WorldWideScience

Sample records for soviet union economic

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    balance. It is well known that V. I. Lenin considered inflation the worse type of taxation . If we talk about the possible methods of normalizing the...INDUSTRIYA in Russian 12 Aug 88 p 1 [Article by V. Shishkin, member, Soviet Association of Political Sciences and candidate of juridical sciences, under...achievements as the results of extravagant spending and double counting. The ruinous nature of the gross output criteria was exposed by using

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    that the person ordering music not only pays money, but also provides musicians with musical instruments. State orders are now backed by drums and...have become more frequent. Last year, the USSR Ministry of Light Industry organized the first Ail-Union Fashion Festival in Moscow, featuring a large...opportunities for tourism , including foreign tourism . And the influx of those who want to visit the republic is increasing sharply all the time. While foreign

  3. Teaching Economics in the Former Soviet Union: New Curriculum, Old Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that the reform of economic instruction in the Former Soviet Union should focus on both learning and action. The incorporation of mathematical methods into the new economic curriculum will occur based on close cooperation among mathematicians and economists. The new economic instruction will have an interdisciplinary…

  4. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    detente. Thus, they are led to argue the economic rationale of benefaction because it is the necessary implica- tion of a policy whose motivations are...administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  5. Symposium on Economic Transition in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Murrell

    1991-01-01

    This symposium examines the economic problems facing the reforming countries of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the interrelationships between these problems, and current knowledge on how to deal with them. The word "reform" is surely a misnomer for what is occurring; "revolution" is more fitting.

  6. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Robert

    2014-01-01

    I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU) and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the Ameri...

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    Partial Contents: Public Opinion, Brigade Contract, Cost Accounting, Industrial Trade, Agricultural Machine, Paperwork, Story Writer, Management Style, Monograph, Deficit Economics, Production, Theory, Turnover...

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 3, March 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-11

    CPSU Central Committee V.P. Nikonov received President J. Giffen of the American-Soviet Trade and Economic Council ( ASTEC ). 23—Deputies of the USSR...test against the campaign of slander and the instigation of anti-Soviet actions in the Estonian SSR. A.F. Dobrynin had a meeting with ASTEC

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 11, November 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-18

    ASTEC ), established a year later, began oper- ating successfully. The revival of Soviet-American economic contacts was short-lived, however, and...conducted. The 10th annual meeting of ASTEC and the 9th session of the joint Soviet-American Trade Commission in June 1986 demonstrated the growing...irrigation equipment, and the chemical industry. JPRS-USA-88-005 18 May 1988 11 The American officials attending the ASTEC meeting displayed

  10. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  11. The Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, A.

    1991-01-01

    William T. R. Fox's pre-nuclear age analysis provides an excellent starting point for the authors' discussion of the role of nuclear weapons in Soviet security policy. By pointing to some of the non-nuclear, more properly geopolitical sources of peace in East-West relations, Fox's forceful analysis serves as a reminder to approach the authors' study with caution. Too often, there has been a tendency to reduce the etiology of war and peace in East-West relations to its nuclear aspect without proper regard for other, primarily geopolitical, components which provide the all-important context in which nuclear weapons work their indisputable deterrent effect. Two geopolitical sources for the relative peace in post-war East-West relations have been the inability of either the Soviet Union or the United states to employ direct military force in politically significant terms against the vital interests of the other; and an abiding preference, on the part of both, for a divided Germany within a divided Europe. Any other plausible alternative, of course, would almost certainly have involved a united Germany and the related likelihood that it would either gravitate to one or the other alliance or, itself, would constitute the third leg of an intrinsically unstable tri-polar relationship. This paper reports that the prevailing inclination to analyze East-West security as a direct function of nuclear deterrence (witness the Western consternation about INF and denuclearization, and the proliferation of think-tank study groups on post-nuclear security) begs the probability that there are in fact a variety of deeply rooted structures of stability in East-West relations and so exaggerates the delicacy of the existing security order in Europe. to an extent, this follows form the general acceptance of deterrence theory in the West, especially in the United States, and the undoubtedly singular character and role of nuclear weapons in that order

  12. Soviet Union's Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union's nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry's strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources

  13. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    supremacy in the world. Like the foreign policies of the USSR and the USA , their military doctrines reveal the objectives they pursue: the Soviet... Gastronom or a Detskiy Mir. In- stallation of the equipment was delayed a long time as a result. The district finance service therefore did not consider

  14. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika; Prishchepov, Alexander; Lambin, Eric F; Radeloff, Volker C

    2011-01-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  15. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  16. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  17. Economic Equilibrium and Soviet Economic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert E. Scarf

    1991-01-01

    The paper, prepared for a Roundtable on Major Economic Problems in the U.S. and the U.S.S.R., discusses some aspects of price theory ñ in particular, the theory of general equilibrium -ñ which may offer some theoretical insights about the economic problems to be encountered during the transition from Socialism to private markets in the Soviet Union.

  18. Atlas of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Harry F.

    This atlas consists of 20 maps, tables, charts, and graphs with complementary text illustrating Soviet government machinery, trade and political relations, and military stance. Some topics depicted by charts and graphs include: (1) Soviet foreign affairs machinery; (2) Soviet intelligence and security services; (4) Soviet position in the United…

  19. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  20. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  1. Growing Up Gifted in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the educational program for gifted students in the Soviet Union discusses student responsibilities, program admission, and specialized schools featuring foreign languages, mathematics and physics, music, ballet and arts, sports, and "little academics" (advanced studies). (CB)

  2. Cogeneration in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The former Soviet Union made a major commitment to Cogeneration. The scale and nature of this commitment created a system conceptually different from Cogeneration in the west. The differences were both in scale, in political commitment, and in socio economic impact. This paper addresses some of the largest scale Cogeneration programs, the technology, and the residual impact of these programs. The integration of the Cogeneration and nuclear programs is a key focus of the paper. Soviet designed nuclear power plants were designed to produce both electricity and heat for residential and industrial uses. Energy systems used to implement this design approach are discussed. The significant dependence on these units for heat created an urgent need for continued operation during the winter. Electricity and heat are also produced in nuclear weapons production facilities, as well as power plants. The Soviets also had designed, and initiated construction of a number of nuclear power plants open-quotes ATETsclose quotes optimized for production of heat as well as electricity. These were canceled

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 9, September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-10

    of its implementation, was an important factor the elite had to take into account. In the 1970’s this alternative became only a theoretical concept... philanthropy in international economics, and although America’s monopolist rivals have always relied on the stimulating role of the "Amer- ican...34scandal" among the elite . The entry of politics by novices, insufficiently investigated and "illuminated" by the mass media or by contacts with long

  4. Scientific research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtingwa, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    I report on the scientific aspects of my US/USSR Interacademy Exchange Visit to the Soviet Union. My research was conducted at three different institutes: the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, the Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute in Gatchina, and the Yerevan Physics Institute in Soviet Armenia. I included relevant information about the Soviet educational system, salaries of Soviet physicists, work habits and research activities at the three institutes, and the relevance of that research to work going on in the United States. 18 refs

  5. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  6. Frank Lloyd Wright in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Spencer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1937 the First All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects was held in Moscow. The congress brought  architects from all areas of the  Soviet Union. Under the auspices of Vsesoiuvnoe Obshchestvo Kul'turnoi Sviazi s zagranitsei (VOKS it invited international architects from Europe and North and South America.  The Organizing Committee of the Union of Soviet Architects invited Frank Lloyd Wright from the United States. Frank Lloyd Wright presented his philosophy and exhibited his work, specifically his designs for the weekend home for E. J. Kaufmann "Fallingwater" and the drawings for the S.C. Johnson Administration. Frank Lloyd Wright's presentation did not focus heavily on the architecture but, rather the spirit of the Russian and Soviet vision.

  7. Socio-economic impact of Trans-Siberian railway after the collapse of Soviet Union by integrated spatial data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seina; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hatoyama, Kiichiro; Mazurov, Yuri

    2016-06-01

    How Russian cities have stood up again after the collapse of Soviet Union will be discussed in this paper. In order to know how the cities has managed the difficult period after the change of social system, transition of urban area, population, and nighttime light is searched. Although Far East will not stop as one of the most important area with abundant resources, overpopulation in towns and depopulation in countryside is going on. By searching the present situation, this research also aims to predict the future of Far East and Russia. First of all, Landsat data from 1987 to 2015 is collected over Moscow, Vladivostok, Novosibirsk, Tynda, and Blagoveshchensk and urban area is calculated by land cover classification. Secondly, population and retail turnover data are collected from year books in Russia. Thirdly, gross regional product (GRP) is estimated by nighttime light images from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS DNB dataset. In addition, these data are compared and difference of development stage after the collapse of Soviet Union between the unstable era (1990s-2000) and development era (2000-) will be discussed. It is expected that these analysis will give us useful information about Russian strategy for the future.

  8. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation

  9. Ex-Soviet Union: oil exporter or importer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Perestroika of the Soviet economy and the political disintegration of the USSR have raised questions about the international ramifications of the ongoing economic and political developments in the world's largest oil-producing country. First of all, it relates to their impact on the quantity and quality of oil exports from the former Soviet Union (FSU). On the other hand, the opening of the national oil industry to foreign investors focuses their ever growing attention on the complicated internal, inter-republic oil issues which emerged after the sudden fragmentation of the Soviet oil empire into a dozen of sovereign but still interdependent parts. 1 fig., 7 tabs

  10. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-22

    create the most favorable conditions for a new upsurge in Soviet cinema and theater. It is only the healthy, competitive and creative atmo- sphere, in...Communist Party), Vox (Colombian Communist Party), Unidad ( Peruvian Communist Party), Hora and Popular (Uruguayan Communist Party), and Pueblo (Ecuadorian

  12. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE's cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union

  13. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    peoples. Kkhir Dzhokhari states that the recent success- ful visit of Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad to the Soviet Union, which here...university. In his speeches during his stay in the USSR in July and August of this year, Prime Minister Mahathir bin Moha- mad, emphasizing the "coincidence

  14. The Soviet Union prepares to roll up its sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The first conference of the Soviet Nuclear Society (NESU-90) was held, from 26 to 29 June in Obninsk at the Moscow Region Scientific Centre, where the first nuclear power plant was commissioned. Around 600 specialists including several dozen distinguished foreigners were assembled there. The title of the conference - Nuclear energy in the USSR: problems and prospects (ecology, economics and law) - underlined its intention: to promote a dialogue with society on the broad question of satisfying the demand for energy. The 55 papers read and discussed at the conference, were largely concerned with the problems confronting nuclear power, and attention was directed to the surrounding social environment in the Soviet Union. (author)

  15. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  16. Synchrotron radiation sources in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitza, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is now recognized to be an important instrument for experimental work in many fields of science. Recently the application of SR in medicine and industry, especially as a light source for microelectronics production have been demonstrated. Thus the development of SR sources has now grown to become a significant and independent dimension for accelerator research and technology. This article describes SR work in the Soviet Union

  17. Differences over Economics in the Soviet Leadership, 1988-1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aslund, Anders

    1991-01-01

    .... It focuses on four central issues: the range of differences on agricultural policy, how to deal with the Soviet Union's financial crisis, what to do about pricing policy, and the overall goal of economic reform...

  18. Ethnicity and Power in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wierzbicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years have passed since the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Up until the point of dissolution, the Soviet authorities and intellectual elite had attempted to build a community in order to unite all Soviet citizens in the spirit of socialist modernisation. Although it is difficult to demonstrate that ‘a Soviet nation’ was successfully created [1], the attempt to build such a nation can serve as a case study through which to examine nation-building processes for constructivists as well as modernists . In addition to socialist modernisation, the Soviet nation aimed to be identified as a state, which would make it similar to the political nations dominant in western countries. Contrary to western tradition, however, it was not a nation state that provided full rights for all its citizens, but rather a socialist state that was ‘ruled by workers and peasantry’. Nevertheless, the authorities aimed to give the Soviet nation the characteristics of a specific nation state. “It was a nation that in historical terms strived, or more accurately part of which strived, to form or proclaim a particular state” [2]. While at the time of proclaiming the USSR there was no such thing as the Soviet nation, it can be assumed that it was intended to become a constructed titular nation. The majority of national communities, even created ones, have an ethnic core. However academics cannot agree on the kind of state the USSR was, to what extent it took into account the ethnicity of its multinational population, how much it reflected the values, culture, and interests of its largest population group (i.e., the Russians or even whether it was a Russian national state despite the strong influence of Russian ideology and politics. Some Russian academics, especially those in nationalistic circles (e.g., Valerij Solovej as well as western scholars such as Terry Martin and Geoffrey Hosking stressed that Russians dominated demographically and politically

  19. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  20. Radon therapy in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Andrejew, S.V.

    1991-08-01

    In the Soviet Union approximately one million courses of radon treatment each lasting three weeks are prescribed every year. The curative application of radon used for cardiovascular diseases, including aftercare in cases of cardiac infarction, disorders of the locomotor system and joints and muscles, the male and female sexual system, diseases of the nervous system, endocrinology and metabolic diseases. Contraindication practice is similar to that in Central Europe. Radon is given to skin stimulation by wet and above all dry baths. The radiation exposure of patients from these three-week radon treatments is relatively low. The radon effect is interpreted as 'radiation flash' stimulating the nervous system. The skin plays a particular role in this process, acting as the stimulus acceptor. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Soviet Union recognizes that the foundation of their system depends upon complete dedication of the people to the state through thorough psychological training as well as through military training, and through specialized education in the broad fields of engineering, natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and education. An outline of the U.S.S.R. educational system indicates the extent of academic training, coupled with on-the-job and military training, that can produce a highly skilled, dedicated, and matured person. Observations on the coupling of political, economic, and psychological training along with the technical training are made, along with some mention of positive and negative aspects of the training.

  2. Socialization of the Child in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanavicius, Mary

    1979-01-01

    The socialization process of the child in the Soviet Union is examined in terms of socialistic/communistic political philosophy and the general attitudes of the Soviets toward social sciences, child rearing, and educational practice. The family, school, and youth organizations are also discussed as socializing agents. (Author/KC)

  3. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, The Working Class & The Contemporary World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-15

    Beatles and Rolling Stones groups, the astronaut J. Glenn, Dzh. (sic) Eisenhower and J. Kennedy, M.L. King and the screen actor M. Brando. At the ...JPRS-UWC-87-002 15 October 1987 FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Soviet Union THE WORKING CLASS & THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD...MmmKmoN STATEMENT A 19980714 146 mcWAUTtmBPBVmi Soviet Union The Working Class & The Contemporary World No 3, May-June 1987 JPRS-UWC-87-002

  5. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-05

    in the realization of a 36,000-hectare irrigation project in the Managua— Granada —Masaya region and the construction of two large workshops for the...coordinating country for the aforementioned irrigation plan in the Managua— Masaya— Granada region. Multilateral collaboration, like bilateral...international economic security corresponding to the needs of the people of the whole world is... a natural continuation of the unions’ basic demands

  7. Nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; Krafsig, J.; Moon, F.C.; Shlesinger, M.F.

    1992-08-01

    This assessment of nonlinear dynamics research in the former Soviet Union was performed by seven US scientists and engineers active in the fields examined. The topics covered include: solid-state systems and circuits, information theory and signal analysis, chaos in mechanical systems, turbulence and vortex dynamics, ocean processes, image processing, and lasers and nonlinear optics. The field of nonlinear dynamics and chaos blossomed in academic settings in both the West and the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. The field went from mathematical abstraction to interesting engineering application areas. Several generalizations can be drawn from the review of Soviet work: Soviet work generally began earlier than Western work, and, in areas that do not require extensive computational resources, that work has kept up with, and often leads, the West. This is especially true in the mathematical analysis of nonlinear phenomena. Soviet researchers have shown an ability to combine numerical or analytic ideas with laboratory experimentation in a smoother, less erratic fashion than Western researchers. Furthermore, contrary to Western practice, the same researchers often do both theoretical and experimental work. In areas that require numerical verification of ideas in the field, the Western work is leading that of the former Soviet Union. This is especially true in the areas of signal processing, simulations of turbulence, and communications. No evidence was found of any significant penetration of ideas of nonlinear dynamics into technological applications of a military or commercial area in the former Soviet Union. Opportunities abound, but specific applications are not apparent

  8. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    Soviets? The absurdity of a classified dissertation in pedagogy is intensified by the additional fact that given the truly impoverished posi- tion in...Khakass. These are our Soviet kids , the graduates of our Soviet schools. Together, they listen to the same lectures as the people their own age who...4,267. They are in training at 12 VUZs, 8 technical schools, and one professional- technical college. Four boarding schools have admitted Afghan kids

  9. The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-25

    of diverse echnic the highest origin could rise to AleveLs of power in all branches of the state. Plainly that is not the case in today’s Soviet...and psychological reasons, the new primacy given to external aggrandizement intensifies ethnic tensions inside Soviet society. The failure to fulfill...or perhaps because our own means are simply too small, we come to terms psychologically with its increasing power by persuading ourselves that it

  10. Who's bound by the former Soviet Union's arms control treaties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinelander, J.B.; Bunn, G.

    1991-01-01

    A crucial issue raised by the disintegration of the Soviet central government is what happens to Soviet arms control obligations. As the Soviet government transforms or collapses in the wake of the failed August coup, which of the resulting entities will be bound by the treaties the Soviet Union entered into? Under international law, the obligations of a state are not affected by even such dramatic changes in government. No one yet knows, however, what the end result of the ongoing devolution of power in the erstwhile Soviet Union will be. As illustrations of what could happen to Soviet arms control obligations - not predictions of the future - the authors pose two alternative scenarios. In the first, they assume that most of the current 12 republics, including all of the big four where substantial nuclear forces and the largest conventional forces are located (Russia, Ukraine, Khazakhstan, and Belarus), ultimately form a loose confederation with sufficient central authority to be called a nation-state and to carry out the essence of Soviet obligations under major arms control treaties. In the second, they assume that the union disintegrates further, with these four key republics seceding entirely and recognizing one another as independent states - a step which is apparently one of the US criteria for granting its own recognition. In this scenario, the Russian republic maintains its basic territory and replaces the central government as the power center for military and foreign affairs. In each of these cases, they will describe the general issues affecting the Soviet Union's international obligations, and consider specifically the two most important arms control agreements now in force - the multilateral nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the bilateral Antiballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

  11. Primary care reforms in countries of the former soviet union: success and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühlbrandt, C.; Boerma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article examines primary care reforms in countries of the former Soviet Union. It places reforms in their wider political context and points to infrastructural, human and economic successes and challenges. There is great heterogeneity between countries regarding the effectiveness of

  12. On the safety of nuclear installations in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The cooperation agreements between authorities and industries of the Soviet Union and West Germany now are gaining shape in practice. In this context, the framework conditions are of great interest that govern the realisation of the extensive nuclear energy programme of the Soviet Union. The chairman of the State Commission established in 1984 for supervision of nuclear installations and guidance on safety-engineering enhancement of nuclear power plant in the USSR has been interviewed by atw on topics of organisations, measures and regulatory activities in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection. The interview is given in full. (orig.) [de

  13. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics.

  14. Soviet Union: Summer school goes international

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The traditional annual Soviet Summer School, held in June in Dubna on the banks of the Volga, this year had international participation for the first time. Initiated by Moscow's Physical Engineering Institute and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, the school has rotating themes, with the accent this year on developments in high energy physics

  15. The Labor Market and the Second Economy in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    thanks to Marjorie McElroy for encouraging my efforts to adapt the theory and techniques of Western labor economics to the case of the Soviet Union. All...34 Journal of Labor Economics 3:1, pt. 2 (January 1985): S328-S354. SCHULTZ, T. Paul. "Testing the Neoclassical Model of Family Labor Supply and...FemaJe Labor Force Participation and Wage Determination in a Developing Country." Paper presented at the Duke University Labor Economics Workshop

  16. Aging in the Soviet Union: A West Siberian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Shimkin

    1989-01-01

    Presents ethnographic observations on the aged and aging from six months' residence in Siberian industrial city. Describes interactions with medical personnel and reviews scanty literature in Soviet Union. Notes integration of aged in families and respect given to older persons. Discusses problems of elderly caused by hard living conditions,…

  17. Gas in the former Soviet Union. A special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This special report includes 13 papers on various aspects of the natural gas industry and its development in the republics of the former Soviet Union and a full listing of all the Russian oil and gas fields. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers. (UK)

  18. How to Arrange Student Tours to the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marshall

    The details of planning a student tour to the Soviet Union are described by an experienced tour organizer. Student tours of one to three weeks are presented as rewarding alternatives to lengthy overseas study. Recommendations are made regarding choice of tour type, length of tour, travel agencies, time of year to travel, advertising a tour,…

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 14, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-06

    archaeology , ethnography, and others. During his lifetime Vavilov collected with his expedi- tions a truly unique wealth: 160,000 live samples of... Maya 1987 Goda. Dokumenty i Materialy" [Visit to the Soviet Union by Vietnamese Communist Party 9. Vityuk, V.V and Efirov, S.A. "’Levyy’ Terrorizm na

  20. The Press of the Soviet Union: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergethon, Bruce; And Others

    Compiled in response to the need for more information on the differences between the press systems of the United States and the Soviet Union, this bibliography contains 240 entries. Consisting of newspaper articles, journal articles, books, and pamphlets, the bibliography provides an overview of the different journalistic philosophies of the two…

  1. Problem behaviors of children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Teena M; Pallansch, Leona

    2007-01-01

    Although current meta-analyses of problem behavior of internationally adopted children exist, few children adopted from the former Soviet Union have been included in these reports. A significant concern is that 13 children adopted from the former Soviet Union have died at the hands of their American adoptive parents since 1996. A cohort of 105 children adopted from the former Soviet Union has been assessed at two points in time by telephone and postal surveys to measure the impact of risk and protective factors on problem behavior. Pre-adoptive risk factors have declined in importance (except for birth weight) and protective factors (operationalized as aspects of family environment) have increased in influence over time. Problem behavior scores declined slightly at Time 2, despite the children having entered adolescence. Families play a significant role in the behavior of children adopted from the former Soviet Union. Nurses should counsel families to shape the child's environment during the transition from orphanage to homes in the United States, especially for children who are low birth weight.

  2. Gifted and Talented Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Focusing on the Young Pioneer Palace system in Moscow, this brief article reviews the Soviet Union's educational approach to gifted and talented children. Noted is the elaborate network of after-school programs with such activities at the Young Pioneer Palace as technical circles, naturalists' circles, song and dance ensembles, and a sports…

  3. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    gentsia, specialists, authoritative workers and kolkhoz farmers in on their deliberations. A soviet of primary party organization secretaries...are in favor of disassembling the authoritarian , bureaucratic system and for focusing on humane, democratic socialism, the forming of a state under...Iolota’nskiy Rayon in Turkmenistan a boarding home for mentally retarded children. Some end up here directly from maternity homes, others are brought by

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    socialist soci- ety. Perestroyka is not a deviation, but a new step forward in the development of socialism. This means that the whole policy is in the...anniversary of the Great October, that the restructuring is moving forward . The Soviet people is interested in this process and actively supports it...WASHINGTON POST, 3 March 1986. 4. EL FINANCIERO , Mexico, 28 May 1986. 5. THE FINANCIAL TIMES, London, 11 June 1986. 6. See VISION, Mexico, Vol 67, No 5

  5. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    the right of immunity and can be removed from his post only by the Azerbaijan SSR Supreme Soviet in case of a violation by him of the constitution...ities of judges and people’s assessors and their execution of justice is inadmissible and is punishable by law. The immunity of judges and people’s...ecologically clean water to be sold in bottles and cardboard containers- -like kefir . Understandably, this beverage will cost more than tap water, but is

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    Kherson ship builder, the conscientious and docile Poltava or Podillya grain and cattle farmer, the dweller of the coastline of the dying Black Sea...even for free. The best crops of fields, gardens and orchards, the largest herds of cattle not only fail to improve, but consistently worsen the...the Soviet people"—in fact, the spiritual castration of non- Russians. We do not consider that a Ukrainian who speaks Russian automatically loses

  7. How successful was Joseph Stalin in establishing Soviet Union as a superpower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Majkowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay will firstly address the extent of Stalin’s achievements in leading the course for domestic policy of the Soviet Union and its contribution towards maintaining the country’s supremacy in the world, for example the rapid post-war recovery of industry and agriculture, and secondly, the foreign policy including ambiguous relations with Communist governments of countries forming the Eastern Bloc, upkeeping frail alliances and growing antagonism towards western powers, especially the United States of America. The actions and influence of Stalin’s closest associates in the Communist Party and the effect of Soviet propaganda on the society are also reviewed. This investigation will cover the period from 1945 to 1953. Additionally, other factors such as the impact of post-war worldwide economic situation and attitude of the society of Soviet Union will be discussed.

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    jour- nals almost at the same time as A. Rybakov’s "Children of the Arbat," V. Dudintsev’s "White Clothes," D. Granin’s "Diehard," and the essays ... lyrical poet," Akh- matova is able to make "concise, vivid, and resounding statements regarding the salient or distinctive features of the spiritual...known poet M. Avi-Shaul; a photo essay on Soviet artists and cultural figures, who had visited Israel in recent years; on the Romen Theater, headed by

  9. Evolution of environmental protection strategies in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesperance, A.M.

    1992-05-01

    In performing this work, interviews were conducted with members of the Supreme Soviet Committee for Rational Use of Natural Resources, Moscow, City Council, and St. Petersburg City Council. These officials provided their views on the current status of environmental protection in the former Soviet Union. Literature published in English, although limited, supplemented these discussions. In addition, a literature search was conducted of recent articles about this topic. Although the research for this paper was conducted before and during the August 1991 coup attempt in the Soviet Union, and after the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), many of the observations expressed in this report may be relevant to the new states. This report provides to historical perspective on the barriers encountered while attempting to develop environmental policy in the former Soviet Union and establishes a context for problems facing the new states in developing their environmental policies. Organization changes that have occurred in environmental protection since the August coup are included to the extent they are known

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-07

    in charge of policy on nationality, on the creation of a special department of the CPSU Central Committee, staffed by representatives of union...the situation on the level of the political behavior and attitudes of conflicting groups and, second, the academics’ own ethnocentric attitudes

  11. Tokamak research in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Important milestones on the way to the tokamak fusion reactor are recapitulated. Soviet tokamak research concentrated at the I.V. Kurchatov Institute in Moscow, the A.F. Ioffe Institute in Leningrad and the Physical-Technical Institute in Sukhumi successfully provides necessary scientific and technological data for reactor design. Achievments include, the successful operation of the first tokamak with superconducting windings (T-7) and the gyrotron set for microwave plasma heating in the T-10 tokamak. The following problems have intensively been studied: Various methods of additional plasma heating, heat and particle transport, and impurity control. The efficiency of electron-cyclotron resonance heating was demonstrated. In the Joule heating regime, both the heat conduction and diffusion rates are anomalously high, but the electron heat conduction rate decreases with increasing plasma density. Progress in impurity control makes it possible to obtain a plasma with effective charge approaching unity. (J.U.)

  12. Culture and the environment in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1985-03-01

    The Soviet Union is one of the most physically and culturally diverse nations on earth. Its natural environment embraces a rich variety of resources and ecosystems, many of which, such as Lake Baikal, are of world significance. Culturally, it is comprised of over a hundred ethnic groups, belonging to eight major language groups and six major religions. However, two cultures are dominant: the Slavic group (which takes in 75% of the USSR population and 80% of its land area) and the Turkic-Islamic peoples who account for the large majority of the remainder. Owing to the highly centralized nature of the country's political-administrative system, however, the effect of culture or ethnic traditions in the resolution of national environmental issues is quite small. Major decisions regarding either specific conservation issues or basic environmental policies are made at the centralized level by ministerial, planning, and Communist Party officials, and are based on pragmatically refined ideological considerations, rather than on regional cultural attitudes. This pragmatic refining of ideological considerations will involve the weighing of specific economic and environmental imperatives, and deciding on appropriate trade-offs. To find cultural expression in environmental management, one would need to look closely at local projects and approaches in the various ethnic regions, particularly the non-Slavic ones.

  13. Energy supply problems seen persisting in former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the former Soviet Union's energy crisis likely will persist through the end of the 1990s. However, rising natural gas and coal production may marginally ease the nation's fuel shortage at least by 1994. Especially important in easing energy problems in the new Commonwealth of Independent States will be conservation in industrial and domestic sectors, says a study published by the Moscow weekly Ekonomika i Zhizn (Economics and Life). C.I.S. oil flow is expected to fall again this year. But the study shows higher capital investment including foreign funds, improved technology, replacement of worn out equipment, better management, and market oriented prices could enable crude and condensate production to hold virtually steady at about 10 million b/d during 1995-2000. Without required changes, C.I.S. oil production could fall to about 9.2 million b/d by 1995 before recovering slightly to about 9.5 million b/d in 2000, the study shows

  14. Soviet Union in the context of the Nobel prize

    CERN Document Server

    Blokh, Abram M

    2018-01-01

    The result of meticulous research by Professor Abram Blokh, this book presents facts, documents, thoughts and comments on the system of the Nobel Prize awards to Russian and Soviet scientists. It provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between the ideas expressed by the Nobel Foundation and those expressed by the autocratic and totalitarian regimes in Russia and the ex-Soviet Union during the 20th century who had the same attitude of revulsion toward the intellectual and humanistic values represented by the Nobel Prizes. To do his research, the author had access to the declassified documents in the archives of the Nobel Foundation for many years. Also included in the book are new materials obtained and developed by the author after the publication of the first two editions (in Russian). This additional information is from the archives of the Soviet Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Soviet Writers' Union et al. in Moscow and St Petersburg. These documents shed new...

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 8, May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    in which ethnographic ties were combined with moral ties, an awareness of spiritual unity, and a community of historical destinies and interests...historical destinies ," noted by Klyuchevskiy. This text does not seem to include the word "nation." But what is a people which has "become a state...toward the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries. S. Karaganov pointed out the fact that the embryos of the new political thinking appeared

  16. Digitization of Nuclear Explosion Seismograms from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    seismograms recorded in the former Soviet Union was initiated in the 1990s under the International Science and Technology Centre ( ISTC ) project K-063...The Lamont-Doherty Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) helped to organize that work, writing the proposal to ISTC , which involved the U.S.A...were determined under the ISTC CASRI Project. For Kyrgyzstan temporary stations the coordinates were based on reports and information provided by

  17. Soviet Union: priority development of gas industry forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernomyrdyn, V.S.

    1991-01-01

    The development of gas production and utilization in the Soviet Union is outlined, and the substantial contribution of the gas industry in restraining negative processes in the economy during the transition to a market economy is highlighted. The state owned Gazprom concern which is responsible for gas supply, the large ringed Integrated Gas Supply Systems, exports, underground gas storage, potential reserves, and the growth in gas productions are discussed. (UK)

  18. Scientific and technical training in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features and observations on the Soviet educational system and areas of apparent effectiveness are presented, noting that the literacy rate is over 98 percent in 1982. Educational goals are reoriented every five years to match with other projections of five-year plans. The Soviet constitution established strong educational goals, including schools, correspondence courses, lectures in native tongues, free tuition, and vocational training. The educational pattern from pre-school through graduate school lasts over 28 yr and contains two 2-yr periods of work, confined to specialties after graduate school. Mathematics is emphasized, as are physics, Marxism, and a foreign language. Approximately 300,000 engineers were graduated in the Soviet Union in 1982, compared with the 20-yr U.S. average of 50,000/yr. About 2/3 of Soviet engineers participate in defense work, a number which is four times the total number of U.S. engineers. It is asserted that the continual indoctrination, organization, and practical work experience will guarantee that the Soviet state will remain a dominant force in the world as long as centralized state control can be carried out.

  19. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-19

    around in every possible dictionary and encyclopedia, one finds out that an economic blockade is the economic isolation of the country being...November 1988 issue of LITERATURA ARMENII). One must agree with Chudakova’s statement about the reasons of the conflict between monolingual Russian

  20. Carbon in the Former Soviet Union: The Current Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodwell, G. M.; Stone, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    This work has been carried out in a period of great changes in Russia that have brought extreme hardships to the scientific community. We have been fortunate in establishing excellent relationships with the Russian scientific community and believe we have helped to retain coherence in circumstances where the continuation of research was in doubt. We have learned much and have been effective in advancing, even establishing, scholars and programs in Russia that might not otherwise have survived the transition. The vigor of the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA) is one sign of the value and success of these activities. Largely due to the current political and economic transitions in the former Soviet Union, the forests of much of the FSU are under reduced logging pressure. In addition, there is a decline in air pollution as heavy industry has waned, at least for now. Russian forestry statistics and our personal experience indicate a decline, perhaps as high as 60%, in forest harvesting over the last few years. But, new international market pressures on the forests exist in European Russia and in the Far East. The central government, still the "owner" of Russian forests, is having difficulty maintaining control over forest use and management particularly in the Far East and among the southern territories that have large, nonRussian ethnic populations. Extraordinarily large areas of mixed forest and grasslands, sparse or open forests, and mixed forests and tundra must be considered when calculating forest area It is insufficient to think of Russia as simply forest and nonforest Forest productivity, measured as growth of timber, appears to be in decline in all areas of Russia except in European Russia. Most information and publications on the recent history of these forests is heavily dependent on statistical data from the Soviet era. The interpretation of these data is very much open to debate. Anatoly Shwidenko, a long term collaborator and former

  1. Book Analysis of Containing the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    technology embargoes. In effect acknowledging the limitations of economic containment, the Reagan administration called for a policy of " dualism ," removal of...103) When possible though, the U.S. should continue to foster good relations with states, regardless of their ideological leanings, that contribute to

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-29

    materials. In our area shortages are everywhere and everything has been funded or limits have been set. Couldn’t one cough up something for a noble cause...ardent support for the economic "experiments" that had been initiated. A church cooperative was created in Krasnoyarsk to keep bees and produce honey ...1,800 TB patients die each year. Through the efforts of phthisiol- ogists approximately 12,500 persons are annually cured successfully, although

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-10

    centers to help maintain sold equipment; organize joint-stock companies ; open technical-commercial buros, etc. We plan to reorganize our patent...systematically. The successes of the CEMA countries are especially tangible against the background of the economic situation which has taken shape in the...the Unilever Fleysgrup firm they showed us a kielbasa and sausage production line which uses the process of coextrusion. It can produce one and a

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-08

    Stroessner Dictatorship," LATINSKAYA AMER- IKA, No 10, 1986. 2. "Notas sobre la economia y el desarollo en America Latina" [Records on the Economy...AMERICA Contents of LATINSKAYA AMERIKA, No 9 [LATINSKAYA AMERIKA No 9, Sep 87] 15 Editorial Praises LA Economic Integration Projects [LATINSKAYA...Movie Screen" (Interview with °936 Manuel Herrera) 65 Victor Vidal (Chile), "Allende Portrayed in Bronze" . 69 j^j0™1 PndseS LA

  5. Gas in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An in-depth review of the current situation in the Russian gas industry is presented in this document, which is a collaborative publication from the editors of the British journals Petroleum Economist and Gas World International and the Russian gas magazine Gazovaya Promyshlennost. This fourth special annual supplement considers the current and potential impact of the Russian gas industry on European gas markets, and also highlights recent energy-related technology developments. Economic aspects of the Russian gas industry, such as investment and privatisation are addressed as well as technological advances in areas such as gas-powered vehicles and diagnostic systems. The particular role of gas production in the Asian republic is also discussed. (UK)

  6. Reducing the nuclear dangers from the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The disintegration of the former Soviet Union, a nation armed with over 27,000 nuclear weapons, poses a new form of nuclear danger. First, there is the risk that as political authority devolves to the former Soviet republics, the nuclear arsenal could similarly by parcelled out, in ways that will not be conducive to nuclear stability or to safe custody. Second, there is a danger of seizure, theft, sale, or use of nuclear weapons or components during the period of transition, particularly if the nuclear weapon operating and custodial system - apparently still intact at present - disintegrates. Third, there is a danger that any weakening of control over weapons, fissionable materials, sensitive components, or know-how could result in transfers outside the territory of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, fueling nuclear proliferation worldwide. To deal with these risks, there are a number of steps that should be taken now. These recommendations are primarily addressed to the US government, working in concert with the authorities in the Commonwealth states and the world commmunity. In order of urgency, they are: encouraging and assisting prompt securing, disabling, removing to Russia, and dismantlement of the weapons covered by the Bush-Gorbachev reciprocal proposals of last fall, and by other nuclear arms accords; extending the Bush-Gorbachev proposals to strategic nuclear weapons; assuring safety and security of Soviet nuclear weapons during a difficult transitional period; addressing proliferation outside the Commonwealth; exposing the new political structures of the Commonwealth to prevailing conceptions of international stability and security; and adjusting US nuclear relationships and military policy to the new nuclear realities in the former Soviet Union

  7. Nuclear energy in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (1917-1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    The study is divided into several main sections. A brief history of nuclear development in the USSR is described; in particular, the influence of military achievements on subsequent civilian applications is outlined. Economic factors affecting the utilisation of nuclear energy and the feasibility of nuclear fuel are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify organisational aspects of the industry. Past nuclear power plans are evaluated and compared with actual events, and the probable role of nuclear power beyond the 1980s is outlined. The depletion of conventional fuel resources in Eastern Europe has increased the viability of nuclear fuel. The political and economic consequences arising from the transfer of Soviet nuclear technology to the area are assessed. Finally, technological and economic aspects of power reactors in the Soviet Union are evaluated and, where possible, comparisons are made with Western achievements. (author)

  8. Mineral production statistics of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Four tables show, for each of the years 1980 to 1991 Soviet oil production, Soviet gas production, Soviet coal production and Soviet steel production. Total figures are given along with a regional breakdown. 4 refs

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-06

    percent (2). The socialist states (the PRC, DPRK, Mongolia, Viet - nam , Cambodia and Laos) are the Soviet Union’s prin- cipal foreign trade partners: our...right is no longer attempting to maintain that the Soviet leader- ship’s new course amounts to cosmetic or purely propa- ganda measures. Soviet

  10. Accumulating Transnational Social Capital among the Greeks from the former Soviet Union: Education, Ethnicity, Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SIDERI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fall of the Soviet Union and the political and economic problems that followed the emergence of the post-Soviet republics forced many women to migration in a period of feminisation of migration due to global economic and social shifts. Following the biography of two ethnic Greek women from Georgia and Russia, the paper traces the transformations of their social and cultural capital based on ethnicity, gender and education into transnational social capital. The paper uses the idea of transnational social capital in order to examine the ways past networks and memberships or skills were reassessed and transformed or even expanded as part of the post-socialist family planning.

  11. Problems of nuclear energetics safety in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevitsh, O.M.

    1991-01-01

    Authors describe present state of Soviet nuclear energy. They don't cover problems relative to its development and that reasons made so bleak picture of this economic branch. They pay particular attention to low level of nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. The improvement of this situation they see in enacting of atomic low, as quickly as possible, which will make a basis of safety development in nuclear industry

  12. Britain's exploitation of Occupied Germany for scientific and technical intelligence on the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Maddrell, John Paul

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the Cold War, the gathering of intelligence on the Soviet Union's current and future military capability seemed a near-impossibility. Soviet high-level communications were secure against decryption. Agent networks in the USSR were very difficult to establish and of uncertain reliability. Aerial reconnaissance of warrelated targets in the Soviet Union was risky and could only be occasional. But valuable intelligence was gathered in the years 1945-55 on the US...

  13. Theory and practice of population policies in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2017-01-01

    population policy, the formulation of goals, objectives, principles and approaches to assessment of the effectiveness of demographic policy.This study shows the difficulties facing the practical implementation of theoretical notions about population policy, the dependence of the population policies on specific historical and socio-economic conditions. The collapse of the Soviet Union has put the issue of developing conceptual frameworks and mechanisms for the implementation of demographic policies in the new economic and socio-political conditions. At the same time, theoretical and applied researches in the field of population policy during the USSR epoch largely retained their relevance, including the field of new support measures for families with children, the development of criteria and indexes for assessing the impact of demographic policies, improving the implementation methods of demographic programmes with regional peculiarities of the demographic situation.We still, as 50 years ago, are looking for the ways to increase fertility, to counter the threats of depopulation, and the ways to reduce the backlog in the life expectancy and optimize migration. Critical thinking on the theory and practice of population policies will help today in searching the opportunities to intensify the demographic policy and enhance its effectiveness, at both the federal and regional levels. 

  14. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs

  15. Former Soviet Union's refining sector faces big shakeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The crisis gripping the refining sector in the former Soviet Union (FSU) is deepening as that industry faces massive rationalization and restructuring. Refinery runs in FSU republics have been on the decline for a number of years. Peak throughput occurred in 1987 at 9.69 million b/d. In Russia, however, the peak came in 1980 at 6.5 million b/d. Given current operable refining capacity in the FSU, now down to about 9.27 million b/d distributed among 48 refineries, capacity utilization will average only about 65% this year. The paper discusses worsening conditions, a comparison of the FSU declines, the financial crisis, energy consumption, and the focus of FSU refineries on secondary capacity to upgrade the product mix

  16. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  17. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  18. A review of blasting activity in the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leith, W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Bruk, L. [BRUK Hydrogeologcal Consulting, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Monitoring a comprehensive nuclear test ban by seismic means will require identification of seismic sources at lower magnitudes, where industrial explosions (primarily mining blasts) may comprise a significant fraction of the total number of events recorded and may, for some countries, dominate the seismicity. The USGS has recently obtained preliminary data on blasting activities in the former Soviet Union (FSU), one of the few countries in which the use of explosives exceeded that of the United States. A review of the Soviet data suggests that there are both similarities and differences in blasting practices between the U.S. and the FSU. These data are important because they provide some insight into variations form U.S. practice and because they can be used directly to estimate the assets needed to effectively monitor that country. Key findings include: (1) in 1988, approximately 2.6 million metric tons of high explosives were detonated in the FSu; this compares with 2.1 million metric tons in the U.S. in the same year; (2) about 80% of the explosives were used in mining, 10% in construction and 10% for other uses; (3) 84% of the explosives were consumed by only six Ministries of the FSU, and 66% were consumed in the three main mining industries: MinCherMet, MinTsvetMet and MinUgleProm; (4) in 1988 alone, the FSU conducted over 100 explosions in excess of 1 kt total charge (compare with one blast over 1 kt in the U.S. in 1987), and none of these were in the coal mining industry; (5) most very large blasts occurred on the surface, and in only a small number of mines; most underground blasts were less than 100 tons.

  19. Soviet theories of economic demography: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, P

    1983-06-01

    At this time Soviet demographic scientists maintain the position that population problems may in fact exist temporarily under socialism but that the planning principle will allow society to resolve population problems, through the use of the administrative, moral, and economic levers (subsidies, government policies, propaganda, education) emphasized by Urlanis (1974) and others. For planners to deal effectively with population management, the determinants of fertility and labor force participation must be established. The foundations of Soviet theories of human capital and fertility were laid by several writers. For the sake of simplicity, these are referred to as the Urlanis-Strumilin model, named after 2 pioneer researchers in Soviet demography and manpower economics. The formulations are based upon the writings of Strumlin (1964) and Urlanis (1974), supplemented by writings of numerous other Soviet researchers. Although their models avoid neoclassical terms such as marginal utility and income and price elasticities, they clearly employ these concepts. The Urlanis-Strumilin model, reduced to its basic elements, is a direct household utility maximizing model. The husband and wife, the household decision makers, must select optimal levels of child "quantity," child "quality," leisure, their own human capital (further education and training), and other goods. The Soviet theory recognizes that an increase in household income will increase relatively the demands for income elastic goods. The model postulates that the demand for child quality is inversely related to the price of children. The price of children is the opportunity cost of children, the major element of which is the income foregone by the mother in the course of childbearing and childrearing. The child quantity demand schedule has elastic and inelastic portions. The marginal utility of the 1st child is great. The marginal utilities of higher order children decline substantially. Families with at least 1

  20. Eurasian Economic Union Foundation : Issues of Global Regionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Lagutina, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the theoretical conceptualization of political-economic processes within the Eurasian Economic Union. The author elaborates on this project within the framework of “global regionalization” and regards it as a fledging “global region.” In this paper, the European Union is analyzed as a model of the existing global region. The Eurasian region also has its own specific traits and experience of post-Soviet integration. The article argues that for successful Eurasian integ...

  1. Chernobyl as the beginning of the end of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lindbladh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The belief in technology was fundamental in Soviet culture. When the nuclear reactor exploded and harvested souls and spread illness throughout a vast area, over the course of many years, an image of the collapse of the Soviet Union was thereby created. Chernobyl became an image of the apocalypse of communism.

  2. Cooperative Threat Reduction: Status of Defense Conversion Efforts in the Former Soviet Union

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    DOD's program to convert former Soviet Union defense industries to commercial enterprises is part of the Cooperative Threat Reduction program, which DOD has supported since 1992 to reduce the weapons...

  3. The Multilateralization of Regional Security in Southeast and Northeast Asia: The Role of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    obligation of the Soviet Union of Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia , the Philippines, to provide it at the expense of its own development. Singapore, and Brunei to... Malaysia , which still applicable to the United States and Japan than to the officially insist on an end to permanent Soviet Union. Proposals cover the...can large South Korean companies, including Hyundai, commit the nation and keep its word. After almost Samsung , and Lucky Goldstar, are enlarging their

  4. Teaching - methodical and research center of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metals in the former Soviet Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evdokimov, A.A; Sigov, A.S; Shinkarenko, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Teaching - Methodical and Research Center (TMRC) 'Sokolinaja Gora' is founded in order to provide methodical-information and scientific support of institutes of higher education in the field of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metals in Russia and in the countries of the Former Soviet union. It is independent association of creative communities of scientist of higher educational specialists. The main directions of the Center activity are: 1. Teaching-methodological support and development of teaching in the field of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metals in Russia in the countries of the Former Soviet Union. Themes of teaching includes the basic of safe using of hydrogen technologies and devices, ecological, economic and law aspects of new hydrogen power engineering, transition to which in 21 century is one of the central problems of mankind survival; 2. Organizing of joint researches by independent creative communities of scientists in the field of hydrogen power engineering and platinum group metal; 3. Independent scientific examination, which is made by Advisory Committee of High Technologies consisting of representatives of the countries of Former Soviet Union, which are standing participants of an Annual International Symposia 'Hydrogen Power Engineering and Platinum Group Metals in the Former Soviet Union Countries'. Structure of the Center: 1. Center of strategic development in the field of high technologies; 2. Scientific Research Institute of Hydrogen Power Engineering and Platinum Group Metals; 3. Teaching-Methodical Association in specialization 'Hydrogen Power Engineering and economics' and hydrogen wide spread training; 4. Media Center 'Hydrogen Power Engineering and Platinum Group Metals', 5. Organizational Center; 6. Administrative Center. The Center will be established step-by-step in 2005-2010 on the basis of the following programs: Teaching-methodological program. On the basis of this program it is planned to

  5. JPRS Report Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-15

    interest, doubt and compassion. The prediction of the directors who were beaten down by the administrative system is more disquieting: having risked...then its proportion will begin to decrease. In Ener- gomash, according to a prediction of G. Velikanov, the order will hardly fall below 70-80...How- ever, the introduction of this development is going very slowly. And the output of plasticized cement with superplasti- cizer LSTM -2 is not

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-30

    for construction." "Give it to us—don’t get upset." I say to the machine operators: "Let’s build—don’t worry, kids ." The harvest comes, nothing is...tions and pedagogical skills. Section V—Financing and the Material-Technical Base of Vocational-Technical Schools 1. Vocational-technical schools...them to apply progressive forms and methods of work, and for the performance of pedagogical experiments; —organizes training-production activity of

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-28

    livestock has a serious impact on hindering the procurement of agricul- tural products, especially livestock products. Many of these types of...supplied to the construction industry in insufficient amounts. A real impact from the planned economy of construction materials is not evident, as...for weeks without success. But if one calls a televison repairman to an apartment—to bypass the official order, he will be right there. This

  8. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1970-01-01

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  9. Review of possible peaceful applications of nuclear explosions in the national economy of the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, Paul A [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The following review will give some of the current thinking of Soviet scientists and engineers on the possibilities of using nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes in the Soviet Union. This review is taken from a more detailed report that was presented under the same title by Soviet participants at an information-exchange meeting that was held in Vienna between the Soviet Union and the United States in April, 1969. Aside from a very brief review of one explosion in salt, the report does not give details on nuclear explosion effects (mechanical, seismic, radiation, or thermal). Rather, the report summarizes the results of design calculations and indicates the direction of Soviet planning for a variety of industrial applications. A complete translation of this report will be published by the Division of Technical Information and Education of AEC at Oakridge. (author)

  10. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  11. Swords into ploughshares; A glimpse of solar technologies in the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesch, L.

    1990-12-01

    SAWIE Editor Leslie Jesch was invited to address a Seminar on Renewable Energies held in the Crimea in October 1990. This gave him the opportunity of a fascinating glimpse of the Soviet Union (or disUnion, as he found it.) and the chance to see the status of work in solar energy. He reports below on some of his experiences. (author).

  12. Physical protection cooperation with Former Soviet Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of physical protection cooperation activities between Sandia (SNL) and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) regarding Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) responsibilities. Begun four years ago as part of the Safe, Secure Dismantlement Program, this project is intended to stem proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a goal shared by both Russia and the United States: to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This will be accomplished by strengthening the MPC ampersand A systems in both, countries. This new program (US Department of Energy Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC ampersand A program) is designed to complement Government-to-Government programs sponsored by US Senators Nunn and Lugar. US and Russian representatives exchange visits and discuss physical protection philosophies. Russian representatives have received formal training in the US process of system design and analysis to include the design of an effective physical protection system, determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, evaluation of the design, and often redesign or refinement of the existing system. Some Russian organizations have philosophies similar to those of the United States, but when they differ, the US and Russian representatives must negotiate. Other Russian organizations, because of heavy reliance on guard forces, have not developed a systematic design process. Cooperative work between US national laboratories and Russian counterparts has resulted in major physical protection enhancements at a Russian demonstration site and other advancements for Laboratory-to-Laboratory projects

  13. Le realizzazioni dell'economia sovietica. (Soviet economic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MADDISON

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While in the 1950s Soviet output grew faster than most other industrial countries, the early 1960s has seen a noticeable slowing down in growth. The present paper puts these economic developments into perspective to judge the efficacy of Soviet policy in its attempt to achieve maximum growth and transform an underdeveloped into a developed country. The author first assesses Soviet performance and policy at different stages of development, before assessing the level attained. The purposes for which output is used and the major factors responsible for Soviet performance are then analysed. Finally, likely future developments are considered.JEL: P27, O40

  14. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    34- ° .. 78 - capital or a few countertrade agreements, will solve their problems for them. This is markedly different from the overall Soviet pattern...currency countertrade practice, the considerations of this Note would permit further refinement of predictions of Soviet economic decisionmaking that

  15. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted

  16. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations, No. 5, May 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-22

    begins to reflect on the difficult paths of the century, which is drawing to a close, and the destiny of mankind, which is taking shape with...standpoints of man’s destiny . The formation of the Soviet people as a subject of history is the history of the Soviet Union, the history of socialism...again and again. Particularly in our day. For it is, if you will, the embryo of the new thinking. Reread it. It contains the following ideas: war

  17. Unions and the Economic Basis of Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Michael; Bryson, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Unions make differences to employee satisfaction that correspond to their effects on individual economic advantage. Panel data reveal how changes in economic circumstance and changes in job satisfaction are linked to changes in union coverage. When individuals move into a union covered job they receive a wage mark-up and express enhanced pay satisfaction. Conversely, those moving from a union covered job on average lose any mark-up and have significantly reduced satisfaction. Similar findings...

  18. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  19. Cross border environmental issues arising from the former Soviet Union nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, B.R.; Dooley, J.J.; Bradley, D.J.

    1998-02-01

    Radioactive contamination from sites in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) threaten bordering states via transport through marine environments. Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Germany, Sweden, Norway, and Finland share waterways or border common bodies of water with the FSU. Cross-border contamination resulting from past and in some cases current radioactive waste practices FSU nuclear wastes could under the right circumstances destabilize military, economic, or other relationships between the FSU and these border nations. The United States has an ongoing obligation to assist many of these border nations in times of need. This analysis was sponsored by the Office of Policy and International Affairs, Office of Materials-Asset Management and National Security Policy Analysis. The Center for Environmental Security was tasked to identify cross-border and other policy issues from an extensive body of technical materials dealing with nuclear materials management in the Former Soviet Union compiled over time by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The analysis focused on cross-border impacts but also provides insights into policy analysis based on this existing technical work. The efficiencies and results realized by this study indicate that this analytical methodology has merit for additional policy studies. There are three elements comprising the problem of understanding cross border transport. The amount of FSU nuclear waste that has been disposed of in ways that did not, or probably will not contain the waste is the first element. The past and probable future entry of these wastes into groundwater and surface waters, thence to seas is the second. Finally, adverse effects on human health and welfare from ingesting contaminated sea products, and from damaged fisheries and food production activities is the third

  20. Illusions of Friendship? The Soviet Union and Russia in the Finnish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Luostarinen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Soviet Union and Russia has changed dramatically in the press in Finland after the World War II. This article is based on a frequency analysis in which mentions of certain countries, groups of states and international organizations were coded (like the Soviet Union/Russia, United States, NATO, UN etc.. To make the analysis more revealing and interesting, a distinction was made whether the mention was made in the context of (1 alliance, friendship and cooperation, or in the context of (2 distance, restriction and enemy image, or (3 both in a positive and in a negative context. The time frame was from 1945 till the end of the century, and the newspapers chosen for the study represented the whole political spectrum of the Finnish media. The selection criteria of the material emphasized national celebration days. The study proves clearly what has been the main object of Finnish foreign policy after the WW II: in all coded press material, the Soviet Union/Russia was mentioned 222 times which makes 37.5% of all mentions. Other important states or groups have been the United States (5.3 %, EC/EU/WEU/West-Europe (12.6 %, United Nations (9.0 % and Nordic council/Nordic co-operation (11.2 %. With very few exceptions, all mentions concerning the UN and Nordic co-operation are positive. The Soviet Union has also been described rather positively (77.5 %. The share of negative mentions is 8.1% and mixture of negative and positive mentions 14.4%. Images of the United States and the European alliances are most contradictory. In the case of USA, 54.8 % of the mentions are positive and 45.2% negative. Concerning EC/EU etc. 54.1 % of mentions are positive, 28.4 % negative and 17.6 % mixtures of positive and negative references. Changes in attitudes towards the Soviet Union in different time spots are remarkable. The share of negative mentions of the Soviet Union was very low, except in 1995 (30 % when Finland already was a member of the EU

  1. International assistance to upgrade the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Selected activities in Eastern and Central Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.

    1993-12-01

    The overview is merely a snapshot of nuclear safety activities to assist the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union. While many other activities are planned or ongoing, this publication is meant to provide a general overview of the world community's commitment to improving the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors

  2. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  3. Trichoptera hydroptilidae (Insecta) from Soviet Union Far-Eastern territories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Levanidova, I.M.

    1988-01-01

    This is a contribution to the study of the scarcely known Trichoptera Hydroptilidae from Soviet Far-East (Primorye, Amur River basin, Kuril Islands, Kamtschatka, Chukotka). The discovery of a new species of Stactobia McL. on Kunashir Island, very far from the known distribution area of the genus,

  4. Lenin's Grandchildren: Preschool Education in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kitty D.

    The Soviets have long been devoting educational and institutional energies to the field of early childhood education. This book stresses what Russian preschool education does rather than what its theorists claim it does for children aged 2 months to 6 years who are in group care. Children, teachers and parents tell their own stories. Obviously…

  5. From Communist Control to "Glastnost" and Back?: Media Freedom and Control in the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Denise P.

    1998-01-01

    Frames the role of public relations in a self-governing society. Discusses three environmental factors that affect the practice of socially responsible public relations. Reviews the historical media philosophy of eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Examines media practice occurring during the region's transformation and implications for…

  6. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  7. When Things Fall Apart: Qualitative Studies of Poverty in the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudwick, Nora, Ed.; Gomart, Elizabeth, Ed.; Marc, Alexandre, Ed.; Kuehnast, Kathleen, Ed.

    Using qualitative methods, the studies in this volume highlight certain aspects of the dynamics of poverty in eight countries of the former Soviet Union and the interactions of poverty with gender, age, and ethnicity. They deepen understanding of how poor people in these countries experience and cope with the shock of sudden poverty, worsening…

  8. Determinants and consequences of child culture brokering in families from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Curtis J; Trickett, Edison J; Birman, Dina

    2012-09-01

    Child culture brokering occurs when immigrant children help their families navigate the new culture and language. The present study develops a model of the child culture broker role that situates it within the family and community economic and acculturative contexts of 328 families from the former Soviet Union. Path analysis was utilized to explore the relationships of community and family economic and cultural contexts with child culture brokering, child emotional distress, and family disagreements. All children reported some culture brokering for their parents. Less English proficient parents with lower status jobs, and living in areas with more Russian speaking families tended to utilize their children as brokers more often. Further, community economic conditions also predicted brokering indirectly, mediated by parent job social status. Brokering was related to child emotional distress and family disagreements. Further, culture brokering was a mediator of the impact of parent job social status on both child emotional distress and family disagreements. These results add to our understanding of the culture broker role and emphasize the utility of approaching research on it from an ecological perspective.

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    onions, dill). High- fiber foods and foods which promote gas ( peas , beans, radishes, kvas, melons) should not be consumed. Prevention of discomfort...Mas- ter of Sport USSR Lt Col L. Kovalev, and repeated world and USSR record holder Maj V. Perminov, inspected the jumpers. The calm tone of...conducted in two areas. One involved the growing of large homoge- neous protein crystals on the Aynur unit. Essentailly these were the first Soviet

  10. The United States, the Soviet Union/Russia and the strategic and military balance of power between 1989 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The international system has changed dramatically after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the USSR. These changes include economic, social and political aspects, as well as the strategic and military ones. This article discusses the changes in the world balance of power, regarding military and strategic aspects, in the period of almost thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The cases of the United States and the Soviet Union/Russian Federation will be specially addressed.

  11. Dissolution of the Soviet Union: ramifications for oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    The impact of future oil developments in the former Soviet Union are assessed in terms of four possible medium-term scenarios. The first, the pessimistic scenario, is considered as one of two virtually improbable limiting extremes. Under this 'business as usual scenario' the political and economic changes of 1990-1 are regarded as temporary deviations from past trends; it points to a continuing rapid decline in indigenous oil production, coupled with wasteful consumption leading to a drying up of oil exports by 1995. The second improbable scenario, the optimistic, assumes rapid decentralisation and demonopolisation of the market with widespread privatisation. In this case a fairly quick recovery in national crude and condensate production would result followed by slow growth and accompanied by a reduction in domestic consumption due to price increases. The need to curtail superfluous production would arise by 2000 as the level of exports reached its limit. The impact of the scenarios in the world oil market is shown to be comparable with the effect of differences in OECD economic growth rates. Gas developments are shown to be less sensitive to the pace of market transformation. (UK)

  12. Limited attacks on the United States and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, B.; Hippel, F. von.

    1987-01-01

    This report is focused on calculations carried out at Princeton University of the consequences of so-called ''limited'' nuclear attacks by the USA and the USSR on one another - primarily because such scenarios seem to be motivating the acquisition of new nuclear weapons. The conclusions were: The use of only a fraction of the destructive capacity in USA and Soviet nuclear arsenals could have catastrophic consequences to human kind. Although the primary justification of the tens of thousands of nuclear warheads in USA and Soviet arsenals is their potential use against military targets, the most commonly discussed potential large-scale military uses of these weapons - in attacks against the nuclear weapons of the other side - would result in tens of millions of civilian casualties. Certainly, if a first strike resulted in such a huge civilian toll, there could be little assurance of restraint in the response of the country that was attacked. The use of even 1% of the strategic arsenals of the USSR or the USA against the population, military industry or strategic-nuclear targets of the other nation could result in tens of millions of casualties. 17 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  13. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  14. Soviet Advisors Group in South China and Soviet Union Financing of Gomindan War Planes in 1924

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Геннадьевич Юркевич

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.

  15. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-01-01

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic

  16. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms "HIV", "AIDS", "human immunodeficiency virus", "acquired immune deficiency syndrome", "Central Asia", "Kazakhstan", "Kyrgyzstan", "Uzbekistan", "Tajikistan", "Turkmenistan", "Russia", "Ukraine", "Armenia", "Azerbaijan", and "Georgia". Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as "risk" and "barriers". Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users. Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential. Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations that span the existing studies. Small sample size, cross-sectional design, and non-probabilistic sampling methods were frequently

  17. Fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union: the role of individual- and community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    To explain patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in nine former Soviet Union countries by exploring the influence of a range of individual- and community-level determinants. Cross-sectional nationally representative surveys and area profiles were undertaken in 2010 in nine countries of the former Soviet Union as part of the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study. Individual- and area-level determinants were analysed, taking into account potential confounding at the individual and area level. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adult survey respondents (n 17 998) aged 18-95 years. Being male, increasing age, lack of education and lack of financial resources were associated with lower probability of consuming adequate amounts of fruit or vegetables. Daily fruit or vegetable consumption was positively correlated with the number of shops selling fruit and vegetables (for women) and with the number of convenience stores (for men). Billboard advertising of snacks and sweet drinks was negatively related to daily fruit or vegetable consumption, although the reverse was true for billboards advertising soft drinks. Men living near a fast-food outlet had a lower probability of fruit or vegetable consumption, while the opposite was true for the number of local food restaurants. Overall fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union is inadequate, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. Both individual- and community-level factors play a role in explaining inadequate nutrition and thus provide potential entry points for policy interventions, while the nuanced influence of community factors informs the agenda for future research.

  18. Food consumption and nutritional labeling among immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Endevelt, Ronit; Zemach, Mina; Tirosh-Kamienchick, Yaara

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional labeling helps consumers make healthier choices regarding food product purchases. In this study, we examined the difference between immigrants from the former Soviet Union who emigrated to Israel beginning in 1990 (IIFSU) and the general population of Israel regarding food consumption broadly and the use of nutritional labeling specifically. A representative sample of each population (n = 592) was composed and interviewed. According to the findings, compared to the general population, the IIFSU attribute less importance to health factors in purchasing food products and information about the ingredients contained in food products; they tend not to follow nutritional labels; and report less on the need for nutritional integrative labeling. Following from this, in the second part of the study, we investigated which of the socio-economic variables is most dominant in shaping attitudes towards food consumption and nutritional labeling. Only immigration and age were found in correlation with attitudes related to healthy food consumption. In contrast, gender, education and religious observance did not affect food selection. Immigration was recognized as the main factor with more clout than the other variables. In conclusion, it is crucial to clarify immigrants' perceptions of the concept of "health" and "proper nutrition" in formulating health promotion programs.

  19. Patterns of public support for price increases on alcohol in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  20. Managing military uranium and plutonium in the United States and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.; Holdren, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Effective approaches to the management of plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)--the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons--are fundamental to controlling nuclear proliferation and providing the basis for deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the ongoing dismantlement of tens of thousands of nuclear weapons are creating unprecedented stresses on the systems for managing these materials, as well as unprecedented opportunities for cooperation to improve these systems. In this article, the authors summarize the technical background to this situation, and the current and prospective security challenges posed by military stockpiles of these materials in the US and Russia. They then review the programs in place to address these challenges, the progress of these programs to date, and the work remaining to be done, in five areas: (a) preventing theft and smuggling of nuclear warheads and fissile materials; (b) building a regime of monitored reductions in nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles; (c) ending further production of excess fissile materials; (d) reducing stockpiles of excess fissile materials; and (e) avoiding economic collapse in the nuclear cities where substantial fractions of these materials and their guardians reside. 128 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Nonproliferation and Threat Reduction Assistance: U.S. Programs in the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    funds the International Science and Technology Center ( ISTC ) in Moscow and its companion Science and Technology Center (STCU) in Kiev, Ukraine. In...European Union, and Russia established the International Science and Technology Center ( ISTC ) in Moscow. Several other former Soviet states joined the...provided $9.5 million to support 34 projects. Between 1994 and 2009, the ISTC in Moscow had received more than $803 million in funding from its

  2. A Chip in the Curtain: Computer Technology in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    authority of the tsar. British historian Lionel Kochan recounted some of the rather complicated story of religion and the tsars: The Church, because of... pseudosciences " and their study was forbidden. Stalin’s policy delayed the development of a scientific and academic foundation for the study of the computer in...leaders, the doctrine of Marx and Lenin is a matter of faith comparable to a religion in Western terms. When the General Secretary of the Soviet Union

  3. 1 Driftsøkonomi med planlegging 2 Wild reindeer of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Ansgar J. Kosmo. 1986. "Driftsøkonomi med planlegging". Reindriftsadministrasjonen, Alta. 111s. (Foreligger i januaer 1986. Utgis i samarbeid med Samisk utdanningsråd.E.E. Syroechovskij (ed.. 1984. "Wild reindeer of the Soviet Union". English version by U.S. Department of Interior and National Science Foundation. Lectures presented at a research conference at Dudinka, Taimyr in 1975. 43 lectures , some also with direct importance for the reindeer husbandry.

  4. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2004-06-01

    To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over 2.7 billion US dollars in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50-100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition.

  5. Tobacco and transition: an overview of industry investments, impact and influence in the former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A; McKee, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the contribution the tobacco industry has made to foreign direct investment (FDI) in the former Soviet Union (FSU) as an indicator of its political and economic leverage; to explore the impact this has had on production capacity and tobacco control in the region. Design: Data on industry investment and its impact on cigarette production capacity were collated from industry journals, reports, and websites. Data on total FDI were obtained from the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development. Results: By the end of 2000, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) had invested over US$2.7 billion in 10 countries of the FSU. Tobacco money as a proportion of FDI varies from 1% to over 30% in Uzbekistan. Cigarette production capacity in the factories receiving investments tripled from 146 to 416 billion cigarettes per annum and the TTCs' market share has increased from nothing to between 50–100% in the markets in which they invested. Findings suggest that the effectiveness of national tobacco control measures corresponds broadly to the nature of the political and economic transition in each country and the size of industry investment, which is determined in part by the political context. Thus more effective measures tend to be seen in democratic states with smaller or no industry investments while the least effective measures are seen in highly centralised, one party states with high levels of industry investment or those with limited governmental capacity. Conclusions: The entry of the TTCs at a time of major political and economic change left the FSU particularly vulnerable to industry influence. This influence was enhanced by the industry's significant contribution to FDI, their ability to take over existing state monopolies in all but the largest countries, and the lack of democratic opposition. PMID:15175530

  6. Strategic Shock: The Collapse of the Soviet Union: 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    parce qu’elle illustre bien ce qu’est un « choc géopolitique ». Les auteurs de l’étude soutiennent que l’effondrement de l’Union soviétique a non...enfin les répercussions militaires, économiques et sociales du repli soviétique. Principaux résultats : Les auteurs de l’étude soutiennent que...Containing Fear: The Origin and Management of Ethnic Conflict.” in Michael E Brown, Owen R Cote, Sean M Lynn-Jones and Steven E Miller eds. Theories of

  7. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  8. Asian republics: the gas industry of the southern FSU [former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueg, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The central Asian and Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union differ widely in terms of natural gas production, reserves and future potential but have two features in common. Firstly, they have a form of ''common gas market'' with Turkmenistan largely supplying the gas demand of the whole region. Secondly, these states are land-locked and present gas transport routes all across Russian territory. Alternative routes to the western European market which by-pass Russia are being sought by Turkmenistan whose exports compete with those of the Russian Federation. Turkmenistan is the second largest producer of gas in the former Soviet Union after Russia. There is currently a crisis in the Turkmen gas industry, though, caused by technical problems and difficulties in attracting foreign investment for exploration. Of these southern states, Uzbekistan is the only one to have expanded production since the break-up of the Soviet Union by the timely replacement of depleting fields by new ones. Kazakhstan's production is falling rapidly and further development is dependent on Russian infrastructure and benevolence as 75% of known reserves are on the Russian border, Gas production in Azerbaijan, which is also declining, is largely associated gas from offshore fields. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan produce only small amounts of associated gas and prospects for expansion of output are slim. (2 tables) (UK)

  9. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Changzoo Song

    2016-01-01

    The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram) in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans w...

  10. The development of mobile melt-dilute technology for the treatment of former Soviet Union research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, D.A.; Howden, E.A.; Allen, K.J.; Marsden, K.; Westphal, B.R.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.; Fisher, D.L.; Adams, T.M.; Sindelar, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    United States Government funded national security nuclear non-proliferation projects have historically focused on power reactor spent fuel assemblies that contain weapons usable materials. More recently concern and emphasis have been focused on the spent fuel located at the many research reactor facilities spread throughout the Former Soviet Union. The need exists for a mobile system that can be deployed at these research reactors for the purpose of ensuring that the nuclear materials cannot be used for weapons development. On-site application of the Mobile Melt-Dilute (MMD) process offers an economical method for converting weapons usable Former Soviet Union high enriched uranium research reactor fuel to a safe and secure low enriched uranium ingot. The process will generate little waste and will be performed in a sealed canister that will contain all off-gas products generated during the melting process, eliminating the need for an off-gas treatment system. The process is modular, reusable, and readily portable to a desired reactor site or storage location. The storage canisters containing the melted ingot can be configured for compatibility with the fuel storage technologies currently available or returned to Russia for reprocessing under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program. The objective of the MMD Project is to develop the mobile melt and dilute technology in preparation for active deployment at Russian built and fueled research reactors. The project has just completed conceptual design and is beginning proof of principle experiments and integrated prototype design of the furnace and canister. (authors)

  11. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    was exhibited not only in crises situations, but became a regular mode of bureaucratic behavior in the Soviet Union darting from the late 1970s, eventually evolving into pathological behavior. Third, this pathological bureaucratic behavior and accompanying counterproductive performance caused extremely negative disturbances of the external environment and destabilized it, becoming a significant contributing factor to the collapse of the Soviet regime. The conclusion of this study is that the pathological behavior of bureaucrats who continue to inhabit governmental and private structures and who often act in conjunction with criminal elements have become a stumbling block to the successful economic, social, and political changes in the Russian Federation and in all Newly Independent States.

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 6, April 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-13

    Naisbitt. " Megatrends : Ten New directions Transforming Our Lives." New York, 1982, p 17). The study of Marx’s "Economic Manuscripts of 1857-1859" (see K...desertification and deforestation, changes in the climate, JPRS-UKO-89-012 13 JULY 1989 76 disappearance of valuable biological species, accumula- tion

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 10, July 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-17

    so that we can decisively correct the situation in a short time. The broad development of the cooperative movement , the introduction of cost...of the radical economic reform is the broad development of the cooperative movement . These issues were quite thoroughly discussed at the Congress... movement opens up broad opportunities for resolving many vitally important problems of society. We have ascribed to the development of the cooperative

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 5, March 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-05

    a number of preliminary conclusions. In the first stage of restructuring the science of econom- ics made a definite contribution lo the elaboration...the work pace was low; it was obvious that the rhythm was clearly not one of a sweatshop . That was all. Now as to the procurement shops.... But...number of very difficult problems await Reagan’s successors. They will have to make a definite choice in foreign policy, too. The supporters of a

  15. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasfilov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  16. Opportunities and challenges working in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueritte, C.

    1992-01-01

    The recent opening up of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) to foreign companies has provided oil and gas companies with the opportunity to enter into business relationships with CIS partners to develop that region's vast hydrocarbon resources. The CIS is experiencing a decline in production due to major declines in output from the giant oil fields, lack of equipment and technology, limited exploration investment, environmental problems, inadequate pricing structures, and social instability. Gas production, although rising up to the end of 1990, is threatened by emergence of technological problems in maintaining productivity of the main gas fields. The challenges for carrying out business in the CIS are outlined, including technical aspects, business mentality, economic approach, political organization, legal and fiscal stability, and financing. Experiences in operating in the CIS are illustrated from the viewpoint of the French company Total Exploration and Production, which is engaged in enhanced recovery operations and development of fields in joint ventures. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  18. The safety of nuclear power plants in eastern Europe and countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Luis

    1996-01-01

    A particular type of pressurized light water reactors, WWERs, (water cooled, water moderated energy reactors) is the only Soviet designed nuclear power reactor which have been built outside the former Soviet Union. There are 45 such units in operation and 14 under construction, including those outside Eastern Europe. There are 11 first generation 440 MW(e) WWER model 110 (WWER-440/230) plants in operation. One of the two units in Armenia shut down since 1989, following a devastating earthquake near the site was restarted in 1995. Four units in the eastern part of Germany were shut down permanently in 1990. Four of the operating units are in Bulgaria, two are in the Slovak Republic and four are in Russia. All of these units had been designed before formal nuclear safety standards were issued in the Soviet Union, and lack safety features basic to other pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Their shortcomings reported in the assessments made by the IAEA and others include reactor pressure vessel embrittlement problems, limited emergency core cooling capability, insufficient redundancy and separation of safety equipment, deficient instrumentation and control systems, insufficient internal and external hazards protection, the lack of a containment, and the absence of comprehensive accident analysis and safety analysis reports. Of the second generation, 440 MW(e) WWER model 213 (WWER 440/213), 16 units are in operation: four in the Czech Republic, four in Hungary, two in Russia, two in the Slovak Republic, two in Ukraine and two in Finland. The two reactors in Finland have undergone significant safety improvements, particularly in the fitting of non-Soviet instrumentation and of a containment structure

  19. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, James C; Pearson, Andrew D; Stenseth, Nils Chr; LeDuc, James W; Hirschberg, David L; Colwell, Rita R

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world, largely because of economic struggles, scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need to accomplish this goal and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to educate the next generations of young investigators in the region. These efforts need to be coupled with the understanding and resolve of local governments and international agencies to promote an aggressive science agenda. International collaborative scientific investigation of infectious diseases not only adds significantly to scientific knowledge, but it promotes health security, international trust, and long-term economic benefit to the region involved. This premise is based on the observation that the most powerful human inspiration is that which brings peoples together to work on and solve important global challenges. The republics of the former Soviet Union provide a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world's great epidemics began. The scientific infrastructure and disease surveillance capabilities of the region suffered significant decline after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) Program, a part of the U.S. Department of Defense, together with partner countries, have worked diligently to

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory scientific interactions with the Former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has a wide-ranging set of scientific interactions with technical institutes in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Many of these collaborations, especially those in pure science, began long before the end of the Cold War and the breakup of the Soviet Union. This overview will, however, focus for the most part on those activities that were initiated in the last few years. This review may also serve both to indicate the broad spectrum of US government interests that are served, at least in part, through these laboratory initiatives, and to suggest ways in which additional collaborations with the FSU may be developed to serve similar mutual interests of the countries involved. While most of the examples represent programs carried out by Los Alamos, they are also indicative of similar efforts by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. There are indeed other Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and many of them have active collaborative programs with FSU institutes. However, the laboratories specifically identified above are those with special nuclear weapons responsibilities, and thus have unique technical capabilities to address certain issues of some importance to the continuing interests of the United States and the states of the Former Soviet Union. Building on pre-collapse scientific collaborations and contacts, Los Alamos has used the shared language of science to build institutional and personal relationships and to pursue common interests. It is important to understand that Los Alamos, and the other DOE weapons laboratories are federal institutions, working with federal funds, and thus every undertaking has a definite relationship to some national objective. The fertile areas for collaboration are obviously those where US and Russian interests coincide

  1. Barriers to reducing carbon emissions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe accounted for 27% of global carbon emissions in 1986. Although the recent opening of the former planned economies offers numerous opportunities to improve energy use efficiency in these regions and reduce their energy-related carbon emissions, various barriers hinder changes in Eastern European energy use. These barriers include the following: lack of incentives; insufficient infrastructure; scarce human resources; and heavy reliance on low quality fuels. Energy intensity in these countries far surpasses the estimated energy intensity in the United States and Western Europe. However, substantial potential exists for improving the efficiency of energy use in these regions

  2. Social desintegration and violent deaths in countries of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Daniel Bonaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to show that deep social transformations that took place in the Soviet Union, between middle 80s and middle 90s during XXth. century, provoqued a significant increase in violent deaths rates (suicides, homicides and accidents. Our study follows a theoretical perspective based on Durkheim ideas , that try to explain variations in violent deaths rates analyzing changes in the intensity and nature of social relationships. The analysis of evolution of specific rates by region, sex and age allowed us to verify that groups more directly affected by social transformations were those that also presented the highest rates in the proportion of violent deaths. 

  3. Wholesomeness studies on irradiated foods. Past and future research within the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaytsev, A.N.; Shillinger, Yu.I.; Kamaldinova, Z.M.

    1975-11-01

    The concept of wholesomeness is based on the absence of induced radioactivity, conservation of the nutritive value of food, and absence of toxicological or mutagenic effects. The possible occurrence of Clostridium botulinum toxin in irradiated fish products is discussed. Evaluation of the nutritive value of irradiated food is discussed with regard to proteins and vitamins. Toxicity and mutagenicity studies are described. Feeding studies on the wholesomeness of irradiated food were conducted in the Soviet Union using potatoes, grain, dried fruits, meat, poultry, and fish. The need for further investigations on the biological value of irradiated foods is pointed out. (HLW)

  4. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  5. HIV Risks, Testing, and Treatment in the Former Soviet Union: Challenges and Future Directions in Research and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M. Saadat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The dissolution of the USSR resulted in independence for constituent republics but left them battling an unstable economic environment and healthcare. Increases in injection drug use, prostitution, and migration were all widespread responses to this transition and have contributed to the emergence of an HIV epidemic in the countries of former Soviet Union. Researchers have begun to identify the risks of HIV infection as well as the barriers to HIV testing and treatment in the former Soviet Union. Significant methodological challenges have arisen and need to be addressed. The objective of this review is to determine common threads in HIV research in the former Soviet Union and provide useful recommendations for future research studies.Methods. In this systematic review of the literature, Pubmed was searched for English-language studies using the key search terms “HIV”, “AIDS”, “human immunodeficiency virus”, “acquired immune deficiency syndrome”, “Central Asia”, “Kazakhstan”, “Kyrgyzstan”, “Uzbekistan”, “Tajikistan”, “Turkmenistan”, “Russia”, “Ukraine”, “Armenia”, “Azerbaijan”, and “Georgia”. Studies were evaluated against eligibility criteria for inclusion.Results. Thirty-nine studies were identified across the two main topic areas of HIV risk and barriers to testing and treatment, themes subsequently referred to as “risk” and “barriers”. Study design was predominantly cross-sectional. The most frequently used sampling methods were peer-to-peer and non-probabilistic sampling. The most frequently reported risks were condom misuse, risky intercourse, and unsafe practices among injection drug users.  Common barriers to testing included that testing was inconvenient, and that results would not remain confidential.  Frequent barriers to treatment were based on a distrust in the treatment system. Conclusion. The findings of this review reveal methodological limitations

  6. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2010-09-01

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is of

  7. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: perho@kth.se

    2010-09-15

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is

  8. Spatial distribution of arable and abandoned land across former Soviet Union countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiv, Myroslava; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Moltchanova, Elena; Bun, Rostyslav; Dürauer, Martina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo; Kussul, Natalia; Shchepashchenko, Maria; Kutovaya, Olga; Martynenko, Olga; Karminov, Viktor; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Havlik, Petr; Kraxner, Florian; See, Linda; Fritz, Steffen

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of agricultural abandonment following the collapse of the Soviet Union is highly uncertain. To help improve this situation, we have developed a new map of arable and abandoned land for 2010 at a 10 arc-second resolution. We have fused together existing land cover and land use maps at different temporal and spatial scales for the former Soviet Union (fSU) using a training data set collected from visual interpretation of very high resolution (VHR) imagery. We have also collected an independent validation data set to assess the map accuracy. The overall accuracies of the map by region and country, i.e. Caucasus, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation and Ukraine, are 90±2%, 84±2%, 92±1%, 78±3%, 95±1%, 83±2%, respectively. This new product can be used for numerous applications including the modelling of biogeochemical cycles, land-use modelling, the assessment of trade-offs between ecosystem services and land-use potentials (e.g., agricultural production), among others.

  9. Risk and protective factors in children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, T M; McGuinness, J P; Dyer, J G

    2000-01-01

    The former Soviet Union (including the present independent republics of Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, Lithuania, and Georgia) is the leading source of children adopted from overseas by persons in the United States (US Department of State, 1998). This study sought to (a) characterize the current social, academic, and conduct competencies of 6- to 9-year-old children adopted from the former Soviet Union who have resided in the United States for at least 2 years and (b) evaluate both risks and protective influences of adoptive families and their relationships to competence via a structural equation model. Telephone interviews and a postal survey of children were drawn from a US community sample of 105 children. Measures included (a) Child Behavior Checklist, (b) Teacher Report Form, (c) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, (c) Family Environment Scale, and (d) demographic information. Many children had experienced abuse, abandonment, or neglect between birth and entry to the institution. Their mean birth weight was 2637 g, and alcohol abuse by the birth mother was common (41%). Although the children scored below average in competence, adoptive family environments were positive and served as buffers between the risks experienced by the children and the subsequent development of competence within the adoptive family. Children's abilities ranged from severely challenged to developmentally normal. The high rate of fetal alcohol exposure in the children may portend future challenges for families.

  10. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  11. Eurasian Economic Union: A Regional Economic Hegemony Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar YILMAZ

    2017-01-01

    It can be assumed that international relations terminology has not mentioned enough about the significance of the Eurasian Economic Union in territorial as well as in economic terms during a period of growing geopolitical risks and high interdependence between the member countries and the rest. According to Kazakhstan’s President Nursultan Nazarbayev, it is truly difficult for states to overcome economic, political and security issues and therefore, states need to act together against the pro...

  12. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  13. Discretion vs. Valor: The Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Game about Being a Believer in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Barbara

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of "Discretion vs. Valor," a simulation game designed to give North American players a chance to: (1) identify with "believers" (Christians) in the Soviet Union in order to form new images of these persons; (2) gain empathy for Christians by understanding the dilemmas they…

  14. Rehabilitation of the Visually Impaired in the Soviet Union. Report from a Study Tour to Moscow in 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Kjell; Lindstrom, Jan-Ingvar

    The document reports on a 10-day tour to study rehabilitation facilities for the visually handicapped in the Soviet Union. Briefly described are the programs of the following institutions that were visited: Helmholtz Institute of Opthalmology, Specialized School Number 5 for Partially Sighted Children, Scientific Research Institute of Defectology,…

  15. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  16. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  17. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtype A in former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aibekova, Lazzat; Foley, Brian; Hortelano, Gonzalo; Raees, Muhammad; Abdraimov, Sabit; Toichuev, Rakhmanbek; Ali, Syed

    2018-01-01

    While in other parts of the world it is on decline, incidence of HIV infection continues to rise in the former Soviet Union (FSU) countries. The present study was conducted to investigate the patterns and modes of HIV transmission in FSU countries. We performed phylogenetic analysis of publicly available 2705 HIV-1 subtype A pol sequences from thirteen FSU countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. Our analysis showed that the clusters from FSU countries were intermixed, indicating a possible role of transmigration in HIV transmission. Injection drug use was found to be the most frequent mode of transmission, while the clusters from PWID and heterosexual transmission were intermixed, indicating bridging of HIV infection across populations. To control the expanding HIV epidemic in this region, harm reduction strategies should be focused on three modes of transmission, namely, cross-border migration, injection drug use and heterosexual.

  18. The conversion of military science and technology: Former Soviet Union case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellini, M.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War which has brought deep changes in the very concept of defence, requires fundamental changes in the defence strategies of all nations, the new international situation is encouraging the conversion of the military sector for the benefit of the civilian economy. This process involves many companies that have previously worked mostly or exclusively on the basis of military orders. In particular, from the nuclear non-proliferation point of view and environmental safety standpoint, some urgent problems arise: civilian management of military nuclear technologies, management and storage of weapon-grade materials, namely plutonium and highly enriched uranium from dismantled nuclear warheads, cleaning and reusing large areas which have been taken up for the production of weapon-grade plutonium and uranium enrichment (in Soviet Union so called 'atomic sites'), retraining scientific personnel and engineers in the nuclear military industry

  19. Acculturation, social alienation, and depressed mood in midlife women from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Sorokin, Olga; Wang, Edward; Feetham, Suzanne; Choi, Michelle; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2006-04-01

    Level of acculturation has been linked to depressed mood in studies across culturally diverse immigrant groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acculturation, social alienation, personal and family stress, and demographic characteristics on depressed mood in midlife immigrant women from the former Soviet Union. Structural equation modeling showed that higher acculturation scores, measured by English language and American behavior, were indirectly related to lower scores for depressed mood. Higher acculturation levels promoted mental health indirectly by reducing social alienation and, subsequently, lowering family and personal stress, both of which had direct relationships to symptoms of depression. These findings support the ecological framework that guided our research and point to the importance of focusing on contextual factors in developing interventions for new immigrants. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chernobyl disaster sequelae in recent immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union (FSU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, RoseMarie Perez; Goldstein, Marjorie F

    2007-04-01

    Long-term mental health sequelae of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster have been documented for exposed populations who remained in the former Soviet Union (FSU) (Havenaar et al., 1997), and in a cohort migrated to Israel (Cwikel et al., 1997). This paper reports on Chernobyl disaster sequelae in émigrés (n = 321) to the United States. Demographic characteristics, migration factors, and self-reported physical health were considered. Both geographical proximity to the 1986 disaster, and perception of radiation risk stood as long-term indicators of current psychological distress. Proximity was related to poor self-perceived physical health, as well as current symptoms of depression (pChernobyl-related trauma distress (p<.001) on standardized measures. Environmental contamination as a reason for migration was also associated with greater mental health symptomatology.

  1. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2005-02-01

    Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs.

  2. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    gouvernement afghan. Les auteurs de l’étude concluent que l’accent sur la sécurité en Afghanistan a été préjudiciable à un développement économique...Afghanistan (PDPA) regime were largely influenced by Soviet economic theory and experience. In addition to adopting economic planning based on the five...rural Afghans. On peasant in Leninist theory see Esther Kingston-Mann, “Proletarian Theory and Peasant Practice: Lenin 1901-1904,” in Soviet Studies

  3. Eurasian Economic Union: A Regional Economic Hegemony Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar YILMAZ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It can be assumed that international relations terminology has not mentioned enough about the significance of the Eurasian Economic Union in territorial as well as in economic terms during a period of growing geopolitical risks and high interdependence between the member countries and the rest. According to Kazakhstan’s President Nursultan Nazarbayev, it is truly difficult for states to overcome economic, political and security issues and therefore, states need to act together against the problems in a globalizing world by establishing regional and international organisations. This article thus examines the Eurasian Economic Union integration proces, which is driven by political and economic factors that consolidate regional security and create an effective economic system, whether it in the long term will become successful or not. The author also analyses the Kazakh economic and strategic interests in the region as well as the motivation, power and influence of other members in deepening the cooperation with international arena and the limits in the economic-security integration.

  4. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met

  5. Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The text of the Protocol between the Russian Federation and the International Atomic Energy Agency Additional to the Agreement between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Protocol on 21 March 2000. It was signed on 22 March 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 11 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 16 October 2007, the date on which the Agency received from the Russian Federation written notification that the procedures of the Russian Federation required for entry into force had been met [es

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, Personnel Report: USSR Ministry of Defense, January 1989

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    This volume lists names, ranks and assignments of Soviet commanders serving in the USSR Ministry of Defense and in some related agencies, compiled from various, open Soviet sources through January of 1989...

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 11, November 1987

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1988-01-01

    .... The articles are By the Course Indicated by Lenin, Outstanding Victory of Soviet Army, Strategic Soviet Troop Regroupings in Preparation of 1942-1943 Winter Campaign, Combat of 87th Rifle Division...

  8. Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Mills, Anne; Richardson, Erica; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphometric Characteristics of Ice and Snow in the Arctic Basin: Aircraft Landing Observations from the Former Soviet Union, 1928-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sea ice and snow measurements collected during aircraft landings associated with the Soviet Union's historical Sever airborne and North Pole...

  10. Radiation accidents in the former Soviet Union: Medical consequences and experience in the application of radiation protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The Institute of Biophysics of the Russian Federation is a scientific center which has extensive archives containing scientific studies and information on radiation safety problems and occurrences since the early days of nuclear science and research and nuclear weapons tests in the Soviet Union. Some of this classified, top secret material has recently been published by Prof. L.A. Iljin in a renowned Russian scientific journal in the form of a review of radiation accidents in the Soviet Union, general medical reports, case reports, and the effects of nuclear weapons tests. He also added his own expert view of the accidents and their effects, and his conclusions relating to public health effects and required radiation protection policy. The article in this issue of Strahlenschutz Praxis is a German translation of excerpts from the original journal article. (orig./CB) [de

  11. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Bouville, A.

    1995-12-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance

  12. Crime and subjective well-being in the countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-03

    Criminal victimisation and subjective well-being have both been linked to health outcomes, although as yet, comparatively little is known about the relationship between these two phenomena. In this study we used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to examine the association between different types of crime and subjective well-being. Data were obtained from 18,000 individuals aged 18 and above collected during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Ukraine. Information was obtained on respondents' experience of crime (violence and theft) and self-reported affective (happiness) and cognitive (life satisfaction) well-being. Ordered probit and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analyses were undertaken to examine the associations between these variables. In pooled country analyses, experiencing violence was associated with significantly lower happiness and life satisfaction. Theft victimisation was associated with significantly reduced life satisfaction but not happiness. Among the individual countries, there was a more pronounced association between violent victimisation and reduced happiness in Kazakhstan and Moldova. The finding that criminal victimisation is linked to lower levels of subjective well-being highlights the importance of reducing crime in the fSU, and also of having effective support services in place for victims of crime to reduce its detrimental effects on health and well-being.

  13. Physical protection design and analysis training for the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo Hoo, M.S.; Chapek, J.F.; Ebel, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, Sandia National Laboratories has provided training courses in the systematic design of Physical Protection Systems (PPS). One such course, the International Training Course (TC) on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials, is sponsored by the Department of Energy's International Safeguards Division , the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Department of State. Since 1978, twelve 3- and 4-week classes have been conducted by Sandia for these sponsors. One- and two-week adaptations of this course have been developed for other customers, and, since 1994, nine of these abbreviated courses have been presented in the Russian language to participants from the Former Soviet Union (SU). These courses have been performed in support of the Department of Energy's program on Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) for the Russian Federation and the Newly Independent States. MPC ampersand A physical protection training assumes participants have more narrowly defined backgrounds. In using affective approaches, the overall goal of training in the context of the MPC ampersand A Program is to develop modern and effective, indigenous capabilities for physical protection system design and analysis within the SU. This paper contrasts the cognitive and affective approaches to training and indicates why different approaches are required for the ITC and the MPC ampersand A Programs

  14. A quiet migration: cultural influences impacting children adopted from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, T

    2000-01-01

    When children immigrate to another culture, a variety of salient variables influence their adaptation. Among internationally adopted children, these variables include early history, changes in socioeconomic status, awareness of multiple issues impacting the child post-adoption, availability of social networks, and anti-immigration sentiments in the host culture. The change in socioeconomic status of children adopted from the former Soviet Union is a positive influence with the concomitant improvement in the child's nutrition and health care. Many internationally adopted children have spent time in institutional environments that constitute a culture in and of itself. The orphanages are microenvironments which may be closed to the influences of the larger culture. The environmental components of the orphanage transmit a collection of traits and values which, taken as a whole, constitute the orphanage culture. Adoptive parents must facilitate the children's adjustment to a new cultural milieu with different language, food, and customs. Further, children must adapt to the culture of the family, a culture that may have been previously unknown. Nurses can promote the adaptation of these families by increasing awareness of the multitude of issues that impact internationally adoptive families.

  15. Hazardous alcohol drinking in the former Soviet Union: a cross-sectional study of eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Joceline; McKee, Martin; Rose, Richard; Haerpfer, Christian W; Rotman, David; Tumanov, Sergej

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous consumption of large quantities of alcohol is a major cause of ill-health in the former Soviet Union (fSU). The objective of this study was to describe episodic heavy drinking and other hazardous drinking behaviors in eight countries of the fSU. Data from national surveys of adults conducted in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2001 were used (overall sample size 18,428; response rates 71-88%). Heavy episodic drinking, high alcohol intake, drinking alcohol during the working day, and using illegally produced strong spirits were examined. On average, 23% of men and 2% of women were defined as heavy episodic drinkers (> or = 2 l of beer or > or = 750 g bottle of wine or > or = 200 g strong spirits at least once every 2-3 weeks). This was more common in young males, women who are single or who are divorced/separated/widowed, in smokers, and in frequent alcohol drinkers. About half the respondents who drank strong spirits obtained at least some alcohol from private sources. Among drinkers, 11% of males and 7% of women usually took their first drink before the end of working day. Heavy episodic alcohol drinking is frequent in males throughout the region--although prevalence rates may have been affected by underreporting--but is still relatively rare in women. Alcohol policies in the region should address hazardous drinking patterns and the common use of illegally produced alcohol.

  16. Present situation of radioactive contamination in and around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Hoshi, M.; Takada, J.; Tsukatani, T.; Oikawa, S.; Yoshikawa, I.; Takatsuji, T.; Sekerbaev, A. Kh.; Gusev, B.I.

    2001-01-01

    Field missions were sent to the Semipalatinsk regions to investigate the present radioecological situation as a result of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions carried out at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). For this purpose, surface and core soil samples were collected at more than 60 sites, including several settlements such as Dolon, Chagan and Sarzhal, within and outside the SNTS territory. The radioactivities of long-lived radionuclides, 137 Cs, 238 Pu and 239,240 Pu, and the atomic ratio of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu were determined in combination with non-destructive g-ray spectrometric method and radiochemical separation followed by a-particle spectrometric and/or ICP-MS methods. The results showed a distinction of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu inventories in soil depending on a sampling sites. Although 137 Cs was within typical environmental levels except for the area near the first nuclear test site and Balapan, 239,240 Pu was at elevated levels in all areas we visited. This high Pu contamination was recognized to be due to the weapons-grade Pu from the SNTS by the measurement of 240 Pu/ 239P u atomic ratio in soil samples. (author)

  17. Nuclear heritage of Soviet Union in Tajikistan: problems and ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    Present article is devoted to nuclear heritage of Soviet Union in Tajikistan. The problems were considered and ways forward were proposed. During 46 years from 1945 till 1991 the hydro metallurgic plants of Tajikistan, which were located in Taboshar, Adrasman, Khujand, B.Gafurov regions, produced 80000 tons of uranium oxide which was used by USSR for military and energy purposes. Thus, on the territory of Northern Tajikistan accumulated radioactive wastes as heritage of Soviet Union. Currently on the territory of Northern Tajikistan more than 200 million tons were accumulated in 13 tailings including 55 million tons of uranium wastes located in 10 tailings. The total area of these tailings is 200 hectares. They are located in close distance from inhabited areas as well as in upper of main rivers as Amu-Darya and Sir-Darya. It is necessary to say that rehabilitation measures were carried out on small area of these sites, and were not carried out at all in many of them and special funds for radiation safety restoration not were established. Currently the Taboshar, Adrasman and Degmay tailings are in critical condition. Specific works are carried out on rehabilitation of uranium wastes, notably: there are IAEA technical Cooperation projects on monitoring of northern Tajikistan tailings. Under these projects a set of equipment for monitoring were received by Republic of Tajikistan; Nuclear and Radiation Safety Agency and State Enterprise Vostokredmet staffs were trained; negotiations are carried out with international financial organizations on disposal and rehabilitation of wastes. Necessary measures: conservation of mine dumps; repairs of affected conserved layer; volume rehabilitation and providing territory for household use; organization of permanent monitoring over tailings condition. Threats: sites are located in seismic zone; sites are located in Syr-Darya basin; mud stream became frequent; 4 cases of tailings washing out in Taboshar and Adrasman regions are

  18. Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that

  19. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Abbott, D.T.

    1993-07-01

    Radionuclide inventories have been estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 69 to 111 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 3,053 to 7,472 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1,127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 23 to 38 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 674 to 708 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. Twenty years from now, the inventories are projected to be 11 to 18 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 415 to 437 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 63.5 to 64 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.014 to 0.015 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two

  20. Fish introductions in the former Soviet Union: The Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan - 80 years later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Bogdanowicz

    Full Text Available The Soviet Union played the leading role in fish introductions in Eurasia. However, only 3% of all introductions prior to 1978 gave a commercial benefit. One of the noteworthy examples appears to be the Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877-an endemic salmonid of Lake Sevan in Armenia. This species has been introduced to Kirghizstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, however, only the Kirghiz population has persisted in relatively high numbers. In this paper we provide the first extensive molecular study of S. ischchan using samples from the native population from Lake Sevan and three hatcheries in Armenia, as well as from the population introduced to Lake Issyk Kul in Kirghizstan. The Kirghiz population has been isolated since the introductions took place in 1930 and 1936. Our results, based on 11 nuclear microsatellites and a 905 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region suggest that hatcheries have maintained genetic variability by way of ongoing translocations of individuals from Lake Sevan. Simultaneously, significant Garza-Williamson M-values suggest that bottlenecks could have reduced the genetic variability of the wild populations in the past. This hypothesis is supported by historical data, indicating highly manipulated water-level regulations and poaching as two main factors that dramatically impact fish abundance in the lake. On the other hand, a similar situation has been observed in Kirghizstan, but this population likely rebounded from small population size faster than the other populations examined. The Kirghiz population is significantly genetically differentiated from the other groups and have morphological features and biological attributes not observed in the source population. Genetic data imply that the effective population size in the native population is lower than that found in the introduced population, suggesting that some active protection of the Lake Sevan population may be needed urgently.

  1. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  2. Environmental radiation measurements at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and surrounding villages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebell, P.; Hutter, A.R.

    1996-07-01

    Two scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory served as scientific experts to the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Mission to Kazakhstan: Strengthening Radiation and Nuclear Safety Infrastructures in Countries of the former USSR, Special Task - Preassessment of the radiological situation in the Semipalatinsk and western areas of Kazakhstan. The former Soviet Union's largest nuclear test site was located near Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, and following Kazakhstan's independence, the IAEA committed to studying the environmental contamination and the resulting radiation exposure risk to the population due to 346 underground, 87 atmospheric and 26 surface nuclear detonations performed at the site between 1949 and 1989. As part of an 11-member team, environmental radiation measurements were performed during 2 weeks in July 1994. Approximately 30 sites were visited both within the boundaries of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site as well as in and around surrounding villages. Specifically, the objectives of the EML team were to apply independent methods and equipment to assess potential current radiation exposures to the population. Towards this end, the EML scientists collected in-situ gamma-ray spectra, performed external gamma dose rate measurements using pressurized ionization chambers, and collected soil samples in order to estimate the inventory and to determine the depth distribution of radionuclides of interest. With the exception of an area near an open-quotes atomic lakeclose quotes and a 1 km 2 area encompassing ground zero, all the areas visited by the team had external dose rates that were within typical environmental levels. The measurements taken within a 15 km radius of ground zero had elevated levels of 137 Cs as well as the activation products 152 Eu and 60 Co, The dose rate within a 1 km radius of ground zero ranged from 500 to 30000 nGy h -1

  3. Urban-rural differences in psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness can vary between urban and rural locations. This study extended research to the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) by assessing the association between settlement type and psychological distress and whether factors associated with psychological distress vary by settlement type. Data on 18,000 adults aged ≥18 years from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine in 2010/11 were analyzed. Settlement types were country capitals, regional capitals, cities/other urban settlements, and villages. Psychological distress was defined as the country-specific highest quintile of a composite score based on 11 questions. Logistic regression analysis with random effects was used to examine associations. In a pooled country analysis, living in a smaller urban settlement or village was associated with significantly higher odds for psychological distress compared to living in the country capital. Lower social support was a strong correlate of psychological distress in all locations except capital cities. The psychological distress measure has not been formally validated in the study countries. Lower levels of urbanicity are associated with greater psychological distress in the fSU countries. As many Western studies have linked greater urbanization to poorer mental health, this highlights the need for caution in extrapolating findings from one part of the world to others and the importance of undertaking research on the geographical correlates of mental health in different world regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Survey of Progress in Coding Theory in the Soviet Union. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, William H.; Levitt, Karl N.

    The results of a comprehensive technical survey of all published Soviet literature in coding theory and its applications--over 400 papers and books appearing before March 1967--are described in this report. Noteworthy Soviet contributions are discussed, including codes for the noiseless channel, codes that correct asymetric errors, decoding for…

  5. Relations between the Soviet Union and its Eastern European Allies: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    Communist states forwarding the process of world revolution. 4. The ideologiaal seaurity faator* Eastern Europe has provided a defensive Soviet...relaxation and the final conclusion of the negotiations on European cooperation and se- curity. In the ideologiaal sphere, the Soviets, as mentioned

  6. Former Soviet refineries face modernization, restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A massive modernization and restructuring program is under way in the refining sector of Russia and other former Soviet republics. Economic reforms and resulting economic dislocation following the collapse of the Soviet Union has left refineries in the region grappling with a steep decline and changes in product demand. At the same time, rising oil prices and an aging, dilapidated infrastructure promise a massive shakeout. Even as many refineries in the former Soviet Union (FSU) face possible closure because they are running at a fraction of capacity, a host of revamps, expansions, and grass roots refineries are planned or under way. The paper discusses plans

  7. THE NEW ARCHITECTURE OF ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis that began in 2007-2008 has highlighted the need for a stronger economic coordination at EU level, to ensure financial stability. The new architecture of economic governance in the European Union is based on Fiscal Pact, on Macroeconomic Imbalances Identification Mechanism, on European Stability Mechanism and on Banking Union. Since the banking system is the most significant component of the financial system, we will give more importance to the analysis of Banking Union, which is based on three pillars: The Single Supervisory Mechanism, The Single Resolution Mechanism and The Deposit Guarantee Schemes.

  8. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Countries of the European Union: Motives and Patterns of Entrepreneurship of Post-Soviet Immigrants in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tepavcevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between migration, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investments by focusing on entrepreneurial activities of post-Soviet (immigrants in Hungary in periods between 1991 and 2016. Post-Soviet migrants are in focus because between 1956 and 1989 the Soviet Union coercively kept Hungary in the Socialist bloc. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that there are considerable differences in patterns of entrepreneurship among post-Soviet immigrant entrepreneurs depending mostly on time of their arrival to Hungary. Similarly, motives for entrepreneurship among the first-wave migrants combine negative factors in the former Soviet Union with positive factors encountered in Hungary, while factors in Hungary recognized as positive by most post-Soviets prevail in motives for later waves of post-Soviet migration and entrepreneurship in Hungary. The paper also demonstrates that many relatively small investments have been conducted since 2000 by citizens of post-Soviet countries to Hungary. Some of them are transforming into an entrepreneurial activity, serving also as a basis for immigration to Hungary.

  9. CIS as a successor of the Soviet Union: who is financially responsible for the uranium waste storage sites in Kyrgyzstan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtmatova, J.

    2001-05-01

    Full text: As the Second World War came to an end and the Cold War just started, the Soviet Union was faced with a problematic necessity of the nuclear weapons' production. Indeed, the Soviet Empire was in the extreme need of such weapons since their possession was viewed as an only guarantee of peaceful relations between USSR and United States. Exactly in that period the Soviet Union started its intensive exploitation of the large radioactive ore deposits (basically, uranium and radium), located on the territory of the present-day Kyrgyzstan. Throughout the post-war cold period and right up to mid-80s Kyrgyzstan had been one of the leading producers of uranium in the Soviet Union. In fact, the first Soviet atomic bomb was produced using Kyrgyz uranium. In the intense arms race with United States there was no time to concern oneself with environmental and demographic protection of the exploited territory, unfortunately. The role of the Kyrgyz ASSR (Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic) was to provide raw materials, concurrently being a conveniently remote place to treat foreign radioactive ores (imported from Eastern Germany and Czechoslovakia) and serving as a burial place for their wastes. Creating an enormous amount of the radioactive wastes, the uranium and radium ore deposits were located in immediate proximity to highly populated areas; in the basins of transboundary rivers; and in the seismic-active regions of the Republic. As it could be legitimately assumed, the Soviet Union was not deeply obsessed with the environmental peculiarities of the treated area and did not give a damn to its protection, being solely interested in the maximization of the uranium extraction. In 1991, immediately after the Soviet Union's dissolution, the Russian Federation officially proclaimed itself its successor. Consequently, it was Russia that received the bigger part of a huge military potential (particularly, nuclear one) of its predecessor, including the nuclear

  10. Implications of the disintegration of the former Soviet Union for desertification control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiko, T A

    1995-01-01

    Following the removal of censorship on environmental information in 1986 the magnitude of the Aral Sea disaster has been publicly acknowledged while the situation has continually worsened. Major efforts by the USSR Academy of Sciences as well as republic scientists since the 1970s have been supplemented by international expertise. The Soviet government adopted a special resolution on the Aral Sea in September 1988, but adequate financing was not available to solve this problem. With the disintegration of the USSR, the new independent states took full responsibility for their desertification control. In a corresponding tide of nationalism, Russia was solely accused of being responsible for the problem, and, not surprisingly, the controversial project of Siberian river diversion has been recently revived. There has been a transition from Russian to state language in all institutions, thus "squeezing out" the speaking of Russian. The Central Asian states have started to explore their own ways to deal with the catastrophe. But political, cultural, and ethnic rivalries between countries; growing nationalism and economic difficulties; and competition for water have not created the conditions to successfully solve desertification problems. Without change, the future of the Aral Sea appears to be bleak.

  11. Atomic science and engineering in the economy of the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglov, A.K.

    1976-01-01

    The main achievements of Soviet atomic science and engineering are presented. Even now, due to the development of the atomic industry, it is possible to produce at atomic stations cheaper energy in kWh cost than at thermal electrical stations. The successful operation of the VVER reactor at the Novo Voronezh Atomic Station and the RBMK reactor at the Leningrad Atomic Station, makes it possible to proceed to the development of more economic thermal reactors with a unit power over 1,500,000 kW. Methods are analysed allowing the atomic industry to be supplied with cheap nuclear fuel on the basis of poor uranium ores. The introduction of radioactive isotopes into the national economy has allowed a number of industries to automate control, to improve technologies and safety measures, etc. Isotopes are being more and more widely used in medicine. Some aspects are considered of using nuclear explosions in the gas and oil industry, in constructing hydraulic engineering works and creating places for the disposal of harmful or radioacmive wastes

  12. Overview of nuclear safety regulations in countries of Easter Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The document contains a compilation of information on Nuclear Safety Regulations in countries of Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union provided by the representatives of Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine in the Steering Committee of the Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER Nuclear Power Plants (the Steering Committee provides co-ordination and guidance to the IAEA on technical matters and serves as a forum for exchange of information with the European Commission and with other international and financial organizations). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the seven individual papers

  13. [Representations of Care of Migrants from the former Soviet Union with Alcohol or Drug Problems in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhnsch, Gundula; Flick, Uwe

    2015-10-01

    Which representations of care can be found in migrants with alcohol or drug problems from the former Soviet Union? How do they correspond with views in the care system? Episodic interviews with 46 migrants, expert interviews with 33 service providers; analysis with thematic coding. For migrants and experts holistic care is important, which include spiritual-religious components but are also control-oriented. The cultural specificity of migrants' care representations should be acknowledged by the health care system much more. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. FISCAL POLICY'S INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAIU Diana Marieta; OPREANA Alin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of the fiscal policy on the economic growth for European Union, for the period 2000-2009. This subject represents a very debated problem in the economic literature. Our findings shows that, from the analysis of correlation between economic growth rate and total rate of taxation, there is generally an inverse relationship, meaning that an increase in the tax rate adversely affects economic growth. Continuing the analysis of the correlation between economic gro...

  15. Eurasian Economic Union: Opportunities and Barriers to Regional and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Andronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU is a new integration grouping in the post-Soviet space that is generating heightened interest as a global economy with the potential to become a new regional and global actor. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the Eurasian integration processes and proposes several actions to strengthen economic relations among EEU members through detecting and building common economic interests. Russia accounts for as much as 87% of the EEU’s geo-economic potential, which stresses the country’s role as anintegrative hub. The EEU benefits are thus unevenly distributed among its participants. Moreover, these benefits lack consistency and long-term orientation, which may threaten the EEU’s existence if markets and international economic relations change.This article analyses the interrelation and interdependency of national economies in terms of the mutual trade in goods and services and investment cooperation. It finds that the level of economic integration does not meet the interests of strengthening Eurasian integration. Despite the huge benefits of the Customs Union, trade volumes have not increased and the structure of manufacturing and cooperation ties remain unchanged. This article recommends that developing and implementing a common industrial and agricultural policy would strengthen the EEU, and proposes an approach to estimate the results of such a policy.

  16. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  17. Economic and political hybridity: Patrimonial capitalism in the post-Soviet sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Hybridity in non-democratic states can be economic as well as political. Economic hybridity is produced by the same kind of pressures that create political hybridity, but the relationship between economic and political hybridity has not been as much studied by political scientists. This article uses the concept of patrimonial capitalism to look at economic hybridity, its stability and relationship to political hybridity. Using examples from Russia and other former Soviet states it argues that...

  18. Feasibility and options for purchasing nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium (HEU) and plutonium from the former Soviet Union (FSU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In response to a recent tasking from the National Security Council, this report seeks to analyze the possible options open to the US for purchasing, from the former Soviet Union (FSU) substantial quantities of plutonium and highly enriched uranium recovered from the accelerated weapons retirements and dismantlements that will soon be taking place. The purpose of this paper is to identify and assess the implications of some of the options that now appear to be open to the United States, it being recognized that several issues might have to be addressed in further detail if the US Government, on its own, or acting with others seeks to negotiate any such purchases on an early basis. As an outgrowth of the dissolution of the Soviet Union three of the C.I.S. republics now possessing nuclear weapons, namely the Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, have stated that it is their goal, without undue delay, to become non-nuclear weapon states as defined in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Of overriding US concern is the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the Third World, and the significant opportunity that the availability of such a large quantity of surplus weapons grade material might present in this regard, especially to a cash-starved FSU Republic. Additionally, the US, in its endeavor to drawdown its own arsenal, needs to assure itself that these materials are not being reconfigured into more modern weapons within the CIS in a manner which would be inconsistent with the stated intentions and publicized activities. The direct purchase of these valuable materials by the US government or by interested US private enterprises could alleviate these security concerns in a straightforward and very expeditious manner, while at the same time pumping vitally needed hard currency into the struggling CIS economy. Such a purchase would seem to be entirely consistent with the Congressional mandate indicated by the Soviet Nuclear Threat Reduction Act of 1991

  19. Putin's and Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union: A hybrid half-economics and half-political “Janus Bifrons”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union is an institution formalized in January 2015 for the purpose of regional economic integration; it includes five countries: Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia, and Kyrgyzstan, and may include Mongolia and Tajikistan in the future. With a GDP of $1.59 trillion in 2015, an industrial production of $1.3 trillion in 2014, and population of almost 200 million as of 2016, the EEAU could represent a geopolitical success that supports both Putin's ambitious political agenda and the Union's economic prospects. Although the efforts of this Union are ongoing and long-term success is not certain, the Russia-led Eurasian Economic Union can be considered a hybrid half-economics and half-political “Janus Bifrons” that serves as a powerful illustration of what Putin envisions for the post-Soviet space. Despite promising steps so far, more should be done toward the achievement of economic development and balanced opportunity for all Eurasian countries. Russia's longstanding role within the Union, as well as its power and political motivations, are all considerations that must be accounted for.

  20. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  1. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  2. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  3. Spatial Analysis of Market Economy Innovations in the Former Soviet Union: The Case of Commodity Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-06

    current cooperative movement in the former Soviet Uni’n can be traced to a law adopted in November, 1986 which permitted family members residing...the labor joined the cooperative movement in 1988. Uzbekistan, the largest of the Central Asian republics, claims only one exchange in Tashkent

  4. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  5. Homonationalism Before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-01

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 128 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  6. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  7. U.S. Technology Transfer to the Soviet Union: A Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    University, Mikhael Kuzmin and Russian Drama, 1906-1936; Edith W. Clowes, 10 months at the Moscow State University, Friedrich Nietzsche in Russia, 1890...According to Representative Paul Findley’s article in the Congressional Record, 54 - The Soviet "students" are far older than their American...relay point for orders for copies of articles from publishers, libraries, and information centers. NTIS said that the following design goals were met

  8. History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-20

    embryo of a new, popular-democratic structure, created by the toilers. The struggle of these soviets, which represented at the same time organs of the... embryos of organs of people’s democratic power during the struggle against the occupiers. In Yugoslavia, Albania and Greece people’s liberation armies... destiny . Thus the circumstance that at the very height of the struggle France could rise...as a sovereign and independent state was contrary to his

  9. JPRS Report. Soviet Union Foreign Military Review, No. 2, February 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-11

    phenomena in ethnic relationships in the period of stagnation engen - dered problems retarding the development of Soviet society and degrading Armed Forces... civilized , good-neighbor relations among countries are the key to normalizing the situation in Asia and the Pacific basin, as is the case everywhere in the...divisions), 17 sepa- rate brigades (11 border, 3 fortress and 3 field fortification), 6 territorial zones (they include 13 medical, 12 rear and 11 civil

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 10, October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-17

    The first joint venture in the public catering field—the "Delhi" Soviet-Indian restau- rant of Indian national cuisine in Moscow—has been opened...and the decisive condemnation by Australia and New Zealand of French nuclear tests in the Pacific. However, as a whole, the situation in the Asia...with a policy of "sanc- tions" and to forcibly involve West European states in such a policy. Thus P. Mauroy, prominent figure of the French

  11. SPECIFICS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on problems and futuredevelopment of integration processes in thepost-Soviet space. The author highlightssome of the key factors contributing to thedevelopment of centripetal and centrifugaltrends of the region. Special attention isgiven to the industrial policy of countriesinvolved in integration processes. The paper analyzes the role and importance of corporate integration as well as discovers ways ofits development.

  12. Struggling for new lives: Family and fertility policies in the Soviet Union and modern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Selezneva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    During the 20th century, Russian women were assigned the triple role of social and political activists, workers, caregivers and mothers. This paper makes an overview of the main steps undertaken first by the Soviet and later by the modern Russian governments to influence family formation models and fertility levels, in order to improve the demographic situation over the period from 1917 until 2015. The overview pays close attention to such measures of demographic policy as marriage and divorc...

  13. Acculturation and adjustment of elderly émigrés from the former Soviet Union: Alife domains perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Genkova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet émigrés in the United States are on average older than other immigrant groups, with adultsover 65 comprising a large portion of the Russian-speaking population. Despite known risks associated withold-age migration, however, researchers and providers have underestimated adjustment difficulties forRussian-speaking elderly in U.S. These older adults tend to acquire a new culture with difficulty and remainhighly oriented towards their heritage culture. However, limited research examines how acculturation to boththe culture of origin and the host culture contributes to wellbeing for this immigrant group. This studyassesses the adaptive value of host and heritage acculturation across several domains in the lives of olderémigrés from the former Soviet Union resettled in the Baltimore and Washington, DC areas in the UnitedStates. Acculturation level with respect to both host and heritage culture was measured with the Language,Identity, and Behavior Scale (LIB; Birman and Trickett, 2001 and used to predict psychological, family, social,and medical care adjustment outcomes. Results suggest that acculturation to the host or heritage culture hasdifferent functions depending on life domain. Particularly, high American acculturation contributed to betteradjustment in the psychological, family, and social domains. Heritage acculturation was associated withbetter outcomes in the social domain and had mixed effects for psychological adjustment. Theoreticalimplications highlight the importance of evaluating multiple life domains of adapting through a bilinearacculturation model for the understudied population of elderly immigrants.

  14. 20 Years After the Collapse of the Soviet Union – New Challenges for the Contemporary Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesea Ţăranu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inexpected collapse of the Soviet Union in december 1991 can be seen, without any doubt, as the meta-event of the second half of the 20th century. The early years of this new Era determined a lot of confusion, but in the same time, as before in 1918 and 1945, many experts and politicians looked forward to more peaceful times, hoping that with the end of the Cold War the world would become a more settled and peaceful place. Unfortunately, the bloody conflicts in the 1990s, and especially the terrorist atacks from 9/11 highlighted the limits of those initial optimistic theories, marking the beginning of a new, much more complex, dynamic, instable Post Post-Cold War Era, with a new world order in wich we are witnessing a broadening and deepening process of the insecurity in the context of the globalization phenomenon.

  15. Environmental impact of the nuclear incident occurring in the middle Asia of the former Soviet Union on Beijing area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong

    1995-10-01

    The results of a nuclear incident occurred in the Middle Asia of the former Soviet Union was monitored and reported. Its impact on Beijing area was estimated under some assumptions. The concentration of 7 Be in the rain water was increased by two times or more compared with the annual average of the normal conditions and the one in the atmospheric dust was about two times during the monitoring period. The concentration of the 7 Be in the same samples is much higher than the one in the rainy season of the same period of the year. This will cause about 0.41 μSv/a additional dose load to the residents in Beijing area, which is about 1/10,000 to 1/1,000 of the dose level limitation set in the national standard 'GB4792-84'. (3 figs., 1 tab.)

  16. The burden of culture? Health outcomes among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Erin Trouth

    2012-04-01

    Immigrants in the U.S. often experience better health than the native-born, and many explanations for this phenomenon center around the positive health behaviors that immigrants bring from their home cultures. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union may be an exception; because they come from societies where unhealthy lifestyles and high mortality are common, they are often expected to experience worse health than the native population. Using data from the Integrated Health Interview Series, I compare FSU immigrants with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites on several health measures. FSU immigrants are twice as likely as native whites to report fair or poor health, but they are less likely to smoke or drink, and are less likely to report a functional limitation. FSU immigrants' advantage in functional limitation is largely explained by their very high levels of education and marriage, indicating that selectivity is important to understanding the health of this population.

  17. A strategic approach for coping with unsafe nuclear plants in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recent nuclear accident near St Petersburg has intensified concerns about the safety of nuclear power plants in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and has stimulated interest in finding ways of shutting down those plants that are considered especially dangerous, before another Chernobyl takes place. A promising strategy for coping with this problem involves replacing nuclear power with power-generating systems based on the use of aeroderivative gas turbines which are fired with natural gas and are financed largely by Western investors. This could be done at a much lower cost and in a much shorter period than with any alternative energy supply option. This approach would also offer strategic benefits unrelated to nuclear safety. (author)

  18. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  19. Where the European Union should Multiply its Money: Stimulating Measures in the Economic Monetary Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, A.N.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate in which sectors and countries the European Union should invest to diminish the economic gap between different member states. It answers the question at which sectors and regions the European regional policy should be directed. In an attempt to indicate

  20. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  1. The Economical Partnership European Union – Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîmpeanu Mariana-Aida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1960 the cooperation process between the South America countries was characterized by national strategies to foster the national industries, safeguarded by the intense exports from the developedcountries. This strategy was called by some authors defensive regionalism, as oposed to open regionalism or the offensive one, promoted by CEPAR (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbeans. The Common Market of the South or Mercosur (in Spanish Mercado Comun del Sur, in Portuguese Mercado Comun do Sul, Mercosul , is a commercial block that has as goals: promotion of free exchange of products, people and capital between the countries members, as well as the development of a better integration and trialbetween partners and associates. The first members states were: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay; Venezuela signed the joining in 17 June 2006. Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Peru have associate estate. Member States consider on November 30, 1985 (when they signed the Declaration of Foz Iguazu the moment of Mercosur appearance. EU-MERCOSUR relations have a broad tradition based on history, culture, political affinity, economic interest and strategic considerations. We may say that Latin America is where Europe canrecognize on a large extent their own political and cultural values. This common heritage, but primarily economic interests led to the need for mutual dialogue between the two organizations. We are now at 15 years after signing the first agreement between EU and Mercosur and 8 years after initiating negotiations for reaching an inter-regional association agreement to establish a free trade area. Negotiations were not linear, but have had many obstacles, and now, in 2010, it seems to be increasingly fewer opportunities to achieveinter-regional agreement. When MS achieves its own identity (not only the legal personality that it was self assumed through Article 34 of the Protocol of Ouro Preto, it will truly be able to sign an

  2. Perestroika, Soviet oil, and joint ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churkin, M. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Glaznost, the freedom of expression in both the public and private sectors of the Soviet Union, has rapidly transformed the country form a largely isolated and closed society to one that is rapidly becoming more cosmopolitan and open to the West. Now that the Soviet Union is moving toward a free-market economy, a number of new laws are being generated to create a favorable environment for Western investment, especially joint ventures. First, crude oil sales have provided over 75% of much-needed hard currency, and oil has been the principal barter for manufactured goods produced in eastern Europe. Second, joint oil ventures with Western companies can reverse declining production levels and provide sufficient stimulus to turn around the economic recession. The Soviet Union has a very large inventory of discovered but undeveloped oil and gas fields. Most of these fields are difficult for the Soviets to produce technically, financially, and environmentally safely, and they are actively seeking appropriate Western partners. From an exploration point of view, the Soviet Union has probably the largest number of undrilled and highly prospective oil basins, which may replenish declining reserves in the West. Finally, the Soviet Union represents in the long term a large unsaturated market eager to absorb the surplus of goods and services in the Western world. Again, joint oil ventures could provide the convertible currency to increase East-West trade

  3. Press Reviews of Mei Lanfang in the Soviet Union, 1935, by Female Writers: Neher Versus Shaginyan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Janne

    2016-01-01

    There are two interesting female exceptions to the all-male chorus reviewing the Chinese performer of female roles Mei Lanfang and his troupe in the local newspapers during Mei's Soviet tour in the spring of 1935. One is the well-established Russian writer Marietta Shaginyan (1888-1982), whose......, and to uncover why Neher's expert professional analysis has so far been unduly and sadly neglected. To further set off their contrasting views of Mei Lanfang and Chinese theatre, I compare these to the more well-known viewpoints of Sergei Tretyakov and Bertolt Brecht....

  4. The Observance of the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights by the Soviet Union,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    34Perspective" and auth-orshic of several articles therein. In November-December, Tsurkov’s fiancee, Irina Lopatukhina, received through the investigator a...married a Russian wooin (sow Irina McClellan) .Since his marriage the Soviet authoi 1s nov. ace-i refusing Mr.McClellan entry visas, and refusing, perml...detained they "agreed on a three-day fast in prison". Bratsky Listok also includes the statement by the CCECB sent to Podgorny and Kosyjin on November

  5. Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding international research on the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' scientific centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding International Research on the Consequences of the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' Scientific Centre which was approved by the IAEA's Board of Governors on 12 September 1990. It was signed on 21 September 1990 and entered into force on the same date

  6. Dynamics of soil carbon stocks due to large-scale land use changes across the former Soviet Union during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurganova, Irina; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Schierhorn, Florian; Lopes de Gerenyu, Valentin; Müller, Daniel; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Land use change is a major driver of land-atmosphere carbon (C) fluxes. The largest net C fluxes caused by LUC are attributed to the conversion of native unmanaged ecosystems to croplands and vice versa. Here, we present the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union from 1953-2012. Widespread and rapid conversion of native ecosystems to croplands occurred in the course of the Virgin Lands Campaign (VLC) between 1954 to 1963 in the Soviet Union, when more than 45 million hectares (Mha) were ploughed in south-eastern Russia and northern Kazakhstan in order to expand domestic food production. After 1991, the collapse of the Soviet Union triggered the abandonment of around 75 Mha across the post-Soviet states. To assess SOC dynamics, we generated a static cropland mask for 2009 based on three global cropland maps. We used the cropland mask to spatially disaggregate annual sown area statistics at province level based on the suitability of each plot for crop production, which yielded land use maps for each year from 1954 to 2012 for all post-Soviet states. To estimate the SOC-dynamics due to the VLC and post-Soviet croplands abandonment, we used available experimental data, own field measurements, and soil maps. A bookkeeping approach was applied to assess the total changes in SOC-stocks in response to large-scale land use changes in the former Soviet Union. The massive croplands expansion during VLC resulted in a substantial loss of SOC - 611±47 Mt C and 241±11 Mt C for the upper 0-50 cm soil layer during the first 20 years of cultivation for Russia and Kazakhstan, respectively. These magnitudes are similar to C losses due to the plowing up of the prairies in USA in the mid-1930s. The total SOC sequestration due to post-Soviet croplands abandonment was estimated at 72.2±6.0 Mt C per year from 1991 to 2010. This amount of carbon equals about 40% of the current fossil fuel emission for this

  7. The consequences of Chernobyl for Germany and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Leser, B.

    1992-01-01

    Five years following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the event was discussed in terms of its effects on Germany and the Sovjet Union. During this period, particular attention had been given to the radioactive load from exposure of the general public to internal as well as external radiation. Wholebody measurements and epidemiologic surveys permitted insights into the radiation effects attributable to the Chernobyl fallout. The most recent Law on the Prevention of Radiation Injuries, which was passen in 1986, and the current situation in the Sovjet Union were dealt with in brief. (DG) [de

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: The Working Class & The Contemporary World, No. 5, September-October 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-24

    connected with the committee’s activity constituted in 3 years 5.5 percent; idling diminished from 10 to 3 percent of work time; absenteeism , from 15 to 7...34The Changing Situation of Workers and Their Unions...," p 10. 13. U.S. News and World Report, 16 May 1983, p 61; Labour Research, vol 73, No 2

  9. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.

  10. The Deportation of Germans from Romania to the Soviet Union in 1944–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murádin János Kristóf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the capturing of prisoners by the Red Army taking control over Transylvania in the fall of 1944. It presents the second wave of capturing: the deportations in January-February 1945, pronouncedly oriented toward the German community (Transylvanian Saxons and Swabians primarily living in the Banat. There are described the circumstances of capturing the prisoners, the number of those taken away, the routes of their deportation, the locations and lengths of their captivity, the number of the victims, and the return of the survivors. Finally, the remembrance of the 1945 Soviet deportations, their present social embeddedness is expounded. The source material of the study consists of specialist books, essays, published recollections, and interviews with survivors made by the author and other researchers

  11. Migration pattern and mortality of ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union: a cohort study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaucher, Simone; Deckert, Andreas; Becher, Heiko; Winkler, Volker

    2017-12-19

    We aimed to investigate all-cause and cause-specific mortality among ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union by different immigration periods to describe associations with migration pattern and mortality. We used pooled data from three retrospective cohort studies in Germany. Ethnic German migrants from the former Soviet Union (called resettlers), who immigrated to Germany since 1990 to the federal states North Rhine-Westphalia and Saarland and to the region of Augsburg (n=59 390). All-cause and cause-specific mortality among resettlers in comparison to the general German population, separated by immigration period. Immigration periods were defined following legislative changes in German immigration policy (1990-1992, 1993-1995, 1996+). Resettlers' characteristics were described accordingly. To investigate mortality differences by immigration period, we calculated age-standardised mortality rates (ASRs) and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) of resettlers in comparison to the general German population. Additionally, we modelled sex-specific ASRs with Poisson regression, using age, year and immigration period as independent variables. The composition of resettlers differed by immigration period. Since 1993, the percentage of resettlers from the Russian Federation and non-German spouses increased. Higher all-cause mortality was found among resettlers who immigrated in 1996 and after (ASR 628.1, 95% CI 595.3 to 660.8), compared with resettlers who immigrated before 1993 (ASR 561.8, 95% CI 537.2 to 586.4). SMR analysis showed higher all-cause mortality among resettler men from the last immigration period compared with German men (SMR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.19), whereas resettlers who immigrated earlier showed lower all-cause mortality. Results from Poisson regression, adjusted for age and year, corroborated those findings. Mortality differences by immigration period suggest different risk-factor patterns and possibly deteriorated integration

  12. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  13. Message dated 8 January 1987 from Mr. Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to Mr. Javier Perez de Cuellar, Secretary-General of the United Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This message is an account to the world community on what the Soviet Union did concretely in 1986 to ensure that this year, proclaimed by the United Nations the International Year of Peace, justifies the hopes pinned on it

  14. JPRS Report, Arms Control, Protocol to the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests of July 3, 1974, hereinafter referred to as the Treaty, convinced of the necessity to ensure effective...

  15. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and meteorological data collected by various Russian and former Soviet Union institutions from North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea from 1930-07-23 to 2004-04-18 (NODC Accession 0083635)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and meteorological data collected by various Russian and former Soviet Union institutions from North Pacific...

  16. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk Sea from 1981-09-23 to 1988-06-17 (NODC Accession 0081217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk...

  17. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.

  18. Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengochea-Morancho, A.; Martinez-Zarzoso, I.; Higon-Tamarit, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions in the European Union. A panel data analysis for the period 1981 to 1995 is applied in order to estimate the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and CO 2 emissions in ten selected European countries. The analysis shows important disparities between the most industrialised countries and the rest. The results do not seem to support a uniform policy to control emissions; they rather indicate that a reduction in emissions should be achieved by taking into account the specific economic situation and the industrial structure of each EU member state. 20 refs

  19. Letter from Mr. M. Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to Dr. H. Blix, Director General of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The full text of the letter from Mr. M. Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, to Dr. H. Blix, Director General of the IAEA after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl power station is presented. Suggestions for the establishment of an international regime of safe nuclear power development as a result of lessons from the Chernobyl accident are made

  20. Soviet energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    As it moves from a centrally planned economy toward a market-based system, the Soviet Union will need to produce and export large quantities of oil to help finance industrial development and to purchase consumer goods from the West. Since 1988, however, Soviet oil production has fallen by about 8.8 percent. Oil exports also have declined, falling by about 15 percent from 1988 to 1990. The main reasons for the production decline are the lack of enough capital for exploration and production and the use of outdated and inefficient production practices. While U.S.-Soviet joint ventures could potentially help reverse this situation, both the United States and the Soviet Union maintain policies and practices that hinder U.S. trade and investment in Soviet oil exploration and production. Despite such difficulties, several U.S. multinational oil companies are proceeding with joint venture agreements, and progress is being made on overcoming some of the obstacles. For example, training programs in western business practices are being offered b the U.S. government, private companies, and universities. In addition, the U.S. and Soviet governments are now negotiating a tax treaty. GAO summarized this report in testimony before Congress

  1. Customs unions, currency crises, and monetary policy coordination: The case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Vinokurov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available After achieving substantial progress in establishing a common customs territory and regulations, customs unions face potential disruptions due to a lack of monetary policy coordination. These disruptions might appear in the form of currency shocks and the ensuing trade conflicts. We approach this issue by looking at the case of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. The volatility of national currencies in 2014–2015 resulted in sizable shifts in competitiveness, culminating in a currency crisis in some member states. This raises the questions of how to gradually achieve a more coordinated monetary policy, what monetary policy options are available, and what would be their relative impact on macroeconomic stability. Using a set of modeling tools and econometric models, we review three monetary regimes, which represent moves from fully independent exchange rate policy through increased policy coordination to joint exchange rate setting.

  2. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  3. The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes and Related Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-06-14

    On 1 June 1976 the Director General received a letter dated the same day from the Resident Representative of the United States of America to the Agency in which he communicated the text of the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Underground Nuclear Explosions for Peaceful Purposes which was signed by President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev on 28 May 1976. The Resident Representative asked that the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement be brought to the attention of all Members of the Agency in view of the relationship of this Treaty to the work of the Agency. On the same day the Director General received a letter in similar terms from the Resident Representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Taking into account the common request made by the Resident Representatives of the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics the texts of the Treaty, the Protocol and the Agreed Statement are reproduced in this document.

  4. A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

    2014-03-01

    The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.

  5. Estimated inventory of radionuclides in Former Soviet Union Naval Reactors dumped in the Kara Sea and their associated health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Schwertz, N.L.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Robison, W.L.

    1993-05-01

    Radionuclide inventories have bin estimated for the reactor cores, reactor components, and primary system corrosion products in the former Soviet Union naval reactors dumped at the Abrosimov Inlet, Tsivolka Inlet, Stepovoy Inlet, Techeniye Inlet, and Novaya Zemlya Depression sites in the Kara Sea between 1965 and 1988. For the time of disposal, the inventories are estimated at 17 to 66 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 1695 to 4782 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 917 to 1127 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 1.4 to 1.6 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. At the present time, the inventories are estimated to have decreased to 6 to 24 kCi of actinides plus daughters and 492 to 540 kCi of fission products in the reactor cores, 124 to 126 kCi of activation products in the reactor components, and 0.16 to 0.17 kCi of activation products in the primary system corrosion products. All actinide activities are estimated to be within a factor of two

  6. "I Want Her to Make Correct Decisions on Her Own:" Former Soviet Union Mothers' Beliefs about Autonomy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolova, Masha; Lipnitsky, Jane Y

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examined Former Soviet Union (FSU) mothers' explicit and implicit attitudes and parenting practices around adolescents' autonomy development. Interviews were conducted with 10 mothers who had immigrated from the FSU to the US between 10 and 25 years ago, and who had daughters between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Mothers predominantly defined autonomy in terms of adolescents' ability to carry out instrumental tasks, make correct decisions, and financially provide for themselves, but rarely mentioned psychological or emotional independence. Mothers reflected on the various aspects of autonomy emphasized in their country of origin and America, and balancing the two sets of cultural values in their parenting. Although mothers discussed attempts to adopt a less authoritarian approach to parenting than they themselves experienced as children, some mothers' controlling attitudes were revealed through a close analysis of their language. The findings provide important insights into the parenting experiences of FSU immigrant mothers, and the way in which autonomy-related processes may vary cross-culturally. Implications for parenting and clinical practice are also discussed.

  7. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation over the former Soviet Union in 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, S.; Ryaboshapko, A.; Gromov, S. [Inst. of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Granat, L.; Rodhe, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-12-01

    Published information on sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation in background regions of the Former Soviet Union (F SU) was collected and analyzed. Bad or doubtful data were removed. The spatial patterns of sulphur and nitrogen compounds indicate that western and southern regions are the most polluted and eastern Siberia the cleanest. Dry deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen on all the F SU territory was estimated to 3.3 Mt S and 1.6 Mt N per year (an average of 0. 15 gS/m{sup 2} yr and 0.07 gN/m{sup 2} yr). Deposition with precipitation was estimated to 14.7 Mt S and 7.9 Mt N per year (an average of 0.66 gS/m{sup 2}yr and 0.35 gN/m{sup 2}yr). Deposition fluxes are largest during the warm season. Data from the GAW monitoring network during the period 1980-1995 showed a visible increase of nitrate and ammonium in precipitation whereas the concentration of sulfate was rather stable. The sulfur dioxide concentration in air decreased significantly in several regions of the F SU during the decade 1980-1990. The data on nitrogen compounds in air are too limited to permit any firm conclusions regarding trends.

  8. Present situation of radioactive contamination in and around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M. [Kanazawa Univ., Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Ishikawa (Japan); Hoshi, M.; Takada, J. [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Tsukatani, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto (Japan); Oikawa, S. [Japan Chemical Analytical Center, Inage, Chiba (Japan); Yoshikawa, I.; Takatsuji, T. [Nagasaki Univ., Faculty of Environmental Studies, Nagasaki (Japan); Sekerbaev, A. Kh.; Gusev, B.I. [Kazakh Scientific Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan)

    2001-03-01

    Field missions were sent to the Semipalatinsk regions to investigate the present radioecological situation as a result of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions carried out at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). For this purpose, surface and core soil samples were collected at more than 60 sites, including several settlements such as Dolon, Chagan and Sarzhal, within and outside the SNTS territory. The radioactivities of long-lived radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu, and the atomic ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were determined in combination with non-destructive g-ray spectrometric method and radiochemical separation followed by a-particle spectrometric and/or ICP-MS methods. The results showed a distinction of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu inventories in soil depending on a sampling sites. Although {sup 137}Cs was within typical environmental levels except for the area near the first nuclear test site and Balapan, {sup 239,240}Pu was at elevated levels in all areas we visited. This high Pu contamination was recognized to be due to the weapons-grade Pu from the SNTS by the measurement of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239P}u atomic ratio in soil samples. (author)

  9. A Joint Project of the Soviet Union and the USA on the Eve of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalmár Zoltán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe la colaboración mantenida por los Estados Unidos de América y la Unión Soviética para solucionar el problema de la creación del Estado de Israel. Se describen los mecanismos diplomáticos, las iniciativas tomadas y los efectos de las mismas en la dinámica de la cuestión palestina. La resolución de la ONU fechada el 29 de noviembre de 1947 contenía párrafos sobre la creación de ambos Estados pero al no presionar ambas supervivencias por la opción de un Estado independiente palestino junto con otro israelí se perdió la posibilidad de asegurar la estabilidad de Oriente Medio en un largo plazo.__________________ABSTRACT:In this article is described the collaboration supported by the United States of America and the Soviet Union to solve the problem of the creation of Israel's State. There are described the diplomatic mechanisms, the taken initiatives and the effects of the same ones in the dynamics of the Palestinian question. The UN resolution dated 29th November 1947 contained passages about the creation of both states within ten months but as superpowers did not press for the creation of the independent Palestinian state along with the independent Jewish state the possibility of securing longterm stability for the Middle East was lost.

  10. Mapping health research capacity in 17 countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Alessio; Glonti, Ketevan; Bertollini, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter; McKee, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Policies to improve health status, tackle disease and ensure equitable access to healthcare should be informed by evidence derived from high-quality research. However, health research capacity is unevenly distributed across countries, as revealed by mapping exercises that have been undertaken to provide a basis for concerted action to strengthen capacity. This study systematically describes capacity to undertake health research in the countries of the former Soviet Union and south-eastern Europe and identifies the elements required to create a national health research system. The mapping exercise comprised two elements: a survey of key informants in the respective countries and a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications in the field of public health. Our results confirm that health research remains a low priority in some countries of the WHO European Region. In these countries, most of the literature was produced by researchers outside the country, often to inform international donors. This study provides important information for countries seeking to initiate action to strengthen their research capacity. There is a need for a comprehensive strategy with sustained investment in training and career development of researchers. There is also a need to create new funding systems to provide financial support to those undertaking policy-relevant research. International collaboration and investment in mechanisms to bridge the gap between research and policy are urgently required. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  11. LLNL's Regional Model Calibration and Body-Wave Discrimination Research in the Former Soviet Union using Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Rodgers, A.; Swenson, J.; Schultz, C.; Walter, W.; Mooney, W.; Clitheroe, G.

    2000-01-01

    Long-range seismic profiles from Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE) in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) provide a unique data set to investigate several important issues in regional Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. The recording station spacing (∼15 km) allows for extremely dense sampling of the propagation from the source to ∼ 3300 km. This allows us to analyze the waveforms at local, near- and far-regional and teleseismic distances. These data are used to: (1) study the evolution of regional phases and phase amplitude ratios along the profile; (2) infer one-dimensional velocity structure along the profile; and (3) evaluate the spatial correlation of regional and teleseismic travel times and regional phase amplitude ratios. We analyzed waveform data from four PNE's (m b = 5.1-5.6) recorded along profile KRATON, which is an east-west trending profile located in northern Sibertil. Short-period regional discriminants, such as P/S amplitude ratios, will be essential for seismic monitoring of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) at small magnitudes (m b o and 10 o , respectively

  12. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem

  13. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  14. The Economic Foundations of Cohabiting Couples' Union Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    In recent decades, cohabitation has become an increasingly important relationship context for U.S. adults and their children, a union status characterized by high levels of instability. To understand why some cohabiting couples marry but others separate, researchers have drawn on theories emphasizing the benefits of specialization, the persistence of the male breadwinner norm, low income as a source of stress and conflict, and rising economic standards associated with marriage (the marriage bar). Because of conflicting evidence and data constraints, however, important theoretical questions remain. This study uses survival analysis with prospective monthly data from nationally representative panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation from 1996-2013 to test alternative theories of how money and work affect whether cohabiting couples marry or separate. Analyses indicate that the economic foundations of cohabiting couples' union transitions do not lie in economic specialization or only men's ability to be good providers. Instead, results for marriage support marriage bar theory: adjusting for couples' absolute earnings, increases in wealth and couples' earnings relative to a standard associated with marriage strongly predict marriage. For dissolution, couples with higher and more equal earnings are significantly less likely to separate. Findings demonstrate that within-couple earnings equality promotes stability, and between-couple inequalities in economic resources are critical in producing inequalities in couples' relationship outcomes.

  15. Low-cost space fission power systems utilizing US and former Soviet Union experience and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Britt, E.J.; Koester, J.K.; Gunther, N.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nikolaev, Y.V.; Nikitin, V.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the author close-quote s approach to space power total economics. In the past 40 years of U.S. government sponsored space nuclear power developments, total economics has received only token consideration. In the real world, nuclear power has had limited acceptance where it provided the enabling capability i.e. isotopes for low power, long life, deep space missions, or reactor power for underwater nuclear submarines. It was also accepted where it was perceived to be more economic. Examples are nuclear reactor powered aircraft carriers, escort vessels and central station power stations. In any case, real and perceived public and environmental safety must always be included into the economic equation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. World Economy & International Relations, No. 12, December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-18

    enterprises for the achievement of specific economic goals. Work is proceeding on the creation of a uniform taxation system, whose purpose is to ensure... canons of area studies. World practice has for many centuries testified that the motive in the choice of country as the subject of study has been

  17. International Conference 'Uranium legacy of Soviet Union in Central Asia: problems and way forward' Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the conference is to discuss safe management of uranium mill tailings, remediation activities foreseen under Eurasian Economic Community in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, existing problems and ways forward. A conference on this topic in Tajikistan with the support of the International Science and Technology Center and Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is relevant and very important taken into account foreseen remediation activities starting from 2013.

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, USSR Council of Ministers & Officials: Biographies, Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-12

    lines to process livestock and poultry, make ice cream, cans as well as the equipment for the light and nonalcoholic industries, beer breweries ...happens in life that a person works to the bone , is dedicated to his job and knows it well - but has no popular support. Probably people should...program? [Velichko] I count on the labor collectives. No genuine economic accountability will exist if it does not operate in the primary cell , such

  19. Risk and Soviet Security Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    1990-01-01

    .... There are several exceptions to general Soviet risk aversion in using military power. But in each instance, the Soviet Union has fared rather badly when it chanced large risks in pursuit of correspondingly high potential gains...

  20. Report on the visit of a U.S. Nuclear Safety Delegation to the Soviet Union, August 19-31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    During August 1988 a US delegation of nuclear reactor safety specialists, led by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Lando W. Zech, Jr., visited the Soviet Union to initiate cooperative activities in civilian nuclear reactor safety between the two countries under their April 1988 Memorandum of Cooperation. Areas of future cooperation and a schedule of working group meetings to explore these areas were defined in a protocol signed during this visit. The delegation met with Soviet representatives in Moscow as the Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety. Additionally, while in Moscow, Chairman Zech held discussions with leaders and other senior officials of Soviet organizations with responsibility for nuclear power safety. Nuclear facilities were also visited, including the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow), the Novovoronezh Atomic Power Station, the Novovoronezh Training and Commissioning Center, the Izhora Heavy Equipment Production Plant (Kolpino), the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Gatchina), the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, the All-Union Center for Radiation Medicine (Kiev), and the Rovno Atomic Power Station. 35 figs

  1. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  2. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  3. The effects of economic and political integration on power plants’ carbon emissions in the post-soviet transition nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don; Sie, Amanda; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2017-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which accounts for a significant share of the world’s CO2 emissions, varies by macro-regional context. Here we use multilevel regression modeling techniques to analyze CO2 emissions levels in the year 2009 for 1360 fossil-fuel power plants in the 25 post-Soviet transition nations in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia. We find that various facility-level factors are positively associated with plant-level emissions, including plant size, age, heat rate, capacity utilization rate, and coal as the primary fuel source. Results further indicate that plant-level emissions are lower, on average, in the transition nations that joined the European Union (EU), whose market reforms and environmental directives are relevant for emissions reductions. These negative associations between plant-level emissions and EU accession are larger for the nations that joined the EU in 2004 relative to those that joined in 2007. The findings also suggest that export-oriented development is positively associated with plant-level CO2 emissions in the transition nations. Our results highlight the importance in macro-regional assessments of the conjoint effects of political and economic integration for facility-level emissions.

  4. Oil in the former Soviet Union: Historical perspectives, long-term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Lavrovsky, I.; Considine, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    The complex, far-reaching changes that have come over the oil industry of the Russian Federation and other republics of the C.I.S. were reviewed. Three development scenarios were considered. In the reference case, the deterioration in C.I.S. oil production was stemmed by the middle of the decade, and as a result net exports were gradually tightened, placing upward pressure on world oil prices. The situation would reverse by 1997-98, with recovery in domestic oil production and increase in export volumes. In the best case scenario, successful integration of the oil industry into the international business community was assumed to result in the maintenance of drilling activity at the 1990 level. In the worst case scenario, it was assumed that the simmering social strife and political tensions in the oil producing regions were allowed to boil over, resulting in a dramatic reduction of drilling activity. One of the characteristics common to all three scenarios was the close linkage between developments in the domestic oil sector and the pattern of general economic activity. Conversely, it was stated that without a reliable and growing energy sector it was almost impossible to generate a plausible scenario in which economic growth and domestic product demand would move forward. A promising channel would be the establishment of supporting organizational frameworks through the regionalization of foreign investment. figs., tabs., refs

  5. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Road Block on China's "One Belt – One Road" - A Liberal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Zank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the development and character of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and its compatibility with China's OBOR initiative. The genesis of the EEU is placed in the context of Russia's attempts to fill its "Monroe Doctrine" with substance, i.e. to claim the post-Soviet space as a zone of exclusive Russian influence. Russia's "Monroe Doctrine" was primarily formulated against the EU, its enlargement and its "European Neighbourhood Policy" (ENP which offers privileged relations also to countries in the post-Soviet space. The logic of the Russian "Monroe Doctrine" works, however, against all countries trying to establish closer ties with former Soviet republics, China included. In 2013, President Putin presented the EEU as a predominantly political project, shortly after the Chinese President had launched the OBOR initiative; all twelve states in the post-Soviet space were invited to participate. However, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine opted for an association agreement with the EU, a move to which Russia responded by the annexation of Crimea and starting an insurgency in Eastern Ukraine. In 2015, the EEU officially started with the participation of only five countries: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. It implied the extension of the rather high Russian tariffs to the whole EEU, a move which had negative effects on Chinese transactions with the region. This, however, could not impede a rise of the Chinese presence in Central Asia. In its present form, the EEU is not compatible with the OBOR initiative. A free-trade agreement between China and the EEU could make it compatible, but this is not a realistic perspective for the near future. The EEU seems to be an unstable construction, with many basic rules and norms being unclear, and many tensions and conflicts among its members.

  6. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  7. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  8. Societal characteristics and health in the former communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Martin; Murphy, Mike; Rose, Richard; Marmot, Michael

    2007-11-01

    To examine whether, in former communist countries that have undergone profound social and economic transformation, health status is associated with income inequality and other societal characteristics, and whether this represents something more than the association of health status with individual socioeconomic circumstances. Multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data. 13 Countries from Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Population samples aged 18+ years (a total of 15 331 respondents). Poor self-rated health. There were marked differences among participating countries in rates of poor health (a greater than twofold difference between the countries with the highest and lowest rates of poor health), gross domestic product per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity (a greater than threefold difference), the Gini coefficient of income inequality (twofold difference), corruption index (twofold difference) and homicide rates (20-fold difference). Ecologically, the age- and sex-standardised prevalence of poor self-rated health correlated strongly with life expectancy at age 15 (r = -0.73). In multilevel analyses, societal (country-level) measures of income inequality were not associated with poor health. Corruption and gross domestic product per capita were associated with poor health after controlling for individuals' socioeconomic circumstances (education, household income, marital status and ownership of household items); the odds ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.29) per 1 unit (on a 10-point scale) increase in the corruption index and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.93) per $5000 increase in gross domestic product per capita. The effects of gross domestic product and corruption were virtually identical in people whose household income was below and above the median. Societal measures of prosperity and corruption, but not income inequalities, were associated with health independently of individual

  9. Biosputniks: The use by the Soviet Union and Russia of dogs, monkeys and other animals in the exploration of space, 1949-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, B.

    1993-10-01

    The Soviet Union used animals in the exploration of space from 1949 onwards. Russia has continued the use of animals in the exploration of space with the launch on 30 December 1992 of Bion-10 (Cosmos 2229). Animals in the space program is an important theme in the Soviet exploration of space. The use of animals in the exploration of space has four main phases: (1) Suborbital missions 1949-1959; (2) Preparation for man's first flight into space 1960-1; (3) Preparation for man's flight to the Moon 1968-1970; (4) The international biomedical program 1962- . Each is dealt with in turn. The use of animals or biological specimens on board manned orbital space stations is not discussed.

  10. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danishevskiy Kirill D

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching.

  11. FDI DETERMINANTS IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION COUNTRIES AND EURASIAN ECONOMIC INTEGRATION EFFECT ON FDI INFLOWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerkezhan Zhumakankyzy Akhmetzaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the potential determinants of foreign direct investment inflows into the region of Eurasian Economic Union, as well as incentives for investment into other neighboring countries. In the first model, the authors test a hypothesis on country specific foreign direct investment determinants for the Eurasian Economic Union region. The results of fixed effects estimation show that gross domestic product, infrastructure development and secondary education enrollment have a positive statistically significant effect on the foreign direct investment inflows into the region. Conversely, the impact of Customs Union on foreign direct investment appeared to be negative. Furthermore, in the second model of the natural experiment, the authors empirically test the hypothesis on Customs Union’s effect on foreign direct investment while controlling for both country and time effects. The model includes evaluating the impact of the policy change on foreign investment inflows. The natural experiment outcome also points to the negative effect of Eurasian economic integration on foreign direct investment inflows. Although the countries of Eurasian Economic Union have relatively business friendly regulations, such procedures as enforcing contracts, resolving insolvencies and dealing with construction permits are time-consuming. For attracting foreign investment, it is advisable to facilitate such procedures and make the process of setting up a new business less onerous. The research can be used as an outline for further examining of Eurasian economic integration and apart from that, the study results can be applied for practical purposes of policy elaboration aimed at stimulating foreign direct investment into the Eurasian Economic Union.

  12. CHALLENGES OF THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Laura Văleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial crisis which has affected the world economy since 2008 raised a question mark regarding the viability of the Economic and Monetary Union and the future of the euro. Themain objective of this paper is to identify the amplitude of the effects of the economic crisis on the functioning and stability of EMU. Following the main objective, the study is meant to analyze the theoretic fundamentals which were at the basis of the creation of EMU and an analysis of the financial policies and instruments meant to render stability and sustainable economic growth in the countries of the Eurozone.

  13. Moving East: how the transnational tobacco industry gained entry to the emerging markets of the former Soviet Union-part I: establishing cigarette imports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2004-06-01

    To identify British American Tobacco's (BAT) reasons for targeting the former Soviet Union following its collapse in 1991 and the initial strategies BAT used to enter the region. Analysis of tobacco industry documents held at the Guildford BAT archive. Desire to expand to new markets was based in part on the decline in old markets. The large population, proximity to China, scope to expand sales to women and, in Central Asia, a young population with high growth rates made the former Soviet Union particularly attractive. High consumption rates and unfilled demand caused by previous shortages offered potential for rapid returns on investment. A series of steps were taken to penetrate the markets with the initial focus on establishing imports. The documents suggest that BAT encouraged the use of aid money and barter trade to fund imports and directed the smuggling of cigarettes which graduated from an opportunistic strategy to a highly organised operation. In establishing a market presence, promotion of BAT's brands and corporate image were paramount, and used synonymously to promote both the cigarettes and the company. The tobacco industry targeted young people and women. It used the allure of western products to promote its brands and brand stretching and corporate imagery to pre-empt future marketing restrictions. BAT used the chaotic conditions in the immediate post-transition period in the former Soviet Union to exploit legislative loopholes and ensure illegal cigarette imports. Governments of countries targeted by the tobacco industry need to be aware of industry tactics and develop adequate tobacco control policies in order to prevent the exploitation of vulnerable populations. Marketing restrictions that focus on advertising without restricting the use of brand or company promotions will have a limited impact.

  14. Managing environmental issues at large-scale industrial estates: Problems and initiatives in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, R.

    1996-01-01

    A great many large-scale industrial sites are undergoing major transformation and restructuring in central and eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. The EBRD's portfolio of investment projects increasingly includes such sites, presenting the Bank with environmental challenges related to their size, complexity and history. Both technological improvements and changes in management structure are needed in order to address environmental, and health and safety, issues. The EBRD requires ''environmental due diligence'' on all of its projects under preparation. Requirements vary, depending on the nature of each project. (author)

  15. Training-related activities for nuclear power plant personnel in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A Technical Cooperation Meeting on Training-Related Activities for NPP Personnel in the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union was held at the IAEA, Vienna. The main objective of the meeting was to identify, through information exchange and discussion, possible TC projects and assistance related to nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel training, which would meet overall coherent national goals and would demonstrate and important impact and relevance for national policy priorities. An array of such projects were identified for each participating country of the CEEC and FSU as were a number of regional cooperation projects. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Cooperation with the Soviet Union in the development of the fuel and power base and in the implementation of the nuclear programme in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvanek, Z.

    1976-01-01

    One of the decisive chapters of the long-term programme of international cooperation with the Soviet Union is the solution of the problems of the development of the Czechoslovak fuel and power base, i.e., by the implementation of the nuclear programme. Cooperation in the solution of these tasks is oriented to the following spheres of activity: the realization of and cooperation in research and development tasks, the implementation of project designs based on basic and applied research, and cooperation in the production and assembly of technological equipment for nuclear power production. (J.P.)

  17. Building Infectious Disease Research Programs to Promote Security and Enhance Collaborations with Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Bartholomew

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the threat of infectious diseases, whether natural, the results of a laboratory accident, or a deliberate act of bioterrorism, requires no corner of the world be ignored. The mobility of infectious agents and their rapid adaptability, whether to climate change or socioeconomic drivers or both, demand the science employed to understand these processes be advanced and tailored to a country or a region, but with a global vision. In many parts of the world scientific capacity has not kept pace with the need, and has left these regions and hence the world vulnerable to infectious disease outbreaks. To build scientific capability in a developing region requires cooperation and participation of experienced international scientists who understand the issues and are committed to solve the issues. The Republics Georgia, formerly part of the Soviet Union provides a valuable case study for the need to rebuild scientific capacity as they are located at the crossroads where many of the world’s great epidemics began. The U.S. Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR Program together with the Georgian government, have worked diligently to improve the capabilities in this region to guard against the potential future risk from especially dangerous pathogens. This effort culminated in the construction of a modern containment laboratory, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Public Health Research in Tbilisi to house both especially dangerous pathogens as well as the research to be conducted on these agents. The need now is to utilize and sustain the investment made by CTR by establishing strong public and animal health science programs tailored to the needs of the region and the goals for which this investment was made. Here we provide the analysis and recommendations of an international panel of expert scientists to provide advice to the stakeholders on the scientific path for the future. The emphasis is on an implementation strategy for decision makers and

  18. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-15

    the embryo of future possibilities: good-neighbor relations between one person and another, the memory of history, histor- ical self-awareness, the...when reading the terse material, void of emotion. Behind it are destinies ; behind it are history, our past and present; behind it are great spirits

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-08

    gardens, and in the vineyard ’.s and in the pastures of their "Pakhtako’r" kolkhoz. I gave birth to a dream—to become an officer. Back in the eighth...These dodgers, who prefer fancy pastry at home to the soldier’s dried crust, have always been around, of course. Every family has its black sheep , as

  20. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Increased rate of depression and psychosomatic symptoms in Jewish migrants from the post-Soviet-Union to Germany in the 3rd generation after the Shoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, E; Barthel, A; Licinio, J; Petrowski, K; Bornstein, S R; Strauß, B

    2013-01-01

    The mental health status of persons with Jewish background living in Germany is discussed with special regard to social exclusion like anti-Semitism and overprotective parental rearing behavior, as a transmissional factor of the KZ-Syndrome. These stressors are considered in the context of a higher risk for depression/fear and psychosomatic disorders and also abnormal cortisol levels. The present sample (N=89) is derived from the Jewish population currently living in the German region of Saxony aged between 17–36 years that emigrated from the post-Soviet-Union areas. The mean age was 22.9 years. Two questionnaires to detect psychosomatic symptoms (Giessen complaint list (GBB)-24, hospital anxiety and depression scale) and one questionnaire addressing parental rearing behavior (FEE) were employed. Comparisons were drawn with normative data from the literature about the German residential population. In addition, questions were asked concerning the experience of anti-Semitism in Germany and in the post-Soviet-Union areas. A higher prevalence of depression/fear (10.3% versus 18.2%) and psychosomatic symptoms (M=14.03 versus 17.8; t=2.42; Poverprotecting maternal rearing behavior more frequently than the German standard random sample (M=15.39 versus 18.6; t=2.68; Poverprotection as parental rearing measures appear to be important factors specifically contributing to the pathogenesis of the attributed symptoms. PMID:23481628

  2. Developing E-Governance in the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vidiasova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he article provides an overview of e-governance development in the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU. There is a lack of integrated research on e-governance in the EEU countries, although given the strengthening of this regional bloc, new information and communication technologies (ICT could serve as significant growth driver. Given the history and specifics of regional cooperation in the post-Soviet space and international best practices in ICT use in regional blocs, this article reviews the development of e-governance in the EEU members The research methodology was based on a three-stage concept of regionalism [Van Langenhov, Coste, 2005]. The study examines three key components: progress in developing e-governance, barriers to that development and future prospects. It used qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included the results of the United Nations E-Government rating, EEU countries’ regulations based on 3,200 documents and the authors’ expert survey, in which 18 experts (12 EEU representatives and six international experts participated. The study revealed the progress made by EEU countries in improving technological development and reducing human capital development indicators. The survey identified key barriers to e-governance development in the EEU: low motivation and information technology skills among civil servants, and citizens’ low computer literacy. The analysis of EEU members’ national economic priorities revealed a common focus on ICT development. The authors concluded that prospects for e-governance in the EEU were associated with strengthening regional cooperation in standardizing information systems, implementing one-stop-shop services, managing electronic documents and expanding online services. The authors presented two areas for developing e-governance within the EEU. The first is external integration, which, if strengthened, would affect the economy positivelyand optimize business processes

  3. How EU Economic Integration Advances on the Way of Some Important Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic union and monetary union are deeply connected: two dimensions of the third stage of European integration. But achieving monetary union without a complete single market in the field of financial services proved the vulnerability of Eurozone to external shocks and the need to a further economic integration. While banking union has advanced quite fast in the last two years, capital markets union is only a project, also the fiscal union, which is the basic foundation of a true political union. A complete financial union will take a long time to accomplish due to many political, financial and bureaucratic obstacles facing such an ambitious project. Energy Union is another important project meant to remove market fragmentation, to enhance energy security and to reduce environmental impact of energy sector. Finally the political union, the last stage of European integration, the dream of many famous politicians and scholars, will be only possible on the long run as a new type of federation of nation states, provided that all components of economic union will be fully attained.

  4. The Text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Heavy Water from the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of heavy water from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  5. Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The full text of the Agreement of 27 September 1988 between the Agency and the Government of India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station composed of two pressurized light water reactors, each of 1000 MW(e) from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced

  6. The Text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Heavy Water from the Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-15

    The text of the Agreement of 17 November 1977 between the Agency and India for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of heavy water from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members.

  7. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Nuclear energy in the former Soviet Union. From secrecy to export product; Kernenergie in de voormalige Sovjet-Unie. Van geheimhouding tot exportproduct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellegen, E. [Departement Innovatie- en Milieuwetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In this special issue of the magazine attention is paid to several aspects of nuclear energy. In this article the role of nuclear energy in the former Soviet Union is discussed with special attention to the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986. [Dutch] In vergelijking met landen als de Verenigde Staten en Engeland verliep de ontwikkeling van nucleaire energie in de Sovjet-Unie in een traag tempo. Het totalitaire karakter van de Sovjet-maatschappij werkte bovendien een lichtzinnige toepassing in de hand. Na de ramp in Tsjenobyl stagneerde de ontwikkeling, niet zozeer door de ramp als wel door de economische terugval na het uiteenvallen van de Unie. Deze terugval was echter van tijdelijke aard.

  9. The outlook for Soviet gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic collapse of the Soviet Union has seen the decline of its oil and gas industry through a lack of capital investment, idle wells, shortages of equipment and spare parts, worker apathy, and a leaky pipeline network. Natural gas reserves controlled by the Soviet Union total some 50 trillion m 3 , over 70% of which are in western Siberia. A total of just 19 gas deposits hold 70% of the total reserves and account for over 75% of national output. Natural gas production in 1990 was 815 billion m 3 or 38% of world output; exports reached 109 billion m 3 , divided roughly equally between eastern and western Europe, and all transported by pipeline. The Soviet Union is also a major gas consumer, at around 709 billion m 3 /y, and uses about half this amount for generating electricity. In the early 1980s, a crash program to expand the gas industry raised production from 435 billion m 3 in 1980 to 643 billion m 3 in 1985, but at the cost of hastily built pipelines and facilities, and a premature exhaustion of major gas fields. A prohibition on import of western-made compressors, due to the Afghanistan invasion, forced the installation of unreliable domestic compressors. Slow growth in gas ouput and unreliability of the current gas supply and transmission system has threatened the stability of supply to domestic and export customers, and gas delivery shortfalls of 50-60 billion m 3 were thought possible. The industry's future depends on development of additional fields, and a revived interest in Soviet natural gas is being shown by foreign investors. Since many of these fields are in remote or geologically unfavorable areas, large investments and lead times will be needed

  10. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Makarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative.This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to transportand logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slow down and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of north west China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capacity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of all egedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen

  11. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  12. Investigation of Economic Impacts of Economic Partnership Agreements between Sub-Saharan Africa and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Pişkin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to quantify the economic effects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs which have been negotiating between sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and European Union (EU. The study addresses the following questions:  How are African countries likely to gain or lose from a bilateral trade liberalisation between Africa and the EU?, what are the welfare implications for the African countries from the EPAs?, how will the formation of EPAs affect trade expansion through trade creation and trade diversion effects?, what are the potential fiscal implications of the EPAs. Even though the full reciprocity principle appears to be trade expanding (singularly infavour of EU, this study indicates that it will pose serious implications for deepening of regional integration in Africa because of trade diversion effect between African countries.  Another key finding is welfare effect through the way of trade expantion between EU and SSA.

  13. The Public Finance Stance and the Economic Growth: the Case of European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Talpos; Bogdan Dima; Mihai Ioan Mutascu; Cosmin Enache

    2007-01-01

    This paper is studying the impact of public budget deficit on the economic growth. We have tested the connection between budget deficit and economic growth, using econometrical analysis (the Pool Data Model). Within this framework, we have quantified the intensity of connections between public budget deficit and economic growth in the case of European Union 25.

  14. Principles of Economic Union. An Extension of John Rawls's Theory of Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this article I uncover the principles of justice by which an economic union is to be constituted. For this purpose I extend John Rawls’s constructivist theory of justice to economically integrated societies. With regard to the principles I defend a twofold claim. First, the principles of economic

  15. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  16. Economic integration and corruption: The corrupt soul of the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Juan J. Ganuza; Esther Hauk

    2000-01-01

    We study the link between corruption and economic integration. We show that if an economic union establishes a common regulation for public procurement, the country more prone to corruption benefits more from integration. However, if the propensities to corruption are too distinct, the less corrupt country will not be willing to join the union. This difference in corruption propensities can be offset by a difference in efficiency. We also show that corruption is lower if integration occurs. A...

  17. French and British Female Intellectuals and the Soviet Union. The Journey to the USSR, 1929 – 1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela KERSHAW

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The question of why intellectuals between the wars were fascinated by the USSR has been extensively debated by intellectual historians of both France and Britain. According to Neal Wood, “the ‘ultimate explanation’ of the appeal of communism is forever concealed from rational inquiry in the minds and hearts of many diverse individuals” (9, but rational inquiry can reveal a collective, cultural fascination through analysis of individual textual residues. Paul Hollander argues that pro-Soviet ...

  18. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  19. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  20. US - European Union Relations: Economic Change and Political Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kramer, Steven

    1999-01-01

    .... ̂ The introduction of the euro as the currency of the EMU will aid participating European Union (EU) member states by eliminating transaction costs, exchange rate risks, and interest rate spreads across the 11 European currencies early in the coming century...

  1. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No 3, March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-09

    childhood I had earned my own pocket money . In our section of the apartment building all the boys played for money and I always won, so I had to lend...would enrich our family life. Neither in the literal nor the figurative sense. Frequently I did not even have change for pocket money because I put all

  2. The Economic Consequences of an Invasion of Poland by the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    worker’s salary. Basic food supplies are erratic. Travelers report that at Gorsky, for example, there is no butter, meat, fruit and flour , and that...Lithuanians, Ukranians, Estonians, Georgians, Armenians, Uzbeks and many of the Muslim peoples. One author noted, "With the glue of belief and trust...Forecast," Wall Street Journal , May 18, 1981, p. 31. 56. Daniel Park, "Oil and Gas in Comecon Countries," (London: Kogan Page, 1979) table 24a, p. 41

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 7, Jul 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-02

    Rogov, Candidate of Technical Sciences A.A. Vasilyev, and Candidate of Juridical Sci- ences Yu.K. Shiyan. 2. Along with K. Deutsch and J. Singer...without Iran, the era of Reagan is passing." Morrow compares the "era of Reagan" to a "long vacation" or "picnic" for which America paid by doubling ...gift is exempt from taxation , the procedure for patenting the results of R & D obtained with the use of government grants has been simplified, and tax

  4. Soviet Union. EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production. No 8, August 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-23

    shop is friendly, it is not necessary. And she said Sergey has nobody, if some- thing were to happen, and Masha .... Are you listening?" "Ah? I am...34 Masha is coming, turn over the shop." "It is pleasant to deal with intelligent people!" Sergey answers, although the loudspeaker is already silent. At...lightly. Masha signs everything without looking at it. "She is afraid that I will change my mind!" Sergey consoles himself. And he rolls out of the

  5. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 7, July 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-03

    hand a pair of panty hose with the mesh part torn off, stands a girl . "Sew it while she waits!" suggests Rita. Dmitriy takes it. But where is that...very long for a separate apartment: in 1986, people whose names were placed on the list in 1978-79 were receiving apartments. If a girl comes to...would not put you on, my girl ! I put them on the shelf yesterday." "Aha," she says, expressing gratitude. She finds them and disappears. "Oh, oh, oh

  6. JPRS Report Soviet Union USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology No 12, December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-05

    In exchange, they will advertise the firm’s products by wearing its footwear. There is also a plan for a joint venture. Our company has offered...the Adidas firm is inferior in quality to the West German product, and athletes prefer the latter because it is lighter and better. I think the

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 11, November 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-22

    Nov 87 pp 54-72 [Article by I. M. Starikov, candidate of pedagogical sciences, division chief of the Center for Scientific Orga- nization of Labor...decided not to accept them for the third category. We observed them in practice. The kids could hardly make it in the second category. But they were...of labor, but in the pedagogical works of Anton Semenovich Makarenko.1 And it is quite predictable that, having paid close attention to the new

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 9, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-24

    northern neighbors, including Finland and Norway , apply polymer materials to prevent freezing of roads—expanded polystyrene slabs, polypropylene fabric...discussing the introduction of "quality of worklife " projects. The materials of the conference are published, recorded on videotape, and distributed to

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 2, February 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-07

    automobile companies established high technology enterprises jointly with the large Daiwa and Samsung local automobile companies in the middle of...nullified the advantages of the customs privileges in Hong Kong in the 1980s. Singapore and Taiwan are encountering sim- ilar problems. Malaysia ...mind with "an anonymous soldier in the faceless army of corporate employees ." The increased regulation of engineering labor in large American

  10. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Players, Interests and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Skriba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2015, Russia and China coordinated their activities in Central Asia and decided to connect the Eurasian EconomicUnion (EEU and the Silk Road Economic Belt. This decision seemed to prevent unnecessary competition between these two basically non-conflicting projects. However, in time there appeared a lack of understanding of this combined endeavour and its implementation mechanisms. It is still unclear how further dialogue between the EEU and the Silk Road will proceed. There is no consensuson the participation of the EEU members and the Eurasian Economic Commission. Without a clear strategy, the Russian-Chinese agreement has started to lose momentum. Some non-regional players can benefit from this – of course, in their own interests.This articles attempt to explain the threats posed by delay and inaction in the combined EEU and Silk Road projects, and to describe the potential benefits of actively implementing the combination. It then proposes a concrete format for such a combination, its priority areas, as well as mechanisms for implementation.

  11. Restoration and economics: A union waiting to happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia S.T. Robbins; Jean M. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    In this article, our objective is to introduce economics as a tool for the planning, prioritization, and evaluation of restoration projects. Studies that develop economic estimates of public values for ecological restoration employ methods that may be unfamiliar to practitioners. We hope to address this knowledge gap by describing economic concepts in the context of...

  12. Econometric Assessment of the Degree of Economic Convergence between Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.

  13. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  14. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  15. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  16. Heritage of sovietism in contemporary Lithuania: perverted conceptions of property relations

    OpenAIRE

    Kačiuška, Žilvinas

    2006-01-01

    With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central and Eastern European countries, including Lithuania, are sometimes called “the second Europe”, or the periphery of Western Europe. The cultural and economic distinctiveness of the “new Europe” is often explained by the “different” mentality of the societies of these countries, which was constructed by the Soviet model of collectivism and planned economy. Often it is argued that the slow changes in the mental categories in Central and Eastern Euro...

  17. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov, Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in 1933 - 1962 years from Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Kara Sea, and Laptev Sea (NODC Accession 0108117)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov,Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in...

  18. TAXATION INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol IBADULA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the taxation system in Romania and European Union. The first part is concentrated on the theoretical and general aspects regarding the European fiscal policies with a focus on the conditions that member states should respect. Our research continues with the comparison between the share of indirect taxes and direct taxes at the EU level. We discovered that there are some fiscal connections between countries with similar economies. At the end, we emphasized the conclusions obtained with our article.

  19. Assessment of the impacts of transferring certain nuclear reactor technologies to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, J.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The Office of International Security Affairs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers to assist in evaluating the impact that transfer of specific nuclear reactor technologies may have on US national security interests. The evaluation is intended to be used as a technical basis and guideline to approve or disapprove requests from government and industry to transfer a specific technology to Soviet countries. The US Government has a responsibility to review such requests. For the post-Chernobyl information-gathering and dissemination process, the DOE is serving as the US Government's point of contact with private industry. It is DOE's policy to encourage and assist the Eastern Bloc countries to enhance the safety, reliability, and safe operation of civil nuclear reactor power plant facilities worldwide consistent with US national security and nonproliferation interests. Any requests from industry for the supply of nuclear reactor technology, equipment, and services will be considered in accordance with existing nuclear export policy, law, and regulations. All requests and proposals, whether discussed in this document or not, will be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. It should be noted that this is the initial version of the report. Subsequent, updated versions are expected to follow. Design and operation of nuclear reactor power plants involves an extensive array of technologies, not all of which have been addressed here

  20. Securing Human Rights on the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam A. Kasyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A lot of profound political, economic, social, cultural and legislative modifications have happened on the post-Soviet space since the disintegration of the USSR. The term “post-Soviet space” should not be considered as the geographical boundaries of the fifteen former Soviet republics. The conception of the “post-Soviet space” has a more profound meaning as it reflects the common historical and cultural heritage as well as close economic relations, moreover, friendship between the citizens of the new independent States. The most developed sphere in the interstate relations nowadays is economics. The most prime example is Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, the youngest integration institution in the world which unites five countries willing to construe their relationship on a stronger basis than the proposed format of cooperation within the Commonwealth of the Independent States. In the modern world the economic and financial interests are determining, their ensuring makes the governments change foreign and domestic policies, start and terminate trade wars, desperately fight for the respect of their legal rights or, on the contrary, voluntarily give up on some parts of their sovereignty in the framework of integration development. The experience of the European Union demonstrates that the construction of the unified internal market within which freely move persons, goods, services and capitals is a necessary but not the only attribute of a successful integration project. At a certain moment the complex of economic and financial interests should be supplied with the interests of a concrete person. A strict observation of rights and freedoms is becoming a factor that predetermines a possibility of a conversion to the higher forms of integration. In this article is analyzed the problem of human rights defense in the main organizations functioning on the post-Soviet space - Eurasian Economic Union and Commonwealth of the Independent

  1. Kazakhstan's economic soft balancing policy vis-à-vis Russia: From the Eurasian Union to the economic cooperation with Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyailya Nurgaliyeva

    2016-01-01

    When Russia started asserting its economic and political power over the Central Asian and Caspian regions, Nazarbayev once again resorted to the economic soft balancing policy, but this time by relying on outside players. Part 2 of this article discusses two cases of such external economic soft balancing efforts: participation in the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan (BTC pipeline project, and the economic cooperation with Turkey as part of a free trade zone. The BTC pipeline project and the close economic cooperation with Turkey ended up being a more productive soft balancing effort than the earlier Eurasian Union initiative.

  2. "Soviet" Higher Education in a Changing Political, Social, and Economic Context: A Scenario for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkuriev, Stanislav

    1991-01-01

    Describes the changes in Soviet/Russian higher education since 1986. Reviews the development of higher education since 1918 and the bureaucratic structures that stifled progress and focused on vocational preparation. Argues that decentralization of authority will lead to improved general education essential for a free society. (CFR)

  3. Cultural Impact on SAD: Social Anxiety Disorder among Ethiopian and Former Soviet Union Immigrants to Israel, in Comparison to Native-born Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenson-Atzmon, Kelly; Marom, Sofi; Sofer, Tamar; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Youngmann, Rafael; Hermesh, Haggai; Kushnir, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is linked to social norms and role expectations which are culture dependent, such as the construal of one's self as independent or interdependent in relation to others. The current study is the first to examine SAD symptoms among Ethiopian and former Soviet Union immigrants to Israel compared to a sample of native Israelis. We investigated the relationship between SAD, ethnicity and independent/ interdependent self-construals. A total of 261 students (151 native-born Israelis, 60 Ethiopian immigrants and 50 students from the former USSR) were administrated the Liebowitz Scale (LSAS), the Self-construal Scale (SCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Ethiopians exhibited highest SAD scores while no differences were found between the FSU immigrants and native-born Israelis. Additionally, Ethiopians and native-born Israeli students exhibited similar high interdependence scores. Finally, SAD scores were predicted by gender, origin, independent and interdependent self-construals. Immigration per se is not a universal risk factor of SAD and ethnological-cultural factors do contribute specifically to SAD. A possible psychological mediator between culture and the susceptibility to SAD are the interdependence and independent self-construals. When treating immigrants, clinicians and health care providers are advised to consider the effect of cultural influence on the mental well-being and integration process of immigrants in to their host country.

  4. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF 6 ) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ''transparency),'' and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed

  5. A tale of two cities: replication of a study on the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union in a different community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Dina; Trickett, Edison; Buchanan, Rebecca M

    2005-03-01

    While a great deal of research has been conducted to understand acculturation and its relationship to adaptation in the new country, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the ways in which the characteristics of the local community impact these processes. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the potential role of community differences in the acculturation and adaptation processes of 269 refugee and immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union who resettled in two different community contexts. Specifically, a prior study on acculturation and adjustment among high school students (D. Birman, E. J. Trickett, & A. Vinokurov, 2002) was replicated with the same émigré population in a contrasting community within the same state. The contrast between these communities allowed us to test hypotheses emerging from an ecological perspective concerning (1) patterns of acculturation, (2) levels of discrimination and its effect on acculturative outcomes, and (3) community differences in the relationship between acculturation and outcomes. In addition to the focus on community differences, the study also employs a multidimensional measure of acculturation and assesses acculturation to both American and Russian culture. Furthermore, adaptation is assessed across different life domains; including peer relationships, family relationships, school adaptation, and psychological adaptation. Findings support the general ecological perspective, suggesting the importance of studying acculturation and adaptation as a reflexive process in which culture and context are very much intertwined.

  6. “I Want Her to Make Correct Decisions on Her Own:” Former Soviet Union Mothers' Beliefs about Autonomy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masha Komolova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study examined Former Soviet Union (FSU mothers' explicit and implicit attitudes and parenting practices around adolescents' autonomy development. Interviews were conducted with 10 mothers who had immigrated from the FSU to the US between 10 and 25 years ago, and who had daughters between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Mothers predominantly defined autonomy in terms of adolescents' ability to carry out instrumental tasks, make correct decisions, and financially provide for themselves, but rarely mentioned psychological or emotional independence. Mothers reflected on the various aspects of autonomy emphasized in their country of origin and America, and balancing the two sets of cultural values in their parenting. Although mothers discussed attempts to adopt a less authoritarian approach to parenting than they themselves experienced as children, some mothers' controlling attitudes were revealed through a close analysis of their language. The findings provide important insights into the parenting experiences of FSU immigrant mothers, and the way in which autonomy-related processes may vary cross-culturally. Implications for parenting and clinical practice are also discussed.

  7. Internet as a Source of Long-Term and Real-Time Professional, Psychological, and Nutritional Treatment: A Qualitative Case Study Among Former Israeli Soviet Union Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shalayeva, Svetlana

    2017-02-03

    The Internet is considered to be an effective source of health information and consultation for immigrants. Nutritional interventions for immigrants have become increasingly common over the past few decades. However, each population of immigrants has specific needs. Understanding the factors influencing the success of nutrition programs among immigrants requires an examination of their attitudes and perceptions, as well as their cultural values. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of the Internet as a tool for long-term and "real-time" professional, psychological, and nutritional treatment for immigrants from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel (IIFSU) from 1990 to 2012. A sample of nutrition forum users (n=18) was interviewed and comments of 80 users were analyzed qualitatively in accordance with the grounded theory principles. The results show that IIFSU perceive the Internet as a platform for long-term and "real-time" dietary treatment and not just as an informative tool. IIFSU report benefits of online psychological support with professional dietary treatment. They attribute importance to cultural customization, which helps reduce barriers to intervention. In light of the results, when formulating nutritional programs, it is essential to have a specific understanding of immigrants' cultural characteristics and their patterns of Internet use concerning dietary care. ©Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Svetlana Shalayeva. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 03.02.2017.

  8. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  9. “I Want Her to Make Correct Decisions on Her Own:” Former Soviet Union Mothers' Beliefs about Autonomy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komolova, Masha; Lipnitsky, Jane Y.

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study examined Former Soviet Union (FSU) mothers' explicit and implicit attitudes and parenting practices around adolescents' autonomy development. Interviews were conducted with 10 mothers who had immigrated from the FSU to the US between 10 and 25 years ago, and who had daughters between the ages of 13 and 17 years. Mothers predominantly defined autonomy in terms of adolescents' ability to carry out instrumental tasks, make correct decisions, and financially provide for themselves, but rarely mentioned psychological or emotional independence. Mothers reflected on the various aspects of autonomy emphasized in their country of origin and America, and balancing the two sets of cultural values in their parenting. Although mothers discussed attempts to adopt a less authoritarian approach to parenting than they themselves experienced as children, some mothers' controlling attitudes were revealed through a close analysis of their language. The findings provide important insights into the parenting experiences of FSU immigrant mothers, and the way in which autonomy-related processes may vary cross-culturally. Implications for parenting and clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:29434558

  10. Investigation of the feasibility of an international integrated demonstration: Joint demonstration of environmental cleanup technologies in Eastern Europe/former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagood, M.C.; Stein, S.L.; Brouns, T.M.; McCabe, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Eastern Europe (EE) and the former Soviet Union (FSU) republics have areas that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous constituents. The Westinghouse Hanford Company is exploring the feasibility of establishing a collaborative effort with various US agencies to establish an International Integrated Demonstration (IID). Westinghouse manages the waste management and cleanup programs at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site. The purpose of the IID would be to (1) facilitate assistance to EE/FSU cleanup efforts, (2) provide hands-on management and operational assistance to EE/FSU countries, (3) provide a basis for evaluating opportunities for and establishing future collaborations, and (4) evaluate the applicability of US technologies to both US and EE/FSU cleanup efforts. The DOE's Integrated Demonstration Programs are currently providing the conduit for development and demonstration and transfer and deployment of innovative technologies to meet DOE's cleanup need for hazardous and radioactive wastes. The Integrated Demonstrations are focused on all facets of environmental restoration including characterization, remediation, monitoring, site closure, regulatory compliance, and regulatory and public acceptance. Innovative technologies are being tested and demonstrated at host sites across the country to provide the necessary performance data needed to deploy these technologies. The IID concept would be to conduct an Integrated Demonstration at one or more EE/FSU host sites

  11. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  12. Yaacov Ro´i, Boris Morozov, eds, The Soviet Union and the June 1967 Six Day War

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    L’ouvrage coordonné par Yaacov Ro´i et Boris Morozov réunit neuf contributions qui, émanant de chercheurs américains, russes et israéliens et toutes fondées sur des archives depuis peu accessibles, éclaire de manière nouvelle et convaincante la question de l’engagement et du rôle de l’Union soviétique durant la guerre des Six Jours. Cinq articles présentés dans le volume traitent directement de l’attitude soviétique à l’heure du conflit. Le premier, rédigé par Yaacov Ro´i, traite de l’engagem...

  13. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  14. Patterns and determinants of business cycle synchronization in the enlarged European Economic and Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia SIEDSCHLAG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence about the degree of business cycle synchronization between the euro area countries and eight new European Union member states. We analyze the direct and indirect effects of similarity of economic structures and trade intensity on the co-movement of fluctuations of economic activity across these countries and find that bilateral similarity of economic structures and trade intensity were positively and significantly associated with business cycle correlations. This result is robust to different estimation techniques. Similarity of economic structures had an additional indirect positive effect on business cycle synchronization via its positive effect on trade intensity. The bilateral business cycle correlations are found to be endogenous with respect to bilateral similarity of economic structures and bilateral trade intensity suggesting that the new European Union countries will better satisfy the Optimum Currency Area criteria after the adoption of the euro.

  15. FORMATION OF THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT SYSTEM IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

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    Vladimir Vladimirovich Savchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study revealed aspects of the organization of public procurement in the Eurasian Economic Union, outlines approaches to the study of the role of procurement management system in the formation of industrial capabilities to carry out competition in the market activity. The article assesses the eff ectiveness of the fi nancial mechanism in the public procurement system and discusses the dynamics of the procurement process and its features by using the most common competitive methods of procurement. The purpose / goal. The aim of the article is to identify further ways to optimize public procurement system in the Eurasian Economic Union. Tasks article. Develop an acceptable doctrinal foundations for today system of organization of public procurement in the Eurasian Economic Union. Methodology. The author began his research with the setting and the formation of the research objectives. The author defi ned the subject of the study, prepared by the empirical basis of the study. In terms of methodology, this work is an analytical and historical overview of the economic and socio-political processes taking place at the level of individual countries, regions of the world, and the world economy as a whole. Results. This article provides practical recommendations that can be used to create an eff ective integrated system of public procurement in the Eurasian Economic Union.

  16. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR EXTERNAL CROSSBORDER AREAS IN SHAPING THE NEW EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Șlusarciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As history proves, any enlargement of an overstate structure produces disarticulation and an increase of pressure on the borders of it. On the other side the economy produces integrative effects along the border despite of the original significance of separation that a border has. The crossborder policies of the European Union as regional player are meant to contribute to the economic structure building and enhance the stability inside and outside the Union area. Setting up the normative framework for crossborder relations is a very present-day field, being subject of study and research in all Union bodies, in the Member States governments, candidate countries or beneficiaries of the relations with the Union as well. This normative framework is meant to propel the economic increase and the raise of the daily life conditions in the neighbor countries. Alongside the border there are happening complex phenomena, some of them easy to be quantified, such as economic ones, some of them more difficult that cannot be controlled but only sociologically researched, such as cultural-identity-emotional ones. The paper aims to draw the guiding marks of the European Union external crossborder areas and the crossborder cooperation frame for Romania, to identify already visible and potential effects of the enlargement on the external borders and to make an inventory of policies that should integrate the crossborder economy.

  17. Consensus among Economics Teachers from Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leet, Don R.; Lang, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the economic opinions of teachers and economists from the former Soviet Union who participated in economic education programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education under the auspices of the National Council on Economic Education from 1995-2001. They sought to determine the level of consensus on economic topics among the…

  18. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  19. Economic efficiency of extensive livestock production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastić Lana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of extensive livestock production are present worldwide, primarily in regions where natural resources such as pastures and meadows could be used. Extensive livestock production is common in the EU, as well. Therefore the goal of this research was to establish economic efficiency of extensive livestock production types and to compare their efficiency with some intensive livestock production types. In order to achieve that goal FADN (Farm Accountancy Data Network methodology was used. Source of information was FADN database as well as appropriate sector analysis and publications of European commission. It has been determined that sheep and goat production is competitive with intensive production types (dairy and granivores - pigs and poultry. Cattle production (other than dairy production proved to be economically inefficient due to low output level.

  20. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  1. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  2. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  3. Radioactive contamination on land and external radiation dose in residential areas around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a review of our studies since 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takada, J.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on our studies about radioactive contamination on land and external radiation doses to residents by the thermoluminescence technique, performed around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan since 1995. Surface and core soil samples have been collected from different sites around the SNTS and long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs and Pu isotopes were measured. Unlike 137 Cs, the inventories of 239,240 Pu for most of the sites we visited were several to a few hundred times higher than those (40-120 Bq/m 2 ) for global fallout observed in Japan. Pu in soil around the SNTS was found to be tightly incorporated into various sizes of particles formed in the course of the condensation of melting materials, such as vaporized soil and bomb components. Lower atomic ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu (0.03-0.05) for samples indicated that the nuclear tests conducted at the SNTS resulted in a relatively large amount of close-in fallout Pu even in the outside regions. External radiation doses to residents near the SNTS were evaluated by the thermoluminescence technique for brick samples collected from several settlements: Dolon, Semipalatinsk and Ust'-Kamenogorsk cities. The external radiation doses to population were estimated to be up to 1.0 Gy for resident in Dolon settlement. The doses in other two cities were evaluated to be several hundreds mGy. The present doses in Ust'-Kamenogorsk City were consistent with the human acute health effect on the citizens just after 1956 fallout. (author)

  4. Does inclusion of education and marital status improve SCORE performance in central and eastern europe and former soviet union? findings from MONICA and HAPIEE cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vikhireva

    Full Text Available The SCORE scale predicts the 10-year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD, based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk version of SCORE is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU, due to high CVD mortality rates in these countries. Given the pronounced social gradient in cardiovascular mortality in the region, it is important to consider social factors in the CVD risk prediction. We investigated whether adding education and marital status to SCORE benefits its prognostic performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.The WHO MONICA (MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease cohorts from the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg, Lithuania (Kaunas, and Russia (Novosibirsk were followed from the mid-1980s (577 atherosclerotic CVD deaths among 14,969 participants with non-missing data. The HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow, and Russian (Novosibirsk cohorts from 2002-05 (395 atherosclerotic CVD deaths in 19,900 individuals with non-missing data.In MONICA and HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline strongly and significantly predicted fatal CVD both before and after adjustment for education and marital status. After controlling for SCORE, lower education and non-married status were significantly associated with CVD mortality in some samples. SCORE extension by these additional risk factors only slightly improved indices of calibration and discrimination (integrated discrimination improvement <5% in men and ≤1% in women.Extending SCORE by education and marital status failed to substantially improve its prognostic performance in population-based CEE/FSU cohorts.

  5. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.; Kuperberg, J.M.; Biczo, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated

  6. Estimates of phytomass and net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems of the former Soviet Union identified by classified Global Vegetation Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaston, G.G.; Kolchugina, T.P. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Forty-two regions with similar vegetation and landcover were identified in the former Soviet Union (FSU) by classifying Global Vegetation Index (GVI) images. Image classes were described in terms of vegetation and landcover. Image classes appear to provide more accurate and precise descriptions for most ecosystems when compared to general thematic maps. The area of forest lands were estimated at 1,330 Mha and the actual area of forest ecosystems at 875 Mha. Arable lands were estimated to be 211 Mha. The area of the tundra biome was estimated at 261 Mha. The areas of the forest-tundra/dwarf forest, taiga, mixed-deciduous forest and forest-steppe biomes were estimated t 153, 882, 196, and 144 Mha, respectively. The areas of desert-semidesert biome and arable land with irrigated land and meadows, were estimated at 126 and 237 Mha, respectively. Vegetation and landcover types were associated with the Bazilevich database of phytomass and NPP for vegetation in the FSU. The phytomass in the FSU was estimated at 97.1 Gt C, with 86.8 in forest vegetation, 9.7 in natural non-forest and 0.6 Gt C in arable lands. The NPP was estimated at 8.6 Gt C/yr, with 3.2, 4.8, and 0.6 Gt C/yr of forest, natural non-forest, and arable ecosystems, respectively. The phytomass estimates for forests were greater than previous assessments which considered the age-class distribution of forest stands in the FSU. The NPP of natural ecosystems estimated in this study was 23% greater than previous estimates which used thematic maps to identify ecosystems. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Japanese nuclear power cooperation enhancing nuclear safety culture for Asian regions, the former Soviet Union and other Eastern-Block Nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Tadamasa; Abe, Hiroshi; Moriya, Fukashi

    1996-01-01

    Japanese electric power industry has versatile programs of international cooperation in the field of nuclear power generation. Japan Electric Power Information Center (JEPIC) has been playing an essential role in executing these programs. The core of such activities is the 'International Invitation Program for Safety Management at Nuclear Power Plant' (IPSNP). IPSNP is sponsored by Japanese Government and aims to enhance the nuclear safety culture for the Former Soviet Union and other Eastern-Block Nations, inclusive of China. The program is started since 1992, and every year we invite some 100 nuclear specialists, so as to let them familiarize with the Japanese nuclear safety management practice. We have already welcomed more than 360 nuclear specialists, and when this program lasts for 10 years, total number of participants will be reached to 1,000 in all. Another feature of our cooperative programs is the JICA's 'Training Course for Nuclear Power Generation.' Since 1985, we have already invited some 60 training participants from the regions in Asia and the Pacific rim. This course is to deliver lectures in English under a broader curriculum on the nuclear power production in general. Furthermore, we have been dispatching the experienced nuclear experts to the Asian nations, such as China, Indonesia, etc. since 1984. This is to expedite to propagate the importance of safety in developing the nuclear power generation. Some 190 experienced experts have already been dispatched and successfully have executed the lectures and seminars on: water chemistry, regular inspection scheduling, plant performance evaluation, preoperation during commissioning stage, etc... (author)

  8. An Analysis of Economic Growth, Competitiveness and Macroeconomic Imbalances in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the determinants of the economic crisis and of the sovereign debt crisis, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the European economies and discuss changes related to macroeconomic imbalances, as highlighted by the recent crises as an important factor of the unfavorable dynamics registered during the last years. In this respect we considered both internal and external imbalances, as specified in the macroeconomic imbalance procedure that was implemented for the European Union member states since 2012, as a response to the crises that affected all open economies of the world. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic imbalances in the European Union and to determine their influence on economic growth.

  9. Claude McKay between United States and Soviet Union: African-American Identity and Socialist Utopia

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    Fiorenzo Iuliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Claude McKay’s essays on politics and society, especially those dealing with the racial question in the 1920s US. It reviews these texts, alongside other works (poems and autobiographical writings that McKay produced on the same topics. The article aims at tracing a trajectory in McKay’s political thought: after criticizing the social and economic structures of capitalist and colonial societies, McKay envisages in post-revolutionary USSR a utopian society for oppressed people worldwide. However, his writings, rather than depicting the actual USSR society he knew in the early 1920s, evokes the multicultural myth of the ‘melting pot’ traditionally used to celebrate the US. McKay, maybe unwillingly, enthusiastically praises the myth of American exceptionalism, referring it to the USSR.

  10. ROLE OF JOINT VENTURE “SOVHISPAN” IN NORMALIZATION OF THE SOVIET-SPANISH BILATERAL RELATIONS

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    Марина Николаевна Мосейкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this research is to support the statement about the prevalence of the economic interest over the political ones, taking as an example the reestablishment of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations. The historical context of the creation of the Soviet-Spanish joint venture “Sovhispan”is highlighted as the final outcome of the secret negotiations and previous business practices between Spain and the Soviet Union in the late 1960s. The Soviet-Spanish economic relations started ten years before their normalization in 1977, the Canary Islandsbeing one of the places of their development. The principal conclusions of the research are: the geostrategic position of Spain was appreciated by the USA, via installation of the military bases on the mainland, and the USSR, using the Canary Islands as an operational base for the Soviet Fishing Fleet. “Sovrybflot”, an internal structure of the Ministry of Fisheries of the USSR, managed the overseas activity of the Soviet Fishing fleet abroad. Thus, the arrival of avast Soviet fishing fleet in the Canary Islands and the creation of the joint venture “Sovhispan” was a result of its work. “Sovhispan” was a “bridge” in the normalization of the Soviet-Spanish bilateral relations, and bankrupted with the dissolution of the USSR.

  11. Causality tests between stock market development and economic growth in West African Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maman Tachiwou ABOUDOU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between stock market development and economic growth for the West African Monetary Union economy over the last decade or so. By applying the techniques of unit–root tests and the long–run Granger noncausality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995, the causal relationships between the real GDP growth rate and two stock market development proxies are tested. The results are in line with the supply leading hypothesis in the sense that there is strong causal flow from the stock market development to economic growth. A unidirectional causal relationship is also observed between real market capitalization ratio and economic growth.

  12. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  13. EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodescu Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania's integration in the European Union implies, apart the complex process of policy transfer, the learning of new modes to make policies characteristic to a multi-level governance and partnership culture. Of the different levels of governance of the European model, the regional level ("regional governance" most faithfully reflects, in our opinion, the complexity of reconfiguring the role of state in economy, at the beginning of this new millennium, in the European Union space and presents the highest practical importance for Romania, as a new Member State of the European Union, for, at the regional level, the structures are more flexible and the good practices are more rapidly assimilable. The selection of the best regional growth and development economic policies, the choosing of the objectives out of a series of competing options, the calibration in time and space of powers, roles, capabilities, and responsibilities and the encouragement of the win-win solutions call upon the choice and combination of some appropriate and efficient instruments. Representative for the new context, the regional growth and development policy must integrate, in Romania too, more knowledge, more creativity, new combinations of capabilities and new fields of expertise. This paper presents preliminary research results afferent to the post-doctoral research project: "Growth and regional development economic policies. Challenges for Romania in the context of economic-financial crisis and European model integration", carried out in the project "Economic scientific research, reliance of human welfare and development in European context", the Romanian Academy, "Costin C. Kiriţescu" National Institute for Economic Research, project financed for the 2010-2013 period from the European Social Fund (EFS and implemented by the Romanian Academy, Costin C. Kiritescu National Institute for Economic Research, in the period of time 1 December 2010 - 30 November 2012

  14. The text of the agreement of 8 July 1982 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 8 July 1982 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of nuclear material from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been suspended

  15. The text of the agreement of 14 October 1981 between Argentina and the Agency for the application of Safeguards to heavy water supplied from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Agreement between the Republic of Argentina, the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards came into force on 4 March 1994. As a result of the coming into force of the aforesaid Agreement for Argentina, the application of safeguards under the Agreement of 14 October 1981 between Argentina and the IAEA for the application of safeguards to heavy water supplied from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has been suspended

  16. CHALLENGES OF THE RECENT FINANCIAL CRISIS UPON THE EUROPEAN UNION ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHUȚ IOANA-SORINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of economic governance constitute a property or a characteristic for a multitude of areas including markets, communities, societies, state, being considered a triggering factor at regional, national or supranational level. The European Union economic governance incorporates some key features, namely in this case the decisions are made as a result of an interconnected action between a complex network that implies different levels of governing. The purpose of this article is to investigate the obstacles that the process of EU economic governance had to overcome during the recent financial crisis and the measures that the responsible authorities adopted in order to improve the general efficiency of this system. The main conclusion of this article is that the recent financial crisis highlight the limits that the European Union economic governance had in implementing economic policies that assure a smooth path towards sustainable growth and convergence in the context of a continuous process of integration between the member states. The new model of economic governance concentrates upon a mechanism of monitoring and early reporting of any macroeconomic imbalances as well as an intensified monitoring activity within the budgetary field.

  17. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Roadblock on China's "One Belt - One Road"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    is not compatible with the OBOR initiative. A free-trade agreement between China and the EEU could make it compatible, but this is not a realistic perspective for the near future. The EEU seems to be an unstable construction, with many basic rules and norms being unclear, and many tensions and conflicts among its...... members. Keywords: China, European-Atlantic Security Community, Eurasian Economic Union, “One Belt One Road” Initiative, Russia’s “Monroe Doctrine”....

  18. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239 of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%. In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%. Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after

  19. Isolationism versus Geopolitics: The Dual Role of the Eurasian Economic Union in Global Governance

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    Maxim Bratersky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptualizes ongoing efforts to develop the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, initiated by Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011. Engaging with two major theoretical perspectives, it establishes to what extent the EEU’s construction and potential expansion is economic regionalism (interpreted also as an isolationist strategy driven by Russia led geopolitical motives. The political-economy debate of Eurasia goes beyond a common tariff area and a common market within the territory of the former USSR. Increasingly, it involves the establishment of a common monetary area. China’s Silk Road Economic Belt is building a foundation for a new Eurasia – one of the global economic and political players of this century. The economic reasons pursued by Russia in its Eurasian initiative are inseparable from economic problems of geopolitical significance. The overarching objective of Russian policy is to establish a regional economic fusion, with significant economic sovereignty and strong political influence; that is, to become the new centre of power in the global economy of the 21st century. Correspondingly, although Russian integration policy in Eurasia has not been formulated in an anti-American way, if it is successful the likely consequence will be the withdrawal of a significant segment of the global market from the economic dominance and political influence of western-led economic blocs.

  20. The Economic Development of the Visegrad Four in the Last 15 Years in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Benita Kiss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Visegrad Four reflects the efforts of the countries of the Central European region to work together in a number of fields of common interest within the all-European integration. This paper focused on an examination of the economic development of the Visegrad Four as the Czech Republic, Hungary, the Republic of Poland and the Slovak Republic. With the most important economic indicators I presented the development of the four countries in the last 15 years in the European Union. I used secondary statistics for comparative analysis. I ranked the countries under examination based on the result.

  1. Enhanced Economic Governance in the EU: Alternative to a Political Union?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawecka-Wyrzykowska Elżbieta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In reaction to the sharp deterioration of fiscal positions and a sovereign debt crisis in the majority of EU member states, EU leaders have been strengthening the EU economic governance framework, in particular for the eurozone member states. This has been reflected mainly through a reinforcement of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP within the so-called six-pack and through the recent adoption of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG.

  2. Public Governance and Economic Growth in the Transitional Economies of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to new growth theories, public governance is an important determinant for sustained economic growth. This study examines the impact of six public governance indicators, including voice and accountability, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption, on the economic growth in the transitional economies of the European Union during the 2002-2013 period. The results show that all governance indicators except regulatory quality had a statistically significant positive impact on economic growth. Our findings also indicate that control of corruption and rule of law had the largest impact on economic growth, while political stability had the lowest impact.

  3. The global financial and economic crisis and the main priorities of the European Union for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the global financial-economic crisis and the main priorities of the European Union for 2020. The duration of a financial economic crisis depends on the macroeconomic factors taken into account, because their representation can have multiple nuances, generated by subjective and political influences. The financial and economic crisis had a significant impact on public finances, business, jobs and families. At all levels, the decision makers in public policy will have to find ways of triggering economic dynamism, while the margin of manoeuvre in what concerns the budget is limited. As the recorded deficit in the public sector will be again under control, public expenditure will be such organized that the targets for 2020 are met.

  4. Economic Growth—Human Capital Nexus in Post-Soviet Ukraine, 1989-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2008-01-01

    This book presents theoretical and empirical investigation of economic growth and the possible impact of human capital on economic growth in Ukraine, the Russian Federation, Poland, and Hungary during the period of 1989-2009. This research defines place and role of human capital in the process of transition from the exogenous to the endogenous forms of growth and socio-economic development. It research presents an extended statistical analysis of transition economies. Substantial part of the ...

  5. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  6. THE POLICY OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bestenigar KARA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A Customs Union came into force on 31 December 1995. The Customs Union covers all industrial goods but does not address agriculture (except processed agricultural products, services or public procurement. Bilateral trade concessions are applied to agricultural products. In addition to providing for a common external tariff for the products covered, the Customs Union foresees that Turkey is to align to the acquis communautaire in several essential internal market areas, notably with regard to industrial standards. Following the Commission’s proposal on “extending and deepening” the Customs Union, in November 1996 the Council agreed to negotiating guidelines on the liberalisation of services and public procurement between the EU and Turkey. Negotiations were, however, suspended in 2002. The main characteristic of this very dense and complex relationship is the fact that it is handled through a multitude of different modes, forums, and procedures without much consistency among them. And the difficulties encountered in the EU accession process, which is currently stalled, have tended to poison the relationship in other domains. Now, facing a number of shared challenges, the two have a major opportunity to move their relationship to a higher level by working together to deal with short- and long-term issues that are of vital importance for both. As Europe’s political and economic weight declines and Turkey is consolidated as a regional power, cooperation on economic issues will be increasingly supplemented by cooperation in other areas in order to maintain a geopolitical balance in the region and limit the presence of external players.

  7. The Development of Economic and Business Relations between PRC and European Union: Possible contribuition of economic and business schools administration schools

    OpenAIRE

    Murteira, Mário

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of economic and business administration schools in the relations between the PRC and the European Union. The influence of dominant trends in todays's world economy: globalization and regionalization.

  8. The Nabucco project's economic failure - Lessons for the European Union's foreign gas policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article criticises the new strategy of the European Union's foreign gas policy. The new policy translates in the setting up of gas corridors to diversify importations in a context of increased political competition with Russia. The inherent limitations of the EU's plan to promote the Nabucco gas pipeline as merchant line without seeking exporter involvement in the project are analysed. Such limitations are analysed through various economic prospects. A micro-economic calculation shows the significance of the use rate of a gas pipeline for profitability. The competition theory shows the possibility for an existing dominating firm to compete with a newcomer's investment by building equipment likely to pre-empt access to the resources. The transaction cost saving shows how long term undertakings between producers and suppliers are necessary for the development of transit infrastructures and distant gas fields. The article ends with the need for economic relevance in the EU's gas policy actions. (author)

  9. IMPACT OF TAX EVASION ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN BOȘTINĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research topic emerges from the fact that an important part of the fiscal revenues is lost annually through activities of fiscal planning, fiscal circumvention and tax evasion, undertaken by the private sector. In this respect, the aim of the paper is to estimate, by using the econometric analysis, the impact of tax evasion on the economic growth in the European Union for the period 1997-2010 for which the data was available. For the tax evasion it have been used index as a proxy that optimizes by maximum. Thus the main hypothesis (that the index tax evasion positively influences the economic growth was not rejected, even after including some specific control variables in the regressive models. In other words, as tax evasion is increased the economic growth is likely to decrease.

  10. DE-Sovietizing educational systems, learning from past policy and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Cathy C.

    1994-03-01

    All 21st century societies face the dilemma of reforming educational systems to meet changing social demands. In order to enable new beginnings to be made, this article examines the ending of reform efforts in the former Soviet Union immediately prior to the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Educational policy had followed a shifting course under changing Soviet leadership, much supposed reform consisting of little more than reworked statements of intent. In the second half of the 1980's, more serious attempts were made to raise enrollment of six-year olds, to upgrade instructional materials and teaching quality, and to redesign vocational education. Inadequate facilities and resources, lack of trained personnel, promotion on non-educational grounds, economic hardship and bureaucratic resistance hindered these reforms. As successor states to the Soviet Union — and others — face structural change, knowledge of why certain reforms were previously resisted will help future planning.

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY ON THE ECONOMIC CYCLE OF EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Behun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry is a key sector in many national economies and is involved in creating sustainable economic growth. At the same time, it is a sector sensitive to internal and external impacts that result in fluctuations in the economic cycle, copying its development or even outstripping the development of economic cycles. The main objective of this contribution was to identify the relationship between manufacturing and GDP, which represents the economic cycle in European Union countries. The time series of selected indicators of the manufacturing industry and GDP from the Eurostat database for Q1 2000-Q4 2016 were used for analysis purposes. An analysis of 296 time series with a quarterly periodicity from 22 EU countries (including the United Kingdom was performed. The results of analyses indicate that the processing industry is a sector with significant cyclical behavior. In most countries, production and sales in the manufacturing industry behaved as concurrent indicators, changes in production and sales almost immediately reflected in the growth or decline in GDP. Labor market indicators have been shown to be delayed cyclical indicators. Changes in the economic development of the countries have a strong impact on employment, the remuneration of employees and the number of hours worked in the sector. Strong cyclical industries must be constantly monitored, as negative changes in these sectors will automatically exacerbate the economic cycle recession. The results of our analyses represent a valuable platform for economic policy makers and regional strategic plans.

  12. Socio-economic homogamy and its effects on the stability of cohabiting unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency towards socio-economic homogamy – partner similarity in terms of socio-economic status – is of great interest to social scientists, for two reasons. First, socio-economic homogamy is an indicator of social closure between status groups in a society. Second, given that homogamy leads to the accumulation of advantageous and disadvantageous socio-economic conditions within couples, it also intensifies social and economic inequalities between families. The objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge of socio-economic homogamy and its consequences for union stability in Finland. The first aim was to analyse the strength and patterns of socio-economic homogamy in partner choice. The second aim was to determine whether and, if so, how homogamy is associated with the likelihood of ending non-marital cohabitation – through separation on the one hand, or marriage on the other. In addition, two dimensions of socio-economic status, individual educational attainment and social class of the family of origin, were analysed to find out whether matching on individually achieved status or on the status of the parental family had a bigger effect on union dynamics. The analyses were based on sets of register data compiled at Statistics Finland. Log-linear models were applied to study homogamy tendencies and their changes in marriages and cohabitations of women born in 1957–1979 at the age of 30. The effects of homogamy and heterogamy on the likelihood of separation and marriage were analysed with Cox proportional hazards model in cohabitations formed in the period 1995–2002 by women born in 1960–1977. An elaborate approach was adopted: marriage and separation rates were examined in each possible combination of partner status. The results imply that people tend to choose partners who are similar to them in terms of educational attainment and class background. However, homogamy was stronger with regard to education than to social

  13. European Socio-cultural Change and Generational Diversity in the Post-Soviet Workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara APSALONE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In times of increased retirement age and senior employees staying in workforce longer, successfully managing generational differences in the workforce forms an increasingly important challenge for modern day management. In many ways, generations may vary in attitudes and approaches, reflecting deeper differences in their core values. This might be particularly true for the Post-Soviet countries, where earlier generations were educated and started their careers within a completely different socio-economic system. In this study we explore differences in approaches towards values and attitudes amongst four generations of retail sector employees – starting from those, who were still to great extent exposed to pre-Soviet values, continuing with employees, who started their careers during the Soviet times, and ending with those, who were educated and entered the workforce after the collapse of the Soviet Union. 208 Latvian service employees were surveyed to assess their personal values and likelihood of dishonest and unethical behavior from four generations currently active in the workforce - Post-War generation, Early Gen X, Transition generation and Millennials. We confirmed that despite dual morality and ambiguous ethics in the Soviet Union, older generations reported higher likelihood of honest behavior than younger generations. And Post-War and Early Generation X also rated honesty and responsibility higher as their personal values. We also found significant differences between Early Generation X and the Transition generation in a post-Soviet context.

  14. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  15. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  16. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  17. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3).

  18. International Chernobyl project - input from the Commission of the European Communities to the evaluation of the relocation policy adopted by the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In October 1989, the Government of the USSR formally requested the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out: '...an international experts' assessment of the concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in those areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The response to this request was a proposal for a multinational team to undertake an assessment of the radiological situation in the three affected Soviet Republics - the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (UKrSSR), the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR) and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR). The International Chernobyl Project was established for this purpose with the participation of the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Labour Office (ILO), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). An International Advisory Committee, comprising scientists from 10 countries and seven international organizations, was established to direct the Project and be responsible for its findings. The results of the Project have been published in two reports - an overview and a technical report -prepared by the International Advisory Committee

  19. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  20. The Revitalization of the Soviet Film Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, Yuri

    1991-01-01

    Discusses how the grip of the Soviet Union's past--from Stalinist mythology to ideological cliche--is being exposed and undermined whereas a sense of individual efficacy, necessary for the present, has yet to emerge from the portrayals in Soviet films. (PRA)

  1. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  2. SOCIAL COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC-FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Gradinaru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The start of the financial crisis in mid-2007 at a global scale had a major impact on the European Union’s economy. All member states have been economically affected, but the social effects were mainly of large amplitude. This paper focuses precisely on analysing the social costs which the economic-financial crisis has generated in the European Union. After finishing the study we have noticed that numerous social consequences of the recession have manifested intensely since the beginning of the crisis and continue to do so even today. These consist in the increase of poverty and social exclusion, rise in unemployment, decrease in birth rate, changes regarding the migration process, reduction in income, excessive indebtedness, the disparities between countries contributing to the augmentation of all these.

  3. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  4. Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures.

  5. The Soviet Union and the Third World. Part 1. Coups D’Etat: Lessons of the Past, Prospects for the Future and a Guide for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    which most of the Arab states supported the Eritreans) while Ismail readily agreed to the Soviet request. More fundementally , the dispute revolved around... investment , United Fruit controlled much of the Guatemalan economy and was virtually a state within a state. In June 1953 Arbenz issued an agrarian...CIA continued its efforts to create a coup climate in Chile. President Nixon ordered the end to private investment guarantees to American firms doing

  6. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  7. Changes in taxation and their impact on economic growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze changes in taxation and their impact on economic growth in the European Union. The analysis is performed on adjusted annual panel data of 24 European Union countries in a period 1995–2008. Panel regression with fixed effects is used as a basic method of research. The panel regression is based on analysis the effect of total tax quota changes on GDP growth in model 1, of changes in its components (social contribution, direct and indirect tax quotas in model 2 and of personal and corporate income tax quota changes in model 3. Results of empirical tests verify statistically significant negative effect of tax burden on GDP growth. Total tax quota increased by 1% decreases the GDP growth rate by 0.29% in the same year. Estimations confirm a statistically significant negative effect of direct taxes on GDP growth as well. A cut in the direct tax quota by 1% raises the GDP growth rate by 0.43%. The model also presents a high negative impact of an increase in the corporate income tax quota on GDP growth (a value of the regression coefficient is minus 1.28%. The effect of social contribution quota on GDP growth is not statistically significant in any estimation.

  8. Universal Higher Education and Positional Advantage: Soviet Legacies and Neoliberal Transformations in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolentseva, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The great expansion of participation in higher education in Russia in the post-Soviet period was the layered and contradictory result of both conditions established in the Soviet period, and the structuring of reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992. The Soviet government was strongly committed to the expansion of education across…

  9. The advantages and impediments in fostering Republic of Moldova- the European Union economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts and funding, the reform implementation process in the Republic of Moldova meets important difficulties especially in the areas of strategic significance including the fields of public administration, justice and banking sectors. The initiatives implemented in these sectors by the Moldovan authorities under European supervision proved to be inefficient as they did not reach the expected results. This situation leads to dragging down the pace of European integration of the country, as the trust of the population and of foreign partners regarding European future of Moldova was negatively affected. Thus, this research intends to identify the most important impediments of bi-lateral cooperation between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union. Also, some recommendations are provided to increase the actual status-quo and are specified main Moldovan economic advantages which have been registered since the acceleration of cooperation with the EU.

  10. FEATURES OF TECHNOLOGIES TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Solovieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article forms and conditions of interaction of participants of innovative process, feature of creation and development of organizational system of a transfer of technologies in member countries of the Eurasian Economic Union are considered. On the basis of a transfer systems analysis functioning in the EEU countries, the author allocates the key and most perspective directions of development of integration of scientific and educational, production spheres and the state for the purpose of formation of special mechanisms of the organization of the innovative processes providing effective interaction between all its participants. The conclusion about need of creation of the organizational system based on integration of institutes of the state, science, business and education in the EEU countries for formation of competitive hi-tech production, increase in the status of the countries in the world market of technologies is drawn.

  11. Long-Term Comparative Advantages of the Eurasian Economic Union Member States in International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkowski Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On 1st January 2015 the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU - a new integration block comprising initially Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and later that year also Armenia and Kyrgyzstan - appeared on the world map. This paper endeavors to identify the EAEU countries’ long-term international comparative advantages within four basic groups of goods according to the OECD classification of manufacturing industries based on technology intensity. The analysis, using B. Balassa’s RCA methodology and covering the years 2000-2014, indicates that these countries lack competitiveness, with none of them possessing any RCAs in the high-technology category whereas in the medium-hightechnology category - only Belarus. In contrast, all the EAEU countries fared the best in the medium-low-technology category, which is mostly attributable to the resources-based character of their economies. Surprisingly, dramatically low international competitiveness was recorded by Kazakhstan and Russia.

  12. The Impact of European Economic Integration on Migration in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent enlargement of the EU (since 2004 and the United Kingdom's decision to leave the European Union have prompted a growing research interest in the political and academic environment because of the causes and consequences of migration between the CEE countries and those in the Western Europe. In this study, the effects of European economic integration on the number of EU-15 immigrants from the newly integrated EU countries were assessed by econometric techniques. According to panel data models, in the period 2000-2015, the number of migrants from the new member states of the EU has increased, in average, with more than 2200 people only due to their EU membership. This result reflects the positive impact of European economic integration on the number of emigrants from the CEE countries that chose the EU-15 states as destination countries. Moreover, according to some ridge Bayesian regressions, during the period 2004-2015, the EU-15 immigrants coming from the EU-13 states did not negatively affect the economic growth of the EU-15 countries.

  13. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  14. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective.

  15. Public Investment and Economic Growth in The European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public investments becamea very challenging subject for public decisionmakerssince it incorporates the question of stateperformance, the quality of public finance and theireffects on growth. The quality of public finance is amultidimensional concept. It may be regarded asrepresenting all the arrangements and operationsregarding the financial politics that sustain themacroeconomic objectives, particularly the longtermeconomic growth. Financial policies atEuropean level highlight the fact that a concentrationof the public expenses in areas that stimulate theeconomic growth and a more efficient use of thepublic resources are key methods for sustainingthe economic growth. The empirical proofs seem tosupport the assumption according to which certaintypes of public expenses can supply incentivesand other can negatively influence the economicgrowth. The paper tries to reveal the effects ofcapital spending on economic growth (GDP percapita for the European Union member states.The GDP per capita and the capital expenses(functional classification of public expenses -“COFOG” have been obtained by consideringthe Eurostat statistics, the measurement unit forboth variables is Euro, while the period of analysisis of 7 years (2000-2006.

  16. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  17. Loose Soviet nukes: A mountain or a molehill?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    For almost four decades, US national security alarmists have tossed and turned in the night fretting about the atomic plots that might be hatching behind the Kremlin's impenetrable walls. A secretly deployed antimissile shield? An unanswerable first strike? When Cold War fevers were spiking, no Soviet action was too dire to ponder. Now that the Cold War has been declared over and won, ironically, the focus of US concern has shifted to a new danger that has nothing to do with deliberate Soviet schemes. Rather, as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney suggested in February 7 remarks to the House Armed Services Committee, the collapse of central authority in the Soviet Union means that the greatest threat to the neighbors of the Soviet Union in the future may well come more from the Soviet inability to control events inside the Soviet Union than it will from any conscious policy of seeking to expand their influence by military means

  18. Interview with Mr. Albert A. Shishkin and Mr. Boris V. Nikipelov of the Soviet Union's Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    NUEXCO first interviewed Mr. Nikipelov in the fall of 1989 on the subject of V/O Techsnabexport (TENEX) and its growing commercial presence in the international nuclear fuel market. In that interview, Mr. Nikipelov, First Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Atomic Energy and Industry (MAEI), concluded with a discussion of the non-nuclear production capability within the Ministry. He also emphasized the mutual benefits that might be derived from increased international trade in these areas. In this follow-up interview, Mr. Albert A. Shishkin, General Director of TENEX, joins Mr. Nikipelov in giving us more detail on the state-sponsored program of converting the production capacity of the Soviet nuclear fuel cycle and its supporting infrastructure from defense and power generation to commercial purposes

  19. Soviet Union-France cooperative study of the solar corona. 1. The structure singularities and photometry of the corona on July 10, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vsekhsvyatskij, S.K.; Dzyubenko, N.I.; Nesmyanovich, A.T.; Popov, O.S.; Kuchmij, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 75 - Paris

    1975-01-01

    The results of the study of the eclipse negatives obtained by the expedition of the astronomy division of the Kiev University on 10 July 1972 in accordance with the program of the Soviet-France experiment ''Thynamics of white corona'' are given. New formations - ''voids'' and sharp boundary are obtained side by side with the usual coronal structure details: -polar ray systems, large coronal beams; arch systems. A great number of extended thin streamers in the south-west square and a helical beam over bright condensation are registered. Photometry of one of the negatives exibited a considerable heterogeneity of the corona. Mean values of the K-corona brightness are in agreement with the brightness of a maximum corona according to Van de Hulst model within the range of p < 2R. The coronal gifts are registered near the N-pole and in the south-west region are registered

  20. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  1. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union: A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Levent; Acar, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (ii) the free movement of capital, and (iii) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO 2 emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness.

  2. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  3. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  4. Economic burden of cancer across the European Union: a population-based cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Leal, Jose; Gray, Alastair; Sullivan, Richard

    2013-11-01

    In 2008, 2·45 million people were diagnosed with cancer and 1·23 million died because of cancer in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU). We aimed to estimate the economic burden of cancer in the EU. In a population-based cost analysis, we evaluated the cost of all cancers and also those associated with breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers. We obtained country-specific aggregate data for morbidity, mortality, and health-care resource use from international and national sources. We estimated health-care costs from expenditure on care in the primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient settings, and also drugs. Additionally, we estimated the costs of unpaid care provided by relatives or friends of patients (ie, informal care), lost earnings after premature death, and costs associated with individuals who temporarily or permanently left employment because of illness. Cancer cost the EU €126 billion in 2009, with health care accounting for €51·0 billion (40%). Across the EU, the health-care costs of cancer were equivalent to €102 per citizen, but varied substantially from €16 per person in Bulgaria to €184 per person in Luxembourg. Productivity losses because of early death cost €42·6 billion and lost working days €9·43 billion. Informal care cost €23·2 billion. Lung cancer had the highest economic cost (€18·8 billion, 15% of overall cancer costs), followed by breast cancer (€15·0 billion, 12%), colorectal cancer (€13·1 billion, 10%), and prostate cancer (€8·43 billion, 7%). Our results show wide differences between countries, the reasons for which need further investigation. These data contribute to public health and policy intelligence, which is required to deliver affordable cancer care systems and inform effective public research funds allocation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Future of the European Union is Closely Related to a Stronger Economic Cooperation between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Drăgoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the crisis in the euro area, the EU has implemented a series of measures to respond to the major economic challenges and support the efforts to boost growth and create jobs in the Member States. In October 2012, EU leaders have decided that in order to overcome the challenges brought by the sovereign debt crisis is necessary to establish a closer economic cooperation between European countries. Our paper aims to analyze the main measures taken at European level to converge toward this goal, aiming to highlight the extent to which they are "successful steps" leading to the creation of banking, fiscal and economic union in Europe.

  6. A Soviet view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    During the past several years, the international situation has changed greatly. Efforts to maintain strategic stability have replaced the desire for strategic superiority. Equally important, new thinking in the Soviet Union has greatly accelerated the political warming between the superpowers. As a result of thee developments, the Soviet Union and the United States have come to the conclusion that a nuclear war cannot be won and should never be fought. These events have drastically reduced the probability of the deliberate use of nuclear or conventional weapons. However, the risk of a military crisis and its consequences still exist. Indeed, the risk of a nuclear exchange is still possible. What has changed, however, is that in the current international climate, a crisis or war may result unintentionally because of misperceptions, misunderstanding, accident, or technical fault. While the probability of this is admittedly small, it remains far greater than that of deliberate conflict. The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is twofold. First, it identifies potential sources of unintended crises and conflicts and recommends appropriate confidence-building measures. Second, it addresses CBMs and their potential roles in nuclear crisis de-escalation

  7. Soviet civil defense is inadequate and meaningless

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that Soviet civil defense plans exist primarily on paper and are used to pacify the Soviet people, not as plans to survive and prevail in a nuclear confrontation with the U.S. The author describes how the Soviet people have little faith in the civil defense programs. They don't believe they can survive an attack. Furthermore, he says the Soviets have never staged an evacuation exercise in any major city nor, even in smaller towns, has an entire community been evacuated. The author says there are numerous problems with the shelter programs as well. Very few existing shelters have any food stocks, only a few more have any water. There is little evidence that Soviet leaders have planned their economy with civil defense in mind. Nor - given the blatant inadequacies of Soviet civil defense programs, the marked vulnerabilities of the Soviet economy, and the intrinsic limitation and uncertainties about civil defense generally - is there much basis for claiming that Soviet leaders, even in desperate straits, would risk war with the United States while counting on civil defense measures to limit the damage wreaked on the Soviet Union

  8. Income, Economic Structure and Trade: Impacts on Recent Water Use Trends in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-1990s to the recent international economic crisis, the European Union (EU27 experienced a significant economic growth and a flat population increase. During these years, the water resources directly used by the EU countries displayed a growing but smooth trend. However, European activities intensively demanded water resources throughout the whole global supply chain. The growth rate of embodied water use was three times higher than the growth in water directly used by these economies. This was mainly due to the large upsurge of virtual water imports in the EU (e.g., about 25% of the change in water imports in the world was directly linked to the increasing imports in the EU27 countries. In this context, we analyze water use changes in the EU27 from 1995 to 2009, combining the production and consumption perspectives. To that aim, we use the environmentally extended input-output approach to obtain the volume of water embodied in domestic production and in trade flows at the sector and country levels. In the empirical analysis, we utilize multi-regional input-output data from the World Input Output Database. In addition, by means of a structural decomposition analysis we identify and quantify the factors explaining changes in these trends. We focus both on the role of domestic production and trade and estimate the associated intensity, technology and scale effects. This analysis is done for different clusters, identifying singular patterns depending on income criteria. Our results confirm the boost of demand growth in that period, the positive but negligible effect of structural change, and the decline in water intensity which, however, was not enough to compensate the effects on water associated to the economic expansion in the period. These findings also point at a gradual substitution of domestic water use for virtual water imports. More concretely, in most countries the food industry tended to reduce its backward linkages with the

  9. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-13

    From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population's overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population's overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  10. Mapping Sustainability Preferences of West African Economic and Monetary Union. Case Study: Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Satoguina, Honorat

    2006-01-01

    This study discusses the concept of sustainability, in particular with respect to the CDM. In addition, based on cross-section interviews, the sustainability criteria for CDM projects in energy sectors in the studied countries are determined. These criteria could serve as a starting point for discussing and designing sustainable development criteria in the West African Economic and Monetary Union. Moreover, issues related to the location of Designated National Authorities (DNA) and their fund...

  11. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  12. Childhood tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, A; Hollo, V; Quinten, C; Manissero, D

    2011-03-24

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been neglected for decades as a key component of TB control. However, ensuring proper monitoring of childhood TB has recently been given renewed emphasis. A descriptive analysis of surveillance data was performed to assess burden and trends of paediatric TB in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2009, 39,695 notified paediatric (defined as 0–14 years of age) TB cases were reported by the 27 EU countries plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein. These paediatric cases accounted for 4.3% of all notified cases. However, across the EU/EEA Member States, paediatric case notification rates ranged from 29.6 per 100,000 to 0.3 per 100,000 for the latest reporting year, 2009. Overall,though, these rates dropped from 5.5 per 100,000 in 2000 to 4.2 per 100,000 in 2009. The EU/EEA average annual percent changes (AAPC) in paediatric notification rates decreased between 2000 and 2004 by 1.3%and between 2005 and 2009 by 2.4%, with an overall decrease between 2000 and 2009 of 2.8%. Of all paediatric cases reported from 2000 to 2009, only 16.9%were culture-confirmed, amongst which the overall treatment success was 80.5% for all culture-confirmed pulmonary paediatric TB cases. Childhood TB in the EU/EEA remains a public health issue. Due attention should be paid to assessing paediatric trends as they could provide an insight in recent transmission. Whilst the primary aim of further reducing TB rates among children is paramount, better rates of appropriate diagnosis should also be achieved, along with a further improvement of therapeutic success rates.

  13. ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN MINORITY IN TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Bandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards, there was a sharp economic decline in the entire Soviet Union including Central Asia. People in general were affected due to this economic decline; however, in case of the Slav minority in Central Asia including Tajikistan the outmigration of Russian, which started from the 1980s, affected them more than that of their Central Asian counterparts. After the disintegration of Soviet Union, the condition of the leftovers was further accentuated by the language policy, ethnicisation while recruitment in the public offices, etc. Besides this Tajikistan has been the poorest country in the post Soviet space, which in turn is adding to the economic hardships of the people in general and ethnic Russians of the country in particular.

  14. Women's employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muszynska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of women's employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004 the risk of union dissolution was similar among women who worked and those who did not work. No differences were found between various employment groups during socialism. In the transition period, however, a variation in the risk of union dissolution among groups of working women existed. The biggest differences are related to company ownership type, with women who worked in private enterprises having the highest risk of union dissolution.

  15. Book Review: Odintsov, M. I. Confessional Policy in the Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War in 1941-1945 [Text] / M. I. Odintsov, A. S. Kochetova. – M. : Scientific & Political Book : Political Encyclopedia, 2014. – 317 p. – (History of Stalinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Yakunin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The book contains the information about the status and activities of churches and religious groups in the Soviet Union before and during the Great Patriotic War in 1941–1945. The causes which led to the change in the policy of the Soviet government against the religious organizations are identified, the analysis of the activities of the Soviet state on creating a new system of state-church relations, the main stages of its development are represented. The activity of the newly created authorities on “Religious Affairs” – the Council for Russian Orthodox Church and the Religious Affairs Council is revealed. The authors show a response to the change in the statechurch relations in the center and different strata of Soviet society and also the ratio of official policy and propaganda with a specific embodiment of the state church policy. M.I. Odintsov and A.S. Kochetova analyze the situation and activity of religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR. The plans and main directions of the Nazi policy towards religion and religious organizations in the occupied territories of the USSR, directives of the political and military leadership of Nazi Germany are studied. The authors compare the religious policies of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union and show their similarities and differences, emphasizing that the last ones were most clearly expressed from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The book features a wide source base. The documentation of 6 major Russian archives was used for solving the research problem.

  16. Review of the Soviet gas industry in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Soviet production of natural gas increased by only 18.6 billion cubic meters (2.3%) in 1990, from 796.1 billion cubic meters (BCM) to 814.7 BCM. This was the smallest annual increment and the lowest rate of growth in more than two decades. During the 1980s, annual growth typically had been in the 6-8% range, with yearly increments of 40-50 BCM. Of the national total in 1990, enterprises of the Gazprom Concern (formerly the Ministry of the Gas Industry) produced 748.0 BCM, while the Ministry of Oil and Gas produced 66.7 BCM; the latter would be mostly associated gas. Given the USSR's ample resource base, it appears that the Soviet economy is experiencing increasing problems absorbing natural gas, particularly as Soviet aggregate economic output falls along with total energy consumption. During the 1980s, when the gas industry was growing so rapidly, the Soviets absorbed the massive increments in gas supply by directing most of it to a few very large consumers - electric power stations, iron and steel plants, and nitrogenous fertilizer centers. Currently, 54.3% of gas is used for electric power generation; 32.6% in industry; and only 13.1% by the housing and municipal sector. Although the share of housing units using either natural gas or LPG (liquefied petroleum gas-butane and propane) is fairly high in the Soviet Union - 84.8% - this is mostly for cooking rather than heating, so gas use per unit is relatively small. Another problem is that the availability of gas among households is very uneven across the republics and between rural and urban areas. A table gives statistics on gas production in various regions from 1970-1990

  17. A Structural-Topological Analysis of the Relationship between Actors of Multiple Connections: Intercommunication between the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anisimov

    2016-09-01

    processes in the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Union. The method presented in this article can be used along with existing research methods to understand global fluctuations.

  18. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was

  19. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  20. Cuba’s Involvement in Angola and Ethiopia: A Question of Autonomy in Cuba’s Relationship with the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA). Consequently, the Angolan War centered around these three nationalistic movements vying for power by the...the Semiperiphery: A Comparison of Brazil and Mexico ," Latin America’s Economic Development Institutionalist and Structuralist Perspectives, eds...Venezuela, Mexico , and Colombia; it was also global. Besides the United States, countries such as Great Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Italy also

  1. European Union and Romanian Tourism – ß and σ Convergence in the Economic Development Regions of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, both in Romania and in Europe, tourism tends to become one of the biggest industries, with great development possibilities in the future. The economic development of Romania including tourism benefits from the support of the European Union, and has the purpose to reduce the gaps in this concern, compared to both the European Union average and more developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyse β and σ convergence in the 8 Economic Development Regions of Romania by a tourism approach. The concept of β-convergence represents the process of quicker development of poor regions than the rich ones, and σ-convergence is evaluating the process of decrease of regional economic disparities in time. The analysis based on β-convergence was performed using econometric modelling techniques of linear correlation. For σ-convergence, we measured the dispersion of real GDPT per in habitant by the use of the variation coefficient t  . The purpose is to check the hypothesis according to which the β-convergence approach and the σ- convergence concept can lead to different results for the Economic Development Regions of Romania. The period analysed is between 2007 and 2013.

  2. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  3. U.S. and Soviet Agriculture: The Shifting Balance of Power. Worldwatch Paper 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    Analysts of U.S.-Soviet balance of power usually focus on relative military strength. But other factors determine a country's overall power and influence. Among the most basic is a country's capacity to feed its people. By this measure the Soviet Union appears to be in deep trouble. Massive spending has increased Soviet military strength in recent…

  4. A direct comparison of popular models of normal memory loss and Alzheimer's disease in samples of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn

    2011-04-01

    To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. The spread of human capital in the former Soviet Union area in a comparative perspective: Exploring a new dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Didenko

    2013-07-01

    The data presented in this paper follow after the discussion of the information value of the primary sources utilised, and the various problems that arose when linking and splicing the data from various sources. After constructing series of human capital indicators we perform a time-series and spatial analysis in order to identify the long-term trends of education penetration and of the human capital development in the FSU area with a strong emphasis on inequality issues between the NIS. Applying these results in a simple growth accounting framework provides us with some preliminary insights on the role of human capital in economic development in the FSU area.

  6. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  7. A Second Chance for Europe : Economic, Political and Legal Perspectives of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzen, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This book calls upon us to rethink and reboot the European Union. The authors dissect the EU’s many vulnerabilities: how some Member States are backsliding on the rule of law, freedom of the press, and control of corruption – and how globalization’s ‘discontents’ are threatening the liberal

  8. Liberal economic nationalism, financial stability, and Commission leniency in Banking Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnelly, Shawn

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that protection and promotion of insolvent banks remains a high priority for national authorities in Europe, and the Commission partially accommodates these impulses in the desire to preserve national financial stability. Insolvent banks are kept alive despite Banking Union

  9. Predicting European Union recessions in the euro era: The yield curve as a forecasting tool of economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Gogas, Periklis; Chionis, Dionisios; Pragkidis, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have established the predictive power of the yield curve, ie: the difference between long and short term bond rates, in terms of real economic activity, for the U.S. and various European countries. In this paper we use data from the European Union (EU15), ranging from 1994:Q1 to 2008:Q3. The seasonally adjusted real GDP is used to extract the long run trend and the cyclical component of the European output, while the European Central Bank’s euro area government benchmark bonds...

  10. Exploring integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European union and European economic area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, Maria; O’Shea, Miriam; Larkin, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Theory and methods: Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted...... from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey. A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. Results: We identified ‘in-principle’ complex problems...

  11. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  12. Soviet experience with peaceful uses of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordyke, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    The Soviet Union is pursuing an active program for developing peaceful uses of nuclear explosions (PNE). They have reported 16 explosions, with applications ranging from putting out oil-well fires and stimulating oil recovery to creating instant dams and canals. The data reported generally agree with U.S. experience. Seismic data collected by western sources on explosions outside the known Soviet test sites indicate that the Soviet program is at least twice as large as they have reported. The accelerated pace of these events suggests that in some applications the Soviet PNE program is approaching routine industrial technology

  13. Landmarks in the Literature: Super Soviet Pedagogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Patrick L.

    1979-01-01

    Anton Makarenko became a national hero for effecting education for communism in the 1920s. His book, "The Road to Life," is an artistic achievement and the most widely read and influential work on education in the Soviet Union. But Makarenko's legacy is more myth than model in present-day Russia. (Author/SJL)

  14. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  15. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Russia and the European Union: The Sources and Limits of "Special Relationships"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Cynthia A

    2007-01-01

    More than 15 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union and two decades after the last Soviet President, Mikhail Gorbachev, raised hopes that Russia would liberalize and join a common European home...

  18. Certain problems in the economics of deep drilling operations conducted in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanskiy, L.M.; Repina, I.S.

    1981-01-01

    The authors provide analysis and evaluation of technical-economic indicators for borehole drilling conducted at great depths in the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic. Suggestions are made for improving such drilling operations in this area.

  19. INFLUENCE OF THE CUSTOMS UNION ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF KAZAKHSTAN. BASIC PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rahmatulina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the Kazakhstan economy functioning results for the first year of the Customs Union existence proves that along with elimination of some barriers in the trade between the alliance participating countries, difficulties arose owing to disaccord in the tariff policy (particularlyrelated to railway transportation of goods, necessity to prepare new documents, etc., that negatively influence activities of Kazakhstan companies. In order to remove these difficulties, intensive mutual efforts should be taken by governmental authorities of all TC participatingcountries, opinion of respective business communities having to be compulsorily taken into account.

  20. INFLUENCE OF THE CUSTOMS UNION ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF KAZAKHSTAN. BASIC PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rahmatulina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the Kazakhstan economy functioning results for the first year of the Customs Union existence proves that along with eliminationof some barriers in the trade between the alliance participating countries, difficulties arose owing to disaccord in the tariff policy (particularly related to railway transportation of goods, necessity to prepare new documents, etc., that negatively infl uence activities of Kazakhstan companies. In order to remove these difficulties, intensive mutual efforts should be taken by governmental authorities of all TC participating countries, opinion of respective business communities having to be compulsorily taken into account.

  1. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  2. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  3. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  4. The economic impact of east–west migration on the European Union

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kahanec, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2017), s. 407-434 ISSN 0340-8744 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : EU enlargement * free mobility of workers * migration impacts Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2016

  5. The economic impact of east–west migration on the European Union

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kahanec, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2017), s. 407-434 ISSN 0340-8744 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : EU enlargement * free mobility of workers * migration impacts Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2016

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    people have simply been deceived, their ignorance has been exploited; they "hung their noodles on their ears." But then we see these "simple people...running his farm, but in the next instant he was left without a horse, a coat, a roof over his head, without land, without a source of water. As

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-14

    de estudios internationales (CEPEI), Lima, 1986, XXXVI+498 pp] [Text] The latest publication of the Peruvian Center for International Research is...United States on the Malvinas Islands and Easter Island (p 377). Mercado Harrin, former minister of foreign affairs and prime minister of Peru who...urgent tasks in the realm of foreign policy. E. Mercado Harrin, analyzing the geopolitical climate in Latin America after the Malvinas conflict of

  8. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-21

    incapable of covering the 2-3 kilometers to a bakery . We must rectify the situation with regard to pavements, the clutter in courtyards, and streets even...4pingrad. Electoral district No 379. 253. SlMAK()V, .1\\leksey )’uryevich, born 1 956, non­ party member, PllC�er-transporter at the 1 2th Bakery Plant...affiliation. The Moldavian Communist Part supports an electoral system that is based on principles of the universal, equal, direct franchise and

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-03

    enlightenment, literature, art, cinema , the press, radio, television, cultural enlightenment work, physical culture and sports. We must note the...television broadcasting, cinema and education. An important sector in cultural construction has become the expansion and intensification of ties along the...Uruguay have reestablished diplomatic relations with the first socialist state in the Western Hemisphere. Peruvian -Cuban relations, which were at a

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-23

    Children’s festivals , carnivals based on local tradition, performances by music groups and polit- ical cabaret artistes at the time of political...specialists, tourism , that is, those that presuppose using cash. Accounts in convertible national currencies involving the production and scientific...communists took these proposals to the people of the city—they set up information stands, around which discussion arose and children’s festivities

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-30

    with recordings of popular and modern music . In secondary school No. 6, not far from Lenin Square, we are preparing for the festive opening of a...Kirghiz SSR State Committee for Physical Culture and Sport into a Kirghiz SSR State Committee for Physical Culture, Sport, and Tourism . Ratification...Comrade Eshim Kutmanalnev as chairman of the Kir- ghiz SSR State Committee for Physical Culture and Tourism , Comrade Dzhumakadyr Ubyshev, as

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-28

    its difference from bio - logical forms promotes the process of humanization and perfection of the human being. The role of an ideal is immense. Maxim...not mass-produced steles , or obelisks, but with names and empty spaces for those, who have not been found yet. I think that these activities

  13. JPRS Report: Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-15

    possibility of sharply (by 70-80 percent) reducing costs of financing scientific research and experimental design -monitoring of the condition of...Foreign Minister, but fifteen plus one at best. Are you of Swedish society, from the IKEA furniture supermarket prepared to cope with that? to Tetrapak...was not to the liking of the Chinese, who were supporting programs for them, as well as planning and designing him at that time. telecommunications

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-20

    Afonin] At one time I was a first-class volleyball player, high office, an official, but for a live, specific person with skier and chess-player. I love...people, often caused by will help solve it. their incomplete knowledge of the radiation situation. Above all, I see the means for this in halting the...financing. even more complicated as the republic switches to self- management and self-financing. It is common knowledge that the CPSU Central Com- mittee

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-26

    and to enhance substantively the role of the republic’s manage- rial entities in satisfying the population’s demand for alimentary products, it is...designing, biotechnology and others. On the other hand, to the extent that the principles of cost accounting and self financing are more and more widely

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    ventures. [Question] The cooperative movement is gaining strength in the USSR. Many cooperatives have a chance to go out into the foreign market...facili- ties and equipment are impeding the cooperative movement in agricultural production. Nonetheless, more than 100,000 production- solidarity

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-17

    be the envy of many large cities. A child with infantile cerebral palsy can be given a free course of The conversation with R. Dovlyatshoyev, deputy...Social sciences face quite a few serious problems. They international relations, active work is being conducted so re ace quide a benefious proess to...at the Sum- mer Games in Seoul. With regard to medals won, they This will allow us to take a major step forward in solving were in the top 10, having

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-17

    prudence of the 1930’s (" Death to Bukharin!"). Fre- called him in my article. And he wants to take me to quently even the investigation itself, unable to... death ’..." The end is still not at hand. We were able to buy a "...What does the seminary also teach? It also teaches watermelon at the market and in a...the road with a sack on and self-assertion. Why? To prevent possible crimes by a his back and behind him a horseman in armor. And he dozen social

  19. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-15

    theory of socialist building is still in diapers . And today too there is no "growth" in this direction. We have seen more than once that some...building of a solar battery plant using our silica deposits. This is very important for the Amur region where there are many clear days and a very

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    Meetings of students and veterans, militarized physical culture celebrations , department and school activities which develop a sense of patriotism, formal...they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    needed, and celebrated case—cosmonautics, but nevertheless it would be possible to institute Internationalist Day " li 12 13 Ik BK—unit of fire...boots which the soldiers simply call "kimry." They will give odds to any strongest " Adidas ’" which inevitably fall apart after the first 100 kilo...coincidence." "Were you there with the ’contras’ or with the Sandanistas?" "With both," he answered. I told Amett about the celebrated case of John

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-23

    conflicts and injustices. The system of "artistic coun- cils," "ratings," "authorization of lyrics ," etc., is based exclusively "on a subjective...its court essay , "A Fictitious Marriage and a Funeral Dress," told of this instance: S. Nevya- domskaya, a resident of Ordzhonikidze, having regis

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-04

    peaches, grapes, pomegranates , muskmelons, and some other fruits and melons which are unique in terms of taste, appearance, keeping quality...other than a feeling of honor and dignity. Someone once cracked in devil-may-care fashion: "What’s healthy for the Russian is death for the German...being carried out within the CEMA member countries aimed at achieving stable growth in the production of grain, meat, milk, vegetables, fruit and fish

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    arms) between the USSR and the United States. To me, it appears as unthinkable as a skirmish between an ele- phant and a whale . However, our military...have described them as racketeers, drug addicts , and have represented them as people who will potentially commit suicide. In fact it has always

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    scattered police net- work. Drug addiction is becoming a more and more acute problem for Argentina, as for many other countries of Latin America. Whereas...fertile ground of drug addiction . The actual war of two gangster syndicates that recently took place in Rio de Janeiro indicates the scope of the...opening met with a warm response: "Disarmament for development, trust, and cooperation—these are the only three ’ whales ’ on which we can proceed in

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-13

    cultivating the idea of forming a circle of domestic correspondents who would be fully immersed in studying parliamentary affairs, acquiring the neces...is to deal with ecological problems, and especially hydrobiologists in the field of ecotoxicology , to use as their tools the basic principles of

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-25

    and in the almost still oily-black water we could see the twinkling lights from the skyscraper hotels built after the proclamation of "infitah...Heliopolis can boast green squares and brilliant store windows and boutiques Paris style. But Heliopolis is not all Cairo. Not far from the citadel raised

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-24

    birthday)" 73 FEATURE ARTICLE Gabriel Garcia Marquez, "The USSR: 22,400,000 Square Kilometers Without A Single Coca - Cola Ad" Foreword by V. Zemskov...and became acquainted with the antiwar activi- ties carried out in the Ukrainian republic under the sponsorship of the UkSSR Peace Committee. UD

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-22

    immediately removes the condition away from alcohol or drugs. It is capable merely of of abstinence and eliminates the pathological craving for punishing but...the RSFSR Criminal Code, but court cases for vagrancy [Text] Hard plank-beds in stuffy, smoke -filled rooms. are practically never encountered. "This...heaviest jobs is becoming a factor in increasing the number of such [KazTAG report: "When Concern is Lacking"] persons. Temporary, seasonal jobs, as

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-06

    into which we have hurriedly Our misfortune was not only in the lack of sausage and formed ourselves are also no way out of the situation, panty hose... girl is playing with a doll. She imitates [Shkiryak-Nizhnik] First, environmental pollution. Sec- everything her mother does. But there is one...VUZes and in the schools. And, attention on painful problems of child care. if you like, even in the kindergartens, where little girls play with dolls-as

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-22

    contagious. Why not do the same with boots, panty -hose, soap, razor blades, cosmetics and other scarce goods. Why shouldn’t one buy something wholesale...Year-Old Girl ," the Bra- zilian Ector Babenko (whose ancestors emigrated from the Ukraine) shot his film "Thistle" in the United State. This film...maniacs may be lose (The pattern of disappearances of the four university girls , as sketched by Tabeyev, would seem to suggest a serial killer

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-23

    of Sciences 1988-2000 Presidium of the Georgian SSR its sociolinguistic aspect Arnold Chikobava Linguistics Insti- Academy of Sciences tute, Tbilisi...expect a 3n-day delay •n receipt of the first issue. Saharan Africa, Latin America , and West Europe. Supplements to the DAILY REPORTs may also be U S

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-27

    the popular "On-Duty Reporter" column , Yeliza- veta Bogoslovskaya, Sergey Chesnokov, and Galina Sapunova, literally have not gotten off the telephone...Affairs E . A. Didorenko. He has demonstrated the kind of admirable energy that he has failed to show in the fight against crime. Back on 23 February...Our editorial welcomed E . A. Didorenko’s and TASH- KENTSKAYA PRAVDA’s desire to shed light on many problems of interethnic relations and the

  14. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ...; REPUBLIC PARTY AND STATE AFFAIRS - Baltic Unity Efforts Assessed, Baltic Military District Loyal to USSR Law, Latvia Paramilitary Leader on Group's Role, Formation of Latvian Defense Units, Latvian...

  15. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    example that of Orlov, are coming had such a hot exchange at the Manege exhibition more and more to resemble those under Stalin. To in December 1962... Manege affair and his While Stalin’s heirs walk thisearth, Stalin, I fancy, still lurksbecame ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i good frensustrtholeum.fai a i widow

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-17

    professionally, especially the too bad that still not all commanders understand this. young officers. The experience, skills, and pedagogical tact of flight...position. Kids were simply Nevertheless, their numbers are small. After all, aviation crazy about aviation. And how, after all, in the 15 is not for...state’s transition to a market economy decrease in their scientific- pedagogic potential and elim- and a possible further aggravation of the country’s

  17. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    low-quality wine for apparatchiks of all levels, turning the people into sheep , ready to do any- thing just for a bottle! It was a good thing that...they dug up the vineyards , destroying the nest of the "green snake," breaking up the unfortunate links between the republics. But where is the...Pesorin, Privolzhsk, Ivanovo Oblast. Let Them Answer!... It’s high time that the leaders who cut down hundreds of thousands of wonderful vineyards

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    skillfully shift animal husbandry to the summer work regime, and to ensure the sheep are sheared. JPRS-UPA-89-046 27 JULY 1989 16 PARTY, STATE AFFAIRS... vineyards . Vegetable plantations must replant on an urgent basis, and also prepare right now for receiving, processing and storing fruit and

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-13

    buildings constructed of prefabricated blocks stand empty. We have drawn conclusions from this experience. We have set the course to construct mainly...34But do we need this book today?!" Panferov started talking abut the books of Babayevskiy and Semushkin, insisting that they could be included in

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-27

    have remained an idealist in the definition " sistema " [system]. I remember a friend of mine, the given by Anatoliy Vasilyevich Lunacharskiy. On the now...often in emergency shelters known by his unfortunate deeds in Kalinin), all the other which need repair. New companions of the social mis- Nivkhi