WorldWideScience

Sample records for soviet union economic

  1. JPRS Report Soviet Union, Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-16

    enterprise activity and the assurance of a degree course of economic reform was sounded both at the of social protection for all members of society ...of the activity of the All-Union Economic Society . the commission. The Academy of the National Economy of the USSR [Aleksandrov] What are the means of...TRADE 16 October 1989 FOOD PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION [State Committee for Statistics] data, moonshine pro- duction is not growing. It is even dropping

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-30

    NATIONAL ECONOMY ECONOMIC POLICY, ORGANIZATION, MANANGEMENT Abalkin Notes Economic Difficulties, Defends Perestroyka [V. Logunov; MOSKOVSKAYA PRAVDA, 22...Society Appraised [E.Ye. Novikova, et al; EKONOMIKA I ORGAN1ZATS1YA PROMYSHLENNOGO PROIZVODSTVA No 8, Aug 88] 83 Changes in Wage Fund Structure Studied...GUDOK. 28 Sep 88] ^’ JPRS-UEA-88-047 30 December 1988 NATIONAL ECONOMY ECONOMIC POLICY, ORGANIZATION, MANANGEMENT Abalkin Notes Economic

  3. Military-Economic Role of "Lend-Lease" for the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Grigory G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper contributes to the empirical analysis of the military-economic significance of Allied supplies to the Soviet Union through the "lend-lease". The author gives the description associated with the process of the formation of "lend-lease" for Soviet-American relations. The article describes the technical implementation of the program "lend-lease" at the initial stage of the great Patriotic war. For the first time in the domestic economic historiography author carries out the brief analysis of the scope of supplies of American products to the Soviet Union outside the program "lend-lease". For the first time also author analyzes the value of deliveries of military goods from the Western countries to the USSR on the base of valuation of Soviet military production in 1941 and 1942 on the basis of the actual exchange rate of Ruble to Dollar.

  4. Economic Leverage on the Soviet Union in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    administration’s position is certainly not mercantilist in the sense of striving for a larger U.S. esport surplus; the concern is with the efect of Soviet...and the value of hard currency esports that would have to be forgone to the @I*" wsrere I dIne ’away from export sectors. (An Padma Duda pointed

  5. Economic and Political Reform in China and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The contrast between the two cases is well known: China’s economic reforms were stunningly successful whereas those of Gorbachev failed. Moreover, his political reforms set in motion forces that he could not control, eventually bringing about the unintended end to communist rule and the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Why this difference? Numerous variables are at issue. This paper focuses on the policies, strategies, and values of reformers and on opportunities to car...

  6. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  7. Inspiration vs. perspiration in economic development of the Former Soviet Union and China (ca. 1920–2010)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330811924; Foldvari, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323382045; Didenko, D.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we discuss the role of both perspiration factors (physical and human capital) and inspiration factors (Total Factor Productivity) in the economic development of the Former Soviet Union area (FSU) and China, ca. 1920–2010. Using a newly created dataset, we find that during the Socialist

  8. The End of Cheap Oil: Economic, Social, and Political Change in the US and Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Kaufmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the quality and quantity of energy flows to interpret economic, social, and political changes in the US and Former Soviet Union. The economic successes of both the former Soviet Union (FSU and the US reflect an abundant supply of high quality energy. This abundance ended in the 1970s in the US and the 1980s in the Former Soviet Union. In the US, the end of cheap oil caused labor productivity to stagnate, which stopped on-going growth in wages and family incomes. To preserve the American Dream, which holds that each generation will be better off than the one that preceded it, women entered the workforce, income was transferred from saving to consumption, the US economy changed from a net creditor to a net debtor, and debt held by families and the Federal government increased. Despite efforts to hide the income effects, the end of cheap oil also is responsible for increasing income inequality. In the FSU, the end of abundant energy supplies meant that allocating the energy surplus among the domestic economy, subsidized exports to Eastern Europe, and hard currency sales to the West became a zero sum game. This contributed to the collapse of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA alliance and the FSU. If the US is able to extricate itself from personal and governmental debt, solving the social and political concerns about inequality is the next formidable challenge posed by the end of cheap oil.

  9. The Economic Consequences of an Invasion of Poland by the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Dienes in: Leslie Dienes and Theodore Shabad, "The Soviet Energy System," (John Wiley: Washington, D.C. 1979), table 53, p. 252, figures in parentheses...J. Newcomb ," Polish Agriculture: Policy and Performance," East European Economic Asesssment, Part I (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing...the 1980’s," p. 46. 172. Ibid., p. 47. 173. William J. Newcomb , "Polish Agriculture: Policy and Performance," East European Economic Assessment Part I

  10. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  11. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  12. Economic crisis and access to care: Cuba's health care system since the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Kamran; López-Pardo, Cándido M

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the effects on access to health care in Cuba of the severe economic crisis that followed the collapse of the Soviet Union and the monetary and market reforms adopted to confront it. Economic crises undermine health and well-being. Widespread scarcities and self-seeking attitudes fostered by monetary and market relations could result in differential access to health services and resources, but the authors found no evidence of such differential access in Cuba. While Cubans generally complain about many shortages, including shortages of health services and resources before the economic recovery began in 1995, no interviewees reported systemic shortages or unequal access to health care services or resources; interviewees were particularly happy with their primary care services. These findings are consistent with official health care statistics, which show that, while secondary and tertiary care suffered in the early years of the crisis because of interruptions in access to medical technologies, primary care services expanded unabated, resulting in improved health outcomes. The combined effects of the well-functioning universal and equitable health care system in place before the crisis, the government's steadfast support for the system, and the network of social solidarity based on grassroots organizations mitigated the corrosive effects of monetary and market relations in the context of severe scarcities and an intensified U.S. embargo against the Cuban people.

  13. Regional Economic Development in the Soviet Union, Two Case Studies: The Baltic and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    government transfers. Transfers, which have increased rapidly since the death of Stalin, include pension , student stipends, and family allowances for low... Sistema i metodologiia pokozatelei sovetskoi statistiki [The system and methodology of Soviet statistical 𔃽 Ibid., p.124. i . iI i...304-305. Indexes of real income include money and "natural wages," outlays from pensions , social security benefits, and other stipends (see NARKMOZ 1977

  14. Former Soviet Union (FSU) Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded gravity anomaly data for the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Eastern Europe has been received by the National Geophysical Data Center(NGDC). The data file...

  15. The Soviet Union and Soviet citizens in Finnish magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuija Saarinen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article’s is to study Finnish popular journalism in 1970s and 1980s. A magazine studied in this article is Hymy (Smile, and it has been estimated that in the beginning of 1970s approximately the whole literary population of Finland read it. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different images Hymy created and published of the Soviet Union and the Soviet citizens. The central research question analyzes what kinds of issues Hymy published about the Soviet Union and its citizens before 1991. This study gives special attention to the reasons why the articles were written in the first place, and secondly, what was the nature of their content.        Hymy published 224 articles on the Soviet Union. The articles were mostly written in the spirit of criticism – not in the spirit of “friendship of the peoples” that was the official political stance of Finland toward the Soviet Union. Magazines had to be aware of the official Finnish political rhetoric concerning the relationship with the Soviet Union. Hymy as a popular magazine found a way to evade the official mandate. In Hymy, people were able to read anti-Soviet sentiments without any censoring. Therefore, Hymy not only provided its readers views and beliefs that expressed the popular beliefs and values, but also sympathized with them. The Cold War era in the 1970s and 1980s was still a post-traumatic period for Finns. The magazine Hymy was an important channel to publish stories on painful, embarrassing, and tragic subjects.

  16. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  17. Cuba: An Historical Appraisal of Its Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance and Cuba: An Evaluation of Its Military Relations with the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    proved to be most generous from 1964 to 1970. For the latter years of the 1960’s the estimate of $1 million in aid per day may actually have been an...export in 1986 was actually the reexport of Soviet oil. Through this reexport process Cuba earned 40% of its hard 101 currency. The Soviets did this in...Estatal de Estadisticas , Compendio de Estadisticas de Americana Latina, Febrero de 1982. Comparative Politics, Revolutions and the Restructuring of National

  18. US - Former Soviet Union environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for US DOE`s cleanup of nuclear weapons complex. The nature and the magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. This booklet makes comparisons and describes coordinated projects and workshops between the USA and the former Soviet Union.

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-27

    artificially on captured territory in the Ukraine and Byelorussia, had become outdated. Throughout its history believers saw this unnatural union as...we had encountered a kind of mythological octopus with its single center, which for a long time had carefully prepared to overthrow the Soviet...supporting the revival of its glorious traditions and the preservation of its residents’ habitat , the sooner long-awaited changes for the better will

  20. The Defense Policy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    military power. This buildup has succeeded in establishing the Soviet Union as a coequal with the United States in this critical dimension of power and...may have relied too much on the military dimension of their foreign policy. In the current climate of glasnost (candor or openness) and "new...Volkogonov, a former deputy chief of the Main Political Administration, " vegetarian pacifists" with little interest in the "martial traditions and

  1. Children's Drawings from China and the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, David G.

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the cultural differences (and similarities) of China and the Soviet Union as reflected in the drawings of each country's children. In China, children's drawings reflected friendship and warmth toward others. In the Soviet Union, children's reserved and cautious attitudes about drawing are consistent with the perspective of that…

  2. Beyond Linguistic Policy: The Soviet Union Versus Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Mart

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of non-Russian languages in the Soviet Union (USSR) focuses on the history of ethnic group languages and language policy in Estonia since the collapse of totalitarianism. A historical overview of Soviet Union language policy is offered, with attention given to the ideological goals influencing policy, and their realization…

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 3, February 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    34 by the Soviet Union of the United States. Its makers even attacked the United Nations, under whose banner the occupation powers in the film were...became events in world cinematography , such as the Soviet "Letters of a Dead Man" and the U.S.’ "The Day After." But perhaps an even greater

  4. RLC Vegetative Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This dataset is a 1:4 million scale vegetation map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Three hundred seventy-three cover classes are...

  5. RLC Vegetative Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset is a 1:4 million scale vegetation map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Three hundred seventy-three cover classes are distinguished, of...

  6. RLC Forest Cover of the Former Soviet Union, 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a 1:15 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union. Twenty-two land cover classes are distinguished, of...

  7. Soviet Union goes to Sussex for advice on science policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Brown, P

    1990-01-01

    Two state officials from the Soviet Union came to the SPRU, Sussex University, to learn about methods for forecasting trends in science and technology and ways of establishing priorities for basic scientific research (1/2 page).

  8. Generalized Geology of the Former Soviet Union (geo1ec)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set outlines and describes the general geologic age and type of bedrock of the Former Soviet Union and selected adjacent areas. It also includes shoreline...

  9. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION AT THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of historical retrospective of integrationprocesses in former Soviet Union, ways and opportunities for furtherdevelopment thereof.The authors make a study of the problems of development and functioningof Eurasian cooperation, the effectiveness of interaction with certain states,analyze the reasons of failures, emphasize the achievements results ofcooperation, point out the opportunities for integration processes betweendifferent CIS and provide practical recommendations for effectiveness thereof in former Soviet Union.

  10. Green Revolutions: Environmental Reconstruction in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Worldwatch Paper 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Hilary F.

    The focus of this paper is environmental issues facing Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union as they struggle with the momentous tasks of economic and political reform. Given the important role that environmental protest played in the upheavals, environmentalists have claimed a mandate for strong environmental controls. The state of the environment…

  11. Primary care reforms in countries of the former soviet union: success and challenges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühlbrandt, C.; Boerma, W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article examines primary care reforms in countries of the former Soviet Union. It places reforms in their wider political context and points to infrastructural, human and economic successes and challenges. There is great heterogeneity between countries regarding the effectiveness of

  12. Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys, 1966-1996, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Former Soviet Union Hydrological Snow Surveys are based on observations made by personnel at 1,345 sites throughout the Former Soviet Union between 1966 and...

  13. The reasons of creation of the Eurasian Economic Union: economics or politics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers creation of the Eurasian economic Union. It is shown that Russia is the main provider of integration in the post-Soviet space. The author identifies several reasons for the establishment of the Eurasian economic Union. Much attention is paid to geo-economic reasons. It is clear that the Eurasian economic Union is a geopolitical project for Moscow. The author believes that domestic political considerations also support the motive of integration processes in the post-Soviet space.

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-06

    interest us, for example, in having clothing made in Cuba using Soviet raw mate- rials; Cuban cosmetics and perfumes which incorporate all the...production of such valuable products as furfural, lysine, Vitamin C, sorbitol , and others. The joint study and development of nontraditional

  15. The Soviet Union and German Reunification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-17

    another nation for the military oath of the East German Armed Forces is: I swear : to be always ready, side by side with the Soviet 1my and the armies of...government itself is feeding the nationalists’ euphoria . The U.S. Pershings have clearly added to the brazenness of West German revenge seekers.36

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    the time for the actual indoctrinational—pedagogical!—work. Nor do they always have the abilities. [E.L.:] Strange though it is, the euphoria in the...the Soviet Officer, which cadets of military schools will swear to prior to being awarded an officer’s rank upon completion of their studies, is

  17. Environmental Management in the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of literature focusing on the effects of the centrally planned Soviet economy on the environment. Twenty-six documents are classified in three categories: English-language sources, Russian-language sources, and Russian-language ecologically oriented newspapers, newsletters, and journals. (MDH)

  18. Recent Audio-Visual Materials on the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Edith Campbell

    1981-01-01

    Identifies and describes audio-visual materials (films, filmstrips, and audio cassette tapes) about the Soviet Union which have been produced since 1977. For each entry, information is presented on title, time required, date of release, cost (purchase and rental), and an abstract. (DB)

  19. RLC Forest Cover Map of the Former Soviet Union, 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a 1:2.5 million scale forest cover map for the land area of the Former Soviet Union that was completed in 1990 (Garsia 1990). There are forty-five...

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-07

    For example, they have written about how the Soviet mass media have begun to devote more attention to rock music and new movies about people—for...of youth here is this: Try not to write just about the most extremist, so to speak, representatives of youth, whether they are punks , hippies, or...bars—they are only for 18-year olds and over. They like dancing—there are many rock clubs in America. And they travel around: for instance, they

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-15

    over, the United States cannot win out over the USSR. The aggressive plans of imperialism are not only adven- turistic but also illusory. The Soviet...I had foreseen this and sent a copy of my proposal to the representative of the naval radio-technical administration Captain 2nd Rank V.Vesenin...boundaries of the administrative area of their place of residence, local rail and water transport, and transport on local bus routes; the right to a 50

  2. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-21

    Oblast. · Lebedik, Petr Vasilyevich- tumer at the Kakhovka Arc Welding Equipment Plant, CPSU member, lives in the city of Kakhovka. From Novaya...the HIV in our nation during these years will be significantly more. Moreover, the quality of the test systems produced in our nation to test for...undertake immediate measures, the epidemic will assume the following scale: the peak of the HIV infection Will be reached in the Soviet population in the

  3. Underwater Activities in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    22-23. 731. Submarine for rivers. Yunyy tekhnik, no. 7, 1967, 27. 732. From "Meduza" to " Delfin ." Tygodnik morski, no. 9, 3 March 1974, p. 8, cols...technik, no. 3, 1974, insert between 240-241. 747. Delfin -II. Morze, no. 4, 1974, 24. 748. Zaferman, M. L. , and Ü. N. Kiselev. Instrument methods...Soviet minisub Atlant-1. Veda a zivot, no. 6, 1974, 359. 758. Podwysocki, T. Delfin puts to sea. Horyronty techniki, no

  4. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-10

    obliging the Ukrainian Helsinki Union people—can you have forgotten the artistic Ukrainian films "The High Pass," "The White Bird with the Black Mark...34 and a multitude of documentary films debunking nationalism? With respect to V. Kuznetsov (script writer for the films "The Mentality, Honor, and...Helsinki Union conducted its congress over the two-day period prior to the First of May holiday at the House of Cinematography . The Ukrainian Helsinki

  5. Strategic Shock: The Collapse of the Soviet Union: 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    sécurité de l’avenir ; ils allaient d’événements géopolitiques à des chocs dans les secteurs scientifique et technologique, environnemental et...the Soviet Union, the actual collapse of Soviet style communism in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s was by and large unanticipated in many important...unclassified) represented as (S), (C), (R), or (U). It is not necessary to include here abstracts in both official languages unless the text is

  6. After Gorbachev: Science in the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.

    The pace of change in the former Soviet Union (FSU) has been overwhelming. Vast regions of territory and many formerly closed cities have been opened to foreigners, and once-classified research institutes are now open to visitors. The Soviet Academy of Sciences has become the Russian Academy and separate academies are being established in the other independent republics. A Russian Ministry of Science, Higher Education, and Technology, as well as a Russian Ministry of Defense, have been established, while the much-heralded “Commonwealth of Independent States” has never really materialized.

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-31

    Collar Trade Unions is a legal person, manned only from Kazakhs , whose territory contains and it possesses its own seal and bank accounts. most of them...defense shops is being defense complex together with their functions. carried on in a kind of semi- handicraft fashion. Talk is cheap, but our opponents do

  8. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-27

    royal jelly, bee glue, and especially bee venom . The union is taking measures to organize the wide production of these products, and to create centers...centers in the republic; there is an agreement that they will help us as well. Apiary products are useful to the radiation victims: honey , pollen

  9. The Educational Role of Soviet Trade Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekely, Beatrice Beach

    1983-01-01

    How to increase the productivity of the labor force is of extreme importance in Russia today because of the declining birthrate. What trade unions are doing to educate their currently employed workers and youth is the focus of the articles in this issue. (RM)

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-15

    into place after the official publica - tion of the Birlik program: I think that people with nationalistic tendencies will be disappointed in us...8217 Union? Russian readers are not the only ones surprised by the consistently antiRussian politica of the journal. After all, it was OKTYABR that...55 on the board. What is the evidence against the journal? In the first place, publica - tion of a story by V. Grossman "Everything Passes;" in the

  11. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-15

    Contents Afghanistan Is Our Heartache 2 B. Nikolayev, APR: Internationalisation of 6 Economic Life O. Levin, West Sahara: Protracted Conflict 10...sort out the Afghan problem in order to avoid future mistakes. The article by B. Nikolayev, Internationalisation of Economic Life, discusses the role...of the Pacific Eco- nomic Cooperation Conference (PECC) played by it in the internationalisation of the economic life of the Pacific countries

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ...) publications contain political, economic, military, and sociological news, commentary, and other information, as well as scientific and technical data and reports All information has been obtained...

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-11

    24. 27. "SELA. America Latina en la economia mundial : problemas y perspectivas," Mexico , 1987, pp 115, 116. 28. Ibid., pp 116, 119. COPYRIGHT...of Mexico (UNAM); Alfredo Guerra -Borges, UNAM Economic Research Institute staffer; Romulo Caballeros, head of the Economic Development Divi- sion of...metallurgy, for example, or Mexico and Indonesia in chemicals etc.). The future of Taiwan is in the export of complex and scientifically

  14. Perestroika: The Prospects for Soviet Economic Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Alastair

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the state of the Soviet economy during the period of perestroika. Includes the level of output, rate of inflation, privatization, and proposals for economic reform. Assesses the stabilization program and possibilities of restructuring. Concludes that neither Mikhail Gorbachev nor perestroika are likely to survive the trials of inflation,…

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-12

    than 70 years of experience and the traditions of the CPSU’s Leninist policy in the sphere of defense and the country’s security. This policy has...of the individual, and of the traditions of a given people, begin? It begins with a knowledge of the history, the economics and the spiritual and...the part of our troops. So the traditions are alive and the traditions are developing. But when they are used for propaganda and education of our

  16. Business Plans in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Digest Number 97-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilov, Andrew

    The concept of business planning is new to business professionals in the states of the former Soviet Union. Although Russian publications on business and economics have responded to the increased demand for knowledge of business planning, Western ideas of business planning should be integrated into Russian business management concepts in order to…

  17. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzoo Song

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans were further dispersed to other parts of the Soviet Union in the post-Stalin era. These multiple dispersions of Soviet Koreans not only transformed their culinary habit, but also helped Korean food spread among the peoples of the Soviet Union. As a result, Korean food, such as kimchi, miyŏk (edible kelp, and others, were introduced and widely consumed throughout the Soviet Union. This paper explores this unusual spread and popularity of Korean food in the Soviet Union, focusing on the migration history of the Soviet Koreans and Soviet culinary culture. This work is based on the author's fieldwork in the Soviet Union in the early 1900s and again in mid-2000s. The unusual diffusion and popularity of the Korean food in the former Soviet Union provides us with important insights on migration and globalization of ethnic food.

  18. Cuba's social policy after the disintegration of the Soviet Union -- social development as legitimacy of regime and its economy effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaoka, Kanako

    2004-01-01

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Cuba has experienced a severe economic crisis, and the country's social policy has played an important role in showing the people a raison-d'etre for the revolution. This role has become even stronger in recent years, as internal and external actors demand political reforms and economic liberalization. This article first examines the Cuban government's use of social development to counter the demands for changes. It then looks at the extent that g...

  19. Georgian – Turkish Relations since the Breakdown of Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet SAYIN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Georgian - Turkish relations since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Georgia managed to establish relations with Turkey only after gaining independence. Nowadays Georgia has very close relations with its Southern neighbor. Due to its strategic location, Georgia occupies a significant place in Turkish foreign policy. Georgia is a necessary bridge connecting Turkey with Azerbaijan and Central Asian States. Furthermore, Georgia has become a key transit route for Caspian energy resources. For Georgia Turkey is a window to Europe and the largest trade partner. The main goal of this article is to analyze various aspects of Turkish – Georgian relations and co-operation in different fields. There is outstanding cooperation between Turkey and Georgia in the fields such as energy, transport, economy, trade, defense, security etc.

  20. Mental health inequalities in 9 former Soviet Union countries: evidence from the previous decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In the previous two decades, countries of the former Soviet Union underwent substantive economic and social changes. While there has been some limited evidence on the relationship between socioeconomic well-being and mental health in the developing and transitional economies, the evidence on economic inequalities in mental health has so far been scarce. In this paper, we analyse two unique datasets collected in 2001 (N = 18,428) and in 2010 (N = 17,998) containing data on 9 countries of the former Soviet Union, exploring how mental health inequalities have changed between 2001 and 2010. Using regression analysis, as well as the indirect standardization approach, we found that mental health appears to have substantially improved in most studied countries during the past decade. Specifically, both the proportion of people with poor mental health, as well as wealth-related inequalities in poor mental health, decreased in almost all countries, except Georgia. Hence, we did not find evidence of a trade-off between changes in average and distributional mental health indicators between 2001 and 2010. Our findings give ground for optimism that at least on these measures, the most difficult times associated with the transition to a market economy in this region may be coming to an end. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Storming Fortresses: A Political History Of Chess In The Soviet Union, 1917-1948

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    From the end of the Second World War through the demise of USSR, Soviet chess players dominated world chess. Not only did they control the world champion title after 1948 (except for the Fischer interlude), they also monopolized all other areas of international chess competition. When the Soviets captured the world title in 1948, this was the culmination of a long, carefully cultivated program to foster a chess community in the Soviet Union. The rationale for this initiative, which engaged th...

  2. Understanding party politics in the former Soviet Union: authoritarianism, volatility, and incentive structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bader, M.

    2009-01-01

    Party politics in the former Soviet Union is fundamentally different from party politics in Western democracies in many ways. Since 1991, two crucial aspects of party politics in the less-than-democratic former Soviet republics have been the impact of authoritarian practices on party politics and

  3. Country Profile: International Education in Schools in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Yury I.

    1982-01-01

    International education is central to Soviet education because of the many different nationalities in the USSR. Students learn about the history and cultures of the Soviet Union, as well as about the history of other nations. Special attention is paid to understanding the causes of war and conditions for peace. (IS)

  4. Space activities in the Soviet Union, Japan, and the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezell, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    The space programs of the Soviet Union, Japan, and China are discussed. The types of launch vehicles they used and the classes of spacecraft they launched are examined. The political motivations of these nations are analyzed.

  5. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields and Geological Provinces of the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes geology, center points of oil and gas fields, geologic provinces, and political boundaries in the Former Soviet Union. This compilation is...

  6. A Sociological Approach to the Study of Household Access to Drinking Water in the Former Soviet Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Roberts

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the data of the sociological study Health of Societies in the Times of Transition (HITT carried out in 2010, which investigated, in particular, the changes in the population's access to piped household water in the former Soviet Union countries between 2001 and 2010, and examines how these depended on the household's economic status. The paper is based on 2 international research projects: The Living standards, Lifestyles, and Health (LLH project of 2001 and the follow-up study carried out in 2010 - Health in the Times of Transition (HITT. This article is addressed to experts in sociology, statistics, social work and health, as well as a wide range of people interested in the changes in the social and economic situation in the former Soviet Union.

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-29

    34Znaniye" Society. At meetings in the Society imeni Nikola Tesla and at Lyublyana Uni- versity, when conversation turned to perestroyka in our country...means of cost accounting took shape at the Nikola - yev-Lvov Combine, but this is impossible without com- plete self-management. Everyday practical

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    34The Mangazey Bubbles Gold Again"] [Text] Many are again saying the name of legendary ancient Mangazey—"the golden-bubbling state lands"— as they used...look in to his needs. It must be said in truth that the heavy work load and physical and mental stress heaped on railway work- ers—from the...industrial testing work in a single interbranch special purpose-program. The development of leaching technologies and steam- cured sulphurization

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    story by 1) strictly observing the spirit and the letter of the law, as well as the norms of party etiquette , and 2) keeping the community completely...increased on the Donets, Dnieper, Transcaucasus, Sverdlovsk, Volga, North Caucasus, Kuybyshev, Oktyabr, Central Asian , Gorkiy, Alma-Ata and Far Eastern...restau- rants, and 26 public dining cooperatives, which prepare and sell various types of products, have begun operation. Considerable attention is

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-29

    equipment will become widely utilized in the preparation of pot cheese with the use of ultrafil- tration, electrodialysis and reverse osmosis ...keeping towards the fulfillment of the plan by enterprises in its greater or lesser quantity depending on the content of the end product. Potatoes ...vegetable products and potato prod- ucts. Far from everything is in order with respect to the startup of many objects of capital construction. There

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-18

    rape, a strictly determined amount of oil cakes, spare parts, superphosphate , and so on and so forth. This circle is not only closed, but also faulty...newspaper KOOPE- RATOR will start soon in the oblast, and it will be easier to study the best achievements. For each useful experi- ence is enriched

  12. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-06

    person had his "bowl of soup "—his average wage, and he did not have to give it any particular thought or make any particular effort. After a time...million tons are needed for a normal diet . However, it should be taken into account that part of the grain left on farms will be used to feed the...radishes— 1.5; onions—2-4; rice—12; cucumbers—8; tomatoes— 1.5-4; cabbage —0.8- 1.5; apples—4-12; pears—6-12; grapes—6-10; watermelons—2; melons—3

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Economic Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-18

    is interesting. Complaining about consumers not wishing to take the plant’s output, Krasnyy Proletariy itself also does not rush with roboti - zation... roboti - zation, to prepare promising design solutions, and only then to begin the introduction of truly promising equip- ment capable of changing a

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Economic Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    confectionery and other food products. Nevertheless, despite many short- comings, oversights, and slipups, the food industry has finally begun to develop...workers additionally obtained 11,700 tons of confectionery products, 3.2 million decaliters of nonalcoholic beverages, 17 million bottles of mineral...of confectionery products and to additionally produce about 70 million bottles of mineral water, 60,000 tons of vegetable oil, and many other

  15. An Empirical Assessment of Economic and Political Challenges of European Union Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Melikyan, Davit N.; Tamazian, Artur

    2010-01-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union was an exceptional experiment in the economic history of the world, which made the post-socialist countries the subject of various economic studies. Different researchers and organizations tend to monitor the progress of economic and institutional reforms through inventing different indexes (indicators), apparently trying to understand how to detect the end of the transition process. The European Union, opening its door to accession candidates and starting neg...

  16. Climate research in the former Soviet Union. FASAC: Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center technical assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingson, R.G.; Baer, F.; Ellsaesser, H.W.; Harshvardhan; Hoffert, M.I.; Randall, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report assesses the state of the art in several areas of climate research in the former Soviet Union. This assessment was performed by a group of six internationally recognized US experts in related fields. The areas chosen for review are: large-scale circulation processes in the atmosphere and oceans; atmospheric radiative processes; cloud formation processes; climate effects of natural atmospheric disturbances; and the carbon cycle, paleoclimates, and general circulation model validation. The study found an active research community in each of the above areas. Overall, the quality of climate research in the former Soviet Union is mixed, although the best Soviet work is as good as the best corresponding work in the West. The best Soviet efforts have principally been in theoretical studies or data analysis. However, an apparent lack of access to modern computing facilities has severely hampered the Soviet research. Most of the issues considered in the Soviet literature are known, and have been discussed in the Western literature, although some extraordinary research in paleoclimatology was noted. Little unusual and exceptionally creative material was found in the other areas during the study period (1985 through 1992). Scientists in the former Soviet Union have closely followed the Western literature and technology. Given their strengths in theoretical and analytical methods, as well as their possession of simplified versions of detailed computer models being used in the West, researchers in the former Soviet Union have the potential to make significant contributions if supercomputers, workstations, and software become available. However, given the current state of the economy in the former Soviet Union, it is not clear that the computer gap will be bridged in the foreseeable future.

  17. Masculinities in the Motherland: Gender and Authority in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, 1945-1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Erica L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation starts from the premise that World War II changed Soviet ideas about manhood. The Soviet Union lost twenty-seven million combatants and civilians in World War II--twenty million of whom were men. Delineating, performing, negotiating, and resisting a variety of cultural ideas about manliness shaped Soviet militarism and ideology…

  18. China and the Soviet Union: Some Aspects of Comparative Analysis of Their Political Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vladimirovich Lukin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes historical peculiarities of the research of political systems and political processes in the Soviet Union and China. The author reveals the problems of Soviet sinology, including its politicized character, the advantages and disadvantages of the Soviet school, the similarities and differences of the both political systems, as well as differences in their academic approaches. The author also uses a civilizational approach to explain the uniqueness of the Chinese civilization. According to the author, nowadays it is essential to avoid politicization in academic research in order to improve the objectivity of comparative international studies.

  19. RLC State and Regional Boundaries for the Former Soviet Union

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set of state and regional boundaries was derived from the 1:3 million scale administrative boundaries (ESRI, 1998) for the land area of the Former Soviet...

  20. Illusions of Friendship? The Soviet Union and Russia in the Finnish Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Luostarinen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of the Soviet Union and Russia has changed dramatically in the press in Finland after the World War II. This article is based on a frequency analysis in which mentions of certain countries, groups of states and international organizations were coded (like the Soviet Union/Russia, United States, NATO, UN etc.. To make the analysis more revealing and interesting, a distinction was made whether the mention was made in the context of (1 alliance, friendship and cooperation, or in the context of (2 distance, restriction and enemy image, or (3 both in a positive and in a negative context. The time frame was from 1945 till the end of the century, and the newspapers chosen for the study represented the whole political spectrum of the Finnish media. The selection criteria of the material emphasized national celebration days. The study proves clearly what has been the main object of Finnish foreign policy after the WW II: in all coded press material, the Soviet Union/Russia was mentioned 222 times which makes 37.5% of all mentions. Other important states or groups have been the United States (5.3 %, EC/EU/WEU/West-Europe (12.6 %, United Nations (9.0 % and Nordic council/Nordic co-operation (11.2 %. With very few exceptions, all mentions concerning the UN and Nordic co-operation are positive. The Soviet Union has also been described rather positively (77.5 %. The share of negative mentions is 8.1% and mixture of negative and positive mentions 14.4%. Images of the United States and the European alliances are most contradictory. In the case of USA, 54.8 % of the mentions are positive and 45.2% negative. Concerning EC/EU etc. 54.1 % of mentions are positive, 28.4 % negative and 17.6 % mixtures of positive and negative references. Changes in attitudes towards the Soviet Union in different time spots are remarkable. The share of negative mentions of the Soviet Union was very low, except in 1995 (30 % when Finland already was a member of the EU

  1. The economic effects of labor unions revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedder, R.; Gallaway, L. [Ohio University, Athens, OH (United States)

    2002-12-31

    Using a variety of statistical techniques, it is concluded that labor unions have reduced U.S. output by significant amounts - trillions of dollars over time. Additionally, the employment-population ratio and the unemployment rate have been adversely affected by the presence of unions. From the very beginning, unionization materially lowered employment in the auto and steel industries, and union militancy in coal mining has contributed importantly to largely eliminating employment in this once large industry. While some individual workers have profited from unions, the aggregate economic impact is strongly negative.

  2. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  3. Area Handbook Series: Soviet Union: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    environmental protection, atomic energy, medi- cine , and energy. In some cases, these agreements led to frequent exchanges between American and Soviet...and Aleksandr Nekrich. Utopia in Power. New York: Summit Books, 1986. Hosking, Geoffrey A. The First Socialist Society. London: Fontana Press/Collins

  4. Physicists for Human Rights in the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Yuri

    2005-03-01

    In his 1940 paper `Freedom and Science' Albert Einstein emphasized that ``intellectual independence is a primary necessity for the scientific inquirer'' and that ``political liberty is also extraordinarily important for his work.'' Raised in the tradition of intellectual independence and dedicated to the scientific truth, physicists were among the first to stand up for freedom in the USSR. It was no coincidence that the founders of the first independent Human Rights Committee (1970) were physicists: Andrei Sakharov, Valery Chalidze and Andrei Tverdokhlebov. In 1973 a physicist, Alexander Voronel, founded a Moscow Sunday (refusenik) Seminar -- the first openly independent scientific body in the history of the USSR. In 1976 physicists Andrei Sakharov, Yuri Orlov and a mathematician Natan Sharansky were the leading force in founding the famous Moscow Helsinki Human Rights Watch group. This talk briefly describes the special position of physicists (often viewed as Einstein's colleagues) in Soviet society, as well as their unique role in the struggle for human rights. It describes in some detail the Moscow Sunday Seminar, and extensions thereof such as International Conferences, the Computer School and the Computer Database of Refuseniks. The Soviet government considered such truly independent organizations as a challenge to Soviet authority and tried to destroy them. The Seminar's success and its very existence owed much to the support of Western scientific organizations, who persuaded their members to attend the Seminar and visit scientist-refuseniks. The human rights struggle led by physicists contributed substantially to the demise of the Soviet system.

  5. The Economic Cost of Soviet Military Manpower Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    sEP03?r CAT L _RnePlanniag & Doctrine March 1989 Div. CAF/ZOIFR) Directorate of Plans, Of c. IL W*g@9ROf 44a * DC/Plans & Operacious Hq. USAF Wash, DC...for measuring the loss to the Soviet economy of the nm lesona communication from emig6 sounes . " ITh nigt be Iii of a problm in the Sovat Union whao th

  6. Socio-Political Use of Physical Activity in the United States, The Soviet Union and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Mark W.

    Evidence from this comparative investigation of the Soviet Union, China, and the United States shows that different countries attach their own political meaning and ideology to physical activity in order to stabilize and strengthen themselves, and thus, better promote their respective ideology in the international marketplace of political power.…

  7. Food Label Use and Food Label Skills among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Nadia; Doak, Colleen; Jasti, Sunitha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and skills; acculturation; and socioeconomic and…

  8. Food label use and food label skills among immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubman, N.; Doak, C.M.; Jasti, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess food label use and skills and to identify their correlates among immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Design/Setting/Participants: Cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 200 FSU immigrants residing in New York City. Variables Measured: Food label use and

  9. The Revival of Agrarian Youth Organizations in the Former Soviet Union: Lithuania--One Country's Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. Craig; Thuemmel, William L.; Kisieliene, Sonata

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historical sketch of the origin of young farmers' organizations in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s and their second beginning since the fall of communism, the demise of the Soviet Union, and the regaining of Lithuania's independence in the 1990s. (Author/JOW)

  10. Testing Collective Memory: Representing the Soviet Union on Multiple-Choice Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    This article tests the assumption that state-mandated multiple-choice history exams are a cultural tool for disseminating an "official" collective memory. Findings from a qualitative study of a collection of multiple-choice questions that relate to the history of the Soviet Union are presented. The 263 questions all come from New York…

  11. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Kourotchkina, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review…

  12. Sandia National Laboratories interactions with organizations in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, G.H.; Nokes, K.D.

    1994-03-01

    This document describes Sandia National Laboratories involvement with scientists and engineers at various organizations within the states of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of these interactions is twofold: first, to acquire technical information to enhance United States technology and second, to assist FSU states in converting their defense-oriented industry to civilian, market- oriented business.

  13. Corruption in Higher Education: Some Findings from the States of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Paul; Petrov, Georgy

    2004-01-01

    Many observers have noted that corruption in higher education is widespread in the states of the former Soviet Union. Little empirical evidence is available, however. This article examines some theoretical approaches to the study of corruption, and presents empirical data on corruption in higher education from Russia and Azerbaijan, collected by…

  14. Changing Familial Roles for Immigrant Adolescents from the Former Soviet Union to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosner, Anna; Roer-Strier, Dorit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how young immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union during their adolescence perceive and cope with the resulting changes in their family roles. Data collected via interviews and focus groups from adolescents and young adults ("N" = 34) revealed six distinct roles: language broker, family navigator,…

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 7, May 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-24

    country; and, naturally, we have read virtually nothing in Soviet editions of the works of philosophers such as Freud , Spengler, Danilevskiy, Berdyayev...include adolescent drug addic- tion rooms and outpatient hospitals and rehabilitation and specialized training centers. In short, what we need is an...develop a drug addiction service for adolescents and the anti-alcohol upbringing of young people. He quoted figures from our study of the feeling

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. Aviation & Cosmonautics, No. 6, June 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-12

    27 Soviet Combat Aircraft Maintenance Difficulties in Afghanistan [V. Kozoliy; pp 38-39] 29 Romanenko Describes 326-Day Soyuz TM-2 Mission [Yu...performance during these days of inten- sive summer training. COPYRIGHT: "Aviatsiya i kosmonavtika", 1988. Romanenko Describes 326-Day Soyuz TM-2...nominal; we exited the recovery capsule with the assistance of search and rescue service specialist personnel. Cosmonaut-scientist A. Levchenko was

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 6, April 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-13

    this account: 40 percent of the imported grain contains seeds of weeds which have no natural enemies on Soviet territory. Particularly dangerous are...frequently contam- inated with pests, including the most dangerous among them, such as the bread beetle, the granary weevil, the cucuid meal beetle...content, damaged and crushed grains, other grain and weeds mixed in, and low gluten content. There is occasional shortchanging. Every practical worker

  18. The Union of Soviet Architects of the USSR: The History of Its Formation and Early Stages (1932-1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Meerovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the history of the formation of the «Union of Soviet architects of the USSR» from 1932 to 1941. It presents the decisions of the highest bodies of the party-state apparatus to create the Union of Architects. It also describes the reasons for the ban on creative organizations of architects, artists, writers, composers, and so on. The article discloses the relationship between the power policy and the fulfillment of its decisions by Soviet intellectuals. The functions of the «authorized» Union of Architects and its role in subordination of Soviet architects to the policy implemented by the authorities are also described here.

  19. Infant mortality in Kyrgyzstan before and after the break-up of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Michel; Lim, So-Jung; Torgasheva, Liudmila; Denisenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty over the levels of, and trends in, infant mortality in the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. As a result, the impact of the break-up of the Soviet Union on infant mortality in the region is not known, and proper monitoring of mortality levels is impaired. In this paper, a variety of data sources and methods are used to assess levels of infant mortality and their trend over time in one Central Asian republic, Kyrgyzstan, between 1980 and 2010. An abrupt halt to an already established decline in infant mortality was observed to occur during the decade following the break-up of the Soviet Union, contradicting the official statistics based on vital registration. Infants of Central Asian ethnicity and those born in rural areas were also considerably more at risk of mortality than suggested by the official sources. We discuss the implications of these findings, both for health policy in this seldom studied part of the former Soviet Union and for our understanding of the health crisis which it currently faces.

  20. Adult mortality patterns in the former Soviet Union's southern tier: Armenia and Georgia in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Duthé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the health crisis in the former USSR has been well-documented in the case of Russia and other northern former Soviet republics, little is known about countries located in the southern tier of the region, i.e., the Caucasus and Central Asia. Objective: This paper presents new mortality information from two Caucasian countries, Georgia and Armenia. Results are compared with information from two relevant countries previously examined in the literature, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Methods: Using official statistics (with adjustments when necessary, we compare adult mortality patterns in the four countries since 1979, for all causes and by cause for the recent period. For Kyrgyzstan results are presented by ethnicity, as its mortality levels have been impacted by its large Slavic population. Results: Adult mortality patterns in Armenia and Georgia have been more favorable than in Russia. This appears to be due to a large extent to lower mortality from alcohol-related causes. Mortality patterns in these Caucasian republics resemble those observed in Kyrgyzstan, especially when considering the native portion of the population. Conclusions: As far as mortality is concerned, Armenia and Georgia have weathered the collapse of the Soviet Union better than Russia. These results document a distinct southern tier pattern of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union. Contribution: This article enriches our understanding of the health crisis in the former Soviet Union by bringing new information from two lesser-known countries and further documenting the scale of heterogeneity in mortality experiences across this vast region.

  1. Science and Ideology: The Case of Cosmology in the Soviet Union, 1947–1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kragh, Helge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ideological considerations have always influenced science, butrarely as directly and massively as in the Soviet Union during the early Cold War period, when cosmology was among the sciences that became politicized. This field of science developed very differently in the Communist countries than in the West, in large measure because of political pressure. Certain cosmological models, in particular of the big bang type, were declared pseudo-scientific and idealistic because they implied a cosmic creation, a concept which was taken to be religious. The result of the ideological pressure was not an independent Soviet cosmology, but that astronomers and physicists abandoned cosmological research in the Western sense. Onlyin the 1960s did this situation change, and cosmology in the Soviet Union began to flourish. The paper reviews the relationship between cosmology and political ideology in the Soviet Union from about 1947 to 1963, and it briefly relates this case to the later one in the People’s Republic of China.

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union: the role of individual- and community-level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-10-01

    To explain patterns of fruit and vegetable consumption in nine former Soviet Union countries by exploring the influence of a range of individual- and community-level determinants. Cross-sectional nationally representative surveys and area profiles were undertaken in 2010 in nine countries of the former Soviet Union as part of the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study. Individual- and area-level determinants were analysed, taking into account potential confounding at the individual and area level. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Adult survey respondents (n 17 998) aged 18-95 years. Being male, increasing age, lack of education and lack of financial resources were associated with lower probability of consuming adequate amounts of fruit or vegetables. Daily fruit or vegetable consumption was positively correlated with the number of shops selling fruit and vegetables (for women) and with the number of convenience stores (for men). Billboard advertising of snacks and sweet drinks was negatively related to daily fruit or vegetable consumption, although the reverse was true for billboards advertising soft drinks. Men living near a fast-food outlet had a lower probability of fruit or vegetable consumption, while the opposite was true for the number of local food restaurants. Overall fruit and vegetable consumption in the former Soviet Union is inadequate, particularly among lower socio-economic groups. Both individual- and community-level factors play a role in explaining inadequate nutrition and thus provide potential entry points for policy interventions, while the nuanced influence of community factors informs the agenda for future research.

  3. VVER Reactor Safety in Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Demetra

    2012-02-01

    VVER Soviet-designed reactors that operate in Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics have heightened international concern for years due to major safety deficiencies. The governments of countries with VVER reactors have invested millions of dollars toward improving the safety of their nuclear power plants. Most of these reactors will continue to operate for the foreseeable future since they provide urgently-needed electrical power. Given this situation, this paper assesses the radiological consequences of a major nuclear accident in Eastern Europe. The paper also chronicles the efforts launched by the international nuclear community to improve the safety of the reactors and notes the progress made so far through extensive collaborative efforts in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine to reduce the risks of nuclear accidents. Western scientific and technical staff collaborated with these countries to improve the safety of their reactor operations by strengthening the ability of the regulator to perform its oversight function, installing safety equipment and technologies, investing time in safety training, and working diligently to establish an enduring safety culture. Still, continued safety improvement efforts are necessary to ensure safe operating practices and achieve timely phase-out of older plants.

  4. Migration and changes in loneliness over a 4-year period: the case of older former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolberg, Pnina; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-01-01

    Both older adult and immigrant populations are at a high risk of loneliness. The current research compares older veteran Israelis to older immigrants who arrived in Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) after 1989...

  5. Patterns of public support for price increases on alcohol in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; Bryden, Anna; Rotman, David; Haerpfer, Christian; McKee, Martin

    2012-01-01

    To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.

  6. Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Educational Perspectives for Elderly Migrants: A Case of Soviet Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews patterns of migration among the elderly worldwide, highlighting the immigration of elderly people from the Soviet Union to the United States. Describes their social and economic status in the Soviet Union, and their particular problems among Soviet immigrants. Considers ways in which appropriate education can resolve some problems. (DMM)

  8. Media image of the Soviet Union in selected Communist and Christian Democratic weeklies during the Third Czechoslovak Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Mádr, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Media image of the Soviet Union in selected Communist and Christian Democratic weeklies during the Third Czechoslovak Republic The paper deals with selected aspects of the media image of the Soviet Union during the Third Czechoslovak Republic. Its aim is to analyze the mechanisms of media image construction in two journals of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia and in two weeklies of the Czechoslovak People's Party. Partial aim represents an effort to compare the resemblance of discourse of...

  9. The Soviet Union and the Third World. Part 2: Agenda for the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    that really is that. Genocide was a common ancient tactic in war, and before there was a proper ideology of racism the white man practiced genocide...including Russian racism , and by seeing to it that social diversions of all kinds are available to the trainees; these include conducted tours to various...easily precisely because of the stigma attached to it that it was an agent of a foreign power (the Soviet Union.) In the eyes of many Iranian leftists

  10. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter; Anna Kourotchkina

    2012-01-01

    Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review of distance education research in the Anglo-American sphere showed that within the past 10 years not a single article dealing with the Russian syste...

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union KOMMUNIST No 8, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-11

    system of management pre- dominated, while socialist democracy was frequently reduced to the observance of formal rituals . For this reason, the renewal...complaint to the oblast trade union council. In accor- dance with the stipulations of the legal labor inspecto- rate, the order was rescinded as...or not, we must remember and know everything, not for the sake of persecution but for healing the old unhealed wounds, for living united and working

  12. Kimchi, seaweed, and seasoned carrot in the Soviet culinary culture: the spread of Korean food in the Soviet Union and Korean diaspora

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Changzoo

    2016-01-01

    The half-million Soviet Koreans (or Koryŏ saram) in the former Soviet Union are the descendants of the ethnic Koreans who migrated to the Russian Far East in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from the northern parts of the Korean peninsula. Their settlements were established in the wide areas of the Russian Far East, including the urban areas around Vladivostok. They were, however, forced-migrated to Central Asia in late 1937 under Stalin's rule. From Central Asia, these Soviet Koreans w...

  13. [History and current status of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia and former Soviet Union].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Zhu, Jian-Ping; Lei, Yan

    2012-10-01

    A brief history and new developments of acupuncture moxibustion in the former Soviet Union is provided in this paper, as well as in Russia. Science of acupuncture-moxibustion was introduced into Russia after the 10th Century. After the foundation of People's Republic of China, acupuncture-moxibustion therapy has drawn widespread attention in the former Soviet Union and Russia since the 1950s. Notably, acupuncture moxibustion therapy was legalized and popularized in mid 1950s in the Soviet Union, which was gradually accepted as a part of the country's medical system. In the latest 20 years, Federal health departments have paid attention to acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and issued laws and regulations on acupuncture reflexotherapy. The number of books and journals about acupuncture-moxibustion has been increasing; clinical application of acupuncture-moxibustion has been spreading and is welcomed by people. Academic exchanges between China and Russia are more frequent, which promoted the development of science of acupuncture-moxibustion in Russia.

  14. Diversity of Bacillus anthracis Strains in Georgia and of Vaccine Strains from the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabishvili, Maya; Natidze, Merab; Rigvava, Sergo; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Chanishvili, Nina; Tediashvili, Marina; Sharp, Richard; Barbeschi, Maurizio; Visca, Paolo; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Despite the increased number of anthrax outbreaks in Georgia and the other Caucasian republics of the former Soviet Union, no data are available on the diversity of the Bacillus anthracis strains involved. There is also little data available on strains from the former Soviet Union, including the strains previously used for vaccine preparation. In this study we used eight-locus variable-number tandem repeat analyses to genotype 18 strains isolated from infected animals and humans at different sites across Georgia, where anthrax outbreaks have occurred in the last 10 years, and 5 strains widely used for preparation of human and veterinary vaccines in the former Soviet Union. Three different genotypes affiliated with the A3.a cluster were detected for the Georgian isolates. Two genotypes were previously shown to include Turkish isolates, indicating that there is a regional strain pattern in the South Caucasian-Turkish region. Four of the vaccine strains were polymorphic, exhibiting three different patterns of the cluster A1.a genotype and the cluster A3.b genotype. The genotype of vaccine strain 71/12, which is considered an attenuated strain in spite of the presence of both of the virulence pXO plasmids, appeared to be a novel genotype in the A1.a cluster. PMID:16885320

  15. From Single Market to Economic Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb.......Book review of: From Single Market to Economic Union: Essays in Memory of John A. Usher / edited by N.N. Shuibhne and L.W. Gormley (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, ISBN 9780199695706); viii + 431pp., £75.00 hb....

  16. The Economic and Monetary Union's Institutional Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    2002-01-01

    The chapters emphasise is on the EMU's institutions. The chapter contains i.a. a short review of the contents, objectives, developments from 1990-2002 of the EMU, the ESCB (structure & tasks) as well as interaction with other institutions incuding the Council of Ministers. An underlying issue is ...... is the coordination of the Union's economic and monetary policies....

  17. Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: animal health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    2004-04-01

    The economic transition in Eastern Europe and the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the last decade has profoundly changed the agricultural sector and the well-being of people in rural areas. Farm ownership changed; selected farm assets, including livestock, were transferred to farm workers or others, and the social and service structures of rural society are in a state of uncertainty. The transition has, in general, led to the deterioration of rural services. Animal health services have also deteriorated. This decline is associated with the contraction of the livestock inventory, the fragmentation of farms, higher transaction costs for service providers, and the overall decline of the rural economy which has, so far, lowered the demand for animal health services. There are considerable differences in the way that these countries are coping with the economic transition and its aftermath. Among the determining factors in the former USSR are, as follows: the speed of recovery from the legacies of large State-controlled farming and a centrally planned animal health system, the efforts made to address poverty reduction, the choice on whether to become a Member of the World Trade Organization and the requirements of such membership, the ability to provide low-cost services to a fragmented and unskilled livestock production sector. In Eastern Europe, the requirements for joining the European Union (EU) are an additional and important determining factor. In the short term, the choice of a veterinary system to serve the livestock sector may differ from country to country, depending on the legacies of the past, the status of reforms and the proximity of Western markets. Lower-income countries with an oversupply of veterinarians may support labour-intensive, low-cost systems which focus on food security and public health. The better-endowed EU accession countries may focus rather on improved disease surveillance, production enhancement, quality

  18. Analysis of Energy Resources and Programs of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Appendix C. Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    It was not until the middle fifties and the early sixties that serious construction of refineries was begun in Euro - pean...economic grounds than before led to changes in various sectors. The construction and changeover to diesel engines was begun in...industrial capability of supplying its own equipment for refineries. Although the refineries are designed on Soviet models , the basic equipment is

  19. Systems Analysis of Interaction between Russia and the European Union in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vasfilov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes post-Soviet relations between Russia and the European Union using the theoretical framework of neoclassical realism. It finds that the post-Soviet level of competition between Russia and the EU is higher than required by the international system. The reason is rooted in the influence of a number of internal factors (or intervening variables. Consequently, elites in both Russia and the EU are not able to adequately understand the signals sent by the international system. There is a wide variety of intervening variables; for example, there are factors caused by the political elites’ perceptions of each other’s intentions and of the international situation, factors related to inadequate information, factors related to the complex institutional structure of the EU and factors related to domestic political issues. In addition, the current international environment, characterized by a high degree of uncertainty, increases the effects of these intervening variables. These effects result in inaccurate and incorrect processing of the signals of the international system by Russian and European elites. As a result, a subsystem of international relations has arisen in the post-Soviet space, featuring a highly competitive environment. However, there are only two major actors in the region: Russia and the EU. Small countries are too weak, so must choose to align themselves with either Russia or the Euone or the other. This causes a rivalry between Russia and the EU for influence on small and medium-sized countries in the post-Soviet space.

  20. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: World Economy & International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-19

    joint article "Argentina at a Historic Turning Point" (MEMO No 5, 1984). 2. See "A Typology of the Nonsocialist Countries," Moscow, 1976. 3. COMERCIO ... EXTERIOR No 5, 1986, p 432. 4. See V.l. Lenin, "Complete Works," vol 27, p 383. 5. See A. Maddison, "Economic Progress and Policy in Developing

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 13, September 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-15

    A person can be defined as a "biped without feathers;" he could also be a "political animal ," and a "reasonable person" (economically, tech...situation is quite alarming. Obvious manifestations of nation- alism, cruelty and bloodshed are inadmissible and immoral; the losses, both...essentially the reasons JPRS-UKO-89-019 15 November 1989 33 which determine the superficial nature of the cosmetic changes in its amendments in the past

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Kommunist, No. 10, July 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-23

    wholesale trade is the best method for solving such problems. The " rationing points" system which is currently applied is incompatible with the...of delinquencies within that time more than quintupled, measures to limit the amount of loans were taken in 1986 and 1987 but these are merely...the meetings and organized electoral procedures, saw to the documentation of resolutions, etc. The economic managers were entrusted with the drafting

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 10, October 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-17

    communism on the garbage heap of history". The U.S. President’s words concerning the Soviet Union as the "evil empire" may also be recalled in this...division into "white"- and "blue-collar" workers is altogether inadequate today. There are additionally the so-called " gold -collar" work- ers—persons who...former Sen C. Mathias, and Congressman J. Leach , president of the Ripon Society (12) (the ideological and organizational center of the grouping

  4. Social desintegration and violent deaths in countries of the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Daniel Bonaldi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper intents to show that deep social transformations that took place in the Soviet Union, between middle 80s and middle 90s during XXth. century, provoqued a significant increase in violent deaths rates (suicides, homicides and accidents. Our study follows a theoretical perspective based on Durkheim ideas , that try to explain variations in violent deaths rates analyzing changes in the intensity and nature of social relationships. The analysis of evolution of specific rates by region, sex and age allowed us to verify that groups more directly affected by social transformations were those that also presented the highest rates in the proportion of violent deaths. 

  5. Economic Bases for Lessening U.S.-Soviet Tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the increasing Soviet dependence on American grain can be used to reduce international tensions. Soviet agricultural policies could affect worker morale and the entire Soviet political system. President Reagan is well-positioned to engage the Soviets in serious discussions of reductions in both nuclear and conventional weapons. (AM)

  6. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  7. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  8. The Decay of Communism: Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel in the Soviet Union, 1937-1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per (History of Science and Technology, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)), e-mail: perho@kth.se

    2010-09-15

    The historical evolution of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) decision-making in Western Europe and North America is already fairly well-known. For the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe, and in particular the Soviet Union, we know less. There have recently been several good studies of Soviet nuclear power history (e.g. Schmid 2004, 2006, Josephson 2005), but none of them has gone into any depth when it comes to SNF, but rather focused on nuclear power reactors, public acceptance, the role of the media, etc. There are also several good overviews available that problematize the radioactive legacy of the Soviet Union, including the SNF and waste issue, but these studies do not address the historical dynamics and evolution of SNF management over a longer period of time; in other words, they fail to explain how and why the present state of affairs have actually come into being. The aim of this paper is to provide historical insight into the dynamics of SNF decision-making in the Soviet Union, from the origins of nuclear engineering in the 1930s to the collapse of the country in 1991. The nuclear fuel system can be described as a large technical system with a variety of interrelated components. The system is 'large' both because it involves key links between geographically disperse activities, and because it involves a variety of technologies, organizations and people that influence the dynamics and evolution of the system. Soviet SNF history is of particular interest in this context, with a nuclear fuel system that was the most complex in the world. The USSR was a pioneer within nuclear power and developed a variety of reactor designs and technologies for uranium mining, conversion and enrichment, as well as for transport, treatment, storage and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It explored both military and civil uses of the atom, and an enormous amount of people and organizations were involved in realizing highly ambitious nuclear programmes. The USSR is

  9. Migration and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context: The case of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Kulu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies show that family migration is usually to the benefit of the man's professional career and that it has a negative impact on the woman's economic well-being and employment. This study extends previous research by examining the effect of family migration on union dissolution. We use the event-history data of two retrospective surveys from Russia and apply hazard regression. The analysis shows that couples who move frequently over long distances have a significantly higher risk of union dissolution than couples who do not move or move only once. Our further analysis reveals that the risk of disruption for frequent movers is high when the migrant woman has a job. Frequent migrants had a high risk of union dissolution during the Soviet period but they faced no such risk during the post-Soviet socio-economic transition. We argue that frequent moving increases union instability through a variety of mechanisms, the effect of which may vary across socio-economic contexts.

  10. The Politics of Tradeoffs Among Consumption, Investment, and Defense in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    differences over the tradeoffs among consumption, investment, and military spending . DTIC -£’LECTE S SEP. 23,193 14- SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF...tensions between military spending and the invest- ments needed to maintain the USSR’s long-term economic growth. The political aspect of such budgetary...investment and military spending that are becoming increasingly painful. 2 This report examines the scope of internal Soviet dif- ferences over the tradeoffs

  11. Quality of life among former Soviet Union and Israeli origin methadone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander; Pruginin, Itay

    2016-01-01

    A common treatment intervention for heroin addiction is methadone maintenance. In recent years a wider perspective has been adapted to understand and evaluate addiction through quality of life. This article examines quality of life conditions of 170 male former Soviet Union and Israeli origin drug users in methadone maintenance and provides an understanding of conditions linked to the World Health Organization Quality of Life project's best available techniques reference document. Having a partner or spouse and less chronic illness are positive factors affecting quality of life regardless of country of origin. Israeli born drug users reported better quality of life based on their psychological health and environment domain responses; no difference was found for the physical health and social relationship domains of the Israeli and former Soviet Union origin males. Because heroin addiction is a chronic and relapsing illness, one of the goals of methadone maintenance is to address patients' health status from a broad perspective. Based on clinical observations, the treatment of special populations may be enhanced if their particular needs are considered and met. Quality of life factors are relevant for assessing high risk groups, including those from different ethnic origins, in poor physical and psychological health, their treatment and personal adjustment, and their service personnel training needs.

  12. Challenges of Public Health Education in the former Soviet Union: Example of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Piekkala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many former Soviet Union (fSU countries face a high burden of disease and a much lower life expectancy compared to western countries. Many of the underlying causes are amenable to public health interventions, but the prevailing Soviet approach to prevention has largely failed to address the new and more complex public health issues these countries face. This study looks at public health challenges in Ukraine, in particular at those related to public health education. METHODS: The research is based on a small-scale, qualitative analysis of information collected through i review of literature related to public health and public health education in the former Soviet Union and Ukraine, as well as curricula and training material for epidemiology students in Ukrainian medical schools, ii observations during workshops for epidemiology students and teachers from Ukrainian medical schools and iii semi-structured interviews with epidemiology students and teachers from Ukrainian medical schools. The collected data was interpreted using the method of thematic discourse analysis, which allowed identifying major areas challenging public health education in the country. RESULTS: The main challenges identified were seen in the outdated conceptual understanding of public health, particularly in epidemiology. These challenges underlie further problems including limited hours and narrow content of epidemiology training, lack of training in research skills, inadequate training material and conservative attitudes among teachers and students towards prevailing ideas and development. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: There is urgent need for a wider definition of public health, moving towards the “New Public Health” approach and subsequently a series of changes to education curricula and materials. Curricula reform should provide additional hours for covering non-communicable diseases, non-medical topics such as health policy and health promotion and ensure

  13. A distribution list of the butterflies (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera of Tian-Shan within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Korb

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A distributive list of butterflies of Tian-Shan in borders of former Soviet Union is compiled, it contains 289 species: Hesperiidae – 21 species, Papilionidae – 21 species; Pieridae – 38 species, Satyridae – 67 species, Lybitheidae – 1 species, Danaidae – 1 species, Nymphalidae – 42 species, Riodinidae – 2 species, Lycaenidae – 96 species. New synonyms are established.

  14. Explanatory models of health and disease: surprises from within the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Extract The review of anthropological theories as applied to public health by Jennifer J. Carroll (Carroll, 2013 published in this issue of TCPHEE made me recollect my first and most surprising discoveries of how differently same things can be understood in different parts of the world. Probably less unexpectedly, these impressions concern substance abuse and addiction behaviors, similarly to many examples deployed by Jennifer J. Carroll. The first of these events happened soon after the break-up of the Soviet Union when some of the most active people from the West rushed to discover what was going on behind the opening iron curtain. A director of an addiction clinic, who had just come into contact with a Dutch counterpart, invited me to join the collaboration and the innovation process he planned to launch. Being a participant of the exchange program started within this collaboration, I had an opportunity to discover how addictive behaviors were understood and explained in books (English, 1961; Kooyman, 1992; Viorst, 1986 recommended by the colleagues in the Netherlands and, as I could observe with my own eyes, addressed in everyday practice. This was a jaw-dropping contrast to what I learnt at the soviet medical university and some post-graduate courses, where all the diseases related to alcohol, tobacco, or drug abuse were considered predominantly a result of the substance intake. In the Soviet discourse, the intake itself was understood as 'willful and deliberate' or immoral behavior which, in some cases, was to be rectified in prison-like treatment facilities. In the West, quite oppositely, substance abuse was seen rather as a consequence of a constellation of life-course adversities thoroughly considered by developmental psychology. This approach was obviously deeply ingrained in how practitioners diagnosed and treated their patients.

  15. Migrant Selection and the Health of U.S. Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T.

    2012-01-01

    Few prior studies have investigated the health of U.S. immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Utilizing data from the 2000 U.S. census and the 2000–2007 National Health Interview Survey (NIHS), we compare levels of disability of FSU immigrants with U.S.-born whites (ages 50–84). Our findings suggest an “epidemiologic paradox” in that FSU immigrants possess higher levels of education compared with U.S.-born whites, but report considerably higher disability with and without adjustment for education. Nonetheless, FSU immigrants report lower levels of smoking and heavy alcohol use compared with U.S.-born whites. We further investigate disability by period of arrival among FSU immigrants. Changes in Soviet emigration policies conceivably altered the level of health selectivity among émigrés. We find evidence that FSU immigrants who emigrated during a period when a permission to emigrate was hard to obtain (1970–1986) displayed less disability compared with those who emigrated when these restrictions were less stringent (1987–2000). Finally, we compare disability among Russian-born U.S. immigrants with that of those residing in Russia as a direct test of health selectivity. We find that Russian immigrants report lower levels of disability compared with Russians in Russia, suggesting that they are positively selected for health despite their poor health relative to U.S.-born whites. PMID:22421810

  16. Acculturation, social alienation, and depressed mood in midlife women from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arlene Michaels; Sorokin, Olga; Wang, Edward; Feetham, Suzanne; Choi, Michelle; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2006-04-01

    Level of acculturation has been linked to depressed mood in studies across culturally diverse immigrant groups. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acculturation, social alienation, personal and family stress, and demographic characteristics on depressed mood in midlife immigrant women from the former Soviet Union. Structural equation modeling showed that higher acculturation scores, measured by English language and American behavior, were indirectly related to lower scores for depressed mood. Higher acculturation levels promoted mental health indirectly by reducing social alienation and, subsequently, lowering family and personal stress, both of which had direct relationships to symptoms of depression. These findings support the ecological framework that guided our research and point to the importance of focusing on contextual factors in developing interventions for new immigrants. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychological and mental illness among elder immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Svetlana A; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the cultural context of psychological illness among elder immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU). Kleinman's (1980) explanatory model of illness and Leininger's theory of culture care (1997) provided the conceptual framework for the study. Participant Observations were conducted in an Adult Day Care Center and Senior Housing. Twenty-three key informants and 10 general informants participated. The social and historical context of the FSU influenced the meaning, attitudes, expressions, and coping strategies toward psychological and mental illness. Cultural stigma influenced the attribution of cause, somatic expression of symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Psychological illness was unrecognized, whereas mental illness was viewed as lack of dusha (inner strength and moral character). Group differences were evident with ethnicity as a significant influence in symptom recognition, expression, and attitude toward seeking professional help.

  18. Chernobyl disaster sequelae in recent immigrants to the United States from the former Soviet Union (FSU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, RoseMarie Perez; Goldstein, Marjorie F

    2007-04-01

    Long-term mental health sequelae of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster have been documented for exposed populations who remained in the former Soviet Union (FSU) (Havenaar et al., 1997), and in a cohort migrated to Israel (Cwikel et al., 1997). This paper reports on Chernobyl disaster sequelae in émigrés (n = 321) to the United States. Demographic characteristics, migration factors, and self-reported physical health were considered. Both geographical proximity to the 1986 disaster, and perception of radiation risk stood as long-term indicators of current psychological distress. Proximity was related to poor self-perceived physical health, as well as current symptoms of depression (pChernobyl-related trauma distress (p<.001) on standardized measures. Environmental contamination as a reason for migration was also associated with greater mental health symptomatology.

  19. The Development of Distance Education in the Russian Federation and the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Zawacki-Richter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distance education in the present Russian Federation and former Soviet Union has a long tradition that prevails to this day. The majority of students in Russia are enrolled in distance learning programs. The numbers indicate the existence of a well-established system for distance education, of which little is known in Western literature. A review of distance education research in the Anglo-American sphere showed that within the past 10 years not a single article dealing with the Russian system was published. Consequently, within international DE research Russia remains uncharted territory. The following explorative study introduces the educational and tertiary educational system and presents current statistical data while emphasizing the historical perspective to further describe how the distance education system is embedded therein. In order to discuss current practice in this field, one of the biggest higher distance education institutions in Moscow with approximately 110,000 students is used as an example.

  20. Exploring the impact of foreign direct investment on tobacco consumption in the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M

    2005-02-01

    Tobacco is the single largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world; in the former socialist bloc tobacco kills twice as many men as in the west. Although evidence shows that liberalisation of the cigarette trade through the elimination of import barriers leads to significant increases in consumption, far less is known about the impact of foreign direct investment on cigarette consumption. This paper seeks to explore the impact that the substantial transnational tobacco company investments have had on patterns of tobacco trade and consumption in the former Soviet Union. Routine data were used to explore trends in cigarette trade and consumption in the 15 countries of the former Soviet Union from the 1960s to the present day. Comparisons were made between trends in countries that have received substantial investment from the tobacco transnationals and countries that have not. Between 1991 and 2000 cigarette production increased by 96% in countries receiving industry investment and by 11% in countries that did not. Over the same period cigarette consumption increased by 40%; the increase was concentrated in countries receiving investments. Despite these investments, cigarette imports still outweigh exports and no trade surplus has yet to result. The findings suggest that liberalisation of inward investment has a significant and positive impact on cigarette consumption and that without appropriate safeguards, market liberalisation may have long term negative impacts on health. Specific trade rules are needed to govern trade and investment in this uniquely harmful product. Implementation of effective tobacco control policies should precede tobacco industry privatisation. International financial organisations pressing for privatisation should ensure this occurs.

  1. The Prospects for Modernizing Soviet Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    supraministerial (the Agro -industrial Commit- tee,’ the Bureau of Machine Building) and cross- or infraministerial organizations (intersectoral science and...Kheynman, S., "Acceleration: Priorities and Effectiveness," Ekonomi - cheskaya Gazeta, No. 14, April 1988, pp. 14-15, in JPRS, Soviet Union Economic...1988, p. 2, in JPRS, Soviet Union Economic Affairs, October 18, 1988, pp. 84- S6. Shprygin, V. I., "Kak sozdat’ protivozatratnyi bar’er," Ekonomi

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-28

    blanket off from the entire peninsula, stretched it out, and moved the relatively warm places here where it was coldest." It turned out that one push was...has other interesting qualities. For exam- ple, in addition to everything else, he is an artist. Once I saw him in a conversation with one Kazakh

  3. Morphometric Characteristics of Ice and Snow in the Arctic Basin: Aircraft Landing Observations from the Former Soviet Union, 1928-1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sea ice and snow measurements collected during aircraft landings associated with the Soviet Union's historical Sever airborne and North Pole...

  4. Ice-core based assessment of historical anthropogenic heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Sb, Zn) emissions in the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Anja; Tobler, Leonhard; Eyrikh, Stella; Malygina, Natalia; Papina, Tatyana; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-01-01

    The development of strategies and policies aiming at the reduction of environmental exposure to air pollution requires the assessment of historical emissions. Although anthropogenic emissions from the extended territory of the Soviet Union (SU) considerably influenced concentrations of heavy metals in the Northern Hemisphere, Pb is the only metal with long-term historical emission estimates for this region available, whereas for selected other metals only single values exist. Here we present the first study assessing long-term Cd, Cu, Sb, and Zn emissions in the SU during the period 1935-1991 based on ice-core concentration records from Belukha glacier in the Siberian Altai and emission data from 12 regions in the SU for the year 1980. We show that Zn primarily emitted from the Zn production in Ust-Kamenogorsk (East Kazakhstan) dominated the SU heavy metal emission. Cd, Sb, Zn (Cu) emissions increased between 1935 and the 1970s (1980s) due to expanded non-ferrous metal production. Emissions of the four metals in the beginning of the 1990s were as low as in the 1950s, which we attribute to the economic downturn in industry, changes in technology for an increasing metal recovery from ores, the replacement of coal and oil by gas, and air pollution control.

  5. The Soviet Union and Muslim Guerrilla Wars, 1920-1981: Lessons for Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    inability of the Soviet-backed Afghan regimes to defeat the Afghan resistance movements and to govern the population in the wake of the Soviet invasion of...Kazakh revolt of 1916. The Soviets subsequently participated in extended conflicts against the Basmachi movement in Central Asia and Muslim...environment that defies control , and the preemptive actions of the Muslim guerrillas, most efforts by the Soviet and Afghan governments have ended in

  6. Epizootic of vesicular disease in pigs caused by coxsackievirus B4 in the Soviet Union in 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomakina, Natalia F; Shustova, Elena; Strizhakova, Olga M; Drexler, Felix; Lukashev, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) emerged around 1960 from a human enterovirus ancestor, coxsackievirus B5 (CVB5), and caused a series of epizootics in Europe and Asia. We characterized a coxsackievirus B4 strain that caused an epizootic involving 24 488 pigs in the Soviet Union in 1975. Phylogenetic evidence suggested that the swine virus emerged from a human ancestor between 1945 and 1975, almost simultaneously with the transfer of CVB5.

  7. Cancer profile of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: incidence and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Ott, Jördis J; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2009-12-01

    This study compares cancer mortality and incidence of ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany. Data were obtained from two migrant cohorts residing in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) (n = 34,393) and Saarland (n = 18,619). Vital status of the NRW cohort was ascertained through local population registries. Causes of death were obtained from the NRW statistical office or from local health offices. Cancer incidence of the Saarland cohort was derived from the Saarland cancer registry using record linkage. From 1990 to 2005, we observed 708 cancer deaths and 586 incident cancer cases. In males, both cancer incidence and cancer mortality were similar to the German population. Female cancer incidence and mortality were lower, the latter significantly. Site-specific standardized mortality and incidence ratios showed great variation in comparison to Germans and were remarkably similar to each other for most sites. Lung cancer was elevated among males, but lower among females. Stomach cancer was higher contrasting with lower ratios for prostate cancer, male colorectal cancer, and female breast cancer. Results confirm that FSU-migrants suffer from cancers, which may be prevented by prevention programs. Furthermore, we cannot conclude a different health-seeking behavior compared to Germans.

  8. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. The Soviet Union and Iran Strategic Implications for the United States Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    the 1979 Soviet census indicate an increasing population drift towards Central Asia . Current offi- cial predictions are that, by the year 2000, the...objective is to expand the Soviet position in Southwest Asia with the ultimate long-term aim of controlling the region. 39 The Soviets have made several...unshakeable control as the new year dawned. Under his personal authority an army second to none in South- west Asia was capably trained and equipped

  10. The costs of the soviet empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C

    1985-11-29

    A comprehensive framework is developed and applied to estimate the economic costs incurred by the Soviet Union in acquiring, maintaining, and expanding its empire. The terms "empire" and "costs" are explicitly defined. Between 1971 and 1980, the average ratio between empire costs and Soviet gross national product was about 3.5 percent; as a ratio to Soviet military spending, empire costs averaged about 28 percent. The burden imposed on Soviet economic growth by empire costs is also considered, as well as rates of change in these costs, and the important political, military, and strategic benefits associated by the Soviet leadership with maintenance and expansion of the empire. Prospective empire costs and changes in Soviet economic constraints resulting from the declining performance of the domestic economy are also considered.

  11. Eurasian Economic Union: Opportunities and Barriers to Regional and Global Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Andronova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU is a new integration grouping in the post-Soviet space that is generating heightened interest as a global economy with the potential to become a new regional and global actor. This article analyzes the effectiveness of the Eurasian integration processes and proposes several actions to strengthen economic relations among EEU members through detecting and building common economic interests. Russia accounts for as much as 87% of the EEU’s geo-economic potential, which stresses the country’s role as anintegrative hub. The EEU benefits are thus unevenly distributed among its participants. Moreover, these benefits lack consistency and long-term orientation, which may threaten the EEU’s existence if markets and international economic relations change.This article analyses the interrelation and interdependency of national economies in terms of the mutual trade in goods and services and investment cooperation. It finds that the level of economic integration does not meet the interests of strengthening Eurasian integration. Despite the huge benefits of the Customs Union, trade volumes have not increased and the structure of manufacturing and cooperation ties remain unchanged. This article recommends that developing and implementing a common industrial and agricultural policy would strengthen the EEU, and proposes an approach to estimate the results of such a policy.

  12. Waste management and recycling in the former Soviet Union: the City of Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyzstan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Natasha M; Wilson, David C; Velis, Costas A; Smith, Stephen R

    2013-10-01

    The UN-Habitat Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) benchmarking methodology was applied to profile the physical and governance features of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in the former Soviet Union city of Bishkek, capital of the Kyrgyz Republic. Most of the ISWM indicators were in the expected range for a low-income city when compared with 20 reference cities. Approximately 240,000 t yr(-1) of MSW is generated in Bishkek (equivalent to 200 kg capita(-1) yr(-1)); collection coverage is over 80% and 90% of waste disposed goes to semi-controlled sites operating with minimal environmental standards. The waste composition was a distinctive feature, with relatively high paper content (20-27% wt.) and intermediate organic content (30-40% wt.). The study provides the first quantitative estimates of informal sector recycling, which is currently unrecognised by the city authorities. Approximately 18% wt. of generated MSW is recycled, representing an estimated annual saving to the city authorities of US$0.7-1.1 million in avoided collection/disposal costs. The waste management system is controlled by a centralised municipal waste enterprise (Tazalyk); therefore, institutional coherence is high relative to lower-middle and low-income cities. However, performance on other governance factors, such as inclusivity and financial sustainability, is variable. Future priorities in Bishkek include extending collection to unserved communities; improving landfill standards; increasing recycling rates through informal sector cooperation; improving data availability; and engaging all stakeholders in waste management strategy decisions. Extending the scope and flexibility of the ISWM protocol is recommended to better represent the variation in conditions that occur in waste management systems in practice.

  13. Smoking status, nicotine dependence and happiness in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Leinsalu, Mall; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has established a policy of substantially discounting the health benefits of reduced smoking in its evaluation of proposed regulations because of the cost to smokers of the supposed lost pleasure they suffer by no longer smoking. This study used data from nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) to explore this association in a setting characterised by high rates of (male) smoking and smoking-related mortality. Data came from a cross-sectional population-based study undertaken in 2010/2011 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Information was collected from 18 000 respondents aged ≥18 on smoking status (never, ex-smoking and current smoking), cessation attempts and nicotine dependence. The association between these variables and self-reported happiness was examined using ordered probit regression analysis. In a pooled country analysis, never smokers and ex-smokers were both significantly happier than current smokers. Smokers with higher levels of nicotine dependence were significantly less happy than those with a low level of dependence. This study contradicts the idea that smoking is associated with greater happiness. Moreover, of relevance for policy in the fSU countries, given the lack of public knowledge about the detrimental effects of smoking on health but widespread desire to quit reported in recent research, the finding that smoking is associated with lower levels of happiness should be incorporated in future public health efforts to help encourage smokers to quit by highlighting that smoking cessation may result in better physical and emotional health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Pestoides F, and Atypical Yersinia pestis Strain from the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E; Worsham, P; Bearden, S; Malfatti, S; Lang, D; Larimer, F; Lindler, L; Chain, P

    2007-01-05

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lacking the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla{sup -} strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains, reveals a series of differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single {approx}7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet

  15. Pestoides F, an atypical Yersinia pestis strain from the former Soviet Union.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Emilio [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Worsham, Patricia [U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; Bearden, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lindler, L. [Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2007-01-01

    Unlike the classical Yersinia pestis strains, members of an atypical group of Y. pestis from Central Asia, denominated Y. pestis subspecies caucasica (also known as one of several pestoides types), are distinguished by a number of characteristics including their ability to ferment rhamnose and melibiose, their lack of the small plasmid encoding the plasminogen activator (pla) and pesticin, and their exceptionally large variants of the virulence plasmid pMT (encoding murine toxin and capsular antigen). We have obtained the entire genome sequence of Y. pestis Pestoides F, an isolate from the former Soviet Union that has enabled us to carryout a comprehensive genome-wide comparison of this organism's genomic content against the six published sequences of Y. pestis and their Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Based on classical glycerol fermentation (+ve) and nitrate reduction (+ve) Y. pestis Pestoides F is an isolate that belongs to the biovar antiqua. This strain is unusual in other characteristics such as the fact that it carries a non-consensus V antigen (lcrV) sequence, and that unlike other Pla(-) strains, Pestoides F retains virulence by the parenteral and aerosol routes. The chromosome of Pestoides F is 4,517,345 bp in size comprising some 3,936 predicted coding sequences, while its pCD and pMT plasmids are 71,507 bp and 137,010 bp in size respectively. Comparison of chromosome-associated genes in Pestoides F with those in the other sequenced Y. pestis strains reveals differences ranging from strain-specific rearrangements, insertions, deletions, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and a unique distribution of insertion sequences. There is a single approximately 7 kb unique region in the chromosome not found in any of the completed Y. pestis strains sequenced to date, but which is present in the Y. pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Taken together, these findings are consistent with Pestoides F being derived from the most ancient lineage of Y. pestis yet sequenced.

  16. SCORE performance in Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union: MONICA and HAPIEE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhireva, Olga; Pająk, Andrzej; Broda, Grazyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Skodova, Zdena; Bobak, Martin; Pikhart, Hynek

    2014-01-01

    Aims The Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) scale assesses 10 year risk of fatal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), based on conventional risk factors. The high-risk SCORE version is recommended for Central and Eastern Europe and former Soviet Union (CEE/FSU), but its performance has never been systematically assessed in the region. We evaluated SCORE performance in two sets of population-based CEE/FSU cohorts. Methods and results The cohorts based on the World Health Organization MONitoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease (MONICA) surveys in the Czech Republic, Poland (Warsaw and Tarnobrzeg), Lithuania (Kaunas), and Russia (Novosibirsk) were followed from the mid-1980s. The Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study follows Czech, Polish (Krakow), and Russian (Novosibirsk) cohorts from 2002–05. In Cox regression analyses, the high-risk SCORE ≥5% at baseline significantly predicted CVD mortality in both MONICA [n = 15 027; hazard ratios (HR), 1.7–6.3] and HAPIEE (n = 20 517; HR, 2.6–10.5) samples. While SCORE calibration was good in most MONICA samples (predicted and observed mortality were close), the risk was underestimated in Russia. In HAPIEE, the high-risk SCORE overpredicted the estimated 10 year mortality for Czech and Polish samples and adequately predicted it for Russia. SCORE discrimination was satisfactory in both MONICA and HAPIEE. Conclusion The high-risk SCORE underestimated the fatal CVD risk in Russian MONICA but performed well in most MONICA samples and Russian HAPIEE. This SCORE version might overestimate the risk in contemporary Czech and Polish populations. PMID:23786858

  17. Fish introductions in the former Soviet Union: The Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan - 80 years later.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Bogdanowicz

    Full Text Available The Soviet Union played the leading role in fish introductions in Eurasia. However, only 3% of all introductions prior to 1978 gave a commercial benefit. One of the noteworthy examples appears to be the Sevan trout (Salmo ischchan Kessler, 1877-an endemic salmonid of Lake Sevan in Armenia. This species has been introduced to Kirghizstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, however, only the Kirghiz population has persisted in relatively high numbers. In this paper we provide the first extensive molecular study of S. ischchan using samples from the native population from Lake Sevan and three hatcheries in Armenia, as well as from the population introduced to Lake Issyk Kul in Kirghizstan. The Kirghiz population has been isolated since the introductions took place in 1930 and 1936. Our results, based on 11 nuclear microsatellites and a 905 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region suggest that hatcheries have maintained genetic variability by way of ongoing translocations of individuals from Lake Sevan. Simultaneously, significant Garza-Williamson M-values suggest that bottlenecks could have reduced the genetic variability of the wild populations in the past. This hypothesis is supported by historical data, indicating highly manipulated water-level regulations and poaching as two main factors that dramatically impact fish abundance in the lake. On the other hand, a similar situation has been observed in Kirghizstan, but this population likely rebounded from small population size faster than the other populations examined. The Kirghiz population is significantly genetically differentiated from the other groups and have morphological features and biological attributes not observed in the source population. Genetic data imply that the effective population size in the native population is lower than that found in the introduced population, suggesting that some active protection of the Lake Sevan population may be needed urgently.

  18. The Viability of the Oil and Gas Industry within the Former Soviet Union, excluding Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coish, J.; Pyne, M.

    2004-01-15

    The former Soviet Union (FSU) has huge potential in the future of the world's oil and gas industry. The FSU includes some of the biggest producers and consumers of oil and gas in the world, and many of these countries include areas that lie untouched or explored. FSU territory also surrounds the Caspian Sea, which is itself a hotbed of activity in the oil and gas industry. The Caspian alone is important to world energy markets because of its own potential for oil and gas production and export, and this adds to the overall potential of the FSU. The FSU has been moving towards a free market economy since the fall of communism in the early 90's, and as such, is becoming a much more attractive area for foreign companies to operate. The FSU countries still requires foreign investment for their respective industries, and some of them have even put into place legislation to provide benefits to foreign investors. There are many types of foreign investment required in the FSU. Much of the infrastructure already in place is old and dilapidated, and requires maintenance and improvement. As well, new equipment and technologies for exploration and production are required to tap the oil and gas resources that lie in inconvenient locations. Finally, transportation of the oil and gas is a major issue here, as many of the fields are in hard to reach areas, and thus pipeline projects are increasing. Since the fall of communism, the FSU has been opening its doors more and more to foreign investors eager to bite into the huge market, and many of the largest oil and gas companies in the world are already operating there. The industries are still young to foreign investment, however, and those companies who get their foot in the door early, will be able to reap the benefits for years to come.

  19. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in Post-Socialist Countries of the European Union: Motives and Patterns of Entrepreneurship of Post-Soviet Immigrants in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tepavcevic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between migration, entrepreneurship, and foreign direct investments by focusing on entrepreneurial activities of post-Soviet (immigrants in Hungary in periods between 1991 and 2016. Post-Soviet migrants are in focus because between 1956 and 1989 the Soviet Union coercively kept Hungary in the Socialist bloc. Based on surveys and in-depth interviews, this paper reveals that there are considerable differences in patterns of entrepreneurship among post-Soviet immigrant entrepreneurs depending mostly on time of their arrival to Hungary. Similarly, motives for entrepreneurship among the first-wave migrants combine negative factors in the former Soviet Union with positive factors encountered in Hungary, while factors in Hungary recognized as positive by most post-Soviets prevail in motives for later waves of post-Soviet migration and entrepreneurship in Hungary. The paper also demonstrates that many relatively small investments have been conducted since 2000 by citizens of post-Soviet countries to Hungary. Some of them are transforming into an entrepreneurial activity, serving also as a basis for immigration to Hungary.

  20. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  1. The Adversary System in Low-Level Soviet Economic Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    exploration and processing, agricultural fertilizer sales, metal treating and . plating, hotel design, and solid waste utilization. Sample and...Minneftekhimprom, the Gas Industry, the " Chemical Industry, Metal Machine-tooling, and agencies of the Moscow City Soviet in hotel design and waste...publicized success of Minpribor instrument boutiques . Another reform-oriented effort was the shift of Minkhimneftemash enterprises to production and

  2. Political Socialization of Youth in the Soviet Union: Its Theory, Use, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    and the only ones permitted contributed somehow to political socialization. Religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter were replaced with...Shlapentokh, Vladimir. Soviet Public Opinion and Ideology: Mythology and Pragmatism in Interaction. New York: Praeger, 1980. Shturman, Dora. The Soviet

  3. The economic and monetary union countries vs. the global crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis revealed institutional weaknesses and structural problems of particular Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) countries. The crisis and slowdown that followed had an impact on their relative competitiveness. Financial and economic turbulences of recent years shed new light on the scale and scope of interdependences in the world economy. They uncovered economic and institutional flaws of the very EMU itself. The paper focuses on EMU countries real sector re...

  4. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It a...

  5. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and The Space Race, 1945-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Asif A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is, in essence, sixteen years in the making. First attempted to compile a history of the Soviet space program in 1982 author put together a rough chronology of the main events. A decade later, while living on a couch in a college friend's apartment, he began writing what would be a short history of the Soviet lunar landing program. The first draft was sixty-nine pages long. Late the following year, he decided to expand the topic to handle all early Soviet piloted exploration programs. That work eventually grew into what you are holding in your hand now.

  6. Economic Cooperation Between The European Union And Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drzymała Agnieszka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to show the history of economic relations between the European Union and Japan. This economy is very important to the EU and the countries of the EU are interested in further deepening areas of cooperation. Therefore it seems important to indicate the political will to continue mutual economic relations through the signing of contracts and bilateral agreements, as well as meetings at various levels, including SPA and EPA negotiations and summits. The course of the current economic cooperation will be shown through trade volume and foreign direct investment outflows from the European Union to Japan.

  7. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2016-01-01

    The European Union internal market seeks to ensure the free movement of goods, services, capital and citizens. The primacy given to these economic freedoms has culminated in a socio-economic reasoning dominated by competition, bringing about side effects that may pose a threat to working conditions

  8. Logistics Support for U.S. Perimeter and Portal Monitoring Sites in the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    to import from the West almost all of what they consume since the Soviet economy cannot reliably provide even the most common comestibles at levels of...toilet paper to light bulbs, electrical wiring, conduit and other common comestibles . The nd result of all of this is that OSIA leaders must carefully...t th-v’. consunie since the SOviet economy cannot reliably pro.-vide even the-: jt f115W comestibles at levels of quality taken for grranted in

  9. The Unlikely Success of the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    battle for Moscow in 1941 was a precursor to the battles for Stalingrad and Kursk. In all three cases Stalin allowed the shift from the spread out “broad...front. The difference in Stalingrad in 1942 and Kursk in 1943 was that the Soviets had the quantity and quality of equipment and personnel to properly...employment of maskirovka. The successful employment of maskirovka in the battle for Stalingrad deceived the Germans regarding the scale of the Soviet

  10. Developments in Soviet Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Studies the news values, practices, and role of journalists in the Soviet Union. Claims that, although the Soviet press currently resembles a corporate public relations department, there are signs of change because of public demands. States that journalistic practices in the U.S. and Soviet Union are similar in their reliance on routine and…

  11. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goguadze Ketevan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided.

  12. Reforming sanitary-epidemiological service in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union: an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Public health services in the Soviet Union and its satellite states in Central and Eastern Europe were delivered through centrally planned and managed networks of sanitary-epidemiological (san-epid) facilities. Many countries sought to reform this service following the political transition in the 1990s. In this paper we describe the major themes within these reforms. Methods A review of literature was conducted. A conceptual framework was developed to guide the review, which focused on the two traditional core public health functions of the san-epid system: communicable disease surveillance, prevention and control and environmental health. The review included twenty-two former communist countries in the former Soviet Union (fSU) and in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Results The countries studied fall into two broad groups. Reforms were more extensive in the CEE countries than in the fSU. The CEE countries have moved away from the former centrally managed san-epid system, adopting a variety of models of decentralization. The reformed systems remain mainly funded centrally level, but in some countries there are contributions by local government. In almost all countries, epidemiological surveillance and environmental monitoring remained together under a single organizational umbrella but in a few responsibilities for environmental health have been divided among different ministries. Conclusions Progress in reform of public health services has varied considerably. There is considerable scope to learn from the differing experiences but also a need for rigorous evaluation of how public health functions are provided. PMID:20663198

  13. The Struggle for the Soviet Far East: Political, Military, and Economic Trends Under Gorbachev

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Eastern Republic seems unlikely, but growing political and economic chaos could enhance its prospects greatly. The independence movement is still in an...Nonetheless, even by itself, the independence movement , like other new trends in the region, is indicative of the degree to which Soviet life has become

  14. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the development of the economic situation in each country in recent years. The starting point for discussion is the analysis of benefits of economic integration in the light of theory.

  15. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, J.; Luengo-Fernandez, R.; Sullivan, R.; Witjes, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 120000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact

  16. INTERESTS OF THE MEMBER STATES IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Michałowski

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the interests of the member countries in the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), which is formed by Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The author argues that Russia has been involved in the project primarily for geopolitical reasons. Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan have perceived the integration within EEU primarily through the possible economic benefits. While analyzing the interests of the members in the EEU, the author also refers to the develo...

  17. Currency Unions, Economic Fluctuations, and Adjustment: Some New Empirical Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Tamim Bayoumi; Eswar Prasad

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the sources of disturbances to output in the United States and a set of European Union countries and analyzes labor market adjustment mechanisms in these two economic areas. Comparable data sets comprising one-digit sectoral data for eight U.S. regions and eight European countries are constructed and used to compare the degree of industrial diversification and the relative importance of different sources of shocks to output growth. Both economic areas are found to be subje...

  18. Homonationalism Before Homonationalism: Representations of Russia, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union in the U.S. Homophile Press, 1953-1964.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Dasha

    2017-01-01

    This essay focuses on representations of Russia, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. Extending the application of Jasbir Puar's concept of homonationalism to the Cold War period, the essay examines 128 articles and other items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder and demonstrates that these periodicals often engaged in homonationalist discourses when constructing the Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European "other." Negative constructions of these regions were sometimes used to affirm the political alignment of the homophile authors with the American nation. At other times, negative constructions were used in comparative assessments that critiqued both the United States and the Soviet and Eastern European regions. In contrast, positive constructions of Russian, Soviet, and Eastern European peoples and cultures were used as evidence that non-heteronormative desires and bodies had legitimate places in many "primitive" cultures and existed across all nations and periods.

  19. The Repudiation of Single-Sex Education: Boys' Schools in the Soviet Union, 1943-1954

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, E. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the 11-year Soviet experiment with boys' schools as a way to cast new light on scholarly research and public debates about single-sex education. Drawing on archival and published materials by educators who described school conditions, identified problems, suggested reforms, and evaluated remedies, the author argues that…

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. World Economy & International Relations, No. 12, December 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-18

    34Rethinking the Soviet Experience. Poli- tics and History Since 1917," New York, Oxford, 1985, pp6, 10-11. 4. D. Nimmo, J.E. Combs, " Subliminal Politics...cialists believe, be developed in the United States in the foreseeable period. The Pentagon is insistently advertising the successes allegedly scored

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy and International Relations, Number 11, November 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-02

    pension security, unem- ployment insurance, and health care systems and sub- stantially raised the share of social spending. The development of...budget for Soviet and foreign workers and withhold deductions for pension security. Certain problems have arisen in connection with the fact that...34 Sistema obrazovaniya v yevropey- skikh stranakh SEV. Ekonomicheskiye i sotsialnyye problemy" [The Educational System in European CEMA Countries

  2. Brief Report: Grade Placement of Addition and Subtraction Topics in Japan, Mainland China, the Soviet Union, Taiwan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Karen C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The grade placement of topics in addition and subtraction was compared across the five countries through analysis of textbooks. "Remarkable" uniformity in grade placement was noted for Japan, China, the Soviet Union, and Taiwan, but the United States differed substantially. (MNS)

  3. Bringing Health Care to the Under-Served: The Mid-Level Health Practitioner in Three Countries--China, the Soviet Union, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferberg, Natalie

    A comparison was made of the role of midlevel health practitioners and how they came into being and flourished in three countries: the "feldsher" of the Soviet Union, the barefoot doctor of China, and the physician assistant of the United States. Information was gathered from books, journals, periodicals, governments, and newspapers as…

  4. Ideologies, Strategies and Higher Education Development: A Comparison of China's University Partnerships with the Soviet Union and Africa over Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    University partnerships have been a key dimension of higher education development. Based on documentary analysis and empirical data, this study compares two distinctive models of university partnership experienced by China, first as a "recipient" with the Soviet Union in the 1950s and later as a "provider" with African…

  5. Children Studying in a Wrong Language: Russian-Speaking Children in Estonian School Twenty Years after the Collapse of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomela, Aaro, Ed.; Kikas, Eve, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Soviet Union collapsed more than 20 years ago, but the traces left in occupied countries by this monstrous system still affect the lives of millions of people. Under the glittering surface of newsworthy events that regularly appear in the mass media, there are many other wounds hard to heal. The system of education is one of the social…

  6. Acculturation and adjustment of elderly émigrés from the former Soviet Union: Alife domains perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Genkova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet émigrés in the United States are on average older than other immigrant groups, with adultsover 65 comprising a large portion of the Russian-speaking population. Despite known risks associated withold-age migration, however, researchers and providers have underestimated adjustment difficulties forRussian-speaking elderly in U.S. These older adults tend to acquire a new culture with difficulty and remainhighly oriented towards their heritage culture. However, limited research examines how acculturation to boththe culture of origin and the host culture contributes to wellbeing for this immigrant group. This studyassesses the adaptive value of host and heritage acculturation across several domains in the lives of olderémigrés from the former Soviet Union resettled in the Baltimore and Washington, DC areas in the UnitedStates. Acculturation level with respect to both host and heritage culture was measured with the Language,Identity, and Behavior Scale (LIB; Birman and Trickett, 2001 and used to predict psychological, family, social,and medical care adjustment outcomes. Results suggest that acculturation to the host or heritage culture hasdifferent functions depending on life domain. Particularly, high American acculturation contributed to betteradjustment in the psychological, family, and social domains. Heritage acculturation was associated withbetter outcomes in the social domain and had mixed effects for psychological adjustment. Theoreticalimplications highlight the importance of evaluating multiple life domains of adapting through a bilinearacculturation model for the understudied population of elderly immigrants.

  7. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the economic and financial crisis is still being felt. It started as an acute crisis of the banking system, but then quickly affected the real economy, causing a substantial slump in business investment, household demand and output. The current economic crisis has affected almost all European countries but the countries of the European south and the former eastern socialist republics have suffered the most. The objective in this paper is to quantify economic disparities as expressed by several growth indicators, such as GDP per capita, employment/unemployment rates, labour productivity rates and use them to compare the economic performances before and after the crisis. EU took several measures to recover from the economic crisis. Nevertheless, its ability to adjust to widely diverse national and local contexts that have been impacted differently by the effects of the crisis, and to support the different patterns of economic growth that will result from it, is yet to be seen.

  8. The burden of culture? Health outcomes among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Erin Trouth

    2012-04-01

    Immigrants in the U.S. often experience better health than the native-born, and many explanations for this phenomenon center around the positive health behaviors that immigrants bring from their home cultures. Immigrants from the former Soviet Union may be an exception; because they come from societies where unhealthy lifestyles and high mortality are common, they are often expected to experience worse health than the native population. Using data from the Integrated Health Interview Series, I compare FSU immigrants with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites on several health measures. FSU immigrants are twice as likely as native whites to report fair or poor health, but they are less likely to smoke or drink, and are less likely to report a functional limitation. FSU immigrants' advantage in functional limitation is largely explained by their very high levels of education and marriage, indicating that selectivity is important to understanding the health of this population.

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Volkogonov’s Political Portrait of Stalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-06

    Provisional Government no longer existed, the representative parliament had been dis- solved, prisoners had been set free and radio messages had been sent...a virtuoso.... An exceptionally, purely feline tenacity—the willpower of lack of will, the stubbornness of indecisive- ness—enabled him for months... therapy treatment center in Yes- sentuki, is completely trustworthy and a worker loyal to the Soviet Republic. "I. Stalin. 15 November 1923." And

  10. U.S. Technology Exchange with the Soviet Union: A Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-01

    advanced technology without further analysis . Moreover, some of the conclusions pertaining to computers also warrant further st’idy. 1. The ee... espacially those still under U.S. and COCOM export controls, such as telecommunications equipment and numerically controlled machine tools. Such estimates...especially if combined with a closer analysis of Soviet capacity to pay, and if explicit allowance were made for structural differences between

  11. History of the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union, 1941-1945, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-20

    Neibauer and M. Poser in ThUringen; and by G. Schumann, 0. Engert, and K. Kress in Saxony , played an outstanding role in uniting all patriotic forces. Thanks...governmental awards. The Soviet soldiers who seized the city saw a dark picture of destruction. The Fascists had razed the ancient Russian city to the ground...sway for more than two years, presented a terrible picture of destruction. The world-famous Pulkovo Observatory lay in ruins, and Peterhof, with its

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs, Preparations for the 19th Party Conference, Part III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-30

    of the state system, of all society; its policy of developing self-government is also essentially a global offensive against bureaucracy. But the...inter alia of the Supreme Soviet, and that the discussion of these questions which will be posed at the session will take on a bussiness -like and...ing exacerbation of global problems only when the whole world was already speaking of it. We essentially did not acknowledge the interdependence

  13. SPECIFICS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISE INTEGRATION IN THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Еlena А. Hudorenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on problems and futuredevelopment of integration processes in thepost-Soviet space. The author highlightssome of the key factors contributing to thedevelopment of centripetal and centrifugaltrends of the region. Special attention isgiven to the industrial policy of countriesinvolved in integration processes. The paper analyzes the role and importance of corporate integration as well as discovers ways ofits development.

  14. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  15. Economic Development in Afghanistan during the Soviet Period, 1979-1989: Lessons Learned from the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    significant efforts into social and economic development in efforts to defeat the insurgency and gain the support of the population. This study investigates...militaires, l’Union soviétique et ses alliés afghans ont consenti des efforts importants pour le développement social et économique du pays. Ils voulaient...les valeurs afghanes et islamiques traditionnelles, de sorte qu’elles n’ont fait qu’aliéner les agriculteurs et les grands propriétaires terriens

  16. As safe as the Bank? : Household financial behaviour and economic reasoning in post-soviet Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Nils August

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study examines the financial behaviour of Russian households from the collapse of communism to the financial melt down in August 1998. By transforming household savings into productive investment, financial intermediaries are important to economic growth. In post-Soviet Russia, financial intermediaries increasingly found themselves unable to attract new household savings, as people turned to foreign currency. What determined the allocation of household savings? The study con...

  17. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-02-28

    Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. The cross-sectional national sample included 25-84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994-2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007.

  18. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Jan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459 and immigrants from Poland (n = 161, other East European countries (n = 164, and the former Soviet Union (n = 60 who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007.

  19. Economic case for gender equality in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Elomäki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Scholarship on gender and the European Union (EU) has consistently pointed out that EU gender equality policies have always been embedded in the logic of the market and that the economic framing has had negative impacts on the content and concepts of these policies. This article provides novel insights into this discussion by combining a discursive approach focused on framings with insights of feminist economists and examining how the relationship between gender equality and the economy has b...

  20. Transformation of Belarus and Russian agricultural settlement system in the new economic conditions (post-Soviet period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbina Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition to new economic relations in 1990, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the formation of new states caused the processes of transformation of the settlement system. That determined the need to analyse the current situation at this stage of development. The greatest changes in the structure has undergone a rural settlement that has identified the need for research in Belarus and Russia, including the justification for the new approaches to assessing the level of development of rural settlements in the structure of the current scheme of administrative divisions. Today both in Russia and in Belarus adopted a system of local government areas of rural settlements, which are included in the municipal districts that are component territorial units of federal subjects. However, the system of rural settlement of these republics have differences, which occurred because of the transformation, due to historical processes, economic and political conditions the existing States. The demographic situation in these countries is characterizing by population decline. In Russia, among federal districts the greatest population losses typical for the Far East - 6%, Siberia - 4%, and for the Volga Federal District - 4%. That is, in absolute terms, respectively, 0.4; 0.8 and 1.2 million people.

  1. The Role of European Union Funds in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian PĂUN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project initially started as a peaceful solution for war reconstruction in Europe. European countries decided to cooperate rather than compete in an aggressive way. At the beginning, this project supposed (involved market liberalization, trade barriers removals, market access improvement (initially for coal, steel, energy and, later, for all goods, services, workforce and capital. Unfortunately, in the last decades, all these Single Market facilities have been backed by redistributive schemes, protectionist mechanisms, social engineering, subsidies and facilities packed in so-called ”EU policies”. New ”European” institutions have been created, more and more funds have been involved to financially support this very complex redistributive intervention. The political dimension of the European Union project enhanced the economic dimension and constantly suffocated private markets and the economy. The “incomes” of the European Union that fuel its financial support are coming from taxes and/or inflation (better administered after the introduction of a Single Currency – the Euro. This paper will discuss the relevance of European Funds for economic development, especially for new members in this project.

  2. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk Sea from 1981-09-23 to 1988-06-17 (NODC Accession 0081217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, silicate, nitrite, alkalinity, and pH data collected by multiple former Soviet Union institutions from Okhotsk...

  3. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and meteorological data collected by various Russian and former Soviet Union institutions from North Pacific Ocean and Okhotsk Sea from 1930-07-23 to 2004-04-18 (NODC Accession 0083635)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, nutrients, and meteorological data collected by various Russian and former Soviet Union institutions from North Pacific...

  4. Gonorrhoea and gonococcal antimicrobial resistance surveillance networks in the WHO European Region, including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemo, Magnus; Ison, Catherine A; Cole, Michelle; Spiteri, Gianfranco; van de Laar, Marita; Khotenashvili, Lali

    2013-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae has emerged for essentially all antimicrobials following their introduction into clinical practice. During the latest decade, susceptibility to the last remaining options for antimicrobial monotherapy, the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC), has markedly decreased internationally and treatment failures with these ESCs have been verified. In response to this developing situation, WHO and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) have published global and region-specific response plans, respectively. One main component of these action/response plans is to enhance the surveillance of AMR and treatment failures. This paper describes the perspectives from the diverse WHO European Region (53 countries), including the independent countries of the former Soviet Union, regarding gonococcal AMR surveillance networks. The WHO European Region has a high prevalence of resistance to all previously recommended antimicrobials, and most of the first strictly verified treatment failures with cefixime and ceftriaxone were also reported from Europe. In the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA), the European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) funded by the ECDC is running. In 2011, the Euro-GASP included 21/31 (68%) EU/EEA countries, and the programme is further strengthened annually. However, in the non-EU/EEA countries, internationally reported and quality assured gonococcal AMR data are lacking in 87% of the countries and, worryingly, appropriate support for establishment of a GASP is still lacking. Accordingly, national and international support, including political and financial commitment, for gonococcal AMR surveillance in the non-EU/EEA countries of the WHO European Region is essential.

  5. The Deportation of Germans from Romania to the Soviet Union in 1944–1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murádin János Kristóf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study outlines the capturing of prisoners by the Red Army taking control over Transylvania in the fall of 1944. It presents the second wave of capturing: the deportations in January-February 1945, pronouncedly oriented toward the German community (Transylvanian Saxons and Swabians primarily living in the Banat. There are described the circumstances of capturing the prisoners, the number of those taken away, the routes of their deportation, the locations and lengths of their captivity, the number of the victims, and the return of the survivors. Finally, the remembrance of the 1945 Soviet deportations, their present social embeddedness is expounded. The source material of the study consists of specialist books, essays, published recollections, and interviews with survivors made by the author and other researchers

  6. The Integration in the Economic and Monetary Union: when?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Opriţescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a unique European currency. Also, we aim at revising the new question marks raised by the current economic and financial context towards the sustainability of the Euro zone. The conclusion is that, although some countries are postponing the moment of adopting the Euro, they have trust in the future and solidity of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU and are prepared to adopt the unique European currency on a shorter or longer term. The countries’ fears are not related to the existence of the EMU itself, but they are rather waiting for a more suitable moment, characterized by a less troubled economic environment.

  7. Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: a comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jördis J; Paltiel, Ari M; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2008-04-09

    Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by diseases of infectious origin in migrants and call attention to the

  8. Chronic disease mortality associated with infectious agents: A comparative cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Volker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of infectious diseases in migrant populations has been addressed in numerous studies. However, information is sparse on their mortality due to chronic diseases that are aetiologically associated with an infectious agent. This study investigates mortality related to infectious diseases with a specific focus on cancers of possibly infectious origin in voluntary migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and in Germany. Methods Both groups of migrants arrived from the Former Soviet Union in their destination countries between 1990 and 2001. Population-based data on migrants in Israel were obtained from the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Data for migrants in Germany were obtained from a representative sample of all migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany. Cause of death information was available until 2003 for the Israeli cohort and until 2005 for the German cohort. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated relative to the destination country for selected causes of death for which infectious agents may be causally involved. Multivariate Poisson regression was applied to assess differences in mortality by length of residence in the host country. Results Both in Israel and in Germany these migrants have lower overall mortality than the population in their destination countries. However, they have significantly elevated mortality from viral hepatitis and from stomach and liver cancer when compared to the destination populations. Regression analysis shows that in Israel stomach cancer mortality is significantly higher among migrants at shorter durations of residence when compared to durations of more than nine years. Conclusion Higher mortality from cancers associated with infection and from viral hepatitis among migrants from the Former Soviet Union might result from higher prevalence of infections which were acquired in earlier years of life. The results highlight new challenges posed by

  9. Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc; Rocco, Lorenzo; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.

  10. Terrestrial carbon dynamics. Case studies in the former Soviet Union, the conterminous United States, Mexico and Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, M.A.; Phillips, D.L. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis (United States); Winjum, J.K. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, National Council for Air and Stream Improvement USEPA, Corvallis (United States); Kolchugina, T.P.; Vinson, T.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This research assessed land-use impacts on C flux at a national level in four countries: former Soviet Union, United States, Mexico and Brazil, including biotic processes in terrestrial ecosystems (closed forests, woodlands, and croplands), harvest of trees for wood and paper products, and direct C emission from fires. The terrestrial ecosystems of the four countries contain approximately 40% of the world`s terrestrial biosphere C pool, with the FSU alone having 27% of the global total. Average phytomass C densities decreased from south to north while average soil C densities in all three vegetation types generally increased from south to north. The C flux from land cover conversion was divided into a biotic component and a land-use component. We estimate that the total net biotic flux (Tg/yr) was positive (uptake) in the FSU (631) and the U.S. (332), but negative in Mexico (-37) and Brazil (-16). In contrast, total flux from land use was negative (emissions) in all four countries (TgC/yr): FSU -342; U.S. -243; Mexico -35; and Brazil -235. The total net effect of the biotic and land-use factors was a C sink in the FSU and the U.S. and a C source in both Brazil and Mexico. 2 figs., 6 tabs., 97 refs.

  11. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation over the former Soviet Union in 1980-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, S.; Ryaboshapko, A.; Gromov, S. [Inst. of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Granat, L.; Rodhe, H. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1999-12-01

    Published information on sulfur and nitrogen compounds in air and precipitation in background regions of the Former Soviet Union (F SU) was collected and analyzed. Bad or doubtful data were removed. The spatial patterns of sulphur and nitrogen compounds indicate that western and southern regions are the most polluted and eastern Siberia the cleanest. Dry deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen on all the F SU territory was estimated to 3.3 Mt S and 1.6 Mt N per year (an average of 0. 15 gS/m{sup 2} yr and 0.07 gN/m{sup 2} yr). Deposition with precipitation was estimated to 14.7 Mt S and 7.9 Mt N per year (an average of 0.66 gS/m{sup 2}yr and 0.35 gN/m{sup 2}yr). Deposition fluxes are largest during the warm season. Data from the GAW monitoring network during the period 1980-1995 showed a visible increase of nitrate and ammonium in precipitation whereas the concentration of sulfate was rather stable. The sulfur dioxide concentration in air decreased significantly in several regions of the F SU during the decade 1980-1990. The data on nitrogen compounds in air are too limited to permit any firm conclusions regarding trends.

  12. Present situation of radioactive contamination in and around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, M. [Kanazawa Univ., Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory, Ishikawa (Japan); Hoshi, M.; Takada, J. [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Tsukatani, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto (Japan); Oikawa, S. [Japan Chemical Analytical Center, Inage, Chiba (Japan); Yoshikawa, I.; Takatsuji, T. [Nagasaki Univ., Faculty of Environmental Studies, Nagasaki (Japan); Sekerbaev, A. Kh.; Gusev, B.I. [Kazakh Scientific Research Institute for Radiation Medicine and Ecology, Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan)

    2001-03-01

    Field missions were sent to the Semipalatinsk regions to investigate the present radioecological situation as a result of the radioactive fallout from nuclear test explosions carried out at the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS). For this purpose, surface and core soil samples were collected at more than 60 sites, including several settlements such as Dolon, Chagan and Sarzhal, within and outside the SNTS territory. The radioactivities of long-lived radionuclides, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239,240}Pu, and the atomic ratio of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu were determined in combination with non-destructive g-ray spectrometric method and radiochemical separation followed by a-particle spectrometric and/or ICP-MS methods. The results showed a distinction of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 239,240}Pu inventories in soil depending on a sampling sites. Although {sup 137}Cs was within typical environmental levels except for the area near the first nuclear test site and Balapan, {sup 239,240}Pu was at elevated levels in all areas we visited. This high Pu contamination was recognized to be due to the weapons-grade Pu from the SNTS by the measurement of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239P}u atomic ratio in soil samples. (author)

  13. Characterization of pPCP1 Plasmids in Yersinia pestis Strains Isolated from the Former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chythanya Rajanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete sequences of 9.5-kb pPCP1 plasmids in three Yersinia pestis strains from the former Soviet Union (FSU were determined and compared with those of pPCP1 plasmids in three well-characterized, non-FSU Y. pestis strains (KIM, CO92, and 91001. Two of the FSU plasmids were from strains C2614 and C2944, isolated from plague foci in Russia, and one plasmid was from strain C790 from Kyrgyzstan. Sequence analyses identified four sequence types among the six plasmids. The pPCP1 plasmids in the FSU strains were most genetically related to the pPCP1 plasmid in the KIM strain and least related to the pPCP1 plasmid in Y. pestis 91001. The FSU strains generally had larger pPCP1 plasmid copy numbers compared to strain CO92. Expression of the plasmid's pla gene was significantly (P≤.05 higher in strain C2944 than in strain CO92. Given pla's role in Y. pestis virulence, this difference may have important implications for the strain's virulence.

  14. Migration and changes in loneliness over a 4-year period: the case of older former Soviet Union immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberg, Pnina; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-12-01

    Both older adult and immigrant populations are at a high risk of loneliness. The current research compares older veteran Israelis to older immigrants who arrived in Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) after 1989. Early studies have found high levels of loneliness among older FSU immigrants; however, little is known regarding changes in loneliness among this group over time. The present study examines change in loneliness among older FSU immigrants and older veteran Jewish Israelis and its potential predictors. A prospective association between immigrant's status and loneliness over time was examined using the second (2009/2010) and third (2013) waves of SHARE-Israel. The sample consisted of 208 FSU immigrants and 1080 veteran Jewish Israelis. Bivariate analyses indicated that in 2009/2010, older FSU immigrants were significantly lonelier than older veteran Jews, and more disadvantaged on all social and health variables measured. Yet, no significant differences emerged between the two groups with regard to loneliness in 2013. In the adjusted model, older immigrants presented positive change in loneliness (less loneliness over time) compared with veteran Jewish Israelis. Depressive symptoms explained a large part of the variance in change in loneliness. Potential explanations suggest that the long-term psychological adjustment process and the characteristics of the FSU immigrants in Israel as a large and relatively strong immigrant group have served as protective factors with regard to changes in loneliness over time.

  15. Adaptation of immigrant psychiatrists from the former Soviet Union in the Department of Mental Health of the Israel Defense Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, A; Durst, R; Abramowitz, M; Knobler, H Y; Zislin, J; Fluk, A; Mark, M

    2000-06-01

    Psychiatrists from the former Soviet Union serve in the Department of Mental Health of the Israel Defense Forces. The new immigrant psychiatrists confront a wide range of difficulties during the process of integration to the military system and adaptation to the specifically military aspects of psychiatry. These include unfamiliarity with the military system, cultural clashes with the different groups of soldiers representing the various subgroups of the absorbing society, the psychopathology of soldiers, which is different from that seen in civil psychiatry, and the change in focus in the military mental health service, which emphasizes the importance of evaluating ego strength. Arbitrarily, one can describe four stages of adaptation that the immigrant psychiatrist has to pass through before recruitment and during service until adaptation and integration in the new role take place. Individual and group supervision are the main means by which the assimilation process is eased. The military service smooth the acculturation process and has an important role in helping the immigrant's adaptation to Israeli society and in building his or her professional identity.

  16. A life domains perspective on acculturation and psychological adjustment: a study of refugees from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Dina; Simon, Corrina D; Chan, Wing Yi; Tran, Nellie

    2014-03-01

    The study articulates a contextual approach to research on acculturation of immigrants, suggesting that the relationship between acculturation and adjustment is dependent on the cultural demands of the life domains considered. Specifically, the study investigated the mediating effects of adjustment in occupational and social life domains on the relationship between acculturation and psychological adjustment for 391 refugees from the former Soviet Union. The study used bilinear measures of acculturation to the host (American) and heritage (Russian) cultures. Using Structural Equation Modeling, the study confirmed the hypothesized relationships, such that the positive effects of American acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by occupational adjustment, and the effects of Russian acculturation on psychological adjustment were mediated by satisfaction with co-ethnic social support. Psychological adjustment was measured in two ways, as psychological well-being, using a measure of life satisfaction, and as symptoms of depression and anxiety, using the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL). Life satisfaction served as a mediator between adjustment in occupational and social domains and HSCL, suggesting that it may be an intervening variable through which environmental stress associated with immigration contributes to the development of symptoms of mental disorder.

  17. Cancer incidence in ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to the host population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    To investigate cancer incidence patterns among ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) from the Former Soviet Union, a large migrant group in Germany, in comparison to autochthonous Saarland population over a 20 year observation period. Data were obtained from a cohort of Aussiedler residing in the federal state of Saarland (n=18,619). Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through record linkage with the Saarland Cancer Registry and local population registries. During the follow up period from 1990 to 2009 we observed 638 incident diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (except non-melanoma skin cancer). The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.04). However, site-specific SIRs revealed great variation. Stomach cancer incidence was significantly higher among Aussiedler. Lung cancer was elevated for males, but lower among females. Additionally, diagnoses for colorectal cancer among males were significantly lower. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) over time show not all cancer rates of Aussiedler attenuate as expected to Saarland rates. For example, lung and prostate cancer incidence rates show increasing disparity from Saarland rates and female breast cancer incidence develops in parallel. Furthermore, ASR for overall cancer incidence of Aussiedler shows a yearly decrease (p=0.06) whereas Saarland rates remain stable. Aussiedler incidence rates reflect incidence pattern observed in their countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of economic and political integration on power plants’ carbon emissions in the post-soviet transition nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Andrew K.; Longhofer, Wesley; Grant, Don; Sie, Amanda; Giedraitis, Vincentas

    2017-04-01

    The combustion of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which accounts for a significant share of the world’s CO2 emissions, varies by macro-regional context. Here we use multilevel regression modeling techniques to analyze CO2 emissions levels in the year 2009 for 1360 fossil-fuel power plants in the 25 post-Soviet transition nations in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia. We find that various facility-level factors are positively associated with plant-level emissions, including plant size, age, heat rate, capacity utilization rate, and coal as the primary fuel source. Results further indicate that plant-level emissions are lower, on average, in the transition nations that joined the European Union (EU), whose market reforms and environmental directives are relevant for emissions reductions. These negative associations between plant-level emissions and EU accession are larger for the nations that joined the EU in 2004 relative to those that joined in 2007. The findings also suggest that export-oriented development is positively associated with plant-level CO2 emissions in the transition nations. Our results highlight the importance in macro-regional assessments of the conjoint effects of political and economic integration for facility-level emissions.

  19. Social Attitudes, Labor Law, and Union Organizing: Toward A New Economics of Union Density

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas I. Palley

    2005-01-01

    Much has been written about union wage bargaining. Much less has been written about union density, which has been viewed as simply the employment outcome under the wage bargain. This paper presents a new dynamic model of union density that exhibits multiple equilibria and path-dependency. The model builds upon Freeman (1998) who identified the importance of union spending on organizing and business spending on opposing unions. It emphasizes the demand for union representation which depends on...

  20. CHALLENGES OF THE ECONOMIC AND MONETARY UNION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Laura Văleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial crisis which has affected the world economy since 2008 raised a question mark regarding the viability of the Economic and Monetary Union and the future of the euro. Themain objective of this paper is to identify the amplitude of the effects of the economic crisis on the functioning and stability of EMU. Following the main objective, the study is meant to analyze the theoretic fundamentals which were at the basis of the creation of EMU and an analysis of the financial policies and instruments meant to render stability and sustainable economic growth in the countries of the Eurozone.

  1. Cuba's involvement in Angola and Ethiopia: a question of autonomy in Cuba's relationship with the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Stephanie Schehara

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis examines Cuban involvement in Angola and Ethiopia in light of Cuba's Foreign policy and Cuban Soviet relations. Utilizing the two case studies, it analyzes the degree to which Cuban activities in Africa were Soviet directed or Soviet sponsored. The conclusion is that Cuba exhibited substantial relative autonomy in Angola, but limited autonomy in Ethiopia. That conclusion is applied to Cuba in the 1990's, in which the curren...

  2. Understanding Soviet Objectives and Behavior,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-17

    Moscow, and has specialized in Soviet affairs since 1967, contends that Soviet behavior is motivated by what Comunist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU...border with China . Peking considers its interpretation of Marxist- Leninist ideology to be more accurate and puie than the Soviet version, China has a...courting both China and the US and criticizing the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. He also refuses to modernize the Romanian armed forces, choosing

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Peoples of Asia and Africa, No. 6, November-December 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-07

    Contemporary Chinese Poetry 5 104 Shestakova I.V. The Energy Policies of Japan .... 4 115 Shitov V.N. Problems of the Democratization of Inter- national...Questions of Economic History. Anthology. Editor-in-chief A.M. Petrov 5 183 Beylis V.A. Epic Literature of the Peoples of Africa below the Sahara. Ye.S

  4. SOVIET NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES,

    Science.gov (United States)

    technological innovations led to the development of an extensive radio and television network in the Soviet Union, mass communications continued to be dominated by the heavily politicized newspapers, with PRAVDA, the party daily, remaining the most authoritative source for information and interpretation. Foreign radio broadcasts to the Soviet Union developed to provide an alternative source of information for the Soviet population, thereby challenging Soviet media to compete for its audience. Pravda was forced to yield its place as the prime source of information to

  5. Loneliness: its correlates and association with health behaviours and outcomes in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stickley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU--a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. METHODS: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries--Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine--in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress. RESULTS: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. CONCLUSIONS: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

  6. Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Richardson, Erica; Abbott, Pamela; Tumanov, Sergei; McKee, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) – a region where loneliness has been little studied to date. Methods Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine – in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress). Results The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova. Conclusions Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU. PMID:23861843

  7. Self-selection and earnings assimilation: immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yinon; Haberfeld, Yitchak

    2007-08-01

    Drawing on U.S. decennial census data and on Israeli census and longitudinal data, we compare the educational levels and earnings assimilation of Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the United States and Israel during 1968-2000. Because the doors to both countries were practically open to FSU immigrants between 1968 and 1989, when FSU immigrants were entitled to refugee visas in the United States, the comparison can be viewed as a natural experiment in immigrants' destination choices. The results suggest that FSU immigrants to the United States are of significantly higher educational level and experience significantly faster rates of earnings assimilation in their new destination than their counterparts who immigrated to Israel. We present evidence that patterns of self-selection in immigration to Israel and the United States--on both measured and unmeasured productivity-related traits--is the main reason for these results. When the immigration regulations in the United States changed in 1989, and FSU Jewish immigrants to the United States had to rely on family reunification for obtaining immigrant visas, the adverse effects of the policy change on the type of FSU immigrants coming to the United States were minor and short-lived As early as 1992, the gaps in the educational levels between FSU immigrants coming to Israel and to the United States returned to their pre-1989 levels, and the differences in earnings assimilation of post-1989 immigrants in the United States and Israel are similar to the differences detected in the 1980s.

  8. Improving Large-scale Biomass Burning Carbon Consumption and Emissions Estimates in the Former Soviet Union based on Fire Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, D. J.; Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E. I.; Kukavskaya, E.; de Groot, B.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating the amount of biomass burned during fire events is challenging, particularly in remote and diverse regions, like those of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Historically, we have typically assumed 25 tons of carbon per hectare (tC/ha) is emitted, however depending on the ecosystem and severity, biomass burning emissions can range from 2 to 75 tC/ha. Ecosystems in the FSU span from the tundra through the taiga to the forest-steppe, steppe and desserts and include the extensive West Siberian lowlands, permafrost-lain forests and agricultural lands. Excluding this landscape disparity results in inaccurate emissions estimates and incorrect assumptions in the transport of these emissions. In this work, we present emissions based on a hybrid ecosystem map and explicit estimates of fuel that consider the depth of burning based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System. Specifically, the ecosystem map is a fusion of satellite-based data, a detailed ecosystem map and Alexeyev and Birdsey carbon storage data, which is used to build carbon databases that include the forest overstory and understory, litter, peatlands and soil organic material for the FSU. We provide a range of potential carbon consumption estimates for low- to high-severity fires across the FSU that can be used with fire weather indices to more accurately estimate fire emissions. These data can be incorporated at ecoregion and administrative territory scales and are optimized for use in large-scale Chemical Transport Models. Additionally, paired with future climate scenarios and ecoregion cover, these carbon consumption data can be used to estimate potential emissions.

  9. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, World Economy & International Relations, No. 8, August 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    administrativno- komandnaya sistema ] of economic management created during the first five-year plans was more and more perceptibly impeding the...pay, pension benefits, etc.). This work is financed by the state budget (70 percent) and by funds of the local organs of power (30 percent)3. In...to finding employment for released workers. Persons of pre- pension age who are unable to find a job corresponding to their occupational and skill

  11. LIST OF THE MEMBERS OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The list apparently is a continuation of an earlier listing (no. 36 of the Izvestiya). The members are listed as belonging to the following units...inorganic materials; Division of biochemistry, biophysics and the chemistry of physiologically active compounds; Department of physiology; Division of...general biology; Department of history; Department of philosophy and law; Department of Economics; Department of literature and language; and the Siberian Department.

  12. Assessment of the infectious diseases surveillance system of the Republic of Armenia: an example of surveillance in the Republics of the former Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Kenzie William R

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Before 1991, the infectious diseases surveillance systems (IDSS of the former Soviet Union (FSU were centrally planned in Moscow. The dissolution of the FSU resulted in economic stresses on public health infrastructure. At the request of seven FSU Ministries of Health, we performed assessments of the IDSS designed to guide reform. The assessment of the Armenian infectious diseases surveillance system (AIDSS is presented here as a prototype. Discussion We performed qualitative assessments using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Until 1996, the AIDSS collected aggregate and case-based data on 64 infectious diseases. It collected information on diseases of low pathogenicity (e.g., pediculosis and those with no public health intervention (e.g., infectious mononucleosis. The specificity was poor because of the lack of case definitions. Most cases were investigated using a lengthy, non-disease-specific case-report form Armenian public health officials analyzed data descriptively and reported data upward from the local to national level, with little feedback. Information was not shared across vertical programs. Reform should focus on enhancing usefulness, efficiency, and effectiveness by reducing the quantity of data collected and revising reporting procedures and information types; improving the quality, analyses, and use of data at different levels; reducing system operations costs; and improving communications to reporting sources. These recommendations are generalizable to other FSU republics. Summary The AIDSS was complex and sensitive, yet costly and inefficient. The flexibility, representativeness, and timeliness were good because of a comprehensive health-care system and compulsory reporting. Some data were questionable and some had no utility.

  13. Reconstructing the Soviet National Economic Balance, 1965 - 1984: An Alternative Approach to Estimating Soviet Military Expenditures. Volume 1. Technical Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-11

    popular financial and input-output methods. Outside the defense sector, central planners lack resources to monitor all subsidiary production...suggested that, contrary to the popular belief in the West, Soviet production shops engaged in manufacturing armaments do not earn profit because I...Konyukhova, ed., Sbornik po Finansovomu Zakonodatel’stvu, (Moscow: I Yuridicheskaya Literatura , 1980), p. 517. I U 2 - 22 ___ I I 1 19 Vestnik

  14. Developing E-Governance in the Eurasian Economic Union: Progress, Challenges and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vidiasova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available he article provides an overview of e-governance development in the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU. There is a lack of integrated research on e-governance in the EEU countries, although given the strengthening of this regional bloc, new information and communication technologies (ICT could serve as significant growth driver. Given the history and specifics of regional cooperation in the post-Soviet space and international best practices in ICT use in regional blocs, this article reviews the development of e-governance in the EEU members The research methodology was based on a three-stage concept of regionalism [Van Langenhov, Coste, 2005]. The study examines three key components: progress in developing e-governance, barriers to that development and future prospects. It used qualitative and quantitative methods. Data sources included the results of the United Nations E-Government rating, EEU countries’ regulations based on 3,200 documents and the authors’ expert survey, in which 18 experts (12 EEU representatives and six international experts participated. The study revealed the progress made by EEU countries in improving technological development and reducing human capital development indicators. The survey identified key barriers to e-governance development in the EEU: low motivation and information technology skills among civil servants, and citizens’ low computer literacy. The analysis of EEU members’ national economic priorities revealed a common focus on ICT development. The authors concluded that prospects for e-governance in the EEU were associated with strengthening regional cooperation in standardizing information systems, implementing one-stop-shop services, managing electronic documents and expanding online services. The authors presented two areas for developing e-governance within the EEU. The first is external integration, which, if strengthened, would affect the economy positivelyand optimize business processes

  15. Economic Burden of Bladder Cancer Across the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Jose; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Sullivan, Richard; Witjes, J Alfred

    2016-03-01

    More than 120,000 people are diagnosed annually with bladder cancer in the 28 countries of the European Union (EU). With >40,000 people dying of it each year, it is the sixth leading cause of cancer. However, to date, no systematic cost-of-illness study has assessed the economic impact of bladder cancer in the EU. To estimate the annual economic costs of bladder cancer in the EU for 2012. Country-specific cancer cost data were estimated using aggregate data on morbidity, mortality, and health care resource use, obtained from numerous international and national sources. Health care costs were estimated from expenditures on primary, outpatient, emergency, and inpatient care, as well as medications. Costs of unpaid care and lost earnings due to morbidity and early death were estimated. Bladder cancer cost the EU €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion (59%) and representing 5% of total health care cancer costs. Bladder cancer accounted for 3% of all cancer costs in the EU (€143 billion) in 2012 and represented an annual health care cost of €57 per 10 EU citizens, with costs varying >10 times between the country with the lowest cost, Bulgaria (€8 for every 10 citizens), and highest cost, Luxembourg (€93). Productivity losses and informal care represented 23% and 18% of bladder cancer costs, respectively. The quality and availability of comparable cancer-related data across the EU need further improvement. Our results add to essential public health and policy intelligence for delivering affordable bladder cancer care systems and prioritising the allocation of public research funds. We looked at the economic costs of bladder cancer across the European Union (EU). We found bladder cancer to cost €4.9 billion in 2012, with health care accounting for €2.9 billion. Our study provides data that can be used to inform affordable cancer care in the EU. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP EUROPEAN UNION - BLACK SEA REGION FOLLOWING THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu Livia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the possible interaction between the European Union and the Black Sea region, following the consequences the international and financial crisis placed upon the Eastern neighbourhood of the Union. It provides a comprehensive picture on the economic situation in the Black Sea area, correlating the economic realities from the field with the required domains of policy actions. \\r\

  17. Trends in high-speed camera development in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics /USSR/ and People's Republic of China /PRC/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzer, W. G.

    1981-10-01

    Significant advances in high-speed camera technology are being made in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and People's Republic of China (PRC), which were revealed to the author during recent visits to both of these countries. Past and present developments in high-speed cameras are described in this paper based on personal observations by the author and on private communications with other technical observers. Detailed specifications on individual instruments are presented in those specific cases where such information has been revealed and could be verified.

  18. How EU Economic Integration Advances on the Way of Some Important Unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic union and monetary union are deeply connected: two dimensions of the third stage of European integration. But achieving monetary union without a complete single market in the field of financial services proved the vulnerability of Eurozone to external shocks and the need to a further economic integration. While banking union has advanced quite fast in the last two years, capital markets union is only a project, also the fiscal union, which is the basic foundation of a true political union. A complete financial union will take a long time to accomplish due to many political, financial and bureaucratic obstacles facing such an ambitious project. Energy Union is another important project meant to remove market fragmentation, to enhance energy security and to reduce environmental impact of energy sector. Finally the political union, the last stage of European integration, the dream of many famous politicians and scholars, will be only possible on the long run as a new type of federation of nation states, provided that all components of economic union will be fully attained.

  19. Suicide and external mortality pattern in a cohort of migrants from the former Soviet Union to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, Andreas; Winkler, Volker; Meisinger, Christa; Heier, Margit; Becher, Heiko

    2015-04-01

    Mental health consequences of migration are manifold. Where some migrants experience migration as liberation from life threatening conditions, others suffer from hostility and social descent in the target country. This study investigates deaths due to external causes, suicides, and events of undetermined intent in German repatriates from the Former Soviet Union. The relation between age at migration and suicide mortality is also explored. A cohort of German repatriates who migrated between 1990 and 1999 was followed-up until 2010. Each individual accumulated time at risk, expressed in person years (PY). Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated, supplemented by subgroup analyses for age and calendar year strata, and immigration period. Multivariate Poisson models were used to investigate the influence of age, sex, calendar year, number of moves, and final move distance. A total of 6378 German repatriates (3031 men, 3347 women) accumulated 92,149 PY. Median age at immigration was 30 years in women and 27 years in men. Women's all-cause mortality was significantly lower (SMR = 0.85 [0.75; 0.97]). Men more often died from external causes (SMR = 1.58 [1.09; 2.23]), intentional self-harm (SMR = 1.68 [0.90; 2.88]), and events of undetermined intent such as poisoning by drugs (SMR = 8.07 [4.02; 14.44]). External cause mortality was significantly increased after 1995 (SMR = 1.87). In particular, men who migrated when they were 11-20 years old were at strongly increased risk of committing suicide (SMR = 3.84) or dying due to events of undetermined intent (SMR = 14.75). The most endangered subgroup is men who migrated at teenage age. Protective factors such as strong family bounds formerly present in the FSU failed in Germany, the higher population density caused intense friction. The changes in the families' ethnical composition from mostly ethnic German members in the early 90s' towards predominantly Russian members around the turn of the millennium complicated

  20. Women in the Military and Power Structures in Russia, the Soviet-Union and Post-Soviet Societies : A Selected Bibliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources http://www.minervacenter.com/ In English. An academic website specialised in the study of women in the military or in a war context. A few articles on women in post-Soviet militaries.  http://wmw.iatp.by/ In Russian. Website of a project on Belarus women in World War II, conducted by the Gender Studies Department of the European Humanities University of Minsk. http://www.vvsu.ru/grc/ In Russian. An important bibliography on women and the army in the USSR and in post-sov...

  1. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-15

    work. The column is surrounded by men with semi- automatic rifles. They are the guard. Whom are they guarding? From what? They are guarding you and me...guardroom. We are still going to make an effort for him, though!"! Transient Private S. Zaytsev was somber. He gave mono- syllabic answers to the

  2. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-08

    maintaining order and it organizes spare time. Lieutenants S. Grishchenko, I. Gorenkin, and V. Larionov ; Warrant Officer L. Meshcheryakova; and...young family parties, and celebrations in honor of young officers. Everybody liked the New Year’s "lights" very much. Viktor Larionov took the

  3. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-05

    organizations is more than half. A reduction in children’s incidence of illness (ensuring its minimum level), the strict observation of nutritional norms, the...is Beautiful 9 FOR YOU, CULINARY SPECIALISTS Gifts of the Forest 8 National Kitchen Day 5 How to Prepare Kvas 10 IN THE NOTEBOOK FOR THE REAR

  4. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-17

    military facilities in San Lorenzo . In addition, they are laying a new road which will facilitate the transfer of troops to the Nicaraguan border in...river before daybreak and crossed the Pyandzh on rafts . Nurali’s group, after crossing the river near Punimur, came out right at the post at the

  5. Trade Union Education in Times of Economic Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinone, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses a number of important factors having a bearing on the new requirements of workers' education. They include the expansion of workers' interests and trade unions' responsibilities, the expansion of collective bargaining, a movement toward effective tripartism, and the incorporation of rural workers into unions. (CT)

  6. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Makarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the opportunities for Russia presented by the launch of China’s Silk Road Economic Belt initiative.This initiative is a comprehensive project for the rapid development of Central Asian countries, and not limited only to transportand logistics to guarantee the supply of Chinese goods to Europe. It is also China’s response to economic and political processes both within the country and in the Asia-Pacific region: the economic slow down and transformation of its social and economic model, diverging income levels, the growing presence of the United States in Asia, and the new divisions of labour within the region. The Silk Road initiative is based on China’s intention to create strong regional value chains, to outsource labour-intensive and environmentally harmful production, to foster the development of north west China including securing political stability in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, and to guarantee the use of Chinese construction firms’ capacity. Goods transit is a secondary priority and justified not by commercial benefits from using land routes, but by the need to diversify export risks, arising due to the deteriorating military and political situation in the South China Sea. The 2015 Joint Statement on Cooperation on the Construction of Joint Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt projects resolves the issue of all egedly competitive goals of these complementary projects. The Eurasian Economic Union (EEU provides an institutional base for cooperation while the Silk Road initiative provide investments for their development. Russia may benefit from participating in the Silk Road initiative. First, it would help integrate its transportation system into the region’s logistics network and provide additional opportunities for transit and associated logistical services as well as access to growing regional markets. Second, the Silk Road initiative offers opportunities to strengthen

  7. The role of labor unions in fostering economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John

    1995-01-01

    In this essay on how labor unions work, the author proposes a framework for the law on collective bargaining in developing countries. The structure of developing economies cannot sustain as high a level of unionism as in industrial economies. Typically less (often much less) than a quarter of the workers in a developing country are covered by collective bargaining agreements-and those covered (the labor elite) are likely to be employed by the state and by large private sector employers. In th...

  8. Tax Shift by Economic Functions and Its Effect on Economic Growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine effects of tax shift on economic growth and provide a direct empirical evidence in the European Union (EU. It is used the Eurostat’s definition to categorize tax burden by economic functions and implicit tax rates of consumption, labour and capital are investigated. First, paper summarizes main development of tax shift in a whole EU till 2014 and followed empirical analysis is based on annual panel data of 22 EU Member States in years 1995–2012 (time span is divided into a pre-crisis and a post-crisis period. Explanatory variables are not examined in individual regressions, but the study uses Generalized Method of Moments applied on dynamic panel data and estimations are based on Arellan-Bond estimator (1991. Results confirm positive and statistically significant impact of consumption taxes and weaker but negative effect of labour taxation on economic growth. In a post-crisis period, findings report raising labour taxes as the strongest and the only significant variable. It suggests that harmful effect of labour taxation is enlarging in a time of unfavorable economic conditions. A tax shift on capital taxation has negative but often statistically insignificant impact on economic growth.

  9. Soviet nostalgia and Russian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen White

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communist rule did not end suddenly in 1989, or in 1991. And for many, at least in Russia, there was no radical break but a complex evolution in which many of the former ruling group, and many of the values of the Soviet period, remained intact. According to the evidence of national representative surveys, levels of support for the principle of a union state have consistently been very high. In 2008 survey, more than half (57% largely or entirely agreed that the demise of the USSR had been a ‘disaster’, and nearly two-thirds (64% thought the former Soviet republics that had established a Commonwealth of Independent States should reconstitute a single state or at least cooperate more closely. Across the three Slavic republics, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, it was guaranteed employment that was seen as the most positive feature of the old regime, and economic stagnation as its most serious shortcoming. Comparing the present and the Soviet period as they recalled it, ordinary Russians thought they had more opportunity to practise a religion, and to express their opinions. But ordinary people had (in their own view no more influence over the making of public policy than in the communist period, and they thought they were less likely to be treated fairly and equally by government. Age and living standards were the most powerful predictors of Soviet nostalgia when other variables were held constant. Nostalgics were much more likely to support parties of the left, or at least those that favoured public ownership, a Soviet or ‘more democratic Soviet’ system of government, and a closer association among the former Soviet republics; they were much less likely to support the parties that favoured the dissolution of the CIS, a wholly market economy, or Western-style democracy.

  10. Trade unions and the economic performance of brazilian establishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naércio Aquino Menezes-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines, for the first time in the literature, the impact of trade unions on various performance indicators of Brazilian establishments. A unionism retrospective survey was carried out among 1,000 establishments in the manufacturing sector and its results were matched to performance indicators available from the Brazilian Industrial Surveys between 1990 and 2000. The results using the pooled data indicate that the relationship between unionism and some performance indicators, such as average wages, employment and productivity is non-linear (concave, so that a rise in unionism from low levels is associated with higher performance, but at a decreasing rate. Unions also reduce profitability. Establishments that introduced profit-sharing schemes increased their productivity and profitability overall and paid higher wages in more unionized plants.Este artigo analisa, pela primeira vez na literatura, o impacto dos sindicatos de trabalhadores em vários indicadores de desempenho econômico de firmas industriais brasileiras. Realizou-se uma pesquisa retrospectiva sobre a densidade sindical de 1000 estabelecimentos industriais brasileiros e seus resultados foram combinados aos indicadores de desempenho econômico da Pesquisa Industrial Anual (PIA de 1990 a 2000. Os resultados indicam que a relação entre a densidade sindical na firma e seus salários, emprego e produtividade, é não-linear, ou seja, um aumento no grau de sindicalização leva a um melhor desempenho, porém a taxas decrescentes. Observou-se, também, uma relação negativa entre sindicalização e rentabilidade. Finalmente, estabelecimentos que introduziram mecanismos de 'participação nos lucros' aumentaram sua produtividade e rentabilidade no período e pagaram maiores salários nas firmas onde o grau de sindicalização era maior.

  11. Interplay of identities: a narrative study of self-perceptions among immigrants with severe mental illness from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaifel, Evgeny; Mirsky, Julia

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the self-perceptions of individuals with mental illness who immigrated from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to Israel. In particular, we examined the double stigma borne by these individuals as new immigrants and psychiatric patients, which may threaten their identity and render them at risk for social marginalization. We interviewed 12 FSU immigrants diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI), who had been hospitalized in psychiatric facilities in the past and, at the time of the interview, were residing in community rehabilitation centers. Their narratives revealed that they constructed multiple identities for themselves: as bearers of Russian culture, as Soviet Jews, as normative immigrants, and only lastly as consumers of mental health services. In the case of FSU newcomers with mental illness immigration may serve as a normalizing and positive experience. Study findings suggest that stressing patients' identity as mentally ill may be counterproductive in their rehabilitation; instead, clinicians may consider working to mobilize patients' personal and cultural assets and helping them reinstate a more complex self-perception. Further research is needed to explore how immigration may affect self-perceptions of individuals with SMI from other cultural groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. THE COLLECTIVE MEMORY AS A TRAUMA FOR THE GERMAN ETHNICS FROM ROMANIA. CASE STUDY: GERMANS’ DEPORTATIONS FROM BUKOWINA TO THE SOVIET UNION (1945-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana SCRIDON

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study refers to the shapes in which space and time can become traumatic memories. The venture between time and space mimes an identity breach both in the personal and collective history. The deportation represented the wound in the German history for whether Germans from Romania or from different other countries under Soviet influence at the end of the Second World War. The events that occurred during the Second World War affected the entire world and the consequences of the war were catastrophic for Germany as it was losing the war. Also the consequences of losing the war by Germany were noticed by the German ethnics who lived in the areas occupied by Russia. Germans were picked up for deportation with the sole purpose of using them for rebuilding the economy and infrastructure of the Soviet Union. Memories of the deported, collected through interview, represent the unique source of documentary material which is also a cry for help over the drama and horrors of deportations that are now more real than ever and can be seen in physical and psychological traumas that are now visible scars.

  13. The ICTs Implication on the Construction of Immigrants’ Identity: The Case of Women from Former Soviet Union (FSU in Greek Thrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keratso GEORGIADOU

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the initial findings from a study on immigrant women from former Soviet Union and their connection to ICTs. In order to evaluate the outcomes of this study we administered an initial questionnaire which explored the nature of access and use of new technologies in the lives of immigrant from FSU settled in Greek Thrace. This research involves women of an age range of 18-60 years old. The initial findings reveal that the women were exposed to new technologies, by which keep their cultural identity and contribute to the construction of a new one in order to adapt to the demands of today’s world.

  14. Risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union: results of a nested case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhrs Ema

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diseases of the circulatory system (CVD are the most common causes of death in developed countries. However, the prevalence of CVD varies between countries; for example, the mortality rate in Russia is about four times higher than in Western Europe. In a recent retrospective cohort study it was unexpectedly found that CVD mortality is lower among "Aussiedler" (ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union compared to the German population. Methods This is a case-control study, nested into a recent cohort study of migrants from the former Soviet Union. Relatives of cases and controls themselves were interviewed by telephone using a standardized questionnaire. To estimate relative risks via the odds ratio (OR, a conditional logistic regression procedure was performed. Results Commonly known risk factors for CVD were identified as relevant to Aussiedler. The best multivariate model for CVD includes five risk factors: consumption of alcohol, smoking, diabetes, cholesterol and consumption of sweets. For alcohol consumption and smoking, OR = 3.68 (95% CI, 1.58-8.58 and OR = 3.07 (95% CI, 1.42-6.62, respectively. For diabetes mellitus and high cholesterol values, OR = 3.29 (95% CI, 1.50-7.39 and OR = 2.32 (95% CI, 1.11-4.88, respectively. The almost complete abdication of sweets is associated with a protective effect, OR = 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64. The prevalence of risk factors is somewhat different to that of the autochthon German population and partly explains the differences in CVD mortality between both groups. Conclusions The reported lower prevalences of known risk factors of CVD such as alcohol consumption, high cholesterol, diabetes and smoking (in women could contribute to a lower risk of CVD.

  15. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Silk Road Economic Belt: Players, Interests and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Skriba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In May 2015, Russia and China coordinated their activities in Central Asia and decided to connect the Eurasian EconomicUnion (EEU and the Silk Road Economic Belt. This decision seemed to prevent unnecessary competition between these two basically non-conflicting projects. However, in time there appeared a lack of understanding of this combined endeavour and its implementation mechanisms. It is still unclear how further dialogue between the EEU and the Silk Road will proceed. There is no consensuson the participation of the EEU members and the Eurasian Economic Commission. Without a clear strategy, the Russian-Chinese agreement has started to lose momentum. Some non-regional players can benefit from this – of course, in their own interests.This articles attempt to explain the threats posed by delay and inaction in the combined EEU and Silk Road projects, and to describe the potential benefits of actively implementing the combination. It then proposes a concrete format for such a combination, its priority areas, as well as mechanisms for implementation.

  16. Soviet Military Power: Prospects for Change 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    maintain large space structures. Soyuz -TM capsule , shown here being launched from Tyuratam. in terms of providing support to the Soviet Union’s in 1971...Spaceport* ....... 55 Soviet An-225 Transport Aircraft* 70 Soviet US Nuclear Submarine- Soyuz -TM Capsule Launch* . .. 55 Soviet US Combat and Support...specific Soviet objectives in the ters in central and European Russia . These distances Pacific would likely include the following: affect both sides

  17. Determinants of Soviet Household Income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    by Kenneth Smith

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available World Values Survey data are used to examine household income in the Soviet Union. The data, gathered Summer/Fall 1990, provide a rare opportunity to empirically examine microeconomic factors influencing a Soviet household’s position in the regional/national income distribution. The survey contains data - collected regionally - from the three Baltic republics, Belarus, and the Moscow region. The data indicate certain patterns that existed and determined Soviet household income though there are often considerable regional variations. Further, there are marked differences between income distribution determinants in the Soviet Union and the U.S. and West Germany though similarities exist as well

  18. Restoration and economics: A union waiting to happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia S.T. Robbins; Jean M. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    In this article, our objective is to introduce economics as a tool for the planning, prioritization, and evaluation of restoration projects. Studies that develop economic estimates of public values for ecological restoration employ methods that may be unfamiliar to practitioners. We hope to address this knowledge gap by describing economic concepts in the context of...

  19. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  20. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  1. The Politics of the Economics of Education in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the work of the European Commission-sponsored network, the European Expert Network on Economics of Education (EENEE). The aim is to develop understanding of the context and significance of the mobilization of the economics of education research and policy paradigm within the European Union's Education and Training…

  2. IMPRESSIONS OF SOVIET PSYCHIATRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, George J.

    1960-01-01

    Psychiatry in the Soviet Union is essentially conservative, middle-of-the-road and eclectic. It rejects both extremes: radical surgical treatment such as prefrontal lobotomy, and Freudian psychoanalysis. It is Pavlovian and neurophysiological in its orientation and closely linked to Marxian philosophy; most personal problems are believed to be sociocultural in origin, and they are expected to diminish as the country moves closer toward its political and economic goals, making psychiatry progressively more circumscribed in its applications. The varieties of therapy include work therapy, aimed toward returning patients to society quickly and productively; electrosleep therapy and electroconvulsive therapy, both of which seem to be falling into disrepute; insulin-coma therapy, widely used in psychosis; hunger therapy; pharmacotherapy similar to our own but lacking in the large numbers of drugs we use; tissue therapy; psychotherapy, of limited depth and chiefly concerned with the rational, conscious elements in the patient's life. PMID:13783499

  3. Contrasts in China and Soviet reform: sub-national and national causes

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hongyi

    2005-01-01

    Why did reform in China and the former Soviet Union produce drastically different outcomes? Why did some provinces in China embrace faster economic reform than others? This article argues that the state sector and reform initiatives in the sub-national units, reform strategies, entrenchment and maturation of central planning, the size of the defence industry, policy choice and the historical context help explain the differences in Soviet and Chinese reform courses and outcomes. A predominant ...

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 9, September 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-10

    treaty to double- digit inflation and the exces- sive escalation of interest rates—automatically became the assets of the groups rallying round Reagan...this brings the sober analyst back to terra firma : The 1 percent of the nuclear warheads not intercepted by the defense would destroy the entire

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 9, September 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-24

    private and semistate sector. In this country the most persistent turned out to be private handicraft production and the greatest and most...of the five-year plan or to begin production before 1990. Yet the Kazakh Scientific Research and Production Institute of the Phosphorus Industry in...protecting the air in the cities. The large gas condensate deposits of Western Kazakh - stan and Western Siberia began to be utilized at the end

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No 3, March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-09

    other forms of distribution: incomes from private subsidiary farming, individual peer care, work at home, work under contract, handicrafts , and...establish a division of the rivers that does not exist in nature (part of the Irtysh in the RSFSR, part in Kazakhstan , part of the Dnepr in the UkrSSR

  7. JPRS Report Soviet Union USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology No 12, December 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-05

    USSR and abroad. Question: How will the income be distributed ? Answer: In line with the amount of capital invested by each side and its share of...the Adidas firm is inferior in quality to the West German product, and athletes prefer the latter because it is lighter and better. I think the

  8. JPRS Report Soviet Union EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No 6, June 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-02

    shown most clearly during the pasture period. Cows are "willing" to graze after 5 am, but by 9 am the rate declines sharply and their motor activity...physiological processes. This must be taken into account, particularly when feeding and milking cows . This fact is instructive: each day in...maritime kray alone about 25 percent of the productive herd is slaughtered. The main reason for this is mastitis (inflammation of the mammary glands). And

  9. JPRS Report. Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 7, July 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-03

    never seen such a depressing picture. He was especially irritated by the fact that the enterprise was still new! The "walls" were magnificent, the...34 "Hmm! But what about the saying that you should not play around where you work!" "Our most hypocritical saying, Mama ! Where should one play around...the past 30 years there has been a sharp increase in cancer of the pancreas. Previously it was thought that the consumption of alcoholic beverages

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 4, April 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    such forms of merchandising as large wholesale outlets, supermarkets , etc. For small enterprises wanting to enter the system of contracted...traditional approach to merchandising , based on the organization of supermarkets and other large trade and service enterprises. Under the aegis of large

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 10, October 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-29

    suppliers of materi- als and equipment. The significant delay of feedback (both from the suppli- ers and from the consumers. The unsatisfactoriness of...editor should take better advantage of the clubs as a powerful means of feedback and the members of the editorial board should visit our meetings...director of Mekhobr—had spent a good proportion of the raw material on the gilt inlays. The finishing workers and the two best masters of the

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 7, Jul 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-02

    itself: "Americans are depressed by the sight of people sleeping on subway grates"), as symptoms of the public mood shift. The generation which was...U.S. State Department refused to issue entrance visas to two prominent APN journalists, V. Simonov and B. Korolev. 23 — The latest round of talks

  13. JPRS Report Soviet Union EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production No. 5, May 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-09

    nationalities: the Spanish-speaking immigrants from the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula; Chinese contracted at one time for work on the sugar...had become a wolf . This was terrible. "It will not turn out all right!" he said sharply. "They will not offer us new jobs! Therefore let us imagine

  14. Soviet Union. EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production. No 8, August 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-23

    informa- tion about 500 diseases of the internal organs. The ONCASIN system selects a strategy for comprehensive therapy in oncology , another one...oblast oncological dispensary—the grains planted in the collective with the creation of saunas produced shoots. In a short period of time medical...rehabilitation which makes exten- sive use of medication, physiotherapy , therapeutic phys- ical culture, mechanical therapy, and sanitary-health resort therapy

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 5, May 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    South Korea, and, in the near future, Malaysia . Their modern industry is already competing successfully with American industry and can be expected to...the needs of animal husbandry) and in developing states. Between 1971 and 1980 Amer- ican deliveries of wheat, fodder grain, and cereals to the world...indicators were partly a result of the favorable climate for the cultivation of cereal crops in most of the West European countries: sufficient

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union. USA: Economics, Politics, Ideology, No. 8, August 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-03

    themselves directly with the New Right. The groups of capital casting their lot with the conser- vatives are distinguished by family business clans striv...most famous. At first the older brothers Edward and Louis were also active in the Reichmann family business in Canada. The Reichmanns moved on

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, EKO: Economics & Organization of Industrial Production, No. 11, November 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-22

    crammed with goods, they are always invent- ing new kinds of bakery and dairy products, they sell hundreds of kinds of cheeses and sausages, the...computers or monitors in the sphere of management in our country and we have no analogues to the Bulgarian systems of automated shorthand, not to mention

  18. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  19. Securing Human Rights on the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam A. Kasyanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A lot of profound political, economic, social, cultural and legislative modifications have happened on the post-Soviet space since the disintegration of the USSR. The term “post-Soviet space” should not be considered as the geographical boundaries of the fifteen former Soviet republics. The conception of the “post-Soviet space” has a more profound meaning as it reflects the common historical and cultural heritage as well as close economic relations, moreover, friendship between the citizens of the new independent States. The most developed sphere in the interstate relations nowadays is economics. The most prime example is Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, the youngest integration institution in the world which unites five countries willing to construe their relationship on a stronger basis than the proposed format of cooperation within the Commonwealth of the Independent States. In the modern world the economic and financial interests are determining, their ensuring makes the governments change foreign and domestic policies, start and terminate trade wars, desperately fight for the respect of their legal rights or, on the contrary, voluntarily give up on some parts of their sovereignty in the framework of integration development. The experience of the European Union demonstrates that the construction of the unified internal market within which freely move persons, goods, services and capitals is a necessary but not the only attribute of a successful integration project. At a certain moment the complex of economic and financial interests should be supplied with the interests of a concrete person. A strict observation of rights and freedoms is becoming a factor that predetermines a possibility of a conversion to the higher forms of integration. In this article is analyzed the problem of human rights defense in the main organizations functioning on the post-Soviet space - Eurasian Economic Union and Commonwealth of the Independent

  20. Economic Integration and New Export Opportunities for the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Volchkova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At a time when oil prices are low, non-oil exports are important for the members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU. This study assesses the effects of the EAEU’s economic integration on the development of new exports. EAEU countries are far behind global export leaders in several categories according to the revealed comparative advantage, used by the Hausmann-Klinger method to assess national export baskets. Belarus exports the most products, and Russia and especially Armenia and Kazakhstan export notably fewer. The comparative advantages of Kazakhstan and Russia are concentrated mainly in minerals, chemical products and metals. The export structure for the other EAEU countries is more diverse, with a high share of foodstuffs in Armenia and textiles in Belarus. Kazakhstan and, to a greater extent, Belarus and Russia show a rather complex export basket, significantly ahead of Armenia according to this indicator. For the EAEU as an independent participant, its trade complexity index is higher than that for its member countries individually. This article uses the Hausmann-Klinger methodology to identify the future comparative advantages of the EAEU countries. These are product groups, towards which a structural transformation of the EAEU exports most likely occurs. The research focuses on the integration aspect of possible non-oil exports, seeking to identify goods, including chemicals and textiles, that can eventually provide a comparative advantage for the EAEU as a whole. Most of the products considered have a greater economic complexity than those in the EAEU’s current export basket, so would improve its overall export structure.

  1. Eurasian Economic Union and Prospects of Development of Transnational Corporations in the Frame of the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Tikhonovitch Spitsyn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study the processes of regional integration and its particular features in the frame of the Eurasian Economic Union formation and their impact on the development of transnational corporations in the region. The authors used the scientific and methodological basis including an integrated approach and economic, institutional and organizational methods, theoretical and methodological studies of domestic and foreign scientists. In order to achieve the defined aim of this research, the authors used the retrospective method and method of comparative analysis, studied the statistical data, including the reports of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and the World Bank’s ratings. The authors studied the historical background of the Eurasian Economic Union, analyzed the current economic situation in its Member States, and considered the experience of other regional alliances. According to the results of the research, the authors formulated the conclusions in the context of the most likely prospects for the development of transnational corporations in the frame of the integration of the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union. In particular, the study of the experience of other regional associations presumes that the process of regional economic integration will have a positive impact on the dynamics of the attraction of foreign direct investment inflows in the region. In addition, regional integration will mitigate the problem of “limited” markets of the Member States of the Economic Union and, therefore, will help to increase the amount of investment resources in the manufacturing industry and services sector of the economy. The creation of the common energy markets in the framework of the new regional association would strengthen the resource-oriented domestic large-scale business and prepare the groundwork for the emergence of new transnational corporations, cooperating within the

  2. Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov, Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in 1933 - 1962 years from Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Kara Sea, and Laptev Sea (NODC Accession 0108117)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature, salinity, oxygen, pH, and meteorological data collected from Former Soviet Union platforms Lomonosov,Murmanets, and Akademik Shokalsky in...

  3. Reconstruction of Soviet National Economic Accounts, 1970-1983. Proceedings of the Panel Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    this framework is probably moic illuminating than the GNP framework. However, because of its intense tie with the labor theory of value , if you were...ended up doing a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Soviet economy based on this labor theory of value as a way of looking for the distortions in

  4. Genetic testing in the European Union: does economic evaluation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, R; Hutter, M F; Lorente, R; Juárez, C; Pinillos, M

    2012-10-01

    We review the published economic evaluation studies applied to genetic technologies in the EU to know the main diseases addressed by these studies, the ways the studies were conducted and to assess the efficiency of these new technologies. The final aim of this review was to understand the possibilities of the economic evaluations performed up to date as a tool to contribute to decision making in this area. We have reviewed a set of articles found in several databases until March 2010. Literature searches were made in the following databases: PubMed; Euronheed; Centre for Reviews and Dissemination of the University of York-Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, NHS Economic Evaluation Database; and Scopus. The algorithm was "(screening or diagnosis) and genetic and (cost or economic) and (country EU27)". We included studies if they met the following criteria: (1) a genetic technology was analysed; (2) human DNA must be tested for; (3) the analysis was a real economic evaluation or a cost study, and (4) the articles had to be related to any EU Member State. We initially found 3,559 papers on genetic testing but only 92 articles of economic analysis referred to a wide range of genetic diseases matched the inclusion criteria. The most studied diseases were as follows: cystic fibrosis (12), breast and ovarian cancer (8), hereditary hemochromatosis (6), Down's syndrome (7), colorectal cancer (5), familial hypercholesterolaemia (5), prostate cancer (4), and thrombophilia (4). Genetic tests were mostly used for screening purposes, and cost-effectiveness analysis is the most common type of economic study. The analysed gene technologies are deemed to be efficient for some specific population groups and screening algorithms according to the values of their cost-effectiveness ratios that were below the commonly accepted threshold of 30,000€. Economic evaluation of genetic technologies matters but the number of published studies is still

  5. THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC POLICIES FOR EXTERNAL CROSSBORDER AREAS IN SHAPING THE NEW EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Șlusarciuc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As history proves, any enlargement of an overstate structure produces disarticulation and an increase of pressure on the borders of it. On the other side the economy produces integrative effects along the border despite of the original significance of separation that a border has. The crossborder policies of the European Union as regional player are meant to contribute to the economic structure building and enhance the stability inside and outside the Union area. Setting up the normative framework for crossborder relations is a very present-day field, being subject of study and research in all Union bodies, in the Member States governments, candidate countries or beneficiaries of the relations with the Union as well. This normative framework is meant to propel the economic increase and the raise of the daily life conditions in the neighbor countries. Alongside the border there are happening complex phenomena, some of them easy to be quantified, such as economic ones, some of them more difficult that cannot be controlled but only sociologically researched, such as cultural-identity-emotional ones. The paper aims to draw the guiding marks of the European Union external crossborder areas and the crossborder cooperation frame for Romania, to identify already visible and potential effects of the enlargement on the external borders and to make an inventory of policies that should integrate the crossborder economy.

  6. Functional Purpose and Procedure of the Trainee and Assistant Activity of the Advocate Under the Legislation of States, which were earlier a part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira T. Kantukova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the functional purpose and a procedure of activity of the trainee and assistant of advocate by the legislation of a number of the states which were earlier a part of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Uzbekistan are considered. As a result of research some aspects of the studied problem in relation to perfecting of the relevant provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation are designated.

  7. Economic freedoms and labour standards in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Jan Cremers has contributed with a main article in Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research (Vol. 22-2). It was published by Sage ahead of print. His article examines the problematic relationship between economic freedoms and labour standards in the context of cross-border labour

  8. Union formation in later life: economic determinants of cohabitation and remarriage among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan

    2012-08-01

    This study builds on Becker's and Oppenheimer's theories of union formation to examine the economic determinants of marriage and cohabitation during older adulthood. Based on the 1998-2006 Health and Retirement Study and a sample of previously married Americans who are at least 50 years old, results show that wealthier older adults, regardless of gender, are more likely to repartner than stay single. Wealth has no discernable effect on the likelihood of remarrying versus cohabiting. Among the oldest men, the positive associations between wealth and repartnering are entirely due to housing assets. Results suggest that Oppenheimer's theory of marriage timing may be more applicable to later-life union formation than Becker's independence hypothesis. Further, economic disadvantage does not appear to characterize later-life cohabitation, unlike cohabitation during young adulthood. These findings help illuminate the union formation process during older adulthood and are timely considering demographic changes reshaping the American population.

  9. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  10. The economic makeup of the European Union and the difficult balance between economic freedoms and social rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Larrazabal Basañez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines some basic contents of what has come to be known as the European Economic Constitution and the conflict raised between economic freedoms and social rights within the European Union. He also warns that in the latest trends in EU legislation and jurisprudence, the former seem to take excessive priority over the latter. This may jeopardise the consolidation of a genuine social Europe and the increasing indifference of citizens, who see how firm steps are being taken within the Economic and Monetary Union while social Europe is slowly moving forward, and often shows worrying signs of paralysis, or even some backward movement.Received: 16.06.10Accepted: 29.06.10

  11. Soviet Policy Toward the Developing World: The Role of Economic Assistance and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Countries 1970 1975 1977 1978 All Communfst All Communist All Comunist USSR E.Eur. China Countries Countries 2 Countries Total 21,415 27,275 40,345...the USSR for both the military assistance deemed necessary for security vis-a- vis China and Pakistan and for support in the development of heavy...the United States or China . Other countries, such as India, Somalia, and Egypt have attracted Soviet interest because of their strategic location and

  12. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  13. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odone, A.; Tillmann, T.; Sandgren, A.; Williams, G.; Rechel, B.; Ingleby, D.; Noori, T.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report ‘Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant

  14. Assigned Leaders in Unionized Environments: Coping with the Economic Recession and Its Aftermath in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Adriene

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that the rate of unionism has grown in institutions of higher education over the past several decades, and the recent economic recession occurred at the same time that academic libraries faced accelerating changes in scholarly communication and technology, increased demands for accountability, and heightened external competition,…

  15. The European Union's Role in International Economic Fora: The G20 : Study for the ECON Committee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Amtenbrink (Fabian); Blocker, (Niels); S. Van Den Bogaert (Stefaan); A. Cuyvers (Armin); K. Heine (Klaus); Hilion, (Christophe); J. Kantorowicz (Jarosław); Lenk, (Hannes); Repasi, (René)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study provides factual background information about the G20, the European Union's role and representation therein, its accountability as well as the coordination and impact thereof. The G20 has played a key role in measure taken to overcome the economic and financial crisis

  16. MIGRATION INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela Daniela FERARU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available International migration, together with economic and financial crisis or the different socio-economic development of Member States, is a serious threat to security in Europe. Population migration as a threatening factor, places the European Union in the face of a decision to establish clear policies for the establishment of a climate of external security, both for the migrant population and for the rest of the population. All in all, this study will centre on the following hypothesis: the better we know the challenges of international migration in the European Union and its Member States the more the European policies to mitigate negative effects of the world will be diminished. The aim is to highlight aspects pertaining to migration integration as a factor of economic, social and regional development in the European Union, and less as a factor of destabilization and insecurity. In other words, a good knowledge of the phenomenon leads to drawing up effective policies to reduce hazards, risks, threats and negative effects that happen today due to the increasing number of immigrants. Finally, the study will present a series of conclusions, including on the work hypothesis verification and some proposals related to migration integration efficiency as a factor of regional and economic development in the European Union.

  17. Economic separatism in the European Union member states as a factor of regional security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Shakhina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the examination of the economic separatism problem in the European Union member states. It considers specific of the regional separatist movements as exemplified by the conflicts in Scotland, Catalonia, Bavaria, Flanders. Various points of view on the relevance of the budgetary separatism for the European integration process are given in the article.

  18. Economic effects of bilateral trade agreements: China, United States, European Union and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Tobías, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Economic integration and international trade among different regions are analysed in this study. It describes recent history and explains a theoretical framework of economic integration. It focuses in Mega-Regional Trade Agreements, more specifically in the biggest ones, TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) and TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership), both of them still under negotiation. These agreements involve the most important economies in the world such as the European Union (f...

  19. Cultural Impact on SAD: Social Anxiety Disorder among Ethiopian and Former Soviet Union Immigrants to Israel, in Comparison to Native-born Israelis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenson-Atzmon, Kelly; Marom, Sofi; Sofer, Tamar; Lev-Ari, Lilac; Youngmann, Rafael; Hermesh, Haggai; Kushnir, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is linked to social norms and role expectations which are culture dependent, such as the construal of one's self as independent or interdependent in relation to others. The current study is the first to examine SAD symptoms among Ethiopian and former Soviet Union immigrants to Israel compared to a sample of native Israelis. We investigated the relationship between SAD, ethnicity and independent/ interdependent self-construals. A total of 261 students (151 native-born Israelis, 60 Ethiopian immigrants and 50 students from the former USSR) were administrated the Liebowitz Scale (LSAS), the Self-construal Scale (SCS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Ethiopians exhibited highest SAD scores while no differences were found between the FSU immigrants and native-born Israelis. Additionally, Ethiopians and native-born Israeli students exhibited similar high interdependence scores. Finally, SAD scores were predicted by gender, origin, independent and interdependent self-construals. Immigration per se is not a universal risk factor of SAD and ethnological-cultural factors do contribute specifically to SAD. A possible psychological mediator between culture and the susceptibility to SAD are the interdependence and independent self-construals. When treating immigrants, clinicians and health care providers are advised to consider the effect of cultural influence on the mental well-being and integration process of immigrants in to their host country.

  20. The impact of duration of residence on cause-specific mortality: a cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union residing in Israel and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J J; Paltiel, A M; Winkler, V; Becher, H

    2010-01-01

    A cohort study of migrants from the Former Soviet Union in Israel (N=528,848) and in Germany (N=34,393) was conducted. The impact of length of residence on cause-specific mortality was investigated using Poisson regression and differences between the migrant groups were assessed. In both migrant cohorts, all cause mortality in males but not in females significantly decreased with increasing duration of residence (RR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.73-0.79 for 9+years of residence compared to 0-3 years), specifically in Israel for infectious diseases, cancer and CVD. For male and female migrants in Israel there was a large reduction in external cause mortality. The cancer risk in male migrants declined from 1 to 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69-0.83) and in female migrants to 0.85 (95% CI: 0.78-0.93) after nine and more years of stay. Adjusting for several covariables, there were differences between migrants in the cause of death patterns in the two host countries, which may be associated with differences in their initial conditions or with effects of the destination country. The study highlights the need for migrant-specific prevention approaches.

  1. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  2. Environmental assessment for the purchase of Russian low enriched uranium derived from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The United States is proposing to purchase from the Russian Federation low enriched uranium (LEU) derived from highly enriched uranium (HEU) resulting from the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The purchase would be accomplished through a proposed contract requiring the United States to purchase 15,250 metric tons (tonnes) of LEU (or 22,550 tonnes of UF{sub 6}) derived from blending 500 metric tones uranium (MTU) of HEU from nuclear warheads. The LEU would be in the form of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and would be converted from HEU in Russia. The United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) is the entity proposing to undertake the contract for purchase, sale, and delivery of the LEU from the Russian Federation. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is negotiating the procedure for gaining confidence that the LEU is derived from HEU that is derived from dismantled nuclear weapons (referred to as ``transparency),`` and would administer the transparency measures for the contract. There are six environments that could potentially be affected by the proposed action; marine (ocean); US ports of entry; truck or rail transportation corridors; the Portsmouth GDP; the electric power industry; and the nuclear fuel cycle industry. These environmental impacts are discussed.

  3. Internet as a Source of Long-Term and Real-Time Professional, Psychological, and Nutritional Treatment: A Qualitative Case Study Among Former Israeli Soviet Union Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shalayeva, Svetlana

    2017-02-03

    The Internet is considered to be an effective source of health information and consultation for immigrants. Nutritional interventions for immigrants have become increasingly common over the past few decades. However, each population of immigrants has specific needs. Understanding the factors influencing the success of nutrition programs among immigrants requires an examination of their attitudes and perceptions, as well as their cultural values. The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of the Internet as a tool for long-term and "real-time" professional, psychological, and nutritional treatment for immigrants from the former Soviet Union who immigrated to Israel (IIFSU) from 1990 to 2012. A sample of nutrition forum users (n=18) was interviewed and comments of 80 users were analyzed qualitatively in accordance with the grounded theory principles. The results show that IIFSU perceive the Internet as a platform for long-term and "real-time" dietary treatment and not just as an informative tool. IIFSU report benefits of online psychological support with professional dietary treatment. They attribute importance to cultural customization, which helps reduce barriers to intervention. In light of the results, when formulating nutritional programs, it is essential to have a specific understanding of immigrants' cultural characteristics and their patterns of Internet use concerning dietary care.

  4. Dissent and Nationalism in the Soviet Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    control often proved counterproductive to the parallel regime objectives of establishing a certain level of acceptance, legitimacy, and popular support. By...Union, 1977; and Richard H. Marshall (ed.), Aspects of Religon in the Soviet Union, 1917-1967, Chicago, 1971. A Soviet interpretation of the role of

  5. A Soviet Navy for the Nuclear Age,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    8217 exploits and Peter the Great (1672-1725). Senior Soviet naval officers and other Soviet naval publicists often recount a glorious naval heritage...schools of thought on the best naval strategy for the Soviet Union between the wars shows that, even given general acceptance of a continental...orientation for Soviet military strategy , differing views on the kind of navy required could exist.7 There was an "Old School Strategy " which would have

  6. An Analysis of Economic Growth, Competitiveness and Macroeconomic Imbalances in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Hurduzeu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the determinants of the economic crisis and of the sovereign debt crisis, we aim to analyze the dynamics of the European economies and discuss changes related to macroeconomic imbalances, as highlighted by the recent crises as an important factor of the unfavorable dynamics registered during the last years. In this respect we considered both internal and external imbalances, as specified in the macroeconomic imbalance procedure that was implemented for the European Union member states since 2012, as a response to the crises that affected all open economies of the world. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic imbalances in the European Union and to determine their influence on economic growth.

  7. THE ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE: CONCEPT, INSTRUMENTS OF MEASURMENT AND EVOLUTIONS ACROSS EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihuț Ioana-Sorina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature in the field identified over time a series of economic and non-economic factors that trigger the process of economic growth and convergence. Despite the fact that most of the theoretical as well as the empirical studies address the determinants of the economic growth process only from an economic perspective, a series of recent debates draw the attention upon a neglected category of factors until now, namely the quality of the economic growth process and the role of institutions as important tools in promoting convergence/divergence between economies. This new area of research, named institutional economics, highlights the role of institutions in protecting the property rights and the contracts (Han, X., et all 2014. Although these factors were often ignored as explicative variables of the economic growth process, in comparison to factors such as human capital, physical capital or technological progress, recently economists, researches or other participants in the market became highly aware of their importance. The primary objective of the current paper is to analyze the concept of economic governance as detailed within a series of studies in the field, or as perceived by international organizations. In addition to this objective we present some main indicators used to measure the quality and efficiency of the economic governance process with precise data and evolutions for the member states of the European Union. The main conclusions of our study reveal the fact that in order to achieve high levels of economic growth and convergence across European Union member states there is a strong need for enforcing the legal framework of EU along with the transfer of the power regarding the development, management and implementation of the economic stability policies from the national to the supra-national level. Also a harmonization of the institutional structure is required as a measure for supporting economic performance.

  8. Economic integration in North America: Learning from the experience of the European Union for the NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón de Jesús Ramírez Acosta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this document we analyze, based on previous work from various authors, the degree of economic synchronization between Central and Eastern European countries and the European Union prior to the 2004 adhesion treaties. Then, we formally determine the degree of economic synchronization in North America for the nafta transitional period. In particular, we perform cointegration and common features tests for the gdps of Canada, Mexico and the US. We find that the economies of the region are highly integrated. Based on these results, and the facts identified for the European case, we discuss some possibilities for the evolution of nafta into a deeper form of economic integration.

  9. The Impact of Social Factors on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence for Romania and European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the social factors and the economic growth. A summary of social and economic environment is presented for Romania. As such, the paper analyzes the global evolution of social and economic environment over time and establishes a direct correlation between human development and economic welfare. An econometric model and a clustering model are tested for European Union countries. The results of the paper reveal the social factors that are positively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the expected years of schooling and the life expectancy and, respectively, the factors that are negatively correlated with the economic growth (i.e. the population at risk of poverty and the unemployment rate.

  10. Soviet Inroads in the Middle East - A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-16

    cooperation. The treaty was signed in April during the visit of Premier Korygin to Baghdad 5 5 Shortly after this treaty wax negotiated, two Comunists were...friendship pact with the Soviet Union. A year later they recognized Communist China who offered technical and economic aid. 6 3 In June of 1956, Prince...1957-1958. During this trip he visited Rumania, Poland, Communist China and Russia. It was not long after this trip until a contingent of Chinese

  11. Soviet Involvement in the Korean War: A New View from the Soviet-era Archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Soviet Union's role in the Korean War using the resources of the Soviet-era archives in Russia. Provides historical background about the pre-Korean War era, the start of the war, the Soviet-Chinese relationship, the air and ground battles, and the reasons for ending the Korean War. (CMK)

  12. EXPERIENCES AND TENDENCIES TO DECENTRALIZE THE CAPABILITIES OF THE ECONOMIC POLICY AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

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    Dodescu Anca

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania's integration in the European Union implies, apart the complex process of policy transfer, the learning of new modes to make policies characteristic to a multi-level governance and partnership culture. Of the different levels of governance of the European model, the regional level ("regional governance" most faithfully reflects, in our opinion, the complexity of reconfiguring the role of state in economy, at the beginning of this new millennium, in the European Union space and presents the highest practical importance for Romania, as a new Member State of the European Union, for, at the regional level, the structures are more flexible and the good practices are more rapidly assimilable. The selection of the best regional growth and development economic policies, the choosing of the objectives out of a series of competing options, the calibration in time and space of powers, roles, capabilities, and responsibilities and the encouragement of the win-win solutions call upon the choice and combination of some appropriate and efficient instruments. Representative for the new context, the regional growth and development policy must integrate, in Romania too, more knowledge, more creativity, new combinations of capabilities and new fields of expertise. This paper presents preliminary research results afferent to the post-doctoral research project: "Growth and regional development economic policies. Challenges for Romania in the context of economic-financial crisis and European model integration", carried out in the project "Economic scientific research, reliance of human welfare and development in European context", the Romanian Academy, "Costin C. Kiriţescu" National Institute for Economic Research, project financed for the 2010-2013 period from the European Social Fund (EFS and implemented by the Romanian Academy, Costin C. Kiritescu National Institute for Economic Research, in the period of time 1 December 2010 - 30 November 2012

  13. Application of EnviroTRADE information system for the cleanup of the former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom Base, Hungary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matalucci, R.V.; Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuperberg, J.M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Biczo, I.L. [Technical Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-10-01

    During a NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) held in Visegrad, Hungary, June 21-23, 1994, portions of contamination data from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) site at Komarom, Hungary were used to demonstrate the international EnviroTRADE Information System as a tool to assist with the identification of alternative cleanup measures for contaminated sites. The NATO ARW was organized and conducted by the joint Florida State University and the Technical University of Budapest, Center for Hungarian-American Environmental Research, Studies, and Exchanges (CHAERSE). The purpose of the workshop was to develop a strategy for the identification and selection of appropriate low-cost and innovative site remediation technologies and approaches for a typical abandoned FSU site. The EnviroTRADE information system is a graphical, photographical, and textual environmental management tool under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a part of the cleanup program of the nuclear weapons complex. EnviroTRADE provides a single, powerful, multi-purpose, multi-user, multi-media, and interactive computer information system for worldwide environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM). Graphical, photographic, and textual data from the Komarom FSU site were entered into EnviroTRADE. These data were used to make comparative evaluations of site characterization and remediation technologies that might be used to clean up primarily hydrocarbon contamination in the groundwater and soil. Available Hydrogeological and geological features, contaminated soil profiles, and topographical maps were included in the information profiles. Although EnviroTRADE is currently only partially populated (approximately 350 technologies for cleanup are included in the database), the utility of the information system to evaluate possible options for cleanup of the Komarom site has been demonstrated.

  14. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Roadblock on China's "One Belt - One Road"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    to participate. However, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine opted for an association agreement with the EU, a move to which Russia responded by the annexation of Crimea and starting an insurgency in Eastern Ukraine. In 2015, the EEU officially started with the participation of only five countries: Armenia, Belarus...... members. Keywords: China, European-Atlantic Security Community, Eurasian Economic Union, “One Belt One Road” Initiative, Russia’s “Monroe Doctrine”....

  15. (Sub)national Economic Union: Institutions, Ideas, and Internal Trade Policy in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Loleen Berdahl

    2013-01-01

    Canadian internal trade policy illustrates the challenges that federalism can pose to economic union goals. Although the federal government played a critical role in bringing internal trade to the policy agenda, provincial and territorial governments have driven policy reform over the past decade. Drawing on both historical institutional and ideational approaches, this article argues that the political development of internal trade policy reflects the interplay between institutional realities...

  16. The Eurasian Knowledge-based Economy Formation in the Eurasian Economic Union Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Sapir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is an intensification of integration processes in the global economy. Integration is an effective tool to overcome the modern challenges and threats. However, for the effective countries and regions integration in the global economy it requires the active development of innovation processes along with the integration processes. On the 29th of May, 2014 in Astana the Treaty establishing the Eurasian Economic Union was signed by the Presidents of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan, and entered into force on the First of January 2015. In this regard, the article analyzes the foundations of the knowledge economy concept. Moreover, it researches the emergence of the Eurasian knowledge economy in several stages using the statistical data and the index method. The article suggests that the Eurasian Economic Union has a significant potential for the development of the Eurasian regional knowledge economy and proposes a number of measures for successful formation of it. International legal formalization of the process can become Eurasian Convention in the field of the knowledge economy. This article expands the understanding of the prospects of integration and innovation processes within the Eurasian Economic Union.

  17. Isolationism versus Geopolitics: The Dual Role of the Eurasian Economic Union in Global Governance

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    Maxim Bratersky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptualizes ongoing efforts to develop the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU, initiated by Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2011. Engaging with two major theoretical perspectives, it establishes to what extent the EEU’s construction and potential expansion is economic regionalism (interpreted also as an isolationist strategy driven by Russia led geopolitical motives. The political-economy debate of Eurasia goes beyond a common tariff area and a common market within the territory of the former USSR. Increasingly, it involves the establishment of a common monetary area. China’s Silk Road Economic Belt is building a foundation for a new Eurasia – one of the global economic and political players of this century. The economic reasons pursued by Russia in its Eurasian initiative are inseparable from economic problems of geopolitical significance. The overarching objective of Russian policy is to establish a regional economic fusion, with significant economic sovereignty and strong political influence; that is, to become the new centre of power in the global economy of the 21st century. Correspondingly, although Russian integration policy in Eurasia has not been formulated in an anti-American way, if it is successful the likely consequence will be the withdrawal of a significant segment of the global market from the economic dominance and political influence of western-led economic blocs.

  18. Claude McKay between United States and Soviet Union: African-American Identity and Socialist Utopia

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    Fiorenzo Iuliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Claude McKay’s essays on politics and society, especially those dealing with the racial question in the 1920s US. It reviews these texts, alongside other works (poems and autobiographical writings that McKay produced on the same topics. The article aims at tracing a trajectory in McKay’s political thought: after criticizing the social and economic structures of capitalist and colonial societies, McKay envisages in post-revolutionary USSR a utopian society for oppressed people worldwide. However, his writings, rather than depicting the actual USSR society he knew in the early 1920s, evokes the multicultural myth of the ‘melting pot’ traditionally used to celebrate the US. McKay, maybe unwillingly, enthusiastically praises the myth of American exceptionalism, referring it to the USSR.

  19. The global financial and economic crisis and the main priorities of the European Union for 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu, A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the global financial-economic crisis and the main priorities of the European Union for 2020. The duration of a financial economic crisis depends on the macroeconomic factors taken into account, because their representation can have multiple nuances, generated by subjective and political influences. The financial and economic crisis had a significant impact on public finances, business, jobs and families. At all levels, the decision makers in public policy will have to find ways of triggering economic dynamism, while the margin of manoeuvre in what concerns the budget is limited. As the recorded deficit in the public sector will be again under control, public expenditure will be such organized that the targets for 2020 are met.

  20. Public Governance and Economic Growth in the Transitional Economies of the European Union

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    Yilmaz BAYAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available According to new growth theories, public governance is an important determinant for sustained economic growth. This study examines the impact of six public governance indicators, including voice and accountability, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law and control of corruption, on the economic growth in the transitional economies of the European Union during the 2002-2013 period. The results show that all governance indicators except regulatory quality had a statistically significant positive impact on economic growth. Our findings also indicate that control of corruption and rule of law had the largest impact on economic growth, while political stability had the lowest impact.

  1. Requirements Imposed to the Applicant for a Position of the Trainee and the Assistant of Advocate by the Legislation of the States Which Were Earlier a Part of the Union of the Soviet Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira T. Ragulina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In article requirements imposed to the applicant for a position of the trainee and the assistant of advcate by the legislation of a number of the states which were earlier a part of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Estonia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Uzbekistan are considered. As a result of research some aspects of the studied problem in relation to perfecting of the relevant requirements imposed by the legislation of the Russian Federation are designated.

  2. APPEARANCE ON EUROPEAN UNION POLICY ON FUNDING SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHIRCULESCU MARIA FELICIA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years of the current European Union will be involved less in funding developing countries and geographic areas outside it, because we need to focus on eliminating disparities and balancing standards of living in member countries, how much more there is still big differences in this regard between Member States of the European Union. The objectives of economic growth, social to, throughout the European Union can only be achieved through the permanent coordination of macroeconomic and sectoral policies implemented in each Member State and at Community level. Track the means, firstly, the completion and operation of administrative structures, particularly in the public sector appropriate to the requirements of democratization, of establishing a fair competition between participants in economic and social life etc. The sums of EU funds to improve the construction and operation of government, most of the public sector, shows increasing levels from the previous financial programs, levels that diminiează making room for other community priorities.

  3. IMPACT OF TAX EVASION ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

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    FLORIN BOȘTINĂ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the research topic emerges from the fact that an important part of the fiscal revenues is lost annually through activities of fiscal planning, fiscal circumvention and tax evasion, undertaken by the private sector. In this respect, the aim of the paper is to estimate, by using the econometric analysis, the impact of tax evasion on the economic growth in the European Union for the period 1997-2010 for which the data was available. For the tax evasion it have been used index as a proxy that optimizes by maximum. Thus the main hypothesis (that the index tax evasion positively influences the economic growth was not rejected, even after including some specific control variables in the regressive models. In other words, as tax evasion is increased the economic growth is likely to decrease.

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINISM – ANALYSIS AT THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

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    Floarea IORDACHE, PhD*

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, the determinism represents a concept according to which the phenomena are generated by chains of causes and effects by conditionings and laws, by the necessary and repetitive interactions. As regards socio-economic determinism, it can be said that it shows the importance of the social factor in determining the economic development. Usually, paradoxically, although it is the key element in deciphering economic behaviour, the social factor, by its main representative - the man, is almost always excluded from analyses which regard the elements that contribute to the determination of economic development at national, regional or global level. For this reason, we consider ecessary a shift in current paradigms towards the social factor, at the same time, positioning social policy the centre of public policies. Today, in a highly globalized world, when the powerful turbulences are observed on the international markets, social policies development is conducted under the pressure of new constraints, with obvious implications on all aspects of economic, political and social life. Although European Union is the promoter of the welfare state values, it does not focus enough the attention to the theoretical and practical aspects related to the reform of social policies, to the development of human capital and to the improvement of social cohesion in order to meet the current challenges of the globalized world. Thus, this article brings as novelty a series of arguments on the roleand the place that the social factor should occupy in the economic sphere, it not being at this time an economic determinant.

  5. Stomach cancer mortality in two large cohorts of migrants from the Former Soviet Union to Israel and Germany: are there implications for prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronellenfitsch, Ulrich; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ott, Jördis Jennifer; Paltiel, Ari; Razum, Oliver; Schwarzbach, Matthias; Winkler, Volker; Becher, Heiko

    2009-04-01

    Prevention and early detection are key elements for the reduction of stomach cancer mortality. To apply pertinent measures effectively, high-risk groups need to be identified. With this aim, we assessed stomach cancer mortality among migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU), a high-risk area, to Germany and Israel. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing stomach cancer mortality in two retrospective migrant cohorts from the FSU to Germany (n=34,393) and Israel (n=589,388) to that in the FSU and the host country. The study period ranges from 1990 to 2005 in Germany and from 1990 to 2003 in Israel. Vital status and cause of death were retrieved from municipal and state registries. To assess secular mortality trends, we calculated annual age-standardized mortality rates in the cohorts, the FSU, and the two host countries and conducted Poisson regression modeling. SMRs (95% confidence intervals) for men in the German migrant cohort were 0.51 (0.36-0.70) compared with the FSU population and 1.44 (1.04-1.99) compared with the German population, respectively. For women, SMRs were 0.73 (0.49-1.03) compared with the FSU population and 1.40 (0.98-1.99) compared with the German population. SMRs for men in the Israeli migrant cohort were 0.49 (0.45-0.53) compared with the FSU population and 1.79 (1.65-1.94) compared with the Israeli population. SMRs for women in the Israeli cohort were 0.65 (0.59-0.72) compared with the FSU population and 1.82 (1.66-1.99) compared with the Israeli population. Poisson modeling showed a secular decrease in all populations with a time lag of 4-5 years between migrants and 'natives' in Germany and converging rates between migrants and the general population in Israel. Stomach cancer mortality in migrants from the FSU remains elevated after migration to Germany and Israel but is much lower than in the FSU. Due to a secular decline, it can be expected that mortality among migrants from the FSU reaches within a few years

  6. Noncommunicable disease mortality and life expectancy in immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union: country of origin compared with host country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jördis Jennifer; Paltiel, Ari M; Becher, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    To assess the influence of country of origin effects and of adjustment and selection processes by comparing noncommunicable disease mortality and life expectancy among migrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union (FSU) with noncommunicable disease mortality and life expectancy among Israelis and the population of the Russian Federation. Data from 926,870 FSU-immigrants who migrated to Israel between 1990 and 2003 (study cohort) were analysed. Life expectancy was calculated for the study cohort, all Israelis, and the population of the Russian Federation. Age-standardized death rates were calculated for grouped causes of death. FSU immigrants were additionally compared with other Israelis and with inhabitants of the Russian Federation using cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Life expectancy at age 15 years in 2000-2003 was 61.0 years for male and 67.0 years for female FSU immigrants to Israel. Age-standardized death rates for FSU immigrants in Israel were similar to those of other Israelis and much lower than those of inhabitants of the Russian Federation. Relative to Israelis, the study cohort had a higher SMR for neoplasms, and particularly for stomach cancer. Mortality from brain cancer was higher when immigrants were compared to the Russian Federation (SMR: 1.71, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.50-1.94 for males; SMR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.56-2.02 for females), whereas mortality from stomach cancer was lower among immigrants relative to the Russian Federation (SMR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.40-0.47 for males; SMR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.52-0.61 for females). Mortality from external causes was lower among immigrants relative to the population of the Russian Federation (SMR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.19-0.21 for males; SMR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.33-0.37 for females) but significantly higher relative to other Israelis (SMR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.35-1.47 for males; SMR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.02-1.15). Noncommunicable disease mortality among FSU immigrants to Israel is lower than in the population

  7. Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. East European Studies, No. 4, Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013, 163pp. / Csab

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Weiner, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Ludvig, Zsuzsa (ed.) Eurasian challenges : partnerships with Russia and other issues of the post-Soviet area. Budabest Institute of World Economics and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2013

  8. Socio-economic homogamy and its effects on the stability of cohabiting unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Mäenpää

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency towards socio-economic homogamy – partner similarity in terms of socio-economic status – is of great interest to social scientists, for two reasons. First, socio-economic homogamy is an indicator of social closure between status groups in a society. Second, given that homogamy leads to the accumulation of advantageous and disadvantageous socio-economic conditions within couples, it also intensifies social and economic inequalities between families. The objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge of socio-economic homogamy and its consequences for union stability in Finland. The first aim was to analyse the strength and patterns of socio-economic homogamy in partner choice. The second aim was to determine whether and, if so, how homogamy is associated with the likelihood of ending non-marital cohabitation – through separation on the one hand, or marriage on the other. In addition, two dimensions of socio-economic status, individual educational attainment and social class of the family of origin, were analysed to find out whether matching on individually achieved status or on the status of the parental family had a bigger effect on union dynamics. The analyses were based on sets of register data compiled at Statistics Finland. Log-linear models were applied to study homogamy tendencies and their changes in marriages and cohabitations of women born in 1957–1979 at the age of 30. The effects of homogamy and heterogamy on the likelihood of separation and marriage were analysed with Cox proportional hazards model in cohabitations formed in the period 1995–2002 by women born in 1960–1977. An elaborate approach was adopted: marriage and separation rates were examined in each possible combination of partner status. The results imply that people tend to choose partners who are similar to them in terms of educational attainment and class background. However, homogamy was stronger with regard to education than to social

  9. European Socio-cultural Change and Generational Diversity in the Post-Soviet Workforce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madara APSALONE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In times of increased retirement age and senior employees staying in workforce longer, successfully managing generational differences in the workforce forms an increasingly important challenge for modern day management. In many ways, generations may vary in attitudes and approaches, reflecting deeper differences in their core values. This might be particularly true for the Post-Soviet countries, where earlier generations were educated and started their careers within a completely different socio-economic system. In this study we explore differences in approaches towards values and attitudes amongst four generations of retail sector employees – starting from those, who were still to great extent exposed to pre-Soviet values, continuing with employees, who started their careers during the Soviet times, and ending with those, who were educated and entered the workforce after the collapse of the Soviet Union. 208 Latvian service employees were surveyed to assess their personal values and likelihood of dishonest and unethical behavior from four generations currently active in the workforce - Post-War generation, Early Gen X, Transition generation and Millennials. We confirmed that despite dual morality and ambiguous ethics in the Soviet Union, older generations reported higher likelihood of honest behavior than younger generations. And Post-War and Early Generation X also rated honesty and responsibility higher as their personal values. We also found significant differences between Early Generation X and the Transition generation in a post-Soviet context.

  10. Reduction in undiagnosed HIV infection in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2012 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sighem, Ard; Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that early HIV diagnosis and linkage to care reduces morbidity and mortality as well as HIV transmission. We estimated the median time from HIV infection to diagnosis in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) at 2.9 years in 2016, with regional variation. Despite evidence of a decline in the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in the EU/EEA, many remain undiagnosed, including 33% with more advanced HIV infection (CD4 < 350 cells/mm3). PMID:29208159

  11. Transport Corridors in the Russian Integration Projects, the Case of the Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Podberezkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the political importance of transport corridors in terms of the development of integration projects in the post-Soviet space. The world is witnessing the formation of a single market and transport and communication infrastructure, which intensifies competition among regional and world leaders, both states and non-state actors, such as businesses, markets over the routes of transporting goods. In the medium and long term the value of the control over the transport routes will increase due to the dynamics of economic development in the Asia-Pacific region. Competition for the development of projects of international transport corridors (ITC between the leading countries in the region will increase, because the ITC entail the formation of a common political space, the reduction of tariff and customs barriers, which provides easy access to the markets of countries linked by ITCs and creates the preconditions for economic integration. The growing political importance of ITC is reflected in the fact that global leaders such as China, the US, the EU, are trying to create their own versions of international land transport corridors connecting Europe and Asia. China is trying to promote their transport project "Economic Belt Silk Road" European countries develop cooperation on ITC TRACECA with other countries of Eurasia. US also embody their interests through the implementation of the project by the ITC in Afghanistan. Transport corridors in Russia are seen as a way to integrate it into the global transportation system and logistics space. To do this, Russia needs to develop Eurasian transport corridors through its territory. As a result of the implementation of transport projects Russia will be able to ensure the transit of goods from China to Europe, which has a positive impact on the economic development of the regions through which they pass. Development of international transportation through Russia will unite many of the

  12. Post-Soviet Integration and Economic Growth of the New Borderland of Russia in 2005–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Borisovich Vardomskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Features of the development of border areas are due, on the one hand, to their marginal position in the state, and on the other – proximity to neighboring countries. A lot of scientific works in Russia and abroad devoted to different purposes and based on different approaches and methods are devoted to the study of these territories. The purpose of this article is to assess the impact of the post-Soviet integration factor on the economic growth of the new border regions of Russia in 2005–2015. The study showed that this influence was not the same in different country areas of the belt of border regions. In general, the effect of the integration factor on their development by 2015 on the whole belt of border regions has weakened noticeably, which is explained by macroeconomic, geopolitical and structural problems. For the development of new border regions in this period, the situation concerning the Moscow region and the degree of their involvement in international trade were more significant

  13. PROSPECTS FOR THE CUSTOMS UNION IN TERMS OF MODERN THEORIES OF REGIONAL INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Ghazaryan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leading the trend of world development is globalization, which covers all areas of public life, including economic, and national economies poses more challenges, fi rst and foremost – ensuring competitiveness on a global scale, fi nd their own niche in the international division of labor.The development of the global trading system is characterized by two interrelated trends – the expansion of economic openness and the formation of trade unions, to ensure the most favorable terms of trade between the participating countries. The latest trend has led to the relevance of research topic "Prospects of Customs Union from the point of view of modern theories of regional integration."The integration processes taking place in the former Soviet Union in fact since joining the former Soviet republics of the status of independent states. Already in 1991. CIS was created, which brought together 12 post-Soviet countries (all former Soviet republics except the Baltic. Since then, the integration processes in the post-Soviet space are permanent, and therefore, we set a goal – to analyze the prospects of the Customs Union from the point of view of modern theories of regional integration.Notwithstanding that goal has led to the need to address a number of problems, namely:• consideration of the role and place of regional trade (economic union, the importance of their experience, especially for developing countries and countries with economies in transformation;• justify the importance of the openness of the national economy to generate the preconditions for sustainable economic growth, determining the levels of trade (economic integration;• analysis of modern views on the nature of regional integration;• consideration of the characteristics of individual regional trade and economic unions, including the Customs Union, and determine their place in the modern system of world trade.The study is based on the use of a systematic approach using

  14. Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

    2009-04-01

    Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures.

  15. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmer Andrew

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84, service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58 and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86. Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater

  16. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spicer, Neil

    2011-07-13

    Abstract Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV\\/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV\\/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV\\/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV\\/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV\\/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV\\/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV\\/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with

  17. Impact of Gorbachev’s Politics on Soviet Navy Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    as the pace of change in the Soviet Union is accelerating. The Soviet political institutions are changing; new social forces are entering the politica ...because such a revision would havc meant an acknowledgement of a huge exception to the theories of Marx and Lenin. Consequently, the Soviet Navy, as

  18. Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth (HSDSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HSDSD product is based on observations from 284 World Meteorological Organization (WMO) stations throughout Russia and the former Soviet Union. The area covered...

  19. Understanding Economic Justice Attitudes in Two Countries: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junisbai, Azamat K.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing data from the 2007 Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Inequality Survey, I identify and compare the determinants of economic justice attitudes in two formerly similar majority-Muslim nations that are now distinguished almost exclusively by their dissimilar economic circumstances following the collapse of the Soviet Union. In Kazakhstan, where the…

  20. Science and Technology in the Soviet Union: Proceedings of a Conference Held at Stanford, California on 26-27 July 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-31

    8217) would not be very popular among Soviet scientists, and it is not. Con- sidering all the attention given to collective research in contemporary "big...SSSR of I April 1961, No. 282. In M. Ya. Chernyak (ed.), Zakonodatel’stvo o kapital’nom stroitel’stve, Vypusk 1, Moscow: "Yuridicheskaya Literatura

  1. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  2. The advantages and impediments in fostering Republic of Moldova- the European Union economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica CRUDU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts and funding, the reform implementation process in the Republic of Moldova meets important difficulties especially in the areas of strategic significance including the fields of public administration, justice and banking sectors. The initiatives implemented in these sectors by the Moldovan authorities under European supervision proved to be inefficient as they did not reach the expected results. This situation leads to dragging down the pace of European integration of the country, as the trust of the population and of foreign partners regarding European future of Moldova was negatively affected. Thus, this research intends to identify the most important impediments of bi-lateral cooperation between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union. Also, some recommendations are provided to increase the actual status-quo and are specified main Moldovan economic advantages which have been registered since the acceleration of cooperation with the EU.

  3. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guarino Honoria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease

  4. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE UNIONS TO AMERICAN TRADE UNIONS SUSTEM EXAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Александрович Шиленко

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade union as a social institution in charge of monitoring the social and labor rights was first formed in the west, and later became the basis for the organization of a similar structure in pre-revolutionary Russia. This organizational structure, having undergone a transformation during the first half of the XX century, was formed in the Soviet trade unions. However, there has been a tendency to reduce the popularity of the trade unions in the countries in which originated the concept of trade unions. Therefore there are some reasons, both economic and political. To analyze this issue, consider examples of typical cases of foreign trade unions. These cases can be seen in the media, as well as in the analysis of studies on the characteristics of modern trade unions, both in our country and abroad. As a results-based on facts and stereotypes to define the place of trade unions in the modern economic system and a comparative analysis of the structure of our country and the United States ' Trade Union.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-99

  5. The Soviet Style of Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    CAMPAIGN 1. Background; Czechoslovakian Campaign After World War II Czechoslovakia became a politica . battleground between the camps of democracy and...34 (as Marx would define it) and with only a small number of well educated elite, the Soviet Union was able to find enough "Communists" to form a

  6. From the countryside to the cities: a comparative historical analysis of rural-urban migration in Russia and in the Soviet Union during the industrialization drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A K

    1991-01-01

    The author analyzes the rapid process of urbanization (which involved large-scale rural-urban migration) that occurred in the USSR during its industrialization during the 1930s. Data are from official Soviet sources, including the censuses of 1918, 1926, and 1939. The author examines factors that attracted migrants to cities as well as those that drove them from the countryside. The system of internal passports and residence stamps that was developed to control internal migration is described.

  7. State and prospects petrochemical complex of the Euroasian Economic Union States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Khvorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the competitiveness of national products and the acceleration of economic development in modern conditions are largely determined by their role in the world integration structures. One of the promising directions of Russia's participation in the integration process is the development of economic relations within the EEUS. Among the member countries the greatest potential petrochemical complex have Russia and Kazakhstan. Demand for oil, gas and petroleum products in Kyrgyzstan and Armenia are mainly met by imports from neighboring countries. Russia is a major exporter of energy resources for the neighboring countries, and one of the major consumers of manufactured goods in the countries of the EEUS. In this regard, it is Russia that is the determining reference point in matters of cooperation and harmonization of the various national systems of member countries. The most important direction of development of the Eurasian Economic Union is to create common markets for oil, gas, electricity and petroleum products. The geographical position allows you to create general transport routes, which can serve as a basis to accelerate economic growth in Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. Among the topical issues of the integration of significantly different structure of tax systems and the structure of the state budget, the most important is to create a unified system of taxation petrochemical complex. In this regard, it is necessary planned reform of the tax systems of all the participants in the taxation and control of subsoil users on the combined area, as well as in matters of indirect taxation of hydrocarbons. The next step is to improve the system of determining the tariffs for the transportation of various types of transport resources. High potential petrochemical complex in Russia and Kazakhstan and significant experience in the taxation of subsoil users in these countries suggests that they will have a leading role in the

  8. [Reproductive behavior of the Soviet population during a transition to a market economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodrova, V

    1991-01-01

    The results of a 1991 survey of 3,152 individuals over 16 years of age in the 13 largest republics of the former Soviet Union are presented regarding ideal family size. The results suggest that a family average of 2.53 children is considered ideal, with older people selecting slightly more and younger people slightly fewer children. The author considers the impact that improving economic conditions due to the introduction of a market economy might have on ideal family size.

  9. Assessment of the Impact of the Economic Partnership Agreement between the COMESA countries and the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Karingi, Stephen; Perez, Romain; Oulmane, Nassim; Lang, Rémi; Sadni Jallab, Mustapha

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, is to evaluate possible economic repercussions of the trade facet, in Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs), currently being negotiated between countries of the Common Market in Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) and Member-States of European Union (EU). In so-doing, we have used two complementary models, the first one, based-on a general equilibrium approach, and the second, a partial equilibrium method. Indeed, multilateral trade agreements, will have implicati...

  10. Public Investment and Economic Growth in The European Union Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DONATH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public investments becamea very challenging subject for public decisionmakerssince it incorporates the question of stateperformance, the quality of public finance and theireffects on growth. The quality of public finance is amultidimensional concept. It may be regarded asrepresenting all the arrangements and operationsregarding the financial politics that sustain themacroeconomic objectives, particularly the longtermeconomic growth. Financial policies atEuropean level highlight the fact that a concentrationof the public expenses in areas that stimulate theeconomic growth and a more efficient use of thepublic resources are key methods for sustainingthe economic growth. The empirical proofs seem tosupport the assumption according to which certaintypes of public expenses can supply incentivesand other can negatively influence the economicgrowth. The paper tries to reveal the effects ofcapital spending on economic growth (GDP percapita for the European Union member states.The GDP per capita and the capital expenses(functional classification of public expenses -“COFOG” have been obtained by consideringthe Eurostat statistics, the measurement unit forboth variables is Euro, while the period of analysisis of 7 years (2000-2006.

  11. Techno-economic assessment of biofuel production in the European Union. Working paper 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro Chacon, F.A.

    2004-07-01

    Various environmentally negative effects reflected in an increase in air pollution, global warming, climate change, acid rain and ozone layer depletion among others have motivated researchers, scientists together with industry and government partnerships to search, develop and find alternatives and solutions to reduce adverse impacts in the short, middle and long term. Among the different choices in place, important efforts are aimed at finding feasible alternative fuels for transportation that could replace traditional fossil fuels, which are considered to contribute considerably to the estimated contamination levels. In regard to the short and middle term options, biofuels seem to have an important role in the European Union with increasing production levels during the last years. Moreover, at the end of 2003, a Directive for the Promotion of Alternative Fuels for Transportation was adopted in Europe and initial substitution targets for all EU-member states were established for 2005 and 2010. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to highlight the various technological possibilities and economic aspects involved in the production of biofuel in Europe. (orig.)

  12. Educational perspectives for elderly migrants: A case of Soviet refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persidsky, Igor V.; Kelly, James J.

    1992-07-01

    Modern human migration is characterized by a large number of elderly immigrants, who are coming to the United States from developing countries as refugees. The emigration from the Soviet Union during the last 20 years presents a unique phenomenon in modern human migration because of (1) the high percentage of the elderly, about 17%; (2) origination from urban areas and rather high level of education; (3) beliefs and attitudes developed under the Soviet political, economic and cultural system; (4) non-minority status in the United States; and (5) strong support from the American Jewish community. The greatest problem in adjustment of the elderly is English fluency, because language determines the utilization of health services and social support which they need and which are available from the agencies. Special education programs for these elderly with bilingual/bicultural instructors must be identified as one of the most important intervention approaches. There is another educational strategy for the immigrant population which must be promoted: training/retraining of bilingual/bicultural professionals in geriatrics. American professionals who deal with the elderly Soviets must also be educated about Soviet culture, system of social welfare, health practices and social behavior.

  13. ECONOMIC STATUS OF THE RUSSIAN MINORITY IN TAJIKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz A. Bandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards, there was a sharp economic decline in the entire Soviet Union including Central Asia. People in general were affected due to this economic decline; however, in case of the Slav minority in Central Asia including Tajikistan the outmigration of Russian, which started from the 1980s, affected them more than that of their Central Asian counterparts. After the disintegration of Soviet Union, the condition of the leftovers was further accentuated by the language policy, ethnicisation while recruitment in the public offices, etc. Besides this Tajikistan has been the poorest country in the post Soviet space, which in turn is adding to the economic hardships of the people in general and ethnic Russians of the country in particular.

  14. The Future of the European Union is Closely Related to a Stronger Economic Cooperation between Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Drăgoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the crisis in the euro area, the EU has implemented a series of measures to respond to the major economic challenges and support the efforts to boost growth and create jobs in the Member States. In October 2012, EU leaders have decided that in order to overcome the challenges brought by the sovereign debt crisis is necessary to establish a closer economic cooperation between European countries. Our paper aims to analyze the main measures taken at European level to converge toward this goal, aiming to highlight the extent to which they are "successful steps" leading to the creation of banking, fiscal and economic union in Europe.

  15. Soviet Naval Infantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-10

    p. 10. htGeneral George S. Brown, USAF, Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Military Posture for F! 78: January 20, 1977, p. 77. 5 Fred S. Hoffman...June 1969, p. 42. Fred T. Jane, Imnerial Russian Navg (London: Thackery & Co., 1899), p. 44. 16 17 Specifically, he desired access to the Black Sea In...acquired at the end of the wwi-, worked hard to achieve a nuclear capability. On 29 August 1949 the Soviet Union exploded 4 Malcolm Mackintosh • ernaut

  16. Soviet energy export prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, Tony

    1991-05-01

    The Soviet Union produces 20% of world energy but since 1988 this is in decline. Awakening consumerism and a sea-change in the structure of foreign trade and internal investment are placing this key industry into unprecedented uncertainty. The difference between success and failure goes beyond the 1988 peak of six million barrels daily of exports in oil equivalent. The article quantifies the key areas of energy uncertainty as equal in volume to total OPEC output and sees the long-term changes of success more than ever dependent on coordinated planning and investment as well as on market reality. (Author).

  17. Ukrainian Economic Reforms: Current Status and Perspectives in the Face of Competition on European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Marianna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Ukraine since the beginning of 2014 has been the important in the history of Ukraine as an independent state. Despite the danger of economic collapse, the loss of Crimea, and war in its most industrialized region, Ukraine is still trying to conduct reforms and implement Western standards. Through persistent work Ukraine has been moving forward, despite all the difficulties. The society is staying together with the government to save the economy and defend the integrity of the whole country. This article outlines key processes in the Ukrainian reforms during 2014 and describes the cooperation of Ukraine with the European Union and international organizations in the field of financial support and reforms. The main goal of the article is to present the situation in various spheres of the country’s development, but it is also an attempt to present a wider perspective on both the achievements and shortcomings in the process of reforms. The authors focus on those aspects having a significant impact on the Ukrainian economy after February 2014.

  18. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  19. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in big cities of the European Union and European Economic Area countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, G; Aldridge, R W; Cayla, J A; Haas, W H; Sandgren, A; van Hest, N A; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    This cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) cities with populations greater than 500,000. National TB programme managers were asked to provide data on big city population size, total number of notified TB cases in big cities and national notification rate for 2009. A rate ratio was calculated using the big city TB notification rate as a numerator and country TB notification rate, excluding big city TB cases and population, as a denominator. Twenty of the 30 EU/EEA countries had at least one big city. Pooled rate ratios were 2.5, 1.0, and 0.7 in low-, intermediate- and high-incidence countries respectively. In 15 big cities, all in low-incidence countries, rate ratios were twice the national notification rate. These data illustrate the TB epidemiology transition, a situation whereby TB disease concentrates in big cities as national incidence falls, most likely as a result of the higher concentration of risk groups found there. This situation requires targeted interventions and we recommend that big city TB data, including information about patients' risk factors, are collected and analysed systematically, and that successful interventions are shared.

  20. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  1. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union: A CGE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Levent, E-mail: laydin@pigm.gov.t [Ministry of Energy (Turkey); Acar, Mustafa, E-mail: acar70@gmail.co [Kirikkale University (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (ii) the free movement of capital, and (iii) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness.

  2. Economic and environmental implications of Turkish accession to the European Union. A CGE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Levent [Ministry of Energy (Turkey); Acar, Mustafa [Kirikkale University (Turkey)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economic and environmental implications of Turkey's possible accession to the European Union (EU). The paper focuses on the impacts of three main components of Turkey's possible EU membership: (i) the free movement of labor between the EU and Turkey, (2) the free movement of capital, and (3) the burden-sharing of Turkey in terms of the EU's environmental objectives in the horizon of 2020, that is, the reduction of carbon emissions. Among these, a particular focus is placed on the influence of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets in both regions and their consequences on the carbon price in 2020. We estimate the resource allocation effects of EU climate change policies on both regions by taking into account the likely labor movement from Turkey to the EU and capital movement in the reverse direction. The results show that different emission targets for the two regions bring about a change in comparative advantages and thus a change in interregional competitiveness. (author)

  3. "Not human, dead already": Perceptions and experiences of drug-related stigma among opioid-using young adults from the former Soviet Union living in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Alana; Guarino, Honoria

    2016-12-01

    Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18-29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder. Interviews probed youths' drug use histories, immigration/acculturation experiences, family and peer relationships, and service utilisation. Interviews or focus groups were also conducted with 12 FSU mothers of opioid-using youth and 20 service providers familiar with the FSU population. In a content-based thematic analysis, verbatim transcripts were coded for salient themes. All three participant groups emphasized that stigma towards drug users within the FSU community is pervasive and acute, in contrast to the cultural acceptance of heavy drinking, and is rooted in punitive Soviet-era drug policies, fostering widespread ignorance about drugs and addiction. Young adults and service providers reported instances in which anticipation of community stigmatisation deterred youth from accessing drug treatment and harm reduction services. Similarly, stigma contributed to parents' failure to recognize early signs of their children's opioid problems and their reluctance to seek drug treatment for their children until opioid use had become severe. Young adults described how drug-use stigma is frequently internalized, leading to shame and loss of self-esteem. Findings indicate an urgent need for community-wide education about drugs within FSU immigrant communities, and suggest specific service modalities that may be less stigmatizing for youth

  4. Income, Economic Structure and Trade: Impacts on Recent Water Use Trends in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available From the mid-1990s to the recent international economic crisis, the European Union (EU27 experienced a significant economic growth and a flat population increase. During these years, the water resources directly used by the EU countries displayed a growing but smooth trend. However, European activities intensively demanded water resources throughout the whole global supply chain. The growth rate of embodied water use was three times higher than the growth in water directly used by these economies. This was mainly due to the large upsurge of virtual water imports in the EU (e.g., about 25% of the change in water imports in the world was directly linked to the increasing imports in the EU27 countries. In this context, we analyze water use changes in the EU27 from 1995 to 2009, combining the production and consumption perspectives. To that aim, we use the environmentally extended input-output approach to obtain the volume of water embodied in domestic production and in trade flows at the sector and country levels. In the empirical analysis, we utilize multi-regional input-output data from the World Input Output Database. In addition, by means of a structural decomposition analysis we identify and quantify the factors explaining changes in these trends. We focus both on the role of domestic production and trade and estimate the associated intensity, technology and scale effects. This analysis is done for different clusters, identifying singular patterns depending on income criteria. Our results confirm the boost of demand growth in that period, the positive but negligible effect of structural change, and the decline in water intensity which, however, was not enough to compensate the effects on water associated to the economic expansion in the period. These findings also point at a gradual substitution of domestic water use for virtual water imports. More concretely, in most countries the food industry tended to reduce its backward linkages with the

  5. PROBLEMS AND COSTS OF THE EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION WITH OVER 27 STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zaharioaie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Once on his way to enlargement, the European Union has taken a road of no return. History has shown that all candidate countries have become a point of EU Member States. The question thus is not where you go to the European Union enlargement, but how it will look after the enlargement of the Union politically, economically and socially. The objective of this paper is to analyze potential problems and costs of enlargement beyond the 27 states. Thus, we performed an analysis on the implications of enlargement to the Balkans to Asia Minor and even to the former Soviet bloc countries.

  6. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Dom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC has characterized the European Union (E.U.. However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; Methods: In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; Results: The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population’s overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; Conclusions: the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population’s overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  7. The Impact of the 2008 Economic Crisis on Substance Use Patterns in the Countries of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dom, Geert; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Van Hal, Guido; McDaid, David

    2016-01-13

    From 2008 on, a severe economic crisis (EC) has characterized the European Union (E.U.). However, changes in substance use behavioral patterns as a result of the economic crisis in Europe, have been poorly reflected upon, and underlying mechanisms remain to be identified; In this review we explore and systematize the available data on the effect of the 2008 economic crisis on patterns of substance use and related disorders, within the E.U. countries; The results show that effects of the recession need to be differentiated. A number of studies point to reductions in population's overall substance use. In contrast, an increase in harmful use and negative effects is found within specific subgroups within the society. Risk factors include job-loss and long-term unemployment, and pre-existing vulnerabilities. Finally, our findings point to differences between types of substances in their response on economic crisis periods; the effects of the 2008 economic crisis on substance use patterns within countries of the European Union are two-sided. Next to a reduction in a population's overall substance use, a number of vulnerable subgroups experience serious negative effects. These groups are in need of specific attention and support, given that there is a real risk that they will continue to suffer negative health effects long after the economic downfall has formally been ended.

  8. Tuberculosis among migrant populations in the European Union and the European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odone, Anna; Tillmann, Taavi; Sandgren, Andreas; Williams, Gemma; Rechel, Bernd; Ingleby, David; Noori, Teymur; Mladovsky, Philipa; McKee, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although tuberculosis (TB) incidence has been decreasing in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in the last decades, specific subgroups of the population, such as migrants, remain at high risk of TB. This study is based on the report 'Key Infectious Diseases in Migrant Populations in the EU/EEA' commissioned by The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. We collected, critically appraised and summarized the available evidence on the TB burden in migrants in the EU/EEA. Data were collected through: (i) a comprehensive literature review; (ii) analysis of data from The European Surveillance System (TESSy) and (iii) evidence provided by TB experts during an infectious disease workshop in 2012. In 2010, of the 73,996 TB cases notified in the EU/EEA, 25% were of foreign origin. The overall decrease of TB cases observed in recent years has not been reflected in migrant populations. Foreign-born people with TB exhibit different socioeconomic and clinical characteristics than native sufferers. This is one of the first studies to use multiple data sources, including the largest available European database on infectious disease notifications, to assess the burden and provide a comprehensive description and analysis of specific TB features in migrants in the EU/EEA. Strengthened information about health determinants and factors for migrants' vulnerability is needed to plan, implement and evaluate targeted TB care and control interventions for migrants in the EU/EEA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. Women's employment and union dissolution in a changing socio-economic context in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Muszynska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of women's employment on the risk of union disruption within the centrally planned economy and transition period in Russia. The empirical part is based on two retrospective surveys conducted in Russia in 2004/2005, covering the years 1967-2004. These are analyzed using hazard regression. The results show that within two periods (1967-1991 and 1992-2004 the risk of union dissolution was similar among women who worked and those who did not work. No differences were found between various employment groups during socialism. In the transition period, however, a variation in the risk of union dissolution among groups of working women existed. The biggest differences are related to company ownership type, with women who worked in private enterprises having the highest risk of union dissolution.

  10. BREXIT: THE ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL IMPACT OF A POSSIBLE WITHDRAWAL OF GREAT BRITAIN’S FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA MOAGĂR - POLADIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Great Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union would not only change the internal political climate, but it could have important political repercussions within the EU and also on its relations with other European Community’s countries. Also, it could stimulate the other EU Member States to re-evaluate the terms and conditions of their membership. The same applies if Great Britain fails to renegotiate these terms and conditions while keeping the status of EU member. A priority for the UK is to maintain close trade relations with the EU, even if politically it would opt for withdrawal. In the event of possible withdrawal from the EU, Great Britain could conclude an agreement with the EU following the example of a customs union (after Turkey’s model. In this case, it would not be obliged to contribute to the EU budget or accept immigration from the EU member states. Last but not least, from a geopolitical point of view, Great Britain's exit from the EU could be seen externally as a sign of decline, EU losing its financial, economic, political and military powerhouse. From this point of view, the European Union itself have a significant political and economic interest to conclude a mutually beneficial agreement with Great Britain considering that it could terminate its EU membership.

  11. Upadlosc konsumencka w wybranych krajach Unii Europejskiej a kryzys gospodarczy. (Consumer bankruptcy in selected European Union Member Countries in relation to the economic crisis.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Szymanska

    2013-01-01

    The article is aimed at the examination of the relation between the economic crisis and the number of consumer bankruptcies declared in the selected European Union member countries, including Poland. It describes the institution of consumer bankruptcy and presents the most essential differences between the bankruptcy solutions applied in particular legal systems. The economic indicators of the selected European Union member countries are confronted with the number of declared bankruptcies. Th...

  12. The Icarus Illusion: Technology, Doctrine and the Soviet Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Kipp, Jacob W., eds. Soviet Aviation and Air Power. Boulder: Westview Press, 1977. Hollowav. David. The Soviet Union and the Arms Race. New Haven: Yale...L. Fighter Combat: Tactics, and Maneuvering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1985. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F. The Armed Forces of the...USSR. Boulder: Praeger, 1979. Scott, Harriet Fast and Scott, William F., eds. The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy and Tactics. Boulder

  13. Soviet-Afghan war : the factors beneath the invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Aydıntan, Mehmet Ali Emir

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of International Relations, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references. This thesis claims that there are other factors, apart from the Soviet aggression, which are equally important in clarifying the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Despite the fact that the idea that the Soviet Union would be pleased to see a client regime in her neighbors is embraced, more arguments ar...

  14. Soviet Military Intentions in the German Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    and the virtual rape of German industry and transportation . Entire factories and railroads were dismated and moved to the Soviet Union and the East...special status of East Germany. At the time both Soviet and East German spokesmen• emphasized the transito ~y nature of East German membership... transportation . or supply services sufficient to support wartime operations, and the Soviets provide all logistics, command and control and air defense

  15. European Union and Romanian Tourism – ß and σ Convergence in the Economic Development Regions of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At present, both in Romania and in Europe, tourism tends to become one of the biggest industries, with great development possibilities in the future. The economic development of Romania including tourism benefits from the support of the European Union, and has the purpose to reduce the gaps in this concern, compared to both the European Union average and more developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyse β and σ convergence in the 8 Economic Development Regions of Romania by a tourism approach. The concept of β-convergence represents the process of quicker development of poor regions than the rich ones, and σ-convergence is evaluating the process of decrease of regional economic disparities in time. The analysis based on β-convergence was performed using econometric modelling techniques of linear correlation. For σ-convergence, we measured the dispersion of real GDPT per in habitant by the use of the variation coefficient t  . The purpose is to check the hypothesis according to which the β-convergence approach and the σ- convergence concept can lead to different results for the Economic Development Regions of Romania. The period analysed is between 2007 and 2013.

  16. Changes in dentist and dental hygienist numbers in the European Union and economic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widström, E; Eaton, K A; Luciak-Donsberger, C

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the extent to which changes in the numbers of dental hygienists and dentists have occurred in the Member States of the European Union and Economic Area (EU/EEA) during the last ten years and discuss the changes in relation to the possibilities of sharing tasks between the two groups. Numbers for active dentists, registered hygienists and EU/EEA member state populations in 2007 were taken from the website of the Council of European Chief Dental Officers (CECDO) (www.cecdo.org) and from CECDO records for the EU/EEA member states in 1998 and for the new EU member states (who joined in 2004 and 2007) in 2000. From these data, population: active dentists, population: registered dental hygienist and active dentists: registered dental hygienist ratios were calculated together with percentage changes in the number of dentists and dental hygienists by member state, between 1998 and 2007 for the old and between 2000 and 2007 for the new EU member states. In 2007, there were a total of 343,922 active dentists and 30,963 registered dental hygienists in the 30 EU/EEA member states plus Switzerland. The mean population to dentist ratio was about 1500:1 and the mean population to dental hygienist ratio (in the 25 states where dental hygienists were registered) was 13,454:1. During the study period, the population of the EU/EEA plus Switzerland increased by less that 3%, the number of dentists increased by 13% and the number dental hygienists by 42%. The overall ratio of active dentists: dental hygienists changed from 18:1 to 11:1. In six of the 30 member states plus Switzerland the population to dental hygienist ratio was between 2000:1 and 6000:1 and the dentist: dental hygienist ratio less than 1:3. Although, most member states educate dental hygienists and their numbers in the EU/EEA during the last 10 years have risen more than the dentist numbers, there are still only a handful countries where the hygienist numbers are great enough to make a significant

  17. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  18. International Influences on Post-Soviet Armenian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzian, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the most recent international influences on Armenian education, illustrating how international standards are driving post-Soviet reform in the Armenian Secondary Schools. Since 1991, when Armenia became independent from the Soviet Union, organisations such as the World Bank and the Open Society Institute Assistance…

  19. Soviet Cultural Diplomacy in Denmark during the Cold War

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederichsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the Soviet apparatus for cultural diplomacy abroad during the Cold War period using the worlds oldest society for friendship with the Soviet Union as a case study. The article looks at question from 3 diffrent angels: 1: Organisation, planning and financing. 2: Activities. 3...

  20. 'A people forgotten by history': Soviet Studies of the Kurds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Russian/Soviet experience raises complex general questions concerning orientalism, conceptual hegemony, and the politics of (post-)colonial knowledge. Russia was not an empire in Said's sense, and drew much of its orientalist categories from non-imperialist German sources; the Soviet Union was

  1. Understanding the Special Needs of Former Soviet Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, James L.; Bonkareva, Ella

    1992-01-01

    Describes characteristics of immigrant children from the former Soviet Union and implications of these characteristics for U.S. teachers. Considers differences between U.S. and Soviet schools in scheduling practices, bathroom routines, racial composition, meals, languages, clothing, naps, and parent/school relationships. (LB)

  2. Postcolonial studies and post-Soviet societies: The possibilities and the limitations of their intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short review of the postcolonial studies’ origins, this paper considers the question of their application in the study of history and contemporary state of the post-Soviet societies. Aspirations of the leading theorists of postcolonial studies not to restrict their field of research on the relation of imperial metropoles (First World and its (postcolonial periphery (Third World have not met with the acceptance in post-Soviet societies’ academia. With the exception of the famous debates on „the Balkans“ that are not the subject of this paper, the paradigm of post-colonialism is rarely used in the interpretation of past and present of the former socialist states (Second World. Rejecting the thesis of their own (postcolonial status in most of Eastern European countries is usually based on a rejection of the assumption of the Soviet-style communism’s „civilizing mission“. From the same perspective, the Soviet Union is not considered a colonial metropole, but an occupying force, and the epoch of socialism is interpreted as externally imposed breach of the historical developments based on the European model. On the other hand, the concept of these countries’ transition opens up the issue of their (postcolonial status in relation to „Europe“ as the center of economic, political and cultural power. Therefore, the postcolonial critique of post-Soviet societies is more often focused on the thematisation of neo-imperial domination and neo-colonial dependency phenomena, than on the explanation of their socialist past. The author’s opinion is that it doesn’t mean that a number of concepts of postcolonial theory - such as „internal colonialism“ - cannot be productively used to a fuller understanding of the Soviet past, nor that in the interpretation of post-Soviet realities’ „hybrid forms“ the postcolonial studies cannot be of use. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 149026

  3. “Not human, dead already”: Perceptions and experiences of drug-related stigma among opioid-using young adults from the former Soviet Union living in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Alana; Guarino, Honoria

    2017-01-01

    Background Young people from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in the U.S. are engaging in opioid and injection drug use (IDU) in substantial numbers, paralleling nationwide trends. Yet opioid-using FSU immigrants face distinctive acculturation challenges, including perceived stigmatisation as drug users within their immigrant communities, which may exacerbate the negative health and psychosocial consequences of such use. Methods This qualitative study draws on semi-structured interviews with 26 FSU immigrant young adults (ages 18–29) living in New York City who reported opioid use in the past month and/or were currently in treatment for opioid use disorder. Interviews probed youths’ drug use histories, immigration/acculturation experiences, family and peer relationships, and service utilisation. Interviews or focus groups were also conducted with 12 FSU mothers of opioid-using youth and 20 service providers familiar with the FSU population. In a content-based thematic analysis, verbatim transcripts were coded for salient themes. Results All three participant groups emphasized that stigma towards drug users within the FSU community is pervasive and acute, in contrast to the cultural acceptance of heavy drinking, and is rooted in punitive Soviet-era drug policies, fostering widespread ignorance about drugs and addiction. Young adults and service providers reported instances in which anticipation of community stigmatisation deterred youth from accessing drug treatment and harm reduction services. Similarly, stigma contributed to parents’ failure to recognize early signs of their children’s opioid problems and their reluctance to seek drug treatment for their children until opioid use had become severe. Young adults described how drug-use stigma is frequently internalized, leading to shame and loss of self-esteem. Conclusion Findings indicate an urgent need for community-wide education about drugs within FSU immigrant communities, and suggest specific service

  4. Organizing for Coalition Warfare: The Role of East European Warsaw Pact Forces in Soviet Military Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Central Army Group (NATO) CFM Committee of Foreign Ministers (WTO) C-in-C Commander-in-Chief CP Communist Party CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CWC...8217 4,100 832 2 Navies Major and minor warships 300W Few’ < 1 SOURCES: D. . Ustinov, Marshal of the Soviet Union , Chairman of the Main Editorial Commission...of Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (GSFG) disions with Northern Tier East Europea divisions Soviet armored division, Category 1 1.00 Soviet MD

  5. Sovereignty and the Shaping of Economic Governance in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, A.; van Rossem, J.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    In her view on the Pringle case, Advocate General Kokott unfolded an interesting analysis with regard to the scope of Article 125 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), the no bail-out clause. In order to sustain her argument that this provision did not preclude the euro

  6. The common fisheries policy of the European Union and fisheries economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans; Andersen, Peder

    2006-01-01

    The revision of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union in 2003 was communicated in a ‘Roadmap’, including the opinion of the EU Commission on how to reform the fisheries policy. This paper reviews the Roadmap and confronts the opinion and initiatives proposed by the Commission with the...

  7. Estimating HIV incidence and number of undiagnosed individuals living with HIV in the European Union/European Economic Area, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharris, Anastasia; Quinten, Chantal; Noori, Teymur; Amato-Gauci, Andrew J; van Sighem, Ard

    2016-12-01

    Since 2011, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence appears unchanged in the European Union/European Economic Area with between 29,000 and 33,000 new cases reported annually up to 2015. Despite evidence that HIV diagnosis is occurring earlier post-infection, the estimated number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who were unaware of being infected in 2015 was 122,000, or 15% of all PLHIV (n=810,000). This is concerning as such individuals cannot benefit from highly effective treatment and may unknowingly sustain transmission. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  8. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  9. ENERGY ECONOMICS AND POLICY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available European Union adapted the policy of reducing its carbon footprint and embarked on the journey to shift to renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. The whole process started with implementations of binding rules that set up indicative targets for the EU Member States. However, this process had to go hand in hand with high energy costs charged to the consumers. This paper defines various types of renewable sources in the EU and analyses European legislation on renewable energy sources. In addition, it deals with the current situation regarding the energy policies in the European Union and outlines its main criticisms and prospects. The results and conclusions might be of some value for EU main energy providers as well as for the EU partners in the world.

  10. Charting the Course of the Voyenno-Morskoy Flot: Soviet Naval Strategy towards the Year 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-13

    ed. Walter Laquer (New York: St. Martin’s, 1990) 149. 16 the growth of the civilian sector and prevented the nation from keeping up with a rapidly...1989) 12. See also Walter Laquer , "Soviet Politics: Future Scenarios" in Laquer , 38-83. 17 the Soviet military threat. More relevant to this study is...Brown, 1974. L Laquer , Walter. Soviet Union 2000: Reform or Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s, 1990. Larrabee, Stephen F. "Gorbachev and the Soviet

  11. From Plan to Market: Teaching Ideas for Social Studies, Economics, and Business Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark C.; Lopus, Jane S.; Morton, John S.

    This packet of lessons focuses on the transition from a legacy of central planning to a market orientation in the economic systems of Central and Eastern Europe, the newly independent states of the former Soviet Union, and China. These lessons seek to provide high school teachers with a well-informed approach to teaching about this transition. The…

  12. A direct comparison of popular models of normal memory loss and Alzheimer's disease in samples of African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Iris, Madelyn

    2011-04-01

    To understand how people differentiate normal memory loss from Alzheimer's disease (AD) by investigating cultural models of these conditions. Ethnographic interviews followed by a survey. Cultural consensus analysis was used to test for the presence of group models, derive the "culturally correct" set of beliefs, and compare models of normal memory loss and AD. Chicago, Illinois. One hundred eight individuals from local neighborhoods: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and refugees and immigrants from the former Soviet Union. Participants responded to yes-or-no questions about the nature and causes of normal memory loss and AD and provided information on ethnicity, age, sex, acculturation, and experience with AD. Groups held a common model of AD as a brain-based disease reflecting irreversible cognitive decline. Higher levels of acculturation predicted greater knowledge of AD. Russian speakers favored biological over psychological models of the disease. Groups also held a common model of normal memory loss, including the important belief that "normal" forgetting involves eventual recall of the forgotten material. Popular models of memory loss and AD confirm that patients and clinicians are speaking the same "language" in their discussions of memory loss and AD. Nevertheless, the presence of coherent models of memory loss and AD, and the unequal distribution of that knowledge across groups, suggests that clinicians should include wider circles of patients' families and friends in their consultations. These results frame knowledge as distributed across social groups rather than simply the possession of individual minds. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Towards a Circular Economy in the European Union - A Solution For the Economic Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the resource efficiency agenda set by the Europe 2020 Strategy, the European Union is on its way of transition from the linear economy to a circular economy model. A first step was achieved in 2014 by the European Commission Communication “Towards a circular economy: a zero waste programme for Europe”, recently followed by the Circular economy package, which includes an Action Plan for the Circular economy and a time-bound implementation of the initiatives. In this research paper, we analyze the reasons for the paradigm shift from the linear model to the circular economy model, and the European Union Strategy for the circular economy, with the benefits and risks involved. As the European Union Member States and regions have a direct participation in the achievement of the circular economy, our work summarizes the concrete programme of action, with measures covering the whole cycle: from production and consumption to waste management and the market for secondary raw materials.

  14. A comparison of national economic diplomacy systems of the leading European Union countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman O. Raynkhardt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article provides a comparative analysis of the leading EU-countries’ (Germany, France, Great Britain and Italy national economic diplomacy systems in line with the following criteria: role and functions of key economic diplomacy agents; competences of subnational regions as independent foreign economic actors; practice and mechanisms of ‘inward’ and ‘outward’ economic diplomacy (attraction of foreign investments and export promotion respectively; HR-policy as well as the role of country leaders in economic diplomacy measures. The author outlines the country-specifi c features of the aforementioned systems alongside treats common to all of them.

  15. Soviet space nuclear reactor incidents - Perception versus reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the Soviet Union reportedly began flying nuclear power sources in 1965 it has had four publicly known accidents involving space reactors, two publicly known accidents involving radioisotope power sources and one close call with a space reactor (Cosmos 1900). The reactor accidents, particularly Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402, indicated that the Soviets had adopted burnup as their reentry philosophy which is consistent with the U.S. philosophy from the 1960s and 1970s. While quantitative risk analyses have shown that the Soviet accidents have not posed a serious risk to the world's population, concerns still remain about Soviet space nuclear safety practices.

  16. The Soviet applied information sciences in a time of change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengston, J.; Cronin, R.R.; Davidson, R.B.

    1991-07-01

    The Foreign Applied Sciences Assessment Center (FASAC) conducts reviews of selected areas of foreign basic and applied science by US scientists who are technically expert and active in the fields reviewed. Several of the FASAC assessments of Soviet science have involved various aspects of the information sciences, including enabling technologies and applications, as well as the core information sciences. This report draws upon those FASAC assessment reports, the expert judgment of some of the authors of those reports, and other public sources to characterize the current state of the information sciences in the Soviet Union and the effects of information science capabilities upon other areas of Soviet science and technology. This report also provides estimates of the likely effect of the political and social reforms underway in the Soviet Union on future Soviet progress in the information sciences and, at a more general level, in science and technology. 41 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. C2 Soviet Style - Control and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-21

    the people" of the Soviet Union is of minimal concern-it is the "will of the Party" that reigns supreme. li v - U. ŕ 02 soi anxL - ow =A axRCL A...handling of military equipment and weapons. Party organizations in the armed forces further are charged to ensure that Comunists play the leading role

  18. Soviet Security in Flux. Occasional Paper 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamgotch, Nish, Jr.

    If U.S. foreign policy is to be prudent and effective, it must cease relying on the doctrinaire images and cold war rhetoric of the past and take into account five intactable problems, none of them specifically military, that the Soviet Union faces. These problems are: (1) unabating deficiencies in its economy; (2) a precarious battle with…

  19. The American mortgage crisis implications on the international economics evolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rozalia NISTOR; Paolo PANICO; Costel NISTOR; Mihaela-Carmen MUNTEAN

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves that produce large cracks deepen existing political, economic and social, and sometimes a new order replaces the old. In 2010, states across the world over blast, which invariably will lead to changing the current world order. Last twenty years have seen major changes in international economic context, the Soviet Union collapsed and centralized economies in Eastern Europe, reforms in China and India, export-based growth strategies in East Asia, all leading to the creation of a wor...

  20. CURRENT TRENDS OF THE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETITIVE ECONOMIC AGGLOMERATIONS OF CLUSTER TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAURA CISMAŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of economic agents’ behaviour, whose nowadays tendency is togroup themselves in space as clusters, has an important place in the field of localizing industrialactivities. This is due to domestic scale economies, known as agglomerations economies.According to Edgar M. Hoover (Hoover, 1948, domestic scale economies are specific tocompanies; the economies of localizing - to a certain branch, whose companies form clusters incertain geographical arias, and the urbanization economies are specific to cities, where thereare clusters of companies from different branches. The specialty literature regarding localeconomic development, based on the idea of cluster starts from well-known economic theories,such as: agglomeration theory (Alfred Marshall, the theory of spatial localizing of industrialunits (Alfred Weber, the theory of interdependence of locations (Harold Hotelling, the diamondtheory (Michael Porter, the theory of entrepreneurship (Joseph Schumpeter, the theory ofgeographical concentration. Basically, the common point which links them are the conceptswhich occur in these theories, such as: industrial district, industrial agglomeration, spatialinterdependence, concepts which lie at the basis of the cluster idea. Clusters represent animportant instrument for promoting industrial development, innovation, competitiveness andeconomic growth. If, at the beginning, the effort to develop clusters belonged to private personsand companies, nowadays, the actors involved in their development are the governments andpublic institutions of national or regional level.The objective established within the Lisbon Strategy (2000, to make the EuropeanUnion “the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy”, is tightly linked to thenew approaches of the European economic policy, to competitiveness. One of the policies isfocused on developing at the European Union level clusters in the high competitiveness fields. with an innovative character

  1. Soviet satellite communications science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, J.N.; Campanella, S.J.; Gordon, G.D.; McElroy, D.R.; Pritchard, W.L.; Stamminger, R.

    1991-08-01

    This is a report by six US scientists and engineers concerning the current state of the art and projections of future Soviet satellite communications technologies. The panel members are experts in satellite stabilization, spacecraft environments, space power generation, launch systems, spacecraft communications sciences and technologies, onboard processing, ground stations, and other technologies that impact communications. The panel assessed the Soviet ability to support high-data-rate space missions at 128 Mbps by evaluating current and projected Soviet satellite communications technologies. A variety of space missions were considered, including Earth-to-Earth communications via satellites in geostationary or highly elliptical orbits, those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a direct path and those missions that require space-to-Earth communications via a relay satellite. Soviet satellite communications capability, in most cases, is 10 years behind that of the United States and other industrialized nations. However, based upon an analysis of communications links needed to support these missions using current Soviet capabilities, it is well within the current Soviet technology to support certain space missions outlined above at rates of 128 Mbps or higher, although published literature clearly shows that the Soviet Union has not exceeded 60 Mbps in its current space system. These analyses are necessary but not sufficient to determine mission data rates, and other technologies such as onboard processing and storage could limit the mission data rate well below that which could actually be supported via the communications links. Presently, the Soviet Union appears to be content with data rates in the low-Earth-orbit relay via geostationary mode of 12 Mbps. This limit is a direct result of power amplifier limits, spacecraft antenna size, and the utilization of K{sub u}-band frequencies. 91 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Towards a Circular Economy in the European Union - A Solution For the Economic Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Câmpeanu

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the resource efficiency agenda set by the Europe 2020 Strategy, the European Union is on its way of transition from the linear economy to a circular economy model. A first step was achieved in 2014 by the European Commission Communication “Towards a circular economy: a zero waste programme for Europe”, recently followed by the Circular economy package, which includes an Action Plan for the Circular economy and a time-bound implementation of the initiatives. In this researc...

  3. On Application of the Model of the Global Dimension of Regional Integration for Evaluating the Development of Eurasian Economic Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkhanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the need to study the integration processes of the Eurasian region in order to identify promising directions of its development. It is noted that most studies of this issue are dedicated to the economic aspect, but the analysis of the integration processes requires a comprehensive approach. The authors propose to use The Model of Global Dimension of Regional Integration (GDRI-Model – the methodology which takes into account the most important aspects of integration. This model was developed by Malaysian Professor M. Estrada. The general objective of the GDRI-Model is to offer policy-makers and researchers a new analytical tool for studying the evolution and the stages of any regional integration process in a global perspective. The presented model is not a forecasting one, but its use is not limited to a certain group of countries and regions. The authors note that some model criteria are not acceptable for the evaluation of Eurasian integration because of the specific features of the region. The adaptation of the model is based on theoretical analysis allowing to reveal separate directions of integration and its factors. At the same time, the flexibility of the proposed model makes it possible to adapt it to the conditions of the Eurasian Economic Union with the aim of its further application for the evaluation of integration development. It is concluded that the GDRI-Model is simple and universal, so it can act as a tool of Eurasian integration research to determine the stages of its development. After adaptation the presented model will also determine the feasibility of further convergence of national systems of economic union and the possibility of transition to monetary integration.

  4. Nõukogude garaažikultuur. Soviet Garage Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauri Tuvikene

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its manifestation in the form of political ideology, the arts and the economic system, socialism also manifested itself in space. The socialist space did not only take shape ideologically, but was also influenced by societal limitations and possibilities. Because of this, it is important to shed light on everyday life in the Soviet Union, which did not necessarily consist of big slogans or open opposition, and which neither expressed loud support nor aversion in relation to the Soviet system. In this article I take a look at the garage areas (which were usually built in clusters as spatial elements, and the garage culture associated with them. I describe how the garage was a necessary part of the car culture in Soviet society, a part which at times comprised objects, practices and meanings of its own: in other words, a garage culture. Cars have had a major impact on cityscapes in the West, where the number of cars per capita was many times larger than in the Soviet Union, but car usage has left its mark in socialist cities as well. Getting around in a car inevitably means aneed to park it somewhere; this basic fact applied to both sides of the Iron Curtain. However, garage areas have carried more importance in socialist societies – there is more of them, and they feature a large amount of parking spaces (hundreds if not thousands. The reason for this popularity was societal limitations and possibilities: on the one hand there was an opportunity for extensive land use brought about by the state ownership of land untouched by free-market search for profitability, but on the other hand there were also obstacles, created by a deficit. By enabling the car owner to keep his vehicle going, the garage had a concrete role to play in the Soviet economic system. The garage was a place where you could repair your car, store spare parts and protect it from potential theft. The role of the garage in Soviet car culture as described in this article

  5. Soviet Robots in the Solar System Mission Technologies and Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Huntress, JR , Wesley T

    2011-01-01

    The Soviet robotic space exploration program began in a spirit of bold adventure and technical genius. It ended after the fall of the Soviet Union and the failure of its last mission to Mars in 1996. Soviet Robots in the Solar System chronicles the scientific and engineering accomplishments of this enterprise from its infancy to its demise. Each flight campaign is set into context of national politics and international competition with the United States. Together with its many detailed illustrations and images, Soviet Robots in the Solar System presents the most detailed technical description of Soviet robotic space flights provides a unique insight into programmatic, engineering, and scientific issues covers mission objectives, spacecraft engineering, flight details, scientific payload and results describes in technical depth Soviet lunar and planetary probes

  6. AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH OF SOCIAL IMPACT OF DEBT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH. EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMĂRĂNDOIU (SANDA LUANA ALEXANDRA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s economic reality contains a certain degree of uncertainty that often prevail economic rationality, affecting economic growth. Recent European and political agendas put a robust emphasis on the importance of social dimension of growth and try to shift the focus from economic evidence to social outcomes. The debt is currently a sensitive issue for most European countries and ordinary individuals, thus creating significant imbalances regarding perceived economic wealth and wellbeing at national and individual level. But debt is also associated with fast money and short term prosperity that can engine business and support living, thus economic growth. The paper makes a repositioning evaluation of the social domain into European political agendas, towards a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth for the Europeans. It encompasses an evaluation of the relevance of European growth on its economic development and sustainability. Rebalancing finance and economic priorities with a strong commitment to social priorities is the main reorientation target of the political agenda. There’s a growing need for shifting the focus to qualitative facets of growth and European testimonials, for an ascending journey to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, representing a continuing approach of EU’s root ideals. Thus, the paper proposes an analysis of GDP evolution in relation to debt to GDP ratio indicator and social factors, as an alternative impact evaluation played by the social system and debt for a country’s performance, representing an alternative way for assessing economic growth in relation to wellbeing. The results show a significant dependence of growth to debt to GDP ratio and social indicators such as population at risk to poverty rate, unemployment rate, life expectancy and expected years of schooling

  7. THE FISCAL FEDERALISM AND THE GOOD ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The research objectives aim to analyze the advantages and the disadvantages of the fiscal federalism, in order to identify the model of economic governance that will increase the quality and efficiency in public intervention. The fiscal federalism could have an important impact on the economic and political level in EU, but mostly in member states, in order to obtain a better administration and more responsible governance for the resources allocation, income distribution and fiscal consolidation. Fiscal federalism can bring to Romania advantages towards accessing more European funds and achieving budgetary discipline, and the last but not the least for stimulating economic growth.

  8. Competing with the Soviets science, technology, and the state in Cold War America

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Audra J

    2013-01-01

    For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the sup...

  9. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos MARGARITIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rights protection in EU, mainly with the enactment of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. For a better understanding of the framework of economic and labor rights in EU, the traditional economic freedoms and provisions of the Charter will be examined in this paper in order to draw conclusions on the level of protection of such rights and the modifications that the Lisbon Treaty have brought in EU legal order with reference to economic and labor rights.

  10. THE IMPLICATIONS OF STATE AID TO RnD ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In economic terms, the importance of state aid policy refers to the maintaining of an undistorted competition and the correction of inherent “market failures” which may occur in the economy, aiming at increasing economic efficiency, based on the traditional assumption that an effective competition will have a positive impact on economic development. The main objective of the present paper is to establish a possible correlation between state aid to research and development (RnD and GDP level in the EU. Our research hypothesis relates to considering state aid as a significant contribution to the economic development, measured by GDP level, which will be estimated as a function of state aid. Consequently, the main variables of this study are state aid to RnD and GDP level, considered in both relative and absolute terms. The relationship between technological change and economic development has been at the centre of the interest in both theoretical and empirical literature. The role of institutions and government policies in stimulating technological change has been provided mainly by the evolutionary theory, which considers economic development as a technological change driven process featured by a complex pattern which includes both uniformity and idiosyncrasy across time and countries. The relationship between these variables was estimated through a panel model which used seemly unrelated regression (SUR and ordinary least squares estimation (OLS. Taking into account that the economic value is likely to be realized after the innovation process took place we have interpreted this economic aspect in an econometric sense by using time lags. In analysing the relative importance of state aid to RnD, we have proposed an index which evaluates the relation between state aid and the relative size of the Member State’s economy. The relationship between state aid and GDP level was found to be positive and

  11. THE FISCAL FEDERALISM AND THE GOOD ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE IN EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2013-01-01

    The research objectives aim to analyze the advantages and the disadvantages of the fiscal federalism, in order to identify the model of economic governance that will increase the quality and efficiency in public intervention. The fiscal federalism could have an important impact on the economic and political level in EU, but mostly in member states, in order to obtain a better administration and more responsible governance for the resources allocation, income distribution and fiscal consolidat...

  12. Chinese Policy in Post-Soviet States. «One Belt — One Road Initiative»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya M. Borisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet Union countries is of special interest for China. Russian influence in former republics has been declining since the Soviet Union collapsed. China used these changes to start developing of bilateral relations with Central Asia states, as a first priority, and continued with Ukraine, Belorussia, South Caucasus governments. Former Soviet countries’ course to weaken Russian influence helped Chinese policy to be promoted. It has altered from bitty steps to concerted course in the region. China began to play a major role in the trade and economic development of Central Asia, supporting its policy with political mechanisms. To strengthen its positions, Beijing proposed its “One belt - one road” strategic initiative, which consists of two major projects : Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route Economic Belt. These projects involve almost all of the former soviet states, of which Central Asian countries play a major part. This world region is seen in China as a platform for invading European markets, and it also provides a way to avoid trespassing of the Russian borders. In the context of Chinese “One road — one belt” initiative, there is a great concern of the cooperation with EAEU project. EAEU is aimed to provide coordinated unified economic policy with state-members, to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour. Moscow sees its initiative as an instrument for construction of economic and political structure in the region, same as Beijing does. Possibility of two global projects coexistence, which can be distinguished as competitive, is a problem to be solved.   

  13. The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.

  14. Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in the European Union Countries – Is there Evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research empirically explores the relation between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth during the period 1992-2010, using panel data on the European Union countries. Both fixed and random effect models are employed to test the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita. While no U-shaped EKC was confirmed empirically for all 28 current EU member states, the graphical analysis demonstrates a justified turning point for CO2 emissions as GDP per capita reaches the level of 23,000 USD. Furthermore, there is a firm empirical ground for the EKC hypothesis based on data from 16 older, relatively high-income EU states. Thus, though not empirically confirmed, there is ample data verifying the existence of the EKC in EU economies.

  15. Exploring Integration of Care for Children Living with Complex Care Needs across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Maria; O'Shea, Miriam; J Larkin, Philip; Kamionka, Stine Lundstroem; Berry, Jay; Hiscock, Harriet; Rigby, Michael; Blair, Mitch

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this paper is to report on the development of surveys to explore integration of care for children living with complex care needs across the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). Each survey consists of a vignette and questions adapted from the Standards for Systems of Care for Children and Youth with Special Health Care Needs and the Eurobarometer Survey . A Country Agent in each country, a local expert in child health services, will obtain data from indigenous sources. We identified 'in-principle' complex problems and adapted surveys to capture care integration. We expect to get rich data to understand perceptions and to inform actions for a number of complex health issues. The study has the potential to make a wide contribution to individual countries of the EU/EEA to understand their own integration of services mapped against responses from other member states. Early results are expected in Spring 2017.

  16. Survey of surveillance systems and select prevention activities for hepatitis B and C, European Union/European Economic Area, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffell, E F; van de Laar, M J

    2015-04-02

    Hepatitis B and C viral infections are leading causes of hepatic cirrhosis and cancer. The incidence and prevalence of both hepatitis B and C varies across European countries. European wide surveillance data help to understand the dynamic epidemiology of hepatitis B and C, which is important for the implementation and effectiveness of prevention and control activities.Comparison of surveillance data between countries in Europe is hampered by the differences in national healthcare and reporting systems. This report presents the results of a survey in 2009 which was undertaken to collect baseline information on surveillance systems and core prevention programmes for hepatitis B and C in individual European Union/ European Economic Area countries. The results provide key information to aid the interpretation of surveillance data, and while indicating heterogeneity in national surveillance systems and programmes, they highlight the potential of these systems. This resource has supported the implementation of a standardised European enhanced surveillance programme.

  17. A systematic review of economic evaluations of seasonal influenza vaccination for the elderly population in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Gemma E; Elvidge, Jamie; Davies, Linda M

    2017-06-10

    The Council of the European Union (EU) has recommended that action should be taken to increase influenza vaccination in the elderly population. The aims were to systematically review and critically appraise economic evaluations for influenza vaccination in the elderly population in the EU. Electronic searches of the NHS Economic Evaluation, Health Technology Assessment, MEDLINE and Embase databases were run to identify full economic evaluations. Two levels of screening were used, with explicit inclusion criteria applied by two independent reviewers at each stage. Prespecified data extraction and critical appraisal were performed on identified studies. Results were summarised qualitatively. Of the 326 search results, screening identified eight relevant studies. Results varied widely, with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranging from being both more effective and cheaper than no intervention to costing €4 59 350 per life-year gained. Cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to variations in influenza strain, vaccination type and strategy, population and modelling characteristics. Most studies suggest that vaccination is cost-effective (seven of eight studies identified at least one cost-effective scenario). All but one study used economic models to synthesise data from different sources. The results are uncertain due to the methods used and the relevance and robustness of the data used. Sensitivity analysis to explore these aspects was limited. Integrated, controlled prospective clinical and economic evaluations and surveillance data are needed to improve the evidence base. This would allow more advanced modelling techniques to characterise the epidemiology of influenza more accurately and improve the robustness of cost-effectiveness estimates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Historical bottle data collected from the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, Japan Sea, and North Pacific Ocean by multiple Russian, Former Soviet Union, and Japan platforms in 1888 - 1936 years (NODC Accession 0101422)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical bottle data collected from the Sea of Okhotsk,Bering Sea, Japan Sea, and North Pacific Ocean in 1888 - 1936 years by multiple Russian, Former Soviet...

  19. Soviet Theater Nuclear Capabilities: The European Nuclear Balance in Transition,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-31

    womernn~laryI -Ir ofOnSovie1 Union ; NATO sms ame all system amlgiied to So Europea theater. Fiendh in lS. w*4ii not a part of NATO, have bean...confidence, and an increase in NATO’s vulnerabilities. In response, the author contends that if the Soviet Union is unwilling to negotiate a serious...senior researcher at the Strategic Studies Institute. SUMMARY Over the last decade and a half, the Soviet Union has been methodically improving the

  20. The Glaring Socioeconomic Meltdown in Post-Soviet Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus: A Distorted Mindset in Search of a Way Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesea Ghedrovici

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural and historical values and assumptions deeply imprint all aspects of people’s lives, including their role in social, economic, and political transformation. Many of the former Soviet states are still going through a painful metamorphosis on a confusing path toward acceptance of freedom and democratic values. The idea we wish to highlight there is the impact of the Soviet moral and psychological legacy on the socioeconomic transition now under way in the East European countries that once were republics of the Soviet Union. It is important to shed light on the reasons why, after 20 years of formal independence, the region is still struggling to find its way forward.

  1. Connection between the economic crisis and contractual circumstances in Hungary and in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla PAPP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the conclusion of a contract of civil law, the parties may take some reasonably unforeseeable economic risks that might disrupt the synallagmatic character of the contract; therefore, disproportionate, unviable extra burden may appear in the contractual relations on the side of some parties. The sudden increase of inflation or prices, the intense reduction of the purchasing power of wages, the radical changes in the relations between supply and demand, the collapse of the product market, the insolvency of the economic actors (especially in case of a contractual party, the negative changes of the market and financial relations and the production and liquidity problems of the economic sector shall result in this incalculable risk. In case of maintaining the original contractual content, an economic crisis affecting the whole economy and society of one or more countries may cause any or all the parties to take inequitable and intolerable risks. In the following, we analyse those reasons in the Hungarian judicial practice that are based on the Hungarian Civil Code and referred by the parties in order to get rid of the contractual obligation in the name of economic/ business risk and finally, we make a conclusion with respect to the current European regulations.

  2. The Political Economy of the European Union: Institutions, Policy and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    the current institutional set-up of the EU will determine future economic performance and will adversely affect policy outcomes. He looks at whether fundamental EU policies, such as the CAP, are consistent with economic growth or whether these policies will instead distort markets, leading to economic decline....... Focusing in detail on international climate negotiations and wind energy, the author explores the way in which the design of a policy proposal can be affected by the interactions between interest groups and the institutions and bureaucrats of the EU. The case of greenhouse gas emissions trading is a unique......' may be avoided by strengthening the power of the EU Parliament at the expense of the EU Commission. The book also discusses issues surrounding policy design, international negotiations on climate change and renewable energy sources. Using an interdisciplinary framework, the author examines how...

  3. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Jean Vasile; Mieila, Mihai; Panait, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP) aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  4. THE EUROPEAN UNION CONVERGENCE IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Andreea BUCUR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of EU enlargement there is no universal model which should offer a unique solution for diminishing the disparities in the development of a country. An approach only from the point of view of economic growth is not enough, so we extend the analysis towards the social development. Considering the level of GDP per capita and of HDI registered by EU states during 1995-2012, we test the hypothesis of real σ and β-convergence in terms of economic and social development. The estimated results indicate a tendency in reducing the divergence in both economic and social degree of development. A relatively strong process of real σ-convergence became evident while real β-convergence testing supports the hypothesis among EU countries, but the results indicate a slower process for HDI convergence compared with GDP per capita.

  5. The impact and determinants of the energy paradigm on economic growth in European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Vasile Andrei

    Full Text Available Contemporary economies are strongly reliant on energy and analyzing the determining factors that trigger the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth is a topical research subject. Our contention is that energy paradigm plays a major role in achieving the sustainable development of contemporary economies. In order to prove this the panel data methodology of research was employed, namely four panel unit root tests (LLC, IPS, F-ADF and F-PP aiming to reveal the connections and relevance among 17 variables denoting energy influence on economic development. Moreover, it was introduced a specific indicator to express energy consumption per capita. Our findings extend the classical approach of the changes in energy paradigm and their impact upon economic growth and offer a comprehensive analysis which surpasses the practices and policy decisions in the field.

  6. Book reviews: Miroslav N. Jovanovic – Evolutionary Economic Geography. Location of Production in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca G. Popescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The book tries to answer the problem of locating production of a company in the geographic space analyzing what determines productivity differences between regions using the theory of evolutionary economic geography. Evolutionary economics studies “the origin, change, direction and speed in the spatial distribution and organization of as well as production and consumption in a certain period of time.” The studied problem is relevant in order to know not only what will be the future location of jobs, their quality and quantity but also where will take place the maximization of profits, the collection of taxes, the public spending, etc.

  7. Soviet Military Power 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Even the "re- to the economic foundations of Soviet military power. vised" defense budget released by Gorbachev in 1989 The USSR’s economic crisis ...sectirity policy aind SoX jet I Ilion III Crisis , the celchi’ations, of peoples InI doctrine have called for ai ilc\\\\ analyticail f’raniewoik lot’ LaitaI uif...still po,,sssSes a vaSt an1(l (1,LaIi[-L’etS e il( the Irak ." limi1ted detuton o equipment lillitary- ar1sena,’l xxhiCh mu1It he respclCted fb its

  8. The Supreme Soviet and Soviet Defense Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    5 A. THE DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD OF POLITICAL REFORM . . . . 5 B. CREATING THE NEW SUPREME SOVIET ..... .......... 8 III. THE BIRTH OF THE NEW SUPREME...the future. 4 II. POLITICAL REFORM AND SOVIET DEFENSE POLICY A. THE DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD OF POLITICAL REFORM According to the 1977 Soviet constitution...Klautsen (First Secretary, Riga Gorkom) Aleksei Kolbeshkin (team leader, production association) Nikolai Kucherskiy (director, mining and metallurgy combine

  9. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.A.; Bacci, S.; Shadwick, R.; Tillmann, T.; Rechel, B.; Noori, T.; Suk, J.E.; Odone, A.; Ingleby, J.D.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to

  10. New market designs and their effect on economic performance in European Union's natural gas markets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, N.; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2008-01-01

    The European gas market reform triggered new market designs which aimed to achieve competitive natural gas prices, efficiency gains, and security of gas supply. The paper analyses to what extent the effects of regulation-for-competition on eco-nomic performance in the form of natural gas prices,

  11. Africa : Economic Partnership Agreements between Africa and the European Union, What to do Now? Summary Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report addresses the question raised in its title - now that 18 interim Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) have been initialed and negotiations of full EPAs have been launched, what should African countries and regional EPA-groups do? Part two of the report analyzes the outcome of the EPA negotiations thus far, the interim EPAs' implications for the trade and related policies of p...

  12. Lobbying in the European union – regulation and public sector economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dvořáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying has become an inseparable companion of the decision-making process and firms but also other social actors (non-governmental organizations, individuals, private and civil sector are forced to reflect this fact, if they want to promote their interests effectively and if they want to avoid regulation that would harm their interests. The paper analyses the regulation of lobbying in European institutions and focuses on two major institutions which are under pressure of the lobbyists, the European Commission and the European Parliament. The paper discusses and presents the both ways of regulation which occur in the European institutions- the concept of self-regulation and the binding Code of Conduct under the Rules of Procedure in the European Parliament.The paper contains also possible economic consequences of lobbying based on the Public Sector Economics perspective and the methodology of the principal-agent relationship.

  13. Economic and labor rights in the European Union after Lisbon: an institutional approach

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Margaritis

    2013-01-01

    Economic and labor rights belong to the core of business action, since they constitute the institutional framework for actors involved in business, employers and workers. Since the European integration is progressing, we may speak of a European environment for business, a common market in European legal terms, which became the main aim for the Communities since 1957. At the end of 2009, with the enforcement of the Lisbon Treaty amendments, important changes were brought in the fundamental rig...

  14. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe: Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, S.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries' economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-14

    Army." But, as a matter of fact, the death of Private Grigoryan was related to a gross violation of safety measures at a construction site. The... health of the nation. To nationalistic elements one of the more important tasks is to undermine confidence and respect toward the army, and drive a wedge... creches , dairy kitchens, military exchanges, job placement for wives and not that of life in the capital, then the situation of naval officers

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-30

    as against the 22 billion per the 5-year plan, 900,000 tons of mineral fertilizer instead of 8 million tons. Fulfillment was recorded only where...entailed another. Later Ordzhonikidze spoke of the shortcomings in the organization of the work of metallurgy at that time. Magnesite was hauled to the

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-02

    refining, as well as the manufacture of a number of petrochemical products. Brazilian technol- ogy in the use of biomass to obtain alcohol, as well as...Islands of Guadeloupe " No 10 VI. Reznichenko, "Life Near the Cemetery Wall (Fea- tures of an Urban Landscape)" No 9 VI. Reznichenko, "Crime Without

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-17

    country. This means approx- actively-involved students became co-authors of the soft - imately 5,000 schools-schools which can be visited ware...is a symbiosis of biotechnology subject. and electronics. While we were in the process of devel- oping and adopting 8-bit personal computers, they...the Gardabani Cheese and Butter Factory and on the of Raykom First Secretary T. Mikadze which prevented Krtsanisi Training-Experimental Sovkhoz, Raykom

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-29

    modest and self-controlled." I will say right away that every word here is true. Moreover, I heard many good words and high epithets from all those with...land. It is outlined by "duvali" that form the letter "p" [similar to Greek letter pi]. As a result of this we find ourselves between four fires. On

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-03

    headed at Mosfilm). It is difficult even to name them: Grigoriy Chukhray and Vasiliy Shukshin, Andrey Tarkovskiy and Marien Khutsiyev, Tengiz...34 of Marien Khutsiyev’s painting. "Do you know who is most to blame for this," Mikhail Ilich said to me then. "Our friends and colleagues. The...doctor of biological sciences and deputy director of the Biology Institute of the Bashkir Scientific Center of the USSR Academy of Sciences’ Ural

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    first of all the result of the fact that they did not have a single center and, secondly, due to their modus operandi : the quick turnover, the unpre...such groups to hire professional killers , who were also used to eliminate those who were in the way. Later, corruption became an integral part of...34 have only been pub- lished in the West, whereas for two years the book has been serialized in YUNOST. Having condescendingly patted O.Mandelshtam

  2. The Grand Strategy of the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-25

    and Peter the Great, Alexander Nevskii and Alexander I were powerful but dangerous allies for Stalin a.J the Party. These names and all that went...of sheer numberical advantage, and how reluctantly they recognize the virtues of Russian military thought. And yet before there was a Pushkin to be

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-16

    and untapped resources in the area of cattle breeding. In many rayons calves are underweight when sold. A slowdown in the growth rate of productivity...average daily cattle weight increases during growing and feeding are reduced. Serious shortcomings continue to take place in the organization of...raped women and young girls in front of their parents whose hands and feet were bound, took girls away from their mothers and fathers, confiscated

  4. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-19

    farms, only 17 have special storage facilities for storing toxic chemicals and mineral fertilizers . This year the large-diameter Tuyamuyu—Nukus Water...a young person, and only a strong socio-political organica - tion can influence politics, in order to defend the inter- ests of the young people

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    goods, which are in considerable part purchased locally (clothing, footwear, foodstuffs, household appliances ), as well as of consumer services. The...of this is the Orthopedic Foundation days organized in Riga this year within the framework of a working visit to the USSR by the founder and leader

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-12

    34 to quotations from academicians Bestuzhev-Lada, Sam- sonov and Likhachev, cinema director Zinkevich and In addition to students, the auditorium’s...NOVOSTI which in partic- wonderful physician and scientist, that the UN Brazilian ular expressed doubts about the extent of radiation con- delegation

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-17

    haughty neighbor!" they stated pompously on ayevo, Nashchi, Terentyevo, Pet -selo, Potapyevo-all of television. But the "haughty" nature is mother Moscow...practically round the clock. There are discotheques, who cannot sleep at night because of the roar of motor- bars, cafes , various clubs, exhibitions, and many

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-23

    Pakistan . They are especially cruel to the population, and resort to sophisticated provocations. Their favourite method is to launch attacks from...I’ve met personally: if the United States and Pakistan did not interfere in Afghan affairs, the so-called "civil-war" would be over in a couple of

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-06

    Resolution to India- Pakistan Kashmir Conflict Urged [V. Vinogradov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, Jun 90] 33 JPRS-UIA-90-011 . 6 July 1990 2 International Affairs...will rid them of the psychology of favourites , which has always prompted people to squander not only natural resources. [Correspondent] How do you...Peaceful Resolution to India- Pakistan Kashmir Conflict Urged 90UF0216A Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 2 Jun 90 First Edition p 5 [Article by V

  10. Background Information on the Soviet Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    connection that Cathedral . The Cathedral contains a veritable has existed between Russian nationalism and the treasure of Russian ikonography, over 400 of...Harper & Row, 1974. Sakharov. A. Sakharov Sjneaks, edited by H. Salisbury . New ____ . Th Gulag Archipelago. 1918-1956, Translated by T. York: Vintage

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-28

    other countries. The Ministry of Culture is responsible for all the tradi- tional roles of such an agency, including development of film and... cinematography industries. In addition, this agency is associated with several national committees and federations for sport, cultural and physical educa...7 Nov 90 p 3 [Article by M. Derimov: "Dramatic Events at Kiev’s St. Sophia Cathedral"] [Text] This Film Should Not Be Concealed from the People

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    who raises piglets at the Kolkhoz Imeni 50th anniversary of October. The buro members were interested in knowing why she decided to join the party... fostering important everyday virtues, such as kindness, courage, justice and humanity. Every success in this area, just like the functioning running...Russian 18 May 89 p 1 [Unattributed report: "At the Kirghiz SSR KGB: More Glasnost, Closer to the Masses"] [Text] Fostering glasnost in KGB [Committee

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-10

    convinced of his own prophetic mission. From Mexico , in his political blindness, Trotskiy calls for the creation of a new under- ground party in... rickets under polyclinical conditions has been improved (result—a two- to five-fold reduction in the frequency of disease of average severity and

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-07

    a radical measure of distributing land for individual construction and private plots had not been started, the entire program would have failed. But...is for those who would like to produce " Adidas " and "Pumas" and other wonders from over- seas. Several questions have been singled out from among...order and citizen’s safety, as well as the distribution , preparation, or possession with the intent to distribute of materials of such content

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-08

    candidates. Hundreds of copies of this appeal struggle against the "project of the century", the brain - were distributed. What were the arguments and... brain : how did it happen that we have stopped feeling at quickly," she said. home in our own cities? That we have to be defended against an unknown... gymnast saw him, this ’unbending girl who is already big and knows how to think. Are you revolutionary’ just returned from Siberia, the friend of reading

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-07

    ardent desire to become real soldiers; it is a matter of masculine honor and pride for them. Yet we are not always able to make full use of this...and toxic agents. The hull resembles a boat welded from steel armor plates. It consists of a hull nose, sides, rear section, roof plate, hull floor...sharp criticism of the planned construction. He learned of the Pentagon’s truly monstrous intentions of sending highly toxic substances to its

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-17

    Elimination and repu- diation of the use of chemical weapons, the production of which, as experience shows, can be used as a basis for producing...a simplistic treatment of these questions is discernible in our literature. Table 3. The Role of the Crisis in the Early 1980s in Destabilizing...The Magnesite Combine, which has exported refractory materials worth several million rubles, will be able to outfit its factory shops with up- to

  18. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-25

    Belgium, Spain, and Greece. It was not a matter of a monarch as such, but of the internal regime. The tsar missed the moment at which he could have...1906. And this voice demanded: "Sovereign! Change the govern- ment, call in those who enjoy the trust of the people." But the tsar again refused...Tbilisi] headed by local city leader A. Khatisov, who attempted to involve in the conspiracy against the tsar and tsaritsa the emperor’s uncle

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-31

    intellectual fun and emotional appeal have predominated in the ideological sphere. A whole system of public rituals was developed (which, incidentally... plagiarism ; it happened unconsciously, from an instinctive fear of losing existing but hidden artistic treasures. The same thing happened in painting...youth and their intellectual , creative, and energy poten- tial. How do we bring them into conformity, by what means? And what is more, under the

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-21

    were issued "from above," control figures were passed down, and a schedule was passed round that contained everything— sex , age, kind of employment...Valeriya Ilyinichna, which she so often repeats, namely, "Vox populi , vox Dei" Something here does not fit. However, not only here. Threats, Shadowing

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-21

    This is the worst manifestation of authoritarianism . We are speaking of the press becoming the true expressor of social consciousness, or as K... feminization of secondary school graduates. In our republic, due to the unbalanced appointment to voca- tional-technical schools, there are two times

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-04

    34Neue soziale Bewegungen: Entstehung, Funktion und Perspketive neuer Protestpotentiale. Eine Zwischenbilanz," Opladen, 1982, p 150. 8. G.I. Vaynshteyn...34 The prisoner pleads: "Have mercy!" He extends his hands: "I am arbeiter , a worker, just like you. I am not your enemy. I was sent here ensnared

  3. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-29

    Law of the Federal Republic of Germany). More- over, the norms of international law crown the legislative pyramid and have unconditional priority... polycarbonates in Ufa. Alas, the equipment turned out to be extremely doubtful from an ecological point of view. Demonstrations rolled across the city...sufficient for our country to have experienced Chernobyl—the crown of several other disasters that do not have to be listed here, but which were

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-06

    space for producing refrigerators, kitchen suites, and electric meat grinders, raising the volume of consumer goods production from R65 million in...out medical items, such as single-use scari- fiers (at the "Algoritm" plant); "Uzbekkhimmash" pro- duces up to 300,000 spatulas , and such unique

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-22

    Sharipov, was certified "conditionally," with a recurring recertification after a year. The individual being certified could not answer elementary ...else, it is not any easier. And so, led by an innate instinct to the aroma of the household hearth, the homeless wretch holds tightly onto that...administrators, who should have known the elementary facts. But they did not know. "We should not delude ourselves about the public’s knowledge," I was told by

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-19

    34big" may be depressed by the very probability of a break-up. But think a bit: So long as these are debates and not reality, this should not depress ...sense. A stock phrase—this is a metaphorical cancer . Thousands of stock phrases have already blos- somed in the era of perestroyka. And the most...We were exiled to the Northern Urals. They transported us in cattle cars. In 1932 my father died. Six months later Mama died, followed by my

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-05

    training centers (in Managua and Leon respectively) created with the assistance of the USSR have been put into operation and are operating...Moscow, 1986, p 345. 18. F. Castro, "La historia me absolver " [History Will Absolve Me], Havana, 1973, pp 59-61; "Fidel and Religion," p 165. 19. S. J...1984. 5. SOCIALIST AFFAIRS. 6. ALAI, Quito, 1987 No 96, p 14. 7. EL NACIONAL, Caracas, 18 November 1981. 8. NUEVO AMANECER. Suplemento al periodico

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-21

    head with a strongly receding hairline and his face—skin and bones —intensified his air of decrepitude. Yet as soon as you looked into his eyes and...though quite impressive forehead. At the time he was interested in yoga , and we often found him standing on his head in his room. When he did this his

  9. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-19

    production of military weaponry for personal use and the output and sale of luxury items, pornography and the like are not permitted; production and...continent as Brazil, Argen- tina, Peru and Uruguay, but also because the Contadora process aroused the political will of the presidents of Central American...and Peru , as well as Brazil on the Atlantic) among participants in the Organization for Pacific Trade and Development (OPTAD)—a sort of prototype of

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-05

    decision to grant amnesty and have left the "trenches." Forcible recruiting, the intimidation of the peasantry, the forced surrender of adolescent sons to...restore the Pol Pot regime. Our people, however, will never permit the return to power of the Pol Pot clique . The dogged struggle of Kampuchea, Vietnam

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-14

    reporter later to become a famous-journalist. We see Vladimir Lenin, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Maria Ulyanova, and the commentator reads Koltsov’s notes abut...suddenly Tvardovskiy comes with his stern , peasant-like, Tolstoyan straightforwardness. It will not, of course, be to the taste of literary epicures...beings." That is why in his correspondence with early feminists he stressed that the health of the nation was for him more important than formal

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    they capable of making military affairs interesting to a young men in Adidas jackets with dyed- hackle hairdos, of getting them to love military...of an emergency situation from its origins to the end result, hone the personnel’s interaction in the course of a specific modeled emergency, and

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-07

    and foreign journalists, which marked the begin- ning of objective information to the Western media concerning the events of Tbilisi. The...small number believe that the guilty will get their just desserts . In particular, 62 percent believe that the guilty will be punished, while 34...the Central Asian republics, and I myself was a witness to the fact that parents who were Muslim believers sometimes categorically refused to agree

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-16

    Oblast and Kalininskiy, Panfilovskiy and Kirovskiy rayons—some- what fewer. The picture is the same for self-propelled silage -harvesting combines...on the horizon—and he sensed the ferment of internal forces in society. He feared this, but he was also pleased: "Before Russia gets to the

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-25

    of the demand for products for children, young people, and the elderly . Next year’s plan will fully satisfy trade organizations’ orders for school...the interests a large body of elderly people. That is why the organization of social and domestic assistance is of such importance for those who are...child-rearing duties are completed once a child is born. He cites examples from his own practice of malnourished and neglected children from large

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-02

    principles arc evolving. Since the Berne meeting in 1986—unfortu- nately, the United States, although it took part in com- piling the convention, refused to...suport for the Brazil- ian initiative. On the eve of the 41st UN General Assembly Session, President Julio Maria Sanguinetti stated that his

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-30

    Revolutionary, F. Kap - lan, who made an attempt on the life of V.l. Lenin. [Correspondent] It is a pity that, at the fault of the editorial collegium...center. It was only thanks to the energetic intervention of V.l. Lenin, who proved the groundlessness and incorrectness of "autonomization," that the...contemporary demands. But the wind will return (and this occurs several times a day) and the illusion of well-being is dissipated: Acrid smoke from

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-08

    and other oil-producing giants in the Middle East. This was also related to the fact that Mexican President Jose Lopez Portillo made an abrupt...DEBATES Century of Independence" 139 "The Nonaligned Movement—A New Stage of Develop- Jose Mi8uel Varas> "A Communist and Comrade" .144 ment...taking shape in the course of the centers’ competition. This trend was reaffirmed by Brazilian President Jose Sarney’s visit to Argentina on 15

  19. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-22

    and tourism , and over half of the population deputies are not doing enough to create healthy and safe smokes. The struggle against drunkenness...rest, develop mass medical support, and display persistence in eliminating physical culture, sports and tourism at enterprises, in shortcomings in...fairs will be organized, also culinary product sales. Long before Official Approval these spring holidays, representatives from neighboring 18300559

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-25

    and in the almost still oily-black water we could see the twinkling lights from the skyscraper hotels built after the proclamation of "infitah...Heliopolis can boast green squares and brilliant store windows and boutiques Paris style. But Heliopolis is not all Cairo. Not far from the citadel raised

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-04

    gilt and bright colors, will appear before the inhabitants and guests of Kharkov in all its beauty, giving joy to all who understand and value art...materials about our old disease are still kept under "seven seals" in the depths of the special archives. And so there remains only one thing for us...enterprises. "It would be desirable, as a feedback , to learn the opinion of members of the Shkola Temporary Scientific Research Collective on this

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-27

    have remained an idealist in the definition " sistema " [system]. I remember a friend of mine, the given by Anatoliy Vasilyevich Lunacharskiy. On the now...and children, and pensioners write. Up to this point we rium, and that, unfortunately, sometimes has very seri- have not found an organizational...plundering and use this national property in the interests naive old women on miserly pensions , adding a 10- of our people. And in doing so purchase prices

  3. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-18

    Candidates’ Positions on Arms Issues Viewed 18070071 Moscow SOVETSKAYA KULTURA in Russian 1 Mar 88 p 7 [Article by special APN and SOVETSKAYA KUL...edge. Five sessions of the council have already been held. Such as are not conducive to sleep and are devoid of niceties and formalism. The last...of the APN Board of Directors, entitled "The Image not of an Enemy, but a Good Neighbor." Khachaturov describes the difficulty in overcoming the

  4. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    for our city has been nurtured by several generations of scientists and engineers. We cer- tainly do lose a great deal from floods. Even those...down" Blinov, about whom it was stated at the medical center, "He is a passive homosexual , belongs to the high-risk group for venereal diseases

  5. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-13

    schools, chil- dren’s preschool institutions, enterprises for public nutrition and trade, and institutions serving everyday and cultural needs were...national sources. It is planned to sell these instruments via culinary wares stores in retail trade, and by collective orders (on pay- ment in cash). One

  6. JPRS Report. Soviet Union: Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-31

    implanting profane music and ’sexual culture’ in the schools; by propagating amorality, by theater and ballet which borders on pornography; by wild...Saide Ibo , Vasire Asho, Amarike Sardar, Smoye Shamo, Feriko Usub, Agite Shamsi, Askyare Boik, Charkyaze Rash, Tosune Rashid, Babaye Kyalash, Sima...first book on Kurdish folklore, as well as a collection of the music of Kurdish folk songs, collected and arranged by K. Zakaryan, were published in

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-26

    POLEMICAL NOTES On an Article about Ernesto Che Guevara [not translated] 62 LITERARY JOURNALISM The Odyssey of Miguel Littin, or a Secret Meeting...conference on the book trade in the Latin American and Caribbean countries was held in Santo Domingo at the initiative of UNESCO. The reason for holding... Ernesto Che Guevara. In his words the events of 2 December 1956 provided a powerful impetus for the formation of a combat vanguard of the Cuban working

  8. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-15

    some bread, and a bottle of brandy in his suitcase ). I told him he could eat but that he could not have any brandy. When he heard this, Pavlov said...nothing, for example, about N. Dumbadze’s novels " Solar Night" and "White Flags," M. Alekseyev’s story "The Brawlers," and V. Katayev’s story "Werther

  9. JPRS Report Soviet Union Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    excercise the power of the USSR on Estonia’s territory shall be considered as unlawful institutions of an occupying power, whose activities are possible...with cancer . Each year the number of cancer patients increases...while the average life expect- ancy is 4-8 years less for us than in the developed

  10. JPRS Report:. Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-26

    movements to the parlia- ments and governments of the Baltic countries. The search for a new role has not been crowned with success for now. Everyone...studying the republic’s opportunities for improving the situation of women and of maternity and pediatric care and for strengthening the family; a search...where they can work in teams consisting of two or three persons to collect resin , they fit in well. Twenty-year old Anita K. has been working for

  11. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-03

    34 [Che: My Dreams Have No Limits] (1984) by progressive West German journalists H.-E. Gross and K.-P. Wolf is devoted to the life and work of a man who...not unknown in national schools of philosophy. One characteristic example is research on the Iberian heritage in Latin America, which gives rise, on

  12. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-16

    Hospital, the Medical-Sanitary Unit of the Gomselmash [Gomel Agricultural Machinery] Production Association, the Gomel Oblast Oncological Dispensary...Epidemiological Station, the Belorussian Scien- tific Research Institute for Neurology, Neurosurgery and Physiotherapy and the Second Medical...late. Virtually one-half of the patients with a stomach ulcer, diabetes, gallstones was not detected on time; patients arrive at the oncological

  13. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    before we moved, she was known as Dandelion because of her fluffy blonde hair. Then, five years ago, she was in the 10th grade. Wha’t had happened to...minister did not know what it looked like and had always thought those were weeds . It was not only in the south but also in Moscow and other qities...whose life was ruined by drugs. She is in the hospital now. Will Dandelion and others like her be able to conquer* the terrible addiction and pull out

  14. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-20

    professional and amateur artistic Bazarova, A. Kurbanova, V. N. Rebrik, B. M. Sakhat- collectives have been organized, drawing upon Crimean muradov and V. S...Center in the city of Tashkent and of the organization at it of folklore and other amateur collec- ["The Visit Has Ended"] tives, groups for the study... geologists and petroleum workers years has dropped from 15,000 head to 3000, and the who are not squeamish not only about engaging in areas of the

  15. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-17

    scientist is really when he sees advantages does this equipment promise for geologists , that his developments, which are needed and important, oil...officer culture and art and the amateur arts, and the dispatch of was personally handed a unique document that is worthy books, periodicals, and motion

  16. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    civic infantilism . We should meet these very acute head on in order to eliminate them. I am now completing a book on fliers, about 1941, and, this...direct result of perestroyka is the expanding democratization in public life in the army, including the life of the party organizations. There is...the need for democratization in public life in the army as a fashion- able slogan and nothing more. And they fail to see that it serves first and

  17. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Political Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-18

    scientific institute which this year has celebrated its Beautiful statice, narcissus and calla lilies are raised by 27th anniversary is the head...government decora- sense) father-in-law who worshiped ritual procedures no tion for one of these blitz inspections. This, however, was less than wild

  18. JPRS Report, Soviet Union: Political Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-06

    child, decided to repair both of the buildings and place a kolkhoz health center in both buildings. Today one can get all kinds of physiotherapy ...assistance here are patients with bronchial asthma and cardiovas- fund for the Aral has been created. All that is so. But cular diseases whose main

  19. The Soviet Union in the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear-Free Pacific movement."’ A brief look at Vanuatu’s independence movement will reveal the activist and often radical role played by the WCC and...Vanuatu, also supported the Party,𔃾 which led the independence movement , though church support lessened as the Party became more militant. The third...theologist, to work in Vanuatu from 1972 to 1914, a crucial period for the budding independence movement . Provided with a generous travel budget, he

  20. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-09

    arms, this is literally a blow. These may be young citizens who are Baptists, Pentecostals , Jehovah’s Witnesses, Adventists, and certain others...was revived in 1941. A total of 2 rifle corps, 17 rifle divi- sions, 17 separate rifle brigades as well as a number of separate regiments which...necessary should be done to revive the concept of duty and responsibility to the Motherland for her defense that has been partly lost today. It is