerant soybean cultivars.

  2. Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species and Mitochondrial Proteins in Biophoton Emission in Roots of Soybean Plants under Flooding Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanism of biophoton emission, ROS and mitochondrial proteins were analyzed in soybean plants under flooding stress. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission were increased in the flooding stress samples when assayed in reaction mixes specific for antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species; although the level of the hydroxyl radicals was increased at day 4 (2 days of flooding) compared to nonflooding at day 4, the emission of biophotons did not change. Mitochondria were isolated and purified from the roots of soybean plants grown under flooding stress by using a Percoll gradient, and proteins were analyzed by a gel-free proteomic technique. Out of the 98 mitochondrial proteins that significantly changed abundance under flooding stress, 47 increased and 51 decreased at day 4. The mitochondrial enzymes fumarase, glutathione-S-transferase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase increased at day 4 in protein abundance and enzyme activity. Enzyme activity and biophoton emission decreased at day 4 by the assay of lipoxygenase under stress. Aconitase, acyl CoA oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, and NADH ubiquinone dehydrogenase were up-regulated at the transcription level. These results indicate that oxidation and peroxide scavenging might lead to biophoton emission and oxidative damage in the roots of soybean plants under flooding stress.

  3. Characterization and quantitation of concanavalin A binding by plasma membrane enriched fractions from soybean root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, R.L.; Travis, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The binding of concanavalin A (Con A) to soybean root membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions (recovered from the 34/45% interface of simplified discontinuous sucrose density gradients) was studied using a radiochemical assay employing tritated ( 3 H)-Con A. The effect of lectin concentration, time, and membrane protein concentration on the specific binding of 3 H-Con A by the membranes was evaluated. Kinetic analyses showed that Con A will react with membranes in that fraction in a characteristic and predictable manner. The parameters for an optimal and standard binding assay were established. Maximal binding occurred with Con A concentrations in the range of 8 to 16% of the total membrane protein with incubation times greater than 40 min at 22 C. Approximately 10 15 molecules of 3 H-Con A were bound per microgram of membrane protein at saturation. Binding was reversible. Greater than 92% of the total Con A bound at saturation was released by addition of α-methyl mannoside. A major peak of 3 H-Con A binding was also observed in fractions recovered from the 25/30% interface of a complex discontinuous sucrose density gradient when membranes were isolated in the absence of Mg 2+ . When high Mg 2+ was present in the isolation and gradient media, the peak was shifted to a fraction recovered from the 34/38% sucrose interface. These results suggest that Con A binding sites are also present on membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. The amount of Con A bound by endoplasmic reticulum membranes was at least twice the amount bound by membranes in plasma membrane enriched fractions when binding was compared on a per unit membrane protein basis. In contrast, mitochondrial inner membranes, which equilibrate at the same density as plasma membranes, had little ability to bind the lectin

  4. Combined acid rain and lanthanum pollution and its potential ecological risk for nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Cheng, Mengzhu; Sun, Zhaoguo; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are used in various fields, resulting in their accumulation in the environment. This accumulation has affected the survival and distribution of crops in various ways. Acid rain is a serious global environmental problem. The combined effects on crops from these two types of pollution have been reported, but the effects on crop root nitrogen assimilation are rarely known. To explore the impact of combined contamination from these two pollutants on crop nitrogen assimilation, the soybean seedlings were treated with simulated environmental pollution from acid rain and a representative rare earth ion, lanthanum ion (La 3+ ), then the indexes related to plant nitrogen assimilation process in roots were determined. The results showed that combined treatment with pH 4.5 acid rain and 0.08 mM La 3+ promoted nitrogen assimilation synergistically, while the other combined treatments all showed inhibitory effects. Moreover, acid rain aggravated the inhibitory effect of 1.20 or 0.40 mM La 3+ on nitrogen assimilation in soybean seedling roots. Thus, the effects of acid rain and La 3+ on crops depended on the combination levels of acid rain intensity and La 3+ concentration. Acid rain increases the bioavailability of La 3+ , and the combined effects of these two pollutants were more serious than that of either pollutant alone. These results provide new evidence in favor of limiting overuse of REEs in agriculture. This work also provides a new framework for ecological risk assessment of combined acid rain and REEs pollution on soybean crops. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heterologous Expression of Panax ginseng PgTIP1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance of Soybean Cotyledon Hairy Roots, Composite, and Whole Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the

  6. Analysis of initial changes in the proteins of soybean root tip under flooding stress using gel-free and gel-based proteomic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Nanjo, Yohei; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-06-25

    Flooding has a severe negative effect on soybean cultivation in the early stages of growth. To obtain a better understanding of the response mechanisms of soybean to flooding stress, initial changes in root tip proteins under flooding were analyzed using two proteomic techniques. Two-day-old soybeans were treated with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24h. The weight of soybeans increased during the first 3h of flooding, but root elongation was not observed. Using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques, 115 proteins were identified in root tips, of which 9 proteins were commonly detected by both methods. The 71 proteins identified by the gel-free proteomics were analyzed by a hierarchical clustering method based on induction levels during the flooding, and the proteins were divided into 5 clusters. Additional interaction analysis of the proteins revealed that ten proteins belonging to cluster I formed the center of a protein interaction network. mRNA expression analysis of these ten proteins showed that citrate lyase and heat shock protein 70 were down-regulated, whereas calreticulin was up-regulated in initial phase of flooding. These results suggest that flooding stress to soybean induces calcium-related signal transduction, which might play important roles in the early responses to flooding. Flooding has a severe negative effect on soybean cultivation, particularly in the early stages of growth. To better understand the response mechanisms of soybean to the early stages of flooding stress, two proteomic techniques were used. Two-day-old soybeans were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24h. The fresh weight of soybeans increased during the first 3h of flooding stress, but the growth then slowed and no root elongation was observed. Using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques, 115 proteins were identified in root tips, of which 9 proteins were commonly detected by both methods. The 71 proteins identified by the gel-free proteomics were analyzed

  7. Genome-Wide Identification of Chalcone Reductase Gene Family in Soybean: Insight into Root-Specific GmCHRs and Phytophthora sojae Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline J. Sepiol

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr is one of the main grain legumes worldwide. Soybean farmers lose billions of dollars’ worth of yield annually due to root and stem rot disease caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. Many strategies have been developed to combat the disease, however, these methods have proven ineffective in the long term. A more cost effective and durable approach is to select a trait naturally found in soybean that can increase resistance. One such trait is the increased production of phytoalexin glyceollins in soybean. Glyceollins are isoflavonoids, synthesized via the legume-specific branch of general phenylpropanoid pathway. The first key enzyme exclusively involved in glyceollin synthesis is chalcone reductase (CHR which coacts with chalcone synthase for the production of isoliquiritigenin, the precursor for glyceollin biosynthesis. Here we report the identification of 14 putative CHR genes in soybean where 11 of them are predicted to be functional. Our results show that GmCHRs display tissue-specific gene expression, and that only root-specific GmCHRs are induced upon P. sojae infection. Among 4 root-specific GmCHRs, GmCHR2A is located near a QTL that is linked to P. sojae resistance suggesting GmCHR2A as a novel locus for partial resistance that can be utilized for resistance breeding.

  8. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; Brewer, Eric; Kabir, Sara; MacDonald, Margaret H; Youssef, Reham M

    2014-04-16

    Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes.

  9. Combined effects of Lanthanum(III) and elevated Ultraviolet-B radiation on root nitrogen nutrient in soybean seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Sun, Zhaoguo; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth element pollution and elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation occur simultaneously in some regions, but the combined effects of these two factors on plants have not attracted enough attention. Nitrogen nutrient is vital to plant growth. In this study, the combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots were investigated. Treatment with 0.08 mmol L(-1) La(III) did not change the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, or soluble protein in the roots. Treatment with 0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation synergistically decreased the NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities as well as the nitrate, amino acid, and soluble protein levels, except for the GDH activity and ammonium content. Combined treatment with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation produced severely deleterious effects on all test indices, and these effects were stronger than those induced by La(III) or elevated UV-B radiation treatment alone. Following the withdrawal of La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation, all test indices for the combined treatments with 0.08/0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation recovered to a certain extent, but they could not recover for treatments with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation. In summary, combined treatment with La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation seriously affected nitrogen nutrition in soybean roots through the inhibition of nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation.

  10. Development and application of qPCR and RPA genus and species-specific detection of Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora sansomeana root rot pathogens of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean, caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important diseases in the Midwest US, causing losses of up to 44 million bushels per year. Disease may also be caused by P. sansomeana, however the prevalence and damage caused by this species is not well known, partl...

  11. Soybean Root-Derived Hierarchical Porous Carbon as Electrode Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors in Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nannan; Li, Min; Wang, Yong; Sun, Xingkai; Wang, Feng; Yang, Ru

    2016-12-14

    Soybeans are extensively cultivated worldwide as human food. However, large quantities of soybean roots (SRs), which possess an abundant three-dimensional (3D) structure, remain unused and produce enormous pressure on the environment. Here, 3D hierarchical porous carbon was prepared by the facile carbonization of SRs followed by chemical activation. The as-prepared material, possessing large specific surface area (2143 m 2 g -1 ), good electrical conductivity, and unique 3D hierarchical porosity, shows outstanding electrochemical performance as an electrode material for supercapacitors, such as a high capacitance (276 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 ), superior cycle stability (98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles at 5 A g -1 ), and good rate capability in a symmetric two-electrode supercapacitor in 6 M KOH. Furthermore, the maximum energy density of as-assembled symmetric supercapacitor can reach 100.5 Wh kg -1 in neat EMIM BF 4 . Moreover, a value of 40.7 Wh kg -1 is maintained at ultrahigh power density (63000 W kg -1 ). These results show that the as-assembled supercapacitor can simultaneously deliver superior energy and power density.

  12. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mason, Hugh S.; Bensen, Robert J.; Boyer, John S.; Mullet, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:16667248

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of soybean leaves and roots by iTRAQ provides insights into response mechanisms to short-term salt stress

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    Wei eJi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity severely threatens land use capability and crop yields worldwide. Understanding the mechanisms that protect soybean from salt stress will help in the development of salt-stress tolerant leguminous plants. Here we firstly analyzed the changes in malondialdehyde levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidases, cholorophyll contents, and Na+/K+ ratios in leaves and roots from soybean seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl for different time points, and suggested that 200 mM NaCl treated for 12 h was enough for exploring proteomic analysis to soybean seedlings. iTRAQ-based proteomic approach was used to investigate the proteomes of soybean leaves and roots under salt treatment. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002851. In total, 278 and 440 proteins with significantly altered abundance were identified in leaves and roots of soybean, respectively, with only 50 mutual unique proteins in the both tissues. These identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were mainly involved in 13 biological processes. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the proteins involved in metabolism, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and redox homeostasis constructed four types of response networks to high salt stress. Besides, semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that some of the proteins, such as 14-3-3, MMK2, PP1, TRX-h, were also regulated by salt stress at the level of transcription. These results indicated that effective regulatory protein expression related to signalling, membrane and transport, stress defense and metabolism played important roles in the short-term salt response of soybean seedlings.

  14. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Trichoderma spp. in the control of root rot disease of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ehteshamul-Haque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment of soybean with Bndyrhizobium japonicum, Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii significantly controlled the infection of 30-day-old seedlingsby Maerophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. In 60-day-old plants Trichoderma spp.. and B. japonicum inhibited the grouth of R. solani and Fusarium spp., whereas the use of B. japonicum (TAL-102 with T. harzianum. T. viride, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii controlled the infection by M. phaseolina. Greater grain yield was recorded when B. japonium (TAI-102 was used with T. hamatum.

  15. Effect of bacterial root symbiosis and urea as source of nitrogen on performance of soybean plants grown hydroponically for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Soybean is traditionally grown in soil, where root symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium japonicum can supply nitrogen (N), by means of bacterial fixation of atmospheric N2. Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit N-fixing bacteria. However, urea is profitably used in soybean cultivation in soil, where urease enzymes of telluric microbes catalyze the hydrolysis to ammonium, which has a lighter inhibitory effect compared to nitrate. Previous researches demonstrated that soybean can be grown hydroponically with recirculating complete nitrate-based nutrient solutions. In Space, urea derived from crew urine could be used as N source, with positive effects in resource procurement and waste recycling. However, whether the plants are able to use urea as the sole source of N and its effect on root symbiosis with B. japonicum is still unclear in hydroponics. We compared the effect of two N sources, nitrate and urea, on plant growth and physiology, and seed yield and quality of soybean grown in closed-loop Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) in growth chamber, with or without inoculation with B. japonicum. Urea limited plant growth and seed yield compared to nitrate by determining nutrient deficiency, due to its low utilization efficiency in the early developmental stages, and reduced nutrients uptake (K, Ca, and Mg) throughout the whole growing cycle. Root inoculation with B. japonicum did not improve plant performance, regardless of the N source. Specifically, nodulation increased under fertigation with urea compared to nitrate, but this effect did not result in higher leaf N content and better biomass and seed production. Urea was not suitable as sole N source for soybean in closed-loop NFT. However, the ability to use urea increased from young to adult plants, suggesting the possibility to apply it during reproductive phase or in combination with nitrate in earlier developmental stages. Root symbiosis did not contribute significantly to N nutrition and did not enhance the plant ability to use

  16. Agrobacterium rhizogenes - based transformation of soybean roots to form composite plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite plants are a powerful tool to rapidly analyze the effects of gene overexpression, gene silencing, and examine test promoter expression in transgenic roots. No sterile tissue culture is needed. This avoids loss of valuable material due to contamination of sterile cultures. This method uses ...

  17. Arabidopsis genes, AtNPR1, AtTGA2 and AtPR-5, confer partial resistance to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) when overexpressed in transgenic soybean roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive studies using the model system Arabidopsis thaliana to elucidate plant defense signaling and pathway networks indicate that salicylic acid (SA) is the key hormone triggering the plant defense response against biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens, while jasmonic acid (JA) and derivatives are critical to the defense response against necrotrophic pathogens. Several reports demonstrate that SA limits nematode reproduction. Results Here we translate knowledge gained from studies using Arabidopsis to soybean. The ability of thirty-one Arabidopsis genes encoding important components of SA and JA synthesis and signaling in conferring resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN: Heterodera glycines) are investigated. We demonstrate that overexpression of three of thirty-one Arabidoposis genes in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants decreased the number of cysts formed by SCN to less than 50% of those found on control roots, namely AtNPR1(33%), AtTGA2 (38%), and AtPR-5 (38%). Three additional Arabidopsis genes decreased the number of SCN cysts by 40% or more: AtACBP3 (53% of the control value), AtACD2 (55%), and AtCM-3 (57%). Other genes having less or no effect included AtEDS5 (77%), AtNDR1 (82%), AtEDS1 (107%), and AtPR-1 (80%), as compared to control. Overexpression of AtDND1 greatly increased susceptibility as indicated by a large increase in the number of SCN cysts (175% of control). Conclusions Knowledge of the pathogen defense system gained from studies of the model system, Arabidopsis, can be directly translated to soybean through direct overexpression of Arabidopsis genes. When the genes, AtNPR1, AtGA2, and AtPR-5, encoding specific components involved in SA regulation, synthesis, and signaling, are overexpressed in soybean roots, resistance to SCN is enhanced. This demonstrates functional compatibility of some Arabidopsis genes with soybean and identifies genes that may be used to engineer resistance to nematodes. PMID:24739302

  18. Peroxidase and lipid peroxidation of soybean roots in response to p-coumaric and p-hydroxybenzoic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Minatovicz F. Doblinski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the present study was to investigate how the p-coumaric (p-CA and p-hydroxybenzoic (p-HD acids affect the peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7 activity, the lipid peroxidation (LP and the root growth of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution containing p-CA or p-HD (0.1 to 1 mM for 48 h. After uptake, both compounds (at 0.5 and 1 mM decreased root length (RL, fresh weight (FW and dry weight (DW while increased soluble POD activity, cell wall (CW-bound POD activity (with 1 mM p-CA and 0.5 mM p-HD and LP.A proposta do presente trabalho foi investigar como os ácidos p-cumárico (p-CA e p-hidroxibenzóico (p-HD afetam a atividade da peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7, a peroxidação lipídica (LP e o crescimento de raízes de soja (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva com p-CA ou p-HD (0,1 a 1 mM por 48 horas. Após absorção, ambos os compostos (a 0,5 e 1 mM reduziram o comprimento das raízes (RL, a biomassa fresca (FW e a biomassa seca (DW enquanto aumentaram a atividade da POD solúvel, a atividade da POD ligada à parede celular (com p-CA 1 mM e p-HD 0,5 mM, e a LP.

  19. Immunodetection of nucleolar proteins and ultrastructure of nucleoli of soybean root meristematic cells treated with chilling stress and after recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepiński, Dariusz

    2009-03-01

    The nucleolar proteins, fibrillarin and nucleophosmin, have been identified immunofluorescently in the root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings under varying experimental conditions: at 25 degrees C (control), chilling at 10 degrees C for 3 h and 4 days and recovery from the chilling stress at 25 degrees C. In each experimental variant, the immunofluorescence signals were present solely at the nucleolar territories. Fluorescent staining for both proteins was mainly in the shape of circular domains that are assumed to correspond to the dense fibrillar component of the nucleoli. The fewest fluorescent domains were observed in the nucleoli of chilled plants, and the highest number was observed in the plants recovered after chilling. This difference in the number of circular domains in the nucleoli of each variant may indicate various levels of these proteins in each variant. Both the number of circular domains and the level of these nucleolar proteins changed with changes in the transcriptional activity of the nucleoli, with the more metabolically active cell having higher numbers of active areas in the nucleolus and higher levels of nucleolar proteins, and conversely. Electron microscopic studies revealed differences in the ultrastructure of the nucleoli in all experimental variants and confirmed that the number of fibrillar centres surrounded by dense fibrillar component was the lowest in the nucleoli of chilled plants, and the highest in the nucleoli of recovered seedlings.

  20. A Novel Sucrose-Regulatory MADS-Box Transcription Factor GmNMHC5 Promotes Root Development and Nodulation in Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The MADS-box protein family includes many transcription factors that have a conserved DNA-binding MADS-box domain. The proteins in this family were originally recognized to play prominent roles in floral development. Recent findings, especially with regard to the regulatory roles of the AGL17 subfamily in root development, have greatly broadened their known functions. In this study, a gene from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr., GmNMHC5, was cloned from the Zigongdongdou cultivar and identified as a member of the AGL17 subfamily. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that GmNMHC5 was expressed at much higher levels in roots and nodules than in other organs. The activation of expression was first examined in leaves and roots, followed by shoot apexes. GmNMHC5 expression levels rose sharply when the plants were treated under short-day conditions (SD and started to pod, whereas low levels were maintained in non-podding plants under long-day conditions (LD. Furthermore, overexpression of GmNMHC5 in transgenic soybean significantly promoted lateral root development and nodule building. Moreover, GmNMHC5 is upregulated by exogenous sucrose. These results indicate that GmNMHC5 can sense the sucrose signal and plays significant roles in lateral root development and nodule building.

  1. Investigating differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of organic compounds between zucchini, squash and soybean using a pressure chamber method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Naho; Doucette, William J; White, Jason C

    2015-07-01

    A pressure chamber method was used to examine differences in the root to shoot transfer and xylem sap solubility of caffeine (log Kow=-0.07), triclocarban (log Kow=3.5-4.2) and endosulfan (log Kow=3.8-4.8) for zucchini (cucurbita pepo ssp pepo), squash (cucurbita pepo ssp ovifera), and soybean (glycine max L.). Transpiration stream concentration factors (TSCF) for caffeine (TSCF=0.8) were statistically equivalent for all plant species. However, for the more hydrophobic endosulfan and triclocarban, the TSCF values for zucchini (TSCF=0.6 and 0.4, respectively) were 3 and 10 times greater than the soybean and squash (TSCF=0.2 and 0.05, respectively). The difference in TSCF values was examined by comparing the measured solubilities of caffeine, endosulfan and triclocarban in deionized water to those in soybean and zucchini xylem saps using a modified shake flask method. The measured solubility of organic contaminants in xylem sap has not previously been reported. Caffeine solubilities in the xylem saps of soybean and zucchini were statistically equal to deionized water (21500mgL(-1)) while endosulfan and triclocarban solubilities in the zucchini xylem sap were significantly greater (0.43 and 0.21mgL(-1), respectively) than that of the soybean xylem sap (0.31 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively) and deionized water (0.34 and 0.11mgL(-1), respectively). This suggests that the enhanced root to shoot transfer of hydrophobic organics reported for zucchini is partly due to increased solubility in the xylem sap. Further xylem sap characterization is needed to determine the mechanism of solubility enhancement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative 3-dimensional imaging of auxin and cytokinin levels in transgenic soybean and medicago truncatula roots via two-photon induced fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jon; Gaillard, Paul; Nurmalasari, Ni Putu Dewi; Fellbaum, Carl; Subramaniam, Sen; Smith, Steve

    2018-02-01

    Industrial nitrogen fertilizers account for nearly 50% of the fossil fuel costs in modern agriculture and contribute to soil and water pollution. Therefore, significant interest exists in understanding and characterizing the efficiency of nitrogen fixation, and the biochemical signaling pathways which orchestrate the plant-microbial symbiosis through which plants fix nitrogen. Legume plant species exhibit a particularly efficient nitrogen uptake mechanism, using root nodules which house nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. While nodule development has been widely studied, there remain significant gaps in understanding the regulatory hormones' role in plant development. In this work, we produce 3-dimensional maps of auxin (AX) and cytokinin (CK) hormone concentrations within model plant root tips and nodules with respect to root architecture and cell type. Soybean and Medicago plants were transfected with a two-color fluorescent vector with AXsensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) and CK-sensitive TdTomato (TdT). 3D images of soybean root nodules were captured using two-photon induced fluorescence microscopy. The resulting images were computationally analyzed using the localization code first developed by Weeks and later adapted by Kilfoil, and analyzed in the context of the root architecture. Statistical analysis of the resulting 3D hormone level maps reproduce-well the known roles of AX and CK in developing plant roots, and are the first quantitative description of these regulatory hormones tied to specific plant architecture. The analytical methods used, and the spatial distribution of these key regulatory hormones in plant roots, nodule primordia and root nodules, and their statistical interpretation are presented.

  3. Identification and Analysis of NaHCO3 Stress Responsive Genes in Wild Soybean (Glycine soja Roots by RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil alkalinity is a major abiotic constraint to crop productivity and quality. Wild soybean (Glycine soja is considered to be more stress-tolerant than cultivated soybean (G. max, and has considerable genetic variation for increasing alkalinity tolerance of soybean. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profile in the roots of an alkalinity tolerant wild soybean variety N24852 at 12 and 24 h after 90 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-sequencing. Compared with the controls, a total of 449 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, including 95 and 140 up-regulated genes, and 108 and 135 down-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 14 DEGs showed a high consistency with their expression profiles by RNA-sequencing. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to transcription factors and transporters were significantly enriched in the up-regulated genes at 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress, respectively. Nuclear Factor Y subunit A (NF-YA transcription factors were enriched at 12 h after NaHCO3 stress, and high percentages of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, ethylene-responsive factor (ERF, Trihelix and zinc finger (C2H2, C3H transcription factors were found at both 12 and 24 h after NaHCO3 stress. Genes related to ion transporters such as ABC transporter, aluminum activated malate transporter (ALMT, glutamate receptor (GLR, nitrate transporter (NRT / proton dependent oligopeptide (POT family, and S-type anion channel (SLAH were enriched in up-regulated DEGs at 24 h after NaHCO3 treatment, implying their roles in maintaining ion homeostasis in soybean roots under alkalinity. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism pathways might participate in soybean response to alkalinity. This study provides a foundation to further investigate the functions of NaHCO3 stress-responsive genes and the molecular basis of soybean tolerance to alkalinity.

  4. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, van de C.; Scheres, B.; Franssen, H.J.; Lierop, van M.J.; Lammeren, van A.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  5. The early nodulin transcript ENOD2 is located in the nodule parenchyma (inner cortex) of pea and soybean root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiel, C. van de; Scheres, B.J.G.; Franssen, H.; Lierop, M.-J.; Lammeren, A. van; Kammen, A. van; Bisseling, T.

    1990-01-01

    A pea cDNA clone homologous to the soybean early nodulin clone pGmENOD2 that most probably encodes a cell wall protein was isolated. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea ENOD2 protein shows that it contains the same repeating pentapeptides, ProProHisGluLys and ProProGluTyrGln, as the soybean

  6. Efficacy of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a biocontrol agent against root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O. Abiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 and 2013, a two-year field study was conducted at the University of Ilorin Teaching and Research Farm, Ilorin, the Southern Guinea Savannah Zone, Nigeria, with the aim to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianumT22 as a bio-control agent against a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on some soybean varieties. The experimental field, which naturally has been known for the presence of some nematodes such as Pratylenchus, Helicitylenchus, Radopholus, Meloidogyne, Rotylenchulus, Xyphinema, was divided into two blocks, each block consisting of three plots with alleys between blocks and plots measuring 5 m and 1.5 m respectively. All treatments were replicated five times by means of a Randomized Complete Block Design. The initial soil nematode population was increased by chopping six kilograms of Meloidogyne incognita galled roots of Celosia agentea from a pure culture into all the plots. One block was treated with bio-control agent Trichoderma harzianumT22 while the second block served as a control unit. The results show that in terms of plant height, the number of branches, yield and reduction of the soil nematode population and root galls, the plants on the Trichoderma treated plots performed significantly better (P=0.05 than those in the control unit did. This therefore implies that root-knot nematodes represent a major constraint in the production of soybean while Trichoderma harzianumT22 improves the yield growth and the yield of soybean as well as better controls soil nematode populations with respect to the control trials.

  7. Comparative efficacy of a red alga solieria robusta, chemical fertilizers and pesticides in managing the root diseases and growth of soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, V.; Haque, S.E.; Baloch, G.N.; Ara, J.

    2011-01-01

    Application of seaweed as soil amendment for the control of soil borne plant diseases has increased in recent years due to their environment friendly role. In screen house study, a red seaweed Solieria robusta used as soil amendment showed better suppressive effect on root rotting fungus Fusarium solani than Topsin-M, a fungicide, but was found less effective than Topsin-M against Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani on soybean. Solieria robusta showed similar suppressive effect on root knot nematode as did carbofuran, a nematicide. Seaweed showed slightly better effect on plant growth than urea or potash by producing taller plants, better root length and number of flowers per plant. However, mixed application of S.robusta and Topsin-M produced greater number of flowers per plant and tallest plants. (author)

  8. Introduction of the rd29A: AtDREB2A CA gene into soybean (Glycine max L. Merril and its molecular characterization in leaves and roots during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Engels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of soybean yield to Brazilian producers because of a water deficit in the 2011-2012 season was 12.9%. To reduce such losses, molecular biology techniques, including plant transformation, can be used to insert genes of interest into conventional soybean cultivars to produce lines that are more tolerant to drought. The abscisic acid (ABA-independent Dehydration Responsive Element Binding (DREB gene family has been used to obtain plants with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In the present study, the rd29A:AtDREB2A CA gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was inserted into soybean using biolistics. Seventy-eight genetically modified (GM soybean lines containing 2-17 copies of the AtDREB2A CA gene were produced. Two GM soybean lines (P1397 and P2193 were analyzed to assess the differential expression of the AtDREB2A CA transgene in leaves and roots submitted to various dehydration treatments. Both GM lines exhibited high expression of the transgene, with the roots of P2193 showing the highest expression levels during water deficit. Physiological parameters examined during water deficit confirmed the induction of stress. This analysis of AtDREB2A CA expression in GM soybean indicated that line P2193 had the greatest stability and highest expression in roots during water deficit-induced stress.

  9. Laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with ion mobility separation reveals metabolites in the symbiotic interactions of soybean roots and rhizobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopka, Sylwia A.; Agtuca, Beverly J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pasa Tolic, Ljiljana; Stacey, Gary; Vertes, Akos; Anderton, Christopher R.

    2017-05-23

    Technologies enabling in situ metabolic profiling of living plant systems are invaluable for understanding physiological processes and could be used for rapid phenotypic screening (e.g., to produce plants with superior biological nitrogen fixing ability). The symbiotic interaction between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria results in a specialized plant organ (i.e., root nodule), where the exchange of nutrients between host and endosymbiont occurs. Laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LAESI-MS) is a method that can be performed under ambient conditions requiring minimal sample preparation. Here, we employed LAESI-MS to explore the well-characterized symbiosis between soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and its compatible symbiont, Bradyrhizobium japonicum. The utilization of ion mobility separation (IMS) improved the molecular coverage, selectivity, and identification of the detected biomolecules. Specifically, incorporation of IMS resulted in an increase of 153 detected metabolites in the nodule samples. The data presented demonstrates the advantages of using LAESI-IMS-MS for the rapid analysis of intact root nodules, uninfected root segments, and free-living rhizobia. Untargeted pathway analysis revealed several metabolic processes within the nodule (e.g., zeatin, riboflavin, and purine synthesis). Compounds specific to the uninfected root and bacteria were also detected. Lastly, we performed depth-profiling of intact nodules to reveal the location of metabolites to the cortex and inside the infected region, and lateral profiling of sectioned nodules confirmed these molecular distributions. Our results established the feasibility of LAESI-IMS-MS for the analysis and spatial mapping of plant tissues, with its specific demonstration to improve our understanding of the soybean-rhizobial symbiosis.

  10. A novel, multiplexed, probe-based quantitative PCR assay for the soybean root- and stem-rot pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, utilizes its transposable element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haudenshield, James S; Song, Jeong Y; Hartman, Glen L

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae (Kaufm. & Gerd.). P. sojae has a narrow host range, consisting primarily of soybean, and it is a serious pathogen worldwide. It exists in root and stem tissues as mycelium, wherein it can form oospores which subsequently germinate to release motile, infectious zoospores. Molecular assays detecting DNA of P. sojae are useful in disease diagnostics, and for determining the presence of the organism in host tissues, soils, and runoff or ponded water from potentially infested fields. Such assays as published have utilized ITS sequences from the nuclear ribosomal RNA genes in conventional PCR or dye-binding quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) but are not amenable to multiplexing, and some of these assays did not utilize control strategies for type I or type II errors. In this study, we describe primers and a bifunctional probe with specificity to a gypsy-like retroelement in the P. sojae genome to create a fluorogenic 5'-exonuclease linear hydrolysis assay, with a multiplexed internal control reaction detecting an exogenous target to validate negative calls, and with uracil-deglycosylase-mediated protection against carryover contamination. The assay specifically detected 13 different P. sojae isolates, and excluded 17 other Phytophthora species along with 20 non-Phytophthora fungal and oomycete species pathogenic on soybean. A diagnostic limit of detection of 34 fg total P. sojae DNA was observed in serial dilutions, equivalent to 0.3 genome, and a practical detection sensitivity of four zoospores per sample was achieved, despite losses during DNA extraction.

  11. Host suitability of soybean and corn genotypes to the root lesion caused by nematode under natural infestation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderli Divina Ferreira Rios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Among the nematode management strategies, genetic resistance is one of the most appropriate and desirable. However, resistant soybean and corn genotypes resistant to Pratylenchus brachyurus are not available up to the moment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the host suitability of 50 soybean and 38 corn genotypes to P. brachyurus under natural infestation. Soybean genotypes BRSGO Chapadões, BRSGO Paraíso, M-Soy 7211 RR, M-Soy 8008 RR, Emgopa 313 RR, M-Soy 8411, BRSGO Juliana RR, Emgopa 316 RR, BRSGO Luziânia RR and TMG 103 RR, and corn genotype Agromem 30A06 reduced the nematode population during the evaluation period.

  12. Various forms of organic and inorganic P fertilizers did not negatively affect soil- and root-inhabiting AM fungi in a maize-soybean rotation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, M S; Gauthier, M-P; Hamel, C; Zhang, T; Welacky, T; Tan, C S; St-Arnaud, M

    2013-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are key components of most agricultural ecosystems. Therefore, understanding the impact of agricultural practices on their community structure is essential to improve nutrient mobilization and reduce plant stress in the field. The effects of five different organic or mineral sources of phosphorus (P) for a maize-soybean rotation system on AM fungal diversity in roots and soil were assessed over a 3-year period. Total DNA was extracted from root and soil samples collected at three different plant growth stages. An 18S rRNA gene fragment was amplified and taxa were detected and identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis followed by sequencing. AM fungal biomass was estimated by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Soil P fertility parameters were also monitored and analyzed for possible changes related with fertilization or growth stages. Seven AM fungal ribotypes were detected. Fertilization significantly modified soil P flux, but had barely any effect on AM fungi community structure or biomass. There was no difference in the AM fungal community between plant growth stages. Specific ribotypes could not be significantly associated to P treatment. Ribotypes were associated with root or soil samples with variable detection frequencies between seasons. AM fungal biomass remained stable throughout the growing seasons. This study demonstrated that roots and soil host distinct AM fungal communities and that these are very temporally stable. The influence of contrasting forms of P fertilizers was not significant over 3 years of crop rotation.

  13. Initial organic products of fixation of [13N]dinitrogen by root nodules of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, J.C.; Wolk, C.P.; Schilling, N.; Shaffer, P.W.; Avissar, Y.; Chien, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    When detached soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Hark, nodules assimilate ( 13 N)N 2 , the initial organic product of fixation is glutamine; glutamate becomes more highly radioactive than glutamine within 1 minute; 13 N in alanine becomes detectable at 1 minute of fixation and increases rapidly between 1 and 2 minutes. After 15 minutes of fixation, the major 13 N-labeled organic products in both detached and attached nodules are glutamate and alanine, plus, in the case of attached nodules, an unidentified substance, whereas ( 13 N)glutamine comprises only a small fraction of organic 13 N, and very little 13 N is detected in asparagine. The fixation of ( 13 N)N 2 into organic products was inhibited more than 99 percent by C 2 H 2 (10 percent, v/v). The results support the idea that the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase pathway is the primary route for assimilation of fixed nitrogen in soybean nodules

  14. Genome sequences of two Phytophthora species responsible for Sudden Oak Death and Soybean Root Rot provide novel insights into their evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Brett M.; Tripathi, Sucheta; Aerts, Andrea; Bensasson, Douda; Dehal, Paramvir; Dubchak, Inna; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gijzen, Mark; Huang, Wayne; Ivors, Kelly; Jiang, Rays; Kamoun, Sophien; Krampis, Konstantinos; Lamour, Kurt; McDonald, Hayes; Medina, Monica; Morris, Paul; Putnam, Nik; Rash, Sam; Salamov, Asaf; Smith, Brian; Smith, Joe; Terry, Astrid; Torto, Trudy; Grigoriev, Igor; Rokhsar, Daniel; Boore, Jeffrey

    2005-12-01

    The approximately 60 species of Phytophthora are all destructive pathogens, causing rots of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of a wide range of agriculturally and ornamentally important plants (1). Some species, such as P. cinnamomi, P. parasitica and P. cactorum, each attack hundreds of different plant host species, whereas others are more restricted. Some of the crops where Phytophthora infections cause the greatest financial losses include potato, soybean, tomato, alfalfa, tobacco, peppers, cucurbits, pineapple, strawberry, raspberry and a wide range of perennial tree crops, especially citrus, avocado, almonds, walnuts, apples and cocoa, and they also heavily affect the ornamental, nursery and forestry industries. The economic damage overall to crops in the United States by Phytophthora species is estimated in the tens of billions of dollars, including the costs of control measures, and worldwide it is many times this amount (1). In the northern midwest of the U.S., P. sojae causes $200 million in annual losses to soybean alone, and worldwide causes around $1-2 billion in losses per year. P. infestans infections resulted in the Irish potato famine last century and continues to be a difficult and worsening problem for potato and tomato growers worldwide, with worldwide costs estimated at $5 billion per year.

  15. Flooding of the root system in soybean: biochemical and molecular aspects of N metabolism in the nodule during stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sarah C R; Mazzafera, Paulo; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen fixation of the nodule of soybean is highly sensitive to oxygen deficiency such as provoked by waterlogging of the root system. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of flooding on N metabolism in nodules of soybean. Flooding resulted in a marked decrease of asparagine (the most abundant amino acid) and a concomitant accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Flooding also resulted in a strong reduction of the incorporation of (15)N2 in amino acids. Nodule amino acids labelled before flooding rapidly lost (15)N during flooding, except for GABA, which initially increased and declined slowly thereafter. Both nitrogenase activity and the expression of nifH and nifD genes were strongly decreased on flooding. Expression of the asparagine synthetase genes SAS1 and SAS2 was reduced, especially the former. Expression of genes encoding the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1, GAD4, GAD5) was also strongly suppressed except for GAD2 which increased. Almost all changes observed during flooding were reversible after draining. Possible changes in asparagine and GABA metabolism that may explain the marked fluctuations of these amino acids during flooding are discussed. It is suggested that the accumulation of GABA has a storage role during flooding stress.

  16. Water Deficit and Abscisic Acid Cause Differential Inhibition of Shoot versus Root Growth in Soybean Seedlings : Analysis of Growth, Sugar Accumulation, and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Mason, H S; Bensen, R J; Boyer, J S; Mullet, J E

    1990-01-01

    Roots often continue to elongate while shoot growth is inhibited in plants subjected to low-water potentials. The cause of this differential response to water deficit was investigated. We examined hypocotyl and root growth, polysome status and mRNA populations, and abscisic acid (ABA) content in etiolated soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) seedlings whose growth was inhibited by transfer to low-water potential vermiculite or exogenous ABA. Both treatments affected growth and dry weight in a similar fashion. Maximum inhibition of hypocotyl growth occurred when internal ABA levels (modulated by ABA application) reached the endogenous level found in the elongating zone of seedlings grown in water-deficient vermiculite. Conversely, root growth was affected to only a slight extent in low-water potential seedlings and by most ABA treatments (in some, growth was promoted). In every seedling section examined, transfer of seedlings into low-water potential vermiculite caused ABA levels to increase approximately 5- to 10-fold over that found in well-watered seedlings. Changes in soluble sugar content, polysome status, and polysome mRNA translation products seen in low-water potential seedlings did not occur with ABA treatments sufficient to cause significant inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. These data suggest that both variation in endogenous ABA levels, and differing sensitivity to ABA in hypocotyls and roots can modulate root/shoot growth ratios. However, exogenous ABA did not induce changes in sugar accumulation, polysome status, and mRNA populations seen after transfer into low-water potential vermiculite.

  17. Transcriptional profiling of root-knot nematode induced feeding sites in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. using a soybean genome array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sayan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The locus Rk confers resistance against several species of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., RKN in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Based on histological and reactive oxygen species (ROS profiles, Rk confers a delayed but strong resistance mechanism without a hypersensitive reaction-mediated cell death process, which allows nematode development but blocks reproduction. Results Responses to M. incognita infection in roots of resistant genotype CB46 and a susceptible near-isogenic line (null-Rk were investigated using a soybean Affymetrix GeneChip expression array at 3 and 9 days post-inoculation (dpi. At 9 dpi 552 genes were differentially expressed in incompatible interactions (infected resistant tissue compared with non-infected resistant tissue and 1,060 genes were differentially expressed in compatible interactions (infected susceptible tissue compared with non-infected susceptible tissue. At 3 dpi the differentially expressed genes were 746 for the incompatible and 623 for the compatible interactions. When expression between infected resistant and susceptible genotypes was compared, 638 and 197 genes were differentially expressed at 9 and 3 dpi, respectively. Conclusions In comparing the differentially expressed genes in response to nematode infection, a greater number and proportion of genes were down-regulated in the resistant than in the susceptible genotype, whereas more genes were up-regulated in the susceptible than in the resistant genotype. Gene ontology based functional categorization revealed that the typical defense response was partially suppressed in resistant roots, even at 9 dpi, allowing nematode juvenile development. Differences in ROS concentrations, induction of toxins and other defense related genes seem to play a role in this unique resistance mechanism.

  18. Atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica e Heterodera glycines em raízes excisadas de soja Attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica and Heterodera glycines in excised soybean roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Com vista ao estudo de atração e penetração de Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood e Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe em soja (Glycine max L., desenvolveu-se uma técnica empregando-se segmento de raiz com 2cm de comprimento. Nos segmentos de raiz de soja infectados, observou-se que a penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. javanica ocorre pela coifa seguida de migração entre os feixes vasculares do cilindro central. Juvenis de H. glycines penetraram, aproximadamente, 15mm da coifa. A região seccionada da raiz de soja atraiu três vezes mais J2 de M. javanica do que a região da coifa, mas esta não foi tão atrativa para J2 de H. glycines. A obstrução conjunta da coifa e do local seccionado reduziu (83% a penetração de J2, tanto de M. javanica quanto de H. glycines. Quando apenas um desses locais foi obstruído, a outra extremidade livre compensou o processo atrativo. Portanto, as substâncias atrativas são liberadas por essas extremidades. A penetração de J2 de M. javanica foi maior no segmento de raiz quando comparada com a plântula intacta de soja. Entretanto, os J2 de H. glycines penetraram menos em segmentos de raiz e em plântulas sem folhas, quando comparados com plântulas intactas e com as seccionadas no colo. Portanto, na cultivar de soja "Embrapa 20", a atração e os locais de penetração de J2 de H. glycines e M. javanica são diferenciados. Esta técnica poderá ser útil nos estudos de atração e penetração de outros nematoides endoparasitas.To study the attraction and penetration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood and Heterodera glycines (Ichinoe in soybean (Glycine max L., a technique using 2-cm long root segments was developed. In infected soybean root segments penetration of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. javanica occured through the root cap following migration between the vascular bundles of the central cylinder. Juveniles of H. glycines penetrated about 15mm from the root cap. The cut

  19. Characterization of Soybean WRKY Gene Family and Identification of Soybean WRKY Genes that Promote Resistance to Soybean Cyst Nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan; Chi, Yingjun; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2017-12-19

    WRKY proteins are a superfamily of plant transcription factors with important roles in plants. WRKY proteins have been extensively analyzed in plant species including Arabidopsis and rice. Here we report characterization of soybean WRKY gene family and their functional analysis in resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the most important soybean pathogen. Through search of the soybean genome, we identified 174 genes encoding WRKY proteins that can be classified into seven groups as established in other plants. WRKY variants including a WRKY-related protein unique to legumes have also been identified. Expression analysis reveals both diverse expression patterns in different soybean tissues and preferential expression of specific WRKY groups in certain tissues. Furthermore, a large number of soybean WRKY genes were responsive to salicylic acid. To identify soybean WRKY genes that promote soybean resistance to SCN, we first screened soybean WRKY genes for enhancing SCN resistance when over-expressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots. To confirm the results, we transformed five WRKY genes into a SCN-susceptible soybean cultivar and generated transgenic soybean lines. Transgenic soybean lines overexpressing three WRKY transgenes displayed increased resistance to SCN. Thus, WRKY genes could be explored to develop new soybean cultivars with enhanced resistance to SCN.

  20. An overview of the metabolic differences between Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 bacteria and differentiated bacteroids from soybean (Glycine max) root nodules: an in vitro 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vauclare, Pierre; Bligny, Richard; Gout, Elisabeth; Widmer, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that induce root nodules formation in legume soybean (Glycine max.). Using 13 C- and 31 P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have analysed the metabolite profiles of cultivated B. japonicum cells and bacteroids isolated from soybean nodules. Our results revealed some quantitative and qualitative differences between the metabolite profiles of bacteroids and their vegetative state. This includes in bacteroids a huge accumulation of soluble carbohydrates such as trehalose, glutamate, myo-inositol and homo-spermidine as well as Pi, nucleotide pools and intermediates of the primary carbon metabolism. Using this novel approach, these data show that most of the compounds detected in bacteroids reflect the metabolic adaptation of rhizobia to the surrounding microenvironment with its host plant cells. (authors)

  1. Crescimento radicular de soja em razão da sucessão de cultivos e da compactação do solo Soybean root growth as affected by previous crop and soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Helena da Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o crescimento radicular e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivada após diversas espécies vegetais, em solo com diferentes níveis de compactação. O trabalho foi realizado em vasos contendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho, textura franco arenosa, com camada de 3,5 cm (profundidade de 15 a 18,5 cm compactada até as densidades 1,12, 1,36 e 1,60 Mg m-3, onde cultivaram-se anteriormente aveia-preta, guandu, milheto, mucuna-preta, soja, sorgo granífero e tremoço-azul, e um tratamento sem planta (pousio. Essas espécies se desenvolveram por 37 a 39 dias, foram cortadas ao nível do solo, picadas em partes de aproximadamente 3 cm e deixadas sobre a superfície do vaso por 40 dias. Após esse período, cultivou-se a soja até 28 dias após a emergência, quando, então, as plantas foram colhidas. Foram avaliados produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, e comprimento e diâmetro radicular da soja. O cultivo anterior com aveia-preta, guandu e milheto favoreceu o crescimento radicular da soja abaixo de camadas compactadas do solo. Independentemente do nível de compactação, o cultivo anterior com qualquer das espécies estudadas beneficiou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da soja.This study aimed at evaluating root growth and shoot dry matter production of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cropped after different vegetal species, in a soil with different compaction levels. The experiment was conducted in pots containing a Dark-Red Latosol (Acrortox, loamy sand, and the pots had a layer 3.5 cm (15 to 18.5 cm thick and 15 cm deep compacted to 1.12, 1.36 and 1.60 Mg m-3. Before soybean, the pots were cropped with black oat, pigeon pea, pearl millet, black mucuna, soybean, grain sorghum and lupin, plus a treatment without plants. These species were grown for 37 to 39 days, when they were cut at soil level, prick in particles of

  2. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increases in snap bean and soybean seedling diseases associated with a chloride salt and changes in the micro-partitioning of tap root calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a series of field experiments from 1995 through 2010, the incidence of seedling diseases of snap bean and soybean caused by Rhizoctonia solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium spp., and Fusarium spp. was greater with an application of KCl than with K2SO4 applied at 93 kg K/ha. To determine if th...

  4. Root growth and lignification of glyphosate susceptible and resistant soybean at low temperaturesCrescimento e lignificação de raízes de soja convencional e resistente ao glifosato, em baixa temperatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia da Costa Zonetti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature stress affects plant growth, including primary and secondary metabolism. Glyphosateresistant soybean contains a modified DNA, which encodes a different type of secondary metabolism enzyme related to lignin synthesis compared to conventional glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. Thus, this soybean cultivar might respond differently to low temperatures, compared to glyphosate-susceptible cultivars. This work aimed to investigate how decreasing temperatures influence the growth and lignin content of the glyphosate-resistant soybean compared to its susceptible parental cultivars. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution at 10, 15, 20, and 25°C (±2°C, using a 12-h photoperiod. After 96 h, taproot growth, fresh and dry biomass, and lignin levels were determined. The results indicate that lower temperatures decreased seedling and root growth in both types of cultivars; however, glyphosate-resistant soybean exhibited greater root length, biomass, and lignin content compared to the glyphosate-susceptible parental cultivar. O estresse causado pela baixa temperatura, dentre outras implicações, afeta o crescimento do vegetal assim como o seu metabolismo secundário. Pelo fato da soja RR apresentar variante enzimática de uma das principais vias do metabolismo secundário, ligada à síntese de lignina, pode apresentar comportamento diferenciado, sob baixa temperatura, se comparada com sua linhagem parental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar possíveis diferenças no crescimento e nos conteúdos de lignina nas raízes de soja cultivar transgênica resistente ao glifosato e cultivar parental em resposta a redução de temperatura. Após três dias de germinação das sementes, as plântulas foram mantidas em solução nutritiva, a 10, 15, 20 e 25°C (±2°C, com fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Após 96 horas, foi avaliado o comprimento relativo da raiz primária, biomassa fresca e seca das raízes e os teores de lignina

  5. Regulation of nitrogen uptake and assimilation: Effects of nitrogen source and root-zone and aerial environment on growth and productivity of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, C. David, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The interdependence of root and shoot growth produces a functional equilibrium as described in quantitative terms by numerous authors. It was noted that bean seedlings grown in a constant environment tended to have a constant distribution pattern of dry matter between roots and leaves characteristic of the set of environmental conditions. Disturbing equilibrium resulted in a change in relative growth of roots and leaves until the original ratio was restored. To define a physiological basis for regulation of nitrogen uptake within the balance between root and shoot activities, the authors combined a partioning scheme and a utilization priority assumption in which: (1) all carbon enters the plant through photosynthesis in leaves and all nitrogen enters the plant through active uptake by roots, (2) nitrogen uptake by roots and secretion into the xylem for transport to the shoots are active processes, (3) availability of exogenous nitrogen determines concentration of soluble carbohydrates within the roots, (4) leaves are a source and a sink for carbohydrates, and (5) the requirement for nitrogen by leaf growth is proportionally greater during initiation and early expansion than during later expansion.

  6. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying

    1989-01-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with 3 H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia

  7. Transgenic soybean overexpressing GmSamT1 exhibits resistance to multiple-HG types of soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) salicylic acid methyl transferase (GmSAMT1) catalyzes the conversion of salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Prior results showed that when GmSAMT1 was overexpressed in transgenic soybean hairy roots, resistance is conferred against soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heter...

  8. Effect of fertilization and soil treatment on the soybean nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel aziz, H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. ) is one of the most important leguminosae crops all over the world. It is considered one of the most important protein sources for human and animals. During the last 20 years, soybean was introduced to Egypt, however the nodulation of soybean under field conditions remains a problem because the egyptian soils were void of soybean rhizobia. Since soybean is a leguminosae crop, symbiosis with root - nodule R hizobium might play a significant role in the management of its production . Nevertheless, soybean suffers from poor nodulation in egypt, hence nitrogenase fertilization for legume is a logical practice. Soybean can utilize both soil -N or applied N and symbiotically fixed atmospheric nitrogen under normal field condition. The fixation of atmospheric N by the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis is an integrated process in which the host plant ( macrosymbiont) supplies the bacterium (microsymbiont) with energy and the bacterium supplies the plant with reduced N. figs.,172 refs

  9. RNA-seq data comparisons of wild soybean genotypes in response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyou Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] is an important crop rich in vegetable protein and oil, and is a staple food for human and animals worldwide. However, soybean plants have been challenged by soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines, one of the most damaging pests found in soybean fields. Applying SCN-resistant cultivars is the most efficient and environmentally friendly strategy to manage SCN. Currently, soybean breeding and further improvement in soybean agriculture are hindered by severely limited genetic diversity in cultivated soybeans. G. soja is a soybean wild progenitor with much higher levels of genetic diversity compared to cultivated soybeans. In this study, transcriptomes of the resistant and susceptible genotypes of the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb & Zucc, were sequenced to examine the genetic basis of SCN resistance. Seedling roots were treated with infective second-stage juveniles (J2s of the soybean cyst nematode (HG type 2.5.7 for 3, 5, 8 days and pooled for library construction and RNA sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing generated approximately 245 million (M high quality (Q > 30 raw sequence reads (125 bp in length for twelve libraries. The raw sequence reads were deposited in NCBI sequence read archive (SRA database, with the accession numbers SRR5227314-25. Further analysis of this data would be helpful to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of soybean-SCN interaction and facilitate the development of diverse SCN resistance cultivars.

  10. Interaction of Heterodera glycines and Glomus mosseae on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, T C; Winkler, H E; Wilson, G W

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus mosseae on Heterodera glycines-soybean interactions were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal soybean cultivars that were either resistant or susceptible to H. glycines were exposed to initial nematode population densities (Pi) of 0, 100, 1,000, or 10,000 eggs and infective juveniles. Soybean growth, nematode reproduction, and AM fungal colonization were determined after 35 (experiment I) and 83 (experiment II) days. Soybean shoot and root weights were reduced an average 29% across H. glycines Pi but were 36% greater overall in the presence of G. mosseae. Analyses of variance indicated that root colonization and stimulation of soybean growth by G. mosseae were inhibited at high H. glycines Pi, while the combined effects of the nematode and fungus on soybean growth were best described as additive in linear regression models. No evidence for increased nematode tolerance of mycorrhizal soybean plants was observed. Nematode population densities and reproduction were lower on a nematode-resistant soybean cultivar than on a susceptible cultivar, but reproduction was comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Root colonization by G. mosseae was reduced at high nematode Pi. The results suggest that nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a more likely consequence of interactions between H. glycines and AM fungi on soybean than is nematode suppression by the fungus.

  11. Effect of Soybean Population and Spatial Arrangement on Nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was conducted in 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons at the research farm of the National Root Crops Research Institute, Umudike, Abia State, to determine the effect of soybean population and spatial arrangement on the productivity of ginger/soybean intercrop in South Eastern Nigeria. Treatments comprised ...

  12. Expression of Arabidopsis genes AtNPR1 and AtTGA2 in transgenic soybean roots of composite plants confers resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most destructive of the plant parasitic nematodes, infecting almost all cultivated plants and resulting in yield losses of billions of dollars annually. NPR1 (nonexpresser of pathogenesis related genes 1, AtNPR1) plays a positive role in the ...

  13. Nitrogen credits from cowpea, soybean, groundnut and Mucuna to

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    fixing capacity. A field study was conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Ejura in the forest savanna transition ..... plants. Soybean, cowpea, and groundnut could be susceptible to various root knot nematode ..... Maize and legumes production guide.

  14. Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kinloch, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

  15. Changes in anatomy and root cell ultrastructure of soybean genotypes under manganese stress Alterações anatômicas e ultraestruturais em genótipos de soja pela desordem nutricional em manganês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lavres Junior

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The deleterious effects of both Mn deficiency and excess on the development of plants have been evaluated with regard to aspects of shoot anatomy, ultrastructure and biochemistry, focusing mainly on the manifestation of visual symptoms. However, there is little information in the literature on changes in the root system in response to Mn supply. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Mn doses (0.5, 2.0 and 200.0 μmol L-1 in a nutrient solution on the anatomy of leaves and roots of the Glycine max (L. cultivars Santa Rosa, IAC-15 and IAC-Foscarin 31. Visual deficiency symptoms were first observed in Santa Rosa and IAC-15, which were also the only cultivars where Mn-toxicity symptoms were observed. Only in IAC-15, a high Mn supply led to root diameter thickening, but without alteration in cells of the bark, epidermis, exodermis and endodermis. The degree of disorganization of the xylem vessels, in particular the metaxylem, differed in the cultivars. Quantity and shape of the palisade parenchyma cells were influenced by both Mn deficiency and toxicity. A reduction in the number of chloroplasts was observed in the three Mn-deficient genotypes. The anatomical alterations in IAC-15 due to nutritional stress were greater, as expressed in extensive root cell cytoplasm disorganization and increased vacuolation at high Mn doses. The degree of changes in the anatomical and ultrastructural organization of roots and leaves of the soybean genotypes studied differed, suggesting the existence of tolerance mechanisms to different intensities of Mn deficiency or excess.Os efeitos negativos provocados não apenas pela deficiência mas também pela toxidez de Mn no desenvolvimento das plantas têm sido avaliados considerando-se os aspectos anatômicos, de ultraestrutura e bioquímicos da parte aérea particularmente, onde os sintomas visuais são manifestados. Entretanto, há escassez na literatura de informações que abordem o sistema

  16. Transporte de enxofre para as raízes de soja em três solos de Minas Gerais Sulphur transport toward soybean roots in three soils from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi José Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a contribuição do fluxo em massa e da difusão no transporte de S para a superfície das raízes de soja, conduziu-se um ensaio em casa de vegetação, com amostras de três solos dos municípios de Viçosa, Paracatu e Lassance. Essas amostras apresentavam, respectivamente, 5,0, 1,2 e 1,4 mg dm-3 de S disponível, obtidos pelo extrator Ca(H2PO42, 500 mg L-1 de P em HOAc 2 mol L-1. O experimento correspondeu a um fatorial 3 x 5, sendo três solos e cinco doses de S (0, 20, 40, 80 e 160 mg dm-3, dispostos em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A umidade, controlada pelo uso de um tensiômetro por vaso, foi mantida próximo a -10 kPa durante todo o ensaio. O fluxo em massa foi o principal mecanismo de transporte de S para a superfície das raízes da soja. Quando a concentração de S na solução do solo foi alta, esse mecanismo supriu quantidades de S superiores às absorvidas pela planta. A contribuição da difusão para o suprimento de S ocorreu apenas em baixa concentração desse nutriente na solução do solo.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the mass flow and diffusion contributions on sulphur transport toward soybean roots in soil surface samples (0-20 cm of three soils collected in Viçosa, Paracatu and Lassance, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Originally, the soil samples presented 5.0, 1.2 and 1.4 mg dm-3 of available S, respectively, obtained by extraction with a Ca(H2PO42 solution containing 500 mg L-1 of P in HOAc 2 mol L-1 solution. A 3x5 factorial layout was used with three soils and five S rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg dm-3, disposed in a randomized complete block design, with four replications. Tensiometers controlled the soil water potential in each pot and the potential was maintained around -10 kPa. The mass flow was the main mechanism of S transport to soybean roots. At high concentration in soil solution, the quantities supplied by mass flow were higher than those

  17. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  18. Mycorrhizal association in soybean and weeds in competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Maria Teixeira Fialho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mycorrhizal association on the interference of Bidens pilosa, Urochloa decumbens and Eleusine indica on soybean culture in two conditions: a plants competing without contact with roots of another species; b with contact between roots. At 60 days after planting, growth, nutrient accumulation and mycorrhizal colonization of soybean and weeds were evaluated. The contact between roots of soybean plant and weed species increased the negative interference effects for both species, with less growth and nutrient accumulation. With the individualization of roots, higher competition occurred for soil resources up to 60 days of coexistence between species. In competition with soybean, Bidens pilosa and Urochloa decumbens stood out in accumulation of most nutrients without differing from when cultivated in monocultivation. The increase of the soybean mycorrhizal colonization was 53, 40 and 33% when in competition with Urochloa decumbens, Eleusine indica and Bidens pilosa species, respectively. A positive interaction occurred for soybean mycorrhizal colonization and competing plants irrespective of weed species or root contact.

  19. Evaluation of high yielding soybean germplasm under water limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Silvas J; Murphy, Mackensie; Mutava, Raymond N; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Nguyen, Na; Kim, Yoon Ha; Pathan, Safiullah M; Shannon, Grover J; Valliyodan, Babu; Nguyen, Henry T

    2016-05-01

    Limited information is available for soybean root traits and their plasticity under drought stress. To date, no studies have focused on examining diverse soybean germplasm for regulation of shoot and root response under water limited conditions across varying soil types. In this study, 17 genetically diverse soybean germplasm lines were selected to study root response to water limited conditions in clay (trial 1) and sandy soil (trial 2) in two target environments. Physiological data on shoot traits was measured at multiple crop stages ranging from early vegetative to pod filling. The phenotypic root traits, and biomass accumulation data are collected at pod filling stage. In trial 1, the number of lateral roots and forks were positively correlated with plot yield under water limitation and in trial 2, lateral root thickness was positively correlated with the hill plot yield. Plant Introduction (PI) 578477A and 088444 were found to have higher later root number and forks in clay soil with higher yield under water limitation. In sandy soil, PI458020 was found to have a thicker lateral root system and higher yield under water limitation. The genotypes identified in this study could be used to enhance drought tolerance of elite soybean cultivars through improved root traits specific to target environments. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Utilizing soybean milk to culture soybean pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liquid and semi-solid culture media are used to maintain and proliferate bacteria, fungi, and Oomycetes for research in microbiology and plant pathology. In this study, a comparison was made between soybean milk medium, also referred to as soymilk, and media traditionally used for culturing soybean ...

  1. Induced marker gene mutations in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, S.; Palmer, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Non-fluorescent root mutants in soybean are useful as markers in genetic studies. 13 such mutants were detected among more than 150 000 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with 6 mutagens. One of them, derived from variety 'Williams' treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to the already known spontaneous non-fluorescent mutants. It was assigned the identification no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5. The other mutants corresponded with known loci fr1, fr2 or fr4. (author)

  2. Obligatory reduction of ferric chelates in iron uptake by soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, R L; Brown, J C; Tiffin, L O

    1972-08-01

    The contrasting Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) chelating properties of the synthetic chelators ethylenediaminedi (o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (EDDHA) and 4,7-di(4-phenylsulfonate)-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate) (BPDS) were used to determine the valence form of Fe absorbed by soybean roots supplied with Fe(3+)-chelates. EDDHA binds Fe(3+) strongly, but Fe(2+) weakly; BPDS binds Fe(2+) strongly but Fe(3+) weakly. Addition of an excess of BPDS to nutrient solutions containing Fe(3+)-chelates inhibited soybean Fe uptake-translocation by 99+%; [Fe(II) (BPDS)(3)](4-) accumulated in the nutrient solution. The addition of EDDHA caused little or no inhibition. These results were observed with topped and intact soybeans. Thus, separation and absorption of Fe from Fe(3+)-chelates appear to require reduction of Fe(3+)-chelate to Fe(2+)-chelate at the root, with Fe(2+) being the principal form of Fe absorbed by soybean.

  3. Culturable endophytic bacterial communities associated with field-grown soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Lopes, K B; Carpentieri-Pipolo, V; Oro, T H; Stefani Pagliosa, E; Degrassi, G

    2016-03-01

    Assess the diversity of the culturable endophytic bacterial population associated with transgenic and nontransgenic soybean grown in field trial sites in Brazil and characterize them phenotypically and genotypically focusing on characteristics related to plant growth promotion. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from roots, stems and leaves of soybean cultivars (nontransgenic (C) and glyphosate-resistant (GR) transgenic soybean), including the isogenic BRS133 and BRS245RR. Significant differences were observed in bacterial densities in relation to genotype and tissue from which the isolates were obtained. The highest number of bacteria was observed in roots and in GR soybean. Based on characteristics related to plant growth promotion, 54 strains were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis, with most of the isolates belonging to the species Enterobacter ludwigii and Variovorax paradoxus. Among the isolates, 44·4% were able to either produce indoleacetic acid (IAA) or solubilize phosphates, and 9·2% (all from GR soybean) presented both plant growth-promoting activities. The results from this study indicate that the abundance of endophytic bacterial communities of soybean differs between cultivars and in general it was higher in the transgenic cultivars than in nontransgenic cultivars. BRS 245 RR exhibited no significant difference in abundance compared to nontransgenic BRS133. This suggests that the impact of the management used in the GR soybean fields was comparable with the impacts of some enviromental factors. However, the bacterial endophytes associated to GR and nontransgenic soybean were different. The soybean-associated bacteria showing characteristics related to plant growth promotion were identified as belonging to the species Pantoea agglomerans and Variovorax paradoxus. Our study demonstrated differences concerning compostion of culturable endophytic bacterial population in nontransgenic and transgenic soybean. © 2016 The Society for Applied

  4. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos = Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Augusto Alves da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seisrepetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em raçãotestemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens.Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento eperíodo total.Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatmentsand six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA, cassava root silage with inoculant (CI, cassava root silage + whole soybean (CS and

  5. Zinc in soybeans. Chemical nature and bioavilability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.

    1987-01-01

    Soybeans were grown hydroponically and intrinsically labeled with 65 Zn through root absorption, stem injection and foliar application. Stem injection resulted in the greatest accumulation of 65 Zn. Regardless of the labeling technique, approximately 40-45% of the seed 65 Zn was associated with the subcellular organelles. The pattern of 65 Zn incorporation into soybeans did not change appreciably as a result of the labelling technique. The major portion of the soluble 65 Zn was either free or associated with very low molecular weight proteins, peptides, or their complexes with phytic acid rather than the major proteins of soybeans. Zinc in soybeans is ionically bound to proteins, peptides and phytic acid. Autoclaving did not affect the chemical association of zinc with soy proteins. Solubility of protein, zinc and phytic acid was studied over the pH range of 3.5-12.0. Bioavailability of zinc to rats from soybeans was lower than from casein and rats adapted to a casein basal diet absorbed more 65 Zn from both casein and soy than rats adapted to a soy basal diet

  6. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  7. Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-09-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans.

  8. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod+ and Nod++) roots and less abundant in Nod− soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod−, Nod+, or Nod++). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod− soybeans was more similar to that in Nod++ soybeans than to that in Nod+ soybeans. PMID:18658280

  9. Efeito do alumínio sobre o crescimento de raízes, peso seco da parte aérea e raízes de diferentes cultivares de soja Effect of aluminum on root growth, dry matter weight of the above ground parts and roots of soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipolito Assunção Antonio Mascarenhas

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram instalados dois experimentos preliminares, em solução nutritiva, para avaliar a tolerância da soja ao alumínio. No primeiro, foram testados os cultivares Cristalina e UFV-1, utilizando-se os teores 0, 5, 10 e 20mg/litro de Al. Esses níveis foram muito altos e reduziram drasticamente o comprimento das raízes primarias das plântulas após sete dias de crescimento. Com base nesses dados, outro experimento foi instalado, testando os cultivares Lee, Bragg, Cristalina e UFV-1. a 0, 1, 2 e 4mg/litro de Al. Os resultados mostraram que o comprimento das raízes primárias das plântulas foi melhor parâmetro do que o peso seco da parte aérea ou das raízes, para avaliar tolerância de soja ao alumínio. O nível de 1mg/litro na solução foi suficiente para separar os cultivares susceptíveis e tolerantes, enquanto os níveis de 2 e 4mg/litro causaram drástica redução do comprimento de raiz primária das plântulas de todos os cultivares. Nessas condições, 'Lee' e 'Cristalina' mostraram ser tolerantes enquanto o 'Bragg' se apresentou intermediário e o 'UFV-1' foi o mais susceptível entre eles. Os cultivares tolerantes revelaram tendência de acumular menores teores de Al na parte aérea, em comparação com os demais.Two experiments were conducted in nutrient solution to study the level of Al necessary to separate tolerant cultivars from the susceptible. In the first experiment the levels of Al were 0, 5, 10 and 20mg/l and two cultivars Cristalina and UFV-1 were studied. These levels were found to be too high as they had drastic effect on the primary roots after 7 days of transplanting. Based on this data another experiment was conducted using 0, 1, 2 and 4mg/l of Al and using cultivars Lee, Bragg, Cristalina and UFV-1. The results showed that the length of the primary root was the best parameter as compared with dry weight of the above ground parts and roots to evaluate tolerance of soybeans to Al. The level of 1mg/l was adequate to

  10. Comparison of Salt Tolerance in Soja Based on Metabolomics of Seedling Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important economic crop that is continually threatened by abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Wild soybean is an important germplasm resource for the breeding of cultivated soybean. The root system plays a very important role in plant salt tolerance. To explore the salt tolerance-related mechanisms among Soja, we have demonstrated the seedling roots' growth and metabolomics in wild soybean, semi-wild soybean, and cultivated soybean under two types of salt stress by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We characterized 47 kinds of differential metabolites under neutral salt stress, and isoleucine, serine, l-allothreonine, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, asparagines, aspartic acid, pentadecanoic acid, lignoceric acid, oleic acid, galactose, tagatose, d-arabitol, dihydroxyacetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and glucuronic acid increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedlings. However, these metabolites were suppressed in semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Amino acid, fatty acid, sugars, and organic acid synthesis and the secondary metabolism of antioxidants increased significantly in the roots of wild soybean seedling. Under alkaline salt stress, wild soybean contained significantly higher amounts of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, l-allothreonine, isoleucine, serine, alanine, arachidic acid, oleic acid, cis-gondoic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, citric acid, malonic acid, gluconic acid, 5-methoxytryptamine, salicylic acid, and fluorene than semi-wild and cultivated soybeans. Our study demonstrated that carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and receiver operating characteristics (especially the metabolism of phenolic substances of the seedling roots were important to resisting salt stress and showed a regular decreasing trend from wild soybean to cultivated soybean. The metabolomics's changes were critical factors in the evolution of salt tolerance among Soja. This study

  11. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  12. EVALUATION OF CASSAVA/SOYBEAN INTERCROPPING SYSTEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean plants were taller when intercropped with NR 8212 or with TMS 30572 than in sole soybean, which had similar height with soybean in soybean/TMS 91934 mixture. The soybean canopy diameter, number of leaves per plant and LAI were higher with sole soybean. Within the soybean intercrops, canopy diameter, ...

  13. Enhanced resistance to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines in transgenic soybean by silencing putative CLE receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoli; Chronis, Demosthenis; De La Torre, Carola M; Smeda, John; Wang, Xiaohong; Mitchum, Melissa G

    2015-08-01

    CLE peptides are small extracellular proteins important in regulating plant meristematic activity through the CLE-receptor kinase-WOX signalling module. Stem cell pools in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), RAM (root apical meristem) and vascular cambium are controlled by CLE signalling pathways. Interestingly, plant-parasitic cyst nematodes secrete CLE-like effector proteins, which act as ligand mimics of plant CLE peptides and are required for successful parasitism. Recently, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis CLE receptors CLAVATA1 (CLV1), the CLAVATA2 (CLV2)/CORYNE (CRN) heterodimer receptor complex and RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE 2 (RPK2), which transmit the CLV3 signal in the SAM, are required for perception of beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii CLEs. Reduction in nematode infection was observed in clv1, clv2, crn, rpk2 and combined double and triple mutants. In an effort to develop nematode resistance in an agriculturally important crop, orthologues of Arabidopsis receptors including CLV1, CLV2, CRN and RPK2 were identified from soybean, a host for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines. For each of the receptors, there are at least two paralogues in the soybean genome. Localization studies showed that most receptors are expressed in the root, but vary in their level of expression and spatial expression patterns. Expression in nematode-induced feeding cells was also confirmed. In vitro direct binding of the soybean receptors with the HgCLE peptide was analysed. Knock-down of the receptors in soybean hairy roots showed enhanced resistance to SCN. Our findings suggest that targeted disruption of nematode CLE signalling may be a potential means to engineer nematode resistance in crop plants. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of Soybean and Cowpea Genotypes for Phosphorus Use Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaga, F. K.; Ofori, K.; Adiku, S. K.; Kugblenu, Y. O.; Asante, W.; Seidu, H. [College of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Adu-Gyamfi, J. J. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Initial screening of one hundred and fifty-two (152) and fifty (50) genotypes of soybean and cowpea, respectively, were conducted at the early growth stage to evaluate root traits associated with phosphorus (P) efficiency. Fifty soybean genotypes were subsequently selected and evaluated on a tropical low P soil (Lixisol) for growth and yield under low and adequate P availability. Plants were sampled at twelve and thirty days after sowing and at maturity. Six cowpea genotypes were also selected and evaluated in pots filled with Alfisol under low, moderate and high P availability. Plants were sampled at forty days and assessed for shoot yield and nodulation under low P availability. Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Phosphorus Efficiency Index (PEI) was used to determine P efficiency of soybean and cowpea genotypes. A wide variation in root traits for soybean and cowpea at the early growth stage was found, and allometric analysis showed a significant correlation between the root and shoot parameters at this stage. The study provided an opportunity to compare root traits of newly developed cowpea genotypes (early maturing, medium maturing, dual purpose and Striga resistant lines) with older released cultivars. There were significant differences in root length among the groups. In general, dual purpose, Striga resistant and medium/early maturing genotypes showed the longest roots while the older varieties showed the least total root length. Field and pot results also showed differential growth of soybean and cowpea with low P availability. Further, PCA of the results indicated that soybean genotypes could be grouped into three distinct P efficiency categories. Retaining the PC and the relative weight for each genotype in combination with yield potential under high P, four categories of responsiveness to P were obtained. Cowpea genotypes were grouped into three P efficiency categories and two categories of responsiveness to P. The study also found genetic

  15. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  16. Fertilizer application and root development analyzed by neutron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihei, Naoto; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the development of the soybean root system under different application of fertilizer applying neutron imaging technique. When neutron beam was irradiated, the root image as well as fertilizer imbedded in a thin aluminum container was clearly projected, since water amount in roots are higher than that in soil. Through image analysis, the development of root system was studied under different application of the fertilizer. The development of a main root with lateral roots was observed without applying fertilizer. When the fertilizer was homogeneously supplied to the soil, the morphological development of the root showed the similar pattern to that grown without fertilizer, in different to the amount of the fertilizer. In the case of local application of the fertilizer, lateral position or downward to the main root, the inhibition of the root growth was observed, suggesting that the localization of the fertilizer is responsible for reduction of the soybean yield. (author)

  17. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  18. Soybean oil biosynthesis: role of diacylglycerol acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runzhi; Hatanaka, Tomoko; Yu, Keshun; Wu, Yongmei; Fukushige, Hirotada; Hildebrand, David

    2013-03-01

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the acyl-CoA-dependent acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol to form seed oil triacylglycerol (TAG). To understand the features of genes encoding soybean (Glycine max) DGATs and possible roles in soybean seed oil synthesis and accumulation, two full-length cDNAs encoding type 1 diacylglycerol acyltransferases (GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B) were cloned from developing soybean seeds. These coding sequences share identities of 94 % and 95 % in protein and DNA sequences. The genomic architectures of GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B both contain 15 introns and 16 exons. Differences in the lengths of the first exon and most of the introns were found between GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B genomic sequences. Furthermore, detailed in silico analysis revealed a third predicted DGAT1, GmDGAT1C. GmDGAT1A and GmDGAT1B were found to have similar activity levels and substrate specificities. Oleoyl-CoA and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol were preferred substrates over vernoloyl-CoA and sn-1,2-divernoloylglycerol. Both transcripts are much more abundant in developing seeds than in other tissues including leaves, stem, roots, and flowers. Both soybean DGAT1A and DGAT1B are highly expressed at developing seed stages of maximal TAG accumulation with DGAT1B showing highest expression at somewhat later stages than DGAT1A. DGAT1A and DGAT1B show expression profiles consistent with important roles in soybean seed oil biosynthesis and accumulation.

  19. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  20. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Avaliação nutricional e desempenho da silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral em dietas para suínos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055 Nutritional evaluation and performance of cassava root silage with or without whole soybean in swine diets - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i2.8055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Levi Oliveira Carvalho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para determinar o valor nutritivo e o desempenho de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total, alimentados com dietas formuladas com silagem de raiz de mandioca contendo ou não soja integral. No primeiro, foram utilizados 15 suínos, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcelas (animais subdivididas no tempo (subparcelas, totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Os alimentos avaliados foram silagem de raiz de mandioca (MA, silagem de raiz de mandioca com inoculante (MI, silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral (MS e silagem de raiz de mandioca + soja integral com inoculante (MSI. As silagens apresentaram bons valores nutritivos e o uso de inoculante não foi efetivo para melhorar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. No segundo, foram utilizados 36 suínos mestiços, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com restrição na casualização para duas classes de peso inicial, com três tratamentos, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em ração-testemunha à base de milho e farelo de soja (RT e outras duas com substituição total do milho por MA e MS. Para fase de crescimento, a conversão alimentar melhorou com o uso das silagens. Conclui-se que as silagens de mandioca, contendo ou não soja integral, apresentam bons valores nutritivos e podem substituir totalmente o milho na ração de suínos nas fases de crescimento e período total. alimentos alternativos; amido; desempenho; digestibilidade; valores energéticosTwo experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and performance of growing and total-period swine fed cassava root silage with or without whole soybean. In the first group, 15 crossbred swine were used, in a completely randomized design with parcels (animals subdivided in time (subparcels with five treatments and six replications. The study evaluated cassava root silage (CA

  2. Analysis of peptide uptake and location of root hair-promoting peptide accumulation in plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, Yoshiki; Taniguchi, Rikiya; Kubo, Motoki

    2012-03-01

    Peptide uptake by plant roots from degraded soybean-meal products was analyzed in Brassica rapa and Solanum lycopersicum. B. rapa absorbed about 40% of the initial water volume, whereas peptide concentration was decreased by 75% after 24 h. Analysis by reversed-phase HPLC showed that number of peptides was absorbed by the roots during soaking in degraded soybean-meal products for 24 h. Carboxyfluorescein-labeled root hair-promoting peptide was synthesized, and its localization, movement, and accumulation in roots were investigated. The peptide appeared to be absorbed by root hairs and then moved to trichoblasts. Furthermore, the peptide was moved from trichoblasts to atrichoblasts after 24 h. The peptide was accumulated in epidermal cells, suggesting that the peptide may have a function in both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts. Copyright © 2012 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Trichoderma harzianum containing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase and chitinase improved growth and diminished adverse effect caused by Fusarium oxysporum in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuli; Chen, Can; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Lidong; Liu, Jidong; Chen, Long; Fan, Xiaoning; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Ke; He, Yuting; Chen, Chen; Ji, Xiue

    2017-03-01

    An isolate, named Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean, showed growth-promoting for soybean seedlings and induced resistance to Fusarium oxysporum under greenhouse. Compared to control soybean seedlings, fresh weight, dry weight, lateral root number, chlorophyll content, root activity and soluble protein of plants pretreated with T-soybean increased, but initial pod height reduced. Furthermore, we found that T-soybean inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum by parasitic function. In addition, plate test results showed that culture filtrates of T-soybean also inhibited significantly F. oxysporum growth. Meanwhile, T-soybean treatment obviously reduced disease severity and induced quickly the H 2 O 2 and O 2 - burst as well as pathogenesis related protein gene (PR3) expression after F. oxysporum inoculation, and subsequently diminished the cell damage in soybean caused by the pathogen challenge. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes activity analysis showed that the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased significantly in T-soybean pretreated plants. These results suggested that T-soybean treatment induced resistance in soybean seedlings to F. oxysporum by companying the production of ROS and the increasing of ROS scavenging enzymes activity as well as PR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Can phosphorus application and cover cropping alter arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities and soybean performance after a five-year phosphorus-unfertilized crop rotational system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Masao; Sato, Ryohei; Serizawa, Ayu; Takahashi, Yuichi; Gunji, Kento; Tatewaki, Yuya; Isobe, Katsunori

    2018-01-01

    Understanding diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is important for optimizing their role for phosphorus (P) nutrition of soybeans ( Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in P-limited soils. However, it is not clear how soybean growth and P nutrition is related to AMF colonization and diversity of AMF communities in a continuous P-unfertilized cover cropping system. Thus, we investigated the impact of P-application and cover cropping on the interaction among AMF colonization, AMF diversity in soybean roots, soybean growth and P nutrition under a five-year P-unfertilized crop rotation. In this study, we established three cover crop systems (wheat, red clover and oilseed rape) or bare fallow in rotation with soybean. The P-application rates before the seeding of soybeans were 52.5 and 157.5 kg ha -1 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We measured AMF colonization in soybean roots, soybean growth parameters such as aboveground plant biomass, P uptake at the flowering stage and grain yields at the maturity stage in both years. AMF community structure in soybean roots was characterized by specific amplification of small subunit rDNA. The increase in the root colonization at the flowering stage was small as a result of P-application. Cover cropping did not affect the aboveground biomass and P uptake of soybean in both years, but the P-application had positive effects on the soybean performance such as plant P uptake, biomass and grain yield in 2015. AMF communities colonizing soybean roots were also significantly influenced by P-application throughout the two years. Moreover, the diversity of AMF communities in roots was significantly influenced by P-application and cover cropping in both years, and was positively correlated with the soybean biomass, P uptake and grain yield throughout the two years. Our results indicated that P-application rather than cover cropping may be a key factor for improving soybean growth performance with respect to AMF diversity in P-limited cover

  5. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  6. Transgenic soybeans and soybean protein analysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand; Bae, Hanhong; Lakshman, Dilip; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    To meet the increasing global demand for soybeans for food and feed consumption, new high-yield varieties with improved quality traits are needed. To ensure the safety of the crop, it is important to determine the variation in seed proteins along with unintended changes that may occur in the crop as a result various stress stimuli, breeding, and genetic modification. Understanding the variation of seed proteins in the wild and cultivated soybean cultivars is useful for determining unintended protein expression in new varieties of soybeans. Proteomic technology is useful to analyze protein variation due to various stimuli. This short review discusses transgenic soybeans, different soybean proteins, and the approaches used for protein analysis. The characterization of soybean protein will be useful for researchers, nutrition professionals, and regulatory agencies dealing with soy-derived food products.

  7. The transport and distribution of 3H-ABA affected by al sress on soybean seedig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guang; Sun Yang; Pang Jinduo

    2010-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment combining radioisotope techniques was carried out to understand the effect of Al stress on the transport and the distribution of 3 H-ABA by using Jilin70, a soybean variety of Al resistance. The transport and distribution of ABA affected by Al stress on soybean seedling were studied with radioisotope technique. The results showed that ABA could be transported up or down in soybean seedling. The stress of Al accelerated the transport of ABA and enhanced the distribution of ABA in the roots by Al stress. The paper present the foundation for the mechanisms of ABA under Al stress in plant. (authors)

  8. Interactions of Heterodera glycines, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Soybean in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H E; Hetrick, B A; Todd, T C

    1994-12-01

    The impact of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soybean growth and their interaction with Heterodera glycines were evaluated in nematode-infested and uninfested fields in Kansas. Ten soybean cultivars from Maturity Groups III-V with differential susceptibility to H. glycines were treated with the fungicide benomyl to suppress colonization by naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi and compared with untreated control plots. In H. glycines-infested soil, susceptible cultivars exhibited 39% lower yields, 28% lower colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, and an eightfold increase in colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, compared with resistant cultivars. In the absence of the nematode, susceptible cultivars exhibited 10% lower yields than resistant cultivars, root colonization of resistant vs. susceptible soybean by mycorrhizal fungi varied with sampling date, and there were no differences in colonization by M. phaseolina between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Benomyl application resulted in 19% greater root growth and 9% higher seed yields in H. glycines-infested soil, but did not affect soybean growth and yield in the absence of the nematode. Colonization of soybean roots by mycorrhizal fungi was negatively correlated with H. glycines population densities due to nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal fungi rather than suppression of nematode populations. Soybean yields were a function of the pathogenic effects of H. glycines and M. phaseolina, and, to a lesser degree, the stimulatory effects of mycorrhizal fungi.

  9. INTERCROPPING OF BRAQUIARIA WITH SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnara, Deise Dalazen; Bulegon, Lucas Guilherme; Zoz, Tiago [UNESP; Rossol, Charles Douglas; Berte, Luiz Neri; Rabello de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio; Neres, Marcela Abbado

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the intercropping of Brachiaria brizantha. Marandu with soybeans. The experiment has been planted in a 3 year prevailing area with no-tillage, in eutrophic Oxisol at Maripa - PR. The experimental design was a randomized block with five replications. For the forage study, four treatments were performed which consisted of seeding times brachiaria [early ( seven days before planting soybeans) joint (same day of soybean planting) and after (at stages V-3 an...

  10. Mutation breeding in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baradjanegara, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    In Indonesia, soybean is one of the important crop after rice. It is generally cultivated in the lowlands and rarely in the highlands. Seeds of soybean variety ORBA were treated with various doses of fast neutrons, gamma rays, EMS and NaN 3 with the aims of studying the mutagen effects in M-1 and M-2 generations and also to select mutants adapted to highland conditions. D-50 doses for gamma rays, fast neutrons and EMS were around 23 krad, 2,300 rad, 0.3%, respectively. Much higher chlorophyll mutation frequency was observed in EMS treatment of 0.3%. Seven mutants were shorter and four early mutants matured from 4 to 20 days earlier than the control plants. Two early mutants were quite adaptable in both the low and highlands and produced better yields than the parental material. (author)

  11. Genome-wide identification of soybean WRKY transcription factors in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Wang, Nan; Hu, Ruibo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Members of the large family of WRKY transcription factors are involved in a wide range of developmental and physiological processes, most particularly in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Here, an analysis of the soybean genome sequence allowed the identification of the full complement of 188 soybean WRKY genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that soybean WRKY genes were classified into three major groups (I, II, III), with the second group further categorized into five subgroups (IIa-IIe). The soybean WRKYs from each group shared similar gene structures and motif compositions. The location of the GmWRKYs was dispersed over all 20 soybean chromosomes. The whole genome duplication appeared to have contributed significantly to the expansion of the family. Expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that in soybean root, 66 of the genes responded rapidly and transiently to the imposition of salt stress, all but one being up-regulated. While in aerial part, 49 GmWRKYs responded, all but two being down-regulated. RT-qPCR analysis showed that in the whole soybean plant, 66 GmWRKYs exhibited distinct expression patterns in response to salt stress, of which 12 showed no significant change, 35 were decreased, while 19 were induced. The data present here provide critical clues for further functional studies of WRKY gene in soybean salt tolerance.

  12. Differential regulation of defense-related proteins in soybean during compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora sojae and soybean by comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Maofeng; Ma, Hongyu; Li, Haiyang; Guo, Baodian; Zhang, Xin; Ye, Wenwu; Wang, Haonan; Wang, Qiuxia; Wang, Yuanchao

    2015-07-01

    Few proteomic studies have focused on the plant- Phytophthora interactions, our study provides important information regarding the use of proteomic methods for investigation of the basic mechanisms of plant-Phytophthora interactions. Phytophthora sojae is a fast-spreading and devastating pathogen that is responsible for root and stem rot in soybean crops worldwide. To better understand the response of soybean seedlings to the stress of infection by virulent and avirulent pathogens at the proteomic level, proteins extracted from the hypocotyls of soybean reference cultivar Williams 82 infected by P. sojae P6497 (race 2) and P7076 (race 19), respectively, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. 95 protein spots were differently expressed, with 83 being successfully identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and subjected to further analysis. Based on the majority of the 83 defense-responsive proteins, and defense-related pathway genes supplemented by a quantitative reverse transcription PCR assay, a defense-related network for soybean infected by virulent and avirulent pathogens was proposed. We found reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst, the expression levels of salicylic acid (SA) signal pathway and biosynthesis of isoflavones were significantly up-regulated in the resistant soybean. Our results imply that following the P. sojae infection, ROS and SA signal pathway in soybean play the major roles in defense against P. sojae. This research will facilitate further investigation of the molecular regulatory mechanism of the defense response in soybean following infection by P. sojae.

  13. ANALYSIS IMPORT POLICY OF SOYBEAN ON ECONOMICS PERFORMANCE OF INDONESIAN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthiah Abda Azizah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalization is closely related to the opening of market access for Indonesian products to the world and vice versa. Since the soybean trade out of BULOG control began in 1998, soybean imports increased very rapidly (Sudaryanto and Swastika, 2007. This research aims to determine the general picture of soybean economy, factors analyses that influence the economic performance of Indonesian soybean and findings the alternative of policies that can reduce soybean imports in Indonesia. Methods of data analysis are descriptive analysis, 2SLS simultaneous equations, and simulation of policy alternatives. Results of the analysis of the factors that affect the economic performance of Indonesian soybean, consists of 1 The area of soybean harvest is influenced significantly by the price of domestic soybean and domestic prices of corn, 2 Productivity soybean influenced significantly by the domestic prices of soybean and fertilizer prices, 3 soybean demand influenced significantly by population, domestic prices of soybean, 4 domestic prices of soybean significantly affected by world prices of soybean, exchange rates, and soybean supply, 5 Imports of soybean influenced significantly by the domestic demand of soybean and soybean production. Therefore, policy scenarios should be made to reduce soybean imports, including by carrying out the expansion of soybean harvest policy, the policy of increasing the productivity of soybean, the policy of subsidizing the price of fertilizer.

  14. SOYBEAN PRODUCTION AND ECONOMIC OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian soybean production almost never moved, even tended to decrease. Indonesia does not have a specific area of land for planting soybeans. Soybean are generally just a byproduct of plant or land filling vacant after farmers grow rice. In addition soybean price fluctuations that affect tofu and tempe entrepreneurs, it turns soybean farmers are often losers. Policy biased to the consumer sector than soybean production, cause national soybean production declining. The decrease occurred primarily because of the narrowing of soybean plantation land owned by farmers, this happens because soy is less interesting than the business side so that the farmers based on rationality, farmers prefer the other commodities, especially rice. Increasing decline in domestic soybean production resulted in the growing dependence on imports which would deplete foreign exchange. Procurement policies of national soybean stocks through imports is easy to do but its adverse implications for the development of domestic agricultural production, especially soybeans, very bad.

  15. Unleashing the potential of the root hair cell as a single plant cell type model in root systems biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant root is an organ composed of multiple cell types with different functions. This multicellular complexity limits our understanding of root biology because –omics studies performed at the level of the entire root reflect the average responses of all cells composing the organ. To overcome this difficulty and allow a more comprehensive understanding of root cell biology, an approach is needed that would focus on one single cell type in the plant root. Because of its biological functions (i.e. uptake of water and various nutrients; primary site of infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes, the root hair cell is an attractive single cell model to study root cell response to various stresses and treatments. To fully study their biology, we have recently optimized procedures in obtaining root hair cell samples. We culture the plants using an ultrasound aeroponic system maximizing root hair cell density on the entire root systems and allowing the homogeneous treatment of the root system. We then isolate the root hair cells in liquid nitrogen. Isolated root hair yields could be up to 800 to 1000 mg of plant cells from 60 root systems. Using soybean as a model, the purity of the root hair was assessed by comparing the expression level of genes previously identified as soybean root hair specific between preparations of isolated root hair cells and stripped roots, roots devoid in root hairs. Enlarging our tests to include other plant species, our results support the isolation of large quantities of highly purified root hair cells which is compatible with a systems biology approach.

  16. Nutritional requirements for soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybeans [Glycine max] are the second largest cash crop in US Agriculture, but the soybean yield is compromised by infections from Heterodera glycines, also known as Soybean Cyst Nematodes [SCN]. SCN are the most devastating pathogen or plant disease soybean producers confront. This obligate parasi...

  17. LAND SUITABILITY AND DYNAMIC SYSTEM MODELLING TO DEFINE PRIORITY AREAS OF SOYBEAN PLANTATION IN PADDY FIELDS IN KARAWANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiatmaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the agricultural public commodities in Indonesia which still cannot fulfill its domestic consumption needs is soybean. The objectives of the research, which was conducted in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia, were to: (i identify the suitable area for soybean plantations in paddy fields, (ii assess the development of soybeans in land use and socio-economic context, and (iii plan the spatially soybean plantation. A soil survey and land evaluation for soybean was completed. IKONOS imagery was applied to delineate paddy fields while a dynamic system modelling was developed using Powersim 8.0 software. The results of the research showed that the suitability class for soybean plantation in the paddy fields of Karawang Regency ranges from unsuitable (N to suitable (S2, with limiting factors being temperature, fertility, nutrients retention, slope, erosion, rooting media and toxicity. Very limited arable land has been used so far for soybeans plantations due to low economic returns. The model predicts that, should the development of soybean continues in its business as usual path, a deficit of soybean will occur in 2030. The model provides alternative scenarios to reduce the deficit. Prioritization was done spatially using the suitable land gradually, corresponding to the government budget availability.

  18. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  19. Analyses of flooding tolerance of soybean varieties at emergence and varietal differences in their proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-10-01

    Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simulations of simple linoleic acid-containing lipid membranes and models for the soybean plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaohong; Ou, Anna; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2017-06-07

    The all-atom CHARMM36 lipid force field (C36FF) has been tested with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated lipids; however, it has not been validated against the 18:2 linoleoyl lipids with an unsaturated sn-1 chain. The linoleoyl lipids are common in plants and the main component of the soybean membrane. The lipid composition of soybean plasma membranes has been thoroughly characterized with experimental studies. However, there is comparatively less work done with computational modeling. Our molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the pure linoleoyl lipids, 1-stearoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (18:0/18:2) and 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (di-18:2), agree very well with the experiments, which demonstrates the accuracy of the C36FF for the computational study of soybean membranes. Based on the experimental composition, the soybean hypocotyl and root plasma membrane models are developed with each containing seven or eight types of linoleoyl phospholipids and two types of sterols (sitosterol and stigmasterol). MD simulations are performed to characterize soybean membranes, and the hydrogen bonds and clustering results demonstrate that the lipids prefer to interact with the lipids of the same/similar tail unsaturation. All the results suggest that these two soybean membrane models can be used as a basis for further research in soybean and higher plant membranes involving membrane-associated proteins.

  1. Protein and oil composition predictions of single soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Walsh, Michael J; Gelber, Matthew K; Kong, Rong; Kole, Matthew R; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit

    2012-08-22

    The soybean industry requires rapid, accurate, and precise technologies for the analyses of seed/grain constituents. While the current gold standard for nondestructive quantification of economically and nutritionally important soybean components is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), emerging technology may provide viable alternatives and lead to next generation instrumentation for grain compositional analysis. In principle, Raman spectroscopy provides the necessary chemical information to generate models for predicting the concentration of soybean constituents. In this communication, we explore the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy (TRS) for nondestructive soybean measurements. We show that TRS uses the light scattering properties of soybeans to effectively homogenize the heterogeneous bulk of a soybean for representative sampling. Working with over 1000 individual intact soybean seeds, we developed a simple partial least-squares model for predicting oil and protein content nondestructively. We find TRS to have a root-mean-standard error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.89% for oil measurements and 0.92% for protein measurements. In both calibration and validation sets, the predicative capabilities of the model were similar to the error in the reference methods.

  2. gene from soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... 2Plant Biotechnology Institute, National Research Council, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0W9, Canada. .... pusilla. RNA extraction, first-strand cDNA synthesis and quantitative .... expression in the other four chosen tissues, root, stem,.

  3. Effectiveness of cow manure and mycorrhiza on the growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktiyanta, M. N. A.; Samanhudi; Yunus, A.; Pujiasmanto, B.; Minardi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Soybean is one of the major food crop commodities in Indonesia. The needs of soybean each year is always increasing, but the the production rate is low. The research aimed to know the influence of treatment doses of cow manure and mycorrhiza towards growth and yield of soybeans. This research was conducted using Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors. The first factor is the dose of cow manure: S0 (0 g/plot), S1 (781.25 g/plot), S2 (1562.5 g/plot), and S3 (2343.75 g/plot). The second factor is the dose of mycorrhiza: M0 (0 g/plot), M1 (100 g/plot), and M2 (200 g/plot). The observed parameters is plant height, the number of productive branches, weight of 100 seeds, root length, fresh weight of biomass, dry weight of biomass, conversion calculation results of soybeans per hectacre and the percentage of roots infected with mycorrhiza. Data were analyzed with ANOVA at 5% significance level, continued with Duncan test at 5% confidence level. The results showed that no interaction between the two treatments. Doses of cow manure provides significant influence to plant height and the length of the root. Whereas, the doses of mycorrhiza provides significant effect to the number of productive branch, weight of 100 seeds, dry weight of biomass, and the conversion of soybean yield per hectare.

  4. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella Maris; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...

  5. Genes related to antioxidant metabolism are involved in Methylobacterium mesophilicum-soybean interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Welington Luiz; Santos, Daiene Souza; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Salgueiro-Londoño, Jennifer Katherine; Camargo-Neves, Aline Aparecida; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega

    2015-10-01

    The genus Methylobacterium is composed of pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacterial species that are widespread in natural environments, such as soils, stream water and plants. When in association with plants, this genus colonizes the host plant epiphytically and/or endophytically. This association is known to promote plant growth, induce plant systemic resistance and inhibit plant infection by phytopathogens. In the present study, we focused on evaluating the colonization of soybean seedling-roots by Methylobacterium mesophilicum strain SR1.6/6. We focused on the identification of the key genes involved in the initial step of soybean colonization by methylotrophic bacteria, which includes the plant exudate recognition and adaptation by planktonic bacteria. Visualization by scanning electron microscopy revealed that M. mesophilicum SR1.6/6 colonizes soybean roots surface effectively at 48 h after inoculation, suggesting a mechanism for root recognition and adaptation before this period. The colonization proceeds by the development of a mature biofilm on roots at 96 h after inoculation. Transcriptomic analysis of the planktonic bacteria (with plant) revealed the expression of several genes involved in membrane transport, thus confirming an initial metabolic activation of bacterial responses when in the presence of plant root exudates. Moreover, antioxidant genes were mostly expressed during the interaction with the plant exudates. Further evaluation of stress- and methylotrophic-related genes expression by qPCR showed that glutathione peroxidase and glutathione synthetase genes were up-regulated during the Methylobacterium-soybean interaction. These findings support that glutathione (GSH) is potentially a key molecule involved in cellular detoxification during plant root colonization. In addition to methylotrophic metabolism, antioxidant genes, mainly glutathione-related genes, play a key role during soybean exudate recognition and adaptation, the first step in

  6. Engineered resistance and hypersusceptibility through functional metabolic studies of 100 genes in soybean to its major pathogen, the soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Benjamin F; Beard, Hunter; MacDonald, Margaret H; Kabir, Sara; Youssef, Reham M; Hosseini, Parsa; Brewer, Eric

    2013-05-01

    During pathogen attack, the host plant induces genes to ward off the pathogen while the pathogen often produces effector proteins to increase susceptibility of the host. Gene expression studies of syncytia formed in soybean root by soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) identified many genes altered in expression in resistant and susceptible roots. However, it is difficult to assess the role and impact of these genes on resistance using gene expression patterns alone. We selected 100 soybean genes from published microarray studies and individually overexpressed them in soybean roots to determine their impact on cyst nematode development. Nine genes reduced the number of mature females by more than 50 % when overexpressed, including genes encoding ascorbate peroxidase, β-1,4-endoglucanase, short chain dehydrogenase, lipase, DREPP membrane protein, calmodulin, and three proteins of unknown function. One gene encoding a serine hydroxymethyltransferase decreased the number of mature cyst nematode females by 45 % and is located at the Rhg4 locus. Four genes increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 200 %, while thirteen others increased the number of mature cyst nematode females by more than 150 %. Our data support a role for auxin and ethylene in susceptibility of soybean to cyst nematodes. These studies highlight the contrasting gene sets induced by host and nematode during infection and provide new insights into the interactions between host and pathogen at the molecular level. Overexpression of some of these genes result in a greater decrease in the number of cysts formed than recognized soybean cyst nematode resistance loci.

  7. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybe...

  8. Toxicity of vanadium in soil on soybean at different growth stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyan; Wang, Mei; Jia, Yanbo; Gou, Min; Zeyer, Josef

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium(V) is present in trace amounts in most plants and widely distributed in soils. However, the environmental toxicity of V compound in soils is controversial. A greenhouse study with soybean from germination to bean production under exposure to pentavalent V [V(V)] was conducted to elucidate the interaction of plants and V fractions in soils and to evaluate the toxicity of V at different plant growth stages. Soybean growth has no effect on non-specific-bond and specific-bond fractions of V in soils, but V fractionation occurred in more extraction-resistant phases at high V concentrations. High concentrations of V(V) postponed the germination and growth of the soybeans. Bean production was less than half of that of the control at 500 mg kg -1 spiked V(V). For the 0 mg kg -1 spiked V(V) treated plants, the root was not the main location where V was retained. Vanadium in the soils at ≤ 250 mg kg -1 did not significantly affect the V concentration in the shoot and leaf of soybeans. With the increase in V concentration in soil, V concentrations in roots increased, whereas those in beans and pods decreased. From vegetative growth to the reproductive growth, the soybeans adsorbed more V and accumulated more V in the roots, with soil. Meanwhile, the ratio of V concentration in cell wall to the total V concentration in the root increased with the increase in V(V) concentration in soils. Our results revealed that high concentrations of V inhibited soybean germination and biomass production. However, plants may produce self-defense systems to endure V toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The IQD gene family in soybean: structure, phylogeny, evolution and expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng

    Full Text Available Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa, systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1-67 was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I-IV based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1-3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development.

  10. Nematode pests threatening soybean production in South Africa, with reference to Meloidogyne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrika Fourie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The area planted to soybean in South Africa has increased by 54% since the 2009 growing season, mainly as a result of the increasing demand for protein-rich food and fodder sources. Moreover, the introduction of advanced technology, namely the availability of genetically modified herbicide tolerant soybean cultivars also contributed towards increased soybean production. The omnipresence of plant-parasitic nematodes in local agricultural soils, however, poses a threat to the sustainable expansion and production of soybean and other rotation crops. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica are the predominant nematode pests in local soybean production areas and those where other grain-, legume- and/or vegetable crops are grown. The lack of registered nematicides for soybean locally, crop production systems that are conducive to nematode pest build-ups as well as the limited availability of genetic host plant resistance to root-knot nematode pests, complicate their management. Research aimed at various aspects related to soybean-nematode research, namely, audits of nematode assemblages associated with the crop, identification of genetic host plant resistance in soybean germplasm to M. incognita and M. javanica, the use of molecular markers that are linked to such genetic resistance traits as well as agronomic performance of pre-released cultivars that can be valuable to producers and the industry are accentuated in this review. Evaluation of synthetically-derived as well as biological-control agents are also discussed as complementary management tactics. It is important that lessons learned through extensive research on soybean-nematode interactions in South Africa be shared with researchers and industries in other countries as they might experience or expect similar problems and/or challenges.

  11. Gamma radiation effect on the anatomical structure of soybean (Glycine max. Merr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhikuningputra, W.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma radiation effects on soybean plant (Glycine max. Merr) have been studied by using radiation doses of 0, 20, 25, 30, and 35 Krad. Investigation is carried out after each treatment. It proves that each treatment causes different morphological changes on leaves, stems, roots, and fibres of the treated plants. (SMN)

  12. Organ-specific proteomics analysis for identification of response mechanism in soybean seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, Amana; Rehman, Shafiq; Hiraga, Susumu; Makino, Takahiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2012-10-22

    Flooding is one of the severe environmental factors which impair growth and yield in soybean plant. To investigate the organ specific response mechanism of soybean under flooding stress, changes in protein species were analyzed using a proteomics approach. Two-day-old soybeans were subjected to flooding for 5 days. Proteins were extracted from root, hypocotyl and leaf, and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In root, hypocotyl and leaf, 51, 66 and 51 protein species were significantly changed, respectively, under flooding stress. In root, metabolism related proteins were increased; however these proteins were decreased in hypocotyl and leaf. In all 3 organs, cytoplasm localized proteins were decreased, and leaf chloroplastic proteins were also decreased. Isoflavone reductase was commonly decreased at protein level in all 3 organs; however, mRNA of isoflavone reductase gene was up-regulated in leaf under flooding stress. Biophoton emission was increased in all 3 organs under flooding stress. The up-regulation of isoflavone reductase gene at transcript level; while decreased abundance at protein level indicated that flooding stress affected the mRNA translation to proteins. These results suggest that concurrence in expression of isoflavone reductase gene at mRNA and protein level along with imbalance in other disease/defense and metabolism related proteins might lead to impaired growth of root, hypocotyl and leaf of soybean seedlings under flooding stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  14. Nutritional quality and ions uptake to PTNDS in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Porous-tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) allows high control of the root environment and prevents plant infections in both microgravity and ground conditions. In this paper, six soybean cultivars ('ZH13', 'ZH57', 'LD10', 'HH35', 'HH43', and 'ZGDD') were evaluated in terms of yield, photosynthetic efficiency, insoluble dietary fiber and ions uptake efficiency. Besides proximal composition, the concentrations of mineral and isoflavones were monitored in the seeds. 'HH35' and 'ZH13' plants showed much higher yield and harvest index, in addition to the lower lignin content of inedible biomass. Data showed that 'HH35' had the higher photosynthetic efficiency of soybean leaves with regard to photosynthetic rate and instantaneous carboxylation efficiency, whereas chlorophyll ratio and carotenoids content were no difference with the other cultivars. Both cations and anions except NH4(+) and H2PO4(-), were accumulated excessively compared to controls, especially with anions in PTNDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndiku, Luyindula [Commissariat des Sciences Nucleaires, Kinshasa (Zaire). Centre Regional d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: (a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. (b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. (c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture.

  16. On the fate of exogenously supplied bacterial DNA in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyindula Ndiku

    1980-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied radiolabelled DNA from agrobacterium tumefaciens and micrococcus lysodeikticus was investigated in soybean tissues growing under various physiological conditions. The following observations are made: a) Rapid degradation and reutilization of the donor DNA was observed in callus tissue culture. b) Germinating seeds and five-day old seedlings were shown to degrade DNA in the incubation medium and to ultilize these degradation products for their own DNA synthesis. Reutilization could be almost totally suppressed the addition of unlabelled thymidine as a competitor. This allowed a detection of significant amounts of residuel donor closely but transiently associated with the plant tissues. c) In soybean shoots dipped into a solution of donor DNA, partly this DNA was found to first migrate to the leaves where mostly labelled endogenous DNA was later found. Very large amounts of polymerized exogenous DNA were found in the regenerated roots after 12 days of culture. (author)

  17. Nitrate analogs as attractants for soybean cyst nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoi, Akito; Katsuyama, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Yajima, Shunsuke; Ito, Shinsaku

    2017-08-01

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, a plant parasite, is one of the most serious pests of soybean. In this paper, we report that SCN is attracted to nitrate and its analogs. We performed attraction assays to screen for novel attractants for SCN and found that nitrates were attractants for SCN and SCN recognized nitrate gradients. However, attraction of SCN to nitrates was not observed on agar containing nitrate. To further elucidate the attraction mechanism in SCN, we performed attraction assays using nitrate analogs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). SCN was attracted to all nitrate analogs; however, attraction of SCN to nitrate analogs was not observed on agar containing nitrate. In contrast, SCN was attracted to azuki root, irrespective of presence or absence of nitrate in agar media. Our results suggest that the attraction mechanisms differ between plant-derived attractant and nitrate.

  18. Organ-specific proteomics of soybean seedlings under flooding and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Baratali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-06-06

    Organ-specific analyses enrich the understanding of plant growth and development under abiotic stresses. To elucidate the cellular responses in soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought stresses, organ-specific analysis was performed using a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique. Physiological analysis indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were markedly increased in leaf and root of plants treated with 6days of flooding and drought stresses, respectively. Proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominately affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root in response to flooding and drought. Notably, the tricarboxylic acid cycle was suppressed in leaf and root under both stresses. Moreover, 17 proteins, including beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5, were identified in soybean seedlings under both stresses. The protein abundances of beta-glucosidase 31 and beta-amylase 5 were increased in leaf and root under both stresses. Additionally, the gene expression of beta-amylase 5 was upregulated in leaf exposed to the flooding and drought, and the expression level was highly correlated with the protein abundance. These results suggest that beta-amylase 5 may be involved in carbohydrate mobilization to provide energy to the leaf of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought. This study examined the effects of flooding and drought on soybean seedlings in different organs using a gel-free/label-free proteomic approach. Physiological responses indicated that enzyme activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were increased in leaf and root of soybean seedlings exposed to flooding and drought for 6days. Functional analysis of acquired protein profiles exhibited that proteins related to photosynthesis, RNA, DNA, signaling, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were predominated affected in leaf, hypocotyl, and root

  19. Absorption, transport, and chemical fate of plutonium in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.; Wildung, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption of plutonium (Pu) by soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) is limited by Pu solubility in soils. Changes in Pu concentration in different tissues with time to senescence indicate Pu is freely transported through the xylem during growth but not subject to remobilization on flowering. Studies in which the DTPA complex of 238 Pu was supplied to the plant suggest a change in chemical form following root absorption. Of the Pu in roots, stems, and leaves at senescence, 28, 54, and 67%, respectively, were soluble. The Pu in the solluble fraction was primarily associated with components of >10000 equivalent molecular weight in leaves and roots, whereas stems exhibited an equal distribution between components in the >10000 and <500 molecular weight fractions. Plutonium associated with mature seeds is concentrated in the seed hull (85%) and cotyledons (14%). The Pu associated with the cotyledon was primarily in the insoluble residues and soluble soy whey

  20. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  1. Ncl Synchronously Regulates Na+, K+, and Cl- in Soybean and Greatly Increases the Grain Yield in Saline Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuyen Duc; Chen, Huatao; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sato, Tadashi; Yan, Yongliang; Cong, Hua; Shono, Mariko; Suenaga, Kazuhiro; Xu, Donghe

    2016-01-08

    Salt stress inhibits soybean growth and reduces gain yield. Genetic improvement of salt tolerance is essential for sustainable soybean production in saline areas. In this study, we isolated a gene (Ncl) that could synchronously regulate the transport and accumulation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) from a Brazilian soybean cultivar FT-Abyara using map-based cloning strategy. Higher expression of the salt tolerance gene Ncl in the root resulted in lower accumulations of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) in the shoot under salt stress. Transfer of Ncl with the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method into a soybean cultivar Kariyutaka significantly enhanced its salt tolerance. Introgression of the tolerance allele into soybean cultivar Jackson, using DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS), produced an improved salt tolerance line. Ncl could increase soybean grain yield by 3.6-5.5 times in saline field conditions. Using Ncl in soybean breeding through gene transfer or MAS would contribute to sustainable soybean production in saline-prone areas.

  2. Identification of geneticaly modified soybean seeds resistant to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Maria Ângela André

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in genetic engineering permit the modification of plants to be tolerant to certain herbicides that are usually not selective. For practical and commercial purposes, it is important to be able to detect the presence or absence of these traits in genotypes. The objective of this research was to develop a procedure for identifying genetically modified soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. with resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. Two studies were conducted based on germination test. In the first study, soybean seeds were pre-imbibed in paper towel with the herbicide solutions, then transferred to moist paper towel for the germination test. In the second study, seeds were placed directly in herbicide solutions in plastic cups and tested for germination using the paper towel method. Eight soybean genotypes were compared: four Roundup Ready, that contained the gene resistant to the herbicide (G99-G725, Prichard RR, G99-G6682, and H7242 RR and four non-transgenic parental cultivars (Boggs, Haskell, Benning, and Prichard. In the first study, the seeds were imbibed for 16 hours at 25°C in herbicide concentrations between 0.0 and 1.5% of the glyphosate active ingredient. In the second, seeds were subjected to concentrations between 0.0 and 0.48%, for one hour, at 30°C. The evaluation parameters were: germination, hypocotyl length, root length and total length of the seedlings. Both methods are efficient in identifying glyphosate-resistant soybean genotypes. It is possible to identify the genetically modified soybean genotypes after three days, by imbibing the seed in 0.12% herbicide solution, and after six days if the substrate is pre-imbibed in a 0.6% herbicide solution. The resistance trait was identified in all cultivars, independent of the initial physiological quality of the seed.

  3. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  4. Studies on nitrogen metabolism of soybean plants, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yasumasa; Kitada, Subaru

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen that came from cotyledons and nitrogen ( 15 N) pulse-fed at 5 different times during the growth of young soybean plants were studied for 33-days after germination. Cotyledons furnished nitrogen to primary leaves, stems, and roots for the first 8 days, but thereafter principally to 1 st and 2 nd trifoliate leaves. Redistribution of the cotyledon-derived nitrogen from primary leaves commenced from the 14 th day after germination when their total nitrogen was still increasing. At the end of the experiment, the cotyledon-derived nitrogen was distributed approximately uniformly among 6 expanded leaves, and very small amount was found in 3 immature leaves. It was shown that soybean leaves took up 15 N (via roots) throughout the entire period of their life, and from their near-mature stage onwards, uptake and redistribution of nitrogen were observed simultaneously. Thus, the nitrogen in mature leaves was partially being renewed constantly. Considering this fact, the nitrogen supplying capacity of soybean leaves was estimated to be about two times as large as that estimated conventionally from the net loss of nitrogen during their senescence. The turnover of leaf nitrogen was closely related to the turnover of leaf protein. Influx of nitrogen was invariably accompanied by the simultaneous synthesis of leaf protein, and conversely, efflux by the simultaneous breakdown of leaf protein. Sink removal (topping treatment) prevented the breakdown of leaf protein (as measured from the rate of release of label after the pulse feeding) as well as the export of nitrogen from the leaves. The nitrogen supplying function of soybean leaves was discussed in relation to the nitrogen and protein turnover of leaves. (Kaihara, S.)

  5. Synthesis and Secretion of Isoflavones by Field-Grown Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Yamazaki, Yumi; Hamamoto, Shoichiro; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2017-09-01

    Isoflavones play important roles in rhizosphere plant-microbe interactions. Daidzein and genistein secreted by soybean roots induce the symbiotic interaction with rhizobia and may modulate rhizosphere interactions with microbes. Yet despite their important roles, little is known about the biosynthesis, secretion and fate of isoflavones in field-grown soybeans. Here, we analyzed isoflavone contents and the expression of isoflavone biosynthesis genes in field-grown soybeans. In roots, isoflavone contents and composition did not change with crop growth, but the expression of UGT4, an isoflavone-specific 7-O-glucosyltransferase, and of ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) was decreased during the reproductive stages. Isoflavone contents were higher in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil during both vegetative and reproductive stages, and were comparable in the rhizosphere soil between these two stages. We analyzed the degradation dynamics of daidzein and its glucosides to develop a model for predicting rhizosphere isoflavone contents from the amount of isoflavones secreted in hydroponic culture. Conjugates of daidzein were degraded much faster than daidzein, with degradation rate constants of 8.51 d-1 for malonyldaidzin and 11.6 d-1 for daidzin, vs. 9.15 × 10-2 d-1 for daidzein. The model suggested that secretion of isoflavones into the rhizosphere is higher during vegetative stages than during reproductive stages in field-grown soybean. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Clinical characteristics of soybean allergy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Holzhauser, Thomas; Scibilia, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy.......Soybean is a relevant allergenic food, but little is known about individual threshold doses in soy allergy....

  7. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-08-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots.

  8. Analysis of the community compositions of rhizosphere fungi in soybeans continuous cropping fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Li; Cui, Jiaqi; Jie, Weiguang; Cai, Baiyan

    2015-11-01

    We used rhizosphere soil sampled from one field during zero year and two years of continuous cropping of high-protein soybean to analyze the taxonomic community compositions of fungi during periods of high-incidence of root rot. Our objectives were to identify the dominant pathogens in order to provide a theoretical basis for the study of pathogenesis as well as control tactics for soybean root rot induced by continuous cropping. A total of 17,801 modified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were obtained from three different soybean rhizosphere soil samples after zero year and 1 or 2 years of continuous cropping using 454 high-throughput sequencing. The dominant eumycote fungal were identified to be Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the three soil samples. Continuous cropping of soybean affected the diversity of fungi in rhizosphere soils and increased the abundance of Thelebolus and Mortierellales significantly. Thanatephorus, Fusarium, and Alternaria were identified to be the dominant pathogenic fungal genera in rhizosphere soil from continuously cropped soybean fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral Detection of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Confounding Insecticide Effects in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tavvs Micael

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is the primary insect pest of soybean in the northcentral United States. Soybean aphid may cause stunted plants, leaf discoloration, plant death, and decrease soybean yield by 40%. Sampling plans have been developed for supporting soybean aphid management. However, growers' perception about time involved in direct insect counts has been contributing to a lower adoption of traditional pest scouting methods and may be associated with the use of prophylactic insecticide applications in soybean. Remote sensing of plant spectral (light-derived) responses to soybean aphid feeding is a promising alternative to estimate injury without direct insect counts and, thus, increase adoption and efficiency of scouting programs. This research explored the use of remote sensing of soybean reflectance for detection of soybean aphids and showed that foliar insecticides may have implications for subsequent use of soybean spectral reflectance for pest detection. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  10. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  11. DL-β-aminobutyric acid-induced resistance in soybean against Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Zhong

    Full Text Available Priming can improve plant innate capability to deal with the stresses caused by both biotic and abiotic factors. In this study, the effect of DL-β-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA against Aphis glycines Matsumura, the soybean aphid (SA was evaluated. We found that 25 mM BABA as a root drench had minimal adverse impact on plant growth and also efficiently protected soybean from SA infestation. In both choice and non-choice tests, SA number was significantly decreased to a low level in soybean seedlings drenched with 25 mM BABA compared to the control counterparts. BABA treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of several defense enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, peroxidase (POX, polyphenol oxidase (PPO, chitinase (CHI, and β-1, 3-glucanase (GLU in soybean seedlings attacked by aphid. Meanwhile, the induction of 15 defense-related genes by aphid, such as AOS, CHS, MMP2, NPR1-1, NPR1-2, and PR genes, were significantly augmented in BABA-treated soybean seedlings. Our study suggest that BABA application is a promising way to enhance soybean resistance against SA.

  12. Association of Effector Six6 with Vascular Wilt Symptoms Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanubile, Alessandra; Ellis, Margaret L; Marocco, Adriano; Munkvold, Gary P

    2016-11-01

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a widely distributed group of fungi that includes both pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. In a previous study, isolates within the FOSC collected primarily from soybean were assessed for the presence of 12 fungal effector genes. Although none of the assayed genes was significantly associated with wilt symptoms on soybean, the secreted in xylem 6 (Six6) gene was present only in three isolates, which all produced high levels of vascular wilt on soybean. In the current study, a collection of F. oxysporum isolates from soybean roots and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli isolates from common bean was screened for the presence of the Six6 gene. Interestingly, all isolates for which the Six6 amplicon was generated caused wilt symptoms on soybean, and two-thirds of the isolates showed high levels of aggressiveness, indicating a positive association between the presence of the effector gene Six6 and induction of wilt symptoms. The expression profile of the Six6 gene analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed an enhanced expression for the isolates that caused more severe wilt symptoms on soybean, as established by the greenhouse assay. These findings suggest the suitability of the Six6 gene as a possible locus for pathogenicity-based molecular diagnostics across the various formae speciales.

  13. Roles of small RNAs in soybean defense against Phytophthora sojae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, James; Gao, Lei; Yang, Yang; Zhai, Jixian; Arikit, Siwaret; Yu, Yu; Duan, Shuyi; Chan, Vicky; Xiong, Qin; Yan, Jun; Li, Shengben; Liu, Renyi; Wang, Yuanchao; Tang, Guiliang; Meyers, Blake C; Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Wenbo

    2014-09-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many notorious pathogens of crops and forestry trees. At present, battling Phytophthora diseases is challenging due to a lack of understanding of their pathogenesis. We investigated the role of small RNAs in regulating soybean defense in response to infection by Phytophthora sojae, the second most destructive pathogen of soybean. Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are universal regulators that repress target gene expression in eukaryotes. We identified known and novel small RNAs that differentially accumulated during P. sojae infection in soybean roots. Among them, miR393 and miR166 were induced by heat-inactivated P. sojae hyphae, indicating that they may be involved in soybean basal defense. Indeed, knocking down the level of mature miR393 led to enhanced susceptibility of soybean to P. sojae; furthermore, the expression of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes was drastically reduced in miR393 knockdown roots. These data suggest that miR393 promotes soybean defense against P. sojae. In addition to miRNAs, P. sojae infection also resulted in increased accumulation of phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) that are predominantly generated from canonical resistance genes encoding nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat proteins and genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat-containing proteins. This work identifies specific miRNAs and phasiRNAs that regulate defense-associated genes in soybean during Phytophthora infection. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Static magnetic field treatment of seeds improves carbon and nitrogen metabolism under salinity stress in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, Lokesh; Kataria, Sunita; Guruprasad, Kadur Narayan

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of magnetopriming was assessed for alleviation of salt-induced adverse effects on soybean growth. Soybean seeds were pre-treated with static magnetic field (SMF) of 200 mT for 1 h to evaluate the effect of magnetopriming on growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and yield of soybean plants under different salinity levels (0, 25, and 50 mM NaCl). The adverse effect of NaCl-induced salt stress was found on growth, yield, and various physiological attributes of soybeans. Results indicate that SMF pre-treatment significantly increased plant growth attributes, number of root nodules, nodules, fresh weight, biomass accumulation, and photosynthetic performance under both non-saline and saline conditions as compared to untreated seeds. Polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transients from magnetically treated plants gave a higher fluorescence yield at J-I-P phase. Nitrate reductase activity, PIABS , photosynthetic pigments, and net rate of photosynthesis were also higher in plants that emerged from SMF pre-treated seeds as compared to untreated seeds. Leghemoglobin content and hemechrome content in root nodules were also increased by SMF pre-treatment. Thus pre-sowing exposure of seeds to SMF enhanced carbon and nitrogen metabolism and improved the yield of soybeans in terms of number of pods, number of seeds, and seed weight under saline as well as non-saline conditions. Consequently, SMF pre-treatment effectively mitigated adverse effects of NaCl on soybeans. It indicates that magnetopriming of dry soybean seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for alleviating salinity stress. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:455-470, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Toxicity of manipueira to Meloidogyne incognita in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wéverson Lima Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Manipueira, a liquid residue obtained from the cassava industrialization, shows high toxicity to the microbial diversity. This study aimed at evaluating the potential of manipueira applied to the soil to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean. A completely randomized design, in a 2 x 11 factorial scheme, was used, consisting of two application forms of manipueira (single and two applications, in eleven concentrations (0 %, 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 %, with five replications per treatment. Some agronomic traits and parasitism characteristics were also evaluated. The plants that received a single application of manipueira showed a gain of 100.41 % in root length, while the volume and fresh root mass showed gains of 81.52 % and 28.11 %, respectively, with the two applications. Regarding parasitism, the single application was more effective in reducing the number of juveniles in the soil and roots, where the concentrations of manipueira to kill 50 % of the nematodes were 1.65 % and 4.37 %, respectively. Thus, besides being effective in controlling M. incognita, manipueira has a positive effect on the development of soybean and may be recommended as a nematicide and also as an organic fertilizer.

  16. Organic acids in the rhizosphere and root characteristics of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... taken for the estimation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) infection by the method of ... of the peaks and detection was by UV–VIS spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 210 nm. Standards and calibration curves were.

  17. Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transformation of multiple soybean cultivars by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ... In our study, the combination of Nannong88-1 with EHA105 is the optimum selection for explant and bacterial inoculum in soybean transformation, which could be applied in future functional study of soybean ...

  18. effect of exogenous application of rhizopine on lucerne root nodulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Calvert, H. E., Pence, M. K., Pierce, M., Malik, N. S. A., and Bauer, W. D. ( 1984). Anatomical analysis of the development and distribution of Rhizobium infection in soybean roots. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2375-2384. Cardenas, L., Vidali, L., Domsnguez, J., Pirez, H., Sanchez, F., Helper, P.K. and. Quinto, C. (1998).

  19. Induced mutation for soybean quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peiying; Xu Dechun; Guo Yuhong; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan

    2000-01-01

    Gamma rays of acute and chronic radiation, thermal neutrons as well as ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), sodium azide (NaN 3 ) of chemical mutagens were used to improve the quality of soybean seed. Some mutants of better quality were selected. 'Heinong No.41' With protein and oil content of 45.23% and 18.80% respectively was tolerant to akali-saline and had a higher yield potential; 90-3527 with earlier mature (110 days of growth period) and high protein content (47.53%) had a resistance to soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and frog-eye lief spot of soybean. The mutants with higher linoleic acid content (more than 60%) and lower linolenic acid content (less than 3.5%) were developed

  20. GmCLC1 Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance through Regulating Chloride Accumulation in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Wei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The family of chloride channel proteins that mediate Cl- transportation play vital roles in plant nutrient supply, cellular action potential and turgor pressure adjustment, stomatal movement, hormone signal recognition and transduction, Cl- homeostasis, and abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. The anionic toxicity, mainly caused by chloride ions (Cl-, on plants under salt stress remains poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the function of soybean Cl-/H+ antiporter GmCLC1 under salt stress in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, soybean, and yeast. We found that GmCLC1 enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic A. thaliana by reducing the Cl- accumulation in shoots and hence released the negative impact of salt stress on plant growth. Overexpression of GmCLC1 in the hairy roots of soybean sequestered more Cl- in their roots and transferred less Cl- to their shoots, leading to lower relative electrolyte leakage values in the roots and leaves. When either the soybean GmCLC1 or the yeast chloride transporter gene, GEF1, was transformed into the yeast gef1 mutant, and then treated with different chloride salts (MnCl2, KCl, NaCl, enhanced survival rate was observed. The result indicates that GmCLC1 and GEF1 exerted similar effects on alleviating the stress of diverse chloride salts on the yeast gef1 mutant. Together, this work suggests a protective function of GmCLC1 under Cl- stress.

  1. Evaluation of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean by labelling of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschel, A.P.; Freitas, J.R. de; Vose, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out using the isotopic dilution method to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean grown in soil labelled with 15 N enriched organic matter. Symbiotic N 2 -fixed was 71-76% of total N in the plant. Non nodulated soybean utilized 56-59% N from organic matter and 40% from soil. Roots of nodulated plants had lower NdN 2 than aereal plant parts. The advantage of using labelled organic matter as compared with 15 N-fertilizer addition in evaluating N 2 -fixation is discussed. (Author) [pt

  2. Root systems and soil microbial biomass under no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venzke Filho Solismar de Paiva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Some root parameters such as distribution, length, diameter and dry matter are inherent to plant species. Roots can influence microbial population during vegetative cycle through the rhizodeposits and, after senescence, integrating the soil organic matter pool. Since they represent labile substrates, especially regarding nitrogen, they can determine the rate of nutrient availability to the next crop cultivated under no-tillage (NT. The root systems of two crop species: maize (Zea mays L. cultivar Cargill 909 and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] cultivar Embrapa 59, were compared in the field, and their influence on spatial distribution of the microbial C and N in a clayey-textured Typic Hapludox cultivated for 22 years under NT, at Tibagi, State of Paraná (PR, Brazil, was determined. Digital image processing and nail-plate techniques were used to evaluate 40 plots of a 80 ´ 50 ´ 3 cm soil profile. It was observed that 36% and 30% of the maize and soybeans roots, respectively, are concentrated in the 0 to 10 cm soil layer. The percent distribution of root dry matter was similar for both crops. The maize roots presented a total of 1,324 kg C ha-1 and 58 kg N ha-1, with higher root dry matter density and more roots in decomposition in the upper soil layer, decreasing with depth. The soybean roots (392 kg C ha-1 and 21 kg N ha-1 showed higher number of thinner roots and higher density per length unity compared to the maize. The maize roots enhanced microbial-C down to deeper soil layers than did the soybean roots. The microbial N presented a better correlation with the concentration of thin active roots and with roots in decomposition or in indefinite shape, possibly because of higher concentration of C and N easily assimilated by soil microorganisms.

  3. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Soybean Flowering Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.

    2012-01-01

    Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494

  4. Soybean cultivation for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs): The effect of hydroponic system and nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Roberta; Buonomo, Roberta; Dixon, Mike A.; Barbieri, Giancarlo; De Pascale, Stefania

    2014-02-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the plant species selected within the European Space Agency (ESA) Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project for hydroponic cultivation in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSSs), because of the high nutritional value of seeds. Root symbiosis of soybean with Bradirhizobium japonicum contributes to plant nutrition in soil, providing ammonium through the bacterial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two hydroponic systems, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) and cultivation on rockwool, and two nitrogen sources in the nutrient solution, nitrate (as Ca(NO3)2 and KNO3) and urea (CO(NH2)2), on root symbiosis, plant growth and seeds production of soybean. Plants of cultivar 'OT8914', inoculated with B. japonicum strain BUS-2, were grown in a growth chamber, under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivation on rockwool positively influenced root nodulation and plant growth and yield, without affecting the proximate composition of seeds, compared to NFT. Urea as the sole source of N drastically reduced the seed production and the harvest index of soybean plants, presumably because of ammonium toxicity, even though it enhanced root nodulation and increased the N content of seeds. In the view of large-scale cultivation for space colony on planetary surfaces, the possibility to use porous media, prepared using in situ resources, should be investigated. Urea can be included in the nutrient formulation for soybean in order to promote bacterial activity, however a proper ammonium/nitrate ratio should be maintained.

  5. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  6. Crescimento, morfologia radicular e liberação de compostos orgânicos por plântulas de soja em função da atividade de alumínio na solução do solo de campo natural Growth, root morphology and organic compounds released by soybean seedlings as a function of aluminum activity in a field soil solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Nolla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A toxicidade do alumínio em solos é considerada uma das maiores limitações para a produção das culturas. No entanto, algumas plantas são capazes de tolerar altas concentrações de alumínio por sua complexação com ácidos orgânicos exsudados pelas raízes. No intuito de estudar os efeitos concomitantes de faixas pH e de alumínio no desenvolvimento radicular de plântulas de soja, desenvolveu-se um trabalho na solução de um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico de campo natural. Cultivou-se, em câmara de crescimento, plântulas pré-germinadas de soja durante três dias dentro de tubos de ensaio aerados contendo 40ml da solução do solo (4,2µmol de Al L-1, submetidos a quatro concentrações de alumínio (0,0; 0,3; 0,6 e 1,2µmol L-1 e três níveis de pH (4,0; 5,0 e 6,0. O crescimento radicular e da parte aérea da soja foi menor em condições mais ácidas (pH 4,0. Em condições de acidez intermediária (pH H2O 5,0, o crescimento radicular foi menos afetado pelas espécies rizotóxicas de alumínio, mesmo quando submetidas a elevadas concentrações de alumínio na solução do solo.Aluminum toxicity in soils is considered one of the major limitations to crop production. However, some plants are able to tolerate high aluminum concentrations due to its complexation with root organic acids exudates. The simultaneous effect of pH ranges and aluminum concentration in soil solution on soybean seedlings root development was studied in a Rhodic Paleudult soil solution under natural grasses vegetation. Soybean seedlings were grown in growth chamber for three days in aerated test tubes containing 40ml soil solution (4.2µmol Al L-1, submmited to four aluminum concentrations (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2mmol L-1 and three pH levels (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0. Root and aerial growth decreased under more acidic conditions (pH 4.0. Root growth was less affected by rhyzotoxic aluminum species at pH 5.0, even when submitted to high concentration of

  7. Contributions of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines to the Disease Complex of Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas; Li, Chunge; Xing, Lijuan; McKay, Alan; Malvick, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean caused by Fusarium virguliforme spreads and reduces soybean yields through the North Central region of the U.S. The fungal pathogen and Heterodera glycines are difficult to manage. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to determine the contributions of H. glycines and F. virguliforme to SDS severity and effects on soybean yield. To quantify DNA of F. virguliforme in soybean roots and soil, a specific real time qPCR assay was developed. The assay was used on materials from soybean field microplots that contained in a four-factor factorial-design: (i) untreated or methyl bromide-fumigated; (ii) non-infested or infested with F. virguliforme; (iii) non-infested or infested with H. glycines; (iv) natural precipitation or additional weekly watering. In years 2 and 3 of the trial, soil and watering treatments were maintained. Roots of soybean ‘Williams 82’ were collected for necrosis ratings at the full seed growth stage R6. Foliar symptoms of SDS (area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC), root necrosis, and seed yield parameters were related to population densities of H. glycines and the relative DNA concentrations of F. virguliforme in the roots and soil. The specific and sensitive real time qPCR was used. Data from microplots were introduced into models of AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters with the frequency of H. glycines and F. virguliforme, and among each other. The models confirmed the close interrelationship of H. glycines with the development of SDS, and allowed for predictions of disease risk based on populations of these two pathogens in soil. Conclusions/Significance The results modeled the synergistic interaction between H. glycines and F. virguliforme quantitatively in previously infested field plots and explained previous findings of their interaction. Under these conditions, F. virguliforme was mildly aggressive and depended on infection of H. glycines to cause highly

  8. Sequential Path Model for Grain Yield in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine some physiological traits that affect soybean,s grain yield via sequential path analysis. In a factorial experiment, two cultivars (Harcor and Williams were sown under four levels of nitrogen and two levels of weed management at the research station of Tabriz University, Iran, during 2004 and 2005. Grain yield, some yield components and physiological traits were measured. Correlation coefficient analysis showed that grain yield had significant positive and negative association with measured traits. A sequential path analysis was done in order to evaluate associations among grain yield and related traits by ordering the various variables in first, second and third order paths on the basis of their maximum direct effects and minimal collinearity. Two first-order variables, namely number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis revealed highest direct effect on total grain yield and explained 49, 44 and 47 % of the variation in grain yield based on 2004, 2005, and combined datasets, respectively. Four traits i.e. post-flowering net photosynthesis, plant height, leaf area index and intercepted radiation at the bottom layer of canopy were found to fit as second-order variables. Pre- and post-flowering chlorophyll content, main root length and intercepted radiation at the middle layer of canopy were placed at the third-order path. From the results concluded that, number of pods per plant and pre-flowering net photosynthesis are the best selection criteria in soybean for grain yield.

  9. Laura: Soybean variety lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrić Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain of conventional soybean varieties requires heat processing to break down trypsin inhibitor's activity before using as food or animal feed. At the same time, protein denaturation and other qualitative changes occur in soybean grain, especially if the temperature of heating is not controlled. Two types of trypsin inhibitor were found in soybean grain the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk inhibitor. Mature grain of soybean Laura is lacking Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Grain yield of variety Laura is equal to high yielding varieties from the maturity group I, where it belongs. Lacking of Kunitz-trypsin inhibitor makes soybean grain suitable for direct feeding in adult non ruminant animals without previous thermal processing. Grain of variety Laura can be processed for a shorter period of time than conventional soybeans. This way we save energy, and preserve valuable nutritional composition of soybean grain, which is of interest in industrial processing.

  10. Low pH, Aluminum, and Phosphorus Coordinately Regulate Malate Exudation through GmALMT1 to Improve Soybean Adaptation to Acid Soils1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A.; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V.; Liao, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function. PMID:23341359

  11. Low pH, aluminum, and phosphorus coordinately regulate malate exudation through GmALMT1 to improve soybean adaptation to acid soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Cuiyue; Piñeros, Miguel A; Tian, Jiang; Yao, Zhufang; Sun, Lili; Liu, Jiping; Shaff, Jon; Coluccio, Alison; Kochian, Leon V; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-01

    Low pH, aluminum (Al) toxicity, and low phosphorus (P) often coexist and are heterogeneously distributed in acid soils. To date, the underlying mechanisms of crop adaptation to these multiple factors on acid soils remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that P addition to acid soils could stimulate Al tolerance, especially for the P-efficient genotype HN89. Subsequent hydroponic studies demonstrated that solution pH, Al, and P levels coordinately altered soybean (Glycine max) root growth and malate exudation. Interestingly, HN89 released more malate under conditions mimicking acid soils (low pH, +P, and +Al), suggesting that root malate exudation might be critical for soybean adaptation to both Al toxicity and P deficiency on acid soils. GmALMT1, a soybean malate transporter gene, was cloned from the Al-treated root tips of HN89. Like root malate exudation, GmALMT1 expression was also pH dependent, being suppressed by low pH but enhanced by Al plus P addition in roots of HN89. Quantitative real-time PCR, transient expression of a GmALMT1-yellow fluorescent protein chimera in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and electrophysiological analysis of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing GmALMT1 demonstrated that GmALMT1 encodes a root cell plasma membrane transporter that mediates malate efflux in an extracellular pH-dependent and Al-independent manner. Overexpression of GmALMT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis, as well as overexpression and knockdown of GmALMT1 in transgenic soybean hairy roots, indicated that GmALMT1-mediated root malate efflux does underlie soybean Al tolerance. Taken together, our results suggest that malate exudation is an important component of soybean adaptation to acid soils and is coordinately regulated by three factors, pH, Al, and P, through the regulation of GmALMT1 expression and GmALMT1 function.

  12. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  13. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  14. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  15. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... differences, suggesting that there are both qualitative and quantitative changes in the metal ion and radical species present. A major component of the spectra obtained from young nodules is assigned to a complex (Lb-NO) of nitric oxide (NO.) with the heme protein leghemoglobin (Lb). This Lb-NO species, which...... has not been previously detected in intact root nodules of plants grown in the absence of nitrate, is thought to be formed by reaction of nitric oxide with iron(II) leghemoglobin. The nitric oxide may be generated from arginine via a nitric oxide synthase-like activity present in the nodules...

  16. Characterization of the soybean GmALMT family genes and the function of GmALMT5 in response to phosphate starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenting; Wu, Weiwei; Peng, Junchu; Li, Jiaojiao; Lin, Yan; Wang, Yanan; Tian, Jiang; Sun, Lili; Liang, Cuiyue; Liao, Hong

    2018-03-01

    A potential mechanism to enhance utilization of sparingly soluble forms of phosphorus (P) is the root secretion of malate, which is mainly mediated by the ALMT gene family in plants. In this study, a total of 34 GmALMT genes were identified in the soybean genome. Expression patterns diverged considerably among GmALMTs in response to phosphate (Pi) starvation in leaves, roots and flowers, with expression altered by P availability in 26 of the 34 GmALMTs. One root-specific GmALMT whose expression was significantly enhanced by Pi-starvation, GmALMT5, was studied in more detail to determine its possible role in soybean P nutrition. Analysis of GmALMT5 tissue expression patterns, subcellular localization, and malate exudation from transgenic soybean hairy roots overexpressing GmALMT5, demonstrated that GmALMT5 is a plasma membrane protein that mediates malate efflux from roots. Furthermore, both growth and P content of transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GmALMT5 were significantly increased when sparingly soluble Ca-P was used as the external P source. Taken together, these results indicate that members of the soybean GmALMT gene family exhibit diverse responses to Pi starvation. One member of this family, GmALMT5, might contribute to soybean P efficiency by enhancing utilization of sparingly soluble P sources under P limited conditions. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kee-Jong; Lee, Chan-Ho; Kim, Sung Woo

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of fermentation on the nutritional quality of food-grade soybeans and feed-grade soybean meals. Soybeans and soybean meals were fermented by Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 in a bed-packed solid fermentor for 48 hours. After fermentation, their nutrient contents as well as trypsin inhibitor were measured and compared with those of raw soybeans and soybean meals. Proteins were extracted from fermented and non-fermented soybeans and soybean meals, and the peptide characteristics were evaluated after electrophoresis. Fermented soybeans and fermented soybean meals contained 10% more (P 60 kDa) (P 60 kDa), whereas 22.1% of peptides in soybean meal were large-size (>60 kDa). Collectively, fermentation increased protein content, eliminated trypsin inhibitors, and reduced peptide size in soybeans and soybean meals. These effects of fermentation might make soy foods more useful in human diets as a functional food and benefit livestock as a novel feed ingredient.

  18. Effect of formulations on the absorption and translocation of glyphosate in transgenic soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.B.; Ferreira, E.A.; Silva, A.A.; Oliveira, J.A.; Fialho, C.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption and translocation of glyphosate formulations in genetically modified (GM) soybean by applying 14C-glyphosate mixed to three glyphosate formulations (Roundup Ready and R. Transorb - both with +isopropylamine salt, and Zapp Qi, formulated from potassic salt ), using a precision micro syringe. Plant samples were collected after herbicide application (4, 16, 40 and 64 hours) and then divided into leaf (trifolium), aerial part, roots and root nodes for radiation reading. 14C-glyphosate that was not absorbed was recovered and counted by washing the leaf with methanol. Penetration and translocation of 14C-glyphosate to the different parts evaluated was found to vary. However, the highest absorption was verified at intervals after 16 hours of application. The highest herbicide percentage in the aerial part of the soybean plants was found when Zapp (potassic salt) was applied on the aerial part and when isopropylamin salt was applied on the roots; 14C-glyphosate was found in the plant root nodules in all treatments, with the highest percentage being observed with R. Transorb, 40 hours after application (0.13% of the total measured or 0.4%, considering only the plant total). Results highlight the hypothesis that glyphosate could harm symbiosis between rhizobium and soybean, since the former also shows in its metabolism EPSPS, which is susceptible to this herbicide. (author)

  19. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... practice and procedure; Advertising; Agricultural research; Marketing agreements; Soybeans and soybean...] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board... occurred since the Board was reapportioned in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and...

  20. Selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI PURWANINGSIH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on the selection of Rhizobium strain from Wonogiri, Central Java on the growth of soybean (Glycine max L. on the sand sterile medium in green house. The aim of the experiment the selection and potency of the Rhizobium strain to increase the growth of soybean. The experiment was carried out in green house condition in Microbiology Division, Research Center for Biology-LIPI with sterile sand medium. The research design was Completely Randomized Design with three replications for each treatment. The Rhizobium strains used were 1 W (isolated from bean, Vigna radiata, 2 W (isolated from soybean, 3 W (isolated from bean, 4 W (isolated from soybean, 5 W (isolated from soybean, 6 W (isolated from peanut, Arachis hypogaea, 7 W (isolated from peanut, 8 W (isolated from peanut, the controls were uninoculated with Rhizobium strain and without urea fertilizer (K1, uninoculated and with urea fertilizer equal 100 kg/ha (K2. The plants were harvested after 50 days, the variable of investigation were the dry weight of canopy, roots, nodules root, total plants, number of nodules and ‘symbiotic capacity”. The results showed that all of experiment plant which be inoculated with Rhizobium able to form nodule. Strain of 2 W (isolated from soybean has given the best effects on the growth of soybean.

  1. Interaction of a nodule specific, trans-acting factor with distinct DNA elements in the soybean leghaemoglobin Ibc(3) 5' upstream region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Marcker, Kjeld A; Schell, J

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from soybean nodules, leaves and roots were used to investigate protein-DNA interactions in the 5' upstream (promoter) region of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene. Two distinct regions were identified which strongly bind a nodule specific factor. A Bal31 deletion analysis......, but with different affinities. Elements 1 and 2 share a common motif, although their AT-rich DNA sequences differ. Element 2 is highly conserved at an analogous position in other soybean lb gene 5' upstream regions. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-May...

  2. Foliar application of pyraclostrobin fungicide enhances the growth, rhizobial-nodule formation and nitrogenase activity in soybean (var. JS-335).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Juhie; Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2014-09-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of the fungicide pyraclostrobin (F500 - Headline®; a.i. 20%) on the activity of nitrogenase in soybean (var. JS-335). Pyraclostrobin (F500) was applied on the leaves of soybean plants at 10 and 20 days after emergence (DAE) of seedlings at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1%. Leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogenase activity in root nodules were analyzed at 45(th)day after emergence of seedlings indicated a remarkable increase in Lb content and enhanced activity of nitrogenase in the root nodules of pyraclostrobin treated plants. The fungicide also enhanced the number of nodules along with weight of nodules, root biomass and growth of shoot and leaves. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in the root nodules by pyraclostrobin improves the growth of the plant in soybean before flowering and pod formation which ultimately resulted in yield and yield attributes. These results suggest that pyraclostrobin (F500) can be successfully employed as a foliar spray under field conditions to enhance the growth, nitrogen assimilation and hence yield of soybean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars under salt stress. Murat Tunçturk1* ... Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the extent of ... INTRODUCTION. Soybean is a ..... A general approach. Science 210: ...

  4. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on soybean (Glycine max L.) germination and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmiyati, F.; Sutarno; Sas, M. G. A.; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    Narrow genetic diversity is a main problem restricting the progress of soybean breeding. One way to improve genetic diversity of plant is through mutation. The purpose of this study was to investigate effect of different dose of gamma rays as induced mutagen on physiological, morphological, and anatomical markers during seed germination and seedling growth of soybean. Seeds of soybean cultivars Dering-1 were irradiated with 11 doses of gamma rays (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, 1280, and 2560 Gy [Gray]. The research design was arranged in a completely randomized block design in three replicates. Results showed that soybean seed exposed at high doses (640, 1280, and 2560 Gy) did not survive more than 20 days, the doses were then removed from anatomical evaluation. Higher doses of gamma rays siginificantly reduced germination percentage at the first count and final count, coefficient of germination velocity, germination rate index, germination index, seedling height and seedling root length, and significantly increased mean germination time, first day of germination, last day of germination, and time spread of germination. However, the effects of gamma rays were varies for density, width, and length of stomata. The LD50 obtained based on survival percentage was 314.78 Gy. It can be concluded that very low and low doses of gamma rays (5-320 Gy) might be used to study the improvement of soybean diversity.

  5. The fficiency of Mycorrhiza biofertilizer treatment to the growth and yield of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanhudi; Pujiasmanto, B.; Sudadi; Putra, I. H.; Mumtazah, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    Soybean is one of the major commodities in Indonesia. Due to its high demand, its requires an effort to increase the production. Soybeans are generally cultivated in dry land, for that its need a special management to increase the yield. The association between Mycorrhiza and roots help the plant to get water and nutrients. In this regard Mycorrhiza expected to increase soybean yield and efficiency. This research aim is to study the dose of Mycorrhiza on the growth and yield of soybean efficiently. The experiment was conducted in Selogiri District, Wonogiri, while the analysis of Mycorrhiza and soil was inFaculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta from February to April 2016. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with two factors was emplyed for this experiment. The treatments are compost dose (derived from Waste Management Faculty of Agriculture UNS) and Mycorrhizal dose (obtained from BPPT Serpong). The result showed that the Mycorrhiza treatmentwas able to improved the growth and yield of soybean. The most efficient dose of is Mycorrhiza treatment at 0.64 ton ha-1.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Evolution of HECT Genes in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Meng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteins containing domains homologous to the E6-associated protein (E6-AP carboxyl terminus (HECT are an important class of E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway. HECT-type E3s play crucial roles in plant growth and development. However, current understanding of plant HECT genes and their evolution is very limited. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the HECT domain-containing genes in soybean. Using high-quality genome sequences, we identified 19 soybean HECT genes. The predicted HECT genes were distributed unevenly across 15 of 20 chromosomes. Nineteen of these genes were inferred to be segmentally duplicated gene pairs, suggesting that in soybean, segmental duplications have made a significant contribution to the expansion of the HECT gene family. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these HECT genes can be divided into seven groups, among which gene structure and domain architecture was relatively well-conserved. The Ka/Ks ratios show that after the duplication events, duplicated HECT genes underwent purifying selection. Moreover, expression analysis reveals that 15 of the HECT genes in soybean are differentially expressed in 14 tissues, and are often highly expressed in the flowers and roots. In summary, this work provides useful information on which further functional studies of soybean HECT genes can be based.

  7. Gamma Radiation-Induced Mutations in Soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of soybean radiation experiments was to create genetic variability in soybeans of various cultivars, mutants and mutation-derived lines with the aim of producing superior breeding lines with resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyhrizi Syd.) It took altogether 12 generations over six years after gamma irradiation if soybean seeds to produce the best resistant line (81-1-038) which a variety could be developed from it. This Line 81-1-038 showed a very good specific resistance to soybean rust, Thai race 2 and moderately resistance to Thai race 1. In the rainy season of 1985, Line 81-1-038 out yielded S.J.4 (a mother line) by 868 kg/ha in a yield trail at Suwan Farm, Pak Chong, Nakorn Rajchasima. This soybean rust mutant was later named D oi Kham

  8. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  9. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  10. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Crucial factors for plant development are water and nutrient availability in soils. Thus, root architecture is a main aspect of plant productivity and needs to be accurately considered when describing root processes. Images of root architecture contain a huge amount of information, and image analysis helps to recover parameters describing certain root architectural and morphological traits. The majority of imaging systems for root systems are designed for two-dimensional images, such as RootReader2, GiA Roots, SmartRoot, EZ-Rhizo, and Growscreen, but most of them are semi-automated and involve mouse-clicks in each root by the user. "Root System Analyzer" is a new, fully automated approach for recovering root architectural parameters from two-dimensional images of root systems. Individual roots can still be corrected manually in a user interface if required. The algorithm starts with a sequence of segmented two-dimensional images showing the dynamic development of a root system. For each image, morphological operators are used for skeletonization. Based on this, a graph representation of the root system is created. A dynamic root architecture model helps to determine which edges of the graph belong to an individual root. The algorithm elongates each root at the root tip and simulates growth confined within the already existing graph representation. The increment of root elongation is calculated assuming constant growth. For each root, the algorithm finds all possible paths and elongates the root in the direction of the optimal path. In this way, each edge of the graph is assigned to one or more coherent roots. Image sequences of root systems are handled in such a way that the previous image is used as a starting point for the current image. The algorithm is implemented in a set of Matlab m-files. Output of Root System Analyzer is a data structure that includes for each root an identification number, the branching order, the time of emergence, the parent

  11. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methlyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, SCN) is the most pervasive pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. SCN reduced soybean yields worldwide by an estimated billion dollars annually. These losses remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over ...

  12. Discovery of a seventh Rpp soybean rust resistance locus in soybean accession PI 605823

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. & Syd, is a disease threat to soybean production in regions of the world with mild winters. Host plant resistance to P. pachyrhizi conditioned by Rpp genes has been found in numerous soybean accessions, and at...

  13. Soybean improvement: Achievements and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is a major source of vegetable protein and oil in the world. Worldwide demand continues to be high and production has more than doubled in the past 20 years to a total of 264.2 million metric tons in 2011 (National Agricultural Statistics Service 2012. Much of this increase has been due to increased planting in Argentina and Brazil. But, there have been genetic gains as well. We now have powerful genetic tools and these will be useful in gene discovery and in developing selectable markers for those genes. But for traits that are quantitative and multigenic, marker assisted selection may not be practical. We are facing unprecedented changes in our climate which will require resourceful use of the new genetic tools along with standard plant breeding methodology to maintain soybean productivity and quality.

  14. A STUDY ON WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TJITROSEMITO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments on weed control in soybeans were carried out at BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia from February to June, 1989. The critical period for weed control was found to be between 20 - 40 days after planting of soybean (c. v. Wilis grown at a planting distance of 40 x 10 cm. It did not coincide with the fastest growth in terms of trifoliate leaf number. Further studies were suggested to understand the physiological growth of soybean related to weed control. Pendimethalin at 660- 1320 g a.e./ha applied one day after sowing did not cause any phytotoxic effect to soybean and had good weed control performance.

  15. Growth patterns for etiolated soybeans germinated under spaceflight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Piastuch, William C.

    In the GENEX (GENe EXpression) spaceflight experiment (flown on STS-87), six surface sterilized soybean seeds ( Glycine max cv McCall) were inserted into each of 32 autoclaved plastic seed growth pouches containing an inner germination paper sleeve (for a total of 192 seeds). The pouches were stowed within a mid-deck locker until Mission Flight Day 10, at which time an astronaut added water to initiate the process of seed germination on-orbit and subsequently transferred them to four light-tight aluminum canisters called BRIC-60s (Biological Research In Canisters). We report here on the morphological characteristics of: (1) the recovered flight plants ( N = 177), (2) the corresponding ground control population ( N = 183), plus (3) additional controls grown on the ground under clinostat conditions ( N = 93). No significant morphological differences were found between the flight, ground control and clinorotated treatments for either the cotyledons or hypocotyls. There were, however, significantly longer primary roots produced in the flight population relative to the ground control population, which in turn had significantly longer primary roots than the clinorotated population. This same pattern was observed relative to the production of lateral roots (flight > control > clinorotated). Taken together with previous literature reports, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to conclude that plants grown under conditions of microgravity will generally exhibit enhanced root production relative to their ground control counterparts. Some causes underlying this phenomenon are speculated on.

  16. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  17. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  18. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  19. Food type soybean cooking time: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonisio Destro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an extensive crop that produces more protein per hectare and, compared to other sources, has the lowest proteincost. This turns soybean into one of the basic foods with the potential to fight malnutrition and hunger in the planet. Even though itrepresents the fourth crop in grain production in the world (261 million tons year-1, most of its production is used as animal fodder.Currently, one of the greatest research challenges is to improve soybean production for human consumption. Cooking time is one theseveral characteristics that need improvement so that soybean can be used more extensively in our everyday diet. The objective of thiswork is to carry out a bibliographic review on the topic, to sensitize researchers in the area of soybean breeding about its importance.

  20. Coregulation of Soybean Vegetative Storage Protein Gene Expression by Methyl Jasmonate and Soluble Sugars 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Hugh S.; DeWald, Daryll B.; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668757

  1. Coregulation of soybean vegetative storage protein gene expression by methyl jasmonate and soluble sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H S; Dewald, D B; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E

    1992-03-01

    The soybean vegetative storage protein genes vspA and vspB are highly expressed in developing leaves, stems, flowers, and pods as compared with roots, seeds, and mature leaves and stems. In this paper, we report that physiological levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and soluble sugars synergistically stimulate accumulation of vsp mRNAs. Treatment of excised mature soybean (Glycine max Merr. cv Williams) leaves with 0.2 molar sucrose and 10 micromolar MeJA caused a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs, whereas little accumulation occurred when these compounds were supplied separately. In soybean cell suspension cultures, the synergistic effect of sucrose and MeJA on the accumulation of vspB mRNA was maximal at 58 millimolar sucrose and was observed with fructose or glucose substituted for sucrose. In dark-grown soybean seedlings, the highest levels of vsp mRNAs occurred in the hypocotyl hook, which also contained high levels of MeJA and soluble sugars. Lower levels of vsp mRNAs, MeJA, and soluble sugars were found in the cotyledons, roots, and nongrowing regions of the stem. Wounding of mature soybean leaves induced a large accumulation of vsp mRNAs when wounded plants were incubated in the light. Wounded plants kept in the dark or illuminated plants sprayed with dichlorophenyldimethylurea, an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport, showed a greatly reduced accumulation of vsp mRNAs. The time courses for the accumulation of vsp mRNAs induced by wounding or sucrose/MeJA treatment were similar. These results strongly suggest that vsp expression is coregulated by endogenous levels of MeJA (or jasmonic acid) and soluble carbohydrate during normal vegetative development and in wounded leaves.

  2. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  3. Breeding for high N2 fixation in groundnut and soybean in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Xuan Hong

    1998-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Mer.) are grown mainly on two types of soil in Viet Nam: coastal-sandy and upland-degraded soils. These soils are deficient in N, and considering that fertilizer N is not only costly to farmers but also a threat to the environment, it is important to maximize productivity by exploiting the ability of these legumes to fix N 2 symbiotically in their root nodules. We initiated programmes of breeding and selection to combine high N 2 fixation and high grain-yielding capacity. In the spring of 1992, breeding lines of groundnut and soybean were tested under greenhouse conditions for varietal differences in the capacity to fix N 2 using the acetylene reduction assay and the 15 N-dilution technique, with upland rice as reference plants. Varietal differences were found in nitrogenase activity, and percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) ranged from 11 to 63% for groundnut and from 9 to 79% for soybean. Field experiments in the autumn-winter season of 1992 again revealed significant varietal differences; %Ndfa ranged from 36 to 56% for groundnut and from 28 to 58% for soybean. Gamma-irradiated seeds of soybean were propagated in bulk from M 1 to M 4 . Five high-yielding mutant lines of both species were selected from the M 5 populations, and N 2 fixation was estimated using the 15 N-dilution technique. The average values for %Ndfa of the mutants were 55 and 57%, significant improvements over the parent-cultivar values of 25 and 29% for soybean and groundnut, respectively

  4. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  5. 21 CFR 172.723 - Epoxidized soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Epoxidized soybean oil. 172.723 Section 172.723... CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.723 Epoxidized soybean oil. Epoxidized soybean oil may be... reacting soybean oil in toluene with hydrogen peroxide and formic acid. (b) It meets the following...

  6. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Plant Chemistry, Growth, Yield of Resistant Soybean, and Feeding of a Target Lepidoptera Pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yifei, Zhang; Yang, Dai; Guijun, Wan; Bin, Liu; Guangnan, Xing; Fajun, Chen

    2018-04-25

    Atmospheric CO2 level arising is an indisputable fact in the future climate change, as predicted, it could influence crops and their herbivorous insect pests. The growth and development, reproduction, and consumption of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on resistant (cv. Lamar) and susceptible (cv. JLNMH) soybean grown under elevated (732.1 ± 9.99 μl/liter) and ambient (373.6 ± 9.21 μl/liter) CO2 were examined in open-top chambers from 2013 to 2015. Elevated CO2 promoted the above- and belowground-biomass accumulation and increased the root/shoot ratio of two soybean cultivars, and increased the seeds' yield for Lamar. Moreover, elevated CO2 significantly reduced the larval and pupal weight, prolonged the larval and pupal life span, and increased the feeding amount and excretion amount of two soybean cultivars. Significantly lower foliar nitrogen content and higher foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were observed in the sampled foliage of resistant and susceptible soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO2, which brought negative effects on the growth of S. litura, with the increment of foliar sugar content and C/N ratio were greater in the resistant soybean in contrast to the susceptible soybean. Furthermore, the increment of larval consumption was less than 50%, and the larval life span was prolonged more obvious of the larvae fed on resistant soybean compared with susceptible soybean under elevated CO2. It speculated that the future climatic change of atmospheric CO2 level arising would likely cause the increase of the soybean yield and the intake of S. litura, but the resistant soybean would improve the resistance of the target Lepidoptera pest, S. litura.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Soybean LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain-Containing Genes: A Functional Investigation of GmLBD12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific ( genes play critical roles in various plant growth and development processes. However, the number and characteristics of genes in soybean [ (L. Merr.] remain unknown. Here, we identified 90 homologous genes in the soybean genome that phylogenetically clustered into two classes (I and II. The majority of the genes were evenly distributed across all 20 soybean chromosomes, and 77 (81.11% of them were detected in segmental duplicated regions. Furthermore, the exon–intron organization and motif composition for each were analyzed. A close phylogenetic relationship was identified between the soybean genes and 41 previously reported genes of different plants in the same group, providing insights into their putative functions. Expression analysis indicated that more than half of the genes were expressed, with the two gene classes showing differential tissue expression characteristics; in addition, they were differentially induced by biotic and abiotic stresses. To further explore the functions of genes in soybean, was selected for functional characterization. GmLBD12 was mainly localized to the nucleus and showed high expression in root and seed tissues. Overexpressing in (L. Heynh resulted in increases in lateral root (LR number and plant height. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that was induced by drought, salt, cold, indole acetic acid (IAA, abscisic acid (ABA, and salicylic acid SA treatments. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the soybean gene family and a valuable foundation for future functional studies of genes.

  8. Physiological responses of genotypes soybean to simulated drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonóra Krivosudská

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate possible genetic variation in the sensitivity of soybean cultivars for nitrogen fixation rates in response to soil drying. The work confirmed that the selected physiological characteristics (RWC, osmotic potential, stress index and created nodules on roots are good evaluating parameters for the determination of water stress in plant. In the floricultural year 2014 an experiment with four genetic resources of soybean was launched. Sowing of Maverick (USA, Drina (HRV, Nigra (SVK and Polanka (CZK genotypes was carried out in the containers of 15 l capacity. This stress had a negative impact on the physiological parameters. By comparing the RWC values, the decrease was more significant at the end of dehydration, which was monitored in Maverick and Drina genotypes using the Nitrazon inoculants and water stress effect. Inoculated stressed Nigra and Polanka genotypes have kept higher water content till the end of dehydration period. Also the proline accumulation was monitored during the water stress, whilst higher content of free proline reached of Maverick. More remarkable decrease of osmotic potential was again registered in a foreign Drina and Maverick genotypes in the inoculated variations. Nigra and Polanka genotypes responses not so significant in the given conditions.

  9. Overexpression of GmERF5, a new member of the soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor, enhances resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lidong; Cheng, Yingxin; Wu, Junjiang; Cheng, Qun; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Xu, Zhaolong; Kong, Fanjiang; Zhang, Dayong; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-05-01

    Phytophthora root and stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann and Gerdemann, is a destructive disease throughout the soybean planting regions in the world. Here, we report insights into the function and underlying mechanisms of a novel ethylene response factor (ERF) in soybean, namely GmERF5, in host responses to P. sojae. GmERF5-overexpressing transgenic soybean exhibited significantly enhanced resistance to P. sojae and positively regulated the expression of the PR10, PR1-1, and PR10-1 genes. Sequence analysis suggested that GmERF5 contains an AP2/ERF domain of 58 aa and a conserved ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in its C-terminal region. Following stress treatments, GmERF5 was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethylene (ET), abscisic acid (ABA), and salicylic acid (SA). The activity of the GmERF5 promoter (GmERF5P) was upregulated in tobacco leaves with ET, ABA, Phytophthora nicotianae, salt, and drought treatments, suggesting that GmERF5 could be involved not only in the induced defence response but also in the ABA-mediated pathway of salt and drought tolerance. GmERF5 could bind to the GCC-box element and act as a repressor of gene transcription. It was targeted to the nucleus when transiently expressed in Arabidopsis protoplasts. GmERF5 interacted with a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (GmbHLH) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor (GmEIF) both in yeast cells and in planta. To the best of our knowledge, GmERF5 is the first soybean EAR motif-containing ERF transcription factor demonstrated to be involved in the response to pathogen infection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic soybean expressing the Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta; Eckert, Helene; Arahana, Venancio; Graef, George; Grusak, Michael A; Clemente, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) production is reduced under iron-limiting calcareous soils throughout the upper Midwest regions of the US. Like other dicotyledonous plants, soybean responds to iron-limiting environments by induction of an active proton pump, a ferric iron reductase and an iron transporter. Here we demonstrate that heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2, in transgenic soybean significantly enhances Fe(+3) reduction in roots and leaves. Root ferric reductase activity was up to tenfold higher in transgenic plants and was not subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. In leaves, reductase activity was threefold higher in the transgenic plants when compared to control. The enhanced ferric reductase activity led to reduced chlorosis, increased chlorophyll concentration and a lessening in biomass loss in the transgenic events between Fe treatments as compared to control plants grown under hydroponics that mimicked Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soil environments. However, the data indicate that constitutive FRO2 expression under non-iron stress conditions may lead to a decrease in plant productivity as reflected by reduced biomass accumulation in the transgenic events under non-iron stress conditions. When grown at Fe(III)-EDDHA levels greater than 10 microM, iron concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly higher than control. The same observation was found in the roots in plants grown at iron levels higher than 32 microM Fe(III)-EDDHA. These results suggest that heterologous expression of an iron chelate reductase in soybean can provide a route to alleviate iron deficiency chlorosis.

  11. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muchlish Adie, M; Krisnawati, Ayda

    2014-01-01

    These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addi...

  12. Soybean phytase and nucleic acid encoding the same

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Isolated soybean phytase polypeptides and isolated nucleic acids encoding soybean phytases are provided. The invention is also directed to nucleic acid expression constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the isolated soybean phytase nucleic acids, as well as methods for producing recombinant and non-recombinant purified soybean phytase. The invention also relates to transgenic plants expressing the soybean phytase, particularly expression under seed-specific expression control elements.

  13. Mycoflora of soybeans used for meju fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-06-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and they were identified as 41 genera and 86 species. From sodium hypochlorite untreated soybeans, the genera, Cladosporium (55%), Eurotium (51%), Fusarium (33%), Penicillium (22%), and Aspergillus (exclusion of Eurotium) (20%), were mainly isolated, and Eurotium herbariorum (22%), Eurotium repens (18%), Cladosporium tenuissimum (18%), F. fujikuroi (18%), Aspergillus oryzae/flavus (7%), and Penicillium steckii (6%) were the predominant species. In case of sodium hypochlorite-treated soybeans, Eurotium (31%) and Cladosporium (5%) were frequently isolated, but Aspergillus (excluding Eurotium), Penicillium and Fusarium which were frequently isolated from untreated soybeans, were rarely isolated. Eurotium herbariorum (21%), Eurotium repens (8%), and Cladosporium tenuissimum (3%) were the predominant species. Of the 41 genera and 86 species isolated from soybeans, 13 genera and 33 species were also found in meju. These results suggest that the fungi on soybeans may influence the mycoflora of meju.

  14. Production of a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids by solid-state fermentation of soybean meal and evaluation of its efficacy on the rapeseed growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlei; Liu, Zhemin; Wang, Yue; Cheng, Wen; Mou, Haijin

    2014-10-10

    Soybean meal is a by-product of soybean oil extraction and contains approximately 44% protein. We performed solid-state fermentation by using Bacillus subtilis strain N-2 to produce a water-soluble fertilizer containing amino acids. Strain N-2 produced a high yield of protease, which transformed the proteins in soybean meal into peptide and free amino acids that were dissolved in the fermentation products. Based on the Plackett-Burman design, the initial pH of the fermentation substrate, number of days of fermentation, and the ratio of liquid to soybean meal exhibited significant effects on the recovery of proteins in the resulting water-soluble solution. According to the predicted results of the central composite design, the highest recovery of soluble proteins (99.072%) was achieved at the optimum conditions. Under these conditions, the resulting solution contained 50.42% small peptides and 7.9% poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA). The water-soluble fertilizer robustly increased the activity of the rapeseed root system, chlorophyll content, leaf area, shoot dry weight, root length, and root weight at a concentration of 0.25% (w/v). This methodology offers a value-added use of soybean meal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Current development and application of soybean genomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingli HE; Jing ZHAO; Man ZHAO; Chaoying HE

    2011-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max),an important domesticated species originated in China,constitutes a major source of edible oils and high-quality plant proteins worldwide.In spite of its complex genome as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidilization,platforms for map-based genomics,sequence-based genomics,comparative genomics and functional genomics have been well developed in the last decade,thus rich repertoires of genomic tools and resources are available,which have been influencing the soybean genetic improvement.Here we mainly review the progresses of soybean (including its wild relative Glycine soja) genomics and its impetus for soybean breeding,and raise the major biological questions needing to be addressed.Genetic maps,physical maps,QTL and EST mapping have been so well achieved that the marker assisted selection and positional cloning in soybean is feasible and even routine.Whole genome sequencing and transcriptomic analyses provide a large collection of molecular markers and predicted genes,which are instrumental to comparative genomics and functional genomics.Comparative genomics has started to reveal the evolution of soybean genome and the molecular basis of soybean domestication process.Microarrays resources,mutagenesis and efficient transformation systems become essential components of soybean functional genomics.Furthermore,phenotypic functional genomics via both forward and reverse genetic approaches has inferred functions of many genes involved in plant and seed development,in response to abiotic stresses,functioning in plant-pathogenic microbe interactions,and controlling the oil and protein content of seed.These achievements have paved the way for generation of transgenic or genetically modified (GM) soybean crops.

  16. Specific binding of a fungal glucan phytoalexin elicitor to membrane fractions from soybean Glycine max

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.E.; Ebel, J.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of soybean tissues with elicitors results in the production of phytoalexins, one of a number of inducible plant defense reactions against microbial infections. The present study uses a β-1,3-[ 3 H] glucan elicitor fraction from Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea, a fungal pathogen of soybean, to identify putative elicitor targets in soybean tissues. Use of the radiolabeled elicitor disclosed saturable high-affinity elicitor binding site(s) in membrane fractions of soybean roots. Highest binding activity is associated with a plasma membrane-enriched fraction. The apparent K/sub d/ value for β-glucan elicitor binding is ≅ 0.2 x 10 -6 M and the maximum number of binding sites is 0.5 pmol per mg of protein. Competition studies the [ 3 H]glucan elicitor and a number of polysaccharides demonstrate that only polysaccharides of a branched β-glucan type effectively displace the radiolabeled ligand from membrane binding. Differential displacing activity of the glucans on P. megasperma elicitor binding corresponds closely to their respective ability to elicit phytoalexin production in a cotyledon bioassay

  17. In vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in soybean by rosemary extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Anghinoni Müller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10%. Soybean plants were studied under greenhouse conditions, and starting at V3 stage, were sprayed weekly with the same concentration of rosemary extract for 64 days. Three days after the first treatment, each soybean plant was inoculated with 1800 eggs and 400 second-stage juveniles (J2. At the end of this essay, number of eggs and J2 in the roots and soil, number of galls, and the reproduction factor (RF were evaluated. Our results showed that in the in vitro assay, rosemary extract reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched. Under greenhouse conditions, the CD 206 cultivar showed a 48% reduction in the number of galls, as well as fewer eggs in the soil and a lower RF. Similarly, in the CD 215 cultivar, the number of eggs was reduced and the RF was lower. These results indicate the potential for rosemary extract to control M. incognita in soybean crops.

  18. Correlation maps to assess soybean yield from EVI data in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Kelly Dantas Araújo Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetation indices are widely used to monitor crop development and generally used as input data in models to forecast yield. The first step of this study consisted of using monthly Maximum Value Composites to create correlation maps using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor mounted on Terra satellite and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. We compared the ability of forecasting crop yield based on correlation maps and crop specific masks. We ran a preliminary regression model to test its ability on yield estimation for four municipalities during the soybean growing season. A regression model was developed for both methodologies to forecast soybean crop yield using leave-one-out cross validation. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE values in the implementation of the model ranged from 0.037 t ha−1 to 0.19 t ha−1 using correlation maps, while for crop specific masks, it varied from 0.21 t ha−1 to 0.35 t ha−1. The model was able to explain 96 % to 98 % of the variance in estimated yield from correlation maps, while it was able to explain only 2 % to 67 % for crop specific mask approach. The results showed that the correlation maps could be used to predict crop yield more effectively than crop specific masks. In addition, this method can provide an indication of soybean yield prior to harvesting.

  19. Genetically modified soybeans and food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M

    2003-05-01

    Allergenic reactions to proteins expressed in GM crops has been one of the prominent concerns among biotechnology critics and a concern of regulatory agencies. Soybeans like many plants have intrinsic allergens that present problems for sensitive people. Current GM crops, including soybean, have not been shown to add any additional allergenic risk beyond the intrinsic risks already present. Biotechnology can be used to characterize and eliminate allergens naturally present in crops. Biotechnology has been used to remove a major allergen in soybean demonstrating that genetic modification can be used to reduce allergenicity of food and feed. This provides a model for further use of GM approaches to eliminate allergens.

  20. Nutritive composition of soybean by-products and nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean by-products (soybean germ, soybean milk residue, soybean hull, soybean pod husk and soybean stem were subjected to proximate analysis, and in vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD were determined after digesting the by-products in buffered rumen fluid for 24 or 48 h in 2 ANKOMII Daisy Incubators using Completely Randomised Design. Four native cattle (body weight 210 + 13.5 kg were used to determine nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk. They were randomly assigned by Cross-over Design to receive two roughage sources, i.e. guinea grass and guinea grass + soybean pod husk (60:40 DM basis, in two experimental periods. Guinea grass was harvested on the 35th day after the first cut of the year and used as green forage. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients and digestibility by difference was used to calculate nutrient digestibility of soybean pod husk.The nutritive composition showed that soybean germ was highest in CP content (42.27% of DM and EE content (5.07% of DM but lowest in NDF and ADF content (20.09 and 21.53% of DM respectively. The average CP content of soybean straw, soybean stem and soybean pod husk was low (4.91, 4.67 and 5.04% respectively, while ADF content was high (42.76, 38.01 and 42.08% respectively. In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD, ADF (IVADFD and NDF (IVNDFD showed that all of them, except soybean stem, can be used as cattle feed, e.g. as supplemented feed or admixture in concentrate feed. Digestibility coefficients of guinea grass were higher in CP, CF and EE when compared to the other groups. The apparent digestibility of CP and CF were highly different (P0.05. The digestibility of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, CF, NFE, NDF and ADF of soybean pod husk were 53.81 + 4.3, 59.69 + 4.6, 42.38 + 3.8, 30.71 + 3.2, 50.74 + 4.3, 75.26 + 4.0, 45.78 + 3.7 and 30.53 + 4.2 % respectively. Soybean pod husk was higher in total digestible nutrients (TDN (51.87 + 3.3 vs

  1. Co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF inhibited soybean red crown rot: from field study to plant defense-related gene expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Soybean red crown rot is a major soil-borne disease all over the world, which severely affects soybean production. Efficient and sustainable methods are strongly desired to control the soil-borne diseases.We firstly investigated the disease incidence and index of soybean red crown rot under different phosphorus (P additions in field and found that the natural inoculation of rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF could affect soybean red crown rot, particularly without P addition. Further studies in sand culture experiments showed that inoculation with rhizobia or AMF significantly decreased severity and incidence of soybean red crown rot, especially for co-inoculation with rhizobia and AMF at low P. The root colony forming unit (CFU decreased over 50% when inoculated by rhizobia and/or AMF at low P. However, P addition only enhanced CFU when inoculated with AMF. Furthermore, root exudates of soybean inoculated with rhizobia and/or AMF significantly inhibited pathogen growth and reproduction. Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the transcripts of the most tested pathogen defense-related (PR genes in roots were significantly increased by rhizobium and/or AMF inoculation. Among them, PR2, PR3, PR4 and PR10 reached the highest level with co-inoculation of rhizobium and AMF.Our results indicated that inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could directly inhibit pathogen growth and reproduction, and activate the plant overall defense system through increasing PR gene expressions. Combined with optimal P fertilization, inoculation with rhizobia and AMF could be considered as an efficient method to control soybean red crown rot in acid soils.

  2. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  3. Interactions of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Phosphorus, and Heterodera glycines on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, G L; Hussey, R S; Roncadori, R W

    1991-01-01

    Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi and soil phosphorus (P) fertility on parasitism of soybean cultivars Bragg and Wright by soybean cyst nematode (SCN) were investigated in field micropiot and greenhouse experiments. VAM fungi increased height of both cultivars and yield of Wright in microplot studies in 1986 and 1987. Conversely, yield of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants of both cultivars was suppressed by SCN. Soil population densities of SCN were unaffected by VAM fungi in 1986 but were greater in microplots infested with VAM fungi than in control microplots in 1987. Growth of Wright soybean was stimulated by VAM fungi and suppressed by SCN in greenhouse experiments. The effect of VAM fungi on SCN varied with time. Numbers of SCN in roots and soil were decreased by VAM fungi by as much as 73% at the highest SCN inoculum level through 49 days after planting. Later, however, SCN numbers were usually comparable on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. Soil P fertility generally had no effect on SCN. Results of a split-root experiment indicated that VAM fungal suppression of SCN was not systemic.

  4. Distribution and Biocontrol Potential of phlD(+) Pseudomonads in Corn and Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSpadden Gardener, Brian B; Gutierrez, Laura J; Joshi, Raghavendra; Edema, Richard; Lutton, Elizabeth

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT The abundance and diversity of phlD(+) Pseudomonas spp. colonizing the rhizospheres of young, field-grown corn and soybean plants were assayed over a 3-year period. Populations of these bacteria were detected on the large majority of plants sampled in the state of Ohio, but colonization was greater on corn. Although significant variation in the incidence of rhizosphere colonization was observed from site to site and year to year on both crops, the magnitude of the variation was greatest for soybean. The D genotype was detected on plants collected from all 15 counties examined, and it represented the most abundant subpopulation on both crops. Additionally, six other genotypes (A, C, F, I, R, and S) were found to predominate in the rhizosphere of some plants. The most frequently observed of these were the A genotype and a newly discovered S genotype, both of which were found on corn and soybean roots obtained from multiple locations. Multiple isolates of the most abundant genotypes were recovered and characterized. The S genotype was found to be phylogenetically and phenotypically similar to the D genotype. In addition, the novel R genotype was found to be most similar to the A genotype. All of the isolates displayed significant capacities to inhibit the growth of an oomycete pathogen in vitro, but such phenotypes were highly dependent on media used. When tested against multiple oomycete pathogens isolated from soybean, the A genotype was significantly more inhibitory than the D genotype when incubated on 1/10x tryptic soy agar and 1/5x corn meal agar. Seed inoculation with different isolates of the A, D, and S genotypes indicated that significant root colonization, generally in excess of log 5 cells per gram of root, could be attained on both crops. Field trials of the A genotype isolate Wayne1R indicated the capacity of inoculant populations to supplement the activities of native populations so as to increase soybean stands and yields. The relevance of

  5. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aiqiu; Geng Yuxuan; Zhu Baogo

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M 2 population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  6. Soybean breeding with EMS mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiqiu, Gu; Yuxuan, Geng; Baogo, Zhu [Institute of Genetics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: 'Yudou No. 2' is a good soybean variety grown in the Honan Province. EMS was applied to seeds and valuable mutants were selected among the descendants. In a short period, several genetically stable strains were obtained. In the M{sub 2} population, the early-maturing mutants were the most frequent, followed by short culm mutants. Other mutations altered leaf shape, grain size, habit of pod bearing, number of pods etc. One of the best strains is '86-180'. It is highly disease-resistant and ripens 19 days earlier than the original 'Yodou No. 2'. It bears more pods, although the seeds are a little bit smaller and is highly productive (4110kg/ha). Another good strain is '86-223'. It is also disease-resistant and highly productive (3390kg/ha). (author)

  7. ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE USE EFFICIENCY AMONG SOYBEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-25

    Feb 25, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Analysis, Resource use efficiency, Farmers, production function analysis, Benue, Nigeria. ... Soybean seeds also contain about 20% oil on a dry matter basis, and this ..... Manual for training in Seed Technology.

  8. Physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Kim, J.O.; Yook, H.S.; Byun, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    Some physicochemical properties of gamma-irradiated soybeans (0-20 kCy) were investigated. Proximate components, fatty acid compositions and minerals of the soybeans irradiated at 2.5 - 20 kGy shrived no difference from the nonirradiated control. Irradiation doses above 10 kGy and long term storage caused decrease in extractable phenols and phytate content, whereas increases in acid value and organic acid content. The total amino acids content of the soybeans irradiated up to 10 kGy was not changed as compared with the nonirradiated control. Sulfur-containing amino acids, however, were changed by 10 and 20 kGy irradiaton. Gamma irradiation and long term storage caused minor changes in the color attributes of soybeans. Hunter's 'L' (lightness) and 'b' (yellowness) values were decreased whereas 'a' (redness) value was increased with increasing dose levels and the elapse of the storage period

  9. Mycoflora of Soybeans Used for Meju Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Lee, Jong-Kyu; Hong, Seung-Beom

    2013-01-01

    Diverse fungi are present in Korean traditional meju and they are known to play an important role in fermented soybean products. To determine the origin of the fungi in meju, we examined the mycoflora of soybeans from 10 traditional meju factories. The samples were untreated or treated with sodium hypochlorite, and placed on malt extract agar (MEA), dichloran 18% glycerol agar (DG18), and dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) medium. A total of 794 fungal strains were isolated and...

  10. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-01-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-e...

  11. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  12. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  13. Soybean in China: adaptating to the liberalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamet Jean-Paul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 and its opening, China has undergone a process of nutrition transition, animal products taking an increasing share. Anxious to ensure a certain level of food independence, Chinese authorities have developed national livestock production. The increase in volumes and the development of large scale breeding have increased the demand for commercial feed and thus soymeal. Meanwhile, edible oil consumption rose sharply, accentuating the demand for soybeans. To meet this demand, soybean imports were liberalized early, leading the country to become heavily dependent. China has indeed made the choice to maintain its independence in cereals at the expense of other grains, such as soybeans. Competition between corn and soybeans has turned in favor of the cereal, soybean production levelling off then regressing. China’s dependence extends to the crushing sector, controlled by foreign companies. Public supports in place, such as minimum prices, have resulted in increasing the price gap with imported products, leading to a reform of soybean policy in 2014.

  14. Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean.

  15. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  16. A new hemoglobin gene from soybean: a role for hemoglobin in all plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, C R; Jensen, E O; LLewellyn, D J

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated a new hemoglobin gene from soybean. It is expressed in cotyledons, stems of seedlings, roots, young leaves, and in some cells in the nodules that are associated with the nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium symbiont. This contrasts with the expression of the leghemoglobins, which...... are active only in the infected cells of the nodules. The deduced protein sequence of the new gene shows only 58% similarity to one of the soybean leghemoglobins, but 85-87% similarity to hemoglobins from the nonlegumes Parasponia, Casuarina, and barley. The pattern of expression and the gene sequence...... indicate that this new gene is a nonsymbiotic legume hemoglobin. The finding of this gene in legumes and similar genes in other species strengthens our previous suggestion that genomes of all plants contain hemoglobin genes. The specialized leghemoglobin gene family may have arisen from a preexisting...

  17. Assessment of the effects of Hirsutella minnesotensis on Soybean Cyst Nematode and growth of soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsutella minnesotensis is a fungal endoparasite of nematodes juvenile and parasitizes soybean cyst nematodes (SCN) with high frequency. In this study, the effects of two H. minnesotensis isolates on population and distribution of SCN and growth of soybean were evaluated. Experiments were conducted...

  18. Effect of γ irradiation on the fatty acid composition of soybean and soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Ikuko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Todoriki, Setsuko; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Food irradiation is a form of food processing to extend the shelf life and reduce spoilage of food. We examined the effects of γ radiation on the fatty acid composition, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidative activity of soybean and soybean oil which both contain a large amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Irradiation at 10 to 80 kGy under aerobic conditions did not markedly change the fatty acid composition of soybean. While 10-kGy irradiation did not markedly affect the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions, 40-kGy irradiation considerably altered the fatty acid composition of soybean oil under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, 40-kGy irradiation produced a significant amount of trans fatty acids under aerobic conditions, but not under anaerobic conditions. Irradiating soybean oil induced lipid peroxidation and reduced the radical scavenging activity under aerobic conditions, but had no effect under anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition of soybean was not markedly affected by radiation at 10 kGy, and that anaerobic conditions reduced the degradation of soybean oil that occurred with high doses of γ radiation.

  19. The strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L.; Rauf, A.; Rahmawaty; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research was to analyze both internal and external factors influencing the strategy of sustainable soybean development to increase soybean needs in North Sumatera. SWOT analysis was used as the method of the research through identifying internal factors in the development of sustainable soybean the strategy to increase soybean production in research area is aggressive strategy or strategy of SO (Strengths - Oppurtunities) that is using force to exploit existing opportunity with activities as follows: (1). Use certified seeds in accordance with government regulations and policies. (2). Utilizing the level of soil fertility and cropping patterns to be able to meet the demand for soybeans. (3). Utilizing human resources by becoming a member of farmer groups.

  20. Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago J Nakayama

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic or total (anoxic oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits. In this study, we analyzed conserved and divergent root transcriptional responses between flood-tolerant Embrapa 45 and flood-sensitive BR 4 soybean cultivars under hypoxic stress conditions with RNA-seq. To understand how soybean genes evolve and respond to hypoxia, stable and differentially expressed genes were characterized structurally and compositionally comparing its mechanistic relationship. Between cultivars, Embrapa 45 showed less up- and more down-regulated genes, and stronger induction of phosphoglucomutase (Glyma05g34790, unknown protein related to N-terminal protein myristoylation (Glyma06g03430, protein suppressor of phyA-105 (Glyma06g37080, and fibrillin (Glyma10g32620. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis of non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Glyma11g12980 indicated divergence in gene structure between cultivars. Transcriptional changes for genes in amino acids and derivative metabolic process suggest involvement of amino acids metabolism in tRNA modifications, translation accuracy/efficiency, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both cultivars under hypoxia. Gene groups differed in promoter TATA box, ABREs (ABA-responsive elements, and CRT/DREs (C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements frequency. Gene groups also differed in structure, composition, and codon usage, indicating biological significances. Additional data suggests that cis-acting ABRE elements can mediate gene expression

  1. Insights into soybean transcriptome reconfiguration under hypoxic stress: Functional, regulatory, structural, and compositional characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Thiago J; Rodrigues, Fabiana A; Neumaier, Norman; Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Molinari, Hugo B C; Santiago, Thaís R; Formighieri, Eduardo F; Basso, Marcos F; Farias, José R B; Emygdio, Beatriz M; de Oliveira, Ana C B; Campos, Ângela D; Borém, Aluízio; Harmon, Frank G; Mertz-Henning, Liliane M; Nepomuceno, Alexandre L

    2017-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the major crops worldwide and flooding stress affects the production and expansion of cultivated areas. Oxygen is essential for mitochondrial aerobic respiration to supply the energy demand of plant cells. Because oxygen diffusion in water is 10,000 times lower than in air, partial (hypoxic) or total (anoxic) oxygen deficiency is important component of flooding. Even when oxygen is externally available, oxygen deficiency frequently occurs in bulky, dense or metabolically active tissues such as phloem, meristems, seeds, and fruits. In this study, we analyzed conserved and divergent root transcriptional responses between flood-tolerant Embrapa 45 and flood-sensitive BR 4 soybean cultivars under hypoxic stress conditions with RNA-seq. To understand how soybean genes evolve and respond to hypoxia, stable and differentially expressed genes were characterized structurally and compositionally comparing its mechanistic relationship. Between cultivars, Embrapa 45 showed less up- and more down-regulated genes, and stronger induction of phosphoglucomutase (Glyma05g34790), unknown protein related to N-terminal protein myristoylation (Glyma06g03430), protein suppressor of phyA-105 (Glyma06g37080), and fibrillin (Glyma10g32620). RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis of non-symbiotic hemoglobin (Glyma11g12980) indicated divergence in gene structure between cultivars. Transcriptional changes for genes in amino acids and derivative metabolic process suggest involvement of amino acids metabolism in tRNA modifications, translation accuracy/efficiency, and endoplasmic reticulum stress in both cultivars under hypoxia. Gene groups differed in promoter TATA box, ABREs (ABA-responsive elements), and CRT/DREs (C-repeat/dehydration-responsive elements) frequency. Gene groups also differed in structure, composition, and codon usage, indicating biological significances. Additional data suggests that cis-acting ABRE elements can mediate gene expression independent of ABA

  2. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  3. EFFECT OF ALUMINUM ON PLANT GROWTH, PHOSPORUS AND CALCIUM UPTAKE OF TROPICAL RICE (Oryza sativa, MAIZE (Zea mays, AND SOYBEAN (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nursyamsi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum toxicity is the most limiting factor to plant growth on acid soils. Structural and functional damages in the root system by Al decrease nutrient uptake and lead to reduce plant growth and mineral deficiency in shoot. Greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of Al on plant growth, and P and Ca uptake of rice, maize, and soybean. The plants were grown in hydroponic solution added with 0, 5, 10, and 30 ppm Al, at pH 4.0. The results showed that relative growth of shoots and roots of upland rice, lowland rice, maize, and soybean decreased with an increase of Al level. However, sometimes the low Al level (5 ppm stimulated shoot and root growth of some varieties in these species. According to total AlRG30 values, which is Al concentration in solution when relative growth decreased to 50%, Al tolerance of species was in order of barley < maize < soybean < lowland rice < upland rice. For maize, Al tolerance was in the order of Arjuna < Kalingga < P 3540 < SA 5 < SA 4 < PM 95 A < SA 3 < Antasena; for soybean was Wilis < INPS < Galunggung < Kerinci < Kitamusume; for lowland rice was RD 23 < Kapuas < Cisadane < KDML 105 < IR 66 < RD 13, and for upland rice was Dodokan < JAC165 < Cirata < Orizyca sabana 6 < Danau Tempe < Laut Tawar. Based on the rank of Al tolerance, rice was the useful crop to be planted in acid soils. Antasena (maize, Kitamusume ( soybean , RD 13 (lowland rice, and Laut Tawar (upland rice were also recommended for acid soils. P and Ca concentration in shoots and roots commonly decreased with an increase of Al level. However, the low Al level stimulated absorption of P and Ca concentrations in shoots and roots.

  4. Response of soybean plants to phosphorus, boron and molybdenum fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aziz, H. A.; Aly, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to study the effect of added phosphorus levels (30. 60 kg p/fed) with the addition of boron at (2, 6 ppm) and molybdenum at (5, 10.ppm) and without addition beside the control the control on growth and mineral content and root nodules in soybean plants. The results indicated that the effect of phosphorus on the formation of nodules had a clear effect when added with boron, molybdenum and when boron added at a rate of 2 ppm in the absence of phosphorus led to increase in root nodules in each of the 5, 10 ppm led to increased formation of, naldetuss in of the alluvial and calcareous soil. The molybdenum, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake increased directly proportional to the result of increased rate of addition of phosphorus and molybdenum. While the uptake born may be added with the rate of increased concentration of 2 ppm, while when added at 6 ppm led tp increased absorption of boron in the calcareous soil, but led to a decrease in the alluvial soils. (Author)

  5. Identification of genes associated with nitrogen-use efficiency by genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xin A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soybean is a valuable crop that provides protein and oil. Soybean requires a large amount of nitrogen (N to accumulate high levels of N in the seed. The yield and protein content of soybean seeds are directly affected by the N-use efficiency (NUE of the plant, and improvements in NUE will improve yields and quality of soybean products. Genetic engineering is one of the approaches to improve NUE, but at present, it is hampered by the lack of information on genes associated with NUE. Solexa sequencing is a new method for estimating gene expression in the transcription level. Here, the expression profiles were analyzed between two soybean varieties in N-limited conditions to identify genes related to NUE. Results Two soybean genotypes were grown under N-limited conditions; a low-N-tolerant variety (No.116 and a low-N-sensitive variety (No.84-70. The shoots and roots of soybeans were used for sequencing. Eight libraries were generated for analysis: 2 genotypes × 2 tissues (roots and shoots × 2 time periods [short-term (0.5 to 12 h and long-term (3 to 12 d responses] and compared the transcriptomes by high-throughput tag-sequencing analysis. 5,739,999, 5,846,807, 5,731,901, 5,970,775, 5,476,878, 5,900,343, 5,930,716, and 5,862,642 clean tags were obtained for the eight libraries: L1, 116-shoot short-term; L2 84-70-shoot short-term; L3 116-shoot long-term; L4 84-70-shoot long-term; L5 116-root short-term; L6 84-70-root short-term; L7 116-root long-term;L8 84-70-root long-term; these corresponded to 224,154, 162,415, 191,994, 181,792, 204,639, 206,998, 233,839 and 257,077 distinct tags, respectively. The clean tags were mapped to the reference sequences for annotation of expressed genes. Many genes showed substantial differences in expression among the libraries. In total, 3,231genes involved in twenty-two metabolic and signal transduction pathways were up- or down-regulated. Twenty-four genes were randomly selected and confirmed

  6. Roles of Soybean Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein GmPIP2;9 in Drought Tolerance and Seed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghong Lu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins play an essential role in water uptake and transport in vascular plants. The soybean genome contains a total of 22 plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP genes. To identify candidate PIPs important for soybean yield and stress tolerance, we studied the transcript levels of all 22 soybean PIPs. We found that a GmPIP2 subfamily member, GmPIP2;9, was predominately expressed in roots and developing seeds. Here, we show that GmPIP2;9 localized to the plasma membrane and had high water channel activity when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using transgenic soybean plants expressing a native GmPIP2;9 promoter driving a GUS-reporter gene, it was found high GUS expression in the roots, in particular, in the endoderm, pericycle, and vascular tissues of the roots of transgenic plants. In addition, GmPIP2;9 was also highly expressed in developing pods. GmPIP2;9 expression significantly increased in short term of polyethylene glycol (PEG-mediated drought stress treatment. GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased tolerance to drought stress in both solution cultures and soil plots. Drought stress in combination with GmPIP2;9 overexpression increased net CO2 assimilation of photosynthesis, stomata conductance, and transpiration rate, suggesting that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing transgenic plants were less stressed than wild-type (WT plants. Furthermore, field experiments showed that GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants had significantly more pod numbers and larger seed sizes than WT plants. In summary, the study demonstrated that GmPIP2;9 has water transport activity. Its relative high expression levels in roots and developing pods are in agreement with the phenotypes of GmPIP2;9-overexpressing plants in drought stress tolerance and seed development.

  7. Functional analysis of duplicated Symbiosis Receptor Kinase (SymRK) genes during nodulation and mycorrhizal infection in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrasumunar, Arief; Wilde, Julia; Hayashi, Satomi; Li, Dongxue; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2015-03-15

    Association between legumes and rhizobia results in the formation of root nodules, where symbiotic nitrogen fixation occurs. The early stages of this association involve a complex of signalling events between the host and microsymbiont. Several genes dealing with early signal transduction have been cloned, and one of them encodes the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinase (SymRK; also termed NORK). The Symbiosis Receptor Kinase gene is required by legumes to establish a root endosymbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria as well as mycorrhizal fungi. Using degenerate primer and BAC sequencing, we cloned duplicated SymRK homeologues in soybean called GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ. These duplicated genes have high similarity of nucleotide (96%) and amino acid sequence (95%). Sequence analysis predicted a malectin-like domain within the extracellular domain of both genes. Several putative cis-acting elements were found in promoter regions of GmSymRKα and GmSymRKβ, suggesting a participation in lateral root development, cell division and peribacteroid membrane formation. The mutant of SymRK genes is not available in soybean; therefore, to know the functions of these genes, RNA interference (RNAi) of these duplicated genes was performed. For this purpose, RNAi construct of each gene was generated and introduced into the soybean genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated hairy root transformation. RNAi of GmSymRKβ gene resulted in an increased reduction of nodulation and mycorrhizal infection than RNAi of GmSymRKα, suggesting it has the major activity of the duplicated gene pair. The results from the important crop legume soybean confirm the joint phenotypic action of GmSymRK genes in both mycorrhizal and rhizobial infection seen in model legumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. De novo Genome Assembly and Single Nucleotide Variations for Soybean Mosaic Virus Using Soybean Seed Transcriptome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important legume crop in the world. Several diseases in soybean lead to serious yield losses in major soybean-producing countries. Moreover, soybean can be infected by diverse viruses. Recently, we carried out a large-scale screening to identify viruses infecting soybean using available soybean transcriptome data. Of the screened transcriptomes, a soybean transcriptome for soybean seed development analysis contains several virus-associated sequences. In this study, we identified five viruses, including soybean mosaic virus (SMV, infecting soybean by de novo transcriptome assembly followed by blast search. We assembled a nearly complete consensus genome sequence of SMV China using transcriptome data. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the consensus genome sequence of SMV China was closely related to SMV isolates from South Korea. We examined single nucleotide variations (SNVs for SMVs in the soybean seed transcriptome revealing 780 SNVs, which were evenly distributed on the SMV genome. Four SNVs, C-U, U-C, A-G, and G-A, were frequently identified. This result demonstrated the quasispecies variation of the SMV genome. Taken together, this study carried out bioinformatics analyses to identify viruses using soybean transcriptome data. In addition, we demonstrated the application of soybean transcriptome data for virus genome assembly and SNV analysis.

  9. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  10. Water binding by soybean seeds as measured by pulsed NMR.

    OpenAIRE

    掛澤, 雅章; 望月, 務; 海老根, 英雄; MASAAKI, KAKEZAWA; TSUTOMU, MOCHIZUKI; HIDEO, EBINE; 中央味噌研究所; 東海物産株式会社; 中央味噌研究所; Central Miso Research Institute; Tokai Bussan, Co.; Central Miso Research Institute

    1983-01-01

    The water in soybean powder, soaked soybeans and cooked soybeans was fractionated into unfrozen water and freezable water from the data on the free induction decay freezing curve, and into bound and mobile fractions from the data on the spin-spin relaxation curve by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of soaking and cooking conditions on the state of water were examined. In soybean powder of several hydration levels, the freezing curves showed that the levels of unfrozen water were...

  11. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Teekachunhatean, Supanimit; Hanprasertpong, Nutthiya; Teekachunhatean, Thawatchai

    2013-01-01

    Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed qual...

  12. Radiation processing and functional properties of soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pednekar, Mrinal; Das, Amit K.; Rajalakshmi, V; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Effect of radiation processing (10, 20 and 30 kGy) on soybean for better utilization was studied. Radiation processing reduced the cooking time of soybean and increased the oil absorption capacity of soy flour without affecting its proximate composition. Irradiation improved the functional properties like solubility, emulsification activity and foam stability of soybean protein isolate. The value addition effect of radiation processing has been discussed for the products (soy milk, tofu and tofu fortified patties) prepared from soybean.

  13. Virtual water embodied in international trade of soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Thomsen, Marianne

    This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated.......This study focuses on hidden water flows embodied in the international trade of soybean. The virtual water content embedded in soybean imported and exported by 174 countries during the period 2000-2013 is estimated....

  14. Plant root absorption and metabolic fate of technetium in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1984-10-01

    Root absorption characteristics for the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) were determined using hydroponically grown soybean seedlings (Glycine max, cv. Williams). Absorption of TcO 4 - was found to be linear with time, sensitive to metabolic inhibitors, and exhibit multiple absorption isotherms over the concentration range 0.02 to 10 μM. The isotherms had calculated K/sub s/ values of 0.09, 8.9, and 54 μM for intact seedlings. The uptake of TcO 4 - (0.25 μM) was inhibited by a fourfold concentration excess of sulfate, phosphate, and selenate, but not by borate, nitrate, tungstate, perrhenate, iodate or vanadate. Kinetic studies demonstrated that sulfate, phosphate, and selenate were competitive inhibitors of TcO 4 - absorption. Once absorbed, Tc was readily transported as TcO 4 - to shoot tissues of soybean and subsequently associated with protein constituents. The chemical fate of Tc in plants varies with plant species. Plants high in nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds (Allium species) exhibited markedly different root/shoot distribution and protein incorporation patterns from species with low sulfur requirements (soybean, alfalfa, mustard). Based on these differences, Tc/S/Se tracer studies were employed to resolve the comparative fate of these probable analogs. 20 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  15. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoshima, Kazumitsu; Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro

    1986-01-01

    Several kinds of the lumbosacral nerve root anomalies have already been recognized, and the conjoined nerve roots is the most common among them. It does not make symptoms by itself, but if there is a causation of neural entrapment, for example, disc herniation, lateral recessus stenosis, spondylolisthesis, etc., so called ''biradicular syndrome'' should occur. Anomalies of the lumbosacral nerve roots, if not properly recognized, may lead to injury of these nerves during operation of the lumbar spine. Recently, the chance of finding these anomalous roots has been increased more and more with the use of metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT, because of the improvement of the opacification of nerve roots. We describe the findings of the anomalous roots as revealed by these two methods. They demonstrate two nerve roots running parallel and the asymmetrical wide root sleeve. Under such circumstances, it is important to distinguish the anomalous roots from the normal ventral and dorsal roots. (author)

  16. Genome Sequence of the Palaeopolyploid soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Cannon, Steven B.; Schlueter, Jessica; Ma, Jianxin; Mitros, Therese; Nelson, William; Hyten, David L.; Song, Qijian; Thelen, Jay J.; Cheng, Jianlin; Xu, Dong; Hellsten, Uffe; May, Gregory D.; Yu, Yeisoo; Sakura, Tetsuya; Umezawa, Taishi; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Sandhu, Devinder; Valliyodan, Babu; Lindquist, Erika; Peto, Myron; Grant, David; Shu, Shengqiang; Goodstein, David; Barry, Kerrie; Futrell-Griggs, Montona; Abernathy, Brian; Du, Jianchang; Tian, Zhixi; Zhu, Liucun; Gill, Navdeep; Joshi, Trupti; Libault, Marc; Sethuraman, Anand; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Nguyen, Henry T.; Wing, Rod A.; Cregan, Perry; Specht, James; Grimwood, Jane; Rokhsar, Dan; Stacey, Gary; Shoemaker, Randy C.; Jackson, Scott A.

    2009-08-03

    Soybean (Glycine max) is one of the most important crop plants for seed protein and oil content, and for its capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbioses with soil-borne microorganisms. We sequenced the 1.1-gigabase genome by a whole-genome shotgun approach and integrated it with physical and high-density genetic maps to create a chromosome-scale draft sequence assembly. We predict 46,430 protein-coding genes, 70percent more than Arabidopsis and similar to the poplar genome which, like soybean, is an ancient polyploid (palaeopolyploid). About 78percent of the predicted genes occur in chromosome ends, which comprise less than one-half of the genome but account for nearly all of the genetic recombination. Genome duplications occurred at approximately 59 and 13 million years ago, resulting in a highly duplicated genome with nearly 75percent of the genes present in multiple copies. The two duplication events were followed by gene diversification and loss, and numerous chromosome rearrangements. An accurate soybean genome sequence will facilitate the identification of the genetic basis of many soybean traits, and accelerate the creation of improved soybean varieties.

  17. Soil compaction and fertilization in soybean productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beutler Amauri Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction and fertilization affect soybean development. This study evaluated the effects of soil compaction and fertilization on soybean (Glycine max cv. Embrapa 48 productivity in a Typic Haplustox under field conditions in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A completely randomized design with a 5 x 2 factorial layout (compaction vs. fertilization, with four replications in each treatment, was employed. Each experimental unit (replicate consisted of a 3.6 m² useful area. After the soil was prepared by cultivation, an 11 Mg tractor passed over it a variable number of times to create five levels of compaction. Treatments were: T0= no compaction, T1= one tractor pass, T2= two, T4= four, and T6= six passes, and no fertilizer and fertilizer to give soybean yields of 2.5 to 2.9 Mg ha-1. Soil was sampled at depths of 0.02-0.05, 0.07-0.10, and 0.15-0.18 m to determine macro and microporosity, penetration resistance (PR, and bulk density (Db. After 120 days growing under these conditions, the plants were analyzed in terms of development (plant height, number of pods, shoot dry matter per plant and weight of 100 seeds and seed productivity per hectare. Soil compaction decreased soybean development and productivity, but this effect was decreased by soil fertilization, showing that such fertilization increased soybean tolerance to soil compaction.

  18. Weed Control in Soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipkemoi, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    Weed Compete for limited growth factors with crop plants. This result in loss of crop vigour and hence reduces crop yields. A study was conducted in 1997 and 2001 to evaluate the use of herbicides and hand hoeing for weed control in soybeans. Crop establishment was by hand planting. The herbicides were applied using CP3 Knap sack sprayer calibrated to deliver a spray volume of 150l/ha. Hand weeding treatment were done as appropriate. The trial layout was randomised complete block design with four replications in both years. The tested herbicides did not satisfactorily control the weeds present at the experimental site in both years. Hand weeding on the other hand gave good control of the weeds which were reflected in high soybean yields. In these trials yields were negatively correlated with the number of weeds present. The tested herbicides alone appeared to be inadequate in controlling weeds in soybean. Compared with the weed-free treatment a single application of soil-applied or post-emergence herbicides did not control a broad spectrum of weeds and reduced soybean yields. It can also be inferred that soybean yield losses are minimised if they are kept weed free for at most 6 weeks after emergence

  19. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    foxtail (Setaria viridis L., foxtail grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds, and red root pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. in the experimental field. The other weed was considered as the others. At the soybean canopy closure stage, a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants including soybean, cover crops and weeds. In each vertical layer of canopy, leaves and stem samples were separated. The leaf area both crops and weeds were measured with a leaf area meter LICOR-3000A (LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, USA. Stem and leaf samples oven dried. Results and discussion The results showed that the maximum leaf area and dry matter of soybean was varied in different layers of canopy depending on the type of cover crop and cover crop planting time, while delaying in planting of cover crop causes lower leaf area and dry matter than the plants were planted at the same time with soybean. In most cases, the maximum leaf area index and dry matter accumulation of weeds were obtained in primary layer (0-20 cm. The maximum weed leaf area (290.4 cm2 was observed in simultaneous planting of soybean with fenugreek and maximum of total weed dry matter (12.4 g.plant-1 was observed in soybean without weeding, while the minimum of weed total leaf area and total weed dry matter (0 cm2 and 0 g.plant-1, respectively was achieved in planting of winter vetch after 21 days of soybean planting. Also delayed planting of winter vetch produced the maximum grain yield (3792.6 kg.ha-1 of soybean in weedy plots, where it had the greatest weed suppressive ability than other cover crops. Conclusion Winter vetch can suppress weed with competition and allelopathic mechanism, so we can conclude that winter vetch planting21 days after soybean planting is suitable replacement for weed suppression in sustainable agriculture.

  20. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    evaluate the adaptation of soybean plants to hydroponics under controlled environment, as well as the plant response to changing cultural parameters, in order to identify the best cultivation protocol for BLSSs. The optimisation of growth conditions in hydroponics has been pursued being aware that environmental factors acting at sub-optimal levels may also increase the sensitivity of plants to space factors. The influence of the following parameters on plant growth and yield was also studied: - the hydroponic system: sole liquid solution (Nutrient Film Technique, NFT) vs solid substrate (rockwool); - the source of nitrogen in the nutrient solution: nitrate fertilizers vs urea; - the root symbiosis with atmospheric nitrogen-fixing bacteria: absence or presence of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; - the influence of microbes in the rhizosphere: inoculation with a mix containing mycorrhizal and trichoderma species, and beneficial bacteria vs a non-inoculated control. All the treatments were evaluated in terms of agronomic traits (e.g. plant size and seed production), physiological traits (gas exchange, nutrient uptake), chemical composition of seeds and their products, and technical parameters such as resource use efficiency and non-edible biomass production (waste).

  1. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  2. Glyphosate-tolerant soybeans remain compositionally equivalent to conventional soybeans (Glycine max L.) during three years of field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Melinda C; Liu, Keshun; Trujillo, William A; Dobert, Raymond C

    2005-06-29

    Previous studies have shown that the composition of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GTS) and selected processed fractions was substantially equivalent to that of conventional soybeans over a wide range of analytes. This study was designed to determine if the composition of GTS remains substantially equivalent to conventional soybeans over the course of several years and when introduced into multiple genetic backgrounds. Soybean seed samples of both GTS and conventional varieties were harvested during 2000, 2001, and 2002 and analyzed for the levels of proximates, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and isoflavones. The measured analytes are representative of the basic nutritional and biologically active components in soybeans. Results show a similar range of natural variability for the GTS soybeans as well as conventional soybeans. It was concluded that the composition of commercial GTS over the three years of breeding into multiple varieties remains equivalent to that of conventional soybeans.

  3. Detection of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. and antagonism of Trichoderma sp. in soybean under no-tillage

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Mendes Milanesi; Elena Blume; Marlove Fátima Brião Muniz; Lia Rejane Silveira Reiniger; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Emanuele Junges; Manoeli Lupatini

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed i) to quantify the occurrence of Fusarium spp. and Trichoderma spp. in rhizospheric soil, with and without symptoms of Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS) in eight soybean genotypes; ii) morphologically identify isolates of Fusarium spp. from roots with SDS; iii) evaluate the antagonism between Trichoderma spp. and Fusarium spp. isolates from rhizospheric soil and roots from with and without SDS, respectively; and iv) characterize through the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rDNA the isolate...

  4. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  5. Soybean Opportunity as Source of New Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muchlish Adie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available These last few years, the name of soybeans soared as a source of biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from soybean oil. Soybean potential as an alternative renewable energy source because it is expected to have the highest energy content compared to other alternative fuels. Opportunities to develop biodiesel using soybean oil in Indonesia is quite large, considering the soybean is a commodity that is already known and widely cultivated almost in all over Indonesia. In addition, the use of soybean for biofuel feedstock is expected to motivate farmers to cultivate soybeans, so their use is not limited to non-energy raw materials. Soybean varieties that have a high oil content as well as high yield is a source of major biodiesel feedstock. From 73 soybean varieties that have been released in Indonesia, has an average oil content of 18%. Varieties with high oil content can be used as raw material for biodiesel. Research on the use of soy as an ingredient of energy crops (biodiesel have been carried out. In fact, soybean oil is the vegetable oil feedstock for most of the biodiesel being produced in the United States today. With the potential for soybean crops in Indonesia, both in terms of availability of land and varieties, the use of soybean oil for biofuel development in Indonesia is the flagship prospective materials for bio fuel substitute than other plants in the future.

  6. optimizing soybean flour., whey powder. and colostrum ratios for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    l4 days. If preserved colostrum could be supplemented with reconstituted soybean flour and whey powder, the period of colostrum feeding could be extended to 4 weeks. Various researchers reported the successful inclusion of soybean flour and/or soybean protein concentrate in milk replacers (Schmutz, Cravens, Soldner ...

  7. Agressiveness of Phomopsis longicolla and other Phomopsis species on soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is a major cause of poor quality of soybean seeds. The disease is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, Phomopsis longicolla. In this study, aggressiveness of isolates of P. longicolla from soybean and other Phomopsis spp. from other hosts were compared by inoculat...

  8. Different responses of soybean cyst nematode resistance between ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YONGCHUN LI

    95, xx–xx]. Introduction. Soybean is one of the most important crops worldwide accounting for about 30% of the vegetable oil and 60% of the vegetable protein in world production. However, the sustain- ability of soybean production has been challenged by inten- sified pest problems (Skorupska et al. 1994). Soybean cyst.

  9. Effects of diets containing alkali-treated Soybeans on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of diets containing alkali-treated Soybeans on performance traits, nutrient digestibility and cost benefits of broiler chickens. ... These factors accounted for the overall best performance recorded in 1% K2CO3 - treated soybeans which was closely followed by 1% Na2CO3 treated soybean base diets. Keywords: ...

  10. Effect of root exudates of various plants on composition of bacteria and fungi communities with special regard to pathogenic soil-borne fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Danuta Piętka; Elżbieta Patkowska

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the studies conducted in the years 1996 - 1998 was to determine the composition of bacteria and fungi populations in the rhizosphere of winter wheat, spring wheat, soybean and potato, and in non-rhizosphere soil. Besides, the effect of root exudates of these plants on the formation of pathogenic fungi communities was established. The microbiological analysis showed that the greatest tolal number of bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of potato and soybean, and the lowest num...

  11. Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in genetically engineered pineapple plants using soybean ferritin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. "Queen") leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the transformation of pineapple with soybean ferritin for enhanced accumulation of iron and zinc content in the transgenic plants.

  12. Germinaton performance of selected local soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrills) cultivars during drought stress induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, R. F.; Damanik, R. I.; Khardinata, E. H.

    2018-02-01

    Drought stress is one of the factors that can decreased growth and production, so that required a variety that has the ability to sustain cellular metabolism, and growth during the stress. This research was aimed to investigated the involvement of germination performance invitro of five local soybean cultivars, Grobogan, Kaba, Anjasmoro, Argomulyo, and Dering to drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%). The measurable seedling traits as the day appearance of shoots and roots, total of leaves, shoot length, root length, fresh plant weight, dry plant weight, fresh root weight, and dry root weight under control as well as water stress condition were recorded. The experiment units were arranged in factorial completely randomized design with four replications. The result showed that the value for most parameters was recorded highest for Argomulyo cultivar compared with Dering cultivar which is known to be tolerant to drought. In terms of roots performance, Grobogan and Argomulyo cultivars produced the longest and heaviest of roots, while Grobogan cultivar had no significant different for root length compared with control. In conclusion, the root length and fresh weight root parameters can be used as quick criteria for drought tolerance.

  13. Carbon sequestration in soybean crop soils: the role of hydrogen-coupled CO2 fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Layzell, D. B.; Scott, N. A.; Cen, Y.; Kyser, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    Conversion of native vegetation to agricultural land in order to support the world's growing population is a key factor contributing to global climate change. However, the extent to which agricultural activities contribute to greenhouse gas emissions compared to carbon storage is difficult to ascertain, especially for legume crops, such as soybeans. Soybean establishment often leads to an increase in N2O emissions because N-fixation leads to increased soil available N during decomposition of the low C:N legume biomass. However, soybean establishment may also reduce net greenhouse gas emissions by increasing soil fertility, plant growth, and soil carbon storage. The mechanism behind increased carbon storage, however, remains unclear. One explanation points to hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation; the process by which nitrogen fixation releases H2 into the soil system, thereby promoting chemoautotrophic carbon fixation by soil microbes. We used 13CO2 as a tracer to track the amount and fate of carbon fixed by hydrogen coupled CO2 fixation during one-year field and laboratory incubations. The objectives of the research are to 1) quantify rates of 13CO2 fixation in soil collected from a field used for long-term soybean production 2) examine the impact of H2 gas concentration on rates of 13CO2 fixation, and 3) measure changes in δ13C signature over time in 3 soil fractions: microbial biomass, light fraction, and acid stable fraction. If this newly-fixed carbon is incorporated into the acid-stable soil C fraction, it has a good chance of contributing to long-term soil C sequestration under soybean production. Soil was collected in the field both adjacent to root nodules (nodule soil) and >3cm away (root soil) and labelled with 13CO2 (1% v/v) in the presence and absence of H2 gas. After a two week labelling period, δ13C signatures already revealed differences in the four treatments of bulk soil: -17.1 for root, -17.6 for nodule, -14.2 for root + H2, and -6.1 for nodule + H2

  14. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S; Prischmann, Deirdre A; Dashiell, Kenton E

    2012-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.). Merr., that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host plant resistance as an effective alternative management strategy. Here, previously identified resistant lines were evaluated in laboratory tests against field-collected populations of soybean aphid and in field-plot tests over 2 yr in South Dakota. Six lines previously identified with resistance to soybean aphid--Jackson, Dowling, K1639, Cobb, Palmetto and Sennari--were resistant in this study, but relatively high aphid counts on Tie-feng 8 in field plots contrasted with its previously reported resistance. Bhart-PI 165989 showed resistance in one of two laboratory tests, but it had relatively large aphid infestations in both years of field tests. Intermediate levels of soybean aphid occurred in field plots on lines previously shown to have strong (Sugao Zairai, PI 230977, and D75-10169) or moderate resistance to soybean aphid (G93-9223, Bragg, Braxton, and Tracy-M). Sugao Zairai also failed to have a significant proportion of resistant plants in two laboratory tests against aphids field-collected in 2008, but it was resistant in laboratory tests with aphids collected in 2002, 2005, and 2006. Overall, results showed that lines with Rag (i.e., Jackson) or Rag1 gene (i.e., Dowling) had low aphid numbers, whereas lines with Rag2 (i.e., Sugao Zairai, Sennari) had mixed results. Collectively, responses of soybean aphid populations in laboratory and field tests in 2008 resembled a virulence pattern reported previously for biotype 3 soybean aphids, but virulence in soybean aphid populations was variable and dynamic over years of the study. These results, coupled with previous reports of biotypes virulent to Rag1, suggest that deployment of lines with a single aphid

  15. Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Woo Byun; Il-Jun Kang; Joong-Ho Kwon; Hayashi, Yukako; Mori, Tomohiko

    1996-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10 kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexanal increased remarkably as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (author)

  16. Physiochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Kang, I.J.; Kwon, J.H.; Hayashi, Y.; Mori, T.

    1995-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of soybean oil extracted from γ-irradiated soybeans (0-10kGy) were investigated. No significant changes were observed in the total lipid content, fatty acid composition, acid value, peroxide value and trans fatty acid content at different irradiation doses. A tendency toward increased induction period was observed as irradiation dose increased. At higher dose levels than 10 kGy, n-hexagonal content remarkably increased as dose levels increased, showing the possibility of a chemical index for over-dose irradiation in soybeans. (Author)

  17. Growth Protocols for Etiolated Soybeans Germinated within BRIC-60 Canisters Under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, H. G.; Sharek, J. A.; Johnson, K. M.; Stryjewski, E. C.; Prima, V. I.; Martynenko, O. I.; Piastuch, W. C.

    As part of the GENEX (Gene Expression) spaceflight experiment, protocols were developed to optimize the inflight germination and subsequent growth of 192 soybean (Glycine max cv McCall) seeds during STS-87. We describe a method which provided uniform growth and development of etiolated seedlings while eliminating root and shoot restrictions for short-term (4-7 day) experiments. Final seedling growth morphologies and the gaseous CO2 and ethylene levels present both on the last day in space and at the time of recovery within the spaceflight and ground control BRIC-60 canisters are presented

  18. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 1220 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-12-0022] Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To... in 2009. As required by the Soybean Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Act (Act... members from 69 to 70. These changes would be reflected in the Soybean Promotion and Research Order (Order...

  19. Soybean production in eastern and southern Africa and threat of yield loss due to soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murithi, H.M.; Beed, F.; Tukamuhabwa, P.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is a major source of oil and proteins worldwide. The demand for soybean has increased in Africa, driven by the growing feed industry for poultry, aquaculture and home consumption in the form of processed milk, baked beans and for blending with maize and wheat flour. Soybean, in addition

  20. Morphological change of plant root revealed by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino-Nakanishi, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Hisao.

    1992-01-01

    Morphological change with soybean root development was investigated non-destructively by neutron radiography. Not only the main root but also the side roots were shown as an clear image on both X-ray and dry films. In the case of dry film, the resolution of the image obtained was about the same as that by X-ray film and the thermal neutron flux was reduced to be about one fifteenth. The image of the root was much clearly obtained in the sand than in the soil where the soil aggregates were randomly shown. In order to know to which degree the root can be shown in the image, the aluminum containers with various thickness were tested. Even when the thickness of the container was increased up to 1.7 cm, the image of the main root was clearly observed through the soil. It was shown that by neutron radiography the morphology of the plant root could be traced non-destructively during the development of the plant. (author)

  1. Transpiration effect on the uptake and distribution of bromacil, nitrobenzene, and phenol in soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.C.; Pfleeger, T.; Fletcher, J.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of transpiration rate on the uptake and translocation of two industrial waste compounds, phenol and nitrobenzene, and one pesticide, 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil (bromacil), was examined. Carbon-14 moieties of each compound were provided separately in hydroponic solution to mature soybean plants maintained under three humidity conditions. The uptake of each compound was determined by monitoring the removal of 14 C from the hydroponic solution. The extent to which 14 C was adsorbed to roots and translocated to plant shoots and leaves was examined by assaying root and shoot parts for 14 C. Bromacil was taken up slower than the other chemicals, had the most 14 C translocated to the shoot, and the amount translocated to the shoot responded directly to the rate of transpiration. In contrast, both phenol and nitrobenzene were rapidly lost from solution and bound to the roots. Less than 1.5% of the 14 C from phenol or nitrobenzene was translocated to the plant shoots. Increased transpiration rates had little influence on root binding of 14 C; however, increasing transpiration rate from low to medium was associated with an increased uptake of nitrobenzene. The three chemicals studied have similar Log K/sub ow/ values, but their interactions with soybean were not the same. Thus, despite the usefulness of the octanol/water partitioning coefficient in predicting the fate of organic chemicals in animals and in correlating with root binding and plant uptake for many pesticides, log K/sub ow/ may not be equally useful in describing uptake and binding of nonpesticide chemicals in plants

  2. Globalizing land use transitions: the soybean acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reenberg, Anette; Fenger, Nina Astrid

    2011-01-01

    into a leading player on the global scale. It takes point of departure in a land change science approach and employs the notions of underlying and proximate drivers and teleconnections to characterize the process of land use change in relation to the accelerating use of land for soybean cultivation.......This note presents the recent global development trends in soybean cultivation as derived from the FAO statistics. It focuses on the change over the course of the last thirty years, when significant new allocations of the global production have occurred, which have turned South America...

  3. Processing quality of NS soybean varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current NS soybean varieties are of satisfactory technological quality, and also significant technological diversity. Varieties Triumf and Venera possess higher oil content. Variety Sava has a balanced oil and protein content, and can be used for obtaining different soy products. Variety Rubin has the highest protein content and is suitable for new high protein products. Estimated processing value is a good parameter to describe the processing quality of soybeans. Based on several years and spatial analysis, it is possible to separate the geographic regions with prevailing favourable conditions for obtaining higher protein or oil content.

  4. A spatial ecology study on the effects of field conditions and crop rotation on the incidence of Plectris aliena (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grub damage to sweetpotato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Nancy L; Osborne, Jason; Abney, Mark R

    2013-10-01

    A farmscape study was conducted in commercial sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) fields in Columbus County, NC, in 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effects of the following field conditions: soil drainage class, soil texture, field size, border habitat, land elevation, and the previous year's crop rotation on the incidence of damage caused by Plectris aliena Chapman (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larval feeding. Soil drainage and crop rotation significantly affected the incidence of damage to roots, with well drained soils having a low estimated incidence of damaged roots (0.004) compared with all other drainage classes (0.009-0.011 incidence of damaged roots). Fields with soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr] planted the preceding year had the highest incidence of root damage (0.15) compared with all other crops. The effects of border habitats, which were adjacent to grower fields where roots were sampled, showed that as the location of the roots was closer to borders of soybean (planted the year before) or grass fields, the chance of damage to roots decreased. Results indicate that growers can use crop rotation as a management technique and avoid planting sweetpotatoes the year after soybeans to reduce the incidence of P. aliena larval feeding on sweetpotato roots. Environmental conditions such as fields with poor drainage and certain border habitats may be avoided, or selected, by growers to reduce risk of damage to roots by P. aliena.

  5. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Marengo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content.

  6. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel salt-inducible gene encoding an acidic isoform of PR-5 protein in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, M; Tachi, H; Kojima, T; Shiraiwa, M; Takahara, H

    2006-10-01

    We identified a novel salt-inducible soybean gene encoding an acidic-isoform of pathogenesis-related protein group 5 (PR-5 protein). The soybean PR-5-homologous gene, designated as Glycine max osmotin-like protein, acidic isoform (GmOLPa)), encodes a putative polypeptide having an N-terminal signal peptide. The mature GmOLPa protein without the signal peptide has a calculated molecular mass of 21.5 kDa and a pI value of 4.4, and was distinguishable from a known PR-5-homologous gene of soybean (namely P21 protein) through examination of the structural features. A comparison with two intracellular salt-inducible PR-5 proteins, tobacco osmotin and tomato NP24, revealed that GmOLPa did not have a C-terminal extension sequence functioning as a vacuole-targeting motif. The GmOLPa gene was transcribed constitutively in the soybean root and was induced almost exclusively in the root during 24 h of high-salt stress (300 mM NaCl). Interestingly, GmOLPa gene expression in the stem and leaf, not observed until 24 h, was markedly induced at 48 and 72 h after commencement of the high-salt stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) and dehydration also induced expression of the GmOLPa gene in the root; additionally, dehydration slightly induced expression in the stem and leaf. In fact, the 5'-upstream sequence of the GmOLPa gene contained several putative cis-elements known to be involved in responsiveness to ABA and dehydration, e.g. ABA-responsive element (ABRE), MYB/MYC, and low temperature-responsive element (LTRE). These results suggested that GmOLPa may function as a protective PR-5 protein in the extracellular space of the soybean root in response to high-salt stress and dehydration.

  8. New Cyst Nematode, Heterodera sojae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Soybean in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heonil; Eun, Geun; Ha, Jihye; Kim, Yongchul; Park, Namsook; Kim, Donggeun; Choi, Insoo

    2016-12-01

    A new soybean cyst nematode Heterodera sojae n. sp. was found from the roots of soybean plants in Korea. Cysts of H. sojae n. sp. appeared more round, shining, and darker than that of H. glycines . Morphologically, H. sojae n. sp. differed from H. glycines by fenestra length (23.5-54.2 µm vs. 30-70 µm), vulval silt length (9.0-24.4 µm vs. 43-60 µm), tail length of J2 (54.3-74.8 µm vs. 40-61 µm), and hyaline part of J2 (32.6-46.3 µm vs. 20-30 µm). It is distinguished from H. elachista by larger cyst (513.4-778.3 µm × 343.4-567.1 µm vs. 350-560 µm × 250-450 µm) and longer stylet length of J2 (23.8-25.3 µm vs. 17-19 µm). Molecular analysis of rRNA large subunit (LSU) D2-D3 segments and ITS gene sequence shows that H. sojae n. sp. is more close to rice cyst nematode H. elachista than H. glycines . Heterodera sojae n. sp. was widely distributed in Korea. It was found from soybean fields of all three provinces sampled.

  9. Effects of nitrogen applocation on yield and nitrogen accumulation in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Wei; Jin Xijun; Ma Chunmei; Dong Shoukun; Gong Zhenping; Zhang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Methods of sand cultre and 15 N tracing were used to study the effects of nitrogen application on yield and nitrogen accumulation in soybean variety SN 14 . The results showed as follows: accumulated nitrogen in the whole plant, petiole, pod shell and seed increased at the beginning and then decreased with the increase of nitrogen levels; Nitrogen accumulation in leaf and stem increased in 3 and 5 times for N 150 than that of N 0 , which indicated that high nitrogen levels promoted the nitrogen accumulation in leaf and stem, however compared with N 0 , nitrogen accumulation in root, Nodulation-N accumulated in the whole plant and seed of N 150 decreased by 60.3%, 74. 9% and 85.7% respectively, and Fertilizer-N harvest index of N 150 decreased, which was 19.8% lower than that of N 50 , as well as Nodulation-N harvest index 25.5% lower than that of N 50 . The nitrogen levels of soybean yield also firstly increased and then decreased; Compared with N 0 , plant height, pod height and lowest pod nodes of soybean treated with N 150 increased by 55.2%, 199.7% and 142.9% respectively, while no effects were found on node number. (authors)

  10. Remote sensing of soybean stress as an indicator of chemical concentration of biosolid amended surface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B. B. Maruthi; Vincent, Robert K.; Roberts, Sheila J.; Czajkowski, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in the biosolid amended soils and the risk of their uptake into different plant parts is a topic of great concern. This study examines the accumulation of several heavy metals and nutrients in soybeans grown on biosolid applied soils and the use of remote sensing to monitor the metal uptake and plant stress. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with soybeans grown on soils applied with biosolids at varying rates. The plant growth was monitored using Landsat TM imagery and handheld spectroradiometer in field and greenhouse studies, respectively. Soil and plant samples were collected and then analyzed for several elemental concentrations. The chemical concentrations in soils and roots increased significantly with increase in applied biosolid concentrations. Copper (Cu) and Molybdenum (Mo) accumulated significantly in the shoots of the metal-treated plants. Our spectral and Landsat TM image analysis revealed that the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) can be used to distinguish the metal stressed plants. The NDVI showed significant negative correlation with increase in soil Cu concentrations followed by other elements. This study suggests the use of remote sensing to monitor soybean stress patterns and thus indirectly assess soil chemical characteristics.

  11. Study of a new alternative antioxidant in soybean plants subjected to abiotic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilli, C.; Santa Cruz, D.; Caggiano, E.; Romanello, M.; Tomaro, M.; Balestrasse, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently, demonstrated that the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a protective role for soybean plants against oxidative stress produced by cadmium and UV-B radiation. At this moment we propose to investigate if the enzyme has the same capacity against another type of abiotic stress, such as drought, for to demonstrate that heme oxygenase acts as an enzyme of plant antioxidant defense system under several different stress situations, as occur in mammalian tissues. To carry out this objective we propose to study, in leaf, root and nodule of soybean plants, the oxidative stress generation; the behavior of classical antioxidant system; the behavior of HO-1 activity and protein and gene expression; the effect of its reaction products and inhibitors on the oxidative stress parameters; the signaling mechanism that produce HO-1 induction and the immunohistochemistry localization of the enzyme in the different plant tissues. The results obtained let us undoubtedly demonstrate the involvement of HO-1 in the antioxidant defense system in plants. This finding will allow the increase in the knowledge of the defense mechanisms in interesting economic plants for our country, such as soybean, and against drought, an abiotic stress considered one of the most important factors limiting plant performance and yield worldwide. (authors)

  12. Induced mutations and marker assisted breeding in soybean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chotechuen, Somsong [Prachinburi Rice Research Center, Prachinburi (Thailand); Srisombun, Somsak [Department of Agriculture, Field Crops Research Institute, Bangkok (Thailand); Lamseejan, Siranut [Kasetsart Univ., Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    Soybean is one of the important crops in Thailand. Constraints to soybean production include low yield potential, susceptibility to diseases and insects, and non-adoption of appropriate management practices. Mutation induction has been used to improve soybean yield and resistance to major diseases such as rust, purple seed, crinkle leaf, anthracnose and green seed. This paper reviews previous work and achievements of induced mutations in soybean. Successful examples are the release of a soybean variety, Doi Kham, and the development of a mutant CM 60-10kr-71; both are resistant to rust disease. The paper also gives example of the use of soybean SSR markers to identify QTL associated with pod shattering, and emphasizes the integration of mutation techniques and marker assisted selection for soybean improvement. (author)

  13. Effects of rotation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] crops on soil fertility in Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA

    OpenAIRE

    H.A., Reddy, K. and Pettigrew, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation on the soil fertility levels are limited. An irrigated soybean: cotton rotation experiment was conducted from 2012 through 2015 near Elizabeth, Mississippi, USA. The crop rotation sequences were included continuous cotton (CCCC), continuous soybean (SSSS), cotton-soybean-cotton-soybean (CSCS), cotton-soybean-soybean-cotton (CSSC), soybean-cotton-cotton-soybean (SCCS), soybean-cotton-soybean-cotton (SCSC)....

  14. Structural studies on the development of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd.) in susceptible soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.; Ebrahim-Nesbat, F.; Hoppe, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Where soybeans are cultivated in the tropics, soybean rust may cause heavy crop losses. Resistance found so far was only of local and temporary value. More substantial breeding efforts are needed, but these may require a better understanding of the pathogen's biology and evolutionary capacity, the infection process and the host-pathogen relationships. The report deals with the infection process and the development of the fungus in a susceptible host variety. (author)

  15. Transcript profiling of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. using the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array: optimizing analysis by masking biased probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gronwald John W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybean (Glycine max both belong to the Phaseoleae tribe and share significant coding sequence homology. This suggests that the GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array (soybean GeneChip may be used for gene expression studies using common bean. Results To evaluate the utility of the soybean GeneChip for transcript profiling of common bean, we hybridized cRNAs purified from nodule, leaf, and root of common bean and soybean in triplicate to the soybean GeneChip. Initial data analysis showed a decreased sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression in common bean cross-species hybridization (CSH GeneChip data compared to that of soybean. We employed a method that masked putative probes targeting inter-species variable (ISV regions between common bean and soybean. A masking signal intensity threshold was selected that optimized both sensitivity and accuracy of measuring differential gene expression. After masking for ISV regions, the number of differentially-expressed genes identified in common bean was increased by 2.8-fold reflecting increased sensitivity. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis of 20 randomly selected genes and purine-ureide pathway genes demonstrated an increased accuracy of measuring differential gene expression after masking for ISV regions. We also evaluated masked probe frequency per probe set to gain insight into the sequence divergence pattern between common bean and soybean. The sequence divergence pattern analysis suggested that the genes for basic cellular functions and metabolism were highly conserved between soybean and common bean. Additionally, our results show that some classes of genes, particularly those associated with environmental adaptation, are highly divergent. Conclusions The soybean GeneChip is a suitable cross-species platform for transcript profiling in common bean when used in combination with the masking protocol described. In

  16. Management of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines with combinations of different rhizobacterial strains on soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Soybean cyst nematode (SCN is the most damaging soybean pest worldwide. To improve soybean resistance to SCN, we employed a soybean seed-coating strategy through combination of three rhizobacterial strains, including Bacillus simple, B. megaterium and Sinarhizobium fredii at various ratios. We found seed coating by such rhizobacterial strains at a ratio of 3:1:1 (thereafter called SN101 produced the highest germination rate and the mortality of J2 of nematodes. Then, the role of soybean seed coating by SN101 in nematode control was evaluated under both greenhouse and two field conditions in Northeast China in 2013 and 2014. Our results showed that SN101 treatment greatly reduced SCN reproduction and significantly promoted plant growth and yield production in both greenhouse and field trials, suggesting that SN101 is a promising seed-coating agent that may be used as an alternative bio-nematicide for controlling SCN in soybean fields. Our findings also demonstrate that combination of multiple rhizobacterial strains needs to be considered in the seed coating for better management of plant nematodes.

  17. Genetic architecture of wild soybean (Glycine soja) response to soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengyou; Song, Qijian; Griffin, Joshua D; Song, Bao-Hua

    2017-12-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is one of the most destructive pathogens of soybean plants worldwide. Host-plant resistance is an environmentally friendly method to mitigate SCN damage. To date, the resistant soybean cultivars harbor limited genetic variation, and some are losing resistance. Thus, a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of the SCN resistance, as well as developing diverse resistant soybean cultivars, is urgently needed. In this study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 1032 wild soybean (Glycine soja) accessions with over 42,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to understand the genetic architecture of G. soja resistance to SCN race 1. Ten SNPs were significantly associated with the response to race 1. Three SNPs on chromosome 18 were localized within the previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and two of which were localized within a strong linkage disequilibrium block encompassing a nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC disease resistance gene (Glyma.18G102600). Genes encoding methyltransferases, the calcium-dependent signaling protein, the leucine-rich repeat kinase family protein, and the NB-ARC disease resistance protein, were identified as promising candidate genes. The identified SNPs and candidate genes can not only shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying SCN resistance, but also can facilitate soybean improvement employing wild genetic resources.

  18. Compositional differences in soybeans on the market: glyphosate accumulates in Roundup Ready GM soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøhn, T; Cuhra, M; Traavik, T; Sanden, M; Fagan, J; Primicerio, R

    2014-06-15

    This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional "chemical" cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime. Organic soybeans showed the healthiest nutritional profile with more sugars, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, significantly more total protein, zinc and less fibre than both conventional and GM-soy. Organic soybeans also contained less total saturated fat and total omega-6 fatty acids than both conventional and GM-soy. GM-soy contained high residues of glyphosate and AMPA (mean 3.3 and 5.7 mg/kg, respectively). Conventional and organic soybean batches contained none of these agrochemicals. Using 35 different nutritional and elemental variables to characterise each soy sample, we were able to discriminate GM, conventional and organic soybeans without exception, demonstrating "substantial non-equivalence" in compositional characteristics for 'ready-to-market' soybeans. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. soybeans yoghurt production using starter culture from

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    On kilogram (lkg) of soybeans used produced soy-milk ... production and the vegetable oil industry can not be overemphasised .... cost. Four genera ut microorgamsms were isolated from the fennented cow milk ... The bacteria involved might have enzyme systems capable of metabolizing .... A Textbook of Economic Botany.

  20. Genetically modified soybean plants and their ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic plants are developed by introgressing new genes using methods of molecular genetics and genetic engineering. The presence of these genes in plant genome is identified on the basis of specific oligonucleotides primers, and the use of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA fragments multiplication. Genetically modified plants such as soybean constitute a newly created bioenergetic potential whose gene expression can cause disturbance of the biological balance ecosystem, soil structure and soil microbiological activity. Genetically modified plants may acquire monogenic or polygenic traits causing genetic and physiological changes in these plants, which may elicit a certain reaction of the environment including changes of microbiological composition of soil rhizosphere. The aim of introgressing genes for certain traits into a cultivated plant is to enhance its yield and intensify food production. There are more and more genetically modified plant species such as soybean, corn, potato, rice and others and there is a pressure to use them as human food and animal feed. Genetically modified soybean plants with introgressed gene for resistance to total herbicides, such as Round-up, are more productive than non-modified herbicide-sensitive soybeans.

  1. RESOURCE UTILISATION IN SOYBEAN/MAIZE INTERCROPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean and maize may be planted as intercrops in alternating single rows in forage production systems to take advantage of available solar radiation and greater dry matter yields. Key Words: Nitrogen, row arrangement, photosynthetic active radiation, productivity. Résumé Des études des champs étaient conduites en ...

  2. (RR) soybean cultivars estimated by phenotypic characteristics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-25

    Jun 25, 2014 ... phenotypic characteristics and microsatellite molecular markers (SSR). ... discriminatory analysis, principal components, coordinate and cluster analysis .... were employed with 10.000 simulations to attribute significance values to ...... association analysis of protein and oil content in food-grade soybeans ...

  3. Teaching Green Chemistry with Epoxidized Soybean Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcena, Homar; Tuachi, Abraham; Zhang, Yuanzhuo

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) provides students a vantage point on the application of green chemistry principles in a series of experiments. Qualitative tests review the reactions of alkenes, whereas spectroscopic analyses provide insight in monitoring functional group transformations.

  4. Effects of Soybean Cultivars on Soymilk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziadekey, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Soymilk was prepared from twelve soybean cultivars grown under the same environmental conditions to evaluate their effects on soymilk characteristics. Significant correlations were observed between the Chemical composition of the seeds and the resultant soymilk. Soymilk solids were significantly affected by seed size and seed phosphorus contents. Cultivars with dark hilum produced soymilk with less attractive colour.

  5. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of two soybean genotypes under dehydration and rehydration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is an important crop that provides valuable proteins and oils for human use. Because soybean growth and development is extremely sensitive to water deficit, quality and crop yields are severely impacted by drought stress. In the face of limited water resources, drought-responsive genes are therefore of interest. Identification and analysis of dehydration- and rehydration-inducible differentially expressed genes (DEGs) would not only aid elucidation of molecular mechanisms of stress response, but also enable improvement of crop stress tolerance via gene transfer. Using Digital Gene Expression Tag profiling (DGE), a new technique based on Illumina sequencing, we analyzed expression profiles between two soybean genotypes to identify drought-responsive genes. Results Two soybean genotypes—drought-tolerant Jindou21 and drought-sensitive Zhongdou33—were subjected to dehydration and rehydration conditions. For analysis of DEGs under dehydration conditions, 20 cDNA libraries were generated from roots and leaves at two different time points under well-watered and dehydration conditions. We also generated eight libraries for analysis under rehydration conditions. Sequencing of the 28 libraries produced 25,000–33,000 unambiguous tags, which were mapped to reference sequences for annotation of expressed genes. Many genes exhibited significant expression differences among the libraries. DEGs in the drought-tolerant genotype were identified by comparison of DEGs among treatments and genotypes. In Jindou21, 518 and 614 genes were differentially expressed under dehydration in leaves and roots, respectively, with 24 identified both in leaves and roots. The main functional categories enriched in these DEGs were metabolic process, response to stresses, plant hormone signal transduction, protein processing, and plant-pathogen interaction pathway; the associated genes primarily encoded transcription factors, protein kinases, and other regulatory proteins. The

  6. Why rooting fails

    OpenAIRE

    Creutz, Michael

    2007-01-01

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four "tastes." The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  7. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  8. An R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, regulates isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones comprise a group of secondary metabolites produced almost exclusively by plants in the legume family, including soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.]. They play vital roles in plant defense and have many beneficial effects on human health. Isoflavone content is a complex quantitative trait controlled by multiple genes, and the genetic mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis remain largely unknown. Via a genome-wide association study (GWAS, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are significantly associated with isoflavone concentrations in soybean. One of these 28 SNPs was located in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, GmMYB29, and this gene was thus selected as a candidate gene for further analyses. A subcellular localization study confirmed that GmMYB29 was located in the nucleus. Transient reporter gene assays demonstrated that GmMYB29 activated the IFS2 (isoflavone synthase 2 and CHS8 (chalcone synthase 8 gene promoters. Overexpression and RNAi-mediated silencing of GmMYB29 in soybean hairy roots resulted in increased and decreased isoflavone content, respectively. Moreover, a candidate-gene association analysis revealed that 11 natural GmMYB29 polymorphisms were significantly associated with isoflavone contents, and regulation of GmMYB29 expression could partially contribute to the observed phenotypic variation. Taken together, these results provide important genetic insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean.

  9. Variability in colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency of improved and unimproved soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, M S; Guzzo, M C; Velazquez, M S; Sagadin, M B; Luna, C M

    2016-12-01

    Breeding selection of germplasm under fertilized conditions may reduce the frequency of genes that promote mycorrhizal associations. This study was developed to compare variability in mycorrhizal colonization and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency (MD) in improved soybean genotypes (I-1 and I-2) with differential tolerance to drought stress, and in unimproved soybean genotypes (UI-3 and UI-4). As inoculum, a mixed native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was isolated from soybean roots, showing spores mostly of the species Funneliformis mosseae. At 20 days, unimproved genotypes followed by I-2, showed an increase in arbuscule formation, but not in I-1. At 40 days, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in nodulation, this effect being more evident in unimproved genotypes. Mycorrhizal dependency, evaluated as growth and biochemical parameters from oxidative stress was increased in unimproved and I-2 since 20 days, whereas in I-1, MD increased at 40 days. We cannot distinguish significant differences in AMF colonization and MD between unimproved and I-2. However, variability among improved genotypes was observed. Our results suggest that selection for improved soybean genotypes with good and rapid AMF colonization, particularly high arbuscule/hyphae ratio could be a useful strategy for the development of genotypes that optimize AMF contribution to cropping systems.

  10. Lack of glyphosate resistance gene transfer from Roundup Ready soybean to Bradyrhizobium japonicum under field and laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Laura Arango; Opelt, Katja; Wagner, Tobias; Mattes, Elke; Bieber, Evi; Hatley, Elwood O; Roth, Greg; Sanjuán, Juan; Fischer, Hans-Martin; Sandermann, Heinrich; Hartmann, Anton; Ernst, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted at the Russell E. Larson Agricultural Research Center to determine the effect of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in combination with herbicide (Roundup) application on its endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum. DNA of bacteroids from isolated nodules was analysed for the presence of the transgenic 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4-EPSPS) DNA sequence using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To further assess the likelihood that the EPSPS gene may be transferred from the Roundup Ready (RR) soybean to B. japonicum, we have examined the natural transformation efficiency of B. japonicum strain 110spc4. Analyses of nodules showed the presence of the transgenic EPSPS DNA sequence. In bacteroids that were isolated from nodules of transgenic soybean plants and then cultivated in the presence of glyphosate this sequence could not be detected. This indicates that no stable horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the EPSPS gene had occurred under field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, no natural transformation was detected in B. japonicum strain 110spc4 in the presence of various amounts of recombinant plasmid DNA. Our results indicate that no natural competence state exists in B. japonicum 110spc4. Results from field and laboratory studies indicate the lack of functional transfer of the CP4-EPSPS gene from glyphosate-tolerant soybean treated with glyphosate to root-associated B. japonicum.

  11. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  12. Relative competitiveness of soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Ouriques Bastiani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to evaluate the competitiveness between soybean cultivars and barnyardgrass, based on morphological and physiological characteristics of species. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized experimental design, with 4 replications. In the first study, for both soybean and barnyardgrass, it was determined the population of plants in which shoot dry matter became constant and independent of the population (16 plants∙pot−1 or 400 plants∙m−2. In the second study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the competitiveness of BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars with barnyardgrass plants, both carried out in replacement series under different proportions of plants∙pot−1 (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75 and 0:100 between the crop and the weed. The analysis of the species competitiveness was determined through diagrams applied to replacement series experiments and use of relative competitiveness indexes. At 44 days after the emergence of species, the physiological and morphological parameters of the crop and the weed were evaluated. The BMX Apolo RR and BMX Potência RR soybean cultivars show similar competitiveness when competing with the barnyardgrass; therefore, the ability of one species to interfere on another is equivalent. For plant height, barnyardgrass displays higher competitiveness compared to BMX Apolo RR, with early cycle and short height. The intraspecific competition is more important to barnyardgrass than interspecific competition with soybean cultivars, resulting in negative effects on the morphological and physiological characteristics of species.

  13. Methanol-enhanced removal and metabolic conversion of formaldehyde by a black soybean from formaldehyde solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hao; Xiong, Yun; Li, Kun-Zhi; Chen, Li-Mei

    2017-02-01

    Methanol regulation of some biochemical and physiological characteristics in plants has been documented in several references. This study showed that the pretreatment of methanol with an appropriate concentration could stimulate the HCHO uptake by black soybean (BS) plants. The process of methanol-stimulated HCHO uptake by BS plants was optimized using the Central Composite Design and response surface methodology for the three variables, methanol concentration, HCHO concentration, and treatment time. Under optimized conditions, the best stimulation effect of methanol on HCHO uptake was obtained. 13 C-NMR analysis indicated that the H 13 CHO metabolism produced H 13 COOH, [2- 13 C]Gly, and [3- 13 C]Ser in BS plant roots. Methanol pretreatment enhanced the metabolic conversion of H 13 CHO in BS plant roots, which consequently increased HCHO uptake by BS plants. Therefore, methanol pretreatment might be used to increase HCHO uptake by plants in the phytoremediation of HCHO-polluted solutions.

  14. Search for Nodulation and Nodule Development-related cystatin genes in the genome of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songli Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nodulation, nodule development and senescence directly affects nitrogen fixation efficiency, and previous studies have shown that inhibition of some cysteine proteases delay nodule senescence, so their nature inhibitors, cystatin genes, are very important in nodulation, nodule development and senescence. Although several cystatins are actively transcribed in soybean nodules, their exact roles and functional diversities in legume have not been well explored in genome-wide survey studies. In this report, we performed a genome-wide survey of cystatin family genes to explore their relationship to nodulation and nodule development in soybean and identified 20 cystatin genes that encode peptides with 97~245 amino acid residues, different isoelectric points (pI and structure characteristics, and various putative plant regulatory elements in 3000 bp putative promoter fragments upstream of the 20 soybean cystatins in response to different abiotic/biotic stresses, hormone signals and symbiosis signals. The expression profiles of these cystatin genes in soybean symbiosis with rhizobium strain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 113-2 revealed that 7 cystatin family genes play different roles in nodulation as well as nodule development and senescence. However, these genes were not root nodule symbiosis (RNS - specific and did not encode special clade cystatin protein with structures related to nodulation and nodule development. Besides, only two of these soybean cystatins were not upregulated in symbiosis after ABA treatment. The functional analysis showed that a candidate gene Glyma.15G227500 (GmCYS16 was likely to play a positive role in soybean nodulation. Besides, evolutionary relationships analysis divided the cystatin genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum, rice, barley and four legume plants into three groups. Interestingly, Group A cystatins are special in legume plants, but only include one of the above-mentioned 7 cystatin genes related to

  15. Effect of formulations on the absorption and translocation of glyphosate in transgenic soybean; Efeito de formulacoes na absorcao e translocacao do glyphosate em soja transgenica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.B. [UNIVALE, Governador Valadares, MG (Brazil). FAAG. Agronomia]. E-mail: jbarbosa@univale.br; Ferreira, E.A.; Silva, A.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: evanderalves@yahoo.com.br; aasilva@ufv.br; Oliveira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Geral]. E-mail: jalves@ufv.br; Fialho, C.M.T. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Agronomia]. E-mail: cintiamtfialho@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption and translocation of glyphosate formulations in genetically modified (GM) soybean by applying 14C-glyphosate mixed to three glyphosate formulations (Roundup Ready and R. Transorb - both with +isopropylamine salt, and Zapp Qi, formulated from potassic salt ), using a precision micro syringe. Plant samples were collected after herbicide application (4, 16, 40 and 64 hours) and then divided into leaf (trifolium), aerial part, roots and root nodes for radiation reading. 14C-glyphosate that was not absorbed was recovered and counted by washing the leaf with methanol. Penetration and translocation of 14C-glyphosate to the different parts evaluated was found to vary. However, the highest absorption was verified at intervals after 16 hours of application. The highest herbicide percentage in the aerial part of the soybean plants was found when Zapp (potassic salt) was applied on the aerial part and when isopropylamin salt was applied on the roots; 14C-glyphosate was found in the plant root nodules in all treatments, with the highest percentage being observed with R. Transorb, 40 hours after application (0.13% of the total measured or 0.4%, considering only the plant total). Results highlight the hypothesis that glyphosate could harm symbiosis between rhizobium and soybean, since the former also shows in its metabolism EPSPS, which is susceptible to this herbicide. (author)

  16. Characterization of diverse soybean genotypes using 14 carbon for organic acid exudation under phosphorus stress and its relationship with phosphorus acquisition efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengavasi, Krishnapriya; Pandey, Renu

    2017-01-01

    To characterise the physiological aspects influencing organic acid exudation under low phosphorus (P) stress, experiment was conducted to screen a diverse soybean panel (comprising 116 genotypes) for total carbon exudation employing shoot labelling with 14 CO 2 technique. Among the traits measured at seedling stage, total carbon ( 14 C) exudation, P uptake and total dry weight contributed to the maximum genotypic variability in soybean. The proportion of organic acids (including oxalate, citrate, succinate and fumarate) was the highest among root-exuded compounds induced by low P stress in soybean. Improved root length, surface area and volume coupled with higher activity of enzymes in TCA cycle contributed to enhanced organic acid exudation under low P. Efficient soybean genotypes (EC-232019 and G-2344) exhibited superior growth and P acquisition efficiency under low soil P availability attributed to its higher root exudation potential aiding in mining fixed soil P. To understand the molecular mechanism differentially regulating root exudation potential in contrasting genotypes (EC-232019 and EC-113396), root proteome analysis at low P stress was carried out. Among the total proteins visualised by 2D-gel electrophoresis, 105 genotypes (32%) were differentially expressed between sufficient and low P levels. A total of 44 (14%) proteins were down-regulated by more than two-fold while 61 (15%) proteins were up-regulated by more than two-fold at low P. The differential proteins were involved in a myriad of functions including organic acid accumulation, carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism under low P stress. Characterisation of 17 proteins with unknown function indicated the role of novel genes under low P stress. The identified genotypes have potential to be used as donors in crop improvement programs to develop high-yielding P-efficient cultivars which may be an asset to low-input sustainable agriculture. (author)

  17. Tratamento de sementes de soja com inseticidas e um bioestimulante Soybean seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e um bioestimulante na germinação no crescimento da planta e raiz de soja. Foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em que as sementes foram tratadas com aldicarb, thiametoxan, imidacloprid e duas testemunhas: uma sem produto e uma com bioestimulante. Em laboratório, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de rolos de papel toalha com sementes de soja, para avaliar o vigor, a germinação, as plantas anormais e mortas, o comprimento de radículas e de plântulas. Nos testes em casa de vegetação, as unidades experimentais constituíram-se de tubos de PVC, com volume de 16 dm³, e foram avaliados: os teores de N, P e K; a matéria seca; o comprimento, a área e o raio médio radicular; a eficiência de absorção de N, P e K; e a taxa de crescimento radicular da soja. Os tratamentos de sementes de soja com os inseticidas e o bioestimulante levam à formação de raízes mais finas, o que caracteriza um efeito tônico. O produto aldicarb, na dose empregada, prejudica o vigor e a germinação das sementes de soja. O tratamento de sementes com inseticidas e bioestimulante não proporciona maior crescimento das raízes das plantas de soja.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of seed treatment with insecticides and biostimulant on soybean germination and plant and root growth. Two experiments were performed in complete randomized blocks, in which seeds were treated with aldicarb, thiamethoxan, imidacloprid and two checks: one without treatment and one treated with biostimulant. The experimental units at the laboratory were germination sheet rolls with soybean seeds. Plantlet vigor, germination, normal and abnormal plantlets, root and hypocotyl lengths were evaluated. For the greenhouse study PVC pots with 16 dm-3 were used, and determinations were made for: N, P and K contents; dry matter yield; root length

  18. Effect of foliar application of chitosan and salicylic acid on the growth of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanah, Y.; Sembiring, M.

    2018-02-01

    Elicitors such as chitosan and salicylic acid could be used not only to increase isoflavone concentration of soybean seeds, but also to increase the growth and seed yield. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of foliar application of elicitor compounds (i.e. chitosan, and salicylic acid)on the growth of two soybean varieties under dry land conditions. Experimental design was a randomized block design with 2 factors and 3 replications. The first factor was soybean varieties (Wilis and Devon). The second factor was foliar application of elicitors consisted of without elicitor; chitosan at V4 (four trifoliate leaves are fully developed); chitosan at R3 (early podding); chitosan at V4 and R3; salicylic acid at V4; salicylic acid at R3 and salicylic acid at V4 and R3. Parameters observed was plant height at 2-7 week after planting (WAP), shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The results suggest that the Wilis variety had higher plant height 7 WAP than Devon. The foliar application of chitosan increased the plant height at 7 WAP, shoot dry weight and root dry weight. The foliar application of chitosan at V4 and R3 on Devon variety increased shoot dry weight.

  19. Effects of proton beam irradiation on seed germination and growth of soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Juhyun; Kim, Woon Ji; Kim, Sang Hun; Ha, Bo-Keun

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the morphological effects of proton beam irradiation on the seed germination, seedling survival, and plant growth of soybean. Seeds of three Korean elite cultivars (Kwangankong, Daepungkong, and Pungsannamulkong) were irradiated with a 57-MeV proton beam in the range of 50 - 400 Gy. The germination rates of all the varieties increased to > 95%; however, the survival rates were significantly reduced. At doses of > 300 Gy irradiation, the Daepungkong, Kwangankong, and Pungsannamulkong cultivars exhibited 39, 75, and 71% survival rates, respectively. In addition, plant height and the fresh weight of shoots and roots were significantly decreased by doses of > 100 Gy irradiation, as were the dry weights of the shoots and roots. However, SPAD values increased with increasing doses of irradiation. Abnormal plants with atypically branched stems, modified leaves, and chlorophyll mutations were observed. Based on the survival rate, plant growth inhibition, and mutation frequency, it appears that the optimum dosage of proton beam irradiation for soybean mutation breeding is between 250 and 300 Gy.

  20. Effect of rhizosphere pH condition on cadmium movement in a soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, T.; Tanoi, K.; Iikura, H.; Rai, H.; Nakanishi, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To study the effect of rhizosphere pH condition on the cadmium uptake movement, 109 Cd, was applied as a radioisotope tracer to a soybean plant grown in a water culture at pH 4.5 or pH 6.5. The distribution of 109 Cd in the soybean plant was observed radiographically with an imaging plate (IP). The amount of Cd transported from the root to the upper part of the plant at pH 4.5 was approximately two times higher than that at pH 6.5. However, the movement of Cd in the upper part of the plant was similar under both pH conditions. The distribution of Cd inside the internodes at pH 4.5 also showed similar pattern to that at pH 6.5, suggesting that once Cd reached to the vessel of the root, the movement of Cd was not dependent on rhizosphere pH conditions. (author)

  1. Source-sink relationships in two soybean cultivars with indeterminate growth under water deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Water deficit is a major factor limiting crop yield in rainfed areas. We hypothesized that under water deficit the decrease of photosynthetic production stimulates: carbohydrate remobilization from leaves, stems and roots to reproductive organs; and decreasing flowering intensity and pod development. The present work aims to study the effect of water deficit during bloom and grain pod-filling stages in two indeterminate soybean cultivar, Vtop and Nidera. The following physiological parameters were evaluated by means of daily CO2 assimilation rate (Ai, dynamic of carbohydrates in tissues, plant growth, grain yield and yield components. The study was conducted in a greenhouse with plants sown in tanks of 0.5 m3. Regardless of the phenological phase, water deficit reduced Ai, plant growth and number of pods and seeds per plant. The fact that grain yield was less affected by water deficit at bloom than at grain pod-filling stage was attributed to larger seeds found at bloom. In both treatments, a sharp reduction on carbohydrate content was found in leaves, stem and roots at the beginning of pod formation. The high amounts of carbohydrates remobilized for seed growth, along with the high values of Ai observed in well-watered plants, indicate that grain yield of soybeans is source rather than sink limited. On the other hand, in water deficit treatments, a new stimulus for carbohydrate storage was found in the leaves and stem at the beginning of grain maturity, suggesting that grain yield was limited by sink capacity.

  2. Fate of 15N-urea applied to wheat-soybean succession crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Muraoka, Takashi; Spolidorio, Eduardo Scarpari; Freitas, Jose Guilherme de; Cantarella, Heitor

    2004-01-01

    The wheat crop in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is fertilized with N, P and K. The rate of applied N (0 to 120 kg.ha -1 ) depends on the previous grown crop and the irrigation possibility. The response of wheat to rates and time of N application and the fate of N applied to irrigated wheat were studied during two years. Residual N recovery by soybean grown after the wheat was also studied. The maximum grain productivity was obtained with 92 kg.ha -1 of N. The efficiency of 15 N-urea utilization ranged from 52% to 85%. The main loss of applied 15 N, 5% to 12% occurred as ammonia volatilized from urea applied on soil surface. The N loss by leaching even at the N rate of 135 kg.ha -1 , was less than 1% of applied 15 N, due to the low amount of rainfall during the wheat grown season and a controlled amount of irrigated water, that were sufficient to moisten only the wheat root zone. The residual 15 N after wheat harvest represents around 40% of N applied as urea: 20% in soil, 3% in wheat root system and 16% in the wheat straw. Soybean recovered less than 2% of the 15 N applied to wheat at sowing or at tillering stage. (author)

  3. Exudation of fluorescent beta-carbolines from Oxalis tuberosa L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Harsh Pal; Park, Sang-Wook; Stermitz, Frank R; Halligan, Kathleen M; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2002-11-01

    Root fluorescence is a phenomenon in which roots of seedlings fluoresce when irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light. Soybean (Glycine max) and rye grass (Elymus glaucus) are the only plant species that have been reported to exhibit this occurrence in germinating seedling roots. The trait has been useful as a marker in genetic, tissue culture and diversity studies, and has facilitated selection of plants for breeding purposes. However, the biological significance of this occurrence in plants and other organisms is unknown. Here we report that the Andean tuber crop species Oxalis tuberosa, known as oca in the highlands of South America, secretes a fluorescent compound as part of its root exudates. The main fluorescent compounds were characterized as harmine (7-methoxy-1-methyl-beta-carboline) and harmaline (3, 4-dihydroharmine). We also detected endogenous root fluorescence in other plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Phytolacca americana, a possible indication that this phenomenon is widespread within the plant kingdom.

  4. Nitrogen fixation in soybean treated with nitrogen dioxide and molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.; Narayanan, R.

    1992-01-01

    Soybean plants were treated with Mo (0.0 or 2.0 mg kg -1 , soil dry wt.) and exposed to NO 2 (0.0, 0.05, or 0.1 μmol mol -1 ) at flowering stage. Specific root nodule activity (SNA), chlorophyll-a (Ch-a), chlorophyll-b (Ch-b), leaf N, number of pods, seeds per pod, weight of seeds, and shoot dry weight were measured. Compared with control, SNA did not change on the addition of 2 mg Mo to the soil, but increased by 65% on exposure to 0.1 μmol -1 NO 2 and by 106% on treatment with both NO 2 and Mo. Both Ch-a and Ch-b increased significantly on exposure to 0.1 μmol -1 NO 2 and 2 mg MO was almost the same as with 0.1 μmol mol -1 NO 2 alone. Leaf-N increased by 46% on exposure to NO 2 but did not change on the addition of Mo. Pod number, seed number and weight, and shoot dry weights showed significantly higher values on exposure to 0.1 μmol mol -1 NO 2 and 2 mg Mo

  5. Radiation induced mutagenesis in soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakode, M.M.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Patil, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of gamma rays (10, 20 and 30 kR) on some biological parameter in M1 generation and frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutations in five cultivars of soybean viz. JS-8021, JS-335, JS- 7105, Monetta and PKV -1 have been studied. A dose dependant decrease was noticed in most of the characters like root length, shoot length, germination, plant height, plant survival and pollen sterility. While seedling height, number of seeds per pod and number of branches per plant were not affected significantly. The highest frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutations was noticed in variety JS-8021 in which 20 different gene loci for various characters were mutated. However variety JS- 7105 showed less radio sensitive response for different traits in which only 12 different loci were mutated. While JS-335, monetta and PKV-I showed moderate response to frequency and spectrum of various mutations. These varieties showed differential response to radio sensitivity, some useful mutations included, high yielding mutant in 20 kR, non shattering mutant in 30 kR and vine type mutant in 10 kR in variety monetta. Extra early type, erect and high branched type mutant were recorded with high frequency in 10 and 20 kR respectively in variety JS-8021. In general, 20 kR dose was found more effective in all the varieties studied. (author)

  6. Proteins involved in biophoton emission and flooding-stress responses in soybean under light and dark conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Abu Hena Mostafa; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-02-01

    To know the molecular systems basically flooding conditions in soybean, biophoton emission measurements and proteomic analyses were carried out for flooding-stressed roots under light and dark conditions. Photon emission was analyzed using a photon counter. Gel-free quantitative proteomics were performed to identify significant changes proteins using the nano LC-MS along with SIEVE software. Biophoton emissions were significantly increased in both light and dark conditions after flooding stress, but gradually decreased with continued flooding exposure compared to the control plants. Among the 120 significantly identified proteins in the roots of soybean plants, 73 and 19 proteins were decreased and increased in the light condition, respectively, and 4 and 24 proteins were increased and decreased, respectively, in the dark condition. The proteins were mainly functionally grouped into cell organization, protein degradation/synthesis, and glycolysis. The highly abundant lactate/malate dehydrogenase proteins were decreased in flooding-stressed roots exposed to light, whereas the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme was increased in both light and dark conditions. Notably, however, specific enzyme assays revealed that the activities of these enzymes and biophoton emission were sharply increased after 3 days of flooding stress. This finding suggests that the source of biophoton emission in roots might involve the chemical excitation of electron or proton through enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation and reduction reactions. Moreover, the lysine ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme may play important roles in responses in flooding stress of soybean under the light condition and as a contributing factor to biophoton emission.

  7. Differential Ability of Maize and Soybean to Acquire and Utilize Phosphorus from Sparingly Soluble Forms in Low- and Medium-P Soils Using {sup 32}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Gyamfi, J. J.; Aigner, M.; Linic, S. [Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Laboratory, Seibersdorf (Austria); Gludovacz, D. [Nuclear Material Laboratory, Safeguard Analytical Services, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the differential ability of maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) to utilize soil phosphorus (P) for plant growth from total-P, available-P and inorganic (Ca-P, Al-P and Fe-P) soil P pools using a carrier-free {sup 32}P solution. A maize variety (DK 315) and a soybean variety (TGX 1910-4F) were grown in pots containing 1 kg of a low available P soil (Hungarian) or a medium available P (Waldviertel) soil labelled with {sup 32}P for 42 days or without {sup 32}P (unlabelled) for 42 and 60 days. The shoot and root biomass of maize and soybean were significantly greater when grown on the Waldviertel than on the Hungarian soils. The shoot P concentrations were higher for soybean (1.7-2.2 g kg{sup -1}) than for maize (1.1-1.4 g kg{sup -1}). The total radioactivity (dpm x 10{sup 6}) was higher in plants grown in Waldviertel than in Hungarian soil and the values reflected plant P uptake and shoot biomass of soybean and maize. The L-values ({mu}g P g soil{sup -1}) of maize and soybean were higher in Waldviertel (72-78) than in Hungarian (9.6-20) soil. No significant differences in L-values were observed for maize and soybean grown on the Waldviertel soil, but for the Hungarian soil, the L-values were higher for maize (20.0) than for soybean (9.6) suggesting that in this low-P soil, maize was more efficient than soybean in taking up soil P. The available P (Bray II) and the Ca-P were the fractions most depleted by plants followed by the Fe-P fractions in the two soils, but differences between the crops were not significant. When soil P is limited, maize and soybean are able to access P mainly from the available P (Bray II), Fe- and Ca-P sparingly soluble fractions and not Al-P from the soil. (author)

  8. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  9. Degradation and removal of soybean allergen in Japanese soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magishi, Norihiro; Yuikawa, Naoya; Kobayashi, Makio; Taniuchi, Shoichiro

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional fermented seasoning of Japan and is available throughout the world. The two main raw ingredients of soy sauce are soybean and wheat, both of which are established food allergens. The present study examined the degradation and removal of soybean allergens in soy sauce by immunoblotting with anti‑soybean protein antibody from rabbit and sera from two children with soybean allergy. It was demonstrated that soybean allergens were gradually degraded during the fermentation process, but were not completely degraded in raw soy sauce. During the processes of heat‑treatment and filtration, the soluble soybean allergens in raw soy sauce were denatured to insoluble allergens by heat‑treatment and subsequently completely removed from soy sauce by filtration. Therefore, to reduce the allergenicity of soy sauce, heat‑treatment and filtration are very important processes in addition to the enzymatic degradation during the fermentation of soy sauce.

  10. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek

    2016-01-01

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste

  11. Soybean Aphid Infestation Induces Changes in Fatty Acid Metabolism in Soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kanobe

    Full Text Available The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura is one of the most important insect pests of soybeans in the North-central region of the US. It has been hypothesized that aphids avoid effective defenses by inhibition of jasmonate-regulated plant responses. Given the role fatty acids play in jasmonate-induced plant defenses, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of soybean leaves and seeds from aphid-infested plants. Aphid infestation reduced levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in leaves with a concomitant increase in palmitic acid. In seeds, a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids was associated with an increase in stearic acid and oleic acid. Soybean plants challenged with the brown stem rot fungus or with soybean cyst nematodes did not present changes in fatty acid levels in leaves or seeds, indicating that the changes induced by aphids are not a general response to pests. One of the polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, is the precursor of jasmonate; thus, these changes in fatty acid metabolism may be examples of "metabolic hijacking" by the aphid to avoid the induction of effective defenses. Based on the changes in fatty acid levels observed in seeds and leaves, we hypothesize that aphids potentially induce interference in the fatty acid desaturation pathway, likely reducing FAD2 and FAD6 activity that leads to a reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our data support the idea that aphids block jasmonate-dependent defenses by reduction of the hormone precursor.

  12. Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of Hydroxylated Soybean Lecithin from Crude Soybean Lecithin as an Emulsifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiplunkar, Pranali P; Pratap, Amit P

    2017-10-01

    Soybean lecithin is a by-product obtained during degumming step of crude soybean oil refining. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) contains major amount of phospholipids (PLs) along with minor amount of acylglycerols, bioactive components, etc. Due to presence of PLs, CSL can be used as an emulsifier. Crude soybean lecithin (CSL) was utilized to synthesize hydroxylated soybean lecithin (HSL) by hydroxylation using hydrogen peroxide and catalytic amount of lactic acid to enhance the hydrophilicity and emulsifying properties of CSL. To reduce the reaction time and to increase rate of reaction, HSL was synthesized under ultrasound irradiation. The effect of different operating parameters such as lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle in synthesis of HSL were studied and optimized. The surface tension (SFT), interfacial tension (IFT) and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the HSL (26.11 mN/m, 2.67 mN/m, 112 mg/L) were compared to CSL (37.53 mN/m, 6.22 mN/m, 291 mg/L) respectively. The HSL has better emulsion stability and low foaming characteristics as compared to CSL. Therefore, the product as an effective emulsifier can be used in food, pharmacy, lubricant, cosmetics, etc.

  13. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  14. Quality characteristics of soybean pasted (Doenjang) manufactured with 2 soybean mutant lines derived from cv. baekwon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Jun; Kang, Si Yong; Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jin Baek [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In order to identification of the possibility of manufacturing soybean paste (doenjang) with soybean mutant lines induced from gamma-ray mutagenesis, this study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of doenjang using two soybean mutant lines, Baekwon-1 (BW-1) and Baekwon-2 (BW-2) and their original cultivar (cv. Baekwon, BW) for 8 weeks. The BW and two mutant lines (BW-1 and BW-2) were showed higher content of amino type nitrogen than control (cv. Taegwang). The pH decreased and the titratable acidity increased all the samples during aging period. The lightness, redness and yellowness of doenjang were the lowest in BW. Total free sugar content of doenjang was the highest in control (10.43%) after 4 weeks and composed mainly fructose and glucose. The order of the free amino acid content was Glutamic acid>Leucine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in control, Glutamic acid>Leucine >Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine in BW, Glutamic acid>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid>Valine in BW-1 and Glutamic acid>Arginine>Lysine>Phenylalanine>Aspartic acid in BW-2, respectively. Our results showed that it is possible to increase the quality of doenjang using soybean mutant lines in manufacturing soybean paste.

  15. Incidence of storage fungi and hydropriming on soybean seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Denis Santiago da; Bonassa,Nathalie; Novembre,Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Priming is a technique applicable to seeds of various plant species; however, for soybean seed there is little available information correlating such technique to the storage fungi. The objective of this study was to assess hydropriming on soybeans seeds and correlate this technique to occurrence of such fungi. For this, soon after acquisition the soybean seeds, cv. M-SOY 7908 RR, were characterized by: moisture content, mechanical damage, viability (seed germination and seedling emergence) a...

  16. Influence of continuous cropping on corn and soybean pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzi, Camila; Camera, Juliane Nicolodi; Deuner, Carolina Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of two tillage programs (conventional and no-tillage) and different rotations with soybeans and corn on the occurrence of Fusarium species. The work was conducted in the experimental field and Seed Laboratory at Iowa State University. The treatments were: tillage (no-tillage and conventional tillage), crop (corn and soybeans) and three different cropping sequences for corn and soybeans, respectively. Treatment with corn: (1) t...

  17. Intercropping soybean and maize in a derived savanna ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to sole soybean, intercropping soybean and maize on flat and ridge reduced yields by 1.0 –29.1% and 29.4 - 40.2% respectively. In maize, intercropping on flat and ridge reduced yields by 13.2 - 25.2% and 24.8 - 43.5% respectively. Planting sole soybean on ridge enhanced mean yield by 18.6% as compared to ...

  18. Biochemical changes during aging of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balešević-Tubić Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes that occur in the seed as a result of ageing are very significant for seed quality and longevity. Because of its characteristic composition, processes occurring in the seed of oil crops during storage will be typical as well. Six soybean varieties developed in Institute of field and vegetable crops Novi Sad, submitted to accelerated and natural aging, under controlled and conventional storage conditions were used in these trials. The content of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were studied. The biochemical processes i.e. lipid peroxidation, as well as the decrease in supeoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities (especially pronounced by applied accelerated aging were caused by both type of aging. The degree of seed damage and the ability of seed to resist the negative consequences of aging were influenced, beside duration of aging period, by type of storage and characteristics of soybean varieties. .

  19. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  20. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  1. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  2. Vigor of sunflower and soybean aging seed

    OpenAIRE

    Tatić M.; Balešević-Tubić S.; Ðorđević V.; Miklič V.; Vujaković M.; Ðukić V.

    2012-01-01

    Seed aging and deterioration affect seed vigor and viability. The characteristics of the chemical composition of oil crops seed are related to specific processes occurring in the seed during storage. This study was performed to examine the changes in seed vigor of different sunflower and soybean genotypes under controlled and conventional (uncontrolled) conditions of natural aging for six and twelve months. Obtained results show that the degree of seed dama...

  3. Identification of wild soybean (Glycine soja) TIFY family genes and their expression profiling analysis under bicarbonate stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Luo, Xiao; Chen, Qin; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-02-01

    Wild soybean (Glycine soja L. G07256) exhibits a greater adaptability to soil bicarbonate stress than cultivated soybean, and recent discoveries show that TIFY family genes are involved in the response to several abiotic stresses. A genomic and transcriptomic analysis of all TIFY genes in G. soja, compared with G. max, will provide insight into the function of this gene family in plant bicarbonate stress response. This article identified and characterized 34 TIFY genes in G. soja. Sequence analyses indicated that most GsTIFY proteins had two conserved domains: TIFY and Jas. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that these GsTIFY genes could be classified into two groups. A clustering analysis of all GsTIFY transcript expression profiles from bicarbonate stress treated G. soja showed that there were five different transcript patterns in leaves and six different transcript patterns in roots when the GsTIFY family responds to bicarbonate stress. Moreover, the expression level changes of all TIFY genes in cultivated soybean, treated with bicarbonate stress, were also verified. The expression comparison analysis of TIFYs between wild and cultivated soybeans confirmed that, different from the cultivated soybean, GsTIFY (10a, 10b, 10c, 10d, 10e, 10f, 11a, and 11b) were dramatically up-regulated at the early stage of stress, while GsTIFY 1c and 2b were significantly up-regulated at the later period of stress. The frequently stress responsive and diverse expression profiles of the GsTIFY gene family suggests that this family may play important roles in plant environmental stress responses and adaptation.

  4. Phenotypic evaluation and genetic dissection of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in the Chinese soybean mini core collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Na; Li, Yinghui; Sun, Jutao; Hu, Guanjun; Zhang, Haipeng; Li, Yanfei; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Jinming; Xing, Han; Qiu, Lijuan

    2016-06-18

    Phytophthora root and stem rot (PRR) caused by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most serious diseases affecting soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production all over the world. The most economical and environmentally-friendly way to control the disease is the exploration and utilization of resistant varieties. We screened a soybean mini core collection composed of 224 germplasm accessions for resistance against eleven P. sojae isolates. Soybean accessions from the Southern and Huanghuai regions, especially the Hubei, Jiangsu, Sichuan and Fujian provinces, had the most varied and broadest spectrum of resistance. Based on gene postulation, Rps1b, Rps1c, Rps4, Rps7 and novel resistance genes were identified in resistant accessions. Consequently, association mapping of resistance to each isolate was performed with 1,645 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A total of 14 marker-trait associations for Phytophthora resistance were identified. Among them, four were located in known PRR resistance loci intervals, five were located in other disease resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions, and five associations unmasked novel loci for PRR resistance. In addition, we also identified candidate genes related to resistance. This is the first P. sojae resistance evaluation conducted using the Chinese soybean mini core collection, which is a representative sample of Chinese soybean cultivars. The resistance reaction analyses provided an excellent database of resistant resources and genetic variations for future breeding programs. The SNP markers associated with resistance will facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs for resistance to PRR, and the candidate genes may be useful for exploring the mechanism underlying P. sojae resistance.

  5. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado. In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, y-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use.

  6. RELATIVE COMPETITIVENESS OF GOOSEGRASS BIOTYPES AND SOYBEAN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JADER JOB FRANCO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he goosegrass ( Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn is an annual plant that has a low - level resistance to glyphosate (LLRG, resulting in control failure in genetically modified soybean crops for resistance to this herbicide. Alleles related to resistance may cause changes in the plant biotype, such as inferior competitive ability. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluated the competitive ability of soybean crops and susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. Replacement series experiments were conducted with soybean crops and goosegrass biotypes. The ratios of soybean to susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass plants were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100, with a total population of 481 plants m - 2 . The leaf area, plant height and shoot dry weight were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the soybean crops and weeds. The soybean crop had superior competitive ability to the susceptible and resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The soybean crop showed similar competitive ability in both competitions, either with the susceptible or resistant (LLRG goosegrass biotypes. The intraspecific competition was more harmful to the soybean crop, while the interspecific competition caused greater damage to the goosegrass biotypes competing with the soybean crop

  7. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR. It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO⁻₃-N than NH⁺₄-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%, Ochrobactrum (13.0%, Spingomonas (6.0% and uncultured bacterium (4.0% by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  8. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO(-) 3-N than NH(+) 4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated soybean straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhong; Wang Qunhui; Jiang Zhaohua; Yang Xuexin; Ji Yongzhen

    2007-01-01

    In order to produce lactic acid, from agricultural residues such as soybean straw, which is a raw material for biodegradable plastic production, it is necessary to decompose the soybean straw into soluble sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the methods in common use, while pretreatment is the effective way to increase the hydrolysis rate. The optimal conditions of pretreatment using ammonia and enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean straw were determined. Compared with the untreated straw, cellulose in straw pretreated by ammonia liquor (10%) soaking for 24 h at room temperature increased 70.27%, whereas hemicellulose and lignin in pretreated straw decreased to 41.45% and 30.16%, respectively. The results of infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis also showed that the structure and the surface of the straw were changed through pretreatment that is in favor of the following enzymatic hydrolysis. maximum enzymatic hydrolysis rate of 51.22% was achieved at a substrate concentration of 5% (w/v) at 50 deg. C and pH 4.8 using cellulase (50 fpu/g of substrate) for 36 h

  10. INFLUENCE OF SOWING SPEED ON SOYBEAN CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. A. Tiesen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso state is the largest producer of soybeans in the country, therefore is the focus of several studies and research in order to improve and increase the production. For an activity that reduces the movements on the field, the no-tillage is a great activity when it done properly. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of speed of sowing on soybean crop, with pneumatic system type for seed metering. The experiment was conducted at São Luiz Farm, in Sinop city, in the northern of Mato Grosso state. The experimental adopted was the randomized blocks design with four treatments and four replications. The seeding speeds studied were 3; 5; 7 and 9 km h-1. The variables evaluated were: initial plant population, longitudinal distribution and yield components. The data were submitted to variance and regression analysis. The speed of 3 km h-1 show the best performance for acceptable spacing, flawed, plant stand on the pre-established area, number of pods per plant, thousand grain mass and yield. The speeds rate used for sowing did not influence the establishment of soybean crop, but affected the beans productivity.

  11. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  12. RUNTIME DICTIONARIES FOR ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Wind, David Kofoed

    2013-01-01

    ROOT is the LHC physicists' common tool for data analysis; almost all data is stored using ROOT's I/O system. This system benefits from a custom description of types (a so-called dictionary) that is optimised for the I/O. Until now, the dictionary cannot be provided at run-time; it needs to be prepared in a separate prerequisite step. This project will move the generation of the dictionary to run-time, making use of ROOT 6's new just-in-time compiler. It allows a more dynamic and natural access to ROOT's I/O features especially for user code.

  13. Major soybean maturity gene haplotypes revealed by SNPViz analysis of 72 sequenced soybean genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Langewisch

    Full Text Available In this Genomics Era, vast amounts of next-generation sequencing data have become publicly available for multiple genomes across hundreds of species. Analyses of these large-scale datasets can become cumbersome, especially when comparing nucleotide polymorphisms across many samples within a dataset and among different datasets or organisms. To facilitate the exploration of allelic variation and diversity, we have developed and deployed an in-house computer software to categorize and visualize these haplotypes. The SNPViz software enables users to analyze region-specific haplotypes from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP datasets for different sequenced genomes. The examination of allelic variation and diversity of important soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] flowering time and maturity genes may provide additional insight into flowering time regulation and enhance researchers' ability to target soybean breeding for particular environments. For this study, we utilized two available soybean genomic datasets for a total of 72 soybean genotypes encompassing cultivars, landraces, and the wild species Glycine soja. The major soybean maturity genes E1, E2, E3, and E4 along with the Dt1 gene for plant growth architecture were analyzed in an effort to determine the number of major haplotypes for each gene, to evaluate the consistency of the haplotypes with characterized variant alleles, and to identify evidence of artificial selection. The results indicated classification of a small number of predominant haplogroups for each gene and important insights into possible allelic diversity for each gene within the context of known causative mutations. The software has both a stand-alone and web-based version and can be used to analyze other genes, examine additional soybean datasets, and view similar genome sequence and SNP datasets from other species.

  14. Physiological control of the distribution of translocated amino acids and amides in young soybean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C D; Gorham, P R

    1959-01-01

    Each of 10 C/sup 14/-labelled amino acids or amides was introduced into young soybean plants through the cut petiole of one primary leaf. The compounds used were asparagine, glutamine, urea, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, serine, alanine, norleucine, and arginine. The rates of uptake of all the solutions except arginine were in the range 1.0 to 1.5 ..mu..l per minute. After 1 to 5 minutes, the distribution of C/sup 14/ throughout the plants was determined. Each amino acid was translocated as such without conversion to other compounds. From the point of introduction, translocation of each amino acid or amide was mainly downward toward the root; very little was translocated upward. The amount of asparagine or glutamine that was translocated into the primary leaf opposite the cut petiole increased as the leaf aged, while the amount of the other eight compounds decreased as the leaf aged. When asparagine and serine were administered together, serine moved into the young primary leaf while asparagine was excluded. Both excision of the roots and chilling the roots decreased the velocity of downward translocation of aspartic acid indicating that the roots exert a strong demand which favors translocation in a downward direction more than an upward direction in the stem. 17 references, 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Chemical interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil: Influence of the reaction time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Masuchi, Monise Helen; Grimaldi, Renato; Goncalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical interesterification is an important alternative to produce zero trans fats. In practice, however, excessive reaction times are used to ensure complete randomization. This work evaluated the influence of the reaction time on the interesterification of soybean oil/fully hydrogenated soybean oil blend, carried out in the following conditions: 100 deg C, 500 rpm stirring speed, 0.4% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst. The triacylglycerol composition, solid fat content and melting point analysis showed that the reaction was very fast, reaching the equilibrium within 5 min. This result suggests the interesterification can be performed in substantially lower times, with reduction in process costs. (author)

  16. Fluorescence imaging of soybean flavonol isolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Edward H.; Mulchi, Charles L.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Chappelle, Emmett W.; Rowland, Randy A.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to characterize the fluorescence emission of leaves from four soybean ('Harosoy') plants containing different concentrations of flavonols (kaempferol glycosides). The investigation utilized genetically mutated soybean flavonol isolines grown in a constant environment, thus limiting factors known to affect fluorescence emission characteristics other than different kaempferol glycosides concentrations. Flavonol isolines included OX922, OX941, OX942, OX944. The first two isolines contain kaempferol (K) glycosides; K3, K6, and K9, and the latter two did not have K3, K6, and K9. A fluorescence imaging system (FIS) was used to characterize steady state florescence images of the sample leaves measured at wavelengths centered at 450, 550, 680, and 740 nm with an excitation at 360 nm. Images taken with FIS greatly complement non-imaging fluorescence measurements by characterizing the spatial variation of fluorescence within leaves. We also acquired fluorescence emission spectra to characterize spectral features of the soybean flavonol isolines. The emission spectral shape of the fluorescence emission characteristics were not significantly different between the soybeans that contain kaempferol glycosides and the ones that do not contain kaempferol glycosides. Typical emission maxima of green vegetation in the blue, green, red, and far-red bands were noticed in all four soybean isolines. However, plants containing kaempferol glycosides, OX922 and OX941 had significantly lower intensities throughout the wavelength regions. These results imply that fluorescence emission intensities in the fluorescence emission bands studied are significantly affected by the presence and absence of kaempferol glycosides concentrations (UV radiation screening compounds). Pure kaempferol glycoside dissolved in solution show minimal fluorescence emission when excited with the absorption maximum radiation at 365 nm. However, a broad band emission can be seen in the green

  17. Silicon application to the soil on soybean yield and seed physiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of quality seeds, balanced plant nutrition and the adoption of adequate cultivation techniques are critical to the success of the soybean crop. Use of silicon (Si is a clean technology from an environmental point of view, which can confer several benefits to the plants as stimulate growth and plant production, improve tolerance of plants to attack by insects and diseases, reduce perspiration and increase the photosynthetic rate and protect against abiotic stresses. The goal was to evaluate the effect of soil Si application derived from rice husk ash on the agronomic characteristics, productivity and physiological quality of soybean cultivars seeds. The experiment was conducted in pots of 18 L filled with soil, under a randomized block design with four replications. The soybean cultivars were BMX Turbo RR and NA 5909 RR, grown under five doses of silicon (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 t ha-1. Agronomic traits and seed yield were evaluated (total number of pods on branches, total number of seeds on the branches, the total number of pods on the main stem, total number of seeds on the main stem, total number of pods per plant, total number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant and seed weight of 1000. Physiological seed quality was evaluated by germination and vigor tests (first count of germination, cold test, accelerated aging, shoot length and root. The soil application of silicon is beneficial for the soybean crop, improving the main agronomic characteristics (total number of pods on branches, total number of seeds in the branches, total number of pods per plant, weight of seeds per plant and increasing seed yield per plant in soybean cultivar BMX Turbo RR. The mass of a thousand seeds is positively influenced by the dose of 1.67 t ha-1 for the cultivar BMX Turbo RR and up to a dose of 2.32 t ha-1 for the cultivar NA 5909 RR. Cultivar BMX Turbo RR seed vigor is increased with the use of silicon in the soil.

  18. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  19. Irrational Square Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiurewicz, Michal

    2013-01-01

    If students are presented the standard proof of irrationality of [square root]2, can they generalize it to a proof of the irrationality of "[square root]p", "p" a prime if, instead of considering divisibility by "p", they cling to the notions of even and odd used in the standard proof?

  20. Uptake of pharmaceutical and personal care products by soybean plants from soils applied with biosolids and irrigated with contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chenxi; Spongberg, Alison L; Witter, Jason D; Fang, Min; Czajkowski, Kevin P

    2010-08-15

    Many pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are commonly found in biosolids and effluents from wastewater treatment plants. Land application of these biosolids and the reclamation of treated wastewater can transfer those PPCPs into the terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. In this work, a greenhouse experiment was used to study the uptake of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, and fluoxetine) and two personal care products (triclosan and triclocarban) by an agriculturally important species, soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Two treatments simulating biosolids application and wastewater irrigation were investigated. After growing for 60 and 110 days, plant tissues and soils were analyzed for target compounds. Carbamazepine, triclosan, and triclocarban were found to be concentrated in root tissues and translocated into above ground parts including beans, whereas accumulation and translocation for diphenhydramine and fluoxetine was limited. The uptake of selected compounds differed by treatment, with biosolids application resulting in higher plant concentrations, likely due to higher loading. However, compounds introduced by irrigation appeared to be more available for uptake and translocation. Degradation is the main mechanism for the dissipation of selected compounds in biosolids applied soils, and the presence of soybean plants had no significant effect on sorption. Data from two different harvests suggest that the uptake from soil to root and translocation from root to leaf may be rate limited for triclosan and triclocarban and metabolism may occur within the plant for carbamazepine.

  1. Chromatic roots and hamiltonian paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We present a new connection between colorings and hamiltonian paths: If the chromatic polynomial of a graph has a noninteger root less than or equal to t(n) = 2/3 + 1/3 (3)root (26 + 6 root (33)) + 1/3 (3)root (26 - 6 root (33)) = 1.29559.... then the graph has no hamiltonian path. This result...

  2. Assessment of endophytic fungi cultural filtrate on soybean seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean seeds have high amount of isoflavones but its germination is often confronted with a variety of environmental problems resulting in low germination rate and growth. To overcome this in eco-friendly manner, we investigated the influence of cultural filtrate (CF) of gibberellins-producing endophytic fungi on soybean ...

  3. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  4. Elisa development for detection of glyphosat resistant gm soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Геннадійович Спиридонов

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During research we have utilized recombinant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (CP4 EPSPS, conferring resistance to glyphosate for GM soybean, for the hen immunization and obtaining specific yolk antibodies IgY. Stages of ELISA development that can detect at least 0,1 % of GM-soybean resistant to glyphosate were present

  5. Effect of feeding soybean, linseed oil and different forms of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... redox and immune status of turkey hens. The experiment was carried out on 480 turkey hens, type BIG 6, which were divided into four groups. Birds in Group I (control) received soybean oil and synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate in their feed mixture. Group II received soybean oil and natural RRR-d-alpha-tocopherol.

  6. Agro-ecological Differentials in Soybean Crop Evapotranspiration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimated soybean crop evapotranspiration from weather data using the cropwat model. The effects of reference evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, and yield response factor were quantified for three different agroecological zones in Cameroon. The evapotranspiration of soybean was observed to be 281.03 ...

  7. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenach, A.-M.; Chalamet, Alain; Pachiaudi, Christiane

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of 15 N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference [fr

  8. Evaluation of microbial content of some soybean milk products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the microbiological content of soybean milk, highly consumed by the public is the aim of this research work. Ten samples of soybean milk, locally prepared by different manufacturers were used for the study. The microbial load and identity of the microorganisms present were determined using standard ...

  9. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The average genetic diversity index of wild soybeans and landraces was 1.5421 and ... genetic identity (0.5265) and gene flow (1.8338) between wild soybeans and cultivars ..... The project was financed by the National Natural Science .... Biology and Biotechnology Centre, University of Alberta, Alberta.

  10. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  11. Framing the issues of resistance management in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soybean insect-pest complex consists of both long-established and new invasive pests. Management of these pests has been achieved by various means, but often relies heavily on the application of insecticides and the development of insect-resistant soybean varieties. Pest management practitione...

  12. Soybean Peptide as Additive on Yellow Feather Broiler Chicks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GM soybean and sold on the Chinese market by China CF Duqing (Heze) Biotech Co. Ltd, Shandong Prov-ince, China. For the purpose of this study, the peptide was designated marketed soybean peptide (MSBP). In order to show its efficacy ...

  13. The research on super absorption resin made from irradiation soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiao'nan; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong

    2012-01-01

    The research is based on the products made from the fermentation of soybean. Using γ-ray to irradiate the products made from the fermentation of soybean to make super absorption resin, and the result is that the products irradiated by 20 kGy can absorb nearly 2000 times of its volume. (authors)

  14. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of neutral black liquor and moisture heating treatments ... The most commonly used methods of protecting protein include ..... Induced non-enzymatic browning of soybean meal for enhancing efficiency of ... ammonia relase of soluble soybean meal proterin.

  15. The nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes from soybean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiborg, O; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Jensen, E O

    1982-01-01

    We present the complete nucleotide sequences of two leghemoglobin genes isolated from soybean DNA. Both genes contain three intervening sequences in identical positions. Comparison of the coding sequences with known amino-acid sequences of soybean leghemoglobins suggest that the two genes...

  16. Two isotopic methods for estimation of soybean nitrogen fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenach, A M; Chalamet, A; Pachiaudi, C [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1979-07-16

    Measurements of rate of nitrogen symbiotic fixation by Soybean were determined by two different methods: variations in the natural abundance of /sup 15/N in plants; use of 'A' value determined from labelled nitrogen applications to the soil. The results from both methods were in good agreement. Rates of fixed nitrogen were similar when using non nodulated Soybean or Ray-Grass as reference.

  17. The research on super absorption resin made from irradiated soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Lixin; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Zhao Xiaonan; Hu Shaoxin; Chen Changdong

    2011-01-01

    The research is based on the products made from the fermentation of soybean. Using γ-ray to irradiate the products made from the fermentation of soybean to make super absorption resin, and the result is that the products irradiated by 20 KGy can absorb nearly 2000 times of its volume. (authors)

  18. Rheological properties of soybean protein isolate gels containing emulsion droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.H.; Renkema, J.M.S.; Vliet, van T.

    2001-01-01

    Rheological properties of soybean protein gels containing various volume fractions oil droplets have been studied at small and large deformations. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of soybean protein isolate gels were determined as a function of the volume fraction of oil droplets stabilised by the

  19. Polymercaptanized soybean oil – properties and tribological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized vegetable oils are produced in industrial scale by the addition of hydrogen sulfide across double bonds or epoxides of vegetable oils, in the presence of UV-light. To date, soybean oil, epoxidized soybean oil, and castor oil has been mercaptanized using such a procedure. Depending ...

  20. Chemical, physical and tribological investigation of polymercaptanized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymercaptanized soybean oil (PMSO) was investigated for its chemical, physical and tribological properties relative to soybean oil (SO) and also as a potential multi-functional lubricant additive in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSuO). Analytical investigations showed that PMSO is obtained by convers...

  1. Assessing the genetic diversity of cultivars and wild soybeans using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we demonstrated the differences of genetic diversity level among 40 soybean accessions of cultivars, landraces and wild soybeans collected in the Shanxi Agricultural University using 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. The structure based on model result showed that the cultivars, landraces and ...

  2. Isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Šertović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The isoflavone content and antioxidant properties of five Croatian soybean seed cultivars from two locations were analysed. The content of total and individual isofavones was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. For determination of antioxidant properties scavenging capacity on DPPHֹ radicals has been applied. The total phenolic content, oil and protein content in soybean cultivars were also determined. Significant differences in the content of individual isoflavones were observed within the soybean cultivars. The total phenol content in soybean cultivars ranged from 87.2 to 216.3 mg GAE/100g of soybean. The total isoflavone content in soybean seeds ranged from 80.7 to 213.6 mg/100g of soybean. The most abundant isoflavone in soybean seeds was genistein. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 among two locations in total and individual isoflavone contents. The highest contents of total isoflavones were found in cultivar “os55-95”. Conversely, cultivars poor in isoflavones also showed low levels of DPPH-radical scavenging activity.

  3. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nodule-Enriched GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 Enzymes Have Distinct Substrate Specificities and Are Important for Proper Soybean Nodule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Damodaran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Legume root nodules develop as a result of a symbiotic relationship between the plant and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria in soil. Auxin activity is detected in different cell types at different stages of nodule development; as well as an enhanced sensitivity to auxin inhibits, which could affect nodule development. While some transport and signaling mechanisms that achieve precise spatiotemporal auxin output are known, the role of auxin metabolism during nodule development is unclear. Using a soybean root lateral organ transcriptome data set, we identified distinct nodule enrichment of three genes encoding auxin-deactivating GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA amido transferase enzymes: GmGH3-11/12, GmGH3-14 and GmGH3-15. In vitro enzymatic assays showed that each of these GH3 proteins preferred IAA and aspartate as acyl and amino acid substrates, respectively. GmGH3-15 showed a broad substrate preference, especially with different forms of auxin. Promoter:GUS expression analysis indicated that GmGH3-14 acts primarily in the root epidermis and the nodule primordium where as GmGH3-15 might act in the vasculature. Silencing the expression of these GH3 genes in soybean composite plants led to altered nodule numbers, maturity, and size. Our results indicate that these GH3s are needed for proper nodule maturation in soybean, but the precise mechanism by which they regulate nodule development remains to be explained.

  5. Iron Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Effects on Plant Performance and Root Associated Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Burke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effect of positively and negatively charged Fe3O4 and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs on the growth of soybean plants (Glycine max. and their root associated soil microbes. Soybean plants were grown in a greenhouse for six weeks after application of different amounts of NPs, and plant growth and nutrient content were examined. Roots were analyzed for colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi and nodule-forming nitrogen fixing bacteria using DNA-based techniques. We found that plant growth was significantly lower with the application of TiO2 as compared to Fe3O4 NPs. The leaf carbon was also marginally significant lower in plants treated with TiO2 NPs; however, leaf phosphorus was reduced in plants treated with Fe3O4. We found no effects of NP type, concentration, or charge on the community structure of either rhizobia or AM fungi colonizing plant roots. However, the charge of the Fe3O4 NPs affected both colonization of the root system by rhizobia as well as leaf phosphorus content. Our results indicate that the type of NP can affect plant growth and nutrient content in an agriculturally important crop species, and that the charge of these particles influences the colonization of the root system by nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

  6. Replacement of raw soybean with roasted soybean increased milk production in Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Sebastião Dias Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of total replacement of raw whole soybean (RAW for roastedwhole soybean (ROS on the production performance of Holstein cows. Two experiments were carried out usinga simple reversal design where RAW has been completely replaced by ROS. In experiment 1, 22 cows (175±60 days in milkwere used, and the dietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 3.7% of dry matter (DM. In experiment 2, 16 cows (130±50 days in milkwere used, and thedietary inclusion level of RAW or ROS was 11% of DM. In both experiments, ROS increased milk production by 1.1kgday-1 without changing fat and protein production. Dry matter intake or milk urea nitrogenwere not affected by dietary soy source. In experiment 2, plasma glucose concentration was decreased, and allantoin/creatinine ratio in urine tended to decreasein ROS. Experiment 2 also evaluated the nutrient digestibility and ruminal degradation kinetics of crude protein in two soybean sources. Roasting had no effect on the digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber. Roasted whole soybean hadgreater fraction B and lower protein degradation rate than did RAW; this showed that heat treatment was effective in increasing therumen undegradable amino acid flowto the animal, which suggesteda potential mechanism of action for improved performance observed in ROS.

  7. Zygomycota associated with traditional meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.B.; Kim, D.H.; Lee, M.; Baek, S.Y.; Kwon, S.; Houbraken, J.; Samson, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various zygomycota species were detected during a study of the mycobiota of meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans, used in Korean cuisine. Two hundred and sixty-eight strains were isolated from 98 finished meju products collected in various regions of Korea from 2009 to 2011, and 96 strains were

  8. Soybean Proteome Database 2012: Update on the comprehensive data repository for soybean proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eOhyanagi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soybean Proteome Database (SPD was created to provide a data repository for functional analyses of soybean responses to flooding stress, thought to be a major constraint for establishment and production of this plant. Since the last publication of the SPD, we thoroughly enhanced the contents of database, particularly protein samples and their annotations from several organelles. The current release contains 23 reference maps of soybean (Glycine max cv. Enrei proteins collected from several organs, tissues and organelles including the maps for plasma membrane, cell wall, chloroplast and mitochondrion, which were electrophoresed on two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Furthermore, the proteins analyzed with gel-free proteomics technique have been added and available online. In addition to protein fluctuations under flooding, those of salt and drought stress have been included in the current release. An omics table also has been provided to reveal relationships among mRNAs, proteins and metabolites with a unified temporal-profile tag in order to facilitate retrieval of the data based on the temporal profiles. An intuitive user interface based on dynamic HTML enables users to browse the network as well as the profiles of multiple omes in an integrated fashion. The SPD is available at: http://proteome.dc.affrc.go.jp/Soybean/.

  9. Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicylic acid plays a critical role in activating plant defence responses after pathogen attack. Salicylic acid methyltransferase (SAMT) modulates the level of salicylic acid by converting salicylic acid to methyl salicylate. Here, we report that a SAMT gene from soybean (GmSAMT1) plays a role in s...

  10. Control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (Helianthus annuus sown offseason, after soybean crop (Glycine max, is affected by the competition imposed by volunteer plants. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the control of volunteer soybean plants in sunflower crops. The sulfentrazone herbicide (75 g ha-1, 100 g ha-1 and 250 g ha-1 causes phytotoxicity to sunflower immediately after application, however, plants recover, with no yield losses. These doses do not cause the total death of volunteer soybean plants, but temporarily paralyzes their growth, avoiding the competition with the sunflower crop. The glufosinate ammonium and ametryn herbicides are effective in controlling volunteer soybean plants, however, symptoms of phytotoxicity in the sunflower crop are high, reflecting in losses of dry weight biomass and crop yield. The other treatments do not provide satisfactory control of volunteer soybean plants and even reduce the sunflower dry weight biomass and yield.

  11. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  12. Improving protein quality of soybean through induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Soybean is one of the most economical and nutritious food packed with basic nutrients that combat diseases stemming from mal- and under-nutrition. Despite its rich nutritional profile, use of soybean in food has been limited because soybean proteins are often associated with compounds, which could exert a negative impact on the nutritional quality of the protein. Trypsin inhibitor (TI) is one of the important anti-nutritional factors that exert negative effect by causing growth inhibition. Soybean cultivar VLS-2 was irradiated with 250 Gy gamma rays in a gamma cell (200) with 60 Co source installed at BARC to induce mutations for low trypsin inhibitor content. Three mutants with lower levels of TI content were identified and can be utilized for developing elite varieties of soybean. (author)

  13. Effect of space mutation on photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiaonan; Liu Qi

    2011-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soybean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 > SP 3 > SP 4 > CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  14. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.S.; Prabhakar; Tiwari, S.P.; Sandhu, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M 2 , a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M 2 and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T 2 14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  15. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P S; Prabhakar,; Tiwari, S P; Sandhu, J S [National Research Centre for Soybean, Indore (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M{sub 2}, a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M{sub 2} and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T{sub 2}14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  16. The effect of soybean meal replacement with raw full-fat soybean in diets for broiler chickens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rada, V.; Lichovníková, M.; Šafařík, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2016), s. 112-117 ISSN 0971-2119 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Raw full-fat soybean * soybean meal * broiler * growth * digestibility Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2016

  17. Production of top quality soybean oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa, Dr. Ahmad

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper comments the most adequate conditions required to produce to quality soybean oil. It is essential to avoid contaminations (water, metallic, oxidation products, overheating, undue exposition to air, as well as an appropriate control of the different steps of the refining process.

    El trabajo presenta las condiciones recomendadas para obtener aceite de soja de la mejor calidad. Es importante evitar las contaminaciones (agua, metales y compuestos oxidados, los sobrecalentamientos, la exposición al aire, así como el adecuado control de los diferentes pasos del proceso de refinación.

  18. Photosynthate partitioning and distribution in soybean plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latche, J.; Cavalie, G.

    1983-01-01

    Plants were grown in a controlled environment chamber and fed with a modified Hoagland solution containing nitrate as nitrogen source (N+ medium). Soybeans, 33 days old (flowering stage), 45 and 56 days old (pods formation and filling stages) were used for experimentation. In each experiment, the eight trifoliated leaf (F 8 ) was exposed to 14 CO 2 (10 μCi; 400 vpm), in the light (80 W x m -2 ) for 30 min. After a 6 h chase period (22 - 25 0 C; 80 W x m -2 ), the radiocarbon distribution among plant parts was determined and labelled compounds were identified. (orig.)

  19. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  20. Yield and Yield Attributes Responses of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill to Elevated CO2 and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation in the Humid Transitory Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen ADEYEMI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations in yield components and grain yield of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculated soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merrill grown in CO2 enriched environment in the humid rainforest were tested.  A screen house trial was established with soybean varieties (‘TGx 1448-2E’, ‘TGx 1440-1E’ and ‘TGx 1740-2F’, AMF inoculation (with and without and CO2 enrichment (350±50 ppm and 550±50 ppm in open top chamber, arranged in completely randomised design, replicated three times. A field trial was also conducted; the treatments were arranged in a split-split plot configuration fitted into randomised complete block design. In the main plot the variant was CO2 enrichment, the sub-plot consisted of AMF inoculation (with and without, while the sub-sub plot consisted of soybean varieties, replicated three times. Both trials had significantly higher grain yield at elevated CO2 than ambient. This could be attributed to improved yield attributes, more spore count and root colonisation. In both trials, inoculated soybean had significantly higher dry pod weight than un-inoculated, which could suggest the increased grain yield observed on the field. AMF inoculated soybean varieties outperformed un-inoculated in both CO2 enriched and ambient concentrations. AMF inoculated soybean variety ‘TGx 1740-2F’ is most preferable in CO2 enriched environment, while variety ‘TGx 1448-2E’ had the most stable grain yield in all growth environments.

  1. Development and phenotypic screening of an ethyl methane sulfonate mutant population in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean is an important oil-producing crop in the Fabaceae family and is utilized in various industries. With increasing demands for soybean oil and other soybean products, its production must be increased. Genetic improvement of the crop is important to meet the increasing demands for soybean. A ne...

  2. Structural and transcriptional characterization of a novel member of the soybean urease gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebke-Strohm, Beatriz; Ligabue-Braun, Rodrigo; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; De Oliveira-Busatto, Luisa Abruzzi; Carlini, Célia Regina; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria Helena

    2016-04-01

    In plants, ureases have been related to urea degradation, to defense against pathogenic fungi and phytophagous insects, and to the soybean-Bradyrhizobium japonicum symbiosis. Two urease isoforms have been described for soybean: the embryo-specific, encoded by Eu1 gene, and the ubiquitous urease, encoded by Eu4. A third urease-encoding locus exists in the completed soybean genome. The gene was designated Eu5 and the putative product of its ORF as SBU-III. Phylogenetic analysis shows that 41 plant, moss and algal ureases have diverged from a common ancestor protein, but ureases from monocots, eudicots and ancient species have evolved independently. Genomes of ancient organisms present a single urease-encoding gene and urease-encoding gene duplication has occurred independently along the evolution of some eudicot species. SBU-III has a shorter amino acid sequence, since many gaps are found when compared to other sequences. A mutation in a highly conserved amino acid residue suggests absence of ureolytic activity, but the overall protein architecture remains very similar to the other ureases. The expression profile of urease-encoding genes in different organs and developmental stages was determined by RT-qPCR. Eu5 transcripts were detected in seeds one day after dormancy break, roots of young plants and embryos of developing seeds. Eu1 and Eu4 transcripts were found in all analyzed organs, but Eu4 expression was more prominent in seeds one day after dormancy break whereas Eu1 predominated in developing seeds. The evidence suggests that SBU-III may not be involved in nitrogen availability to plants, but it could be involved in other biological role(s). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  5. Rooting an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    1. Overview The purpose of this document is to demonstrate how to gain administrative privileges on an Android device. The term “rooting” is...is applicable for the Samsung Galaxy S3 as well as many other Android devices, but there are several steps involved in rooting an Android device (as...root access has been granted. 4. Conclusion This document serves as a tutorial on how to grant user administrative privilege to an Android device by

  6. Distribution and utilization of 14C-labelled assimilate in debranched soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Makie; Asahi, Yukimitsu

    1985-01-01

    Effects of debranching of soybean plants on the distribution and utilization of 14 C assimilate were studied. Leaves at different positions in the canopy were allowed to assimilate 14 CO 2 either at early flowering, at early pod growth, or at early pod-filling stage. Radioactivity at 24 hours or 7 days after labelling was measured in the component parts. Debranching increased the dry weight of the main stem resulting from greater increase at the lower section of the stem. The debranched plants had the leaves of higher assimilatory efficiency and delayed senescence. The leaves at lower position of the debranched plants exported 14 C less at flowering but more at early pod growth than those of controls. When 14 C was incorporated from upper leaves, the difference in the distribution pattern between the debranched and control plants was little. A greater portion of 14 C assimilate fixed at the lower leaves of the debranched plants was present at pods and stem + petioles of the lower section, in contrast to those of controls which exported some of the assimilate to the branches. Lower leaves of the debranched plants remained active even during pod growth stage, and a part of the fixed 14 C was translocated slowly into the root. The pattern of distribution and utilization of assimilate in debranched soybeans may account for the adaptability of the main stem type to higher planting density. (author)

  7. Proposal for Reference Soil Concentrations of Radiocesium Applicable to Accidentally Contaminated Rice and Soybean Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Radionuclides in arable soil can be transferred to food plants via root uptake. If radionuclide concentrations in food plants to be grown in contaminated soil are estimated to be higher than the authorized food standards, their culture needs to be cancelled or ameliorating practices need to be taken. Therefore, it is necessary to establish soil concentration limits or reference soil concentrations of radiocesium standing with the food standards in preparation for potential severe NPP accidents in this and adjacent countries. In the present study, reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean, two of the most important food plants in Korea, were provisionally established using all relevant domestic data of soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). The reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean were calculated using available domestic TF data, and were proposed for provisional use at the time of a severe NPP accident. The present RSCs are based on limited numbers of {sup 137}Cs TF values. More amounts of relevant TF data should be produced to have more reliable RSCs. For other staple-food plants such as Chinese cabbage and radish, RSCs of radiocesium should also be established. However, only a couple of relevant domestic TF values are available for these vegetables.

  8. Inoculant of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus clarus increase yield of soybean and cotton under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Viviana Torres Cely

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient availability is an important factor in crop production, and regular addition of chemical fertilizers is the most common practice to improve yield in agrosystems for intensive crop production. The use of some groups of microorganisms that have specific activity providing nutrients to plants is a good alternative, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF enhance plant nutrition by providing especially phosphorus (P, improving plant growth and increasing crop production. Unfortunately, the use of AMF as an inoculant on a large scale is not yet widely used, because of several limitations in obtaining a large amount of inoculum due to several factors, such as low growth, the few species domesticated under in vitro conditions, and high competition with native AMF. The objective of this work was to test the infectivity of a Rhizophagus clarus inoculum and its effectiveness as an alternative for P supply in soybean (Glycine max L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.. The experiments were carried out in plots and the treatments were: Fertilizer; AMF, AMF + Fertilizer and AMF + ½ Fertilizer; non-inoculated and non-fertilized plants were considered the control. The parameters evaluated were AMF root colonization and effect of inoculation on plant growth and yield under a field conditions. The results showed that AMF inoculation increased the effect of fertilizer application in soybean, and that in cotton R. clarus was more effective than chemical fertilizer

  9. Phytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes in soybean as determined by interactions with micronutrients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytseva, Olga, E-mail: olga.zaytseva@uni-hohenheim.de [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Crop Science (340h), Faculty of Agriculture (Germany); Wang, Zhengrui [Academia Sinica, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center (China); Neumann, Günter [University of Hohenheim, Institute of Crop Science (340h), Faculty of Agriculture (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Carbon nanomaterials released into the environment exert extremely variable effects on living organisms. In this study, we used soybean (Glycine max) to investigate early responses to seed exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, outer diameter 20–70 nm, inner diameter 5–10 nm, length of >2 μm). Soybean seeds were imbibed with deionised water (control) or MWCNT suspension (1000 mg L{sup −1}) and were analysed for MWCNT contamination using light microscopy. The seedlings vitality status was evaluated by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and measurement of oxidative stress indicators in the root tissue. Micronutrient (Zn, Mn, Cu) availability in different seedling organs was assessed and the effects of antioxidants, and micronutrient supplementation was investigated. Oxidative stress induction by MWCNTs was detectable in radicle tips, coincided with MWCNTs accumulation and was reverted by external application of proline as antioxidant and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) as cofactors for various enzymes involved in oxidative stress defence. Accordingly, SOD activity increased after Zn supplementation. During germination, the MWCNT treatments reduced Zn translocation from the cotyledons to the seedling and MWCNTs exhibited adsorption potential for Zn and Cu, which may be involved in internal micronutrients immobilisation. This study demonstrates for the first time that MWCNT phytotoxicity is linked with oxidative stress-related disturbances of micronutrient homeostasis.

  10. Phytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes in soybean as determined by interactions with micronutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaytseva, Olga; Wang, Zhengrui; Neumann, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanomaterials released into the environment exert extremely variable effects on living organisms. In this study, we used soybean (Glycine max) to investigate early responses to seed exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, outer diameter 20–70 nm, inner diameter 5–10 nm, length of >2 μm). Soybean seeds were imbibed with deionised water (control) or MWCNT suspension (1000 mg L"−"1) and were analysed for MWCNT contamination using light microscopy. The seedlings vitality status was evaluated by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and measurement of oxidative stress indicators in the root tissue. Micronutrient (Zn, Mn, Cu) availability in different seedling organs was assessed and the effects of antioxidants, and micronutrient supplementation was investigated. Oxidative stress induction by MWCNTs was detectable in radicle tips, coincided with MWCNTs accumulation and was reverted by external application of proline as antioxidant and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) as cofactors for various enzymes involved in oxidative stress defence. Accordingly, SOD activity increased after Zn supplementation. During germination, the MWCNT treatments reduced Zn translocation from the cotyledons to the seedling and MWCNTs exhibited adsorption potential for Zn and Cu, which may be involved in internal micronutrients immobilisation. This study demonstrates for the first time that MWCNT phytotoxicity is linked with oxidative stress-related disturbances of micronutrient homeostasis.

  11. Proposal for Reference Soil Concentrations of Radiocesium Applicable to Accidentally Contaminated Rice and Soybean Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung-Ho; Keum, Dong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides in arable soil can be transferred to food plants via root uptake. If radionuclide concentrations in food plants to be grown in contaminated soil are estimated to be higher than the authorized food standards, their culture needs to be cancelled or ameliorating practices need to be taken. Therefore, it is necessary to establish soil concentration limits or reference soil concentrations of radiocesium standing with the food standards in preparation for potential severe NPP accidents in this and adjacent countries. In the present study, reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean, two of the most important food plants in Korea, were provisionally established using all relevant domestic data of soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). The reference soil concentrations of radiocesium for rice and soybean were calculated using available domestic TF data, and were proposed for provisional use at the time of a severe NPP accident. The present RSCs are based on limited numbers of 137 Cs TF values. More amounts of relevant TF data should be produced to have more reliable RSCs. For other staple-food plants such as Chinese cabbage and radish, RSCs of radiocesium should also be established. However, only a couple of relevant domestic TF values are available for these vegetables

  12. Physiological quality of soybean seeds under different yield environments and plant density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe A. Baron

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yield potential of agricultural fields associated with plant spatial arrangement could determine the physiological quality of soybean (Glycine max L. seeds. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of soybean seeds from different yield environments and plant densities. Experiments were carried out in Boa Vista das Missões-RS, Brazil, during the 2014/2015 growing season. Yield environments were delineated by overlapping yield maps from the 2008, 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in a 2 x 5 factorial arrangement with two yield environments (low and high and five plant densities, with four replicates. Two varieties were tested: Brasmax Ativa RR (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 plants m-1 and Nidera 5909 RR (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 plants m-1. After harvested, the seeds were analysed as following: first count index, germination, abnormal seedlings, dead seeds, electrical conductivity, accelerate aging test, root length, hypocotyl length and seedling length. The spatial variability of seed vigor in the production field could be reduced by adjusting plant density, but the adjustment should consider the variety. Harvest according to yield environment is a strategy to separate lots of seeds with higher vigor, originated from high-yield environments.

  13. PRODUCTION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF SOYBEAN SEEDS IN ORTHIC QUARTZARENIC NEOSOIL OF THE CERRADO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLINE ZARATIN ALVES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the sowing periods in production , productivity component and physiological quality of seeds of three soybean cultivars (TMG133RR, P98Y70RR and NS7670RR in Orthic Quartzarenic Neosoil in the cerrado region. The design used was a randomized block a factorial scheme design with four repetitions, and each plot with useful space consisted of three rows of four meters length, spaced at 0.45 meters. Field evaluations were the final stand, the height of the plants, height of the first pod insertion, the mass of 100 seeds and productivity. Already in the lab seeds were evaluated for germination and vigor (first germination count, emergency, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of the aerial part of the plant and roots, electrical conductivity, accelerated aging and tetrazolium test. It concludes that it is possible to use Orthic Quartzarenic Neosoils , located in the Cerrado region at altitudes higher than 600 m, in years and places with good water distribution in the spring - summer seasons, for grain and soybeans production, but as a first goal, the crop should be sown in the first 20 days of November otherwise it should take place in early December.

  14. Endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and corn (Zea mays L.) grown in an agricultural area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, María L; Pelizza, Sebastián A; Cabello, Marta N; Stenglein, Sebastián A; Vianna, María F; Scorsetti, Ana C

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. Little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. Plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos (Argentina) two areas were selected for sampling corn and four for soybean. Leaf, stem and root samples were surface-sterilized, cut into 1cm(2) pieces using a sterile scalpel and aseptically transferred to plates containing potato dextrose agar plus antibiotics. The species were identified using both morphological and molecular data. Fungal endophyte colonization in soybean plants was influenced by tissue type and varieties whereas in corn plants only by tissue type. A greater number of endophytes were isolated from stem tissues than from leaves and root tissues in both species of plants. The most frequently isolated species in all soybean cultivars was Fusarium graminearum and the least isolated one was Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Furthermore, the most frequently isolated species in corn plants was Aspergillus terreus whereas the least isolated one was Aspergillus flavus. These results could be relevant in the search for endophytic fungi isolates that could be of interest in the control of agricultural pests. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  16. Calibration of discrete element model parameters: soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodki, Bhupendra M.; Patel, Manish; Namdeo, Rohit; Carpenter, Gopal

    2018-05-01

    Discrete element method (DEM) simulations are broadly used to get an insight of flow characteristics of granular materials in complex particulate systems. DEM input parameters for a model are the critical prerequisite for an efficient simulation. Thus, the present investigation aims to determine DEM input parameters for Hertz-Mindlin model using soybeans as a granular material. To achieve this aim, widely acceptable calibration approach was used having standard box-type apparatus. Further, qualitative and quantitative findings such as particle profile, height of kernels retaining the acrylic wall, and angle of repose of experiments and numerical simulations were compared to get the parameters. The calibrated set of DEM input parameters includes the following (a) material properties: particle geometric mean diameter (6.24 mm); spherical shape; particle density (1220 kg m^{-3} ), and (b) interaction parameters such as particle-particle: coefficient of restitution (0.17); coefficient of static friction (0.26); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08), and particle-wall: coefficient of restitution (0.35); coefficient of static friction (0.30); coefficient of rolling friction (0.08). The results may adequately be used to simulate particle scale mechanics (grain commingling, flow/motion, forces, etc) of soybeans in post-harvest machinery and devices.

  17. Management of Anthracnose in Soybean using Fungicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on soybean (Glycine max L. Meril were carried out aiming to control anthracnose (pod blight caused by fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum with five treatments represented by different fungicidal sprays against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the higher Percent Disease Control (PDC and Percent Yield Increase (PYI were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% followed by Mancozeb fungicides. The mean Pod Infection (PI was low in plots treated with SAAF followed by Mancozeb. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2013. The lower Percent Disease Index (PDI was 46.25% and mean PI was 29.67% with higher yield value of 2431.25 kg/ha obtained from the plots sprayed with SAAF then by Mancozeb. The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides, SAAF followed by Mancozeb were effective to control anthracnose or pod blight disease of soybean to increase the yield.

  18. Induced mutations for soybean rust resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutkupt, S.; Wongpiyasatid, A.; Lamseejan, S.

    1983-01-01

    Soybean mutation experiments for inducing rust resistance in the cultivars G 8375, Wakashima mutant number 10, Taichung N, S.J.2, S.J.4, BM 50, BM 98, G 8377, G 8586 and G 8587 have been carried out since 1979. Six pods from each of 4438 control and 43,907 M 1 plants were randomly harvested. M 2 seeds of each cultivar of different doses were bulked (M 2 bulk). In addition, 270 good M 1 plants were selected and threshed singly (M 2 single). M 2 -bulk and M 2 -single seeds were advanced to M 3 . Both, M 3 -bulk and M 3 -single plants, together with the remaining M 2 -bulk seeds were screened for rust resistance in the rainy season of 1980 in Nong Hoi Valley (altitude about 1000 m above sea level) and at Mae Joe Station, both in Chiang Mai Province (latitude 18 deg. 31'-19 deg. N). Based on the IWGSR rating system, soybean plants with slow growth of rust were selected from both locations. The results were as follows: Six plants were selected from a total of 2802 control plants, and 115 from a total of 28,834 M 2 and M 3 plants. Further evaluation of these selections for rust resistance will be carried out in the rainy season of 1981 in Nong Hoi Valley, Chiang Mai. (author)

  19. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  20. Improving Breeding Selection of Seed Quality Traits for Food-Grade Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Escamilla Sanchez, Diana Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Natto and sprout soybeans are produced using small-seeded soybeans and their production is a high value alternative to grow grain soybeans for food in U.S. The development of soybean cultivars with improved natto and sprout quality is crucial for maintaining and increasing the soyfood market. However, there is insufficient information on sprout soybean characteristics. Therefore, the first objective of this study was to evaluate seed and sprout traits as potential selection criteria and study...

  1. Nodule activity and allocation of photosynthate of soybean during recovery from water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, R. J.; Patterson, R. P.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Harris, D.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Ransom) in a growth-chamber study were subjected to a leaf water potential (psi w) of -2.0 megapascal during vegetative growth. Changes in nonstructural carbohydrate contents of leaves, stems, roots, and nodules, allocation of dry matter among plant parts, in situ specific nodule activity, and in situ canopy apparent photosynthetic rate were measured in stressed and nonstressed plants during a 7-day period following rewatering. Leaf and nodule psi w also were determined. At the time of maximum stress, concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had declined in leaves of stressed, relative to nonstressed, plants, and the concentration of nonstructural carbohydrates had increased in stems, roots, and nodules. Sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants were 1.5 and 3 times greater, respectively, than those of nonstressed plants. Within 12 hours after rewatering, leaf and nodule psi w of stressed plants had returned to values of nonstressed plants. Canopy apparent photosynthesis and specific nodule activity of stressed plants recovered to levels for nonstressed plants within 2 days after rewatering. The elevated sucrose concentrations in roots and nodules of stressed plants also declined rapidly upon rehydration. The increase in sucrose concentration in nodules, as well as the increase of carbohydrates in roots and stems, during water stress and the rapid disappearance upon rewatering indicates that inhibition of carbohydrate utilization within the nodule may be associated with loss of nodule activity. Availability of carbohydrates within the nodules and from photosynthetic activity following rehydration of nodules may mediate the rate of recovery of N2-fixation activity.

  2. In situ stimulation vs. bioaugmentation: Can microbial inoculation of plant roots enhance biodegradation of organic compounds?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingsley, M.T.; Metting, F.B. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Seidler, R.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1993-06-01

    The use of plant roots and their associated rhizosphere bacteria for biocontainment and biorestoration offers several advantages for treating soil-dispersed contaminants and for application to large land areas. Plant roots function as effective delivery systems, since root growth transports bacteria vertically and laterally along the root in the soil column (see [ 1,2]). Movement of microbes along roots and downward in the soil column can be enhanced via irrigation [1-4]. For example, Ciafardini et al. [3] increased the nodulation and the final yield of soybeans during pod filling by including Bradyrhizobium japonicum in the irrigation water. Using rhizosphere microorganisms is advantageous for biodegradation of compounds that are degraded mainly by cometabolic processes, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). The energy source for bacterial growth and metabolism is supplied by the plant in the form of root exudates and other sloughed organic material. Plants are inexpensive, and by careful choice of species that possess either tap or fibrous root growth patterns, they can be used to influence mass transport of soil contaminants to the root surface via the transpiration stream [5]. Cropping of plants to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils has been proposed as a viable, low-cost, low-input treatment option [6]. The interest in use of plants as a remediation strategy has even reached the popular press [7], where the use of ragweed for the reclamation of sites contaminated with tetraethyl lead and other heavy metals was discussed.

  3. Factors Affecting Isoflavone Content in Soybean Seeds Grown in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanimit Teekachunhatean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are the most common source of isoflavones in human foods. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Thai soybean variety, planting date, physical seed quality, storage condition, planting location, and crop year on isoflavone content, as well as to analyze the relationship between seed viability and isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand. Isoflavone content in Thai soybeans varied considerably depending on such factors as variety, physical seed quality, crop year, planting date (even in the same crop year, and planting location. Most varieties (except for Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 had significantly higher isoflavone content when planted in early rather than in late dry season. Additionally, seed viability as well as long-term storage at 10∘C or at ambient condition seemed unlikely to affect isoflavone content in Thai soybean varieties. Isoflavone content in soybean seeds grown in Thailand depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Some varieties (Nakhon Sawan 1 and Sukhothai 1 exhibited moderately high isoflavone content regardless of sowing date. Soybeans with decreased seed viability still retained their isoflavone content.

  4. effects of different concentrations of auxins on rooting and root

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The effect of auxins and their different concentrations on rooting and root ... primary root length and the longest primary root was recorded with the ... ceuticals, lubricants, foods, electrical insulators, .... stem cuttings of jojoba treated with IBA and NAA, .... increasing cell division and enlargement at each.

  5. Transport and partitioning of CO2 fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to 14 CO 2 to investigate the contribution of nodule CO 2 fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO 2 fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO 2 fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO 2 fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  6. [The NIR spectra based variety discrimination for single soybean seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Guang-Hua; Hou, Rui-Feng; Wang, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    With the development of soybean producing and processing, the quality breeding becomes more and more important for soybean breeders. Traditional sampling detection methods for soybean quality need to destroy the seed, and does not satisfy the requirement of earlier generation materials sieving for breeding. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for soybean quality detection. However, all these applications were referred to mass samples, and they were not suitable for little or single seed detection in breeding procedure. In the present study, the acousto--optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectroscopy was used to measure the single soybean seed. Two varieties of soybean were measured, which contained 60 KENJIANDOU43 seeds and 60 ZHONGHUANG13 seeds. The results showed that NIR spectra combined with soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) could accurately discriminate the soybean varieties. The classification accuracy for KENJIANDOU43 seeds and ZHONGHUANG13 was 100%. The spectra of single soybean seed were measured at different positions, and it showed that the seed shape has significant influence on the measurement of spectra, therefore, the key point for single seed measurement was how to accurately acquire the spectra and keep their representativeness. The spectra for soybeans with glossy surface had high repeatability, while the spectra of seeds with external defects had significant difference for several measurements. For the fast sieving of earlier generation materials in breeding, one could firstly eliminate the seeds with external defects, then apply NIR spectra for internal quality detection, and in this way the influence of seed shape and external defects could be reduced.

  7. Measuring the BNF of Soybean Using 15N-Labelled Urea with Different Atom Excess (A.E. Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Citraresmini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soybean is a legume which has an ability to supply its major nitrogen need by the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF process. This process is made possible by nodules formed in their roots, colonized by Rhizobium sp.bacteria. An accurate estimation of N gained by BNF is necessary to predict the increase or decrease of chemical fertilizer-N requirements to increase soybean production. Among several methods, the 15N method was used to estimate the ability of legumes to perform BNF. The study involved soybean var. Willis (W and a completely non-BNF soybean var. CV, which is termed as a standard crop. The standard crop is non-nodulated soybean, but it has the same main physiological traits with var. Willis. The aim of this study was to determine whether15N-labelled fertilizer with different %a.e. given to nodulated and non-nodulated soybean would not be of significant consequences for the calculation of N-BNF of W. The treatments applied were different rates of urea (20 kg N/ha and 100 kg N/ha combined with different atom excess percentages (%a.e.15N (2% and 10%. Thus, the combination of treatments were as follows:(1 W-ll (20 kg N; 2% a.e; (2 CV-hl (100 kg N; 2% a.e; (3 W-lh (20 kg N; 10% a.e; (4 CV-hh (100 kg N; 10% a.e; (5 CV-ll (20 kg N; 2% a.e; (6 W-hl (100 kg N; 2% a.e; (7 CV-lh (20 kg N; 10% a.e; (8 W-hh (100 kg N; 10% a.e. The result of the experiment showed that a high %a.e. with a low rate of 15N and a low %a.e. with a high rate of N should be used to study the %N-BNF of nodulated plants.

  8. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat; Enkerlin, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  9. Diets based on soybean protein for Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobrinho, Raimundo Braga [Embrapa Agroindustria Tropical, Rua Dra. Sara Mesquita, 2270, CEP 60511-110 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)]. E-mail: braga@cnpat.embrapa.br; Caceres, Carlos; Islam, Amirul; Wornoayporn, Vivat [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)]. E-mail: C.Caceres@iaea.org; Enkerlin, Walter [Insect Pest Control Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: W.Enkerlin@iaea.org

    2006-04-15

    The objective of this work was to develop suitable and economic diets for mass rearing Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diets containing sugar beet bagasse, wheat bran, brewer yeast, and others with wheat bran and palletized soybean protein from Brazil were tested. Diets based on soybean protein have shown promising results regarding pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. Soybean bagasse in the form of pellets with 60% of protein can be a very important substitute for other expensive sources of protein. (author)

  10. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  11. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina: Myths and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, S; Jelsoee, E; Paul, H; Tomei, J; Joensen, L; Monti, M

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel alternatives. To ensure that the production of biofuels is 'sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. In this paper, we question the validity of these proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. We highlight the negative environmental and social impacts of intensive soybean production, and conclude that certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address the detrimental impacts of increased biofuel production and trade.

  12. Transcription of the soybean leghemoglobin genes during nodule development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcker, Anne; Ø Jensen, Erik; Marcker, Kjeld A

    1984-01-01

    During the early stages of soybean nodule development the leghemoglobin (Lb) genes are activated sequentially in the opposite order to which they are arranged in the soybean genome. At a specific stage after the initial activation of all the Lb genes, a large increment occurs in the transcription...... of the Lb(c1), Lb(c3) and Lb(a) genes while the transcription of the Lb(c2) gene is not amplified to a similar extent. All the Lb genes retain significant activity for a long period during the lifetime of a nodule. Consequently the soybean Lb genes are not regulated by a developmental gene switching...

  13. Leaf and Canopy Level Detection of Fusarium Virguliforme (Sudden Death Syndrome in Soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittai Herrmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-visual detection of crop disease is critical for food security. Field-based spectroscopic remote sensing offers a method to enable timely detection, but still requires appropriate instrumentation and testing. Soybean plants were spectrally measured throughout a growing season to assess the capacity of leaf and canopy level spectral measurements to detect non-visual foliage symptoms induced by Fusarium virguliforme (Fv, which causes sudden death syndrome. Canopy reflectance measurements were made using the Piccolo Doppio dual field-of-view, two-spectrometer (400 to 1630 nm system on a tractor. Leaf level measurements were obtained, in different plots, using a handheld spectrometer (400 to 2500 nm. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA was applied to the spectroscopic data to discriminate between Fv-inoculated and control plants. Canopy and leaf spectral data allowed identification of Fv infection, prior to visual symptoms, with classification accuracy of 88% and 91% for calibration, 79% and 87% for cross-validation, and 82% and 92% for validation, respectively. Differences in wavelengths important to prediction by canopy vs. leaf data confirm that there are different bases for accurate predictions among methods. Partial least square regression (PLSR was used on a late-stage canopy level data to predict soybean seed yield, with calibration, cross-validation and validation R2 values 0.71, 0.59 and 0.62 (p < 0.01, respectively, and validation root mean square error of 0.31 t·ha−1. Spectral data from the tractor mounted system are thus sensitive to the expression of Fv root infection at canopy scale prior to canopy symptoms, suggesting such systems may be effective for precision agricultural research and management.

  14. Comparison of soybean cultivars for enhancement of the polyamine contents in the fermented soybean natto using Bacillus subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Horii, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kubo, Yuji; Koguchi, Kumiko; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Soda, Kuniyasu

    2017-03-01

    Polyamines have beneficial properties to prevent aging-associated diseases. Raw soybean has relatively high polyamine contents; and the fermented soybean natto is a good source of polyamines. However, detailed information of diversity of polyamine content in raw soybean is lacking. The objectives of this study were to evaluate differences of polyamines among raw soybeans and select the high polyamine-containing cultivar for natto production. Polyamine contents were measured chromatographically in 16 samples of soybean, which showed high variation among soybeans as follows: 93-861 nmol/g putrescine, 1055-2306 nmol/g spermidine, and 177-578 nmol/g spermine. We then confirmed the high correlations of polyamine contents between raw soybean and natto (r = 0.96, 0.95, and 0.94 for putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, respectively). Furthermore, comparison of the polyamine contents among 9 Japanese cultivars showed that 'Nakasen-nari' has the highest polyamine contents, suggesting its suitability for enhancement of polyamine contents of natto.

  15. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  16. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6, Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1 and soybean (pb1, MISB1 for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P. Seed shape, seed coat texture and colour, seed size and 100 seed weight (g were observed morphological characteristics in present study. Most of the characteristics of mung bean and soybean were similar within their species whereas characteristics of cowpea varieties largely differed. Values of 100 seed weight among the varieties of mung bean, soybean and cowpea were ranged from 5.8 - 6.5 g, 13.5 - 14.1 g and 13.4 - 17.2 g, respectively. The moisture content of all legume seeds ranged from 6.81% to 11.99%. Results were shown that the protein content significantly higher in soybean (36.56 - 39.70% followed by mung bean (26.56 - 25.99% and cowpea (25.22 - 22.84% respectively. Range of total carbohydrate, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash contents of nine legume varieties varied from 15.29 - 62.97%, 1.25 - 22.02%, 3.04 - 7.93% and 3.43 - 6.35 respectively. potassium (K, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn ranged from 1000 - 1900, 360 - 669, 15.0 - 192.3, 2.26 - 11.6 and 1.67 - 4.26 mg.100g-1 respectively in all the species of studied legume varieties. The wide variation in the chemical and physical properties of observed nine legume varieties, suggesting possible applications for various end-use products. 

  17. Soybean Protein Fibres Part 1: Structure, Production and Environmental Effects of Soybean Protein Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Filiz YILDIRIM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean fiber (SPF is a protein based botanic fibre. These fibers exhibit very good physical properties such as brightness, softness and drape. Moreover, SPF has a variety of health functionalities and anti-bacterial properties. Fibers were first produced in the 20th mid-century. However due to the significant challenges encountered during the production of SPF, interest for these fibers was decreased. At the end of the 20 th century, SPF re-captured attention due to an increased awakening on ecological, renewable and sustainable fiber concept. Soybean is cheap and abundant. Tenacity of SPF was improved by including polyvinyl alcohol (PVA. Therefore, the production and the usage of SPF are increasing rapidly because of these key advantages. Soybean fibers usually is used in blends with other fibers. In Turkey, a variety of different products are produced from this special fiber. This review, about SPF, is divided into two sections. In the first part; structure and production stages of SPF and its enviromental effects have been described. In the second part of this review, properties and application areas of SPF have been described. The purpose of this review is to fill a gap in the Turkish literature about this bio-degradable, renewable and sustainable SPF. 

  18. Constitutive elevated accumulation of phenylpropanoids in soybean roots at low temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janas, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Palagiewicz, A.; Szafranska, K.; Posmyk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 163, - (2002), s. 369-373 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : 2 Aminoindan2phenylphoshonic acid * Chilling * Isoflavonoids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2002

  19. Microbial assisted phyto extraction of metals and growth of soybean (glycine max l. merrill) on industrial waste water contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Bano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pots experiments were made to investigate the role of effective microorganisms (EM) in improving phyto extraction of metals (Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/) and growth of soybean plant in industrial waste water polluted soil. Waste water applications to soil were made in four different dilutions (i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Effective microorganisms were added into waste water prior to application. Effect of treatments on growth parameters was studied. The Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/ concentrations in different parts of plant were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Plant height significantly increased at all treatments except at 25% waste water treatment. Plant dry biomass and oil contents in seed significantly increased with all treatments compared to control but were higher at low concentration of waste water. Waste water treatments significantly increased the Cd and Mn accumulation in plant while inoculation of EM further enhanced the metals accumulation. The maximum accumulation of Cd and Mn found in plant treated with 100% waste water in combination with effective microorganisms. At harvest, the Cd/sup +2/ concentration decreased in leaves but increased in roots followed by stem > seeds, while, Mn/sup +2/ accumulation increased in leaves followed by roots > stem > seeds. Conclusively, EM enhanced the phyto extraction of Cd and Mn and also increased the oil contents in soybean on polluted soil. These findings suggest further investigation to find out a suitable concentration of industrial waste water in combination with EM for better growth of soybean and improving phyto extraction of metals. (author)

  20. Effects of stress temperatures of germination on polyamine titers of soybean seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Mejia, Renan

    High and low stress temperatures during seed germination and seedling development limit total germination and the rate of germination and growth. Changes in polyamine (PA) concentrations in seeds of different species have been associated with germination, growth and environmental stresses such as temperature, drought, oxygen, chilling injury and osmotic conditions. Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stress temperatures during germination and seedling development on polyamine titers in soybean seeds. Three germination temperatures, 25, 30, and 36°C were used in the first study to evaluate their influence on changes in polyamine concentrations in soybean seeds germinated at 76 and 90 hours. The polyamines (PAs), cadaverine (Cad), putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), agmatine (Agm), and spermine (Spin) were quantified by HPLC using a cation exchange column and an electrochemical detector. Cad, Put, Agm, and Spd declined as the germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Conversely, Spin increased considerably with an increase in temperature. Total germination was reduced from 97.2 to 92.5% as germination temperatures increased from 25 to 36°C. Germination time did not affect Cad, Agm and Spm, and total germination, however, the interaction between temperature and germination time for Put and Spd concentrations was significant. In the second study, changes in PA concentrations, seedling growth, germination time (t50), fresh and dry weight, and moisture content were measured in the embryonic axis and cotyledons of soybean seeds germinated at 10 and 25°C through six stages of germination dry seed (DS), testa split (TS), radicle at 10 mm (Ra-10), root hairs visible (RHV), secondary root primordia (SRP), and complete seedling (CS). The concentrations of Cad and Put in the embryonic axis, were significantly higher in seeds germinated under low temperature than in seeds at 25°C (approximately 10 and 3 fold respectively). However, this

  1. Identification of reference genes for expression analysis by real-time quantitative PCR in drought-stressed soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stolf-Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to validate, by quantitative PCR in real time (RT-qPCR, genes to be used as reference in studies of gene expression in soybean in drought-stressed trials. Four genes commonly used in soybean were evaluated: Gmβ-actin, GmGAPDH, GmLectin and GmRNAr18S. Total RNA was extracted from six samples: three from roots in a hydroponic system with different drought intensities (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 minutes of water stress, and three from leaves of plants grown in sand with different soil moistures (15, 5 and 2.5% gravimetric humidity. The raw cycle threshold (Ct data were analyzed, and the efficiency of each primer was calculated for an overall analysis of the Ct range among the different samples. The GeNorm application was used to evaluate the best reference gene, according to its stability. The GmGAPDH was the least stable gene, with the highest mean values of expression stability (M, and the most stable genes, with the lowest M values, were the Gmβ-actin and GmRNAr18S, when both root and leaves samples were tested. These genes can be used in RT-qPCR as reference gene for expression analysis.

  2. In situ rumen degradability characteristics of rice straw, soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    김성진

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... Abbreviations: SCR, Soybean curd residue; HPLC, high- performance liquid ... amino acids, and tocopherol which have several active functions (Ryoo et al., 2004; Kim and ..... of grape seeds extracts.' MS thesis, Sungshin ...

  3. Effect of space mutation of photosynthetic characteristics of soybean varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinlei; Ma Yansong; Luan Xiaoyan; Man Weiqun; Xu Dechun; Meng Lifen; Fu Lixin; Zhao Xiao'nan; Liu Qi

    2012-01-01

    In order to elucidate the response of the photosynthetic traits of soybean to space mutation, three soybean varieties (lines) of Heinong 48, Heinong 44 and Ha 2291-Y were carried by artificial satellite in 2006 and the net photo synthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cond), intercellular CO 2 concentration (Ci) and stomatal resistance (Rs) from SP 1 to SP 4 generation were determined. The results showed that space mutation affected photosynthesis traits of soy bean. The photosynthetic rate of soybean varieties by space mutation occurred different levels of genetic variation and the positive mutation rate were higher. Coefficient of variation among generations were SP 2 >SP 3 >SP 4 >CK. Results suggest that space mutation can effectively create soybean materials with higher photosynthetic rate. (authors)

  4. Glyphosate tolerance of soybean mutant gained after boarding on satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lingxue; Ren Honglei; Zhang Hongyan; Liu Zhangxiong; Jin Longguo; Guo Yong; Qiu Lijuan; Tao Bo

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant germplasm and genetic variation characteristics of SP 2 and SP 3 soybean varieties boarded on Shijian No.8 satellite were analyzed after treated by herbicide glyphosate in the field. Abundant variations of traits were produced, and the resistance within and among cultivars were different in their offspring of space mutagenesis. Plant height and maturity were used as index to screen glyphosate tolerant materials. Space mutation increased of soybean 661 SP 3 of Zhongpin, and one glyphosate-resistance variant was screened from Zhongpin 661 SP 3 . It showed that glyphosate tolerance was different among offspring of different space mutagenesis soybean materials. It is feasible to systemically screen elite traits soybean by applying space mutation breeding. (authors)

  5. Mapping of the genomic regions controlling seed storability in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composite interval mapping identified a total of three. QTLs on linkage ..... Soybean seeds decline in quality faster than seeds of other crops (Fabrizius et al. 1999). ... harvest and postharvest management practices (Lewis et al. 1998). Cho and ...

  6. Evolution and expression analysis of the soybean glutamate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... a role in buffering mechanisms in C and N metabolism, cyto- solic pH ... been suggested that calcium-dependent GABA homeostasis regulates pollen ... has been analysed in soybean, suggesting that the salt-induced.

  7. Soybean breeding through cross breeding combined with irradiation mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiutian; Zheng Yanhai; Yang Xiufeng; Zhang Kunpu; Jia Aijun

    2005-01-01

    Using 'Heidou 2' which immune to the race 2 of Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) crossbreeded with 'Huangsha soybean' which has high yield characteristic. The authors obtained some better cultivars of soybean. Then, the authors used laser irradiation to these cultivars and selected a variety with high yield, good quality, resistance to the race 2 of SCN, called 'Dedou 99-16' which in black seed coat. In the year 2001 to 2003, the authors joined the variety comparison and regional test of Shandong province. Its yield hit 2739.0 kg/hm 2 , crude protein and crude oil content had reached the governmental standard of good quality soybean, and it had high resistance to the race 2 of SCN. It is suitable for planting in Huanghuaihai area. (authors)

  8. Genetic divergence of roundup ready (RR) soybean cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic diversity in 74 RR soybean cultivars from different Brazilian breeding programs. ... chosen SSR markers were effective in assessing the genetic diversity among genotypes, besides proving to be ...

  9. Limited hydrolysis of soybean protein concentrate and isolate with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... world, since its proteins have high biological value while its cost is ... literatures that limited proteolysis of soybean protein pro- ducts offered a ..... hydrolysis of soluble protein present in waste liquors from soy processing.

  10. Natural occurrence of heavy metal, fungi and mycotoxins in soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Heavy metals are a definite human health hazard be- cause of their .... The mean values of nutrient composition of the soybean meal samples ..... A food borne disease outbreak due to the consumption of moldy sorghum and.

  11. The chromosomal arrangement of six soybean leghemoglobin genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Kirsten; Abildsten, Dorte; Jensen, Erik Ø

    1983-01-01

    Clones containing six leghemoglobin (Lb) genes have been isolated from two genomic libraries of soybean. They encompass two independent DNA regions: a 40-kb region containing four genes in the order 5' Lba-Lbc(1)-[unk]Lb-Lbc(3) 3' with the same transcriptional polarity, and another 40-kb region...... containing two genes in the order 5' Lbc(4)-Lbc(2) 3' with the same polarity. The order in which the Lb genes are arranged in the soybean genome imply that they are activated in the opposite order to which they are arranged on the chromosome. There is a close similarity between corresponding DNA regions...... differs from that of the Lb genes. The existence of two very similar Lb gene clusters in soybean suggest that soybean may have evolved from an ancestral form by genome duplication. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  12. Soybean hulls as an iron source for bread enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.D.; Berry, M.F.; Weaver, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Soybean hulls, a concentrated source of iron, may have potential as a source of iron fortification in baked products. Retention of 59 Fe in rats from white bread containing intrinsically labeled soybean hulls did not differ significantly (p<0.05) from extrinsically labeled white bread fortified with bakery grade ferrous sulfate (70.4 and 63.1%, respectively). Physical and sensory evaluations of bread containing up to 5% soybean hulls did not differ from white bread in loaf volume, cross-sectional area, tenderness or overall acceptance. These results suggest that soybean hulls are a good source of available iron and may be added to bakery products without deleterious effects in baking performance and sensory acceptability

  13. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) plants mediated via whisker-supersonic (WSS) method. MM Khalafalla, HA El-Shemy, SM Rahman, M Teraishi, H Hasegawa, T Terakawa, M Ishimoto ...

  14. The cryoprotective effects of soybean lecithin on boar spermatozoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... Soybean lecithin has been attracted increasing attention and has been used to replace egg yolk in the .... with a selective staining of the whole acrosome; 2) negative sper- .... The causes of reduced fertility with cryopreserved.

  15. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SOYBEAN PROTEIN SOLUBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA CĂPRIŢĂ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of soybean products in animal feeds is limited due to the presence of antinutritional factors (ANF. Proper heat processing is required to destroy ANF naturally present in raw soybeans and to remove solvent remaining from the oil extraction process. Over and under toasting of soybean causes lower nutritional value. Excessive heat treatment causes Maillard reaction which affects the availability of lysine in particular and produces changes to the chemical structure of proteins resulting in a decrease of the nutritive value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating time on the protein solubility. The investigation of the heating time on protein solubility in soybean meal (SBM revealed a negative correlation (r = -0.9596. Since the urease index is suitable only for detecting under processed SBM, the protein solubility is an important index for monitoring SBM quality.

  16. Improvement of Soybean Products Through the Response Mechanism Analysis Using Proteomic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Komatsu, Setsuko

    Soybean is rich in protein/vegetable oil and contains several phytochemicals such as isoflavones and phenolic compounds. Because of the predominated nutritional values, soybean is considered as traditional health benefit food. Soybean is a widely cultivated crop; however, its growth and yield are markedly affected by adverse environmental conditions. Proteomic techniques make it feasible to map protein profiles both during soybean growth and under unfavorable conditions. The stress-responsive mechanisms during soybean growth have been uncovered with the help of proteomic studies. In this review, the history of soybean as food and the morphology/physiology of soybean are described. The utilization of proteomics during soybean germination and development is summarized. In addition, the stress-responsive mechanisms explored using proteomic techniques are reviewed in soybean. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G A; Fuertes, A B; Sevilla, M

    2015-11-16

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g(-1) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm(-3) in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g(-1) in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg(-1) at a high power density of ~2 kW kg(-1).

  18. From Soybean residue to advanced supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, G. A.; Fuertes, A. B.; Sevilla, M.

    2015-11-01

    Supercapacitor technology is an extremely timely area of research with fierce international competition to develop cost-effective, environmentally friendlier EC electrode materials that have real world application. Herein, nitrogen-doped carbons with large specific surface area, optimized micropore structure and surface chemistry have been prepared by means of an environmentally sound hydrothermal carbonization process using defatted soybean (i.e., Soybean meal), a widely available and cost-effective protein-rich biomass, as precursor followed by a chemical activation step. When tested as supercapacitor electrodes in aqueous electrolytes (i.e. H2SO4 and Li2SO4), they demonstrate excellent capacitive performance and robustness, with high values of specific capacitance in both gravimetric (250-260 and 176 F g-1 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) and volumetric (150-210 and 102 F cm-3 in H2SO4 and Li2SO4 respectively) units, and remarkable rate capability (>60% capacitance retention at 20 A g-1 in both media). Interestingly, when Li2SO4 is used, the voltage window is extended up to 1.7 V (in contrast to 1.1 V in H2SO4). Thus, the amount of energy stored is increased by 50% compared to H2SO4 electrolyte, enabling this environmentally sound Li2SO4-based supercapacitor to deliver ~12 Wh kg-1 at a high power density of ~2 kW kg-1.

  19. Profitability and Technical Efficiency of Soybean Production in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugbabe, OO.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and collaborating partners have been introducing and disseminating short season soybean varieties among farm households in the Sudan savannas of Northern Nigeria since 2008. Yet, there is no empirical information on the profitability and technical efficiency of soybean production. This study estimated the profitability and efficiency of production of the early maturing soybean. Nine hundred soybean farming households in thirty communities from three Local Government Areas (LGAs in Kano State were sampled for the study. Partial budget technique and stochastic frontier production function were used to analyze the data elicited from the sampled farm households. Results from the study established the profitability of soybean production in all the three LGAs of Kano State. The highest profit of N178,613/ha and returns per naira invested of 2.5 respectively was earned by the soybean producing households of Dawakin-Tofa LGA. Net profit was N157,261in Shanono with a returns of 1.75 per naira invested. In Bunkure, net benefit was N143,342 with returns of 1.66 per Naira invested. The mean technical efficiency was highest for the Dawakin-Tofa LGA soybean growing households (87%, followed by Bunkure LGA (68%, and Shanono LGA (59%. This result implies that given the current level of resources available to the soybean producing households, they can increase their soybean output in the short run by a margin 13%, 32% and 41% in Dawakin-Tofa, Bunkure and Shanono LGAs respectively through efficient utilization of their available resources. Farmer-specific efficiency factors, which comprise age, education, access to credit, extension contact and farming experience, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the farmers in the 3 LGAs. It was recommended that the soybean farmers through the assistance of extension agents should be encouraged to adhere

  20. Broadening soybean genetic basis in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangJinling

    1994-01-01

    The bottle neek of advancement of soybean breeding inthe Northeast of China is the lack of genetic diversity of the parents used in cross breeding.In order to overcome this constrained condition,under the sponsorship of China National Committe of Natural Science Fundation,a network project with the topic"Broadening and Improving of the Genetic Basis of the Northeast Soybeans" was established in 1990,and the Northeast agricultural University was apointed to take charge of the project.The project included the following four items:I.Breeding high yield and improved quality Northeast Soybeans,directed by Hcilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciencee .II.Development of new soybean gerplasms highly resistant to diseases epidemic in Northeast China directed by Northeast Agricultural University.Ⅲ.Exploitation of the potential of wild and semicultivated soybeans for broadening and improving the genetic basis of Northeast soybeans,directed by Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science.Ⅳ.Improving methods and technique for development of new soybean genetic resources.directed by Nanjing Agricultural University .Each item contained several research subjects conducted by research workers of different institutes of agricultural sicences.During the period 1991-1992.considerable promising new germplasms had been discovered or developed.The new germplasms not only possessed specific improved characters but also behaved with appropriate ecological types adapted to different conditions of Northeast.Among the numerous new germplasms developed.Gong Jio 8757-3 had a protein content of 49.41%,100 seed weight 16-17g,and acceptable agronomic characters,which was considered a very valuable new high protein content germplasm.Such developed new germplasma with enforced and imprved genetic basis will be used primarily as parents in soybean cross breeding.