WorldWideScience

Sample records for southern sudan implications

  1. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Editorial: Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan – a. Vision for the Future. Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably .... minus one or both parents. ... There he taught and inspired child health professionals from all over.

  2. Nutrition and mortality assessment--southern Sudan, March 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-30

    During the last 5 years of Sudan's decade-long civil war, increased fighting and food shortages in southern Sudan have led to displacement of large numbers of persons. In late 1992, the United Nations (UN), the government of Sudan, and factions of the Sudanese People's Liberation Army negotiated increased access for delivery of relief aid to civilians in southern Sudan. To assist in the targeting of food and other relief aid, CDC and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance conducted rapid assessments of nutritional status (children aged Akon (Bahr el Ghazal) (Figure 1). This report summarizes findings of the assessments.

  3. 31 CFR 538.532 - Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. 538.532 Section 538.532 Money and Finance: Treasury....532 Humanitarian transshipments to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur authorized. The transit or transshipment to or from Southern Sudan and Darfur of goods, technology, or services intended for humanitarian...

  4. Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  5. Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    Agriculture is the most important industry of the Sudan, and Gezira its major producing area. Gezira cotton earns most of the country's foreign exchange and the need to produce still more has led to intensification of production. The pressures created by this are accentuating old and creating new problems, thus putting strain on the technically good, but limited, resources of the Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC), which is responsible for most of the research on agricultural problems in the Sudan. The ARC therefore requested technical assistance from the IAEA to help with these studies. (author)

  6. Human rights barriers for displaced persons in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This community-based research explores community perspectives on human rights barriers that women encounter in a postconflict setting of southern Sudan. An ethnographic design was used to guide data collection in five focus groups with community members and during in-depth interviews with nine key informants. A constant comparison method of data analysis was used. Atlas.ti data management software facilitated the inductive coding and sorting of data. Participants identified three formal and one set of informal community structures for human rights. Human rights barriers included shifting legal frameworks, doubt about human rights, weak government infrastructure, and poverty. The evolving government infrastructure cannot currently provide adequate human rights protection, especially for women. The nature of living in poverty without development opportunities includes human rights abuses. Good governance, protection, and human development opportunities were emphasized as priority human rights concerns. Human rights framework could serve as a powerful integrator of health and development work with community-based organizations. Results help nurses understand the intersection between health and human rights as well as approaches to advancing rights in a culturally attuned manner.

  7. Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    The Sudan currently has a population of 18,618,000, with an annual rate of population growth of 3.1% and a rate of natural increase of 2.8%. Population size estimates for the year 2000 range from 32,064,000-33,762,000. The Sudan does not have an explicit policy to modify population growth, although the government is currently in the early stages of formulating a population policy. The current population growth rate is considered satisfactory because of the lack of population pressure on presently developed land, large areas of undeveloped land and unutilized agricultural potential, and low levels of open unemployment. However, the government seeks to modify spatial distribution to attain a better balance between population and resources. This will be accomplished through social infrastructure investments in rural and desert areas, regional development, sedentarization of nomads, development of new towns, and administrative decentralization. In addition, there is major concern with the high influx of undocumented workers and refugees and the significant emigration of skilled personnel. Life expectancy at birth stands at 45.1 years and the infant mortality rate is 131/1000. Current levels and trends of mortality are considered unacceptably high. Major health problems include schistosomiasis, malaria, malnutrition, infectious childhood diseases, and unsafe water. Primary health care is being prioritized to reduce regional differentials in health status and increase accessibility to health services. The total fertility rate has remained constant at 6-7 births/woman, but the government has been cautious with regard to family planning because of generally negative attitudes of Sudanese women toward birth control. Family planning has been integrated into maternal and child health services, although close to half of all ever-married women have never heard of family planning methods and only 6% of currently married fecund women are contraceptive users. The chief acceptors

  8. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan to improve the situation through the creation of new livelihood options ... or pulled from their classrooms by armed people, leaving them with memories that will remain ... 1 See the movie 'Blood Diamonds' directed by Edward Zwick.

  9. The Separation of Southern Sudan: A Possible American Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    sorghum, sesame seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, millet, livestock Industry Motor vehicle assembly, cement, cotton, edible oils and sugar refining Exports... industry . Presently, it is Sudan’s largest oil consumer, and it maintains a 47% interest in Sudan’s two biggest oil consortiums.32 Because China has...92.81 billion; $2,300 per capita Resources Oil , natural gas, gold, iron ore, copper, and other industrial metals Agriculture Cotton, peanuts

  10. Reconstructing Southern Sudan in the post-war era : challenges and prospects of 'Quick Impact Programmes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2004-01-01

    This report gives a personal assessment of the local needs of the Southern Sudanese population in the period of societal reconstruction envisaged in the likely event of a meaningful peace agreement being realized in 2004 between the SPLM/A and the government of Sudan. In particular, the report

  11. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  12. Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

  13. South Sudan and the Emerging Security Implications for East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuey, Aldo Ajou Deng

    2018-01-01

    South Sudan achieved political independence in 2011, before plunging into a series of civil wars that have culminated with the signing of the Inter-Governmental Authority for Development, IGAD, driven peace agreement. The Sudan People's Liberation Movement, SPLM, Government has not created conducive environment for political stability in South…

  14. Trachoma and women: latrines in Ethiopia and surgery in Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Emerson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there may be an underlying biological reason that more women are affected by trachoma and trichiasis, the role of women as childcare providers is a likely cause. In most countries where trachoma is endemic, girls grow up in environments where one of their primary activities is taking care of their younger family members and siblings. This continues into adulthood, with women carrying the main responsibility of caring for children. During their lifetime, women therefore spend more time in direct contact with children who may be infected. Ethiopia and Southern Sudan are two locations with an exceedingly high burden of trachoma. Projects focusing on environmental improvement (in Ethiopia and increasing access to surgery (in Southern Sudan have made significant progress towards reducing the impact of the disease on women. These examples show how trachoma programmes can address the particular needs of women while designing interventions aimed at eliminating blinding trachoma in the community as a whole.

  15. An evaluation of the role of rural primary school teachers in community development tasks in southern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ngalam, Jabi Jack

    1987-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of rural primary school teachers in community development activities within an integrated rural education centres project (IRECs) in southern Sudan. The study explores five areas of importance for an extended teacher's role in rural areas: (i) the school or community environment, (ii) community perception of the teacher's role and its expectations of the school, (iii) teachers' perception of their own role in the community, (iv) teachers' ...

  16. Local justice and power of an official nature in Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Leonardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author examines the growing ambiguity that characterises the administration of justice in southern Sudan since an autonomous government was set up, thanks to the 2005 peace agreement. While the State was a distant, separate body owing to the monopoly exerted over it by the peoples of the North, its courts of justice, precarious though they might be, could be viewed in the South as an agent that is neutral, albeit distant from local power networks: it was considered to be the hakuna sphere of power, to which people would only resort after the closest systems of conflict resolution (based on family ties had failed. However, the creation of an autonomous government has brought the hakuna sphere closer to local reality, creating interferences between two realities that had become accustomed to functioning in a parallel manner. This new situation has generated new dynamics as regards how to react to local conflicts and also, logically, with respect to how to go about resolving them.

  17. What will happen if we do nothing to control trachoma: health expectancies for blinding trachoma in southern Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah M Ngondi

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled trachoma is a leading cause of blindness. Current global trachoma burden summary measures are presented as disability adjusted life years but have limitations due to inconsistent methods and inadequate population-based data on trachomatous low vision and blindness. We aimed to describe more completely the burden of blinding trachoma in Southern Sudan using health expectancies.Age and gender specific trachomatous trichiasis (TT prevalence was estimated from 11 districts in Southern Sudan. The distribution of visual acuity (VA in persons with TT was recorded in one district. Sudan life tables, TT prevalence, and VA were used to calculate Trichiasis Free Life Expectancy (TTFLE and Trichiasis Life Expectancy (TTLE using the Sullivan method. TTLE was broken down by VA to derive TTLE with normal vision, TTLE with low vision, and TTLE with blindness. Total life expectancy at birth in 2001 was 54.2 years for males and 58.1 for females. From our Sullivan models, trichiasis life expectancy at the age of 5 years was estimated to be 7.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.2-7.8 years (12% [95% CI = 11-14] of remaining life for males and 10.9 (95% CI = 9.9-11.9 years (18% [95% CI = 16-20] of remaining life for females. Trichiasis life expectancy with low vision or blindness was 5.1 (95% CI = 3.9-6.4 years (9% [95% CI = 7-11] of remaining life and 7.6 (95% CI = 6.0-9.1 years (12% [95% CI = 10-15] of remaining life for males and females, respectively. Women were predicted to live longer and spend a greater proportion of their lives with disabling trichiasis, low vision, and blindness compared to men.The study shows the future burden associated with doing nothing to control trachoma in Southern Sudan, that is, a substantial proportion of remaining life expectancy spent with trichiasis and low vision or blindness for both men and women, with a disproportionate burden falling on women.

  18. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  19. Training rural health staff for oral rehydration therapy in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetta, O M; Lundstrøm, K J

    1984-10-01

    From February 1980 to August 1982 a very definite change occurred in the treatment pattern for diarrhoea among the rural health staff in Torit and Kapoeta districts in Eastern Equatoria Province in Sudan. This paper describes a training and supervision programme for promoting use of ORT in diarrhoeal diseases and at the same time discouraging the use of sulphonamides in simple diarrhoea. In the training programme emphasis is put on increasing the knowledge of the health staff both about the medical facts and about communication with their communities. ORS as treatment for diarrhoea has been well accepted by the public, who consider the sugar/salt solution as "good medicine". The use of sulphonamides for diarrhoea has decreased from 75% to 22% of the diarrhoea cases, while use of ORS has increased from 7% to 72% of the diarrhoea cases.

  20. Sudan PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The development of this system was awarded to MSI in May 2013 to design and help USAID/South Sudan manage a web-based PIMS that is customized to USAID/South Sudan's...

  1. The Socioeconomic Implications among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Sudan: Challenges and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salwa M; Kari, Fatimah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    To determine the socioeconomic impacts among HIV-infected persons in Sudan and examine whether there are significant variations in coping strategies between infected men and women, a primary survey was conducted among infected persons (n = 555). Discriminant function was used to analyze the data. We found significant variation in the coping strategies (<.001). HIV/AIDS impacts were more critical for women. Infected people have 3 alternatives in coping with the changes in their income and expenditure, that is, borrow, utilize savings, or sell assets. Policy makers should consider economic information in planning health care to mitigate the impacts and remove the gender gap.

  2. Sudan Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This site is currently only accessible by USAID personnel working on the Sudan program, and some files contained hereon are only accessible by designated offices.

  3. The Birth of a New Nation: The Republic of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In early July, the country of Sudan, wracked by civil war since the 1980s, officially split into two separate nations, Sudan and South Sudan. Six months earlier, over a seven-day period, the people in southern Sudan had voted in a national referendum on whether to secede from the North. The voters had two choices: "Separation" or…

  4. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  5. A study of the use and impacts of LifeStraw in a settlement camp in southern Gezira, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanousi, Salwa; Abdelrahman, Samira; Elshiekh, Ibtisam; Elhadi, Magda; Mohamadani, Ahmed; Habour, Ali; ElAmin, Somaia E; ElNoury, Ahmed; Ahmed, Elhadi A; Hunter, Paul R

    2009-09-01

    This paper reports a study of the LifeStraw in El-Masraf camp within Gezira State, Sudan. A total of 647 eligible subjects participated in the study. Two week incidence of diarrhoeal rates were estimated by a community survey some four months before and again four months after provision of the LifeStraw. In addition counts were kept of people attending at the community clinic with diarrhoea. Compliance rates were good with 86.5% of people saying they always used it and only 3.7% saying they had never used it. In a before implementation survey 16.8% of participants reported diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks compared with only 15.3% in a survey after implementation. Similarly 58 people presented to the clinic as a new case of diarrhoea in the four months before compared with only six in the four months after implementation. When compared with diarrhoeal attendances at the regional hospital, this was a statistically significant decline in attendances (pLifeStraw is likely to find a role as an adjunct to water quality interventions aimed at the home. However, more research is needed to assess the long-term impact and uptake of these devices before their definitive value can be assessed.

  6. The Derg-SPLM/A Cooperation: An Aspect of Ethio-Sudan Proxy Wars

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The warm and friendly Ethio-Sudan diplomatic relations that followed Sudan's independence in 1956 and the long standing frontier trade between the two countries have been severely damaged by the outbreak of civil wars in southern Sudan in 1955 as well as in Eritrea in 1962. As the civil wars intensified in both countries ...

  7. Measuring turbidity, and indicator to evaluate drinkability of waters in Southern countries? Approaches from Burkina Faso, Sudan and Argentina case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Emilie; Robert, Elodie

    2013-04-01

    The relationship between proportion of suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and bacteriology has long been proven (Brock, 1966; Lechevallier et al., 1985; Bustina and Levallois, 2003; Chang and Liao, 2012), bacteria need coarse elements to hang on and develop. However, water bacteriology analyses are difficult to implement in southern countries. They are expensive and require sterile equipment, transport in cold conditions and a nearby laboratory, which remains difficult in remote areas under these hot latitudes. Yet, simple measurement devices allow to know in a few minutes the water turbidity. Is turbidity an efficient tool to evaluate the drinkability of water when no bacteriological analyses are possible? The results proposed here are taken from three different studies whose purposes were to measure different physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of water used for human and/or animal consumption. One of the finalities was to propose a method, at lower cost, to evaluate the drinkability of water for consumption. Four case studies were chosen: the basin of the Doubegue River in Burkina Faso is a rural area of a developing country, where drinking water is taken from the alluvial aquifer close to the surface. Furthermore, the laundry is washed and the children play in running streams. Major expansion of the cultivated lands since 1980s has brought important soils losses, thus a chronicle contamination of surface water with suspended solids (Robert, 2012). The Mendoza and Tunuyán Rivers Basins in Argentina, an emerging country, have snow-glaciar regimes with naturally turbid waters. They supply drinking water to two towns, Mendoza and Tunuyán cities, respectively 1 million and 40,000 inhabitants. However, these two streams -whose watersheds are common- do not present the same managements: the Mendoza River has been equipped with large hydraulic infrastructures, moving the turbid waters into clear and erosive ones (Lavie, 2009), while the Tunuyán River

  8. Analisis Konflik Sudan dan Sudan Selatan Pasca Referendum Pemisahan Diri Sudan Selatan dari Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyanti, Putri; Utomo, Tri Cahyo; Paramasatya, Satwika

    2017-01-01

    Conflict is a circumstance which conflict actors such as individuals or groups have dispute between each other to gain the same goal(s). Conflict actors may use violent or peaceful means to settle the conflict. One way to end it is to use referendum of secession if conflict happens within a state territory. South Sudan did referendum of secession in 2011 due to prolonged conflict with Sudan since 1955. But in fact, after South Sudan's independence, conflicts have continued between Sudan and S...

  9. South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SSMJ is the a multi-professional journal in the South Sudan which caters for the needs of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Pharmacists and all other cadres in the health profession. Its vision is to see a well-trained, skilled professionals delivering high quality healthcare to the population of the South Sudan.

  10. Local justice and power of an official nature in Southern Sudan. = La justicia local y el poder de la oficialidad en el Sudán Meridional.

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardi, Cherry

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se expone la ambigüedad creciente que caracteriza la administración de justicia en el Sudan Meridional desde que, gracias a los acuerdos de paz de 2005, se puso en marcha un gobierno autónomo. Mientras el Estado fue un ente lejano y ajeno por el monopolio que ejercían sobre él las poblaciones del norte, sus tribunales de justicia, por precarios que fueran, pudieron ser vistos en el sur como un agente neutral, en tanto que distanciado de las redes de poder locales: era el cons...

  11. 78 FR 1872 - Extension and Redesignation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Hybrid Mission in Darfur USCIS--U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services What is Temporary Protected... by violent conflicts in four distinct areas: Darfur and the three transitional areas along the Sudan-South Sudan border (Abyei, Blue Nile State, and Southern Kordofan). In some areas of Darfur, Government...

  12. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ageep, T.B.; Cox, J.; Hassan, M.M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Benedict, M.Q.; Malcolm, C.A.; Babiker, A.; Sayed, El B.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on

  14. Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan and South Sudan's bitter and incomplete divorce. Copnall, James 2017. London, Hurst Publishers, 317 pp. ISBN 978-184804-830-9. Reviewed by Nicodemus Minde*. Having served as the BBC Sudan correspondent from 2009 to 2012, James. Copnall has compiled an insightful account of the bitter-sweet split of the.

  15. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan JMS is a joint project of continuous medical education program at Faculty of Medicine - Omdurman Islamic University, The National Centre for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Ibn Sina Hospital and Omdurman teaching Hospital (Sudan). Sudan JMS is published every three months. High-quality papers written ...

  16. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Leishmania parasites isolated from an endemic focus in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oskam, L.; Pratlong, F.; Zijlstra, E. E.; Kroon, C. C.; Dedet, I. P.; Kager, P. A.; Schönian, G.; Ghalib, H. W.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Meredith, S. E.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve Leishmania isolates from visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern Sudan were characterized using isoenzyme analysis, Southern blotting and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 'fingerprinting'. Isoenzyme analysis revealed the presence of 3 zymodemes: MON-18, MON-30 and MON-82, corresponding to

  17. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2008-01-01

    ...) signed a peace framework agreement in Kenya. On May 26, 2004, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed three protocols on Power Sharing, on the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile, and on the long disputed Abyei area...

  18. Epilepsy in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This was noted first in Tanzania in the 1960s, has been seen in Uganda, and many cases have been detected in South. Sudan (16). The disorder has not yet been satisfactorily classified. Some cases having nodding in isolation (possibly a form of tic rather than a seizure disorder) but in others there is a definite association ...

  19. Sudan Investment Climate Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report on Sudan's Investment Climate Assessment (ICA) provides a baseline assessment of challenges to productivity, diversification and inclusion. Chapter 1 describes some of the questions underlying the three issues of competitiveness, diversification and broad-based growth. Chapter 2 analyzes firm performance and competitiveness. Chapter 3 discusses markets and trust. Chapter 4 des...

  20. African Journals Online: Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan JMS is a joint project of continuous medical education program at Faculty of ... or Arabic language dealing with aspects of medical sciences are welcomed. ... dermatologists with new approaches and better management of patients with ... Fiji, Finland, France, France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia ...

  1. The Southern Tyrrhenian subduction system: recent evolution and neotectonic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Argnani

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Geological and geophysical data have been integrated with the aim of presenting a new evolutionary model for the Southern Tyrrhenian and adjacent regions. The Southern Tyrrhenian backarc basin opened within a plate convergence regime because of sinking and rollback of the oceanic Ionian lithosphere. On the basis of seismological observations, I infer that the sinking slab was torn apart on either side in the last 2 Ma and this process controlled the neotectonics of the Southern Apennines - Tyrrhenian region. On the north-eastern side the slab broke off from NW to SE and this process triggered volcanism and NW-SE extension along the Eastern Tyrrhenian margin, and strike-slip tectonics along NW-SE trending faults in Northern Calabria. On the south-western side the slab broke off from W to E along the Aeolian Island alignment, although the tear has currently been reoriented along the NNW-SSE Malta escarpment. During its sinking the subducted slab also detached from the overriding plate, favouring the wedging of the asthenosphere between the two plates and the regional uplift of the Calabrian arc and surroundings. This regional uplift promoted gravitational instability within the orogenic wedge, particularly towards low topography areas; the large-scale sliding of the Calabrian arc towards the Ionian basin can be the cause of CW rotation and graben formation in Calabria. Also the E-dipping extensional faults of the Southern Apennines can be related to accommodation of vertical motions within the fold-and-thrust belt. The pattern of recent seismicity reflects this neotectonics where crustal-scale gravity deformation within the orogenic wedge is responsible for extensional earthquakes in Calabria and the Southern Apennines, whereas Africa plate convergence can account for compressional earthquakes in Sicily.

  2. Ethnic mobilization and the implementation of the comprehensive peace agreement of the Sudan (2005-2011) / B.M.T. Khaba

    OpenAIRE

    Khaba, Busisiwe Millicent Tryphine

    2012-01-01

    The current socio-economic and political landscape of Sudan and South Sudan can be described as one that is war-ridden and deeply divided by religion, culture, ethnicity and ownership over oil. It has been more than twelve months since the secession of Southern Sudan from the North (See Map 1). Despite the secession, general instability continues. To deal with this turmoil, Sudan declared a so-called “state of emergency” in 2012 along its border with South Sudan. The reason for this was the o...

  3. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufang Jin; Michael L. Goulden; Nicolas Faivre; Sander Veraverbeke; Fengpeng Sun; Alex Hall; Michael S. Hand; Simon Hook; James T. Randerson

    2015-01-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial....

  4. African Journals Online: South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. The SSMJ is the a multi-professional journal in the South Sudan which caters for the needs of Doctors, Nurses, Midwives, Clinical Officers, Pharmacists and all other cadres in the health profession. Its vision is to see a well-trained, skilled professionals delivering high quality healthcare to the ...

  5. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  6. Radiation protection in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, O.I.; Hajmusa, E.A.; Shaddad, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory framework as established by the Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) Act, promulgated in 1996, is described in the report. Three levels of responsibility in meeting radiation protection requirements are established: the Board, the Radiation Protection Technical Committee as the competent authority in the field of radiation protection, and the SAEC Department of Radiation Protection and Environmental Monitoring as the implementing technical body. The report also refers to environmental activities, patient doses in diagnostic radiology, the management of disused sources, emergency preparedness and orphan sources, and the national training activities in the radiation protection field. (author)

  7. The geophysical character of southern Alaska - Implications for crustal evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2007-01-01

    The southern Alaska continental margin has undergone a long and complicated history of plate convergence, subduction, accretion, and margin-parallel displacements. The crustal character of this continental margin is discernible through combined analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data with key constraints from previous seismic interpretation. Regional magnetic data are particularly useful in defining broad geophysical domains. One of these domains, the south Alaska magnetic high, is the focus of this study. It is an intense and continuous magnetic high up to 200 km wide and ∼1500 km long extending from the Canadian border in the Wrangell Mountains west and southwest through Cook Inlet to the Bering Sea shelf. Crustal thickness beneath the south Alaska magnetic high is commonly 40–50 km. Gravity analysis indicates that the south Alaska magnetic high crust is dense. The south Alaska magnetic high spatially coincides with the Peninsular and Wrangellia terranes. The thick, dense, and magnetic character of this domain requires significant amounts of mafic rocks at intermediate to deep crustal levels. In Wrangellia these mafic rocks are likely to have been emplaced during Middle and (or) Late Triassic Nikolai Greenstone volcanism. In the Peninsular terrane, the most extensive period of mafic magmatism now known was associated with the Early Jurassic Talkeetna Formation volcanic arc. Thus the thick, dense, and magnetic character of the south Alaska magnetic high crust apparently developed as the response to mafic magmatism in both extensional (Wrangellia) and subduction-related arc (Peninsular terrane) settings. The south Alaska magnetic high is therefore a composite crustal feature. At least in Wrangellia, the crust was probably of average thickness (30 km) or greater prior to Triassic mafic magmatism. Up to 20 km (40%) of its present thickness may be due to the addition of Triassic mafic magmas. Throughout the south Alaska magnetic high, significant crustal growth

  8. Geophysical identification and geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, Frederic H.

    2003-01-01

    The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

  9. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2004-01-01

    The ongoing crisis in Darfur Province in western Sudan has raised serious concerns about a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 1 million people displaced and more than 140,000 people forced...

  10. Geology and geophysics of the West Nubian Paleolake and the Northern Darfur Megalake (WNPL-NDML): Implication for groundwater resources in Darfur, northwestern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Mickus, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The recent delineation of a vastly expanded Holocene paleo-lake (the Northern Darfur Megalake which was originally mapped as the West Nubian Paleolake and here will be referred to as WNPL-NDML) in Darfur in northwestern Sudan has renewed hopes for the presence of an appreciable groundwater resource in this hyper-arid region of Eastern Sahara. This paleolake which existed within a closed basin paleo-drainage system might have allowed for the collection of surface water which was subsequently infiltrated to recharge the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Nubian Aquifer. However, the presence of surface exposures of Precambrian crystalline rocks in the vicinity of the paleolake has been taken as indicating the absence of a thick Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary section capable of holding any meaningful quantity of groundwater. This work integrates surface geology and gravity data to show that WNPL-NDML is underlain by NE-trending grabens forming potential local Paleozoic-Mesozoic aquifers that can hold as much as 1120 km 3 of groundwater if the sedimentary rocks are completely saturated. Nevertheless, it is advised here that recharge of the Nubian aquifer under WNPL-NDML is insignificant and that much of the groundwater is fossil water which was accumulated during different geological times much wetter than today's hyper-arid climate in Eastern Sahara. Excessive extraction will lead to quick depletion of this groundwater resource. This will result in lowering of the water table which in turn might lead to the drying out of the oases in the region which provide important habitats for humans, animals and plants in northern Darfur.

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis in northern Sudan: influence of environmental factors and implications for vector control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Colin A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is an important public health problem in northern Sudan, but little is known about the dynamics of its transmission. Given the characteristic low densities of Anopheles arabiensis and the difficult terrain in this area, future vector control strategies are likely to be based on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM that may include the sterile insect technique (SIT. To support the planning and implementation of future AW-IPM activities, larval surveys were carried out to provide key data on spatial and seasonal dynamics of local vector populations. Methods Monthly cross-sectional larval surveys were carried out between March 2005 and May 2007 in two localities (Dongola and Merowe adjacent to the river Nile. A stratified random sampling strategy based on the use of Remote Sensing (RS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS and the Global Positioning System (GPS was used to select survey locations. Breeding sites were mapped using GPS and data on larval density and breeding site characteristics were recorded using handheld computers. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify breeding site characteristics associated with increased risk of presence of larvae. Seasonal patterns in the proportion of breeding sites positive for larvae were compared visually to contemporaneous data on climate and river height. Results Of a total of 3,349 aquatic habitats sampled, 321 (9.6% contained An. arabiensis larvae. The frequency with which larvae were found varied markedly by habitat type. Although most positive sites were associated with temporary standing water around the margins of the main Nile channel, larvae were also found at brickworks and in areas of leaking pipes and canals – often far from the river. Close to the Nile channel, a distinct seasonal pattern in larval populations was evident and appeared to be linked to the rise and fall of the river level. These patterns were not

  12. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SOME PLANT SPECIES FROM A TROPICAL MONTANE RAIN FOREST IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hua

    2004-01-01

    A pristine montane rain forest was recently discovered from Mengsong of Xishuangbanna in the southern Yunnan.It attracts botanists that many primitive plant taxa across various life forms were co-existed in the montane rain forest.In order to know the biogeography of the montane rain forest,distribution patterns of some species of biogeographical importance from the montane forest were enumerated and their biogeographical implications were discussed with geological explanation.It was concluded that the montane rain forest in the southern Yunnan has strong affinity to montane rain forests in Sumatra or Southeast Asia in broad sense.It was tentatively suggested that Sumatra could be once connected to Myanmar and drifted away due to northward movement of continental Asia by bumping of India plate.

  13. Conflicts in the Horn of Africa and their Consequences on Sudan's Stability and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfatih Abdullahi Abdel Salam

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa have been raging in that region for the last forty years with tragic consequences for human life and for economic advancement. These conflicts have three different, but overlapping dimensions: the intrastate, the interstate, and the global levels. The conflicts are of a decided relevance for the Sudan, and particularly to the rebellion in the southern Sudan. The lack of security and stability in southern Sudan forced hundreds of thousand southerners into neighbouring countries, especially Ethiopia and Uganda. Likewise, the Sudan hosted hundreds of thousands Eritreans, Ethiopians, and Ugandans caught in the crossfire of their national conflicts. This development not only created a heavy economic burden on these relatively poor and economically underdeveloped communities, but led to strained political relations among governments. The Sudan has deep-seated security concerns emanating from the tragic developments in that part of the world. It is argued that one practical step to defuse the situation is to look for political solutions for essentially political problems. The next step that follows logically from the first step is to establish economic cooperation arrangements with a view to creating a future economic community in that African region.

  14. Comparison of the toxicity of the dyes Sudan II and Sudan IV to catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Hao, Minglu; Pan, Jie; Zong, Wansong; Liu, Rutao

    2017-10-01

    The mechanisms of the toxicity of Sudan dyes to the key antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) were investigated by spectroscopic methods, calorimetry techniques, enzyme activity assay, and molecular docking. Results showed that Sudan dyes bound to CAT through hydrophobic force, which changed the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues, leading to a conformational alteration and shrinkage of the protein. Enzyme activity assay and molecular docking revealed that the activity of CAT was slightly inhibited in the presence of Sudan dyes. In comparison, the binding of Sudan II with CAT was slightly stronger than Sudan IV. Also, Sudan II and Sudan IV showed a different impact on the microenvironment of aromatic amino acid residues. But the dyes had very similar effects on conformation and activity of the protein. This work provides an essential reference for the evaluation of Sudan dyes' effects on body's antioxidant defense system and safe use of Sudan dyes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Anemia in Kassala Area Eastern Sudan | Karoum | Sudan Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the types and the ways of diagnosis of anemia at Kassala region, Sudan. Methods In this study we examined and investigate 210 patients with anemia. Full blood cell count including peripheral picture, blood film for malaria, urine analysis and stool examination were ...

  16. Olie skaber fred i Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Sydsudan forventes formelt at erklære sin uafhængighed den 9. juli 2011. Men hvad sker der, når Sudan nu deles i Nordsudan og Sydsudan? Oliekilderne ligger i Sydsudan, men den helt nødvendige infrastruktur der skal transformere olie til dollars har man i nord. Da op imod 90% af Sydsudans indtægter...

  17. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850...

  18. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elradi, E. A. M.

    2013-07-01

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  19. Identification of two distinct fire regimes in Southern California: implications for economic impact and future change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yufang; Goulden, Michael L.; Faivre, Nicolas; Veraverbeke, Sander; Sun, Fengpeng; Hall, Alex; Hand, Michael S.; Hook, Simon; Randerson, James T.

    2015-09-01

    The area burned by Southern California wildfires has increased in recent decades, with implications for human health, infrastructure, and ecosystem management. Meteorology and fuel structure are universally recognized controllers of wildfire, but their relative importance, and hence the efficacy of abatement and suppression efforts, remains controversial. Southern California’s wildfires can be partitioned by meteorology: fires typically occur either during Santa Ana winds (SA fires) in October through April, or warm and dry periods in June through September (non-SA fires). Previous work has not quantitatively distinguished between these fire regimes when assessing economic impacts or climate change influence. Here we separate five decades of fire perimeters into those coinciding with and without SA winds. The two fire types contributed almost equally to burned area, yet SA fires were responsible for 80% of cumulative 1990-2009 economic losses (3.1 Billion). The damage disparity was driven by fire characteristics: SA fires spread three times faster, occurred closer to urban areas, and burned into areas with greater housing values. Non-SA fires were comparatively more sensitive to age-dependent fuels, often occurred in higher elevation forests, lasted for extended periods, and accounted for 70% of total suppression costs. An improved distinction of fire type has implications for future projections and management. The area burned in non-SA fires is projected to increase 77% (±43%) by the mid-21st century with warmer and drier summers, and the SA area burned is projected to increase 64% (±76%), underscoring the need to evaluate the allocation and effectiveness of suppression investments.

  20. History of TB in the Sudan | Zaki | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Medical history in Sudan is far from being complete. There are no reliable records. Attempt to write on the projects and development of history of TB in the Sudan is a difficult task. Objective: To study and trace the progress of TB in Sudan during the last century through their historical development. Design: A ...

  1. Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Business Review - Vol 21, No 1 (2017) ... Pre-packaged applications in business reorganisations: International principles · EMAIL ... Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  2. Language Situation in Post-War Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiek, Ahmed Gumaa

    2010-01-01

    The theme behind this paper is to review the language policy and language planning in the Sudan, after the institutionalization of peace; by exploring the recent policy of political factions in the North and the South towards languages in post-war Sudan. This effort aims at encouraging non-Arabic speaking-ethnic-groups to accept the Arabic…

  3. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.

  4. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taha Um Bali. Department of Obs & Gyn, Sudan. Prof. Ishag Adam. Department of Obstetric & Gynecology Infectious Disease Medical Education, Khartoum University. Prof. Abdurahman Arshad. Department of Internal Medicine, Pakistan. Assoc. Prof. Suad El Tigani ElMahi, Paediatrics, Sudan. Assoc. Prof. Elhadi Awooda.

  5. Decentralization Fails Women in Sudan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-05

    Nov 5, 2010 ... In Sudan, decentralization is a process that has occurred over time and is ... In northern Sudan, some women travel three days to reach the nearest hospital. ... Accord stipulate that basic education is free, “in real life, it is not.”.

  6. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chuanping; Luo Chunling; Gao Yun; Li Fangbai; Lin Lanwen; Wu Changan; Li Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg -1 with the mean value of 129 mg kg -1 . In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 μg L -1 in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg -1 for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg -1 and 164 μg L -1 , respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  7. The Southern Oscillation in a coupled GCM: Implications for climate sensitivity and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehl, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation climate model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The atmospheric part of the coupled model is a global spectral (R15, 4.5 degree latitude by 7.5 degree longitude, 9 layers in the vertical) general circulation model. The ocean is coarse-grid (5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude, 4 layers in the vertical) global general circulation model. The coupled model includes a simple thermodynamic sea-ice model. Due mainly to inherent limitations in the ocean model, the coupled model simulates sea surface temperatures that are too low in the tropics and too high in the extratropics in the mean. In spite of these limitations, the coupled model simulates active interannual variability of the global climate system involving signals in the tropical Pacific that resemble, in some respects, the observed Southern Oscillation. These signals in the tropics are associated with teleconnections to the extratropics of both hemispheres. The implications of this model-simulated interannual variability of the coupled system relating to climate sensitivity and climate change due to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide are discussed

  8. The Southern Oscillation in a coupled GCM: Implications for climate sensitivity and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehl, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from a global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation climate model developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The atmospheric part of the coupled model is a global spectral (R15, 4.5 degree latitude by 7.5 degree longitude, 9 layers in the vertical) general circulation model. The ocean is coarse-grid (5 degree latitude by 5 degree longitude, 4 layers in the vertical) global general circulation model. The coupled model includes a simple thermodynamic sea-ice model. Due mainly to inherent limitations in the ocean model, the coupled model simulates sea surface temperatures that are too low in the tropics and too high in the extratropics in the mean. In spite of these limitations, the coupled model simulates active interannual variability of the global climate system involving signals in the tropical Pacific that resemble, in some respects, the observed Southern Oscillation. These signals in the tropics are associated with teleconnections to the extratropics of both hemispheres. The implications of this model-simulated interannual variability of the coupled system relating to climate sensitivity and climate change due to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide are discussed. 25 refs.; 9 figs

  9. Agonistic behaviour in juvenile southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii (Decapoda, Palinuridae: implications for developing aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Carter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii, is a temperate species of spiny lobster with established well managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. It has also been under consideration as a species with aquaculture potential. Agonistic behaviour has important consequences under aquaculture conditions that encompass direct effects, such as damage or death of protagonists, and indirect effects on growth that relate to resource access, principally food and refuge. This study aimed to identify and characterize behaviours and to make a preliminary investigation of their occurrence under tank culture. Juvenile Jasus edwardsii were examined in a flow-through seawater system using a remote video camera system. Twenty-nine behaviours were divided into three sub-groups: aggressive (11, avoidance (6 and others (12. Aggressive behaviours included attacks, pushing, lifting, clasping and carrying an opponent. Avoidance behaviours included moving away in a backwards-, forwards- or side-stepping motion as well as with more vigorous tail flips. These behaviours were components of twelve behavioural groups that described contact, attack and displacement between individuals. Activity was crepuscular with two clear peaks, one in the morning and the other in the evening. The occurrence of behavioural groups was not different between the morning and evening. The frequency of aggressive behaviours was not affected by changes made to stocking density or access to food. The implications of agonistic behaviours are discussed further in relation to developing aquaculture.

  10. Characteristics of newly found Quaternary fault, southern Korea, and its tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Kim, M. C.; Cheon, Y.; Ha, S.; Kang, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Son, M.

    2017-12-01

    This study introduces the detailed geometry and kinematics of recently found Quaternary fault in southern Korea, named Seooe Fault, and discusses its tectonic implication through a synthetic analysis with previous studies. The N-S striking Seooe Fault shows a top-to-the-east thrust geometry and cuts the Cretaceous Goseong Formation and overlying Quaternary deposits, and its slip senses and associated minor folds in the hanging wall indicate an E-W compressional stress. The age of the lower part of the Quaternary deposits obtained by OSL dating indicates that the last movement of the fault occurred after 61 60 ka. Arcuate geometry of the main fault showing an upward decreasing dip-angle, reverse offset of the fault breccias, and reverse-sense indicators observed on neighboring N-S striking high-angle fractures indicate that this Quaternary fault was produced by the reactivation of pre-existing fault under E-W compressional stress field. Using the apparent vertical displacement of the fault and the attitudes of cutting slope and main fault surface, its minimum net displacement is calculated as 2.17 m. When the value is applied to the empirical equation of maximum displacement - moment earthquake magnitude (Mw), the magnitude is estimated to reach about 6.7, assuming that this displacement was due to one seismic event. Most of the Quaternary faults in southern Korea are observed along major inherited fault zones, and their geometry and kinematics indicate that they were reactivated under ENE-WSW or E-W compressional stress field, which is concordant with the characteristics of the Seooe Fault. In addition, focal mechanism solutions and geotechnical in-situ stress data in and around the Korean peninsula also support the current ENE-WSW or E-W regional compression. On the basis of the regional stress trajectories in and around East Asia, the current stress field in Korean peninsula is interpreted to have resulted from the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of

  11. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  12. Sudan and the Not so Comprehensive Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curless, Gareth; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2013-01-01

    This special section examines the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army. It focuses on why the agreement was possible, the challenges involved in reaching and implementing it, and the issues that now...... lay ahead for both North and South Sudan. The purpose of this undertaking is to tease out what lessons might be learnt from this case for the future study and practice of seeking to settle civil wars through agreement and implementation of conflict settlements. This introductory article first provides...

  13. UNDP supports HIV / AIDS / STD project for war-torn south Sudan -- a special report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Viso, N

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a UN HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease (STD) project in war-torn south Sudan. The 3-year project relies on collaboration between adversaries and implementation in government-held and rebel-controlled areas. The project aims to reduce the risk and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS/STDs and to foster dialogue among adversaries as a means of conflict resolution. The World Health Organization will contribute technical assistance. Local partners including the government, the Southern Sudan Independence Movement, and the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement will contribute resources valued at about $100,000. The total UN contribution is about $300,000. HIV transmission has increased due to a high concentration of military personnel and population displacement. Available information suggests that the south has the highest HIV prevalence and 46% of known AIDS cases. STDs increased from 2.3% in 1989 to 14.1% in 1994. The project focuses on women, youth, and other vulnerable groups. The project is in its 9-month preparatory phase. The preparatory phase includes analysis of the HIV/AIDS/STD situation, design of a sustainable program, assessment of causative factors, and establishment of a mechanism for effectively coordinating the project. The civil war will affect priorities, strategies, and activities. In government-controlled areas, the Sudan National AIDS program will conduct activities. In non-government areas, the Sudan Rehabilitation and Relief Association, the Relief Association for South Sudan, and health and humanitarian authorities of the liberation groups will conduct programs. The UN Office of Special Projects will provide oversight during the preparatory phase. Sudan's UN Country Theme Group on HIV/AIDS will be the coordinating group.

  14. Pulmonary tuberculosis case detection in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a Team Leader, Healthcare Projects - Real Medicine Foundation,. Juba, South Sudan ... describes case finding as very low, but treatment success as high. This study was conducted to ... through logistics and capacity building. Standardize ...

  15. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    subbranch of the Eastern Sudanic branch of Nilo-Saharan and sharing a myth of common origin. They are marked by physical similarity and many common cultural...in a people’s system of ideas and myths but not their daily lives. In the north the Muslim religious orders were import.rnt. They brought religion to...the vagina shut) was widely practiced throughout Muslim Africa, and especially among Sudan’s northern Arab pop- ulation. Enormous pressure was put on

  16. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  17. Change in air temperature over Sudan and South Sudan with time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annual mean air temperature for Sudan and South Sudan for the three periods 1900-1940, 1961- 1990 and 1981-2010 for 12 stations was analyzed with objectives of studying changes in air temperature over the area during the last century and also to study the linkages between mean, maximum and minimum air ...

  18. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  19. The British Southern Campaign in the Revolutionary War: Implications for Contemporary Counter Insurgency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clover, Julian P

    2006-01-01

    The British effort in the Southern Campaign (1780-1782) of the Revolutionary War failed because of flawed national strategy and a failure to focus sufficient elements of national power against a background of competing global threats...

  20. The decline of cisco Coregonus artedi at its southern range extent: Stock biology and management implications

    OpenAIRE

    Honsey, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi is distributed throughout northern North America and is relegated to coldwater, oligotrophic systems. Populations of cisco located at the species' southern range extent, including northern Indiana and southern Michigan, have drastically declined over the past century, seemingly due to a combination of climate warming and exacerbation of hypolimnetic hypoxic conditions via intensive land-use and resulting increases in nutrient loading. Apart from their decline, infor...

  1. A review of visceral leishmaniasis during the conflict in South Sudan and the consequences for East African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salem, Waleed; Herricks, Jennifer R; Hotez, Peter J

    2016-08-22

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), caused predominantly by Leishmania donovani and transmitted by both Phlebotomus orientalis and Phlebotomus martini, is highly endemic in East Africa where approximately 30 thousands VL cases are reported annually. The largest numbers of cases are found in Sudan - where Phlebotomus orientalis proliferate in Acacia forests especially on Sudan's eastern border with Ethiopia, followed by South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda. Long-standing civil war and unrest is a dominant determinant of VL in East African countries. Here we attempt to identify the correlation between VL epidemics and civil unrest. In this review, literature published between 1955 and 2016 have been gathered from MSF, UNICEF, OCHA, UNHCR, PubMed and Google Scholar to analyse the correlation between conflict and human suffering from VL, which is especially apparent in South Sudan. Waves of forced migration as a consequence of civil wars between 1983 and 2005 have resulted in massive and lethal epidemics in southern Sudan. Following a comprehensive peace agreement, but especially with increased allocation of resources for disease treatment and prevention in 2011, cases of VL declined reaching the lowest levels after South Sudan declared independence. However, in the latest epidemic that began in 2014 after the onset of a civil war in South Sudan, more than 1.5 million displaced refugees have migrated internally to states highly endemic for VL, while 800,000 have fled to neighboring countries. We find a strong relationship between civil unrest and VL epidemics which tend to occur among immunologically naïve migrants entering VL-endemic areas and when Leishmania-infected individuals migrate to new areas and establish additional foci of disease. Further complicating factors in East Africa's VL epidemics include severe lack of access to diagnosis and treatment, HIV/AIDS co-infection, food insecurity and malnutrition. Moreover, cases of post-kala-azar dermal

  2. Faunal characteristics of the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico: implications for biodiversity analysis and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamonde R. Cook; Curtis H. Flather; Kenneth R. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    To define the faunal context within which local and regional resource management decisions are made, conservation of biological diversity requires an understanding of regional species occurrence patterns. Our study focused on the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico and included the San Juan, the Sangre de Cristo, and the Jemez Mountains. Across this region, we...

  3. Population dynamics of sugar maple through the southern portion of its range: implications for range migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin L. Hart; Christopher M. Oswalt; Craig M. Turberville

    2014-01-01

    The range of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is expected to shift northward in accord with changing climate. However, a pattern of increased sugar maple abundance has been reported from sites throughout the eastern US. The goal of our study was to examine the stability of the sugar maple southern range boundary by analyzing its demography through...

  4. Southern Foresters' Perceptions of Climate Change: Implications for Educational Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boby, Leslie; Hubbard, William; Megalos, Mark; Morris, Hilary L. C.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of foresters' perceptions of climate change is important for developing effective educational programs on adaptive forest management. We surveyed 1,398 foresters in the southern United States regarding their perceptions of climate change, observations and concerns about climatic and forest conditions, and knowledge of and interest…

  5. Epidemiology of Measles Cases in South Darfur State, Sudan, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Taha Hussein; Kambo, Rehab Ibrahim; Ahmed, Abdelkareem Abdallah; Musa, Hassan Hussein

    2017-12-01

    Case-based surveillance measles data was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 511 measles cases were studied from 2011 to 2015 in Southern Darfur State, Sudan and 58.1% of cases were confirmed from Nyala city. About 43.4% of cases were males, 56.6% of cases were female, and 47.7% were children under five years old. Similarity, within February to June, the cases increased by 8.0% in children vaccinated through measles campaign, and 5.3% in children that used child vaccination card and 78.7% in unvaccinated one. The epidemiologically linked (EPI-Linked) measles cases declined from 2011 to 2015; consequently, Measles still remain to be a significant challenge in south Darfur state, Sudan. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Decoding Hermitian Codes with Sudan's Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q-polynomial, and a reduct......We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q...

  7. Human security in Sudan: The report of a Canadian Assessment Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, J.

    2000-01-01

    In October 1999 the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister for International Co-operation announced the creation of an assessment mission to Sudan to examine allegations about human rights abuses, including the practice of slavery and to investigate and report on alleged link between oil development and human rights violations, particularly in respect of the forced removal of populations around oil fields and oil-related developments. The investigation was the result of allegations concerning the forced relocation of civilian populations in the vicinity of the oil field in the interest of a more secure environment for oil extraction by the Government of Sudan and its partners, which include Talisman Energy Inc., a Canadian oil company. In creating the Mission, the Department of Foreign Affairs declared that if it became evident that oil extraction is exacerbating the conflict in Sudan, or the the human rights violations, the Government of Canada may consider applying economic and trade sanctions. This report contains the results of the Mission's observations and meetings with members of the Government of Sudan, opposition leaders, human rights, civil society, and diplomatic representatives, as well as displaced Southern Sudanese and the UN officials trying to help them. The Mission also thoroughly examined Talisman Energy Inc.'s operations in Sudan and the extent to which oil extraction is exacerbating conflict in that country. The overall conclusion of the Mission's investigation is that while the on-going civil war in Sudan is not about oil, oil has become a key factor, and it is exacerbating the conflict. With regard to the role of Talisman, the conclusion was that the company did not do all that it could to keep itself fully informed as to what was happening, and while some progress has been made in curbing human rights violations, the oil operations in which Talisman is involved add to the conflict and suffering. Several recommendations are made to

  8. Human security in Sudan: The report of a Canadian Assessment Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, J.

    2000-01-01

    In October 1999 the Minister of Foreign Affairs and the Minister for International Co-operation announced the creation of an assessment mission to Sudan to examine allegations about human rights abuses, including the practice of slavery and to investigate and report on alleged link between oil development and human rights violations, particularly in respect of the forced removal of populations around oil fields and oil-related developments. The investigation was the result of allegations concerning the forced relocation of civilian populations in the vicinity of the oil field in the interest of a more secure environment for oil extraction by the Government of Sudan and its partners, which include Talisman Energy Inc., a Canadian oil company. In creating the Mission, the Department of Foreign Affairs declared that if it became evident that oil extraction is exacerbating the conflict in Sudan, or the the human rights violations, the Government of Canada may consider applying economic and trade sanctions. This report contains the results of the Mission's observations and meetings with members of the Government of Sudan, opposition leaders, human rights, civil society, and diplomatic representatives, as well as displaced Southern Sudanese and the UN officials trying to help them. The Mission also thoroughly examined Talisman Energy Inc.'s operations in Sudan and the extent to which oil extraction is exacerbating conflict in that country. The overall conclusion of the Mission's investigation is that while the on-going civil war in Sudan is not about oil, oil has become a key factor, and it is exacerbating the conflict. With regard to the role of Talisman, the conclusion was that the company did not do all that it could to keep itself fully informed as to what was happening, and while some progress has been made in curbing human rights violations, the oil operations in which Talisman is involved add to the conflict and suffering. Several recommendations

  9. Strike-slip faults offshore southern Taiwan: implications for the oblique arc-continent collision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Shi-Chie; Liu, Char-Shine; Lundberg, Neil; Reed, Donald L.

    1997-06-01

    Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary wedge. Due to the oblique collision process, strike-slip faults could play an important role in this convergent domain. Topographic lineaments revealed from new digital bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles confirm the existence of three sets of strike-slip faults in the collision-subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan: the N-S-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults within the Luzon volcanic arc, the NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults across the accretionary wedge, and the NNE-SSW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults lie in the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge. These strike-slip faults overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts and may convert into oblique thrusts or thrusts as the forearc blocks accrete to the mountain belt. A bookshelf rotation model is used to explain the observed geometrical relationships of these strike-slip fault systems. Based on this model, the counter-clockwise rotation of the forearc blocks in the area offshore southern Taiwan could have caused extrusion of the accretionary wedge material into the forearc basin. The originally continuous forearc basin is thus deformed into several closed and separate proto-collisional basins such as the Southern Longitudinal Trough and Taitung Trough. A tectonic evolution model which emphasizes on the development of various structures at different stages of the oblique arc-continent collision for the Taiwan mountain belt is proposed.

  10. The Deep Electrical Structure of Southern Taiwan and Its Tectonic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Taiwan orogen has formed as a result of the arc-continent collision between the Eurasian continental margin and the Luzon volcanic arc over the last 5 million years and is the type example of an arc-continent collision. The tectonic processes at work beneath Taiwan are still debated; the available data have been interpreted with both thin-skinned and lithospheric collision models. In 2004, the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamical Research (TAIGER project began a systematic investigation of the crustal and upper mantle structure beneath Taiwan. TAIGER magnetotelluric (MT data from central Taiwan favor a thick-skinned model for that region. The Taiwan orogen becomes younger to the south, so the earlier stages of collision were investigated with a 100-km-long MT profile in southern Taiwan at latitude of 23.3¢XN. Data were recorded at 15 MT sites and tensor decomposition and two-dimensional inversion were applied to the MT data. The shallow electrical resistivity structure is in good agreement with surface geology. The deeper structure shows a major conductor in the mid-crust that can be explained by fluid content of 0.4 - 1.4%. A similar feature was observed in central Taiwan, but with a higher fluid content. The conductor in southern Taiwan extends to lower crustal depths and is likely caused by fluids generated by metamorphic reactions in a thickened crust. Together the central and southern Taiwan MT profiles show a crustal root beneath the Central Range.

  11. Forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize: Implications for migrant land birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, J.P.; Dowell, B.A.; Robbins, C.S.; Sader, S.A.; Doyle, Jamie K.; Schelhas, John

    1993-01-01

    Central America offers a suite of neotropical habitats vital to overwintering migrant land birds. The recent decline of many forest dwelling avian migrants is believed to be related in part to neotropical deforestation and land use change. However, spatio-temporal trends in neotropical habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use are largely unknown. Such information is needed to assess the impact of agriculture conversion on migrant land birds. In response, the USDI Fish and Wildlife Service and the University of Maine began a cooperative study in 1988 which applies remote sensing and field surveys to determine current habitat availability and avian migrant habitat use. Study sites include areas in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala and southern Mexico. Visual assessment of Landsat TM imagery indicates southern Belize forests are fragmented by various agricultural systems. Shifting agriculture is predominant in some areas, while permanent agriculture (citrus and mixed animal crops) is the primary system in others. This poster focuses on efforts to monitor forest to agriculture conversion in southern Belize using remote sensing, field surveys and GIS techniques. Procedures and avian migrant use of habitat are summarized.

  12. Dosimetric studies based on the radiation-induced bleaching of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, N.; Farag, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on the effect of γ-radiation on the absorption spectra of Sudan red and Sudan blue dyes in organic solutions. A continuous decrease in the absorbance values at the absorption bands was observed with an increase of absorbed dose. The radiation sensitivities of decoloration gave widely different radiation chemical reduction yields (G-values) for the bleaching of both dyes depending on whether xylene, ethyl acetate, or chloroform was used as the solvent. On the basis of experimental results, suggestions are made concerning the dye solutions as prospective dosimeters. The following absorbed dose ranges can be covered: 10 1 -10 2 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan blue in chloroform; 4 x 10 2 -4 x 10 3 Gy by 10 -5 M Sudan red or Sudan Blue in ethyl acetate; 10 3 -3 x 10 4 Gy by 5 x 10 -6 M Sudan red in xylene. (author)

  13. Tuberculosis stigma in Gezira State, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman MM, Ahmed; Sahal, Nagla; Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) stigma and to determine the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and TB stigma among TB cases and their controls in Gezira State, Sudan. METHODS: A case-control study design was used. New smear-positive TB patients registere...

  14. Dengue fever | Tavodova | South Sudan Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Dengue fever. Milada Tavodova. Abstract. No Abstract ...

  15. Walking Between Houses, Paul Julien in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsadig Mohamed; Andrea Stultiens

    2015-01-01

    April 2015 Sudanese photographer Elsadig Mohamed and I tried to relate the photographs that Paul Julien made when traveling through the country in 1933 and 1948 to stories and realities alive in present day Sudan. This initial research was pretty successful and we thought a first presentation of the

  16. Aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-07-01

    To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations. This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan. Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless), alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors. Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  17. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by men and women vary in different populations.Material and Methods: This review principally examines 33 publications devoted to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan, in addition to some risk factors that are commonly practiced in the Sudan.Results: Several studies examining risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use (Smoked and Smokeless, alcohol consumption, occupational risk, familial risk, immune deficits, virus infection and genetic factors.Conclusions: Toombak use and infection with high risk Human Papilloma Virus (HPV were extensively investigated and linked to the aetiology of oral cancer in Sudan.

  18. Walking between houses, Paul Julien in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stultiens, Andrea; Mohamed, Elsadig

    2015-01-01

    April 2015 Sudanese photographer Elsadig Mohamed and I tried to relate the photographs that Paul Julien made when traveling through the country in 1933 and 1948 to stories and realities alive in present day Sudan. This initial research was pretty successful and we thought a first presentation of the

  19. Japan's international peace operations in South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-20

    Nov 20, 2016 ... the new mission was based on the Peace and Security Legislation enacted by the Abe government in .... Japan's commitment to human security and peacekeeping operations in. South Sudan. On the basis of ..... cameras on their helmets in order to prove that their shootings were legally justifiable (Mainichi ...

  20. Quantifying export production in the Southern Ocean: Implications for the Baxs proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Maria T.; Mills, Rachel A.; Planquette, HéLèNe; Pancost, Richard D.; Hepburn, Laura; Salter, Ian; Fitzgeorge-Balfour, Tania

    2011-12-01

    The water column and sedimentary Baxs distribution around the Crozet Plateau is used to decipher the controls and timing of barite formation and to evaluate how export production signals are recorded in sediments underlying a region of natural Fe fertilization within the Fe limited Southern Ocean. Export production estimated from preserved, vertical sedimentary Baxs accumulation rates are compared with published export fluxes assessed from an integrated study of the biological carbon pump to determine the validity of Baxs as a quantitative proxy under different Fe supply conditions typical of the Southern Ocean. Detailed assessment of the geochemical partitioning of Ba in sediments and the lithogenic end-member allows appropriate correction of the bulk Ba content and determination of the Baxs content of sediments and suspended particles. The upper water column distribution of Baxs is extremely heterogeneous spatially and temporally. Organic carbon/Baxs ratios in deep traps from the Fe fertilized region are similar to other oceanic settings allowing quantification of the inferred carbon export based on established algorithms. There appears to be some decoupling of POC and Ba export in the Fe limited region south of the Plateau. The export production across the Crozet Plateau inferred from the Baxs sedimentary proxy indicates that the Fe fertilized area to the north of the Plateau experiences enhanced export relative to equivalent Southern Ocean settings throughout the Holocene and that this influence may also have impacted the site to the south for significant periods. This interpretation is corroborated by alternative productivity proxies (opal accumulation, 231Paxs/230Thxs). Baxs can be used to quantify export production in complex settings such as naturally Fe-fertilized (volcanoclastic) areas, providing appropriate lithogenic correction is undertaken, and sediment focusing is corrected for along with evaluation of barite preservation.

  1. Balancing the Direct and Indirect Approaches: Implications for Ending the Violence in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    place daily. More than 2,500–3,000 years into its history, Thailand and the Indo-China region were influenced by Brahmanism ( Hinduism ) and Buddhism... Hinduism and Buddhism from India, beginning in the 7th century; then Islam was brought to the area and to other countries in Southeast Asia in the 13th...the 7th century, the three southern provinces of Thailand were called the “Lankasuka Empire” and influenced by Hinduism . People lived their lives by

  2. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from Southern India: implication for Pan-African metallogeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, M.; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masuda, Akimasa

    1994-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) dating of two molybdenite samples from the alkali granite and pegmatite of Ambalavayal in northern Kerala (S. India) yielded ages of 567 ±28 Ma and 566±77 Ma, respectively. These ages closely compare with the previously determined Rb-Sr whole rock age of 595±20 Ma Rb-Sr for granite, and K-Ar biotite age of 560±30 Ma for the pegmatite. Our study provides the first direct determination of the timing of ore mineralization associated with felsic magmatism in southern India, and reveals the fingerprints of a prominent Pan-African metallogenic event. This timing coincides with the formation of rare metal and gemstone-bearing pegmatites in different parts of southern India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar and East Antarctica. In most cases, the mineralizations are genetically related to felsic magmas emplaced along structural conduits, suggesting that the magmatism and metallogeny are related to deep-seated extension in the cratonized crustal segments of the Gondwana assembly. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Deuterium excess record in a southern Tibetan ice core and its potential climatic implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Huabiao; Xu, Baiqing; Yao, Tandong; Wu, Guangjian; Lin, Shubiao; Gao, Jing; Wang, Mo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Beijing (China)

    2012-05-15

    A 55-m long ice core, drilled close to bedrock from Mt. Noijin Kangsang on the southern Tibetan Plateau in summer 2007, was annually dated covering the period of 1864-2006 AD. The stable isotope ratios ({delta} {sup 18}O and {delta}D) of the ice core were measured and thereby the deuterium excess (d) was calculated by d = {delta}D - 8*{delta} {sup 18}O for the individual ice samples. Results show that the d values of the ice samples were predominantly controlled by the moisture sources. The significant increasing trend of annual mean d values along the ice core is mainly related to the rapid warming of the tropical Indian Ocean, although the tendency is subjected to the modulation by the western-derived moisture. The decreasing Indian monsoon precipitation on the southern Tibetan Plateau, physically linked with the increasing tropical Indian Ocean SST, reduced the share of monsoon precipitation in the annual total accumulation, making an additional contribution to the significant increase of annual mean d in the Noijin Kangsang ice core with high values during the past 143 years. (orig.)

  4. Salp/krill interactions in the Southern Ocean: spatial segregation and implications for the carbon flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Froneman, P. W.; Perissinotto, R.

    Available data on the spatial distribution and feeding ecophysiology of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, and the tunicate, Salpa thompsoni, in the Southern Ocean are summarized in this study. Antarctic krill and salps generally display pronounced spatial segregation at all spatial scales. This appears to be the result of a clear biotopical separation of these key species in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Krill and salps are found in different water masses or water mass modifications, which are separated by primary or secondary frontal features. On the small-scale (salps are usually restricted to the specific water parcels, or are well segregated vertically. Krill and salp grazing rates estimated using the in situ gut fluorescence technique are among the highest recorded in the Antarctic pelagic food web. Although krill and salps at times may remove the entire daily primary production, generally their grazing impact is moderate (⩽50% of primary production). The regional ecological consequences of years of high salp densities may be dramatic. If the warming trend, which is observed around the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Southern Ocean, continues, salps may become a more prominent player in the trophic structure of the Antarctic marine ecosystem. This likely would be coupled with a dramatic decrease in krill productivity, because of a parallel decrease in the spatial extension of the krill biotope. The high Antarctic regions, particularly the Marginal Ice Zone, have, however, effective physiological mechanisms that may provide protection against the salp invasion.

  5. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao; Wang, Shijie; Ji, Hongbing; Shi, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China), were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils). Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations) are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern China presented the

  6. Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond

  7. Strontium isotopes reveal weathering processes in lateritic covers in southern China with implications for paleogeographic reconstructions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wei

    Full Text Available The isotope ratios of Sr are useful tracers for studying parent material sources, weathering processes, and biogeochemical cycling. Mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two lateritic weathering covers, in an area close to the Tropic of Cancer (Guangxi Province, southern China, were undertaken to study the regional weathering processes and Sr isotopic sources. We found that weathering and decomposition of Rb- and Sr-bearing minerals change the Sr isotopic composition in weathering products (lateritic soils. Weathering of illite lowered the 87Sr/86Sr ratio whereas dissolving and leaching of carbonate minerals increased the 87Sr/86Sr ratio. An Fe nodular horizon is widely developed on the top of the weathering covers in the studied area and it differs from the lateritic soil horizon in mineral composition, construction, and elemental concentration. Furthermore, both Fe2O3 and P2O5 (concentrations are negatively correlated with the 87Sr/86Sr ratios, suggesting fixation of apatite by Fe oxides is a controlling factor of the Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The 87Sr/86Sr and Nb/Sr ratios imply the contents and proportions of Fe nodules and clay are critical in controlling the changes of Sr isotopic composition in the Fe nodular horizon. The two stages of the weathering process of carbonate rocks are revealed by the87Sr/86Sr versus Nb/Sr diagram. The 87Sr/86Sr and Rb/Sr ratios suggest that Sr isotopes in the weathering covers within the studied area are derived mainly from parent rock weathering and that the contributions from allothogenic Sr isotopes are limited. A comparison of Sr isotopic composition signatures in the weathering covers of the studied area and Guizhou Province provided insight into the Sr isotopic source and paleogeographic evolution of southern China. From the Permian to the Triassic, the continental fragment sources of the South China sedimentary basin changed significantly. In the Permian, Southern

  8. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  9. Climate Change Implications to Irrigated Rice Production in Southern Brazil: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Thiago

    Rice is one of the staple foods for more than three billion people worldwide. When cultivated under irrigated conditions (i.e. lowland rice), rice is one of the most intensive water consumer crops globally. Therefore, representation of rice growth should be integrated into the latest land surface models to allow studies on food security and to ensure that accurate simulations of the bidirectional feedbacks between the land surface and atmosphere take place. In this study, I present a new process-based model for rice fields that includes rice growth and rice irrigation as modules within the Agro-IBIS dynamic agro-ecosystem model. The model includes a series of equations, agricultural management parameters and an irrigation scheme that are specifically tailored for rice crops. The model was evaluated against leaf area index and biomass observations, obtained for one growing season in Rio Grande do Sul state (southern Brazil), and in Los Banos, Philippines. The model accurately captured the temporal dynamics of leaf area index in both the Brazilian and the Philippine sites, and predicted end-of-season biomass with an error of between -9.5% and 11.3% depending on the location and the plant organ. Rice phenology is predicted by the model based on experimentally-derived growth rates, and was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed durations of the four growth phases considered by the model. Agro-IBIS showed a tendency to overestimate the duration of the growth stages between 3% and 16%, but underestimated by 8% the duration of the panicle formation phase in one growing season. The new irrigation model is based on the water balance at the surface and applies irrigation in order to keep the water layer at the paddy field always in the optimum level. A set of climate projections from global climate models under two emission scenarios, and excluding and considering CO2 fertilizations effects, was used to drive the updated Agro-IBIS to estimate the effects of climate

  10. Savanna burning and convective mixing in Southern Africa: Implications for CO emissions and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connors, V.S.; Cahoon, D.R. Jr.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Brunke, E.G.; Garstang, M.; Seiler, W.; Scheel, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines both the emission and the transport of CO from the surface to the free troposphere and the role of convection in redistributing this gas in the free troposphere over southern Africa. Upper-air soundings, the meteorological analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and the multispectral imagery from the European Space Agency's Meteosat-2 satellite comprise the meteorological data base. The surface measurements of CO were measured at an atmospheric chemistry laboratory in Cape Point, South Africa. The CO in the middle troposphere was measured by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) experiment flown on the space shuttle. This study focuses on the emissions and transport of CO from Africa south of the equator on 5-6 October 1984

  11. Downscaled Climate Change Projections for the Southern Colorado Plateau: Variability and Implications for Vegetation Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G. M.; Eischeid, J. K.; Cole, K. L.; Ironside, K.; Cobb, N. S.

    2008-12-01

    Recent and rapid forest mortality in western North America and associated changes in fire frequency and area burned are among the chief concerns of ecosystem managers. These examples of climate change surprises demonstrate nonlinear and threshold ecosystem responses to increased temperatures and severe drought. A consistent management request from climate change adaptation workshops held during the last four years in the southwest U.S. is for region-specific estimates of climate and vegetation change, in order to provide guidance for management of federal and state forest, range, and riparian preserves and land holdings. Partly in response to these concerns, and partly in the interest of improving knowledge of potential ecosystem changes and their relationships with observed changes and changes demonstrated in the paleoecological record, we developed a set of integrated climate and ecosystem analyses. We selected five of twenty-two GCMs from the PCMDI archive of IPCC AR4 model runs, based on their approximations of observed critical seasonality for vegetation in the Southern Colorado Plateau (domain: 35°- 38°N, 114°-107°W), centered on the Four Corners states. We used three key seasons in our analysis, winter (November-March), pre-monsoon (May-June), and monsoon (July- September). Projections of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation from our five-model ensemble indicate steadily increasing temperatures in our region of interest during the twenty-first century. By 2050, the ensemble projects increases of 3.0°C during May and June, months critical for drought stress and tree mortality, and 4.5-5.0°C by 2090. Projected temperature changes for months during the heart of winter (December and January) are on the order of 2.5°C by 2050 and 3.0°C by 2090; such changes are likely to affect snow hydrology in middle to low elevations in the Southern Colorado Plateau. Summer temperature increases are on the order of 2.5°C (2050) and 4.0°C (2090). The

  12. Mantle Flow Implications across Easter and Southern Africa from Shear Wave Splitting Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, C.; Nyblade, A.; Bagley, B. C.; Mulibo, G. D.; Tugume, F.; Wysession, M. E.; Wiens, D.; van der Meijde, M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we present new shear wave splitting results from broadband seismic stations in Botswana and Namibia, and combine them with previous results from stations in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola to further examine the pattern of seismic anisotropy across southern Africa. The new results come from stations in northern Namibia and Botswana, which help to fill in large gaps in data coverage. Our preliminary results show that fast polarization directions overall trend in a NE orientation. The most noticeable measurements that deviate from this pattern are located around the Archean Tanzania Craton in eastern Africa. The general NE pattern of fast polarization directions is attributed to mantle flow linked to the African superplume. Smaller scale variations from this general direction can be explained by shape anisotropy in the lithosphere in magmatic regions in the East African rift system and to fossil anisotropy in the Precambrian lithosphere.

  13. Seismic signatures of the Pan-African orogeny: implications for southern Indian high-grade terranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Abhishek; Gaur, V. K.; Rai, S. S.; Priestley, K.

    2009-02-01

    We present the results of a study designed to investigate and compare the seismic characteristics of the once contiguous terranes of eastern Gondwanaland, now incorporated in five separated continental masses, which, during the Neoproterozoic (~600Ma) Pan-African orogeny, suffered a high degree of thermal stress and deformation. Receiver functions and surface wave data from stations located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, the southern-Indian high-grade terranes, Madagascar and the Tanzania-Mozambique belt, were used to determine the shear-wave velocity structure, Moho depth and VP/VS values of the respective crustal segments. This study provides an additional dimension to the otherwise well-documented characteristic petrology of their surface exposures and other geological signatures such as their extensive granulitization and gem formation during the Pan-African event. Analysis of the receiver functions and surface wave data for these seismic stations located on their present day widely distributed continental fragments have been made. It is observed that with the exception of KOD (at Kodaikanal hill), situated on the southern Indian granulites having the thickest crust (~43.5 km), most of the Pan-African granulitic terranes have a crustal thicknesses of ~37 +/- 0.8km, with a transition to higher velocity at mid-crustal depths, and that their bulk composition is felsic. Average crustal VP/VS values (1.704 +/- 0.03) and thicknesses (37.8 +/- 0.8km), for four stations (SYO, PALK, TRV and ABPO), now located in East Antarctica, Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar, respectively, show remarkable similarity, indicating that the Pan-African orogeny was extensive enough to reorder the crustal structure of a wide region with a broadly similar stamp.

  14. Eclogitization-induced mechanical instanility in granulite: Implications for deep seismicity in southern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Shi, F.; Yu, T.; Zhu, L.; Zhang, J.; Gasc, J.; Incel, S.; Schubnel, A.; Li, Z.; Liu, W.; Jin, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Southern Tibet is the most active orogenic region on Earth where the Indian plate thrusts under the Eurasian continent, pushing the Moho to unusual depths of 80 km. Seismicity is wide spread, reaching 100 km depth. Mechanisms of these deep earthquakes remain enigmatic. Here we examine the hypothesis of metamorphism induced mechanical instability in granulite-facies rocks, which are the dominant constituent in subducted Indian lower crust. We conducted deformation experiments on natural and nominally dry granulite in a DDIA apparatus within the stability fields of both granulite and eclogite. The system is interfaced with an acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system, allowing in-situ detection of mechanical instability along with the progress of eclogitization. We found that granulite deformed within its own stability field behaved in a ductile fashion without any AE activity. In contrast, numerous AE events were observed during deformation of metastable granulite in the eclogite field. The observed AE activities were episodic. Correlating closely to the AE burst episodes, measured differential stresses rose and fell during deformation, suggesting unstable fault slip. Microstructural observation shows that strain is highly localized around grain boundaries, which are decorated by eclogitization products. Time-resolved event location analysis showed large episodes corresponded to the growth of branches of macroscopic faults in recovered samples. It appears that ruptures originate from weakened grain boundaries, propagate through grains, and self-organize into macroscopic fault zones. No melting is required in the fault zones to facilitate brittle failure. This process may be responsible for the deep crustal seismicity in Southern Tibet and other continental-continental subduction regions.

  15. Critical thinking in healthcare: Reflections on Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Those of us who remember the dilapidated state of the healthcare services before and during the war do not want to see a ... meant to change easily. ... Another presenter at the same meeting claimed that he did not believe in the germ theory arguing that if ... makers considering the fragile political climate we have had.

  16. The Cyclists Helmet Study in Juba, Southern Sudan, 2006

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding ... The conclusion is that cyclists need information on the importance of wearing a helmet. ... Leading safety advocates recommend the.

  17. Grounding local peace organisations: a case study of Southern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, D.J.M.; Leeuwen, van M.

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, building peace during and after conflict has been moving away from the conference tables of diplomats to informal settings created by local NGOs. The vast majority, if not all, of the peacebuilding policy and literature argues for strengthening local organisations as vehicles

  18. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  19. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    , laurel wilt disease also kills other native trees that are members of the laurel family, including swamp bay (Persea palustris), silk bay (Persea borbonia var. humilis), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as the economically important cultivated avocado (Persea americana) (Fraedrich and others, 2008). This paper is concerned primarily with swamp bay, an important component of Everglades tree islands.The spread of the redbay ambrosia beetle and its fungal symbiont has been very rapid, exceeding model predictions (Koch and Smith, 2008); by 2011, laurel wilt disease was found from the southern coastal plain of North Carolina to southern peninsular Florida. The first redbay ambrosia beetle was trapped in Miami-Dade County in March 2010, and laurel wilt disease was discovered in swamp bays in February 2011 and in commercial avocado groves about a year later (Kendra and others, 2013). By 2013, laurel wilt disease was seen in swamp bays throughout the southern Everglades in Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, and Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 3A and 3B (Rodgers and others, 2014).

  20. Detrital zircon ages from southern Norway - implications for the Proterozoic evolution of the southwestern Baltic Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, T.-L.; Andersen, T.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Vestin, J.

    An ion-microprobe (SIMS) U-Pb zircon dating study on four samples of Precambrian metasediments from the high-grade Bamble Sector, southern Norway, gives the first information on the timing of discrete crust-forming events in the SW part of the Baltic Shield. Recent Nd and Pb studies have indicated that the sources of the clastic metasediments in this area have crustal histories extending back to 1.7 to 2.1Ga, although there is no record of rocks older than 1.6Ga in southern Norway. The analysed metasediments are from a sequence of intercalated, centimetre to 10-metre wide units of quartzites, semi-metapelites, metapelites and mafic granulites. The zircons can be grouped in two morphological populations: (1) long prismatic; (2) rounded, often flattened. The BSE images reveal that both populations consist of oscillatory zoned, rounded and corroded cores (detrital grains of magmatic origin), surrounded by homogeneous rims (metamorphic overgrowths). The detrital zircons have 207Pb/206Pb ages between 1367 and 1939Ma, with frequency maxima in the range 1.85 to 1.70Ga and 1.60 to 1.50Ga. There is no correlation between crystal habit and age of the zircon. One resorbed, inner zircon core in a detrital grain is strongly discordant and gives a composite inner core-magmatic outer core 207Pb/206Pb age of 2383 Ma. Two discrete, unzoned zircons have 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1122 and 1133Ma, representing zircon growth during the Sveconorwegian high-grade metamorphism. Also the μm wide overgrowths, embayments in the detrital cores and apparent ``inner cores'' which represent secondary metamorphic zircon growth in deep embayments in detrital grains, are of Sveconorwegian age. The composite-detrital-metamorphic zircon analyses give generally discordant 206Pb/238U versus 207Pb/235U ratios and maximum 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1438Ma. These data demonstrate the existence of a protocrust of 1.7 to 2.0Ga in the southwestern part of the Baltic Shield, implying a break in the overall westward

  1. Mesquite Risk Mapping and Assessment in Tokar Delta-Eastern Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Suliman, Mahgoub; NAWATA, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Buho; Karamalla, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    Tokar Delta is a name given to a small delta of approximately 161,000 hectares situated in the southern area of the Red Sea in Eastern Sudan. Beginning of 1980, mesquite species (Prosopis chilensis & Prosopis juliflora) were introduced to Tokar area to be planted as a shelterbelt for the city Tokar, but after while; it spread out to the delta area and became an invasive plant to the agricultural lands and along Khor Barak banks. Nowadays mesquite covers more than half of the delta area, decre...

  2. [Tobacco cultivationin Salento (Apulia Region, Southern Italy) from 1929 to 1993: possible health implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montinari, Maria Rosa; Minelli, Pierluca; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca

    2018-01-01

    The Province of Lecce (Apulia Region, Southern Italy) is one of the Italian areas where the prevalence of respiratory disease and cancer of the respitartory tract is very high. Through a descriptive analysis of the historical series of tobacco culture indicators, a historical reconstruction of the development of tobacco cultivation in Salento (the area where the Province of Lecce is located) is here presented, in order to provide an additional element of knowledge on potential risk factors for respiratory diseases and cancers. Data regarding extensions in hectares and crop productions in the province of Lecce, in Apulia, and in Italy are from the Chamber of commerce of Lecce province and from the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat). From 1929 to 1993, the province of Lecce provided between 75% and 94% of the tobacco cultivated in Apulia Region and 25% of the national tobacco until 1945. Since the late Sixties, a growing increase in annual average production was observed, reaching 21.5 quintals per hectare in 1991 in Salento. This large tobacco production, associated with intensive use of pesticides, could be an element to be observed in analytical studies as a determining potential for the high prevalence of respiratory diseases and pulmonary cancers in the male population of the province of Lecce.

  3. Crustal tomographic imaging and geodynamic implications toward south of Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Laxmidhar

    2011-09-01

    The crustal structure toward southern part of SGT is poorly defined leaving an opportunity to understand the tectonic and geodynamic evolution of this high-grade granulite terrain surrounded by major shear and tectonically disturbed zones like Achankovil Shear Zone (AKSZ) and Palghat Cauvery Shear Zone (PCSZ). To develop a geologically plausible crustal tectonic model depicting major structural elements, a comprehensive tomographic image was derived using deep-seismic-sounding data corroborated by Bouguer gravity modeling, coincident-reflection-seismic, heat-flow and available geological/geochronological informations along the N-S trending Vattalkundu-Kanyakumari geotransect. The final tectonic model represents large compositional changes of subsurface rocks accompanied by velocity heterogeneities with crustal thinning (44-36 km) and Moho upwarping from north to south. This study also reveals and successfully imaged anomalous zone of exhumation near AKSZ having transpression of exhumed rocks at mid-to-lower crustal level (20-30 km) with significant underplating and mantle upwelling forming a complex metamorphic province. The presence of shear zones with high-grade charnockite massifs in the upper-crust exposed in several places reveal large scale exhumation of granulites during the Pan-African rifting (~ 550 Ma) and provide important insights of plume-continental lithosphere interaction with reconstruction of the Gondwanaland.

  4. Seismic chimneys in the Southern Viking Graben - Implications for palaeo fluid migration and overpressure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, Jens; Berndt, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Detailed understanding of natural fluid migration systems is essential to minimize risks during hydrocarbon exploration and to evaluate the long-term efficiency of the subsurface storage of waste water and gas from hydrocarbon production as well as CO2. The Southern Viking Graben (SVG) hosts numerous focused fluid flow structures in the shallow (expressions of vertical fluid conduits are variously known as seismic chimneys or pipes. Seismic pipes are known to form large clusters. Seismic chimneys have so far been described as solitary structures. Here, we show that the study area in the SVG hosts more than 46 large-scale vertical chimney structures, which can be divided in three categories implying different formation processes. Our analysis reveals that seal-weakening, formation-wide overpressure and the presence of free gas are required to initiate the formation of vertical fluid conduits in the SVG. The presence of numerous vertical fluid conduits implies inter-stratigraphic hydraulic connectivity, which significantly affects the migration of fluids in the subsurface. Chimney structures are important for understanding the transfer of pore pressure anomalies to the shallow parts of the basin.

  5. Dental microwear of sympatric rodent species sampled across habitats in southern Africa: Implications for environmental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgman, Jenny H E; Leichliter, Jennifer; Avenant, Nico L; Ungar, Peter S

    2016-03-01

    Dental microwear textures have proven to be a valuable tool for reconstructing the diets of a wide assortment of fossil vertebrates. Nevertheless, some studies have recently questioned the efficacy of this approach, suggesting that aspects of habitat unrelated to food preference, especially environmental grit load, might have a confounding effect on microwear patterning that obscures the diet signal. Here we evaluate this hypothesis by examining microwear textures of 3 extant sympatric rodent species that vary in diet breadth and are found in a variety of habitat types: Mastomys coucha, Micaelamys namaquensis and Rhabdomys pumilio. We sample each of these species from 3 distinct environmental settings in southern Africa that differ in rainfall and vegetative cover: Nama-Karoo shrublands (semi-desert) and Dry Highveld grasslands in the Free State Province of South Africa, and Afromontane (wet) grasslands in the highlands of Lesotho. While differences between habitat types are evident for some of the species, inconsistency in the pattern suggests that the microwear signal is driven by variation in foods eaten rather than grit-level per se. It is clear that, at least for species and habitats sampled in the current study, environmental grit load does not swamp diet-related microwear signatures. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vila-Viçosa Carlos M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved.

  7. Folklore and traditional ecological knowledge of geckos in Southern Portugal: implications for conservation and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) and folklore are repositories of large amounts of information about the natural world. Ideas, perceptions and empirical data held by human communities regarding local species are important sources which enable new scientific discoveries to be made, as well as offering the potential to solve a number of conservation problems. We documented the gecko-related folklore and TEK of the people of southern Portugal, with the particular aim of understanding the main ideas relating to gecko biology and ecology. Our results suggest that local knowledge of gecko ecology and biology is both accurate and relevant. As a result of information provided by local inhabitants, knowledge of the current geographic distribution of Hemidactylus turcicus was expanded, with its presence reported in nine new locations. It was also discovered that locals still have some misconceptions of geckos as poisonous and carriers of dermatological diseases. The presence of these ideas has led the population to a fear of and aversion to geckos, resulting in direct persecution being one of the major conservation problems facing these animals. It is essential, from both a scientific and conservationist perspective, to understand the knowledge and perceptions that people have towards the animals, since, only then, may hitherto unrecognized pertinent information and conservation problems be detected and resolved. PMID:21892925

  8. Geochemical characteristics of Proterozoic granite magmatism from Southern Granulite Terrain, India: Implications for Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellappa, T.; Rao, J. Mallikharjuna

    2018-03-01

    Granitoid intrusions occur widely in the Southern Granulite Terrain (SGT) of India, particularly within the Cauvery Suture Zone (CSZ), which is considered as the trace of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean closure. Here we present the petrological and geochemical features of 19 granite plutons across the three major tectonic blocks of the terrain. Our data show a wide variation in the compositions of these intrusions from alkali feldspathic syenite to granite. The whole rock geochemistry of these intrusions displays higher concentrations of SiO2, FeO*, K2O, Ba, Zr, Th, LREE and low MgO, Na2O, Ti, P, Nb, Y and HREE's. The granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous in nature revealing both I-type and A-type origin. In tectonic discrimination plots, the plutons dominantly show volcanic arc and syn-collisional as well as post-collisional affinity. Based on the available age data together with geochemical constrains, we demonstrate that the granitic magmatism in the centre and south of the terrain is mostly associated with the Neoproterozoic subduction-collision-accretion-orogeny, followed by extensional mechanism of Gondwana tectonics events. Similar widespread granitic activity has also been documented in the Arabian Nubian shield, Madagascar, Sri Lanka and Antarctica, providing similarities for the reconstruction of the crustal fragments of Gondwana supercontinent followed by Pan-African orogeny.

  9. Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: implications for natural coastal resources and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf; Laudien, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly influences marine ecosystems and the sustained exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current upwelling system. Both its warm (El Niño: EN) and cold (La Niña: LN) phase have drastic implications for the ecology, socio-economy and infrastructure along most of Pacific South America. Local artisanal fisheries, which especially suffer from the effects of EN, represent a major part for the domestic economy of Chile and Peru and in consequence a huge amount of published and unpublished studies exists aiming at identifying effects of EN and LN. However, most processes and underlying mechanisms fostering the ecology of organisms along Pacific South America have not been analyzed yet and for the marine realm most knowledge is traditionally based on rather descriptive approaches. We herein advocate that small-scale comparative and interdisciplinary process studies work as one possible solution to understand better the variability observed in EN/LN effects at local scale. We propose that differences in small-scale impacts of ENSO along the coast rather than the macro-ecological and oceanographic view are essential for the sustainable management of costal ecosystems and the livelihood of the people depending on it. Based on this, we summarize the conceptual approach from the EU-funded International Science and Technology Cooperation (INCO) project “Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management (CENSOR)” that aims at enhancing the detection, compilation, and understanding of EN and LN effects on the coastal zone and its natural resources. We promote a multidisciplinary avenue within present international funding schemes, with the intention to bridge the traditional gap between basic and applied coastal research. The long-term aim is an increased mitigation of harm caused by EN as well as a better use of beneficial effects

  10. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....

  11. Eye diseases in Akon Payam, South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Lado L Sube; Joseph Monday Lawrence; Richard Lado L Loro; Anthony Y Lasuba; Oromo Francis Seriano; Almutez Gharaibeh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among patients in Akon payam, Warrap State, South Sudan. Methods and materials: This was a cross-sectional study of 862 patients conducted at Akon in the period 18 – 31 September 2015. The Snellen E chart was used to measure visual acuity, and all patients had a basic eye examination. Their vision status was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were entered and a...

  12. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkarim

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  13. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  14. Comparative study of radon in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharbi, Shaza Ismail Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted primarily to contribute radon data for radon map in Sudan and identify regions with elevated radon levels and improve data collection and analysis for the future radon levels evaluation. This study partially covered three states of Sudan ( Red Sea - Khartoum - South Khordofan). Previous work done has been considered in this study which focused and investigated the levels of radon concentration in ( indoor radon gas and water) by using gamma spectrometry equipped with ( HPGe detector) or (Na1 (T1) detector). The results obtained are within the acceptable levels and dose not poses any risk from radiation protection point of view. Red Sea state ( port-sudan): (124.39±6.21) Bq/m 3 . Khartoum state ( Suba): (151.52) Bq/m 3 . (Omdurman): ( 127±23) Bq/m 3 . Radon in water: (59) Bq/L. South Kordofan State: (102.8) Bq/m 3 . In water (Kadugli): (3 1 39)) Bq/L.(Author)

  15. Subsurface Permian reef complexes of southern Tunisia: Shelf carbonate setting and paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaafouri, Adel; Haddad, Sofiene; Mannaî-Tayech, Beya

    2017-05-01

    2-D seismic reflection sections, borehole data as well as published and unpublished data have been investigated to reconstruct the paleogeography of southern Tunisia during Middle to Late Permian times. Paleogeographical reconstruction based on the integration of petroleum well data and 2-D seismic facies interpretation shows three main depositional areas with very contrasting sedimentary pile. These are 1) a subsiding basin; 2) an outer shelf carbonate, and 3) an inner shelf carbonate. Based on typical electric responses of reef buildups to seismic wave, we shall urge that during Middle Permian times, the outer carbonate shelf was subject of reef barrier development. Lithology evidences from core samples show that reef framework correspond mainly to fossiliferous limestone and dolomite. The WNW-ESE recognized reef barrier led between latitudes 33° 10‧ 00″N and 33° 20‧ 00″N. The Tebaga of Medenine outcrop constitutes the northern-edge of this barrier. Westward it may be extended to Bir Soltane area whereas its extension eastward is still to be determined. Biogenic buildups took place preferentially over faulted Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic paleohighs resulting likely from the Hercynian orogeny. The subsiding basin is located north of Tebaga of Medenine outcrop where Upper Permian sedimentary sequence is made entirely of 4000 m deep marine green silty shale facies. These are ascribed to unorganized and chaotic reflectors. Inner carbonate shelf facies succession corresponds to a typical interbedding of shallow marine carbonate deposits, shale, dolomite, and anhydrite inducing parallel-layered of strong amplitude and good continuity reflectors. Also within the inner carbonate shelf patch reef or reef pinnacles have been identified based on their seismic signature particularly their low vertical development as compared to reef complexes. Southward, towards Sidi Toui area, the Upper Permian depositional sequence thins out and bears witness of land

  16. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  17. Geomorphological and structural characterization of the southern Weihe Graben, central China: Implications for fault segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yali; He, Chuanqi; Rao, Gang; Yan, Bing; Lin, Aiming; Hu, Jianmin; Yu, Yangli; Yao, Qi

    2018-01-01

    The Cenozoic graben systems around the tectonically stable Ordos Block, central China, have been considered as ideal places for investigating active deformation within continental rifts, such as the Weihe Graben at the southern margin with high historical seismicity (e.g., 1556 M 8.5 Huaxian great earthquake). However, previous investigations have mostly focused on the active structures in the eastern and northern parts of this graben. By contrast, in the southwest, tectonic activity along the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains has not been systematically investigated yet. In this study, based on digital elevation models (DEMs), we carried out geomorphological analysis to evaluate the relative tectonic activity along the whole South Border Fault (SBF). On the basis of field observations, high resolution DEMs acquired by small unmanned aerial vehicles (sUVA) using structure-for-motion techniques, radiocarbon (14C) age dating, we demonstrate that: 1) Tectonic activity along the SBF changes along strike, being higher in the eastern sector. 2) Seven major segment boundaries have been assigned, where the fault changes its strike and has lower tectonic activity. 3) The fault segment between the cities of Huaxian and Huayin characterized by almost pure normal slip has been active during the Holocene. We suggest that these findings would provide a basis for further investigating on the seismic risk in densely-populated Weihe Graben. Table S2. The values and classification of geomorphic indices obtained in this study. Fig. S1. Morphological features of the stream long profiles (Nos. 1-75) and corresponding SLK values. Fig. S2. Comparison of geomorphological parameters acquired from different DEMs (90-m SRTM and 30-m ASTER GDEM): (a) HI values; (b) HI linear regression; (c) mean slope of drainage basin; (d) mean slope linear regression.

  18. Floristic relationships among vegetation types of new zealand and the southern andes: similarities and biogeographic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, Cecilia; Baccalá, Nora; Wardle, Peter

    2008-06-01

    Similarities between the floras of geographically comparable regions of New Zealand (NZ) and the southern Andes (SA) have interested biologists for over 150 years. The present work selects vegetation types that are physiognomically similar between the two regions, compares their floristic composition, assesses the environmental factors that characterize these matching vegetation types, and determines whether phylogenetic groups of ancestral versus modern origin are represented in different proportions in their floras, in the context of their biogeographic history. Floristic relationships based on 369 genera of ten vegetation types present in both regions were investigated with correspondence analysis (CA) and ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC). The resulting ordination and classification were related to the environmental characteristics of the different vegetation types. The proportions of different phylogenetic groups between the regions (NZ, SA) were also compared, and between forest and non-forest communities. Floristic similarities between NZ and SA tend to increase from forest to non-forest vegetation, and are highest in coastal vegetation and bog. The floras of NZ and SA also differ in their phylogenetic origin, NZ being characterized by an 'excess' of genera of basal origin, especially in forests. The relatively low similarities between forests of SA and NZ are related to the former being largely of in situ South American and Gondwanan origin, whereas the latter have been mostly reconstituted though transoceanic dispersal of propagules since the Oligocene. The greater similarities among non-forest plant communities of the two regions result from varied dispersal routes, including relatively recent transoceanic dispersal for coastal vegetation, possible dispersal via a still-vegetated Antarctica especially for bog plants, and independent immigration from Northern Hemisphere sources for many genera of alpine vegetation and grassland.

  19. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium. PMID:29267357

  20. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchego, Carlos E; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium.

  1. Dissolved Organic Carbon 14C in Southern Nevada Groundwater and Implications for Groundwater Travel Times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, Ronald L. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Fereday, Wyall [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute; Thomas, James M [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Institute

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) carbon-14 (14C) ages must be corrected for complex chemical and physical reactions and processes that change the amount of 14C in groundwater as it flows from recharge to downgradient areas. Because of these reactions, DIC 14C can produce unrealistically old ages and long groundwater travel times that may, or may not, agree with travel times estimated by other methods. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) 14C ages are often younger than DIC 14C ages because there are few chemical reactions or physical processes that change the amount of DOC 14C in groundwater. However, there are several issues that create uncertainty in DOC 14C groundwater ages including limited knowledge of the initial (A0) DOC 14C in groundwater recharge and potential changes in DOC composition as water moves through an aquifer. This study examines these issues by quantifying A0 DOC 14C in recharge areas of southern Nevada groundwater flow systems and by evaluating changes in DOC composition as water flows from recharge areas to downgradient areas. The effect of these processes on DOC 14C groundwater ages is evaluated and DOC and DIC 14C ages are then compared along several southern Nevada groundwater flow paths. Twenty-seven groundwater samples were collected from springs and wells in southern Nevada in upgradient, midgradient, and downgradient locations. DOC 14C for upgradient samples ranged from 96 to 120 percent modern carbon (pmc) with an average of 106 pmc, verifying modern DOC 14C ages in recharge areas, which decreases uncertainty in DOC 14C A0 values, groundwater ages, and travel times. The HPLC spectra of groundwater along a flow path in the Spring Mountains show the same general pattern indicating that the DOC compound composition does not change along this flow path

  2. Care-Seeking for Diarrhoea in Southern Malawi: Attitudes, Practices and Implications for Diarrhoea Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salule Masangwi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour. The results show that 68% of mothers used oral rehydration solutions (ORS the last time a child in their family had diarrhoea. However, when asked on the action they take when a member of their household has diarrhoea two thirds of the mothers said they visit a health facility. Most respondents (73% mentioned distance and transport costs as the main obstacles to accessing their nearest health facility and the same proportion of respondents mentioned prolonged waiting time and absence of health workers as the main obstacles encountered at the health facilities. The main predictor variables when a member of the family had diarrhoea were maternal age, distance to the nearest health facility, school level, and relative wealth, household diarrhoea endemicity, and household size while the main predictor variables when a child had diarrhoea were existence of a village health committee (VHC, distance to the nearest health facility, and maternal age. Most households use ORS for the treatment of diarrhoea and village health committees and health surveillance assistants (HSAs are important factors in this choice of treatment. Health education messages on the use and efficacy of ORS to ensure proper and prescribed handling are important. There is need for a comprehensive concept addressing several dimensions of management and

  3. The Sedimentary History of Southern Central Crete: Implications for Neogene Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, K.; Brachert, T. C.; Reuter, M.

    2003-04-01

    The tectonic setting of Crete was largely extensional since Lower Miocene uplift and exhumation of HP/LT rocks. Erosion of uplifted areas resulted in the deposition of terrestrial to marine sediments in the Messara and Iraclion Basins. There are several concurring models that discuss Late Neogene uplift of the basinal margins. Neogene near shore sediments in the south of the Messara Basin record fault movements contemporaneous to sedimentation and sedimentary input from the hinterland. Therefore they provide information on the paleogeographic situation and the resulting amount of subsidence and uplift of mountain areas since the Upper Miocene. The studied sediments consist of terrestrial to shallow marine, floodplain related sediments of the Upper Miocene Ambelouzos Formation that are overlain by platform limestones of the Upper Miocene Varvara Formation. In the Messara Basin these units are overlain by the Pliocene Kourtes Formation. The stratigraphic architecture of these deposits indicates fragmentation of the basinal margin. Proximal boulder conglomerates and reworked blocks of the Ambelouzos formation indicate fault activity during the deposition of the Varvara Formation. Contents of terrigenous clastics, provided by rivers and distributed by longshore currents, are high in the Ambelouzos and the lower Varvara Formations but decrease rapidly upsection within the Varvara Formation. This indicates drowning of the fault bounded blocks and little topography of the hinterland (Asteroussia Mountains) at that time. The Pliocene marls at the southern margin of the Messara Basin contain lithoclasts of the Upper Miocene limestones and thus indicate uplift of the carbonate platform. The modern topographic elevation of formerly drowned fault bounded blocks requires a minimum uplift of 400m. Main uplift occurred at approximately orthogonal NW-SE and SW-NE striking normal to oblique faults. The present elevation of the Asteroussia Mountains indicates net uplift of at least

  4. Implications of drainage rearrangement for passive margin escarpment evolution in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sordi, Michael Vinicius; Salgado, André Augusto Rodrigues; Siame, Lionel; Bourlès, Didier; Paisani, Julio Cesar; Léanni, Laëtitia; Braucher, Régis; Do Couto, Edivando Vítor; Aster Team

    2018-04-01

    Although several authors have pointed out the importance of earth surface process to passive margin escarpments relief evolution and even drainage rearrangements, the dynamics of a consolidated capture area (after a drainage network erodes the escarpment, as the one from the Itajaí-Açu River) remain poorly understood. Here, results are presented from radar elevation and aerial imagery data coupled with in-situ-produced 10Be concentrations measured in sand-sized river-born sediments from the Serra Geral escarpment, southern Brazil. The Studied area's relief evolution is captained by the drainage network: while the Itajaí-Açu watershed relief is the most dissected and lowest in elevation, it is significantly less dissected in the intermediate elevation Iguaçu catchment, an important Paraná River tributary. These less dissected and topographically higher areas belong to the Uruguai River catchment. These differences are conditioned by (i) different lithology compositions, structures and genesis; (ii) different morphological configurations, notably slope, range, relief; and (iii) different regional base levels. Along the Serra Geral escarpment, drainage features such as elbows, underfitted valleys, river profile anomalies, and contrasts in mapped χ-values are evidence of the rearrangement process, mainly beheading, where ocean-facing tributaries of the Itajaí-Açu River capture the inland catchments (Iguaçu and Uruguai). The 10Be derived denudation rates reinforced such processes: while samples from the Caçador and Araucárias Plateaus yield weighted means of 3.1 ± 0.2 and 6.5 ± 0.4 m/Ma respectively, samples from along the escarpment yield a weighted mean of 46.8 ± 3.6 m/Ma, almost 8 times higher. Such significant denudation rate differences are explained by base-level control, relief characteristics, and the geology framework. The main regional morphological evolutionary mechanism is headward denudation and piracy by the Itajaí-Açu River tributaries

  5. A sediment budget for the southern reach in San Francisco Bay, CA: Implications for habitat restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Wright, Scott A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2013-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project is overseeing the restoration of about 6000 ha of former commercial salt-evaporation ponds to tidal marsh and managed wetlands in the southern reach of San Francisco Bay (SFB). As a result of regional groundwater overdrafts prior to the 1970s, parts of the project area have subsided below sea-level and will require between 29 and 45 million m3 of sediment to raise the surface of the subsided areas to elevations appropriate for tidal marsh colonization and development. Therefore, a sufficient sediment supply to the far south SFB subembayment is a critical variable for achieving restoration goals. Although both major tributaries to far south SFB have been seasonally gaged for sediment since 2004, the sediment flux at the Dumbarton Narrows, the bayward boundary of far south SFB, has not been quantified until recently. Using daily suspended-sediment flux data from the gages on Guadalupe River and Coyote Creek, combined with continuous suspended-sediment flux data at Dumbarton Narrows, we computed a sediment budget for far south SFB during Water Years 2009–2011. A Monte Carlo approach was used to quantify the uncertainty of the flux estimates. The sediment flux past Dumbarton Narrows from the north dominates the input to the subembayment. However, environmental conditions in the spring can dramatically influence the direction of springtime flux, which appears to be a dominant influence on the net annual flux. It is estimated that up to several millennia may be required for natural tributary sediments to fill the accommodation space of the subsided former salt ponds, whereas supply from the rest of the bay could fill the space in several centuries. Uncertainty in the measurement of sediment flux is large, in part because small suspended-sediment concentration differences between flood and ebb tides can lead to large differences in total mass exchange. Using Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the random error associated with

  6. The Game of Peace and Justice in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den internationale strafferetsdomstol udsendte i marts 2009 en arrestordre på Sudans præsident Omar al-Bashir. Det internationale samfund har siden været delt på spørgsmålet om arrestordrens konsekvenser og betydning i forhold til at skabe fred og stabilitet i Sudan. I dette brief analyserer majo...

  7. Nodding syndrome in Mundri county, South Sudan: Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nodding Syndrome is a seizure disorder of children in Mundri County, Western Equatoria, South Sudan. The disorder is reported to be spreading in South Sudan and northern Uganda. Objective: To describe environmental, nutritional, infectious, and other factors that existed before and during the de novo 1991 ...

  8. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the

  9. 75 FR 62069 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... the formulation of a final rule. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by FAR Case 2009-041 by any of... final rule, FAR Case 2008- 004, Prohibition on Restricted Business Operations in Sudan and Imports from... rule, FAR Case 2008-004, Prohibition on Restricted Business Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma...

  10. Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... Award-winning machine boosts sorghum farming in Sudan ... The new planter, developed by researchers at Sudan's Agricultural ... Senegal: Staying home at all costs ... This ICT4D article series features results from innovative research on participatory geographic information systems (P-GIS) in Africa.

  11. South Sudan Medical Journal - Vol 11, No 1 (2018)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and practice, and service barriers in a tuberculosis programme in Lakes State, South Sudan: a qualitative study · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ... HIV/AIDS: Knowledge, attitudes and practices among adolescents in Nimule, South Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niguse Fekadu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cattle brucellosis has significant economic and zoonotic implication for the rural communities in Ethiopia in consequence of their traditional life styles, feeding habits and disease patterns. Hence, knowledge of brucellosis occurrence in traditional livestock husbandry practice has considerable importance in reducing the economic and public health impacts of the disease. Methods A total of 1623 cattle sera were serially tested using the rose Bengal test as screening and complement fixation test as confirmatory tests. The Stata survey command was used to establish prevalences for the overall and individual variables, while potential risk factors for seropositivity were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results The results showed that 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4, 4.5% of the animals and 26.1% (95% CI = 18.6, 33.7 of the herds tested had antibodies against Brucella species. Village level seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 100%. A higher seroprevalence was observed in pastoral system than mixed farming although this variable was not significant in the final model. The final logistic regression model identified herd size; with large (odd ratio (OR = 8.0, 95% CI = 1.9, 33.6 and medium herds (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.9, 34.2 showing higher risk of Brucella infection when compared to small herds. Similarly, the odds of Brucella infection was higher in cattle aged above 4 years when compared to age groups of 1-2 (OR = 5.4, 2.1, 12.9 and 3-4 years (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.0, 9.6. Herd level analysis of the risk factors revealed that large and medium herds as well as herds kept with multiple livestock species were at higher risk of acquiring Brucella infection. Brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practices certainly poses a zoonotic risk to the public, in consequence of raw milk consumption, close contact with animals and provision of assistance during parturition. Due to lack of diagnostic facilities and

  13. Sudan-decoding generalized geometric Goppa codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydtmann, Agnes Eileen

    2003-01-01

    Generalized geometric Goppa codes are vector spaces of n-tuples with entries from different extension fields of a ground field. They are derived from evaluating functions similar to conventional geometric Goppa codes, but allowing evaluation in places of arbitrary degree. A decoding scheme...... for these codes based on Sudan's improved algorithm is presented and its error-correcting capacity is analyzed. For the implementation of the algorithm it is necessary that the so-called increasing zero bases of certain spaces of functions are available. A method to obtain such bases is developed....

  14. Islands of Education: Schooling, Civil War and the Southern Sudanese (1983-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Victims of warfare, famine, slavery, and isolation, the Southern Sudanese are one of the most undereducated populations in the world. Since the inception of formal education in southern Sudan a century ago, schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. Islands of Education is the first book…

  15. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe th...

  16. Village poultry production in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Awad, S.; Hass, W.

    2002-01-01

    A survey form provided by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division was used to collect data on village poultry production in the Sudan. The production system in the households was based on scavenging indigenous domestic chickens, at times accompanied by pigeons, guinea fowls, ducks or turkeys. The average flock size was 18.8 birds and included 44.3% hens, 10% cocks, 20% growers and 24.8% chicks. The hen to cock ratio was 4.4:1. Average egg production was 3.1 per hen per month, of which 76% were incubated by hens. About 78% of incubated eggs hatched of which 75% survived the brooding period. Approximately half of the households provided the chickens with housing. Around 25.7% of interviewed households used chicken manure as fertilizer. While scavenging, chickens fed on insects, grass, vegetables and kitchen wastes. Feed supplements included sorghum, millet and sometimes wheat bran and alfalfa. The ownership of village chickens was shared between all gender categories and all were involved in the management of the birds. The major constraints to village poultry production in the Sudan were identified and included inadequate health care, poor production, inappropriate housing and poor knowledge of poultry management. (author)

  17. Prehospital emergency care and injury prevention in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Elbashir

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Due to an absence of published literature in Sudan, much of the data have been recorded from paper records and empirical observations. Prehospital care and injury prevention in the Sudan is a recent initiative, but it is developing into a promising model with many opportunities for improvement. This momentum should be nurtured and requires a purposive, collective collaboration to draw a blueprint for a locally relevant, effective and efficient prehospital system in Sudan. It is hoped that this article will highlight and encourage further progress.

  18. Evidence for genetic differentiation at the microgeographic scale in Phlebotomus papatasi populations from Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Noteila M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is endemic in Sudan. It is caused by Leishmania major parasites and transmitted by Phlebotomus papatasi sandflies. Recently, uncommon clinical manifestations of CL have been reported. Moreover, L. donovani parasites that cause Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL have been isolated from CL lesions of some patients who contracted the disease in Khartoum State, Central Sudan with no history of travelling to VL endemic sites on south-eastern Sudan. Because different clinical manifestations and the parasite behaviour could be related to genetic differentiation, or even sub-structuring within sandfly vector populations, a population genetic study was conducted on P. papatasi populations collected from different localities in Khartoum State known for their uncommon CL cases and characterized by contrasting environmental conditions. Methods A set of seven microsatellite loci was used to investigate the population structure of P. papatasi samples collected from different localities in Khartoum State, Central Sudan. Populations from Kassala State, Eastern Sudan and Egypt were also included in the analyses as outgroups. The level of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation among natural populations of P. papatasi was determined using FST statistics and Bayesian assignments. Results Genetic analyses revealed significant genetic differentiation (FST between the Sudanese and the Egyptian populations. Within the Sudanese P. papatasi populations, one population from Gerif West, Khartoum State, exhibited significant genetic differentiation from all other populations including those collected as near as 22 km. Conclusion The significant genetic differentiation of Gerif West P. papatasi population from other Sudanese populations may have important implication for the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Khartoum State and needs to be further investigated. Primarily, it could be linked to the unique location of Gerif West

  19. Religious extremism: The case of Sudan's Mariam Yahya Ibrahim Ishag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Tenai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent case of the arrest, prosecution and imprisonment of Mariam Yahya Ibrahim Ishag of Sudan has drawn attention to the place of Islamic sharia law in contemporary, diverse and multireligious communities and nation states. Islamic sharia law was used to charge Mariam of apostasy; she was subsequently sentenced to 100 lashes followed by hanging. Religious extremism and one of its resultant effects, namely persecution, particularly of women and other minorities, is a persistent hindrance to ongoing efforts against poverty responses. Religious extremism goes against the spirit of Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 18 of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights, of which many nation states are signatories. The Catholic vows of consecration � poverty, chastity and obedience � are very helpful perspectives that can assist in pursuing responses to religious extremism and the resultant intolerance, persecution and dispossession.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Drawing from the Roman Catholic Church�s vows of consecration, the article argues for a stance that communities can take in situations that call for solidarity with people in vulnerable situations.

  20. Identifying potential sources of Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits over its growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Naiying; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Li, Fengfei; Han, Wenjie

    2015-04-15

    Sudan dyes in spices are often assumed to arise from cross-contamination or malicious addition. Here, experiments were carried out to identify the potential source of Sudan I-IV in Capsicum fruits through investigation of their contents in native Capsicum tissues, soils and associated agronomic materials. Sudan II-IV was not detected in any of the tested samples. Sudan I was found in almost all samples except for the mulching film. Sudan I concentrations decreased from stems to leaves and then to fruits or roots. Sudan I levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatment. These results exclude the possibility of soil as the main source for Sudan I contamination in Capsicum fruits. Further study found out pesticide and fertilizer constitutes the major source of Sudan I contamination. This work represents a preliminary step for a detailed Sudan I assessment to support Capsicum management and protection in the studied region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intraspecific venom variation in the medically significant Southern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri): biodiscovery, clinical and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Scheib, Holger; Gren, Eric C K; Cochran, Chip; Person, Carl E; Koludarov, Ivan; Kelln, Wayne; Hayes, William K; King, Glenn F; Antunes, Agosthino; Fry, Bryan Grieg

    2014-03-17

    Due to the extreme variation of venom, which consequently results in drastically variable degrees of neutralization by CroFab antivenom, the management and treatment of envenoming by Crotalus oreganus helleri (the Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), one of the most medically significant snake species in all of North America, has been a clinician's nightmare. This snake has also been the subject of sensational news stories regarding supposed rapid (within the last few decades) evolution of its venom. This research demonstrates for the first time that variable evolutionary selection pressures sculpt the intraspecific molecular diversity of venom components in C. o. helleri. We show that myotoxic β-defensin peptides (aka: crotamines/small basic myotoxic peptides) are secreted in large amounts by all populations. However, the mature toxin-encoding nucleotide regions evolve under the constraints of negative selection, likely as a result of their non-specific mode of action which doesn't enforce them to follow the regime of the classic predator-prey chemical arms race. The hemorrhagic and tissue destroying snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) were secreted in larger amounts by the Catalina Island and Phelan rattlesnake populations, in moderate amounts in the Loma Linda population and in only trace levels by the Idyllwild population. Only the Idyllwild population in the San Jacinto Mountains contained potent presynaptic neurotoxic phospholipase A2 complex characteristic of Mohave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) and Neotropical Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus). The derived heterodimeric lectin toxins characteristic of viper venoms, which exhibit a diversity of biological activities, including anticoagulation, agonism/antagonism of platelet activation, or procoagulation, appear to have evolved under extremely variable selection pressures. While most lectin α- and β-chains evolved rapidly under the influence of positive Darwinian selection, the β-chain lectin of

  2. Effects of passive smoking on children health | Salih | Sudan Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Health care system in Sudan: review and analysis of Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health care system in Sudan: review and analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats (SWOT Analysis). Ebrahim M.A. Ebrahim, Luam Ghebrehiwot, Tasneem Abdalgfar, Muhammad Hanafiah Juni ...

  4. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 8, No 2 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Article Gum Arabic in treatment of functional constipation in children in Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. MW Ali, OM Sabir, MOE Gadour, 73-76 ...

  5. Childbirth in South Sudan: Preferences, practice and perceptions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    b American Refugee Committee International, Juba, South Sudan ... at birth in the three county catchment areas of Kapoeta Civil Hospital. .... oblige him to offer an animal sacrifice. ... the 140th American Public Health Association Annual.

  6. Medicines utilization and trends in Sudan between 2006 and 2010

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discipline, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and ..... Table 5: Antianaemic preparations utilization in NHIF-Sudan based on retail prices ...

  7. Generalized Sudan's List Decoding for Order Domain Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity....

  8. Microcredit supply under Islamic Banking in Khartoum State, Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    been negatively impacted by the financial sanctions imposed on Sudan since ... to in Arabic language as “Riba”1 is the most significant principle of Islamic finance. ..... of microcredit approval among those who maintain accounting records is ...

  9. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 10, No 3 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyshormonogenesis) in Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Nada Mukhtar, Elshibli M Elshibli, Huda Abdelmonein, Mohamed A Abdullah, Imad F Elmula, 109-116 ...

  10. Security regionalism and flaws of externally forged peace in Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the IGAD peace process in Sudan, highlighting the dynamics ..... that according to erroneous US intelligence produced chemical weapons ..... However, Garang's death in a helicopter accident in July 2005 exposed the.

  11. Currency Crisis in Sudan in 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamedin Bannaga, Dr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sudan currency crisis in 2012 occurred when the Sudanese pound lost 66 percent of its value against the US dollar. In this article we adopt statistical methods such as the signal approach and econometric methods such as the Probit Model for identifying and evaluating the currency crisis. We utilize some economic indicators that have the ability to predict the crisis. We examined the capability of these indicators in generating an early warning system for Sudan currency crisis. The study confirms that the incidence of currency crisis in Sudan increases by increase in inflation rate, increase in import percentage of GDP, rise in claims against the central government, reduction in external reserves and existence of political crisis. Moreover, the study finds that the most important predictor of currency crisis in Sudan is decline in external reserves.

  12. Measuring Job Satisfaction Patterns in Saudi ArabiaÕs Southern Regions Hospitals: Implications for Hospital Staff Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani Bander Sayaf

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....

  13. Phytoplankton size structure in the southern Bay of Bengal modified by the Summer Monsoon Current and associated eddies: Implications on the vertical biogenic flux..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Madhu, N.V.; Robin, R; Karman, C.; Jagadeesan, L.; Anjusha, A.

    . Mar. Syst., vol.143; 2015; 98–119 Phytoplankton Size Structure in the Southern Bay of Bengal Modified by the Summer Monsoon Current and Associated Eddies: Implications on the Vertical Biogenic Flux R. Jyothibabu1*, P. N. Vinayachandran2, N. V.... Madhu1, R.S. Robin3, C. Karnan1, L. Jagadeesan1, A. Anjusha1 1CSIR – National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Kochi, India 2Centre for Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India 3Integrated Coastal...

  14. Editorial: The call to battle cancer in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oromo Francis Seriano Omojo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment is still nascent to non-existent in South Sudan. Basic surgical removal of cancer growths is the only option for many people. The country does not possess an oncology facility and consequently, with no access to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, treatment is a major challenge. Those who can afford it are referred for further management to countries such as the Sudan, Egypt, Uganda, India or South Africa.

  15. An Evaluation of the Partitioning of Sudan and US Contribution

    OpenAIRE

    Adeleke, Oniya Olusegun

    2015-01-01

    A country is partitioned when a region within her existing boundary breaks its legitimate bonds with such a country or state in order to become an independent state in its own right. This does not include, independence after colonization, unilateral declaration of independence or de facto control of a region/territory by militias. This thesis evaluates the impact of US diplomatic engagement in Sudan. Why did the US spend her resources, time and energy to bring about the division of Sudan? Was...

  16. Sudan : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La mise en ¿uvre d'un système communautaire complet de soins de santé primaires constitue un important défi dans des régions comme le Soudan du Sud et le nord de l'Ouganda qui ont été marquées par des conflits. Région: South Sudan, Uganda, Canada, Sudan. Programme: Maternal and Child Health. Financement ...

  17. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam, Adam Khatir [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Po, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 40} K and fallout radionuclide {sup 137} Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and {alpha} spectrometry. The external exposure due to {gamma} radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 {+-} 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 {mu}Sv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of {sup 226} Ra, {sup 238} U, {sup 232} Th, {sup 40} K and {sup 137} Cs determined were 31.6 {+-} 27, 20.1 {+-} 16.4, 19.1 {+-} 8.1, 280.3 {+-} 137.6 and 4.1 {+-} 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that {sup 238} U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m{sup 2} with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m{sup 2} respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10

  18. Assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, A.K.; Ahamed, M.M.O.; El Khangi, F.A.; El Nigumi, Y.O.; Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    Calculations of the external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground have been made from the results of the measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the soil at various locations in Sudan. The average exposure was found to be 45 nGy.h -1 , corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv.y -1 . With the exception of the Arkuri and Dumper areas in the western part of the country, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nationwide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.62, 20.11, 19.10, 280.29 and 4.12 Bq.kg -1 , respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. (author)

  19. Soap Industry In Sudan Challenges And Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Tag Elsir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between the working situation of soap industries in Sudan and their engineering management strategies considering number of samples of soap industries which facing a problem of misunderstanding of applying the total quality management systems in Sudanese soap factories which are almost owned by famous rich families as a one of the total profit indicators when taking into consideration the competition and consumer satisfaction beside the long term conservation of energy and machinery life. To discover the fact behind this clear links have been establish between the evaluation of strategies and the summary of findings derived from the raw data by using the inductive method represented by observation data collection pattern of data hypothesis and generalization a theory which confirms the prediction that the chosen samples were suffering directly from engineering management strategies execution either for energy management or materials management systems because of lacking or not applying the proper strategy.

  20. Radiochemical studies on environmental radioactivity in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sam, Adam Khatir

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of uranium and thorium isotopes, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 228 Ra, 40 K and fallout radionuclide 137 Cs in soil samples collected from different districts in Sudan, rock phosphate samples collected from the uro and kurun rock phosphate deposits in the eastern part of the Nuba mountains in Western Sudan, and surface marine sediments and marine organisms collected from the sudanese coastal waters of the Red Sea have been made using a high resolution gamma-spectrometry, radiochemical separation and α spectrometry. The external exposure due to γ radiation from the ground has been calculated. The average exposure was found to be 45.4 ± 21.3 nGy/h, corresponding to the annual dose equivalent of 278 μSv/y. With the exception of some areas, the calculated exposure falls within the global wide range of outdoor radiation exposure given in the UNSCEAR publications. The nation-wide average concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs determined were 31.6 ± 27, 20.1 ± 16.4, 19.1 ± 8.1, 280.3 ± 137.6 and 4.1 ± 4.3 Bq/Kg, respectively. This shows that there is little contamination due to fallout radioactivity at survey sites. The exchangeable radium fraction constitutes 19-24% of the total radium content. The data show that 238 U and its decay products are the principal contributors of radioactivity in both phosphate deposits at Uro and Kurun. The equivalent mass concentrations of uranium in the Uro rock phosphate fall within the range that could be economically recovered as the by-product of fertilizer industry. The mean activity concentrations weighted by average agricultural consumption of 300 kg/ha of untreated ground rock fertilizer resulted in an annual distribution of 120.63 Bq Ra/m 2 with Uro rock and 12.97, 0.21 and 4.24 Bq/m 2 respectively, with Kurun rock fertilizer. The external radiation exposure over agricultural areas was estimated 23.41 x 10 -9 Gy/h and 2.59 x 10 -9 Gy/h at 1 m above ground level for Uro and Kurun rock phosphate fertilizers

  1. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  2. Status of nuclear forensic support in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtar, Mohammedelmoez Eltayeb Abderahman

    2015-08-01

    The central problem investigated in this thesis is nuclear forensic support in Sudan, the thesis comprises five chapters, began with an introduction containing the art of forensic science, stated the importance of the it in criminal investigations. The forensic science was defined, and stated the principle of which it underlying, including: principle of individuality and principle of exchange, the divisions of this science has been clarified, then it discussed the crime scene and the collecting of evidence, where starting the forensic science at the crime scene, with clarifying the principle of crime scene investigation. Nuclear and other radioactive material was discussed: defining a radioactivity with the material source. It placed into 3 general categories: special nuclear materials, reactor fuel, and commercial radioactive sources, and mention each category and it characteristics. Radiation is part of our environment was clarified, and discussed what the effect on organisms and populations are. Nuclear forensics was presented,and how problem of the safeguarding of the nuclear material beginning. The emerging nature of the problem was discussed, the radiological crime scene management was explained, importance of securing the scene with an examples of equipment and instruments for on-scene radiation safety assessment and how the collection of evidence, storage forensic laboratory analysis was discussed and how set the designated nuclear forensic laboratory, also nuclear forensic interpretation, and the chain of custody was mentioned. The role of Regulating Authority in Nuclear forensic support was discussed, specifically in Sudan, International Cooperation have also been reminded, as well as memorandum of understanding was mentioned between SNRRA and the administration of forensic evidence, and one of it results is the radiological surveys unit in forensic administration, how the unit is configured, the role of the unit, finally conclusion of research was

  3. Sudan: the human price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This series of eight information bulletins by Amnesty International is intended to draw attention to the link between the massive human rights violations by the security forces of the Government of Sudan and various government-allied militia forces, and the oil operations by foreign companies (which include Canada's Talisman Energy, Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd., and Roll'n Oil Field Industries). The human rights violations cited by Amnesty International include atrocities and the forcible internal displacement of large populations of local people living in the oil fields and surrounding areas. It is alleged that the foreign oil companies involved in this lucrative operation expect the Sudanese government to provide a secure environment and protect oil company staff and assets, and turn a blind eye to human rights violations by the government security forces in the name of protecting the security of the oil-producing areas. In raising awareness of the problem, Amnesty International hopes to establish a dialogue with the foreign oil companies and sensitize them to their responsibilities to promote a better human rights environment in the areas where they are active in oil exploration and extraction. The information bulletins provide a background to the problem; detail the human rights violations committed in the name of oil; establish the link between oil, weapons purchases by the Sudanese government and human rights violations; describe the oil companies and their responsibilities and international standards on internal displacement of populations; and makes recommendations to the Government of Sudan, to the armed opposition groups, to the oil companies and to the international community at large to bring an end to the human rights violations that over the last three decades have cost tens of thousands of lives and displaced hundreds of thousands of people

  4. A black sun in a white mind: In memory of Sudan mission 1848–1858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Frelih

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ignacij Knoblehar (1819–1858 worked as a Catholic missionary in southern Sudan, in particular among the Bari people. He sent regular reports home about his work and many newspapers also published his letters. Above all, he became known when he sailed beyond 4° north latitude. He was the first European to carry out systematic measurements of the White Nile and his discoveries were reported in both Europe and America. While he lived there, Slovenians became acquainted for the first time in their history with a part of Africa. In 1850 he brought a large collection of diverse artifacts from the Nilotic peoples back to Ljubljana. These artifacts are preserved in the Slovene Ethnographic Museum today, and part of the collection was put on display in a temporary exhibition entitled “Sudan Mission 1848–1858” at the museum in May 2009. The arrival of a number of African children in Ljubljana arguably constituted the highpoint of this early Slovenian contact with Africa. Missionaries bought the children at a slave market and brought them back to Europe with the intention of training the boys to be priests and the girls to be nuns. However, the plan fell through because the children all died of pneumonia and tuberculosis. The public baptism of the African children and the relationship of the general public to them in the mid-nineteenth century helped shape stereotypical representations of Africans as well as certain forms of racial discrimination that are still present today.

  5. The Historical and religious conditions of the split of Sudan ... in the context of Christian-Muslim relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Cisło

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The split into the predominantly Muslim Northern Sudan, and Southern Sudan with a Christian and animist majority, had been emerging in the course of many centuries. Without any doubt, one is bound to mention the natural and geographical boundaries, the ethnical diversity of the regions, the influence exercised during the centuries by the Egyptians, Arabs and later on by the British. According to the opinions of some experts on the subject, there can be two distinct matters that have contributed to the split of the North and the South. These were education and religion. Apart from education, also the issue of religion was dividing the Sudan. After the declaration of independence on January 1, 1954 all the Christian private schools in the South were closed down. There remained only state schools with Arabic as the language of instruction and with the upbringing model based on the Koran teaching. Having obtained political independence, the fears of the British administration and Christian missionaries became a reality: Islam was made the state religion. The only way to attain an occupational and social status was to convert to Islam. Frequently, this took place according to the rule of an already accomplished fact or by pressure. In the context of Sudan, one of the biggest country in Africa, with its population of over 37 million, made up of 70 per cent Muslim believers , 14 per cent of Christians, and 12 per cent of animists, it is of great importance for the perception of fundamentalism to be familiar with the history of this country.

  6. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: Implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Niño–Southern Oscillation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, David K.; Moseley, Michael E.

    2004-01-01

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2–8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term “shattered landscape” to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion. PMID:15263069

  7. Southern Peru desert shattered by the great 2001 earthquake: implications for paleoseismic and paleo-El Nino-Southern Oscillation records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, David K; Moseley, Michael E

    2004-07-27

    In the desert region around the coastal city of Ilo, the great southern Peru earthquake of June 23, 2001 (8.2-8.4 moment magnitude), produced intense and widespread ground-failure effects. These effects included abundant landslides, pervasive ground cracking, microfracturing of surficial hillslope materials, collapse of drainage banks over long stretches, widening of hillside rills, and lengthening of first-order tributary channels. We have coined the term "shattered landscape" to describe the severity of these effects. Long-term consequences of this landscape shattering are inferred to include increased runoff and sediment transport during postearthquake rainstorms. This inference was confirmed during the first minor postearthquake rainstorm there, which occurred in June and July of 2002. Greater amounts of rainfall in this desert region have historically been associated with El Niño events. Previous studies of an unusual paleoflood deposit in this region have concluded that it is the product of El Niño-generated precipitation falling on seismically disturbed landscapes. The effects of the 2001 earthquake and 2002 rainstorm support that conclusion.

  8. Implications of a Doha Agreement on Agricultural Markets in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Karim, Imad Eldin Elfadil; Abler, David G.

    2008-01-01

    The latest round of multilateral trade negotiations was launched at the ministerial meeting of the World Trade Organization in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001. Agriculture is a major item on the agenda for the Doha Round. The primary focus is on the three “pillars” of the Uruguay Round agreement—domestic support, market access, and export competition. The framework for a final agreement was finalized at a Ministerial meeting in Geneva in July 2004, but contains few details on modalities (e.g., ...

  9. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jien Zhang

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05. The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  10. Experience with the selection method in pine stands in the southern United States, with implications for future application

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    The selection method applied in shade-intolerant pine stands in the southern United States has been shown to be an effective method of uneven-aged silviculture, but it is becoming less frequently practiced for a variety of reasons. Economically, the high value of standing timber puts fully stocked uneven-aged pine stands at risk of liquidation if the timberland is sold...

  11. The Implications of the Transfer of Authority of the Panama Canal Zone on Us Southern Command's Theater Engagement Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hallengren, Charlotte

    2000-01-01

    .... As a result of the provisions of these treaties, U.S. Southern Command will need to compensate for the loss of forward basing in Panama in order to continue to perform its anti-drug regional mission. U.S...

  12. Determinants of Persistence and Tolerance of Carnivores on Namibian Ranches: Implications for Conservation on Southern African Private Lands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, P.A.; Havemann, C.P.; Lines, R.M.; Palazy, L.; Price, A.E.; Retief, T.A.; Rhebergen, T.; Waal, van der C.

    2013-01-01

    Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large

  13. Late Quaternary Deep Stratification-Climate Coupling in the Southern Ocean : Implications for Changes in Abyssal Carbon Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Li; Wang, Rujian; Xiao, Wenshen; Krijgsman, Wout|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/148529763; Li, Qianyu; Ge, Shulan; Ma, Tong

    The Southern Ocean plays an important role in modulating Pleistocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Here, we report the laser grain-size distribution and Mn geochemical data of a 523 kyr-long sediment record (core ANT30/P1-02 off Prydz

  14. 31 CFR 538.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Sudan. 538.205 Section 538.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the exportation or reexportation, directly or indirectly, to Sudan of any goods, technology (including technical data, software, or...

  15. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2001 : Sudan operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Talisman Energy Inc. is a large independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, including operations in Sudan, Malaysia, Trinidad and Colombia. This report includes a discussion on seismic exploration in the Acevedo block in Colombia, but most of the report focuses on operations in Sudan because that is the primary concern of many stakeholders, particularly the impact of the long-running civil war in that country and the way in which oil revenues will be used. The report describes Talisman Energy's compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business which Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. It was noted that the funding provided by the Sudan oil project consortium Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) for community development was increased for 2002. Talisman and GNPOC funding helps in community development initiatives such as the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) was asked by Talisman to gather comments on the company's operations in Sudan from a range of stakeholder groups. This report presents audit statements by PwC regarding Talisman's social responsibility. The report also included an independent opinion regarding the challenge of facing ethical dilemmas in business. tabs., figs.

  16. Determination of Aniline Degraded From Sudan I in Cloths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, C.K.; Fung, L.C.; Men, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    A method development for the determination of an aromatic amine degraded from an azo dye in cloths was carried out. Sodium dithionite was used to cleave the azo bond of Sudan I into its aromatic amines, and the amines, mainly aniline were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. The efficiency of the reduction process of Sudan I, based on the degree of decolorisation of dye, was measured using the spectrophotometer. The optimized values of the reduction process was found effective when 1:1 ratio of 0.30 % sodium dithionite to Sudan I (dit/ Sud) was used at pH 8. The recovery percentage and relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of this method was found to be 62.9 - 88.4 % and 7.6 - 21.5 %, respectively. The proposed method was tested on self-dyed cloth samples with Sudan I. Aniline released from the reduction of Sudan I was detected in the self-dyed cloth samples. The results of this study demonstrate the applicability of sodium dithionite for the reduction of the azo dye in the cloth samples. (author)

  17. Thermochronology of Cretaceous batholithic rocks in the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith, southern California: Implications for the Late Cretaceous tectonic evolution of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggins, Daniel P.; Premo, Wayne R.; Snee, Lawrence W; Yeoman, Ross; Naeaer, Nancy D.; Naeser, Charles W.; Morton, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermochronology for several suites of Mesozoic metamorphic and plutonic rocks collected throughout the northern Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB) was studied as part of a collaborative isotopic study to further our understanding of the magmatic and tectonic history of southern California. These sample suites include: a traverse through the plutonic rocks across the northern PRB (N = 29), a traverse across a central structural and metamorphic transition zone of mainly metasedimentary rocks at Searl ridge (N = 20), plutonic samples from several drill cores (N = 7) and surface samples (N = 2) from the Los Angeles Basin, a traverse across the Eastern Peninsular Ranges mylonite zone (N = 6), and a suite of plutonic samples collected across the northern PRB (N = 13) from which only biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages were obtained. These geochronologic data help to characterize five major petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic zonations of the PRB (western zone, WZ; western transition zone, WTZ; eastern transition zone, ETZ; eastern zone, EZ; and upper-plate zone, UPZ).Apparent cooling rates were calculated using U-Pb zircon (zr) and titanite (sphene) ages; 40Ar/39Ar ages from hornblende (hbl), biotite (bi), and K-feldspar (Kf); and apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from the same samples. The apparent cooling rates across the northern PRB vary from relatively rapid in the west (zr-hbl ~210 °C/m.y.; zr-bio ~160 °C/m.y.; zr-Kf ~80 °C/m.y.) to less rapid in the central (zr-hb ~280 °C/m.y.; zr-bio ~90 °C/m.y.; zr-Kf ~60 °C/m.y.) and eastern (zr-hbl ~185 °C/m.y.; zr-bio ~180 °C/m.y.; zr-Kf ~60 °C/m.y.) zones. An exception in the eastern zone, the massive San Jacinto pluton, appears to have cooled very rapidly (zr-bio ~385 °C/m.y.). Apparent cooling rates for the UPZ samples are consistently slower in comparison (~25–45 °C/m.y.), regardless of which geochronometers are used.Notable characteristics of the various ages from different dating methods include: (1) Zircon

  18. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of dengue in PortSudan, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Hagir M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes (maternal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight and perinatal mortality of dengue at PortSudan and Elmawani hospitals in the eastern Sudan. Method This was a retrospective Cohort study where medical files of women with dengue were reviewed. Results There were 10820 deliveries and 78 (0.7% pregnant women with confirmed dengue IgM serology at the mean (SD gestational age of 29.4(8.2 weeks. While the majority of these women had dengue fever (46, 58.9%, hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome were the presentations in 18 (23.0% and 12, (15.3% of these women, respectively. There were 17(21.7% maternal deaths. Fourteen (17.9% of these 78 women had preterm deliveries and 19 (24.3% neonates were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Nineteen (24.3% women gave birth to low birth weight babies. There were seven (8.9% perinatal deaths. Eight (10.2% patients delivered by caesarean section due to various obstetrical indications. Conclusion Thus dengue has poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in this setting. Preventive measures against dengue should be employed in the region, and more research on dengue during pregnancy is needed.

  19. Repeated application of fuel reduction treatments in the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA: implications for achieving management goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Donald L. Hagan; Dean M. Simon

    2016-01-01

    Fire and resource managers of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA, have many questions about the use of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to meet various land management objectives. Three common objectives include restoration to an open woodland, oak regeneration, and fuel reduction. This paper provides information about reaching each of these three...

  20. Sedimentology, provenance and geochronology of the Miocene Qiuwu Formation: Implication for the uplift history of Southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Located on the south of the Gangdese, the Qiuwu Formation has traditionally been considered as Eocene coal-bearing clastic sediments consisting of sandstone, mudstone and conglomerate, unconformably on top of Gangdese batholith. However, its precise age and depositional environment remain ambiguous. Here, we present a newly measured stratigraphic section near the Ngamring County, western Xigaze. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages were also applied to trace the provenance of sediments and to constrain the maximum depositional age of the Qiuwu Formation. Sedimentary facies analyses indicate subaqueous fan and alluvial fan depositional environments. Clast composition of the conglomerate is dominated by magmatic rocks at the lower part, while chert and mafic detritus occur in the upper part, suggesting a southern source. Sandstone modal analyses indicate that the compositions of quartz, feldspar and lithic grains changed from transitional arc to dissected arc, implying the unroofing of the Gangdese arc. Detrital zircon U–Pb ages of the Qiuwu Formation are compared with those from Gangdese magmatic rocks and Yarlung-Zangbo ophiolites, suggesting that the Gangdese arc is a main source of the Qiuwu detritus and that the southern source played a role during the later stage. The major peak of detrital zircon ages is at 45–55 Ma, which corresponds to Linzizong volcanic rocks in southern Gangdese arc. The weighted mean age of the five youngest zircons from the lower part of the section is 21.0 ± 2.2 Ma, suggesting that the Qiuwu Formation was deposited in early Miocene, coeval with other conglomerates exposed along the southern margin of Gangdese. Combining new observations with previously published data, we propose that the provenance of the Qiuwu Formation had shifted from a single northern source to double sources from both the north and the south. Activities of Great Counter Thrust were primarily responsible for the shift by making the south area a

  1. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  2. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program.

  3. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia

    2012-03-01

    The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.

  4. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43-), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43-). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea.

  5. An integrated geophysical survey of Kilbourne Hole, southern New Mexico: Implications for near surface exploration of Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksim, Nisa

    Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of an ancient phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The eruption intensity of a phreatomagmatic volcano is controlled mainly by the quantity of water and magma, the internal geometry of the volcano, and the depth of the interaction zone between magma and water. In order to understand the paleohydrologic conditions at the time of eruption, we must understand all the factors that influenced the phreatomagmatic event. I conducted an integrated geophysical survey, which are magnetic and gravity surveys, and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys at Kilbourne Hole, a phreatomagmatic crater in southern New Mexico. These investigations serve an analog paleo-hydrogeological study that could be conducted on Mars and the Moon with an implication for planetary exploration. These geophysical surveys are designed to delineate the internal structure of a phreatomagmatic volcano and to define the volumes and masses of volcanic dikes and excavation unit, the depth of feeder dikes, and impacted velocity of the volcanic blocks. For the gravity and magnetic surveys at Kilbourne Hole, I collected data at a total of 171 gravity survey stations and 166 magnetics survey stations. A 2D gravity and magnetic inverse model was developed jointly to map the body of the magma intrusions and the internal structure of Kilbourne Hole. A total of 6 GPR surveys lines were also completed at Kilbourne Hole to image and to define locations of pyroclastic deposits, volcanic sags and blocks, the sizes distribution of volcanic blocks, and the impact velocity of the volcanic blocks. Using the size distribution and impact velocity of volcanic blocks from our GPR data, I derived the initial gas expansion velocity and the time duration of the gas expansion phase of the Kilbourne Hole eruption. These obtained parameters (volumes, masses, and depths of the feeder dikes and the excavation

  6. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  7. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt management mechanism and economic corruption were a product of the lack of political and fiscal accountability in the context of personal rule.

  8. The discovery of new deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities in the southern ocean and implications for biogeography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D Rogers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the first discovery of deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the Galápagos Rift in 1977, numerous vent sites and endemic faunal assemblages have been found along mid-ocean ridges and back-arc basins at low to mid latitudes. These discoveries have suggested the existence of separate biogeographic provinces in the Atlantic and the North West Pacific, the existence of a province including the South West Pacific and Indian Ocean, and a separation of the North East Pacific, North East Pacific Rise, and South East Pacific Rise. The Southern Ocean is known to be a region of high deep-sea species diversity and centre of origin for the global deep-sea fauna. It has also been proposed as a gateway connecting hydrothermal vents in different oceans but is little explored because of extreme conditions. Since 2009 we have explored two segments of the East Scotia Ridge (ESR in the Southern Ocean using a remotely operated vehicle. In each segment we located deep-sea hydrothermal vents hosting high-temperature black smokers up to 382.8°C and diffuse venting. The chemosynthetic ecosystems hosted by these vents are dominated by a new yeti crab (Kiwa n. sp., stalked barnacles, limpets, peltospiroid gastropods, anemones, and a predatory sea star. Taxa abundant in vent ecosystems in other oceans, including polychaete worms (Siboglinidae, bathymodiolid mussels, and alvinocaridid shrimps, are absent from the ESR vents. These groups, except the Siboglinidae, possess planktotrophic larvae, rare in Antarctic marine invertebrates, suggesting that the environmental conditions of the Southern Ocean may act as a dispersal filter for vent taxa. Evidence from the distinctive fauna, the unique community structure, and multivariate analyses suggest that the Antarctic vent ecosystems represent a new vent biogeographic province. However, multivariate analyses of species present at the ESR and at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents globally indicate that vent biogeography is more

  9. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  10. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope studies of Late Weichselian lake sediments in southern Sweden and northern Poland, with palaeoclimatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarlund, D.

    1994-04-01

    Late Weichselian lacustrine sediment sequences from southern Sweden and northern Poland were studied by means of stable isotope analysis in order to reconstruct the climatic development and climatically induced environmental changes in the respective regions. The methods used include analyses of the stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of bulk organic material, and the stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ 13 C, δ 18 O) of bulk carbonates and carbonate shells of aquatic organisms. These results were complemented and supported by lithological, chemical and biostratigraphic data (plant macrofossils, insects, molluscs). Chronological data were obtained by AMS radiocarbon dates and correlations based on pollen analysis. At c. 12.400 BP a climatic change from arctic, dry, and continental, to subarctic and more humid and maritime conditions occurred in southern Sweden. The Older Dryas stadial (c.12.200-12.000 BP) is characterized by a temporary return to generally colder , drier, and more continental conditions, followed by generally favourable (subarctic), although unstable, climatic conditions. At c. 11.300 BP a gradual transition towards a colder and more continental climate was initiated, followed by total absence of limnic carbonates during the Younger Dryas stadial (c. 11.000-10.200 BP), indicating arctic and continental conditions. The transition to the Holocene is characterized by a rapid and strong climatic warming. The results from northern Poland point to some important differences compared to this development. A climatic warming around 13.000 BP was followed by generally favourable climatic conditions enabling continuous sedimentation of limnic carbonates during the Late Weichselian. Distinct depletions of 13 C in lacustrine organic material at the transition to the Holocene were recorded in southern Sweden, also demonstrated by decreasing mean values obtained from an extensive compilation of δ 13 C data. A number of processes that may

  11. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    planning and restoration projects will require a major undertaking by national governments and international institutions. Joint research projects between international organizations such as: USA research centers ( USGS, NOAA, Corps of Engineers), EU sponsored project groups, EU coastal marine centers as well as other world wide coastal research institutes (CoRI, Alexandria) are encouraged to advance the state of the art on managing coasts to adapt to sea level rise employing cost-effective coastal protection technologies. References 1.Williams, S.J.,"Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Regions", Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 63, 2013. 2.Ismail, N.,Wiegel, R., "Sustainable Solutions for Coastal Zone Management of Lowland and River Delta Coastlines", Proc. International Conference- Littoral 2012, Ostende, Belgium, November 27-29, 2012. 3.Ismail, N., Iskander, M., and El-Sayed, W. "Assessment of Coastal Flooding at Southern Mediterranean with Global Outlook for Lowland Coastal Zones", Proc. International Conference on Coastal Engineering, ASCE, July 1-6, 2012, Santander, Spain. 4.Moser, S. C., Williams,J.S., and Boesch, D. F., " Wicked Challenges at Land's End: Managing Coastal Vulnerability Under Climate Change'', Annual. Review of Environmental Resources, 37:51-78, 2012.

  12. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  13. Eye diseases in Akon Payam, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lado L Sube

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment among patients in Akon payam, Warrap State, South Sudan. Methods and materials: This was a cross-sectional study of 862 patients conducted at Akon in the period 18 – 31 September 2015. The Snellen E chart was used to measure visual acuity, and all patients had a basic eye examination. Their vision status was categorized according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22(IBM. Results: The age range of the study population was 3 - 86 years; 81.9% were aged 41-80 years. 50.8% were males and 49.2% were females. There were 1483 bilaterally blind eyes giving a prevalence of blindness of 86% (95% CI: 3.2497-3.3531 with prevalence of visual impairment of 3.9 %( 95% CI: 2.5001-3.0944. Cataract (59.7% was the commonest eye disease, followed by glaucoma (15.1%, corneal dystrophy (9.3%, allergic conjunctivitis (5.5%, corneal scar (1.9%, refractive errors(1.8% and others(6.7%. Among those who are blind cataract (66% was the major agent with females affected more than males .It was followed by glaucoma (16.7%, corneal dystrophy (10%, corneal scar(1.8% and the rest of agents(5.4%. The main age group affected by blindness was the 41- 80 years age group (87% and the least was below 20 years (1.1%. There was a strong association between age and sex with the causes of blindness. Conclusion: There was equal sex preponderance with more blindness in those aged 41 years or above. Cataract and glaucoma still remained major cause of blindness in this payam. More effort is needed by the government to reduce the burden of these diseases.

  14. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  15. Imaginary Sudan – Reflections on the Formation of the Notion of Sudan in the Period of European Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Kurcz Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The author explores how the images from the colonial past affected what we understand today under the notion of Sudan. He concentrates on the category of the Nile, Sudanese-Egyptian analogies, the history making processes and colonial rule. Moreover points out that the the British used and reproduced a Muslim concept of cultural geography of Africa, and in particular, the notion of Bilad as-Sudan (”Land of the Blacks”), constituting the essence of division into white and black Africa. In this...

  16. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old males (76%. The majority (68% were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%. In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%. History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76% and hand (8% were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%, thigh (2%, buttock (2% and arm and forearm (1%. Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2% of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7% had postoperative recurrence. Different types of

  17. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-03-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations

  18. Confederation: A better tool for good neighborliness and prosperous relationships between Sudan and South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Akec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende renovar el debate sobre la confederación como una herramienta prometedora para una mejor gestión de las relaciones entre los dos Sudanes después de la independencia de Sudán del Sur en julio de 2011 ante la creciente preocupación sobre el modelo único unidad-separación, insuficiente a la hora de abordar las complejas relaciones en la era post-independencia. Basado en un trabajo original del autor presentado en noviembre de 2010 en el St Antony's College, Oxford, el artículo analiza la literatura actual sobre el tema de la confederación en Sudán y en otros lugares, examina el Acuerdo General de Paz (AGP y sus implicaciones para el futuro de Sudán, y traza la evolución histórica de la confederación como concepto en el vocabulario político de Sudán -especialmente en lo que concierne a las relaciones Norte-Sur. El artículo examina además su utilidad como herramienta potencial para construir una relación más próspera y duradera entre los dos Sudanes, al mismo tiempo que subraya los desafíos en el caso de su adopción, y evalúa los factores de éxito existentes.

  19. Kinematics and age of Early Tertiary trench parallel volcano-tectonic lineaments in southern Mexico: Tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, M.; Ferrari, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Cerca Martinez, M.; Serrano Duran, L.

    2007-05-01

    We present new geological, structural, and geochronological data that constrain the timing and geometry of Early Tertiary strike slip deformation in southwestern Mexico and its relation with the concurrent magmatic activity. Geologic mapping in Guerrero and Michoacan States documented two regional WNW trending volcano-tectonic lineaments sub parallel to the present trench. The southernmost lineament runs for ~140 km from San Miguel Totolapan area (NW Guerrero) to Sanchiqueo (SE Michoacan), and passes through Ciudad Altamirano. Its southeastern part is marked by the alignment of at least eleven silicic to intermediate major domes as well as by the course of the Balsas River. The northwestern part of the lineament is characterized by ductile left lateral shear zones in Early Tertiary plutonic rocks observed in the Rio Chiquito valley. Domes near Ciudad Altamirano are unaffected by ductile shearing and yielded a ~42 Ma 40Ar/39Ar age, setting a minimum age for this deformation. The northern volcano-tectonic lineament runs for ~190 km between the areas of Huitzuco in northern Guerrero and the southern part of the Tzitzio fold in eastern Michoacan. The Huautla, Tilzapotla, Taxco, La Goleta and Nanchititla silicic centers (all in the range 37-34 Ma) are emplaced along this lineament, which continues to the WNW trough a mafic dike swarm exposed north of Tiquicheo (37-35 Ma) and the Purungueo subvolcanic body (~42 Ma). These rocks, unaffected by ductile shearing, give a minimum age of deformation similar to the southern Totolapan-Sanquicheo lineament. Post ~42 Ma deformation is essentially brittle and is characterized by several left lateral and right lateral transcurrent faults with typical Riedel patterns. Other trench-parallel left lateral shear zones active in pre-Oligocene times were recently reported in western Oaxaca. The recognizing of Early Tertiary trench-parallel and left-lateral ductile shearing in internal areas of southern Mexico suggest a field of widely

  20. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks - implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Egelados Working Group

    2014-05-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini-Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW-SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE-SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east-west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW-SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except in volcanic areas, where both

  1. Paleoclimatic implications of the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrigenous n-alkanes from Lake Yamzho, southern Tibetan Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhonghuan; Xu Baiqing; Wu Guangjian; Zhu Liping; Muegler Ines; Gleixner, Gerd; Sachse, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition (δD) of leaf water used for biosynthesis of n-alkanes can be modified by climate. Therefore, the δD can be considered as potential paleolimatic proxy to explore. We compared measured δD values of alkanes (n-C 25 to n-C 31 ) extracted from a short sediment profile spanning the past 50 years with a 7-year resolution from Lake Yamzho, southern Tibetan Plateau. Climatic control was reconstructed using meteorological records of the nearby Langkazi and Lhasa weather stations. We found that the δD values of the n-alkanes correlated with the mean annular air temperature and significantly correlated with the mean growing season air temperature. On the other hand, the δD values show poor correlations with both rainfall amount and relative humidity. These results indicate that stable isotope composition of n-alkanes could be an excellent proxy for paleotemperature reconstruction. (author)

  2. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  3. Interethnic conflict in Jonglei State, South Sudan: Emerging ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the escalation of interethnic confl icts between the Lou Nuer and the Murle in Jonglei State of South Sudan. Historically, interethnic confl icts in Jonglei were best described as environmental confl icts, in which multiple ethnic groups competed over scarce resources for cattle grazing. Cattle raiding was ...

  4. Use of Diode Laser (810) nm In Frenectomy | Awooda | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The removal of frenum could be done by surgical excision using scalpel through different techniques eg. (Vertical, Z plasty and hemostat). Modern technology now offers an ... tissue surgery because of its time saving, patients comfort and easy manipulation. Sudan Joural of Medical Studies Vol. 2 (1) 2007: pp. 45-47 ...

  5. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 3, No 4 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute intussusception in children seen at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, brady-arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in Sudanese Patients with acute Myocardial Infarction · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  6. South Sudan Medical Journal - Vol 6, No 1 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension in Juba, South Sudan: A retrospective cohort study of single blood pressure readings among potential blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital 2010-2012 · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Rachel Wake, Charles Mazinda, 4-6 ...

  7. Seroprevalence of Q fever in Goats in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaeldin A Salih

    Full Text Available Aim: The survey was carried out to detect anti- C. burnetii antibodies in goat's sera samples in eight States in the Sudan during September 2010 – July 2011. Materials and Methods: In a preliminary study, four hundred and sixty caprine sera samples collected from eight States in the Sudan were screened for anti- Coxiella burnetii (the causative agent of Q fever antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA (iELISA kit. Results: The results showed an overall prevalence rate 24.22% of Q fever antibodies. The prevalence rate of antibodies ranged from 6.7% in Kassala to 40% in South Darfur. The prevalence rates were highest in South Darfur (40% and South Kordofan (34.7%, moderate in El Gazira (29.7%, Khartoum (29.1%, the Northern (24% and the River Nile (20.2% States. It was lowest in the White Nile (7.5% and Kassala (6.7% States. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Q fever is prevalent in goats in the Sudan. Therefore, further epizootiological investigations on Q fever in other farm animals and man at the country level is important to monitor and determine the magnitude of Q fever infection in order to estimate its economic impact on animal industry and its public health hazard in the Sudan. In addition, the impact of Q fever among shepherds should be studied. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 394-397

  8. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  9. Security Promotion Seen from Below: Experiences from South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Rouw, H.

    2011-01-01

    The report is based on 8 weeks of field research in South Sudan between March and April 2011, and looks at the linkages between security interventions such as DDR, SALW control and SSR in relation to community security. It opens with an analysis of what security constitutes and assesses what various

  10. Nodding syndrome in Mundri county, South Sudan: environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Juba, South Sudan, and by an electronic search for information on the environmental ... (www.sudanarchive.net), a word-searchable, full-text database of historical and ..... the sight of food and placement of food in the mouth, as well as the act ...

  11. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan : policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  12. Physician burnout syndrome | Ibnouf | Sudan Journal of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to high light the Physician Burnout Syndrome and its relation to unintentional medical errors and society lack of satisfaction. Methods: Brief literature review and observations from the current atmosphere of medical practice in Sudan. Conclusion: Early detection is the responsibility of ...

  13. Examining disadoption of gum arabic production in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.; Ruben, R.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gum arabic production in Sudan has developed over the years in a well-established traditional bush-fallow system in which the gum tree (Acacia senegal) is rotated with annual crops. Following the Sahel drought, the gum area has suffered from deforestation and gum production has declined. Several

  14. Ethiopia's Involvement in South Sudan's Struggle for Independence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines three successive Ethiopian governments' involvement in South Sudan's struggle for independence and its concomitant conflict and peace processes within the broad context of the north-east African security situation from the middle of the 1950s to the present. It argues that this framework is of value not ...

  15. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 1, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthamoeba keratitis in Sudan: outcome of ketoconazole treatment in six patients · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Abdel Mageed M Imam, El Sheikh Mahgoub, 34-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sjms.v1i1.38437 ...

  16. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 7, No 3 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of spinal anesthesia on cesarean section outcome in Omdurman maternity hospital - Sudan 2011 · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. UT Ahmed, RA Alwahab, S Ismail, KA Alillah, IO Murwan, F Alysaa, 147-152 ...

  17. All projects related to sudan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Implementing comprehensive, community-focused primary health care is a major challenge in post-conflict regions such as South Sudan and neighbouring Northern Uganda. Topic: MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, HEALTH SERVICES, AFRICA, MATERNAL MORTALITY, INFANT MORTALITY, Gender. Region: South ...

  18. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to

  19. Do not forget tuberculous meningitis | Tibbutt | South Sudan Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Do not forget tuberculous meningitis. David Tibbutt. Abstract.

  20. Cancer in Children at El Obeid Hospital, Western Sudan. | Doumi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Cancers in children were seen at Western Sudan, and cases admitted to hospital only reflect the tip of the iceberg as many cases were directly referred to Oncology Hospitals. Establishment of a local radiation and isotopes centre is needed in this part of the country to provide oncology services and to integrate ...

  1. South Sudan Medical Journal - Vol 7, No 4 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Kenneth L.L. Sube, Oromo F. Seriano, Rose P. Gore, Salvador Jaja, Richard L. Loro, Emmanuel Oryem Lino, Opiaka A.

  2. Maternal Mortality in Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal death is a tragedy that leaves an enormous negative impact on the family. The objectives of the study were to determine the rate and causes of maternal mortality in Ribat University Hospital Methods: This was a descriptive, hospital-based study conducted in Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan ...

  3. Climate change impacts on productivity of dry lands in Sudan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sudan is one of the top 13 countries regarding the extent of dry land coverage. The area that fell under dry land classification is more than 1.5 million km2. Despite the extensive coverage of dry lands, it is water and not land that limits the agricultural production. Thus climate change and variability were expected to present ...

  4. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan. Policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  5. Social norms and family planning decisions in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Kok, Maryse; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline EW

    2016-01-01

    Background: With a maternal mortality ratio of 789 per 100,000 live births, and a contraceptive prevalence rate of 4.7%, South Sudan has one of the worst reproductive health situations in the world. Understanding the social norms around sexuality and reproduction, across different ethnic groups, is

  6. Consanguinity and Disorders of Sexual Developments in the Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Consanguinity is very common in the Sudanese society. There is a lack of studies on consanguinity and its impact on genetic diseases in Sudan. In this study we correlated Disorders of Sexual developments (DSDs), as an example of genetic conditions, in relation with consanguinity. Material and Methods: A ...

  7. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  8. Endocrine Hypertension | Elamin | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is noted in both adults and children but it is more relevant for children where it comes second to renal hypertension, the common cause of hypertension in that age group. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (3) 2008: pp.

  9. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among

  10. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 3, No 3 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noise Induced Hearing Loss among Khartoum International Airport Employees · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ... Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among health care workers in Omdurman, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  11. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 11, No 4 (2016)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indications, outcome and complications of ureteroscopy, at Gezira Hospital for renal diseases and surgery, Sudan: a seven years 'experience · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Mustafa O. Mansour, Sami M. Taha, Abd Elmahmood Abdallah, Mohammed El Imam ...

  12. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 3, No 1 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy in 210 Sudanese Patients at Gezera Hospital for Renal Diseases & Surgery (GHRD&S) Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. ME Imam, O Omran, O Taha, F Nogud, A Abdelmahmod, I Walaa, E Widaa, N Yosif, ...

  13. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences - Vol 5, No 1 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morbidity and Mortality Pattern of Neonates Admitted into Nursery Unit in Wad Medani Hospital, Sudan · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EM Elhassan, AA Hassanb, OA Mirghani, I Adam. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sjms.v5i1.56023 ...

  14. All projects related to Sudan | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: ECONOMIC DISPARITY, ECONOMIC STAGNATION, SOCIAL INEQUALITY, ... Indonesia, Nepal, Sudan, El Salvador, North and Central America, South Africa, North of ... institutions are responding to women's rights and gender equality. ... Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map · Copyright · Open access policy ...

  15. Occult Hepatitis B Virus in Gezira State Sudan | Gasmelseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is simply defined as serologically undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-ve), despite the presence of circulating HBV DNA. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of occult HBV among Screened HBsAg subjects in Gezira State, Sudan.

  16. Tunnel Vision or Kaleidoscope: Competing Concepts on Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taking the ethnic-cultural make-up of Sudan, the article compares and contrasts a dominant concept of 'unity in conformity', endorsed since independence by Northern ruling groups, to 'unity in diversity', propagated by marginalised ethnic nationalities and underprivileged classes. After setting the context of the debate ...

  17. Cancer management in Sudan: Current status and future perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sudan is one of the developing countries that face a great challenge with cancer management. About 5700 cases had been seen during year 2007 in Radiation and Isotope Center- Khartoum (RICK) and Institute of Nuclear medicine, Molecular biology, and Oncology (INMO) Wadmedani which are the only ...

  18. Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 Ma) magnesian andesites in the Biluoco area, southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiyang; Li, Yalin; Wang, Chengshan; Zhou, Aorigele; Qian, Xinyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Du, Lintao; Bi, Wenjun

    2018-03-01

    The tectonic evolutionary history of the Lhasa and Qiangtang collision zones remains hotly debated because of the lack of pivotal magmatic records in the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet. We present zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace-element geochemical analyses, and Sr-Nd isotopic data for the newly discovered Biluoco volcanic rocks from the southern Qiangtang subterrane, central Tibet. Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the Biluoco volcanic rocks were crystallized at ca. 95 Ma. The samples are characterized by low SiO2 (50.26-54.53 wt%), high Cr (109.7-125.92 ppm) and Ni (57.4-71.58 ppm), and a high Mg# value (39-56), which plot in the magnesian andesites field on the rock classification diagram. They display highly fractionated rare earth element patterns with light rare earth element enrichment ([La/Yb]N = 21.04-25.24), high Sr/Y (63.97-78.79) and no negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.98-1.04). The Biluoco volcanic rocks are depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti and enriched in Ba, Th, U and Pb. Moreover, the eight samples of Biluoco volcanic rocks display constant (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.70514-0.70527), a positive εNd(t) value (2.16-2.68) and younger Nd model ages (0.56-0.62 Ga). These geochemical signatures indicate that the Biluoco volcanic rocks were most likely derived from partial melting of the mantle wedge peridotite metasomatized by melts of subducted slab and sediment in the subducted slab, invoked by asthenospheric upwelling resulting from the slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere. Identification of ca. 95 Ma Biluoco magnesian andesites suggests they were a delayed response of slab break-off of the northward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang oceanic lithosphere at ca. 100 Ma.

  19. Determinants of persistence and tolerance of carnivores on Namibian ranches: implications for conservation on Southern African private lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Andrew Lindsey

    Full Text Available Changing land use patterns in southern Africa have potential to dramatically alter the prospects for carnivore conservation. Understanding these influences is essential for conservation planning. We interviewed 250 ranchers in Namibia to assess human tolerance towards and the distribution of large carnivores. Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, leopards (Panthera pardus and brown hyaenas (Hyaena brunnea were widely distributed on Namibian farmlands, spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta had a narrower distribution, and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus and lions (Panthera leo are largely limited to areas near source populations. Farmers were most tolerant of leopards and least tolerant of lions, wild dogs and spotted hyaenas. Several factors relating to land use correlated consistently with carnivore-presence and landowner tolerance. Carnivores were more commonly present and/or tolerated where; wildlife diversity and biomass were higher; income from wildlife was higher; income from livestock was lower; livestock biomass was lower; in conservancies; game fencing was absent; and financial losses from livestock depredation were lower. Efforts to create conditions whereby the costs associated with carnivores are lowest, and which confer financial value to them are likely to be the most effective means of promoting carnivore conservation. Such conditions are achieved where land owners pool land to create conservancies where livestock are replaced with wildlife (or where livestock husbandry is improved and where wildlife generates a significant proportion of ranch income. Additional measures, such as promoting improved livestock husbandry and educational outreach efforts may also help achieve coexistence with carnivores. Our findings provide insights into conditions more conducive to the persistence of and tolerance towards large carnivores might be increased on private (and even communal lands in Namibia, elsewhere in southern and East Africa and other parts of the world

  20. Sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the southern Qiangtang basin: Implications for the Lhasa-Qiangtang collision timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Anlin; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; Han, Zhong; Lai, Wen

    2017-07-01

    The Mesozoic stratigraphic record of the southern Qiangtang basin in central Tibet records the evolution and closure of the Bangong-Nujiang ocean to the south. The Jurassic succession includes Toarcian-Aalenian shallow-marine limestones (Quse Formation), Aalenian-Bajocian feldspatho-litho-quartzose to feldspatho-quartzo-lithic sandstones (shallow-marine Sewa Formation and deep-sea Gaaco Formation), and Bathonian outer platform to shoal limestones (Buqu Formation). This succession is truncated by an angular unconformity, overlain by upper Bathonian to lower Callovian fan-delta conglomerates and litho-quartzose to quartzo-lithic sandstones (Biluoco Formation) and Callovian shoal to outer platform limestones (Suowa Formation). Sandstone petrography coupled with detrital-zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope analysis indicate that the Sewa and Gaaco formations contain intermediate to felsic volcanic detritus and youngest detrital zircons (183-170 Ma) with ɛHf(t) ranging widely from +13 to -25, pointing to continental-arc provenance from igneous rocks with mixed mantle and continental-crust contributions. An arc-trench system thus developed toward the end of the Early Jurassic, with the southern Qiangtang basin representing the fore-arc basin. Above the angular unconformity, the Biluoco Formation documents a change to dominant sedimentary detritus including old detrital zircons (mainly >500 Ma ages in the lower part of the unit) with age spectra similar to those from Paleozoic strata in the central Qiangtang area. A major tectonic event with intense folding and thrusting thus took place in late Bathonian time (166 ± 1 Ma), when the Qiangtang block collided with another microcontinental block possibly the Lhasa block.

  1. The prevalence of blinding trachoma in northern states of Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Hassan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite historical evidence of blinding trachoma, there have been no widespread contemporary surveys of trachoma prevalence in the northern states of Sudan. We aimed to conduct district-level surveys in this vast region in order to map the extent of the problem and estimate the need for trachoma control interventions to eliminate blinding trachoma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Separate, population based cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 88 localities (districts in 12 northern states of Sudan between 2006 and 2010. Two-stage cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size was used to select the sample. Trachoma grading was done using the WHO simplified grading system. Key prevalence indicators were trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years and trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults aged 15 years and above. The sample comprised 1,260 clusters from which 25,624 households were surveyed. A total of 106,697 participants (81.6% response rate were examined for trachoma signs. TF prevalence was above 10% in three districts and between 5% and 9% in 11 districts. TT prevalence among adults was above 1% in 20 districts (which included the three districts with TF prevalence >10%. The overall number of people with TT in the population was estimated to be 31,072 (lower and upper bounds = 26,125-36,955. CONCLUSION: Trachoma mapping is complete in the northern states of Sudan except for the Darfur States. The survey findings will facilitate programme planning and inform deployment of resources for elimination of trachoma from the northern states of Sudan by 2015, in accordance with the Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH objectives.

  2. Diversity and distribution of aquatic insects in Southern Brazil wetlands: implications for biodiversity conservation in a Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (~280 000km², and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from differrent ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.La selección de áreas prioritarias es un enorme desafío para la conservación de la biodiversidad. Métodos biogeográficos se han utilizado para identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación, como la panbiogeografía. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo el empleo de herramientas panbiogeográficas, para identificar los patrones de distribución de los géneros de insectos acuáticos, en los sistemas de humedales de una extensa área de la región Neotropical (~280 000km², y así comparar la distribución de las

  3. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  4. Landslides control the spatial and temporal variation of channel width in southern Taiwan: implications for landscape evolution and cascading hazards in steep, tectonically active landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.; Bregy, J. C.; Carlson, G.; Cataldo, K.; Holahan, M.; Johnston, G.; Mitchell, N. A.; Nelson, A.; Valenza, J.; Wanker, M.

    2017-12-01

    Intense precipitation or seismic events can generate clustered mass movement processes across a landscape. These rare events have significant impacts on the landscape, however, the rarity of such events leads to uncertainty in how these events impact the entire geomorphic system over a range of timescales. Taiwan is a steep, seismically active region and is highly prone to landslide and debris flows, especially when exposed to heavy rainfall events. Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan in August of 2009, delivering record-breaking rainfall and inducing more than 22,000 landslides in southern Taiwan. The topographic gradient in southern Taiwan leads to spatial variability in landslide susceptibility providing an opportunity to infer the long-term impact of landslides on channel morphology. The availability of pre and post typhoon imagery allows a quantitative reconstruction on the propagating impact of this event on channel width. The pre and post typhoon patterns of channel width to river and hillslope gradients in 20 basins in the study area reveal the importance of cascading hazards from landslides on landscape evolution. Prior to Typhoon Morakot, the river channels in the central part of the study area were about 3-10 times wider than the channels in the south. Aggradation and widening was also a maximum in these basins where hillslope gradients and channel steepness is high. The results further show that the narrowest channels are located where channel steepness is the lowest, an observation inconsistent with a detachment-limited model for river evolution. We infer this pattern is indicative of a strong role of sediment supply, and associated landslide events, on long-term channel evolution. These findings have implications across a range of spatial and temporal scales including understanding the cascade of hazards in steep landscapes and geomorphic interpretation of channel morphology.

  5. Isotopic signature of Pan-African rejuvenation in the Kerala Khondalite belt, southern India: implications for east Gondwana reassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan Warrier, C.

    1997-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotope systematics on mineral separates from sillimanite-and cordierite-bearing metapelite (khondalite), and garnet-and biotite-bearing gneiss (leptynite) from the Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India, yielded mineral isochron ages (wr-feld-bio-gar) of 537±27 Ma (MSWD=0.9) and 534±26 Ma (MSWD=1.23) respectively. Rb-Sr systematics in the same samples gave wr-feld-bio mineral isochron ages of 437±9 Ma (MSWD=0.67) and 467±9 Ma (MSWD=0.76). These results provide the first mineral isochron ages for the regional metasedimentaries in the KKB. The ε (Nd T) values at 550 Ma for khondalite and leptynite are -22.7 and -21.8 respectively. These results demonstrate a complete rejuvenation of the crust during Pan-African times. Coeval alkaline plutons emplaced along fault-lineaments in this area suggest an extensional tectonic regime. Geochronologic correlations with the Lutzow-Holm bay complexes in east Antarctica, and the highland and southwestern complex of Sri Lanka show that a similar Pan-African tectono-thermal event manifested in all the east Gondwana crustal fragments. (author)

  6. New Rb-Sr isotopic ages and geochemistry of granitic gneisses from southern Bastar: implications for crustal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, G.; Gupta, S.N.; Bishui, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    Deformed gneisses from the southern Bastar craton yield Rb-Sr whole-rock ages of 2560 Ma and 2659 Ma with initial Sr ratios ranging between 0.70899 and 0.70726 respectively. The isotopic data are found to be scattered even at the outcrop scale which possibly indicate large-scale reworking of the gneisses during the period. The high initial Sr ratios that associate with scattering of the isotopic data reflect reworking of older gneisses. Geochemically, these gneisses are considered to be derived from an amphibolitic or basaltic protolith. The 2095 Ma (initial Sr ratio of 0.74312) old leucocratic granite intrusive into these gneisses represent early Proterozoic magmatic activity. Based on the available isotopic and geochemical data, it is suggested that the Bastar craton represents a polyphase, multicomponent terrain developed by repeated magmatism at a much earlier, probably during mid-Archaean, time and was extensively reworked during the time span between end-Archaean and early Proterozoic period. This reworking may be synchronous with coalescing of smaller crustal components possibly during the end-Archaean time. (author). 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabien, M.J. [Departamento de Mineralogia y Petrologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)], E-mail: mariajesus.irabien@ehu.es; Cearreta, A. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Leorri, E. [Departamento de Estratigrafia y Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad del Pais Vasco/EHU, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Zorroagagaina kalea 11, 20014 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Gomez, J. [Departamento de Ciencias Medicas y Quirurgicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Herrera Oria s/n, 39011 Santander (Spain); Viguri, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Inorganica, ETSIIT, Universidad de Cantabria, Avda Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 137}Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna.

  8. Origins and Implications of a Primary Crown-of-Thorns Starfish Outbreak in the Southern Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Miller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS is a major predator of hard corals. Repeated COTS outbreaks in the Cairns and Central sections of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR have been responsible for greater declines in coral cover than any other type of disturbance, including cyclones, disease, and coral bleaching. Knowledge of the precise timing and location of primary outbreaks could reveal the initial drivers of outbreaks and so could indicate possible management measures. In the central GBR, COTS outbreaks appear to follow major flooding events, but despite many years of observations, no primary outbreak has ever been unequivocally identified in the central and northern GBR. Here we locate a primary outbreak of COTS on the southern GBR which is not correlated with flooding. Instead it appears to have been the result of a combination of life history traits of COTS and prevailing oceanographic conditions. The hydrodynamic setting implies that the outbreak could disperse larvae to other reefs in the region.

  9. Changing Land Use from Cotton to Bioenergy Crops in the Southern Great Plains: Implications on Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, N.; Sharma, S.

    2016-12-01

    We are facing an unprecedented challenge in securing America's energy future. To address this challenge, increased biofuel crop production is needed. Although first-generation biofuels like corn ethanol are available, second-generation biofuels are gaining importance because they don't directly compete with food production. Second-generation biofuels are made from the by-products of intensive agriculture or from less-intensive agriculture on more marginal lands. The Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt can play a significant role in this effort through a change from more conventional crops (like continuous cotton) to second-generation biofuel feedstocks (biomass sorghum and perennial grasses). While we believe there would be environmental benefits associated with this change in land use, their exact nature and magnitude have not been investigated for this region. The overall goal of the proposed study was to investigate the water and carbon (C) fluxes associated with the change in agricultural land use to biofuels-dominated cropping systems in the semi-arid Southwestern U.S. Cotton Belt region. Eddy covariance flux towers were established at selected producer fields (cotton, perennial grasses and biomass sorghum) in the Southern Great Plains region. The fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat between the surface and the atmosphere will be measured throughout the year. The results have demonstrated that the dynamics of C and water vapor fluxes for these agroecosystems were strongly affected by environmental variables, management factors, and crop phenology. Detailed results will be presented at the meeting.

  10. A 130 year record of pollution in the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay): Implications for environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irabien, M.J.; Cearreta, A.; Leorri, E.; Gomez, J.; Viguri, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical composition (Al, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr and As) and foraminiferal assemblages in surface and core sediments were determined to assess the current situation and the recent environmental transformation of the Suances estuary (southern Bay of Biscay, Spain). Dating of the historical record has been achieved using isotopic analysis ( 210 Pb, 137 Cs) and two benchmark events such as the beginning of the mineral exploitation in the Reocin Pb-Zn deposits and the evolution of the chlor-alkali industry (inputs of Hg). Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in both surface and core samples are remarkably higher than background values, reflecting the existence of significant amounts of polluted materials. The dramatic environmental impact of this pollution is clearly recorded by the change of the foraminiferal assemblages that even reach an afaunal stage during recent decades. Application of two different sets of Sediment Quality Guidelines confirm that they exert potential risk to the environment, and therefore if dredged they should need specific management measures. The results provide a reference database to monitor future environmental changes in the Suances estuary, particularly as regards the contaminated sediment storage and the re-colonization by autochtonous meiofauna

  11. Predicted implications of using percentage weight gain as single discharge criterion in management of acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén, Emmanuel; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is increasingly used in identifying and admitting children with acute malnutrition for treatment. It is easy to use because it does not involve height assessment, but its use calls for alternative discharge criteria. This study examined how use of percentage weight gain as discharge criterion would affect the nutritional status of children admitted into a community-based management programme for acute malnutrition in rural southern Ethiopia. Non-oedematous children (n = 631) aged 6-59 months and having a MUAC of weight was added to admission weight and their nutritional status by weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) was determined at each target. Moderate and severe wasting according to World Health Organization WHZ definitions was used as outcome. Applying the most commonly recommended target of 15% weight gain resulted in 9% of children with admission MUAC weight gain was sufficient to generate a similar result. Children failing to recover were the ones with the poorest nutritional status at admission. Increasing the percentage weight gain targets in the two groups to 20% and 15%, respectively, would largely resolve wasting but likely lead to increased programme costs by keeping already recovered children in the programme. Further research is needed on appropriate discharge procedures in programmes using MUAC for screening and admission. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Jurassic sedimentary evolution of southern Junggar Basin: Implication for palaeoclimate changes in northern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Li Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Junggar Basin, located in northern Xinjiang, presents continuous and multikilometer-thick strata of the Jurassic deposits. The Jurassic was entirely terrestrial fluvial and lacustrine deltaic sedimentation. Eight outcrop sections across the Jurassic strata were measured at a resolution of meters in southern Junggar Basin. Controlling factors of sedimentary evolution and palaeoclimate changes in Junggar Basin during the Jurassic were discussed based on lithology, fossils and tectonic setting. In the Early to Middle Jurassic, the warm and wide Tethys Sea generated a strong monsoonal circulation over the central Asian continent, and provided adequate moisture for Junggar Basin. Coal-bearing strata of the Badaowan, Sangonghe, and Xishanyao Formations were developed under warm and humid palaeoclimate in Junggar Basin. In the late Middle Jurassic, Junggar Basin was in a semi-humid and semi-arid environment due to global warming event. Stratigraphy in the upper part of the Middle Jurassic with less plant fossils became multicolor or reddish from dark color sediments. During the Late Jurassic, collision of Lhasa and Qiangtang Block obstructed monsoon from the Tethys Sea. A major change in climate from semi-humid and semi-arid to arid conditions took place, and reddish strata of the Upper Jurassic were developed across Junggar Basin.

  13. Health centre versus home presumptive diagnosis of malaria in southern Ghana: implications for home-based care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunyo, S K; Afari, E A; Koram, K A; Ahorlu, C K; Abubakar, I; Nkrumah, F K

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1997 to compare the accuracy of presumptive diagnosis of malaria in children aged 1-9 years performed by caretakers of the children to that of health centre staff in 2 ecological zones in southern Ghana. Similar symptoms were reported in the children at home and at the health centre. In the home setting, symptoms were reported the same day that they occurred, 77.6% of the children with a report of fever were febrile (axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C) and 64.7% of the reports of malaria were parasitologically confirmed. In the health centre, the median duration of symptoms before a child was seen was 3 days (range 1-14 days), 58.5% of the children with a report of fever were febrile and 62.6% of the clinically diagnosed cases were parasitologically confirmed. In the 2 settings almost all the infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite density was 3 times higher in the health centre cases compared to the home-diagnosed cases. Early and appropriate treatment of malaria detected in children by caretakers may prevent complications that arise as a result of persistence of symptoms and attainment of high parasitaemic levels.

  14. Last three millennia Earth's Magnetic field strength in Mesoamerica and southern United States: Implications in geomagnetism and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Ruiz, Rafael García; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Contreras, Juan Julio Morales; Arechalde, Ana María Soler; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Earth's Magnetic Field variation strength may provide crucial information to understand the geodynamo mechanism and elucidate the conditions on the physics of the Earth's deep interiors. Aimed to reveal the fine characteristics of the geomagnetic field during the last three millennia in Mesoamerica, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated to absolute radiometric dating as well some ages provided by historical documents. This analysis is achieved using thermoremanent magnetization carried by volcanic lava flows and burned archaeological artefacts. A total of 106 selected intensities from Mesoamerica and other 100 from the southern part of the United States represent the main core of the dataset to construct the variation curve using both combined bootstrap method and temporal penalized B-spline methods. The obtained intensity paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica generally disagrees with the values predicted by the global geomagnetic field models. There is rather firm evidence of eastward drift when compared to similar reference curves in Western Europe, Asia and Pacific Ocean. The recent hypothesis about the relationship between the geomagnetic field strength and paleoclimate is also critically analyzed in the light of this new data compilation.

  15. Geophysical interpretation of the gneiss terrane of northern Washington and southern British Columbia, and its implications for uranium exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, John W.; Fox, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The Omineca crystalline belt of northeastern Washington and southern British Columbia has a regional Bouguer gravity high, and individual gneiss domes within the terrane are marked by local gravity highs. Models of crustal structure that satisfy the limited available seismic-refraction data and explain the gravity high over the gneiss terrane permit the hypothesis that the core metamorphic complexes are the surface expression of a zone of dense infrastructure that makes up the upper 20 km (kilometers) of the crust within the crystalline belt. The Omineca crystalline belt is characterized regionally by low aeromagnetic relief. The gneiss domes and biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites are generally marked by low magnetic relief, whereas hornblende-biotite granites often cause magnetic highs. Exceptional magnetic highs mark zones of magnetic rock within the biotite- and biotite-muscovite granites and the gneiss domes; these areas are worthy of study, both to determine the origin and disposition of the magnetite and to explore the possible existence of uraniferous magnetite deposits.

  16. Recent and old groundwater in the Niebla-Posadas regional aquifer (southern Spain): Implications for its management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, Laura; Ayora, Carlos; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Cendón, Dioni I.; Soler, Albert; Custodio, Emilio; Baquero, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The Niebla-Posadas (NP) aquifer in southern Spain is one of the main groundwater sources for the lower Guadalquivir Valley, a semiarid region supporting an important population, agriculture and industry. To contribute to the understanding of this aquifer the assessment of sustainable use of groundwater, the residence time of groundwater in the NP aquifer has been estimated using 3H, 14C and 36Cl. Along the flow paths, recharged groundwater mixes with NaCl-type waters and undergoes calcite dissolution and is further modified by cation exchange (Ca-Na). Consequently, the water loses most of its calcium and the residual δ13CDIC in the groundwater is isotopically enriched. Further modifications take place along the flow path in deeper zones, where depleted δ13CDIC values are overprinted due to SO42- and iron oxide reduction, triggered by the presence of organic matter. Dating with 3H, 14C and 36Cl has allowed the differentiation of several zones: recharge zone (30 ky). An apparent link between the tectonic structure and the groundwater residence time zonation can be established. Regional faults clearly separates deep zone 1 from the distinctly older age (>30 ky) deep zone 2. From the estimated residence times, two groundwater areas of different behavior can be differentiated within the aquifer.

  17. Stable isotopes of pedogenic carbonates from the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy, over the past 18 kyr: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchetta, G.; di Vito, M.; Fallick, A. E.; Sulpizio, R.

    2000-12-01

    Stable isotopes were measured in the carbonate and organic matter of palaeosols in the Somma-Vesuvius area, southern Italy in order to test whether they are suitable proxy records for climatic and ecological changes in this area during the past 18000 yr. The ages of the soils span from ca. 18 to ca. 3 kyr BP. Surprisingly, the Last Glacial to Holocene climate transition was not accompanied by significant change in 18O of pedogenic carbonate. This could be explained by changes in evaporation rate and in isotope fractionation between water and precipitated carbonate with temperature, which counterbalanced the expected change in isotope composition of meteoric water. Because of the rise in temperature and humidity and the progressive increase in tree cover during the Holocene, the Holocene soil carbonates closely reflect the isotopic composition of meteoric water. A cooling of about 2°C after the Avellino eruption (3.8 ka) accounts for a sudden decrease of about 1 in 18O of pedogenic carbonate recorded after this eruption. The 13C values of organic matter and pedogenic carbonate covary, indicating an effective isotope equilibrium between the organic matter, as the source of CO2, and the pedogenic carbonate. Carbon isotopes suggest prevailing C3 vegetation and negligible mixing with volcanogenic or atmospheric CO2.

  18. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-07-02

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.

  19. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M. S.; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Shamkhali, A. N.

    2014-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800 nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Fluoride Concentrations in Groundwaters in Northern and Southern Ghana: Implications for the Contaminant Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkari, Emmanuel Daanoba; Zango, Musah Saeed; Korboe, Harriet Mateko

    2018-04-01

    Bongo and Sekyere South districts, both in the northern and southern parts of Ghana, respectively, have high populations living in rural areas and most of them use groundwater for drinking purposes. The groundwater in these areas is prone to contamination from natural and/or artificial sources. Therefore this study aims; (1) to present a comparative analysis of the fluoride concentration in groundwater samples from Bongo and Sekyere South districts and the associated groundwater-rock interaction that may be the cause for the varied fluoride concentrations, (2) to determine the leaching potential of fluoride from the host rocks as the possible mechanism for groundwater contamination. Sixty (60) groundwater samples from active pumping wells and twelve (12) rock samples from outcrops were collected from various communities in the two districts for fluoride concentration and mineralogical analysis. Based on the variations in fluoride concentration, fluoride spatial distribution maps were prepared using empirical Bayesian kriging interpolation method and analysed by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. The fluoride concentration in Bongo district varies between 1.71 and 4.0 mg/L, whereas that in Sekyere South district changes from 0.3 to 0.8 mg/L. From the mineralogical studies, biotite has the highest percentage in the Bongo district and has positive correlation with fluoride concentration in the analysed water samples than in the Sekyere South district. The elevated fluoride concentration in the Bongo district relative to the Sekyere South district is due to the dissolution of biotite in the groundwater and the sufficient groundwater-rock interaction since the water samples are mainly sourced from deeper boreholes. This high fluoride concentration has resulted in a plethora of reported cases of dental fluorosis and other health-related issues in Bongo.

  1. Controls on large landslide distribution and implications for the geomorphic evolution of the southern interior Columbia River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E.B.; Anderson, S.W.; Mills-Novoa, M.; House, P.K.; Ely, L.

    2011-01-01

    Large landslides (>0.1 km2) are important agents of geomorphic change. While most common in rugged mountain ranges, large landslides can also be widespread in relatively low-relief (several 100 m) terrain, where their distribution has been relatively little studied. A fuller understanding of the role of large landslides in landscape evolution requires addressing this gap, since the distribution of large landslides may affect broad regions through interactions with channel processes, and since the dominant controls on landslide distribution might be expected to vary with tectonic setting. We documented >400 landslides between 0.1 and ~40 km2 across ~140,000 km2 of eastern Oregon, in the semiarid, southern interior Columbia River basin. The mapped landslides cluster in a NW-SE-trending band that is 50-100 km wide. Landslides predominantly occur where even modest local relief (~100 m) exists near key contacts between weak sedimentary or volcaniclastic rock and coherent cap rock. Fault density exerts no control on landslide distribution, while ~10% of mapped landslides cluster within 3-10 km of mapped fold axes. Landslide occurrence is curtailed to the NE by thick packages of coherent basalt and to the SW by limited local relief. Our results suggest that future mass movements will localize in areas stratigraphically preconditioned for landsliding by a geologic history of fluviolacustrine and volcaniclastic sedimentation and episodic capping by coherent lava flows. In such areas, episodic landsliding may persist for hundreds of thousands of years or more, producing valley wall slopes of ~7??-13?? and impacting local channels with an evolving array of mass movement styles. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  2. Paleospring tufa deposition in the Kurkur Oasis region and implications for tributary integration with the River Nile in southern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen; Sallam, Emad S.

    2017-12-01

    Though southern Egypt is currently hyperarid, relict freshwater carbonate deposits called tufas near Kurkur (region centered at 23° 54‧ N, 32° 19‧ E) indicate that ambient rainwater-fed alkaline springs formerly sourced drainages in the Sinn El-Kaddab or Eocene scarp, and precipitated carbonate tufa deposits at waterfall cascades, pools, and streams. Petrographic analysis enables the reconstruction of a variety of vegetated microenvironments during Quaternary time. The Kurkur tufas are very porous rocks with an abundance of fossil plant casts and molds making up the petrofabrics at the macroscale. The tufas also preserve laminations of successive generations of calcified remains of microbes visible at the microscopic scale. Original carbonate framework architectures are massive carbonate structures to the decameter scale, with characteristic highly porous and permeable rock fabrics, including vegetation-rich phytoherms and stromatolite forms. The tufas are relatively pristine, preserving their original rock textures with minimal post-depositional alteration. Structural controls affecting the development of tufa deposits near Kurkur include fissure, cracks and fault planes that would have enhanced groundwater recharge and emergence of carbonate-saturated springs from perched aquifers above the Nubian Aquifer System during periods of greater effective rainfall in the past when the water table was significantly higher. The Kurkur tufas are relict archives from phases when groundwater discharge supported comparatively more vegetation than the modern day, and spring flows sustained baseflow in the Wadi Kurkur tributary of the Upper Nile. Episodes of tufa deposition along now-defunct tributaries therefore reflect phases of a more integrated Nile drainage system.

  3. Air-quality implications of widespread adoption of cool roofs on ozone and particulate matter in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Lee, S. M.; Katzenstein, A. S.; Carreras-Sospedra, M.; Zhang, X.; Farina, S.; Vahmani, P.; Fine, P.; Epstein, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The installation of roofing materials with increased solar reflectance (i.e., "cool roofs") can mitigate the urban heat island effect and reduce energy use. In addition, meteorological changes, along with the possibility of enhanced UV reflection from these surfaces, can have complex impacts on ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. We aim to evaluate the air-quality impacts of widespread cool-roof installations prescribed by building energy efficiency standards within the heavily populated and polluted South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) in Southern California. Development of a comprehensive rooftop area database and evaluation of spectral reflectance measurements of roofing materials allows us to predict potential future changes in solar and UV reflectance for simulations using the Weather Research Forecast and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Meteorological simulations indicate a decrease in daily maximum temperatures, daily maximum boundary layer heights, and ventilation coefficients throughout the SoCAB upon widespread installation of cool roofs. CMAQ simulations show significant increases in PM2.5 concentrations and policy-relevant design values. Changes in 8-h ozone concentrations depend on the potential change in UV reflectance, ranging from a decrease in population-weighted concentrations when UV reflectance remains unchanged to an increase when changes in UV reflectance are at an upper bound. However, 8-h policy-relevant ozone design values increase in all cases. Although the other benefits of cool roofs could outweigh small air-quality penalties, UV reflectance standards for cool roofing materials could mitigate these negative consequences. Results of this study motivate the careful consideration of future rooftop and pavement solar reflectance modification policies.

  4. Microseismicity in Southern South Island, New Zealand: Implications for the Mechanism of Crustal Deformation Adjacent to a Major Continental Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Smith, Emily; Lamb, Simon; Stern, Tim A.; Smith, Euan

    2017-11-01

    Shallow (convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone. It has recently been proposed that continental convergence here is accommodated by oblique slip on a low-angle detachment that underlies the region, and as such, forms a previously unrecognized mode of oblique continental convergence. We test this model using microseismicity, presenting a new, 15 month high-resolution microearthquake catalog for the Southern Lakes and northern Fiordland regions adjacent to the Alpine Fault. We determine the spatial distribution, moment release, and style of microearthquakes and show that seismicity in the continental lithosphere is predominantly shallower than 20 km, in a zone up to 150 km wide, but less frequent deeper microseismicity extending into the mantle, at depths of up to 100 km is also observed. The geometry of the subducted oceanic Australian plate is well imaged, with a well-defined Benioff zone to depths of 150 km. In detail, the depth of continental microseismicity shows considerable variation, with no clear link with major active surface faults, but rather represents diffuse cracking in response to the ambient stress release. The moment release rate is 0.1% of that required to accommodate relative plate convergence, and the azimuth of the principal horizontal axis of contraction accommodated by microseismicity is 120°, 15-20° clockwise of the horizontal axis of contractional strain rate observed geodetically. Thus, short-term microseismicity, independent of knowledge of intermittent large-magnitude earthquakes, may not be a good guide to the rate and orientation of long-term deformation but is an indicator of the instantaneous state of stress and potential distribution of finite deformation. We show that both the horizontal and vertical spatial distribution of microseismicity can be explained in terms of a low-angle detachment model.

  5. Plankton Assemblage Estimated with BGC-Argo Floats in the Southern Ocean: Implications for Seasonal Successions and Particle Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembauville, Mathieu; Briggs, Nathan; Ardyna, Mathieu; Uitz, Julia; Catala, Philippe; Penkerc'h, Cristophe; Poteau, Antoine; Claustre, Hervé; Blain, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) hosts plankton communities that impact the biogeochemical cycles of the global ocean. However, weather conditions in the SO restrict mainly in situ observations of plankton communities to spring and summer, preventing the description of biological successions at an annual scale. Here, we use shipboard observations collected in the Indian sector of the SO to develop a multivariate relationship between physical and bio-optical data, and, the composition and carbon content of the plankton community. Then we apply this multivariate relationship to five biogeochemical Argo (BGC-Argo) floats deployed within the same bio-geographical zone as the ship-board observations to describe spatial and seasonal changes in plankton assemblage. The floats reveal a high contribution of bacteria below the mixed layer, an overall low abundance of picoplankton and a seasonal succession from nano- to microplankton during the spring bloom. Both naturally iron-fertilized waters downstream of the Crozet and Kerguelen Plateaus show elevated phytoplankton biomass in spring and summer but they differ by a nano- or microplankton dominance at Crozet and Kerguelen, respectively. The estimated plankton group successions appear consistent with independent estimations of particle diameter based on the optical signals. Furthermore, the comparison of the plankton community composition in the surface layer with the presence of large mesopelagic particles diagnosed by spikes of optical signals provides insight into the nature and temporal changes of ecological vectors that drive particle export. This study emphasizes the power of BGC-Argo floats for investigating important biogeochemical processes at high temporal and spatial resolution.

  6. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i

  7. Mediation Outcomes from the Second Sudan Civil War: An Analysis of Abuja and Igad Peace Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Grasping the Nettle : Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict, eds. Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall (Washington, DC: United...Issues: The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, 2003): xi; Ruth Iyob and Gilbert M. Khadiagala, Sudan: The Elusive...however, considered the possibility of a unified identity in the New Sudan.148 Countering the GoS’s assertions that Sudan had historical roots in

  8. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, A RECOVERY SCHEME IN PERIPHERIES: THE PETRONAS AND CNPC ENTERPRISES IN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    ELNAZEER ELTOM SHAAELDIN; MOHD RIZAL MOHD YAKKOP; KAMARUZAMAN YUSOFF; ALI ALWI; AZRAI ABDULLAH

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy and mainly the impact of multinational corporations on performing construction, as well as the basic services supply in fragile social economic conditions in Sudan. It reveals that within Sudan state weakness and poor conditions in peripheries, war zone areas in particular, reflect invasive challenges facing the country, and thus, applying corporations’ helps to meet and increase the supply of public needs and recovery in instable Sudan. Through a qualitative ...

  9. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese aid and loans to Sudan caused mixed positive-negative impacts. The positive impact is competence building and providing alternative complementary sources of finance to complement domestic capital a...

  10. Epidemiology and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in West-Nile Populations of Sudan and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Bürgerkriege haben für die betroffenen Länder verheerende Auswirkungen auf soz-ialer, wirtschaftlicher, medizinischer und politischer Ebene. In einer epidemiologischen Studie, die im West-Nil Gebiet von Sudan und Uganda durchgeführt wurde, sollten die psychischen Folgen des sudanesischen Bürgerkrieges untersucht werden. Dabei wurden drei Populationen miteinander verglichen: Sudanesen, die im Sudan verblieben waren (n =664), Flüchtlinge, die aus dem Sudan nach Uganda geflohen waren (n = 1240) ...

  11. Assessment of the impacts of oil: Opportunities and challenges for economic development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the impacts of oil and discusses the opportunities and challenges for enhancing economic development in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis in this paper is that we provide a more comprehensive analysis using the most recent secondary data to discuss the positive and negative impacts of oil for enhancing economic development in Sudan. We explain that the various positive impacts of oil and the opportunities for enhancing development in Sudan's economy inc...

  12. Volcanic risk and tourism in southern Iceland: Implications for hazard, risk and emergency response education and training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between volcanic risk and the tourism sector in southern Iceland and the complex challenge emergency management officials face in developing effective volcanic risk mitigation strategies. An early warning system and emergency response procedures were developed for communities surrounding Katla, the volcano underlying the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. However, prior to and during the 2007 tourist season these mitigation efforts were not effectively communicated to stakeholders located in the tourist destination of Þórsmörk despite its location within the hazard zone of Katla. The hazard zone represents the potential extent of a catastrophic jökulhlaup (glacial outburst flood). Furthermore, volcanic risk mitigation efforts in Þórsmörk were based solely on information derived from physical investigations of volcanic hazards. They did not consider the human dimension of risk. In order to address this gap and provide support to current risk mitigation efforts, questionnaire surveys were used to investigate tourists' and tourism employees' hazard knowledge, risk perception, adoption of personal preparedness measures, predicted behaviour if faced with a Katla eruption and views on education. Results indicate that tourists lack hazard knowledge and they do not adopt preparedness measures to deal with the consequences of an eruption. Despite a high level of risk perception, tourism employees lack knowledge about the early warning system and emergency response procedures. Results show that tourists are positive about receiving information concerning Katla and its hazards and therefore, the reticence of tourism employees with respect to disseminating hazard information is unjustified. In order to improve the tourism sector's collective capacity to positively respond during a future eruption, recommendations are made to ensure adequate dissemination of hazard, risk and emergency response information. Most importantly education campaigns

  13. Monitoring Recent Fluctuations of the Southern Pool of Lake Chad Using Multiple Remote Sensing Data: Implications for Water Balance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Zhu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The drought episodes in the second half of the 20th century have profoundly modified the state of Lake Chad and investigation of its variations is necessary under the new circumstances. Multiple remote sensing observations were used in this paper to study its variation in the recent 25 years. Unlike previous studies, only the southern pool of Lake Chad (SPLC was selected as our study area, because it is the only permanent open water area after the serious lake recession in 1973–1975. Four satellite altimetry products were used for water level retrieval and 904 Landsat TM/ETM+ images were used for lake surface area extraction. Based on the water level (L and surface area (A retrieved (with coinciding dates, linear regression method was used to retrieve the SPLC’s L-A curve, which was then integrated to estimate water volume variations ( Δ V . The results show that the SPLC has been in a relatively stable phase, with a slight increasing trend from 1992 to 2016. On annual average scale, the increase rate of water level, surface area and water volume is 0.5 cm year−1, 0.14 km2 year−1 and 0.007 km3 year−1, respectively. As for the intra-annual variations of the SPLC, the seasonal variation amplitude of water level, lake area and water volume is 1.38 m, 38.08 km2 and 2.00 km3, respectively. The scatterplots between precipitation and Δ V indicate that there is a time lag of about one to two months in the response of water volume variations to precipitation, which makes it possible for us to predict Δ V . The water balance of the SPLC is significantly different from that of the entire Lake Chad. While evaporation accounts for 96% of the lake’s total water losses, only 16% of the SPLC’s losses are consumed by evaporation, with the other 84% offset by outflow.

  14. Character and Implications of a Newly Identified Creeping Strand of the San Andreas fault NE of Salton Sea, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Markowski, D.

    2015-12-01

    The overdue earthquake on the Coachella section, San Andreas fault (SAF), the model ShakeOut earthquake, and the conflict between cross-fault models involving the Extra fault array and mapped shortening in the Durmid Hill area motivate new analyses at the southern SAF tip. Geologic mapping, LiDAR, seismic reflection, magnetic and gravity datasets, and aerial photography confirm the existence of the East Shoreline strand (ESS) of the SAF southwest of the main trace of the SAF. We mapped the 15 km long ESS, in a band northeast side of the Salton Sea. Other data suggest that the ESS continues N to the latitude of the Mecca Hills, and is >35 km long. The ESS cuts and folds upper Holocene beds and appears to creep, based on discovery of large NW-striking cracks in modern beach deposits. The two traces of the SAF are parallel and ~0.5 to ~2.5 km apart. Groups of east, SE, and ENE-striking strike-slip cross-faults connect the master dextral faults of the SAF. There are few sinistral-normal faults that could be part of the Extra fault array. The 1-km wide ESS contains short, discontinuous traces of NW-striking dextral-oblique faults. These en-echelon faults bound steeply dipping Pleistocene beds, cut out section, parallel tight NW-trending folds, and produced growth folds. Beds commonly dip toward the ESS on both sides, in accord with persistent NE-SW shortening across the ESS. The dispersed fault-fold structural style of the ESS is due to decollements in faulted mud-rich Pliocene to Holocene sediment and ramps and flats along the strike-slip faults. A sheared ladder-like geometric model of the two master dextral strands of the SAF and their intervening cross-faults, best explains the field relationships and geophysical datasets. Contraction across >40 km2 of the southernmost SAF zone in the Durmid Hills suggest that interaction of active structures in the SAF zone may inhibit the nucleation of large earthquakes in this region. The ESS may cross the northern Coachella

  15. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  16. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    /119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  17. The Status of Women in Physics in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbagi, Abdrazig M.; Sirelkhatim, Amna H.; Abdelrahman, Wafaa S.; Osman, Mai E.; Shatir, Tahani S.

    2009-04-01

    The progress of women in physics education in the last five years was surveyed in the six top universities in Sudan. The data reveal great increases in the number of females studying undergraduate physics. Most were studying experimental physics rather than theoretical physics, especially the laser and electronics fields. It appears undergraduate laboratory experiments are an important factor in attracting women to physics. Our survey found that girls are encouraged to study physics at the high school level. However, the data also showed that the fewer tendencies to study physics among the women after high school are due to the limited job opportunities and low income of teachers. Postgraduate physics study is handicapped by lack of institutions, financial constraints, and lack of qualified advisors. Improvement of education systems and new ways of teaching will have great influences on attracting women to physics in Sudan.

  18. Petrology and oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Pucon ignimbrite - Southern Andean volcanic zone, Chile: Implications for genesis of mafic ignimbrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurry, Michael; Schmidt, Keegan

    2001-01-01

    Although mafic components of dominantly intermediate to silicic ignimbrites are rather common, voluminous, dominantly mafic ignimbrites are rare (e.g., Smith, 1979; cf. Freundt and Schmincke, 1995). Volcan Villarrica, the most active composite volcano in South America, located in the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone (SAVZ, Lopez-Escobar and Moreno, 1994a), has produced two such ignimbrites, respectively the Lican and Pucon Ignimbrites, in the last 14,000 years (Clavero, 1996). The two ignimbrites are low-Si andesite and basaltic-andesite to low-Si andesite, respectively, the former about twice as voluminous as the later (10 and 5 km 3 ). Eruption of the ignimbrites produced calderas respectively 5 and 2 km in diameter (Moreno, 1995; Clavero, 1996). In addition to its mafic bulk composition, the Pucon Ignimbrite (PI) is also distinguished by numerous xenolithic fragments among and also within magmatic pyroclasts. Many of these are fragments of granitoid rocks. Volcan Villarrica has also produced numerous smaller mafic ignimbrites and pyroclastic surge deposits, as well as dominantly basaltic fallout and lava flows (Lopez-Escobar and Moreno, 1994; Moreno, 1995; Clavero, 1996; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1989; Tormey et al., 1991). Reasons for the unusual style of mafic explosive activity at Volcan Villarrica are unclear. Clavero (1996), based upon an exemplary thesis-study of the physical volcanology and petrology of the PI, suggests it formed in response to a sequence of events beginning with injection of a shallow basaltic andesite magma chamber by hotter basaltic magma. In his model mixing and heat transfer between the two magmas initiated a violent Strombolian eruption that destabilized the chamber causing infiltration of large amounts of meteoric-water saturated country rocks. The Pucon Ignimbrite formed in response to subsequent phreatomagmatic interactions. In contrast, Lopez-Escobar and Moreno (1994) infer on geochemical grounds that volatiles leading to the explosive

  19. Engendering Responses to Complex Emergencies: Lessons from South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    bolster the effectiveness of their response—for both women and men—in the affected communities. But what do the gender dimensions of a complex emergency... gender justice in South Sudan,” Oxfam (March 2013). 2 Thomas Pluemper and Eric Neumeyer, “The Unequal Burden of War: The Effect of Armed Conflict...single natural disaster, but by a combination of political and ethnic conflict, social inequality , poverty, and many other interrelated factors. As

  20. Master degree in different nuclear sciences; Sudan Academy of Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Sudan Academy of Sciences has enriched the professional and research fields with a considerable number of qualified staff in medical physics, radiation protection, nuclear sciences and technologies. These programs have great interest due to the increased market demand, introduction of these fields in the university syllabus, and the appreciated funds from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Arab Atomic Energy Agency via training and expert missions. (author)

  1. Response to the cholera outbreak in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On Thursday, May 15th 2014, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of the Republic of South Sudan declared a cholera outbreak in the capital Juba. As we go to press, the cholera has spread to other parts of the country and the cases are increasing. In its press statement, the MoH said it had “Reactivated a national emergency ...

  2. Environmental effects of bio energy systems in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed Nour, Salah Eldin Ali

    1999-01-01

    Biomass plays a vital role in Sudan and constitutes about 87% of the total energy consumption. Firewood and charcoal are the main sources of fuel representing more than 90% of household energy. The utilization of the bio energy i.e fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural residues and animal wastes has negative and positive effects on the environment. This paper summarize the environmental impacts and health effects resulting from energy production, supply and consumption

  3. Prevalence of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in central Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, M.; Babiker, H.I.; Bakheit, M.A.; A Rahman, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The study was conducted to validate an antibody-detection ELISA test (Ab-ELISA) using pre-coated ELISA plates with crude antigen preparation of Trypanosoma vivax and to study the prevalence of T. vivax infection in central Sudan. A total of 704 blood samples were collected from cattle in central Sudan, a known endemic area of T. vivax infection. Additionally, 74 blood samples were collected from northern Sudan (Atbra town), an area presumed to be T. vivax-free. Sera were collected during the period September 1998 to May 1999 during three different seasons (summer, autumn and winter). Under the existing laboratory conditions, the test showed a clear distinction between different controls, i.e. strong positive control (C++), weak positive control (C+), negative control (C-) and the conjugate control (Cc). A percent positivity of 25% was taken as a cut-off value to determine the positivity or negativity of the test. The acceptable optical density range of strong positive control (C++) was 0.65-1.22. Lower and upper percent positivity limits for different controls were also determined. The study showed that T. vivax is endemic in central Sudan with 1.4% prevalence based on parasitological examination and 29.26% on Ab-ELISA. The infection rate was significantly higher during the autumn and winter than in summer. Young cattle showed significantly lower infection rates than adults as indicated by both the parasitological and the Ab-ELISA test. In relation to husbandry practice, migratory cattle showed significantly higher rates of prevalence than resident cattle. There was no significant difference in average packed red cell volume (PCV) values between ELISA positive and ELISA negative animals. Calves of less than one year of age showed significantly lower PCV values when belonging to migratory herds than to resident herds. (author)

  4. Towards a better estimation of water power potential in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Khalid Abd ELFattah M. and others

    1999-01-01

    This paper present the previous and recent studies for the estimation of hydropower potential of Sudan from Nilotic and non-Nilotic sources. The theoretical availability of the hydropower potential was elaborated. The paper also highlights on the technical feasibility of the potential. It is worth mentioning that, reasons of he differences between theoretical and feasible potential were discussed. A procedure for ranking the available potential is concisely presented. Furthermore, the paper presents and discusses widely the available hydropower potential for international interconnections

  5. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed O. Hussien

    Full Text Available Aim: This cross-sectional survey was conducted to detect anti- N. caninum antibodies in bovine dams' sera samples in nine States of the Sudan. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy six bovine dams' sera samples collected from nine States in the Sudan were screened for anti-Neospora caninum antibodies using a commercial competitive ELISA (cELISA kits. Results: The results showed an overall prevalence rate of 15.9% (range 6.7% - 70% of Neospora caninum antibodies. The prevalence rates were high in White Nile (70% and North Kordofan (30%, moderate in the Northern (15.6%, Red Sea (13.3% States and was low in the South Kordofan (9.4% and River Nile (6.7%. States with high values of percentage inhibition (PI detected in White Nile State compared to other States. No antibodies were detected in El Gadarif, Kassala and South Darfur States. The prevalence was observed to be high in crossbred dams (70% with statistically significant difference (P<0.05 compared to local ecotype (9.3%. However, no correlation was observed between infection rates in two age groups. Conclusion: Neosporosis is prevalent in cattle in most States of Sudan. Absence of evidence of infection in three of the States investigated may reflect the small number of herds and sera tested. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 465-468

  6. Assessment of radioactivity in building material(granite) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z. A; Salih, I; Albadwai, K. A; Salih, A. M; Salih, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work radioactivity in building materials (granite) central Sudan was evaluated. In general the building materials used in Sudan are derived either from rocks or soil. These contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials(NORMs), so it contains radionuclides from uranium and thorium series and natural potassium. The levels of these radionuclides vary according to the geology of their site of origin. High levels increase the risk of radiation exposure in homes(especially exposure due to radon). Investigation of radioactivity in granite used of the building materials in Sudan is carried out, a total of 18 major samples of granite have been collected and measured using X- ray fluorescence system (30 mci). The activity concentrations have been determined for uranium ("2"3"8U), thorium ('2"3"2Th) and potassium("4"0K) in each sample. The concentrations of uranium have been found to range from 14.81 Bq/kg to 24.572 Bq/kg, thorium between 10.02 Bq/kg and 10.020-84.79 Bq/kg and the potassium concentration varies between 13.33 Bq/kg to 82.13 Bq/kg. Limits of radioactivity in the granite are based on dose criteria for controls. This study can be used as a reference for more extensive studies of the same subject in future. (Author)

  7. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  8. Investigation of trace uranium content in rock phosphate ore samples from Kurun-Uro area, Nuba Mountains, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Abdel Majid Abdel Galil Mohammed

    1999-07-01

    This investigation was carried out mainly to test the trace uranium level content in rock phosphate, which was used as a low cost fertilizer. Two types of rock phosphate were examined, namely, Kurun and Uro rocks from Nuba Mountains in the Southern Kurdufan province, Sudan.This area has a high background natural radioactivity. Moreover, it contains a rock phosphate zone lying between J. Kurun and Uro. The work included analytical methods carried out for thr rock phosphate samples using spectrophotometric and X-ray fluorescence techniques. The results obtained were compared with the data from literature and they showed a good agreement.The data was statistically analyzed to compare the results by the two techniques. The results of uranium content determined by the two analytical methods were significantly similar.The instrumental analysis revealed that different. Uranium content in the rocks phosphate samples of Uro type was found to be 1.6 times higher than Kurun type. (Author)

  9. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    relationships among people, living and dead, animals, plants, and natural and supernatural phenomena. “Fatalism, the belief that life is destined...thoughts persist today. According to quotes from militiamen in one of 14 Nenad Marinkovic’s articles , “Almost all South Sudan militias claim...foreign threats. He utilized these very arms to wage war against the SPLA and supply the government backed militias.63 In an article in the Small War

  10. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  11. The Birth of a Nation Is Only the Beginning: The Travails of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Just three years since it broke away from Sudan, the new country of South Sudan is embroiled in a violent civil war. This article examines what went wrong and why, by discussing the incredible difficulty of building a new nation from scratch following years of conflict, war, suspicion, and great expectations. How this tragedy will end is anyone's…

  12. A grammar of Gaahmg, a Nilo-Saharan language of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stirtz, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the grammar of Gaahmg, a Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic language spoken in the Blue Nile Province of North Sudan. The comprehensive description provides an analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax. Ten texts of various genre are given to help illustrated the

  13. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree

    2017-01-01

    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  14. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  15. Management of TB in the private sector in Khartoum, Sudan: quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Sudan has a large and growing private health sector. No survey was done in Sudan to show the extent of the use of private health care services by the population. Also precise data on tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment in the private sector are not available. Material and methods. A facility-based ...

  16. 76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... drinking water. South Sudan census results indicate that more than 50 percent of the population lives below... 2011, the World Food Programme warned of growing signs of drought in the Horn of Africa. As of July 21... regarding the availability of nationality documentation presented by the very recent creation of South Sudan...

  17. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, M.M.; Osman, O.F.; El-Raba'a, F.M.A.; Schallig, H.D.F.H.; Elnaiem, D.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a

  18. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, Mo'awia M.; Osman, Omran F.; El-Raba'a, Fathi Ma; Schallig, Henk Dfh; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a reservoir host

  19. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.

  20. Transport of radioactive material in Sudan practice and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, M. K. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the last couple of decades there has been an impressive increase in applications of radioactive material. Such an extensive and widely spread usage of radioactive materials demands safe transportation of radioactive material from the production site to the application location, as well as quick and effective response in a case of an unexpected transportation event according to Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) regulation. The thesis described the local practice for transport of radioactive material as compared to the international standards for radiation protection, and also discussed the emergency procedures that must be follow in case of accident during transport of radioactive material. Furthermore, the objective of this study was also to set proposals for how to cope in the event of a radiological accident. The study methods included survey of current literature on safe transport of radioactive material, survey of national regulations on the subjects in additional to case studies aimed at investigating the practical issues pertinent to transport of radioactive materials in Sudan. A comprehensive review was presented on how to classification of radioactive packages and general requirement for all packaging and packages according to international standard. transport of number of radioactive sources from Khartoum airport to the field was evaluated with regard transport index, category of source, type of package, dose rate around the source, time to destination and means of transport of doses to public, worker are be made. All results were within the limit specified in the national as well as international regulation. The study has addressed for the first time the practice of transport of radioactive material in Sudan. It is anticipated that the results will encourage national organizational and professional bodies to enhance radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. (Author)

  1. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934

  2. Rapid fluorescence assay for Sudan dyes using polyethyleneimine-coated copper nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Yu; Li, Jia Xing; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun; Qu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    We report that the intensity of the blue fluorescence of copper nanoclusters coated with polyethyleneimine (PEI) is strongly reduced in the presence of the food dyestuffs Sudan I-IV. This finding was exploited in a label-free fluorescence assay for these Sudan dyes both in ethanol and aqueous solutions. The PEI-capped nanoclusters have an average diameter of 1.8 nm and are displaying, under 355 nm excitation, a blue emission at 480 nm that matches the absorption bands of the Sudan dyes. The clusters are stable in solution for at least 1 month. Under optimum conditions, this assay can be applied to the quantification of the dyes Sudan I, II, III, and IV, respectively, in the 0.1−30, 0.1–30, 0.1–25, and 0.1–25 μM concentration ranges, and the detection limits (3σ/slope) are 65, 70, 45, and 50 nM, respectively. The capability of reducing the fluorescence of the PEI-capped copper nanoclusters is directly related to the number of the functional groups in that Sudan III and IV give lower detection limits. This analytical scheme exhibits a remarkably high selectivity for the Sudan dyes over potentially interfering substances. The method was successfully applied to determine Sudan I, II, III, and IV in hot chilli powder. (author)

  3. Factors Associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin Abdelrhman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess participants’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS and to identify the factors associated with HIV/AIDS in Sudan. Methods. Observational cross-sectional study carried out at Omdurman National Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centre, Sudan covered 870 participants. Sociodemographic data as well as information related to sexual behavior were collected. Results. Most of the respondents were knowledgeable about the true transmission modes for AIDS virus. Very few respondents knew someone infected with AIDS (4.5%, died of AIDS (8.1%, accepted to live with someone infected with AIDS (4.7% or to work with someone infected with AIDS (2.1%. Regarding sexual behavior, 96.5% had reported their first sexual experience between 20 and 30 years, with 85.7% reporting one or two partners, and only 1.8% reported using condom. Multivariate logistic regression showed that circumcision, religion, marital status, age at first sex, number of sexual partners, education level, and misconception of knowledge are the main risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. Our results showed that a number of diversity risk factors were associated with HIV/AIDS. It is unlikely that a holistic approach will be found to immediately change sexual-risk-relating behavior. Interventions including sustained educational programs, promotion of condom, and encouragement of voluntary testing and active involvement of the country’s political and religious leaders will be needed to alleviate this problem.

  4. Dosimetry for Patients undergoing Radiographic Examinations in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halato, M.A.; Kafi, S.T.; Ahmed, A.M.; Sid Ahamed, F.A.; Ibrahim, Z.; Suliman, M.F.; Suliman, I.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we estimated the entrance skin doses ESDs for patients undergoing selected diagnostic X -ray examinations in two large public hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan. The study included the examinations of the chest posterior-anterior (PA) , skull antero-posterior (AP), skull Lateral (LAT) , Lumber spine AP/LAT, abdomen Intravenous urogram (IVU) and Pelvis AP. Totally, 241 patients were included in this study. ESDs were estimated from patients specific exposure parameters using established relation between output (μ Gy/mAs) and tube voltage (kVp). The estimated ESDs ranged from 0.18 - 1.05 mGy for chest PA, 0.98 - 3.48 mGy for Skull (AP), 0.66 - 2.75 mGy for skull (LAT), 1.22 - 4.35 mGy for abdomen (IVU), 1.18 - 5.75 mGy for Pelvis, 1.52 - 5.01 mGy Lumbar spine AP and 2.48 - 10.41 mGy for Lumbar spine (LAT). These values compare well with the international reference dose levels. This study provides additional data that can help the regulatory authority to establish reference dose level for diagnostic radiology in Sudan

  5. ["Palimpsest scar" lesions in a context of torture (Darfur, Sudan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Mostefai Dulac, Y; Deo, S; Jacqueline, S; Brun, L; Hervé, C

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the current exponentially growing refugee population from the Middle-East and East Africa (Sudan, Darfur, Eritrea), clinicians (including forensic pathologists) are seeing atypical skin lesions, mainly of a traumatic nature, but in some cases associated with long-standing lesions related to ethnic practices. A case of torture sequelae is presented herein in a patient originally from Darfur (Sudan): cutaneous incisions were made on old scars several times using a knife. The clinical presentation of scarification lesions and that of atypically healed wounds (presumably an effect of inflammation induced by the introduction of irritating foreign bodies such as sand, salt, etc.) are completely different: in all cases they indicate a relative timeframe of the facts, which the clinician should not overlook in reconstructing the patient's course and the injuries to which he has been subjected (hence the proposed designation of "palimpsest scar", in the sense that a palimpsest is a manuscript on a parchment that previously contained writing but has been scratched clean to be overwritten). Thus, a "palimpsest scar" constitutes a fresh scar on top of and hiding another (ritual) scar in a context of ethnic cleansing. The diagnostic and clinical significance comes from the importance of differentiating between ethnic-type lesions and those induced by physical violence and abuse in a context of war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Emergency measles control activities--Darfur, Sudan, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-10-01

    The Darfur region of Sudan, composed of three states with a population of approximately six million, has experienced civil conflict during the previous year, resulting in the internal displacement of approximately one million residents and an exodus of an estimated 170,000 persons to neighboring Chad. The conflict has left a vulnerable population with limited access to food, health care, and other basic necessities. In addition, measles vaccination coverage has been adversely affected; in 2003, coverage was reported to be 46%, 57%, and 77% in North, West, and South Darfur, respectively. This report describes measles-control activities in Darfur region conducted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Sudan in collaboration with the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) during March-August 2004. Ongoing measles transmission in camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and neighboring communities in Darfur led to a regionwide measles vaccination campaign targeting all children aged 9 months-15 years, resulting in a reduction in reported measles cases. Once security is improved, ongoing efforts to increase measles vaccine coverage will be required to eliminate persistent susceptibility to measles in the Darfur population.

  7. Radiation protection in well logging: case studies in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    This study is performed to improve radiation protection level in well logging include tow case studies in Sudan (Lost or misplaced sources). General review of radiation and radiation protection basic concept is highlighted discussed. Also preview of well logging practice and source of radiation use in well logging, safety of radiation sources, storage and manage of not use sources (weak sources) and protection of worker and potential exposure for public and worker, investigations in cause of lost or misplaced sources in well. Assessment was made in well logging using checklist prepared in accordance with the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA basic safety standard, International Committee for Radiological Protection ICRP and safety in transport of radiation sources. The checklist includes all requirement of radiation protection. It is found that all requirement was present except the delay of calibration of radiation detectors, the movement of radiation sources form storage to base of manipulated area need adequate care for shielding and safe transport and personal monitoring service must be provide in Sudan. Investigation was made in cause of lose of nine radiation source in well it is found that all those sources were loss in different depth in the well and with deferent location and there was no risk because there was no contamination of fluids which caused by damage of loss sources. Some recommendations were stated that, if implemented could improve the status of radiation protection in well logging. (Author)

  8. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  9. Individual Monitoring service for occupational exposure in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, E.E.; Shaddad, I.; Medani, B.E.; Osman, M.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) is a dosimetry service provided by Radiation Protection Department (RPD) of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) to monitor about 400 occupational exposed workers all over the country. Measurements were done using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). The calibration of the TLD system was performed on a phantom with application of suitable correction factors in the SSDL using Cs-137 and different qualities of x-ray energies. Personal dose equivalents Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) were evaluated by employing one individual dosimeter to be carried continuously by the occupational exposed person while at work. In this work the dose received by workers in x-ray diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, research and industrial radiography were evaluated. Radiation doses for the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 were compared. From the results obtained, it was noticed that individual monitoring service had expanded over the last years. The average individual annual dose in different applications is less than 1 mSv/y except for the workers in industrial radiography, only 12 radiation workers (3.64 %) received doses exceeding 1 mSv and no individual approached the dose limit of 20 mSv recommended by the ICRP and set by Sudan's regulations. (author)

  10. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Geography: Sudan is the largest country in Africa with a total area of 2.6M km 2 and malaria endemicity increases from north to south as the isohytes increase. Malaria Situation: Malaria is hypoendemic in the north, meso-endemic in the central regions and some holoendemic transmission in the south where transmission is perennial. Epidemiology: P. falciparum is the main parasitic species and malaria prevalence was 12.75 in 1998. There are 31 species of Anopheles identified in Sudan, 18 of which are malaria infectious. An. arabiensis is the principal vector and is distributed thoughout the country. An. funestus and An. gambiae are vectors in the south. An. arabiensis is highly endophilic except in the east and is strongly anthropophilic. The species is well adapted to dry conditions and in the seasonal breeding areas the vector density can be virtually zero. It is not clear how these areas become re-infested in the rainy season. There is little inversion polymorphism in Sudanese populations of An. arabiensis. Malaria Control: Mosquito control activities focus mainly on residual house spraying but with some fogging activities in irrigated areas. Malathion house spraying is used in Khartoum but the use of impregnated bed nets is not popular. There is also some aerial spraying.

  11. Calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Youssif, B.E.; Beineen, A.A.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents results of measurements for the calibration of radiation protection area monitoring instruments carried out during the period 2006-2008 at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. The work performed included quality assurance measurements, measurements for the dosimeter calibrations and uncertainty analysis. Calibrations were performed using 137 Cs gamma ray sources produced by OB 85 and OB 34/1 gamma calibrators producing air kerma rate that ranged from 10 μGy/h to 50 mGy/h. Area monitoring instruments were calibrated in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10) derived using air kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Results are presented for 78 area monitoring instruments representing most commonly used types in Sudan. Radioactive check source measurements for the reference chamber showed deviation within 1% limit. The accuracy in the beam output measurements was within 5% internationally considered as acceptable. The results highlighted the importance of radiation protection calibrations. Regulations are further need to ensure safety aspect really meet the required international standards.

  12. Spatial accessibility to basic public health services in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Macharia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available At independence in 2011, South Sudan’s health sector was almost non-existent. The first national health strategic plan aimed to achieve an integrated health facility network that would mean that 70% of the population were within 5 km of a health service provider. Publically available data on functioning and closed health facilities, population distribution, road networks, land use and elevation were used to compute the fraction of the population within 1 hour walking distance of the nearest public health facility offering curative services. This metric was summarised for each of the 78 counties in South Sudan and compared with simpler metrics of the proportion of the population within 5 km of a health facility. In 2016, it is estimated that there were 1747 public health facilities, out of which 294 were non-functional in part due to the on-going civil conflict. Access to a service provider was poor with only 25.7% of the population living within one-hour walking time to a facility and 28.6% of the population within 5 km. These metrics, when applied sub-nationally, identified the same high priority, most vulnerable counties. Simple metrics based upon population distribution and location of facilities might be as valuable as more complex models of health access, where attribute data on travel routes are imperfect or incomplete and sparse. Disparities exist in South Sudan among counties and those with the poorest health access should be targeted for priority expansion of clinical services.

  13. Predictors of cervical cancer being at an advanced stage at diagnosis in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Sudan, with more than two-thirds of all women with invasive cervical cancer being diagnosed at an advanced stage (stages III and IV). The lack of a screening program for cervical cancer in Sudan may contribute to the late presentation...... of this cancer, but other factors potentially associated with advanced stages of cervical cancer at diagnosis are unknown. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between age, marital status, ethnicity, health insurance coverage, residence in an urban vs a rural setting, and stage (at...... diagnosis) of cervical cancer in Sudan....

  14. Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common psychiatric disorders Part 1: Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) ...

  15. 78 FR 65865 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and... emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-344). Because the...

  16. 76 FR 68053 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... 26, 2006, in Executive Order 13400, the President determined that the conflict in Sudan's Darfur... implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-344). Because the actions and...

  17. 77 FR 66357 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and... emergency and to implement the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-344). Because the...

  18. Blind Spots: Domestic Entrepreneurship and Private-sector Development in South-Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Twijnstra (Rens); D.J.M. Hilhorst (Thea)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPolicy discourse on private sector development in fragile states has started attributing great importance to domestic entrepreneurship. This chapter follows Dutch initiatives to support entrepreneurs in South Sudan between 2009 and 2015. Despite the rhetoric, support for entrepreneurs

  19. Assessment of Genetic Connectivity between Sudan and Saudi Arabia for Commercially Important Fish Species

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, Sara N.

    2017-01-01

    loci). Samples from three geographically separate regions along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coastline, as well as from Sudan, were analyzed to address latitudinal and cross-sea connectivity. I was able to determine that little genetic differentiation

  20. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past decade due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  1. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2005-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  2. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2003-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  3. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Sudan has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for 4 decades. An estimated 2 million people have died over the past decade due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes...

  4. Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis, Peace Talks, Terrorism, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dagne, Ted

    2006-01-01

    Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades An estimated 2 million people have died over the past two decades due to war-related...

  5. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  6. The Situation of Street Children in Selected Cities of South Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... magnitude, causes and effects of child streetism in six state capitals of South Sudan and suggest the way forward. ... The possible factors included war-induced displacement, family disruption, ...

  7. Late Quaternary vegetation, biodiversity and fire dynamics on the southern Brazilian highland and their implication for conservation and management of modern Araucaria forest and grassland ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behling, Hermann; Pillar, Valério DePatta

    2007-02-28

    Palaeoecological background information is needed for management and conservation of the highly diverse mosaic of Araucaria forest and Campos (grassland) in southern Brazil. Questions on the origin of Araucaria forest and grasslands; its development, dynamic and stability; its response to environmental change such as climate; and the role of human impact are essential. Further questions on its natural stage of vegetation or its alteration by pre- and post-Columbian anthropogenic activity are also important. To answer these questions, palaeoecological and palaeoenvironmental data based on pollen, charcoal and multivariate data analysis of radiocarbon dated sedimentary archives from southern Brazil are used to provide an insight into past vegetation changes, which allows us to improve our understanding of the modern vegetation and to develop conservation and management strategies for the strongly affected ecosystems in southern Brazil.

  8. A comparison of the physics of the northern and southern shelves of the eastern Bering Sea and some implications for the ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Kachel, Nancy B.; Moore, Sue; Mordy, Calvin W.; Napp, Jeffrey M.; Overland, James E.; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2012-06-01

    Sufficient oceanographic measurements have been made in recent years to describe the latitudinal variation in the physics of the eastern Bering Sea shelf and the potential impact of climate change on the species assemblages in the two ecosystems (north and south). Many of the predicted ecosystem changes will result from alterations in the timing and extent of sea ice. It is predicted that the sea ice in the northern Bering Sea will be less common in May, but will continue to be extensive through April. In contrast, the southern shelf will have, on average, much less sea ice than currently observed, but with large interannual and multiyear variability until at least 2050. Thus, even under current climate warming scenarios, bottom temperatures on the northern shelf will remain cold. Based on biophysical measurements, the southern and northern ecosystems were divided by a North-South Transition at ˜60°N. The northern middle shelf was characterized by a freshwater lens at the surface, cold bottom temperatures, and a thicker pycnocline than found on the southern shelf. Subsurface phytoplankton blooms were common. In contrast, the southern shelf stratification was largely determined by temperature alone; the pycnocline was thin (oftenstomias, respectively) are unlikely to become common in the north. The projected warming of the southern shelf will limit the distribution of arctic species (e.g., snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio) to the northern shelf and will likely permit expansion of subarctic species into the southern Bering Sea. The distribution and abundance of baleen whales will respond to shifts in prey availability; for instance, if prey are advected northward from the southeastern Bering Sea, an extension of range and an increase in seasonally migratory baleen whale numbers is anticipated. Thus, alteration of this ecosystem in response to climate change is expected to result in something other than a simple northward shift in the distribution of all species.

  9. Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration in South Sudan: The limits of conventional peace and security templates

    OpenAIRE

    Munive, Jairo

    2013-01-01

    This report explores the DDR programme in South Sudan; in particular how it has evolved, what the major challenges have been to its implementation and, finally, what can realistically be expected from renewed efforts to disarm and reintegrate fighters vis-à-vis security imperatives on the ground. DDR has been identified as a main priority in the Republic of South Sudan and a prerequisite to pave the way for future stability and development. The basic argument presented here is that standard D...

  10. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  11. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  12. Holocene Lake and Shallow Water Sediments at Mograt Island, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dittrich Annett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of stratigraphic excavation and soil studies carried out at Mograt Island, the largest of the Nilotic islands in Sudan. Due to its restricted insular environments, Holocene alluvial deposits were observed to be interlocked with archaeological remains of different periods, allowing for a combined chronostratigraphic approach to study both cultural and climatic events. To better understand the environmental context through soil components and pedological features at a microscopic scale, soil block samples were accordingly collected and studied by the application of soil micromorphology. This approach provides insights into the history of Nile terrace aggradation through the suspension of Nile sediment loads under stillwater conditions as well as of the periodical establishment of shallow water pools at the islands′ plateaus by the surface run-off from local rains. Since these patterns vary significantly from the present situation, they offer a key to the scenario in which specific early agricultural and animal herding practices evolved.

  13. CONTROL OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN THE GEZIRA IRRIGATION SCHEME, SUDAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mutamad; Abubaker, Hwiada

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the changing patterns of infection with Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in the Gezira Irrigation Scheme, Sudan. Taking a historical perspective, it shows the way in which factors such as ecology, biology, social and economic variables and politics have shaped patterns of infection, and how different kinds of strategies have been developed to control schistosomal infection over time. Wider political and economic issues at both national and international levels have shaped these strategies, influencing the prevalence and intensity of schistosomal infection at a local level. By highlighting the inter-play between the above-mentioned factors, the article reflects on the wisdom of prioritizing community-directed mass drug administration for the control of schistosomiasis in Gezira and elsewhere. The review demonstrates that not all efforts to control schistosomiasis are sustainable. A comprehensive control strategy involving political commitment, community participation and socioeconomic development is important for sustainable control of schistosomal infection.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF SUDAN I-IV: ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS AND POTENTIAL RISK ON SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudan dyes (Table 1 [1], a class of synthetic azo dyes and classified as category 3 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer[2], have been received considerable attention all over the world, especially in the past decade, which are found to be non-authorized and illegally added into food products, such as chili-, curry-, curcuma- and palm oil-containing foodstuffs, meats, spice mix, as well as feedstuffs and feed poultry, to enhance or maintain the appearance due to their intensive color and low price[3,4]. In addition, they are extensively applied in industrial and scientific areas, such as oils, textiles, plastics, waxes, inks, films, cosmetic products, shoe and floor polishing, and spirit varnishing[5-7]. Obviously, there exist a variety of potential sources for environmental contamination by Sudan dyes, thus threatening human health and the safety of ecosystems. It is reported that sub parts per billion levels of Sudan dyes were present in paprika fruits during the vegetation process, particularly, Sudan I existed in almost all samples, including paprika fruits, soils and agronomic materials from some fields in China[8],the levels in soils were significantly elevated by vegetation treatments, and pesticides and fertilizers constitute the major source of Sudan I contamination[9]. Till now, the investigation on contaminative behavior and environmental effects is rarely involved, and biogeochemical cycles of Sudan dyes are rarely concerned either.

  15. Education in Emergencies and Early Reconstruction: UNICEF Interventions in Colombia, Liberia, and Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleli, Ozsel; Chang, Victoria; Feigelson, Michael J.; Kopel-Bailey, Jules A.; Maak, Sheila A.; Mnookin, Jacob P.; Nguyen, Thu H.; Salazar, Mariana; Sinderbrand, Joy E.; Tafoya, Simon N.

    2007-01-01

    Broad access to quality, child-friendly education in emergencies is a critical component of early reconstruction and development. As a class of graduate students at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, our goal is to make a modest contribution to the field of education in emergencies by working…

  16. Southern Sudan Medical Bulletin vol 2 no 1 Editorial Why a statutory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    dollar a day it is unbelievable that such astronomical sums of money are charged for treatment which may not be necessary in the first place. The survey also showed that 63% of the „clinicians‟ running those clinics have no documentary evidence of medical or other types of registration from a regulatory body either in the ...

  17. Estimating environmental and occupational contribution to cancer in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Y. M. Y.; Beden, S. J.; Khalifa, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    This study was performed in Radiation and Isotopes Center of Khartoum (RICK) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) University of Gazeria. It focused on cancer patients who were treated by radiation therapy in the period between 2008 and 2009. The study investigator the risk and causative factors and geographical distribution over the sudan states and the relationship of incidence with some patient's customs and dietary habits. This study summarizes recent scientific evidence of environmental and occupational links to nearly 30 types of cancer. the discussion of each cancer type is introduced by highlights of trends in incidence. The study considers additional indication that involuntary exposures are linked to cancers, such as patterns observed in different geographic areas and among different population patterns of cancer in children. The purpose of this study is to review scientific evidence, particular y epidemiologic evidence. regarding the contribution of environmental and occupational exposures to the overall cancer incidence in the Sudan. The study discussed that the widespread exposures from air and water pollution, the work environment, exposure resulting form personal habits such as smoking and drinking and the diet are major contributors to cancer in human. In the past three decades, there have been several efforts to estimate the proportion of caner due to these involuntary exposure, starting with an ambitious effort by different scientists. This study provided and alternative interpretation of the evidence of cancer incidence to particular factors. We conclude the study by recommending the significance of giving environmental and occupational links to cancer serious consideration by individuals and institutions concerned with cancer prevention, particularly those involved in research and education. (Author)

  18. The Impact of Conflict on Forests in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, V.; Kasischke, E. S.; Dempewolf, J.; Loboda, T. V.; Geores, M.

    2014-12-01

    The impacts of armed conflict on ecosystems are complex and difficult to assess due to restricted access to affected areas making satellite remote sensing a useful tool for studying direct and indirect effects of conflict on the landscape. The Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) in South Sudan together with the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) in Northern Uganda share a boundary and encompass a biologically diverse montane ecosystem. This study used satellite data combined with general human population trends to examine the impact of armed conflict and its outcome on similar forest ecosystems both during and after hostilities. A Disturbance Index (DI) was used to investigate the location and extent of forest cover loss and gain in three areas for two key time periods. Results indicate that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the ICFR. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by some gains in forest cover. Discussions with local inhabitants confirmed these findings and provided further insights into the underlying causes impacting forest cover and wildlife. South Sudan is the latest nation to join the Global Environment Facility (GEF). While the GEF does not explicitly address conflict, many of the projects it supports occur in conflict and post-conflict zones with wide-ranging repercussions for both people and the environment. In an effort to assess best practices for working in conflict and post-conflict areas, the GEF Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) will undertake an analysis of GEF-funded projects over the last two decades to identify where the GEF has promoted cooperation between groups and states, and/or made a positive contribution toward conflict avoidance resulting in shared environmental benefits.

  19. Plain radiography procedures in Sudan: examination frequency and collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, B. E. Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to the previous studies diagnostic examinations are the largest man-made source to collective dose (CED) in world. It was observed that, despite of the large number of medical x-ray installations in Sudan and in particular conventional x-ray procedures, studies aimed at estimating collective effective dose in diagnostic radiology were lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual frequency of plain radiography examinations and to estimate the annual collective effective dose to Sudanese population due to plain radiography examinations, selected by their high frequencies or their relatively high doses delivered to patient. To have an idea about the typical examinations frequencies, data were collected from a sample of ten hospitals in Khartoum. The collected data provided information about the x-ray machine manufacture, year of installation and frequency of some examinations per day. The annual collective doses from all medical examinations to the population are: 441, 166, 630, 544, 276, 525, 30, 9, 12 and 161 man Sv from abdomen AP, chest AP, pelvis, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spain PA, lumbar- sacral joints, Skull AP, Skull LAT, Skull PA and from others examination, respectively. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated 2793 man Sv, with the largest contribution of pelvis and LS examinations and lowest contribution of skull examinations. Collective effective dose resulting from the use of plain radiography examinations in the Sudan is small compared with global results. But that dose not negate the need to conduct radiological surveys in frequent intervals to meet the increase of successive x-ray equipment to try to estimate and reduce the doses of patients and the public. (Author)

  20. The structural evolution of the coastal area between Danger Point and Struisbaai in the southern Cape Fold Belt, with implications for the siting of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.J.B.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A structural analysis of the coastal area between Danger Point and Struisbaai in the Southern Cape has been undertaken, using the technique of structural domain analysis coupled with geophysical interpretation and geological mapping. This study forms part of the country-wide geological investigations that are being carried out for the purpose of siting South Africa's future nuclear power stations. 30 refs., 18 figs

  1. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was

  2. Developing Walvis Bay Port into a logistics gateway for southern Africa: Issues, challenges and the potential implications for Namibia’s future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Savage

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many developing countries wish to become the ‘gateway’ to a region or part of a continent.One strategy involves encouraging logistics cluster development. These hubs support global supply chains and may enable the economic growth of the host country through the resulting trade, as well as providing direct and indirect employment opportunities during the build and subsequent operation of the hub. Namibia intends to develop the Port of Walvis Bay to be come the preferred gateway to southern Africa and the Southern African Development Community region. This article builds on research on Caribbean cluster potential and Namibian logistics to identify the potential benefits and impact on development, as well as the drawbacks and risks of such a strategy.

  3. Late Quaternary strike-slip along the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone and its tectonic implications in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing-xing; Zheng, Wen-jun; Zhang, Pei-zhen; Lei, Qi-yun; Wang, Xu-long; Wang, Wei-tao; Li, Xin-nan; Zhang, Ning

    2017-11-01

    The Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan are composed of discontinuous a set of active faults with various strikes and slip motions that are located to the north of the northern Tibetan Plateau. Despite growing understanding of the geometry and kinematics of these active faults, the late Quaternary deformation pattern in the Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan remains controversial. The active E-W trending Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone is located in the southern Gobi Alashan. Study of the geometry and nature of slip along this fault zone holds crucial value for better understanding the regional deformation pattern. Field investigations combined with high-resolution imagery show that the Taohuala Shan fault and the E-W trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F2 and F5) are left-lateral strike-slip faults, whereas the NW or WNW-trending faults within the Ayouqi fault zone (F1 and F3) are reverse faults. We collected Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and cosmogenic exposure age dating samples from offset alluvial fan surfaces, and estimated a vertical slip rate of 0.1-0.3 mm/yr, and a strike-slip rate of 0.14-0.93 mm/yr for the Taohuala Shan fault. Strata revealed in a trench excavated across the major fault (F5) in the Ayouqi fault zone and OSL dating results indicate that the most recent earthquake occurred between ca. 11.05 ± 0.52 ka and ca. 4.06 ± 0.29 ka. The geometry and kinematics of the Taohuala Shan-Ayouqi fault zone enable us to build a deformation pattern for the entire Hexi Corridor and the southern Gobi Alashan, which suggest that this region experiences northeastward oblique extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau. These left-lateral strike-slip faults in the region are driven by oblique compression but not associated with the northeastward extension of the Altyn Tagh fault.

  4. Developing Walvis Bay Port into a logistics gateway for southern Africa: Issues, challenges and the potential implications for Namibia’s future

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Savage; Logan Fransman; Andrew K. Jenkins; Colin G. Bamford

    2014-01-01

    Many developing countries wish to become the ‘gateway’ to a region or part of a continent.One strategy involves encouraging logistics cluster development. These hubs support global supply chains and may enable the economic growth of the host country through the resulting trade, as well as providing direct and indirect employment opportunities during the build and subsequent operation of the hub. Namibia intends to develop the Port of Walvis Bay to be come the preferred gateway to southern Afr...

  5. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks – implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Friederich, W.; Brüstle, A.; Küperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Lamara, S.; Working Group, Egelados

    2014-01-01

    The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earth...

  6. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of population sizes and spatial distributions of zebra mussels along the current southern frontier of their geographic range. Although the future population size trajectory and geographic range are uncertain, increased temperatures and intermittent, extreme droughts likely will affect spatio-temporal dynamics of

  7. Fine-grained quartz OSL dating chronology of loess sequence from southern Tajikistan: Implications for climate change in arid central Asia during MIS 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leibin; Jia, Jia; Li, Guoqiang; Li, Zaijun; Wang, Xin; Chen, Fahu

    2018-04-01

    The desert and semi-desert region of arid central Asia is one of the most important areas of middle-latitude dust emission and deposition in the Northern Hemisphere. Marine isotope stage 2 (MIS 2) was the latest and one of the most representative intervals of dust emission from the region, and it is especially important for research into processes of dust transportation and deposition. Here, we report the results of an optically stimulated luminescence study of the Hoalin section in southern Tajikistan, which was deposited during MIS 2. The fine-grained quartz single aliquot regeneration (SAR) approach was used and its reliability was verified by internal checks. In addition, grain-size analyses, calculated dust accumulation rates (DARs) and mass accumulation rates (MARs) were used to reconstruct the pattern of climate change during MIS 2. The mean DAR for southern Tajikistan during MIS 2 was 0.43 m/ka, and the corresponding average MAR was 673 g/cm2/a for a non-river-terrace site, which is higher than the average MARs estimated for the central and southern Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). In contrast to previous suggestions, the high dust DARs and MARs during the LGM indicate a 'cold-dry' climatic pattern, rather than a 'cold-humid' pattern. Our results also confirm that the patterns of high dust emission and deposition during the LGM in the mid-latitude arid zone of Asia were synchronous.

  8. Intra-seasonal risk of agriculturally-relevant weather extremes in West African Sudan Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boansi, David; Tambo, Justice A.; Müller, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Using household survey data and historical daily climate data for 29 communities across Upper East Ghana and Southwest Burkina Faso, we document climatic conditions deemed major threat to farming in the West African Sudan Savanna and assess risks posed by such conditions over the period 1997-2014. Based on farmers' perception, it is found that drought, low rainfall, intense precipitation, flooding, erratic rainfall pattern, extremely high temperatures, delayed rains, and early cessation of rains are the major threats farmers face. Using first-order Markov chain model and relevant indices for monitoring weather extremes, it is discovered that climatic risk is a general inherent attribute of the rainy season in the study area. Due to recent changes in onset of rains and length of the rainy season, some farmers have either resorted to early planting of drought-hardy crops, late planting of drought-sensitive crops, or spreading of planting across the first 3 months of the season to moderate harm. Each of these planting decisions however has some risk implications. The months of May, June, and October are found to be more susceptible to relatively longer duration of dry and hot spells, while July, August, and September are found to be more susceptible to intense precipitation and flooding. To moderate harm from anticipated weather extremes, farmers need to adjust their cropping calendar, adopt appropriate crop varieties, and implement soil and water management practices. For policy makers and other stakeholders, we recommend the supply of timely and accurate weather forecasts to guide farmers in their seasonal cropping decisions and investment in/installation of low cost irrigation facilities to enhance the practice of supplemental irrigation.

  9. Glacier History of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula Region Since the End of the Last Ice Age and Implications for Southern Hemisphere Westerly-Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M. R.; Schaefer, J. M.; Strelin, J. A.; Peltier, C.; Southon, J. R.; Lepper, K. E.; Winckler, G.

    2017-12-01

    For the area around James Ross Island, we present new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages on glacial deposits, and 14C ages on associated fossil materials. These data allow us to reconstruct in detail when and how the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet retreated around the Island as the last Ice Age ended, and afterward when local land-based glaciers fluctuated. Similar to other studies, we found widespread deglaciation during the earliest Holocene, with fjords and bays becoming ice free between about 11,000 and 8,000 years ago. After 7,000 years ago, neoglacial type advances initiated. Then, both expansions and ice free periods occurred from the middle to late Holocene. We compare the new glacier record to those in southern Patagonia, which is on the other side of the Drake Passage, and published Southern Ocean marine records, in order to infer past middle to high latitude changes in the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies. Widespread warmth in the earliest Holocene, to the north and south of the Drake Passage, led to small glacier systems in Patagonia and wide-ranging glacier recession around the northern Antarctic Peninsula. We infer that this early Holocene period of overall glacier recession - from Patagonia to the northern Peninsula - was caused by a persistent far-southerly setting of the westerlies and accompanying warm climates. Subsequently, during the middle Holocene renewed glacier expansions occurred on both sides of the Drake Passage, which reflects that the Westerlies and associated colder climate systems were generally more equatorward. From the middle to late Holocene, glacier expansions and ice free periods (and likely related ice shelf behavior) document how the Westerlies and associated higher-latitude climate systems varied.

  10. A cosmogenic 10Be chronology for the local last glacial maximum and termination in the Cordillera Oriental, southern Peruvian Andes: Implications for the tropical role in global climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Hall, Brenda L.; Rademaker, Kurt M.; Putnam, Aaron E.; Todd, Claire E.; Hegland, Matthew; Winckler, Gisela; Jackson, Margaret S.; Strand, Peter D.

    2016-09-01

    Resolving patterns of tropical climate variability during and since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is fundamental to assessing the role of the tropics in global change, both on ice-age and sub-millennial timescales. Here, we present a10Be moraine chronology from the Cordillera Carabaya (14.3°S), a sub-range of the Cordillera Oriental in southern Peru, covering the LGM and the first half of the last glacial termination. Additionally, we recalculate existing 10Be ages using a new tropical high-altitude production rate in order to put our record into broader spatial context. Our results indicate that glaciers deposited a series of moraines during marine isotope stage 2, broadly synchronous with global glacier maxima, but that maximum glacier extent may have occurred prior to stage 2. Thereafter, atmospheric warming drove widespread deglaciation of the Cordillera Carabaya. A subsequent glacier resurgence culminated at ∼16,100 yrs, followed by a second period of glacier recession. Together, the observed deglaciation corresponds to Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1: ∼18,000-14,600 yrs), during which pluvial lakes on the adjacent Peruvian-Bolivian altiplano rose to their highest levels of the late Pleistocene as a consequence of southward displacement of the inter-tropical convergence zone and intensification of the South American summer monsoon. Deglaciation in the Cordillera Carabaya also coincided with the retreat of higher-latitude mountain glaciers in the Southern Hemisphere. Our findings suggest that HS1 was characterised by atmospheric warming and indicate that deglaciation of the southern Peruvian Andes was driven by rising temperatures, despite increased precipitation. Recalculated 10Be data from other tropical Andean sites support this model. Finally, we suggest that the broadly uniform response during the LGM and termination of the glaciers examined here involved equatorial Pacific sea-surface temperature anomalies and propose a framework for testing the viability

  11. GEODYNAMICS OF NAZCA RIDGE’S OBLIQUE SUBDUCTION AND MIGRATION - IMPLICATIONS FOR TSUNAMI GENERATION ALONG CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PERU: Earthquake and Tsunami of 23 June 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Pararas-Carayannis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peru is in a region of considerable geologic and seismic complexity. Thrust faulting along the boundary where the Nazca plate subducts beneath the South American continent has created three distinct seismic zones. The angle of subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American plate is not uniform along the entire segment of the Peru-Chile Trench. Furthermore, subduction is affected by buoyancy forces of the bounding oceanic ridges and fractures - such as the Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ to the North and the Nazca Ridge to the South. This narrow zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes that can generate destructive tsunamis of varied intensities. The present study examines the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction and migration to the seismicity of Central/Southern Peru and to tsunami generation. The large tsunamigenic earthquake of 23 June 2001 is presented as a case study. This event generated a destructive, local tsunami that struck Peru’s southern coasts with waves ranging from 3 to 4.6 meters (10-15 feet and inland inundation that ranged from 1 to 3 km. In order to understand the near and far-field tsunamigenic efficiency of events along Central/Southern Peru and the significance of Nazca Ridge’s oblique subduction, the present study examines further the geologic structure of the region and this quake’s moment tensor analysis, energy release, fault rupture and the spatial distribution of aftershocks. Tsunami source mechanism characteristics for this event are presented, as inferred from seismic intensities, energy releases, fault plane solutions and the use of empirical relationships. The study concludes that the segment of subduction and faulting paralleling the Peru-Chile Trench from about 150 to 180 South, as well as the obliquity of convergent tectonic plate collision in this region, may be the reason for shorter rupture lengths of major earthquakes and the generation of only local destructive tsunamis.

  12. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Bennike, Ole; Hübscher, Christian; Clausen, Ole Rønø

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels in the period 10.3-9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea-level rise. The estuary existed simultaneously with the occurrence and drainage of the Ancylus Lake. The drainage of this lake occurred through the Dana River (palaeo-Great Belt channel) into the southern Kattegat and then into the study area. The level of the Ancylus Lake in the Baltic Sea region dropped significantly at about 10.2 cal. ka BP at the same time as the estuary developed in the Kattegat region. One outcome of the present study is an enhanced understanding of the Ancylus Lake drainage path. No evidence of major erosion is seen, which indicates non-catastrophic continuous water flow from the south without major drainage events of the Ancylus Lake to the southern Kattegat. During the Littorina transgression, coastal estuarine conditions characterized the Hesselø Bay area where elongated ridges formed a bar system. As the Littorina transgression continued, back-stepping of the bar system and coastline occurred. When the transgression breached the Great Belt threshold, flooding caused major erosion throughout the study area.

  13. Wilderness First Aid Training as a Tool for Improving Basic Medical Knowledge in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katona, Lindsay B; Douglas, William S; Lena, Sean R; Ratner, Kyle G; Crothers, Daniel; Zondervan, Robert L; Radis, Charles D

    2015-12-01

    The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency. A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted. Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; Pfirst of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.

  14. Holocene slip rates along the San Andreas Fault System in the San Gorgonio Pass and implications for large earthquakes in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heermance, Richard V.; Yule, Doug

    2017-06-01

    The San Gorgonio Pass (SGP) in southern California contains a 40 km long region of structural complexity where the San Andreas Fault (SAF) bifurcates into a series of oblique-slip faults with unknown slip history. We combine new 10Be exposure ages (Qt4: 8600 (+2100, -2200) and Qt3: 5700 (+1400, -1900) years B.P.) and a radiocarbon age (1260 ± 60 years B.P.) from late Holocene terraces with scarp displacement of these surfaces to document a Holocene slip rate of 5.7 (+2.7, -1.5) mm/yr combined across two faults. Our preferred slip rate is 37-49% of the average slip rates along the SAF outside the SGP (i.e., Coachella Valley and San Bernardino sections) and implies that strain is transferred off the SAF in this area. Earthquakes here most likely occur in very large, throughgoing SAF events at a lower recurrence than elsewhere on the SAF, so that only approximately one third of SAF ruptures penetrate or originate in the pass.Plain Language SummaryHow large are earthquakes on the southern San Andreas Fault? The answer to this question depends on whether or not the earthquake is contained only along individual fault sections, such as the Coachella Valley section north of Palm Springs, or the rupture crosses multiple sections including the area through the San Gorgonio Pass. We have determined the age and offset of faulted stream deposits within the San Gorgonio Pass to document slip rates of these faults over the last 10,000 years. Our results indicate a long-term slip rate of 6 mm/yr, which is almost 1/2 of the rates east and west of this area. These new rates, combined with faulted geomorphic surfaces, imply that large magnitude earthquakes must occasionally rupture a 300 km length of the San Andreas Fault from the Salton Sea to the Mojave Desert. Although many ( 65%) earthquakes along the southern San Andreas Fault likely do not rupture through the pass, our new results suggest that large >Mw 7.5 earthquakes are possible on the southern San Andreas Fault and likely

  15. 31 CFR 538.208 - Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loans to the Government of Sudan. Except as otherwise authorized, the grant or extension of credits or... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited grant or extension of credits or loans to the Government of Sudan. 538.208 Section 538.208 Money and Finance: Treasury...

  16. X-ray diffraction analysis of mudstone from nw sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Suad Z.Elabdeen

    1997-03-01

    This study deals with the theoretical and experimental aspects of the x-ray diffraction technique (XRD). The XRD technique is used to investigate fine structure of matter, and it is most efficient method for the determination of the mineralogical composition of rocks. The XRD technique is used also to investigate the clay mineralogical of mud-stones of the Nubian sandstones of north western Sudan. The XRD results revealed that the mud-stone samples are composed, in decreasing abundance's of kaolinite, smectite, chlorite and illite. Non-clay minerals reported include quartz, feldspars and geothite. Kaolinite dominates in most of samples with percentages ranging between 78-96%. Smectite comes second in abundance and ranges between 10-24%, followed by chlorite and illite which showed the lowest abundance's. The dominance of kaolinite over smectite indicates that intense chemical weathering and leaching occurred under warm humid climate interrupted by dry periods. Most probably these clay minerals were produced by inheritance and partly by neo formation. The variation of the chemical composition of these mud stones is due basically to differences in clay mineralogy which was controlled by source rock geology, weathering physicochemical behavior of elements, local environment and climatic condition in the past. (Author)

  17. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  18. Investigation of radioactivity in flour and bread improvers in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A. R. H. I.

    2013-07-01

    The measurement of radionuclides concentration is useful in determining the radiological risk due to internal dose from flour and bread improvers. From the radiation protection point of view, the main goal is obtain the annual average dose to which of flour and bread improvers commonly used in Sudan has been carried out. Thirty samples have been collected from Khartoum state and measured using gamma spectrometry system. The obtained result showed that ranges of the activity concentrations of detected radionuclides, Cs-137 and K-40 vary between 0.40-8.89 and 8.58- 772.34 Bq.kq-1 respectively. Using estimated data of consumption rates, the annual effective dose for the population has been calculated and found to be 5.6x10 -09 mSv/y for Cs-137 and 2.92x10 -07 mSv/y for k-40. This value is relativity low if compared with recommended limits of exposure from this route of intake. (Author)

  19. Phytochemical studies of flavonoids from polygonum glabrum L of Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Intisar Sirour [Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1996-01-01

    A semi- aquatic plant, Polygnum glabrum wild of the family polygonaceae was reported in traditional medicine of Sudan as anthelmintic and as a remedy against intestinal colics.The literature reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the bioactive agents as being sequi terpenes. The flavonoids of the Sudanese species were not investigated before. The present work consisted of phyto chemical study of the leaves of Polygonum galbrum wild. Before experimentation, a through authentication of the plant was done to correct previously reported errors. In the first stages a phyto chemical screening was made which confirmed the presence of flavonoid compounds in higher amounts than the other classes of natural products present in the plant. Different chromatographic techniques of isolation were assayed but the fractionation of flavonoids was successfully done with preparative thin layer chromatographic techniques. Yellow crystals, namely (two compounds) were obtained in pure form and identified as being flavonoids. Spectral studies were performed on Infra-Red and Ultra- Violet spectrophotometers. The computerized Ultra- Violet spectrophotometer allowed us to obtain complete data about the studied compounds. Structure elucidation was attempted and the structure of the isolated flavonoids were suggested as being Isorhamnetin and Diosmetin. (Author)

  20. Occupational exposure to staff during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Elzaki, M.; Khalil, M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) procedure is an invasive technique that requires fluoroscopic and radiographic exposure. The purpose of this study was to determine the occupational dose of ionising radiation at three gastroenterology departments (Fedial, Soba and Ibn seena hospitals) in Khartoum (Sudan). The radiation dose was measured during 55 therapeutic ERCP procedures. Thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. The mean radiation dose for the first operator was 0.27 mGy for the eye lens, 0.21 for the thyroid, 0.32 for the chest, 0.17 for the hand and 0.22 for the leg. The mean radiation dose for the second operator was 0.21 mGy for the hand and 0.20 mGy for the chest, while the mean radiation dose for the nurse was 0.44 mGy for the hand and 0.19 for the chest. The radiation dose received by the staff in these hospitals was found to be higher than most of the values in the literature. The radiation absorbed dose received by the different organs is relatively low. Additional studies need to be conducted for radiation dose optimisation. (authors)

  1. Investigation of soil radioactivity of Alkhwai area central Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, R. H. A.

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first of its type to be conducted in Alkhwai area aiming at thorough investigation of natural environmental radioactivity. Considerable variation in soil radioactivity with location is observed. Results show that the average concentrations of 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in soil were found to be 14.79± 2.43, 20.71± 3.59 and 162.09± 21.19 respectively and have the range 10.0-21.98, 13.89-28.55 and from 113.51 to 219.45 respectively. It is observed that there is strong correlation between Uranium-Thorium and fair correlation between Uranium-Potassium and Thorium-Potassium. The average value of calculated gamma radiation dose rate in Alkhwai district was estimated to be (26.10) n Gy h -1 comparable with the world average (59 n Gy/h). The average dose from gamma radiation dose rate to an individual assuming a tropical rural setting is estimated to be 32.03 μSv/year, which is considered to be within the normal range for doses from natural sources. Further measurements of ambient dose for more soil type at different geological features of Sudan are needed to establish a more comprehensive database on the relationship between gamma radiation dose and geological-soil information. (Author)

  2. Behaviour of 14C-DDT in Sudan Gezira soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.M.; El-Zorgani, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Field cylinders as described in the model experiment for determination of 14 C-DDT in Sudan Gezira soil were prepared and samples were collected for determination of 14 C-activity at various intervals. About 83-87% of the applied radioactivity was recovered in the extracts from the top 10 cm layer of soil. The loss rate of the chemical from soil increased with time apparently by volatilization and thermal degradation due to high soil temperature, intensive solar radiation and low soil organic matter. This resulted in a half-life of approx. 5 weeks. The major part of the chemical and possible metabolites were detected in the top 10 cm layer. Approximately 8-10% of the applied 14 C was detected in samples collected after 16-20 weeks. TLC and autoradiography indicated the presence of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE as the major metabolite. Also traces of TDE were detected in some samples. These results showed that under Sudanese tropical conditions, DDT dissipates very rapidly in soils compared to dissipation in temperate regions. (author). 6 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugud Abdel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed.

  4. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1% was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7% and theft (19.7%. Peers (40.9% were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17. Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences.

  5. Molecular genetic identification of some wheat cultivars in the sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekki, I. I; El Amin, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    Four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, namely condor, El-Nellene, Wadi El Neil and Debeira were characterized on biochemical and molecular bases. The biochemical ones were protein-banding patterns, using sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and isozymes to identify the biochemical genetic fingerprint of the four cultivars. Water-soluble protein-banding pattern showed no polymorphisms among the tested cultivars. The data from starch gel electrophoresis of enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH), esterase (EST) and acid phosphate (ACPH) showed that the cultivars are monomorphic. Further trials to identify the molecular genetic fingerprints of the studied cultivars were carried out using RAPD-PCR twenty-five primers were tested to perform. RAPD-PCR analysis. From the PCR products, a phylogenetic map, i.e, dendrogram, was constructed for the studied cultivars which depicted tow groups. The first group contained Wadi El Neil and Deberia with 48.4% similarity, and the second group contained Condor and El Neileen with 100% similarity. There was no similarity between Condor and Debeira (100% dissimilarity). Therefor, these data can be used subsequently for genetic engineering research and for wheat breeding programmes in the Sudan.(Author)

  6. Pediatric radiation dose during cardiac catheterization procedures in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nada A.; Nayel, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Children are more radio sensitive than adult. This study aims to assess radiation doses and the associated hazards to pediatric during cardiac catheterization procedures. Radiation dose for 112 patients was estimated in the biggest cardiac center in Sudan. The median KAP in Gy cm"2, CK in mGy, number of frames and fluoroscopy time in minutes were (4.6, 29.0, 340.4, 13.5) and (6.0, 35.0, 318, 9.8) for the diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac procedures, respectively. The median (KAP in Gy cm"2, effective dose in mSv) for different age groups in the intervals of less than 1 year, 1-<5 years, 5-<10 years and 10- 15 years old were (2.2, 4.4), (2.5, 5.0), (4.2, 5.1) and (8.5, 4.1) respectively. Including all the procedures using the multiplicative model of ICRP 60, the mean attributable lifetime risk for stochastic effect was 0.08 and 0.05% for girls and boys, respectively. Training is needed to raise staff awareness about radiation protection. (authors)

  7. Economic development and the allocation of petroleum products in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, M.; Yousif, M.A.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build a model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future

  8. Determination of Tannins of Three Common Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze and compare tannins of three common Acacia species of Sudan, since vegetable tannins are important in leather industry. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal samples were collected from Sunt Forest in Khartoum State, while Acacia senegal samples were collected from the Debabat Forest in South Kordofan State. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with boiled deionized water. The amount of tannins present in these bulk samples was determined by Folin-Denis method for total phenolic materials, followed by precipitation with hide-powder. The difference between the amount of phenolic materials present before and after addition of hide-powder represents the amount of tannins present. The percentage of tannins in the leaves, bark, and mature and immature fruits of collections of individuals of Acacia species was estimated; mature and immature fruits of Acacia nilotica contain tannins (22.15% and 22.10%, resp.. The leaves of Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal contain tannins (11.80% and 6.30%, resp.. The barks of Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia senegal contain tannins (12.15%, 10.47%, and 3.49%, resp..

  9. Characterisation of phosphate rocks at kurun mountain, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgader, G. A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This main objective of this study was to characterise some Sudanese phosphate raw materials collected from Jebel Kurun, located in the eastern part of Nuba Mountain, Western Sudan. The study also aimed to investigate the association between uranium and phosphate and to determine the concentration of some essential elements and trace elements in the phosphate rock. A total of 30 samples were collected from Karun's eastran mountains, near Abujibiha City and have been analyzed for the selected elements using x-ray fluorescence. The obtained results showed that the average concentration of elements was Ca (11.3) and Fe (1.7) as a percentage, while it was Cu (1617.7), Ni (258.4), Pb (185.9), Ti (27.62), V (3779.9), U (160.9), Zn (152.8) and Mn (776.3) in ppm. The average total phosphorus content (analyzed as P O5 %) using UV-visible spectrometer was found to be 30.54%. This could be considered is acceptable percentage for phosphate to be 30.54%. This could be considered is acceptable percentage for phosphate to be used in industrial fertilizers and phosphoric acid production. The average total calcium carbonate was 15.7%. For the elements distribution, uranium found to be more concentrated in the summit of Jebel Kurun, and it displayed a correlation with lead. Furthermore, four groups of association have been noticed, based on elements concentrations.(Author)

  10. Studies on simple goitre epidemiology and aetiology in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medani, A M. H. [Atomic Energy Researches Coordination Council, Sudan Academy of Sciences, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2008-03-15

    The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goiter. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in the South), Atbara and Dongula (in the north), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre ). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age 6-12 years old. All the children were clinically examined for the presence of goiter using WHO palpation method. Blood samples were randomly collected from 360 children (30-37) from each selected city irrespective of their thyroid status or gender. Serum samples were analyzed for the concentration of T{sub 4}, T{sub 3}, TSH, and Tg. Casual urine samples were also collected from the same selected subjects. Urine samples were analyzed for iodine and thiocyanate concentrations. Water samples were collected from each school and analyzed for the concentration of Ca, Mg, Cl, F and total Hardness. The results indicated that the overall total goiter rate was 40.62%. The highest goiter rate was found in Kosti town (77.67%) and the lowest in Omdurman Khartoum state (12.22%). The overall median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 6.55 {mu}g/dl. Iodine deficiency was detected in 70.28% of the children and there were great variations in the median UIE from region to anther started from as low as 2.70{mu}g/d1 in Kosti town 46.40 {mu}g/d1 in Port Sudan city (at the cost of the Red Sed). The overall median concentration of urinary thiocyanate was 0.37 mg/d1. There were also variations in the median levels of urinary thiocyanate from city to another and slightly exceeded the cut off point (0.0.46 mg/d1) in pupils from Wau

  11. Studies on simple goitre epidemiology and aetiology in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medani, A. M. H.

    2008-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to map the prevalence of goiter in Sudan and to study the etiological factors involved. A further objective was to explore the use of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level in the assessment of endemic goiter. The survey took place in the period from June to November 2006. The survey covered nine cities including Nyala and Elfasher (Western part), Wau (in the South), Atbara and Dongula (in the north), Dmazine (South East), Port Sudan (Eastern part), Kosti and Khartoum (in the Centre ). Khartoum was divided into three different cities Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman. The study included 6181 male and female schoolchildren at the age 6-12 years old. All the children were clinically examined for the presence of goiter using WHO palpation method. Blood samples were randomly collected from 360 children (30-37) from each selected city irrespective of their thyroid status or gender. Serum samples were analyzed for the concentration of T 4 , T 3 , TSH, and Tg. Casual urine samples were also collected from the same selected subjects. Urine samples were analyzed for iodine and thiocyanate concentrations. Water samples were collected from each school and analyzed for the concentration of Ca, Mg, Cl, F and total Hardness. The results indicated that the overall total goiter rate was 40.62%. The highest goiter rate was found in Kosti town (77.67%) and the lowest in Omdurman Khartoum state (12.22%). The overall median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 6.55 μg/dl. Iodine deficiency was detected in 70.28% of the children and there were great variations in the median UIE from region to anther started from as low as 2.70μg/d1 in Kosti town 46.40 μg/d1 in Port Sudan city (at the cost of the Red Sed). The overall median concentration of urinary thiocyanate was 0.37 mg/d1. There were also variations in the median levels of urinary thiocyanate from city to another and slightly exceeded the cut off point (0.0.46 mg/d1) in pupils from Wau and Nyala cities

  12. Incarcerated Black Women in the Southern USA: A Narrative Review of STI and HIV Risk and Implications for Future Public Health Research, Practice, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelligrino, Nicole; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Sothern, Melinda; Scribner, Richard; Phillippi, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Incarcerated black women in the southern USA are understudied despite the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These incarceration and health disparities are rooted in centuries of historically inequitable treatment. Amidst the current dialogue on mass incarceration in the south and its relationship to the health of the black community, individual and environmental risk factors for STI/HIV transmission are seldom paired with discussions of evidence-based solutions. A narrative review of the literature from January 1995 to May 2015 was conducted. This sample of the literature (n = 18) revealed that partner concurrency, inconsistent condom use, sex work, previous STI, and drug abuse augmented individual STI/HIV risk. Recommended interventions include those which promote healthier relationships, cultural competence, and gender specificity, as well as those that enhance prevention skills. Policy recommendations include improving cultural sensitivity, cultural competence, and cultural humility training for clinicians, as well as substantially increasing funding for prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services. These recommendations are timely given the recent national attention to incarceration, STI, and HIV disparities, particularly in the southern USA.

  13. Hyalomma ticks on northward migrating birds in southern Spain: Implications for the risk of entry of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus to Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Marion E; Phipps, Paul; Medlock, Jolyon M; Atkinson, Peter M; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger; Gale, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by Hyalomma ticks, the immature stages of which may be carried by migratory birds. In this study, a total of 12 Hyalomma ticks were recovered from five of 228 migratory birds trapped in Spring, 2012 in southern Spain along the East Atlantic flyway. All collected ticks tested negative for CCHFV. While most birds had zero Hyalomma ticks, two individuals had four and five ticks each and the statistical distribution of Hyalomma tick counts per bird is over-dispersed compared to the Poisson distribution, demonstrating the need for intensive sampling studies to avoid underestimating the total number of ticks. Rates of tick exchange on migratory birds during their northwards migration will affect the probability that a Hyalomma tick entering Great Britain is positive for CCHFV. Drawing on published data, evidence is presented that the latitude of a European country affects the probability of entry of Hyalomma ticks on wild birds. Further data on Hyalomma infestation rates and tick exchange rates are required along the East Atlantic flyway to further our understanding of the origin of Hyalomma ticks (i.e., Africa or southern Europe) and hence the probability of entry of CCHFV into GB. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  14. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault and implications to regional seismic hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Masson, Frederic; Piatibratova, Oksana; Mizrahi, Yaakov

    2018-01-01

    Detailed analysis of crustal deformation along the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is presented. Using dense GPS measurements we obtain the velocities of new near- and far-field campaign stations across the fault. We find that this section is locked with a locking depth of 19.9 ± 7.7 km and a slip rate of 5.0 ± 0.8 mm/yr. The geodetically determined locking depth is found to be highly consistent with the thickness of the seismogenic zone in this region. Analysis of instrumental seismic record suggests that only 1% of the total seismic moment accumulated since the last large event occurred about 800 years ago, was released by small to moderate earthquakes. Historical and paleo-seismic catalogs of this region together with instrumental seismic data and calculations of Coulomb stress changes induced by the 1995 Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake suggest that the southern Arava Valley section of the Dead Sea Fault is in the late stage of the current interseismic period.

  15. Combined structural interventions for gender equality and livelihood security: a critical review of the evidence from southern and eastern Africa and the implications for young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Willan, Samantha; Misselhorn, Alison; Mangoma, Jaqualine

    2012-06-14

    Young people in southern and eastern Africa remain disproportionately vulnerable to HIV with gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities being key drivers of this. Behavioural HIV prevention interventions have had weak outcomes and a new generation of structural interventions have emerged seeking to challenge the wider drivers of the HIV epidemic, including gender inequalities and livelihood insecurities. We searched key academic data bases to identify interventions that simultaneously sought to strengthen people's livelihoods and transform gender relationships that had been evaluated in southern and eastern Africa. Our initial search identified 468 articles. We manually reviewed these and identified nine interventions that met our criteria for inclusion. We clustered the nine interventions into three groups: microfinance and gender empowerment interventions; supporting greater participation of women and girls in primary and secondary education; and gender empowerment and financial literacy interventions. We summarise the strengths and limitations of these interventions, with a particular focus on what lessons may be learnt for young people (18-24). Our review identified three major lessons for structural interventions that sought to transform gender relationships and strengthen livelihoods: 1) interventions have a narrow conceptualisation of livelihoods, 2) there is limited involvement of men and boys in such interventions, 3) studies have typically been done in stable populations. We discuss what this means for future interventions that target young people through these methods.

  16. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  17. The European Union’s Aviation Security Mission in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup Christensen, Gitte; Kammel, Arnold; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    of the security situation in the country, all EU personnel were evacuated in January 2014, and the mission was (informally) terminated after fulfilling its mandated deployment period. Even though the mission had succeeded in training 350 personnel prior to the evacuation, its contribution to the overall security......When South Sudan gained independence in 2011, the new country needed assistance from external actors during the transition to prevent the security situation from deteriorating. In 2012 the EU launched its Aviation Security Mission (EUAVSEC) in South Sudan as part of its Common Security and Defence...... Policy. This came in response to a South Sudanese request for EU support and assistance in strengthening the security in Juba International Airport, as it had proven difficult for South Sudan to establish a fully operational transport hub. The EU estimated that an improvement of the airport security...

  18. Isotopic Abundance and Chemical Purity Analysis of Stable Isotope Deuterium Labeled Sudan I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Yin-ping;LEI Wen;ZHENG Bo;DU Xiao-ning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is important that to analysis of the isotopic abundance and chemical purity of Sudan I-D5, which is the internal standard of isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The isotopic abundance of Sudan I-D5 is detected by “mass cluster” classification method and LC-MS. The repeatability and reproducibility experiments were carried out by using different mass spectrometers and different operators. The RSD was less than 0.1%, so the repeatability and reproducibility were satisfactory. The accuracy and precision of the isotopic abundance analysis method was good with the results of F test and t test. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC had been used for detecting the chemical purity of Sudan I-D5 as external standard method.

  19. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.

  20. Field geology, geochronology and geochemistry of mafic-ultramafic rocks from Alxa, China: Implications for Late Permian accretionary tectonics in the southern Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyun; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian; Han, Chunming; Wan, Bo; Zhang, Ji'en; Ao, Songjian; Zhang, Zhiyong; Lin, Lina

    2013-12-01

    The time of termination of orogenesis for the southern Altaids has been controversial. Systematic investigations of field geology, geochronology and geochemistry on newly discriminated mafic-ultramafic rocks from northern Alxa in the southern Altaids were conducted to address the termination problem. The mafic-ultramafic rocks are located in the Bijiertai, Honggueryulin, and Qinggele areas, stretching from west to east for about 100 km. All rocks occur high-grade gneisses as tectonic lenses that are composed of peridotite, pyroxenite, gabbro, and serpentinite, most of which have undergone pronounced alteration, i.e., serpentinization and chloritization. Geochemically, the rocks are characterized by uniform compositional trends, i.e., with low SiO2-contents (42.51-52.21 wt.%) and alkalinity (Na2O + K2O) (0.01-5.45 wt.%, mostly less than 0.8 wt.%), and enrichments in MgO (7.37-43.36 wt.%), with Mg# = 52.75-91.87. As the rocks have been strongly altered and have a wide range of loss-on-ignition (LOI: 0.44-14.07 wt.%) values, they may have been subjected to considerable alteration by either seawater or metamorphic fluids. The REE and trace element patterns show a relatively fractionated trend with LILE enrichment and HFSE depletion, similar to that of T-MORB between N-MORB and E-MORB, indicating that the parental melt resulted from the partial melting of oceanic lithospheric mantle overprinted by fluid alteration of island-arc origin. The ultramafic rocks are relics derived from the magma after a large degree of partial melting of oceanic lithospheric mantle with superposed island arc processes under the influence of mid-ocean-ridge magmatism. LA-ICP MS U-Pb zircon ages of gabbros from three spots are 274 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.35), 306 ± 3 Ma (MSWD = 0.49), 262 ± 5 Ma (MSWD = 1.2), respectively, representing the formation ages of the mafic-ultramafic rocks. Therefore, considering other previously published data, we suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks were products of

  1. Focal mechanisms in the southern Aegean from temporary seismic networks – implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Friederich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral variation of the stress field in the southern Aegean plate and the subducting Hellenic slab is determined from recordings of seismicity obtained with the CYCNET and EGELADOS networks in the years from 2002 to 2007. First motions from 7000 well-located microearthquakes were analysed to produce 540 well-constrained focal mechanisms. They were complemented by another 140 derived by waveform matching of records from larger events. Most of these earthquakes fall into 16 distinct spatial clusters distributed over the southern Aegean region. For each cluster, a stress inversion could be carried out yielding consistent estimates of the stress field and its spatial variation. At crustal levels, the stress field is generally dominated by a steeply dipping compressional principal stress direction except in places where coupling of the subducting slab and overlying plate come into play. Tensional principal stresses are generally subhorizontal. Just behind the forearc, the crust is under arc-parallel tension whereas in the volcanic areas around Kos, Columbo and Astypalea tensional and intermediate stresses are nearly degenerate. Further west and north, in the Santorini–Amorgos graben and in the area of the islands of Mykonos, Andros and Tinos, tensional stresses are significant and point around the NW–SE direction. Very similar stress fields are observed in western Turkey with the tensional axis rotated to NNE–SSW. Intermediate-depth earthquakes below 100 km in the Nisyros region indicate that the Hellenic slab experiences slab-parallel tension at these depths. The direction of tension is close to east–west and thus deviates from the local NW-oriented slab dip presumably owing to the segmentation of the slab. Beneath the Cretan sea, at shallower levels, the slab is under NW–SE compression. Tensional principal stresses in the crust exhibit very good alignment with extensional strain rate principal axes derived from GPS velocities except

  2. Inclination shallowing in Eocene Linzizong sedimentary rocks from Southern Tibet: correction, possible causes and implications for reconstructing the India-Asia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wentao; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Lippert, Peter C.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Hallot, Erwan

    2013-09-01

    A systematic bias towards low palaeomagnetic inclination recorded in clastic sediments, that is, inclination shallowing, has been recognized and studied for decades. Identification, understanding and correction of this inclination shallowing are critical for palaeogeographic reconstructions, particularly those used in climate models and to date collisional events in convergent orogenic systems, such as those surrounding the Neotethys. Here we report palaeomagnetic inclinations from the sedimentary Eocene upper Linzizong Group of Southern Tibet that are ˜20° lower than conformable underlying volcanic units. At face value, the palaeomagnetic results from these sedimentary rocks suggest the southern margin of Asia was located ˜10°N, which is inconsistent with recent reviews of the palaeolatitude of Southern Tibet. We apply two different correction methods to estimate the magnitude of inclination shallowing independently from the volcanics. The mean inclination is corrected from 20.5° to 40.0° within 95 per cent confidence limits between 33.1° and 49.5° by the elongation/inclination (E/I) correction method; an anisotropy-based inclination correction method steepens the mean inclination to 41.3 ± 3.3° after a curve fitting- determined particle anisotropy of 1.39 is applied. These corrected inclinations are statistically indistinguishable from the well-determined 40.3 ± 4.5º mean inclination of the underlying volcanic rocks that provides an independent check on the validity of these correction methods. Our results show that inclination shallowing in sedimentary rocks can be corrected. Careful inspection of stratigraphic variations of rock magnetic properties and remanence anisotropy suggests shallowing was caused mainly by a combination of syn- and post-depositional processes such as particle imbrication and sedimentary compaction that vary in importance throughout the section. Palaeolatitudes calculated from palaeomagnetic directions from Eocene sedimentary

  3. Exploring health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Anas Mustafa Ahmed; Hamed, Fatima Hashim Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the introduction of health insurance in Sudan. This study was the first one that explored health insurance services in Sudan from the perspectives of the insurers. This was a qualitative, exploratory, interview study. The sampling frame was the list of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance institutions in Sudan. Participants were selected from the four Social Health Insurance institutions and from five Private Health Insurance companies. The study was conducted in January and February 2017. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of key executives from the different health insurers. Ideas and themes were identified and analysed using thematic analysis. The result showed that universal coverage was not achieved despite long time presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan. All participants described their services as comprehensive. All participants have good perception of the quality of the services they provide, although none of them investigated customer satisfaction. The main challenges facing Social Health Insurance are achieving universal coverage, ensuring sustainability and recruitment of the informal sector and self-employed population. Consumers' affordability of the premiums is the main obstacle for Private Health Insurance, while rising healthcare cost due to economic inflation is a challenge facing both Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance. In spite of the presence of Social Health Insurance and Private Health Insurance in Sudan, the country is still far from achieving universal coverage. Moreover, the sustainability of health insurance is questionable. The main reasons include low governmental financial resources and lack of affordability by beneficiaries especially for Private Health Insurance. This necessitates finding solutions to improve them or trying other types of health insurance. The quality of services provided by Social

  4. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious

  5. The Relationship between El nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Phenomenon and Seasonal Precipitation Variability in Eastern Kenya with Special Reference to Katumani: Its Implication to Crop Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitheka, S.K

    1999-01-01

    Climatic variability has been defined as a major limitation to agricultural production in semi arid Kenya. The major difficulty to both farmers and research community, has been the inability to to predict seasonal rainfall prior to the season onset. Although several researches have attempted and made advances in predicting rainfall amount, solutions to the problem have not been achieved. This study has examined and related rainfall at Katumani with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Rainfall variations during different phases of ENSO were established. Some advances in the early prediction of March-May and October -January rains for, both, the warm and cold phases of ENSO have been made. Crop production is closely related to the rainfall and therefore a need for revision of agronomic recommendation to tie them with rainfall variation

  6. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC

  7. Photosynthesis, respiration, and carbon turnover in sinking marine snow from surface waters of Southern California Bight: implications for the carbon cycle in the ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Helle; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Azam, F.

    1999-01-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration were measured in 1 to 6 mm large aggregates (marine snow) collected in the Southern Californian Eight, USA. The aggregates were freely sinking in a vertical flow system with an upward flow velocity which opposed the sinking velocity of individual aggregates during...... techniques. Both the respiration rate per aggregate volume and the bacterial densities decreased with increasing aggregate size. The respiration rates normalized to the number of bacteria in single aggregates were 7.4 to 70 fmol C cell(-1) d(-1). The aggregate community respired 433 to 984 ng C d(-1) per...... aggregate in darkness, which yielded a turnover time of 8 to 9 d for the total organic carbon in aggregates. Thus, marine snow is not only a vehicle for vertical flux of organic matter; the aggregates are also hotspots of microbial respiration which cause a fast and efficient respiratory turnover...

  8. Early Holocene estuary development of the Hesselø Bay area, southern Kattegat, Denmark and its implication for Ancylus Lake drainage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Jensen, Jørn Bo

    2017-01-01

    environment and a description of coastal processes associated with a river outlet into the bay are presented. Weichselian glacial deposits form the lowermost interpreted unit, covered by late glacial (LG) and postglacial (PG, Holocene) sediments. A funnel-shaped estuary existed at the mouth of channels......High-resolution shallow seismic data, sediment core information, radiocarbon dating and sequence stratigraphy have been used to interpret the late glacial to early Holocene geological evolution of Hesselø Bay in the southern Kattegat, Denmark. A reconstruction of the early Holocene coastal...... in the period 10.3–9.2 cal. ka BP; the channels drained water from south to north. The early PG is characterised by estuarine and coastal deposits. The early Holocene bars that developed in the estuary are preserved as morphological features on the present-day seabed, possibly as a result of rapid relative sea...

  9. Carbonate-platform response to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event in the southern hemisphere: Implications for climatic change and biotic platform demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Hu, Xiumian; Kemp, David B.; Li, Juan

    2018-05-01

    The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, ∼183 Ma) was a profound short-term environmental perturbation associated with the large-scale release of 13C-depleted carbon into the global ocean-atmosphere system, which resulted in a significant negative carbon-isotope excursion (CIE). The general lack of characteristic T-OAE records outside of the northern hemisphere means that the precise environmental effects and significance of this event are uncertain. Many biotic carbonate platforms of the northern hemisphere western Tethys drowned or shifted to non-skeletal platforms during the early Toarcian. However, southern hemisphere records of Toarcian carbonate platforms are rare, and thus the extent and significance of biotic platform demise during the T-OAE is unclear. Here we present high-resolution geochemical and sedimentological data across two Pliensbachian-Toarcian shallow-water carbonate-platform sections exposed in the Tibetan Himalaya. These sections were located paleogeographically on the open southeastern tropical Tethyan margin in the southern hemisphere. The T-OAE in the Tibetan Himalaya is marked by a negative CIE in organic matter. Our sedimentological analysis of the two sections reveals an abundance of storm deposits within the T-OAE interval, which emphasizes a close link between warming and tropical storms during the T-OAE event, in line with evidence recently provided from western Tethyan sections of the northern hemisphere. In addition, our analysis also reveals extensive biotic carbonate-platform demise by drowning or changing to non-skeletal carbonates coincident with the onset of the CIE. Taken together, our results suggest that rapid and pervasive seawater warming in response to carbon release likely played a significant role in sudden biotic carbonate platform demise, and suppression/postponement of biotic platform re-development along the whole tropical/subtropical Tethyan margin.

  10. Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardö, Jonas; Mölder, Meelis; El-Tahir, Bashir Awad; Elkhidir, Hatim Abdalla Mohammed

    2008-12-01

    2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan.

  11. Seasonal variation of carbon fluxes in a sparse savanna in semi arid Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tahir Bashir

    2008-12-01

    was a sink of carbon both during the dry and wet season 2005. The small sink during the dry season is surprising and similar dry season sinks have not to our knowledge been reported from other similar savanna ecosystems and could have potential management implications for agroforestry. A strong response of NEE versus small changes in plant available soil water content was found. Collection and analysis of flux data for several consecutive years including variations in precipitation, available soil moisture and labile soil carbon are needed for understanding the year to year variation of the carbon budget of this grass land/sparse savanna site in semi arid Sudan.

  12. The upper lithostratigraphic unit of ANDRILL AND-2A core (Southern McMurdo Sound, Antarctica): local Pleistocene volcanic sources, paleoenvironmental implications and subsidence in the southern Victoria Land Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carlo, P.; Panter, K. S.; Bassett, K. N.; Bracciali, L.; di Vincenzo, G.; Rocchi, S.

    2009-12-01

    We report results from the study of the uppermost 37 meters of the Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) AND-2A drillcore, corresponding to the lithostratigraphic unit 1 (LSU 1), the most volcanogenic unit within the core. Nearly all of LSU 1 consists of volcanic breccia and sandstone that is a mixture of near primary volcanic material dominated by lava and vitric clasts with minor exotic material derived from distal basement sources. Lava clasts and glass are mafic and range from strongly alkaline (basanite, tephrite) to moderately alkaline (alkali basalt, hawaiite) compositions that are similar to nearby land deposits. 40Ar-39Ar laser step-heating analyses on groundmass separated from lava clasts yield Pleistocene ages (692±38 and 793±63, ±2σ internal errors). Volcanoes of the Dailey Island group, located ~13 km SW of the drillsite, are a possible source for the volcanic materials based on their close proximity, similar composition and age. A basanite lava flow on Juergens Island yields a comparable Pleistocene age of 775±22 ka. Yet there is evidence to suggest that the volcanic source is much closer to the drillsite and that the sediments were deposited in much shallower water relative to the present-day water depth of 384 mbsl. Evidence for local volcanic activity is based in part on the common occurrence of delicate vitriclasts (e.g. glass shards and Pele’s hair) and a minimally reworked ~2 meter thick monomict breccia that is interpreted to have formed by autobrecciating lava. In addition, conical-shaped seamounts and high frequency magnetic anomalies encompass the drillsite and extend south including the volcanoes of the Dailey Islands. Sedimentary features and structures indicate shallow water sedimentation for the whole of LSU 1. Rippled asymmetric cross-laminated sands and hummocky cross-stratification occur intermittently throughout LSU 1 and indicate water depths shallower than 100 meters. The occurrence of ooliths and layers containing siderite and Fe

  13. Radiation safety practice in Sudan with respect to industrial radioisotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.D.; Hassan, B.A.; Zeada, D.O.M.; Sirelkhatim, D.A.; Salih, S.A.; Hassan, M.S.

    2008-06-01

    The use of radioisotope technology in petrochemical industry in Sudan started in 2003, since then gamma scanning for distillation columns and tracer applications for leak detection was performed 6 times at a refinery 60 Km away from Khartoum, by Sudan Atomic Energy Commission II T group. This paper focuses on safety and radiation protection for this practice, also describes safety requirements, the emergency plan and evaluation of dose worker value which was done on these missions. The assessment of worker's doses performed showed that they are within an acceptable range. Recommendations are made to even bring them lower. The paper also sheds light on some problems raised and suggests remedial actions.(Author)

  14. Crisis of governance in South Sudan : electoral politics and violence in the world's newest nation

    OpenAIRE

    Brosché, Johan; Höglund, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Since mid-December 2013, thousands of people have been killed in armed conflict in South Sudan. The fighting is entrenched in a power struggle between the main political contenders ahead of elections which were scheduled for 2015. This article examines the violence in South Sudan since the North-South war ended with a focus on the consequences of the introduction of electoral politics. Our research contributes to the literature on state-building and peace-building in war-torn societies, by ex...

  15. A review of soil conservation in the Sudan (1940-1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, M.S.; Badawi, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Soil Conservation in the Sudan started in the late thirties, and in 1942 a Soil Conservation Committee was set up to report on Soil Conservation Situation. Later a Soil Conservation Section was set which developed into a department taking the responsibility of drinking water points distribution and soil and water management in rural areas. In 1974 a desert encroachment project was proposed to cover most affected areas with the help of F.A.O. Soil Conservation is an important problem in Sudan and much work is needed to tackle this problem. The application of radioisotope and radio-tracer techniques are also needed for tackling this problem. (author)

  16. Preparation of anti-Sudan red monoclonal antibody and development of an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Sudan red in chilli jam and chilli oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyang; Yi, Jian; Meng, Meng; Wan, Yuping; Feng, Caiwei; Wang, Shanliang; Lu, Xiao; Xi, Rimo

    2010-10-01

    Sudan dyes are banned to be used in food additives because of the carcinogenicity of their metabolites. A rapid and sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect the residues of Sudan dyes. Novel immunogen and coating antigen were synthesized via glutaraldehyde linking. The hapten-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was applied as immunogen and the hapten-ovalbumin (OVA) was served as coating antigen. The monoclonal antibody obtained showed high sensitivity to Sudan I with an IC(50) value of 1.7 μg L(-1) in buffer and was suitable to detect the residues of Sudan red in food products. The specificity of the assay was studied by measuring cross-reactivity of the antibody with the structurally related compounds of Sudan II (red (120%). Chilli jam and chilli oil samples spiked with Sudan dyes were analyzed by the method. The detection limit (LOD) of the ELISA method applied in chilli jam and chilli oil was 9.0 μg L(-1) and 19.6 μg L(-1), respectively. The recovery rates of Sudan-I in chilli oil and chilli jam were in the range of 80%-110% with coefficients of variation <25%. The intra-assay variation and inter-assay variation in buffer were both <9%.

  17. Resting behaviour of endophilic anopheline vectors in three ecological zones of southern Ghana and its implications for the use of entomopathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osae, M. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the resting behaviour and factors that influence the choice of resting sites by endophilic anopheline mosquitoes in southern Ghana. The study was carried out in six villages across three ecological zones of Southern Ghana, including: the forest ecological zone (FEZ), the coastal savannah ecological zone (CSEZ) and the forest-transition ecological zone (FTEZ). For every mosquito collected, the indoor resting sites was characterised and microclimate at the actual resting site recorded using a data logger. In the laboratory, full diagnostics was carried out on a sub-sample. Resting devices constructed from different materials were tested in a screen house and in village rooms. The dominant anopheline vectors include Anopheles gambiae s.s., An. coluzzii and An.funestus. An gambiae s.s. was the most dominant species in the villages from the FEZ and FTEZ, whereas An. coluzzii was most dominant in the CSEZ. An funestus was present in the FEZ and CSEZ but almost absent from the FTEZ. The two kdr mutations (L1014F and L1014S) were present in all the ecological zones and in both An. gambiae s.s. and An.coluzzii. This is the first report of the L1014S mutation from Ghana. The populations were highly anthropophagic and plasmodium falciparum was present in populations from all the villages studied. Woody materials appeared to be the most preferred resting materials for An. gambiae, accounting for 47% of all the resting sites for that species. They were also found on fabrics (26%), wall materials (12%), and roof materials (10%). Similarly, An. funestus preferred to rest on woody materials (58%), followed by wall materials (21%), fabrics (11%) and roofing materials (7%). For An.coluzzii, fabrics were the most preferred resting materials (38%) followed by roof materials (21%), wooden materials (19%) and wall materials (9%). All the three vector species preferred to rest higher up the room and closer to the walls, with large proportions of An

  18. Radioactivity levels of basic foodstuffs and dose estimates in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemada, H. E. F.

    2009-03-01

    In this work a comprehensive study was carried out for the determination of different radionuclides activities in foodstuff consumed and evaluation of dose levels in different food stuffs were collected from eight States in Sudan (cereals, vegetables, meat, fruits, milk, and fermented milk, baby milk, cans, spices, additives, others). The concentrations of different radionuclides in the food samples were determined by gamma spectrometry using an HPGe detector. Radionuclides observed include: Bi-212, Bi-214, Cs-134, Cs-137, K-40, Pb-212, Pb-214, Ra-224, Ra-226, Th-228, Ac-228, TI-208, Th-232, and U-238. The activity concentration of these radionuclides were found in the following ranges: 0.51 - 19.42 Bq/Kg, 0.47 - 12.13 Bq/kg, 0.5 - 1.29 Bq/kg, 0.001 - 3.41 Bq/kg, 19.25 -2521.82 Bq/kg, 0.08 - 6.84 Bq/kg, 0.02 - 6.87 Bq/kg, 6.08 - 32.02 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 21. 53 Bq/kg, 0.92 - 26.77 Bq/kg, 0.91 - 1200 Bq/kg, 0.14 - 2.58 Bq/Kg, 0.03 - 9.65 Bq/kg, 0.03 - 9.65 Bq/kg and 0.82 - 5.27 Bq/kg respectively. High concentrations were typically found in portulaca, the lowest concentrations were found in barley and bread additives. The annual effective dose due to the different foodstuff estimated was found to be 2.78±0.44 mSv/y and 1.18±mSv/y for age categories 7-12 y and> 17y respectively. (Author)

  19. Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Amira Ahmed; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination.

  20. Maternal near-miss in a rural hospital in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gamal K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of maternal near-miss is a useful complement to the investigation of maternal mortality with the aim of meeting the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal. The present study was conducted to investigate the frequency of near-miss events, to calculate the mortality index for each event and to compare the socio-demographic and obstetrical data (age, parity, gestational age, education and antenatal care of the near-miss cases with maternal deaths. Methods Near-miss cases and events (hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders, anemia and dystocia, maternal deaths and their causes were retrospectively reviewed and the mortality index for each event was calculated in Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan over a 2-year period, from January 2008 to December 2010. Disease-specific criteria were applied for these events. Results There were 9578 deliveries, 205 near-miss cases, 228 near-miss events and 40 maternal deaths. Maternal near-miss and maternal mortality ratio were 22.1/1000 live births and 432/100 000 live births, respectively. Hemorrhage accounted for the most common event (40.8%, followed by infection (21.5%, hypertensive disorders (18.0%, anemia (11.8% and dystocia (7.9%. The mortality index were 22.2%, 10.0%, 10.0%, 8.8% and 2.4% for infection, dystocia, anemia, hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders, respectively. Conclusion There is a high frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality at the level of this facility. Therefore maternal health policy needs to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with preventing or ameliorating maternal-near miss events (hemorrhage, infections, hypertension and anemia at all care levels including primary level.

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity in ceramics imported of Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, Mohamed Abdelgadir

    2017-08-01

    The study presents the radioactivity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K for 25 commercial ceramic samples, which is used as building materials in Sudan, Imported from China. A total of 25 different consignment samples were analyzed and the concentrations of radioisotopes were determined by Gamma spectroscopy using (Nal) detector. The detected values of concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were 182.9, 51.18 and 237.67 Bq/kg dry-weight respectively. Five different radiation indices, namely average radium equivalent (Ra eq ), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), the external hazard index (H ex ), and the radioactivity level index (I x ) which indicate hazardous radiation were also determined. The results revealed that the average radium equivalent (Ra aq ), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), external hazard index (H ex ), and the radioactivity level index (I x ) were 274.3915 Bq/kg, 122.02 nGy/h, the external hazard index (H ex ), and the radioactivity level index (I x ) were 274.3915 Bq/KG, 122.02 nGy/h, 122 mSv/yr, 0.74 and 1.89, respectively. The mean values of Ra ex obtained were in good agreement with the international values, while the mean of D, and I x were higher than the international values, and it found that.The results of AEDE for 14 samples are bout 10 -101% higher than the result international value (1mSv/yr) for the public the rest is lower than the permissible value for the international values. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data obtained from similar materials used in other countries and with typical world values. (Author)

  2. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  3. Dose survey of pediatric and adult patients in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadain, K.E.M.; Azevedo, A.C.P.; And others

    2006-01-01

    A survey of radiation doses to children and adults from diagnostic radiography has been carried out in seven hospitals in Sudan. In four hospitals only pediatric examinations were died. In two hospitals only adult patients were recorded and in one hospital both kinds of patients (pediatric and adults) were evaluated. For pediatric patients only chest x-ray examination was evaluated and children were divided according to age ranges: from (0-1) and 5) years for chest AP only and from (5-10) and (10-15) for chest PA. For adult patients the examinations were chest AP and PA, abdomen AP and skull AP and PA. Entrance Surface Dose SD) and the Effective Dose (E) were calculated using the Dose Cal software. The mean ESD r children, measured in p.Gy, ranged from (45-53) and (53-56) for (0-1) and (1-5) years, respectively and from (55-71) and (68-85) for (5-10) and (10-15) years, respectively. In two of le pediatric hospitals the mean ESD values were greater than the CEC Reference Dose Levels. In El bulk and Si nar hospitals the values ranged from 167-261 and 186-308 μGy for the age ranges (0-1) and (1-5) respectively and 167-194 and 279-312 μGy for the age ranges of (5-10) and (10-15) respectively. For adult patients the ESD and E dose values evaluated in Alfisal hospital presented values comparable with the CEC Reference Dose Level. However for Alshorta hospital the values were higher for the chest AP and PA with results for ESD 0.446 and 0.551 mGy respectively

  4. Pathogenesis and immunology of ruminant schistosomiasis in the Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.F.; Taylor, M.G.; Dargie, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Schistosoma bovis in the Kosti area (Sudan) was almost 90% in cattle up to 2 years old but fell to around 30% by 10 years of age. Infection incidence followed a markedly seasonal pattern of transmission. Infected animals either lost weight or gained less weight than controls. This was associated with the development of severe anaemia and hypoalbuminaemia, which in turn were due to massive blood and plasma losses through the gut mucosa. The epizootiological work suggested that cattle can acquire resistance to S. bovis as a result of repeated field infections. This was tested by artificially challenging field-infected cattle, together with animals of similar age and breed from a non-enzootic area. Animals reared in an enzootic environment clearly become solidly resistant to a cercarial challenge sufficient to cause fatal disease in cattle from non-enzootic areas. The mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are being studied. Immunization with irradiated vaccines was tested in the laboratory. A marked reduction in the faecal egg counts, worm burdens, tissue egg counts and clinical manifestations of the vaccinated compared with non-vaccinated cattle and sheep indicated significant protection. Vaccination efficacy was also tested under field conditions. A group of calves was immunized with irradiated S. bovis schistosomula and a second group served as controls. These animals were released into the field in the enzootic area of Kosti and followed up for 10 months. The results showed 80% reduction in the faecal egg counts and about 70% protection in terms of reduced worm and tissue egg counts in vaccinated compared with non-vaccinated calves. Further evidence of resistance was shown by the lower mortality rate in the former animals. Vaccination against schistosomiasis can be of practical benefit to livestock

  5. Health hazards related to Soba sewage treatment plant, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Osman Abdelwahab Abdelmoneim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the health hazards acquired by the residents nearby Soba sewage treatment plant. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Soba locality, Khartoum, Sudan. An interviewer-administrated questionnaire was assigned to 462 residents of the area living in four geographically distributed squares around the sewage plant. The data was analyzed in SPSS; Cronbach’s alpha reliability scale of measurement was used to check the internal validity of six variables related to the quality of life. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the health hazards and the quality of life. Among the 462 residents, difficulty in breathing (37.9% and nausea (37.2 were the principal health hazards. Moreover, the residents had a satisfactory level of awareness (88.7% about the health hazards. The utmost impact on the quality of life was psychological (97.2%. It was statistically correlated with the reported factors, which impacted the quality of life in the district as revealed by the Cronbach’s alpha reliability test with absenteeism (P=0.026, disability (P=0.014, socialization (P=0.032 and death (P=0.016. A logistic regression analysis revealed chemical hazards had a statistically significant association (P<0.05 with quality of life of the residents of Soba district. The study strongly entails the fact that sewage treatment plants crave exceptional consideration from the concerned responsible authorities, together with the fact that the evolved health threats should be confronted with immense responsibility as soon as possible.

  6. A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority.

  7. Early evolution of the southern margin of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Tectono-stratigraphic implications for rift evolution and exploration of hydrocarbon plays

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Leandro; Bilmes, Andrés; Franzese, Juan R.; Veiga, Gonzalo D.; Hernández, Mariano; Muravchik, Martín

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived rift basins are characterized by a complex structural and tectonic evolution. They present significant lateral and vertical stratigraphic variations that determine diverse basin-patterns at different timing, scale and location. These issues cause difficulties to establish facies models, correlations and stratal stacking patterns of the fault-related stratigraphy, specially when exploration of hydrocarbon plays proceeds on the subsurface of a basin. The present case study corresponds to the rift-successions of the Neuquén Basin. This basin formed in response to continental extension that took place at the western margin of Gondwana during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. A tectono-stratigraphic analysis of the initial successions of the southern part of the Neuquén Basin was carried out. Three syn-rift sequences were determined. These syn-rift sequences were located in different extensional depocentres during the rifting phases. The specific periods of rifting show distinctly different structural and stratigraphic styles: from non-volcanic to volcanic successions and/or from continental to marine sedimentation. The results were compared with surface and subsurface interpretations performed for other depocentres of the basin, devising an integrated rifting scheme for the whole basin. The more accepted tectono-stratigraphic scheme that assumes the deposits of the first marine transgression (Cuyo Cycle) as indicative of the onset of a post-rift phase is reconsidered. In the southern part of the basin, the marine deposits (lower Cuyo Cycle) were integrated into the syn-rift phase, implying the existence of different tectonic signatures for Cuyo Cycle along the basin. The rift climax becomes younger from north to south along the basin. The post-rift initiation followed the diachronic ending of the main syn-rift phase throughout the Neuquén Basin. Thus, initiation of the post-rift stage started in the north and proceeded towards the south, constituting a

  8. Organic nitrogen and carbon in atmospheric dry and wet depositions in the southern East China Sea: its implication for new production in coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Yeh, J. X.; Lin, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    We collected 11 sets of size-segregated particulate aerosol (include coarse and fine particles) and 53 rain samples from January to December 2014 at a coastal city (Keelung) on the southern East China Sea. Here we present measurements of water-soluble inorganic/organic nitrogen and carbon (WSIN/WSON and WSIC/WSOC, respectively) in aerosol samples and dissolved inorganic/organic nitrogen and carbon (DIN/DON and DIC/DOC, respectively) in rain samples. In addition, 4-d back trajectories of air masses arriving daily at the sampling site were calculated to determine the potential aerosol source regions. The concentrations of water-soluble species in particulate aerosols were relatively high in March (WSON: 223±48 nmol m-3; WSOC: 203±51 nmol m-3) and dissolved species in rain samples were high in December (DON: 157±69 μM; DOC: 294±168 μM), which occur frequently during the spring and winter. The monsoon system of East Asia play a key role on the atmospheric composition of nitrogen and carbon, with higher loadings in northerly (winter to spring) than southerly (summer to autumn) monsoon periods, owing to strong emissions from the East Asian continent. Our results indicate that biomass burning and dust events yielded the largest concentrations of ON and OC not only on particulate aerosols but also in precipitations. For aerosols, the amounts of WSON and WSOC accounted for 42±8% and 80±7% of the water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and carbon (WSTC), respectively. Additionally, the concentrations of DON and DOC accounted for 40±5% and 75±3% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and carbon (TDC), respectively, for precipitations. By using dry and wet deposition flux estimations, we estimated that the fluxes of WSTN/TDN and WSTC/TDC were 47.1±24.4 / 266±20 mmol m-2 yr-1 and 23±9 / 153±3 mmol m-2 yr-1, respectively. These results suggest that atmospheric deposition contributed approximately 25-34% of the annual biological new production in the southern East China Sea.

  9. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Late Devonian arc volcanic rocks in southern Beishan orogen, NW China: Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian-Qian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Li, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Late Devonian (ca. 370 Ma) volcanic rocks provide important information about the nature of magmatism during the tectonic transition between the Early and Late Paleozoic in the Beishan orogen, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. They are predominantly an andesitic-dacitic-rhyolitic assemblage, characterized by alkali contents ranging from slightly calcic to slightly alkaline. The rhyolitic rocks are generally ferroan, whereas the andesitic rocks are magnesian. These volcanic rocks exhibit similar trace element characteristics to those of continental arcs. Strongly negative εNd(t) values (- 2.8 to - 3.6) and high Sr isotopic compositions (initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7108) suggest that they are mainly derived from an ancient crust. However, the positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 1.4 to + 16.4) support the role of juvenile components in their genesis, indicating the significant input of new mantle-derived magmas. These characteristics imply a hybrid derivation, from an ancient crustal source with the addition of juvenile materials during magma genesis, or perhaps heterogeneous contamination or hybridization during magma emplacement. Combined with the regional geology, our results indicate that the Late Devonian magmatism resulted from a southward retreat of the subduction zone, which records significant continental crustal growth in a transitional arc or an accretionary arc setting. The distinct geochemical compositions, especially the Nd-Hf isotope decoupling of the Dundunshan volcanic rocks, imply a significant change in the geodynamic setting in the Late Paleozoic.

  10. Contrasting isotopic mantle sources for proterozoic lamproites and kimberlites from the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton: implication for proterozoic mantle heterogeneity beneath southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalapathi Rao, N.V.; Gibson, S.A.; Pyle, D.M.; Dickin, A.P.

    1998-01-01

    Kimberlites intruding the Precambrian basement towards the western margin of the Cuddapah basin near Anantapur (1090 Ma) and Mahbubnagar (1360 Ma) in Andhra Pradesh have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70205 to 0.70734 and σNd between +0.5 to +4.68. Mesoproterozoic lamproites (1380 Ma) from the Cuddapah basin (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) and its NE margin (Ramannapeta) have initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr between 0.70520 and 0.7390 and εNd from -6.43 to -8.29. Combined Sr- and Nd- isotopic ratios suggest that lamproites were derived from enriched sources which have time-averaged higher Rb/Sr and lower Sm/Nd ratios than the Bulk Earth whereas kimberlites were derived from depleted source with lower Rb/Sr and higher Sm/Nd ratios. Calculated T DM model ages suggest that the lamproite source enrichment (∼2 Ga) preceded that of kimberlites (∼1.37 Ga). Our work demonstrates the existence of isotopically contrasting upper mantle sources for southern Indian kimberlites and lamproites and provides evidence for a lateral, isotopically heterogeneous mantle beneath the Cuddapah basin and eastern Dharwar craton. The significance of our results in the context of diamond exploration is also highlighted. (author)

  11. Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

    2010-11-01

    A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions.

  12. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: Implications of an individual-based model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, M.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rose, K.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We used an individual-based model to examine possible explanations for the dominance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss over brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in southern Appalachian streams. Model simulations were used to quantify the effects on interspecific competition of (1) competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout, (2) latitudinal differences in stream temperatures, flows, and daylight, (3) year-class failures, (4) lower fecundity of brook trout, and (5) reductions in spawning habitat. The model tracks the daily spawning, growth, and survival of individuals of both species throughout their lifetime in a series of connected stream habitat units (pools, runs, or riffles). Average densities of each species based on 100-year simulations were compared for several levels of each of the five factors and for sympatric and allopatric conditions. Based on model results and empirical information, we conclude that more frequent year-class failures and the lower fecundity of brook trout are both possible and likely explanations for rainbow trout dominance, that warmer temperatures due to latitude and limited spawning habitat are possible but unlikely explanations, and that competitive advantage for feeding sites by rainbow trout is an unlikely explanation. Additional field work should focus on comparative studies of the reproductive success and the early life stage mortalities of brook and rainbow trout among Appalachian streams with varying rainbow trout dominance. 53 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Regional variations in upper mantle compressional velocities beneath southern California 1. Post-shock temperatures: Their experimental determination, calculation, and implications, 2.. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, S. A.

    1978-01-01

    The compressional velocity within the upper mantle beneath Southern California is investigated through observations of the dependence of teleseismic P-delays at all stations of the array on the distance and azimuth to the event. The variation of residuals with azimuth was found to be as large as 1.3 sec at a single station; the delays were stable as a function of time, and no evidence was found for temporal velocity variations related to seismic activity in the area. These delays were used in the construction of models for the upper mantle P-velocity structure to depths of 150 km, both by ray tracing and inversion techniques. The models exhibit considerable lateral heterogeneity including a region of low velocity beneath the Imperial Valley, and regions of increased velocity beneath the Sierra Nevada and much of the Transverse Ranges. The development is described of a technique for the experimental determination of post-shock temperatures, and its application to several metals and silicates shocked to pressures in the range 5 to 30 GPa. The technique utilizes an infra-red radiation detector to determine the brightness temperature of the free surface of the sample after the shock wave has passed through it.

  14. The paleolimnological development of the twin lakes Etujärvi and Takajärvi in Askola, southern Finland – implications for lake management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samu E. Valpola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The twin lakes Etujärvi and Takajärvi in Askola, southern Finland, are closely interconnected mesotrophic headwater lakes with a relatively small catchment area. Both of the lakes have suffered from eutrophication and its consequences. Remediation activities such as oxygenation and biomanipulation have not resolved the problems. In this study a large set of paleolimnological techniques (radiometric AMS dating, spherical carbonaceous particles analysis, sediment lithology, grain-size analysis, phosphorus fractionation, and diatom analysis were applied to put together the development of the basin and its water level fluctuations during the Holocene. The age for observed Trapa natans -horizons was determined, and lake management options were discussed. The studied lakes dried up after isolation from the Ancylus Lake at about 9500 cal. B.P. and remained at very low water level until ca. 8700–8500 cal. B.P. The mid-Holocene risein water level resulted in fluctuating water levels, and led to the most recent rise starting about 2500 cal. B.P. as wet and cool climate conditions prevailed. The pronounced water level fluctuations led to the extensive growth of peat deposits surrounding the lake andprobably also forced T. natans to disappear from lake flora. The unstable, erodable peat rims impact the lakes, causing heavy load of humic substances to the lake and presenting additional deterioration to their recreational value.

  15. The influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation regimes on eastern African vegetation and its future implications under the RCP8.5 warming scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fer, Istem; Tietjen, Britta; Jeltsch, Florian; Wolff, Christian

    2017-09-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main driver of the interannual variability in eastern African rainfall, with a significant impact on vegetation and agriculture and dire consequences for food and social security. In this study, we identify and quantify the ENSO contribution to the eastern African rainfall variability to forecast future eastern African vegetation response to rainfall variability related to a predicted intensified ENSO. To differentiate the vegetation variability due to ENSO, we removed the ENSO signal from the climate data using empirical orthogonal teleconnection (EOT) analysis. Then, we simulated the ecosystem carbon and water fluxes under the historical climate without components related to ENSO teleconnections. We found ENSO-driven patterns in vegetation response and confirmed that EOT analysis can successfully produce coupled tropical Pacific sea surface temperature-eastern African rainfall teleconnection from observed datasets. We further simulated eastern African vegetation response under future climate change as it is projected by climate models and under future climate change combined with a predicted increased ENSO intensity. Our EOT analysis highlights that climate simulations are still not good at capturing rainfall variability due to ENSO, and as we show here the future vegetation would be different from what is simulated under these climate model outputs lacking accurate ENSO contribution. We simulated considerable differences in eastern African vegetation growth under the influence of an intensified ENSO regime which will bring further environmental stress to a region with a reduced capacity to adapt effects of global climate change and food security.

  16. Low-grade metamorphism in the eastern Southern Alps: Distribution, conditions, timing and implications for the tectonics of the Alps and NW Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Franz; Heberer, Bianca; Genser, Johann; Friedl, Getrude

    2014-05-01

    Based on 40Ar/39Ar dating of newly-grown syntectonic metamorphic white mica (sericite), we recognize for the first time the timing of Alpine low-grade metamorphism in the eastern part of the Southalpine unit: (1) A Silurian phyllite of Seeberg inlier located to the south of the Periadriatic fault yields a plateau age at c. 75 Ma suggesting a Late Cretaceous age of previously recognized low-grade (Rantitsch & Rainer, 2003) metamorphism. (2) Within the Tolmin nappe, four sericite plateau ages of mainly Middle Triassic volcanics are at c. 51 Ma (Early Eocene). The Late Cretaceous age in the Seeberg inlier is considered to record ductile deformation during formation of a retro-wedge related to the Eo-Alpine orogeny in the Austroalpine units in the Eastern Alps exposed north of the future Periadriatic fault. The Eocene age at the boundary of very low-grade to low-grade metamorphism in the Tolmin nappe (Rainer et al., 2009) relates to the emplacement of the Southalpine nappe complex onto the Dinarides and is contemporaneous with the initial ductile deformation in the Dinarides during Adria-directed shortening and formation of a siliciclastic flysch belt in front of the SW-directed growing fold-thrust belt (Placer, 2008). Similar rare Late Cretaceous and dominant Eocene ages within post-Variscan units are virtually more widespread in the Southalpine unit and Dinarides as considered before. These regions include the Collio basin (Feijth, 2002) and the Eder unit (Läufer et al., 1996) in the western and central Southern Alps, in the internal NW Dinarides (Borojević Šoštarić et al., 2012) and the Mid Bosnian Schist Mountains (Pamić et al., 2004) and Lim Paleozoic unit in the central Dinarides (Ilic et al., submitted). Consequently, the Southalpine unit and Dinarides were affected by two stages of metamorphism, Late Cretaceous (ca. 80 to 75 Ma) and Eocene (ca. 51 - 40 Ma), both stages are related to back-thrusting. The ages of metamorphism are different from those in the

  17. Eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites in the Anrakhai complex, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Southern Kazakhstan: P-T evolution, protoliths and some geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsyna, Anfisa V.; Tretyakov, Andrey A.; Degtyarev, Kirill E.; Cuthbert, Simon J.; Batanova, Valentina G.; Kovalchuk, Elena V.

    2018-03-01

    The Anrakhai Metamorphic Complex (AMC), located in the SE part of the Chu-Ili Mountains of Southern Kazakhstan in the western part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt, exhibits occurrences of HP metamorphic rocks in the form of eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites with peak metamorphic conditions of 750-850° and 15-19 kbar estimated with both conventional geothermobarometric methods and phase diagram modeling. P-T estimates as well as intimate field relations evidently imply a common metamorphic history for eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites of the AMC. These high-pressure, medium temperature eclogite facies P-T conditions are indicative of a collision or subduction tectonic setting. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that they probably had a common magmatic origin as part of a suite of differentiated tholeiitic intrusions. Furthermore, distinctive mineral and chemical compositions of these eclogites and garnet clinopyroxenites correspond to the Fe-Ti type of ultramafic rocks suggesting that they may have been derivatives of intraplate tholeiitic melts, introduced into continental crust before HP metamorphism.

  18. Seasonal changes in water metabolism of Sudan desert sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hadi, H.M.; Hassan, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    Seasonal changes that occur in body weight, body temperature, total body water and water turnover were investigated in grazing sheep and goats at different times of the year to understand how different breeds adapt to the environmental conditions in Sudan. (author)

  19. Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...

  20. Diurnal patterns at an autumn migration ringing site near the Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ringing site near the Sudan Red Sea coast. Gerhard Nikolaus, David Pearson and Bernd ... within this small site varied throughout the day according to a regular pattern, and it was noted that different species .... looking for a landing area at first light, and the small green oasis of Khor Arba'at was especially attractive to birds ...

  1. Quantitative analysis of Sudan dye adulteration in paprika powder using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Sudan dye used illegally for coloring in food stuffs has become a point of food safety concern, especially in paprika- and chili-containing food products. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been extensively used as an analytical method for quality control and safety m...

  2. The Sociolinguistics of Nationalism in the Sudan: The Politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree; Mugaddam, Abdel Rahim

    2011-01-01

    This monograph describes the historiography of language ideologies that led to the politicisation of Arabic and the Arabicisation of politics in the Sudan, starting from British colonial rule until the Comprehensive Peace Agreement that was a precursor to the separation of the South as an independent state. The monograph shows that the…

  3. E-learning Sudan, formal learning for out-of-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Hester; Badri, Aiman; Telford, Rebecca; van der Hulst, Anja; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    E-Learning Sudan (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the

  4. Facing frontiers : everyday practice of state-building in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates daily performance of power in a post-conflict society and argues that the overall process of state-building in South Sudan cannot be properly understood in separation from the ways in which state power is locally exercised. It specifically analyzes South Sudan’s political

  5. TEACHING THE VIOLENT PAST IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NEWLY INDEPENDENT SOUTH SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merethe Skårås

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the teaching and learning of South Sudan history from 1955–2005 in secondary schools in South Sudan with a specific focus on national unity. The article draws on two periods of focused ethnography, from September to December 2014 and July to September 2015, including classroom observation and interviews with teachers, student teachers and students in two geographical locations. Additionally, 69 written essays from secondary school students of History have been analysed in order to get an insight into their knowledge of the recent violent past. The use of classroom video observation makes a significant contribution to the field as most studies focus on documents and textbooks. The analysis focuses on national unity and uses theories of collective memory and attribution to examine the narratives of the past. The article argues that the national narrative of South Sudan is still closely tied to enemy images of the former enemy of Sudan in the north, while internal ethnic tensions are suppressed and excluded from the official national narrative taught in the classroom.

  6. Residential dynamics: the co-existence of formal and informal systems in Khartoum, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the residential dynamics in Khartoum, Sudan. Some patterns demonstrate that formal and informal systems co-exist and are mutually supportive. There are also particular spatial manifestations that have resulted from a unique socio...

  7. 78 FR 1866 - Extension and Redesignation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... insecurity and led to continued internal displacement and refugee flight into neighboring countries, even as... environmental and economic factors, have created one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world. Efforts by... Sudan is already considered one of the poorest, least- developed places in the world, and the ongoing...

  8. Spatiality of ethnic identity and construction of sociopolitical interaction in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon K. Madut

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the complexity of the spatial construction of ethnicity, identity, and sociopolitical interaction among South Sudanese ethnic groups. The article focuses on the interplay between social interaction and the construction of ethnic identity as they affect the notion of human interaction and welfare. The narratives are based on the political sociology of South Sudan after its independence from Sudan and challenges endured in the process of sociopolitical transformation towards the reconstruction of national identity and peaceful coexistence. This discourse gives meaning to visible and invisible ethno-cultural constructions that shaped the norms of social and political interactions among various ethnic groups in the country. The analysis concluded that South Sudan society is socially, politically, and culturally constructed along ethnicized communities with variant perceptions of group and regional identities based on both primordial ties and instrumentalists’ perceptions. These unique characteristics of spaces and construction of social structure has created multi-faceted challenges in the process of social, economic and political reconstruction after the independent of South Sudan in July 2011.

  9. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  10. Pattern of Head and neck malignancies in Central Sudan-(study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this work is to study the patterns of head and neck malignancies (HNM) in central Sudan and to compare it with international published series. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Molecular Biology and Oncology (INMO)-University of Gezira; ...

  11. A Matter of Relationships : Actor-Networks of Colonial Rule in the Gezira Irrigation System, Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, colonial rulers, a British firm and Sudanese farmers changed the Gezira Plain in Sudan into a large-scale irrigated cotton scheme. Gezira continues to be in use up to date. Its story shows how the abstract concept 'development' is shaped through the agency of

  12. Report to the Government of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan on Industrial Vocational Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This detailed, 2-year study used skill surveys to determine the Sudan's existing and developing needs for vocational training in various trades (at various levels, including retraining and upgrading). Two other objectives were to ascertain the educational and skill levels for different occupations, in particular in the engineering industry to…

  13. Description of plant communities on the Red Sea costal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Sykora, K.V.; Abate, T.; Mostofa, B.; Huis, van A.

    2007-01-01

    The coastal plains of the Red Sea constitute an important breeding area for the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Vegetation analysis was undertaken in the coastal plain of Sudan to provide a frame of reference for studies on desert locust ecology and distribution. Vegetation relevés (>60 in

  14. Arms Transfer and Confl ict in Africa The Role of China in Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central argument of this article is that arms transfers from countries such as China to Sudan help sustain the armed confl ict in the country, as well as in the Horn of Africa region. This is because arms transfer increases the risk of ethnic disharmony, deeper militarisation, increased crime rate, multiplication of armed ...

  15. 78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...: Brooke G. Smith, Senior International Policy Analyst, Office of International Programs, U.S. Nuclear... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 [NRC-2012-0278] RIN 3150-AJ21 Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule...

  16. Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahim, A.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Gum Arabic; Deforestation; Entry and Exit; Real options Drought; Socio-economic, Oligopoly; Interdependent markets; Stackelberg.The gum arabic belt inSudanoffered in the past an

  17. Sudan : tous les projets | Page 2 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    End Date: 1 septembre 2013. Sujet: WOMEN'S RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS, WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION, POLITICAL PARTICIPATION, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender. Région: Sudan, North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 147,900.00. Les technologies de l'information et ...

  18. The efficacy of artemether in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhassan, I M; Satti, G H; Ali, A E

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of artemether (a qinghaosu derivative) administered intramuscularly for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was compared to quinine in an open randomized trial including 54 patients in eastern Sudan, where chloroquine resistance is common. The artemether treatment (5 d...

  19. A first report and complete genome sequence of alfalfa enamovirus from Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full genome sequence of a viral pathogen, provisionally named alfalfa enamovirus 2 (AEV-2), was reconstructed from short reads obtained by Illumina RNA sequencing of alfalfa sample originating from Sudan. Ambiguous nucleotides in the resultant consensus assembly and identity of the predicted virus...

  20. Elemental analysis of soils from central Sudan by energy dispersive XRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousif, A. A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1986-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to determine the concentration of nineteen elements in seven profiles representing the aridisols and vertisols groups from agricultural plains of Sudan. A significant variation in the concentration of alkaline and alkaline earth elements...

  1. Research On: Motivation to Learn English among College Students in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaida, Ibrahim Abdelrahim Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to achieve the following objectives: to examine motivation to learn English language among students of faculty of arts, Islamic University-Sudan, to find out if there were significant statistical differences on motivation scores related to both student level and age. To pursue these objectives, the researcher used the…

  2. Changing forest management strategies in Sudan : a challenge for forestry educational systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahir, S.S.

    1996-01-01


    This study is an effort to understand the way various categories of social actors go about their interaction with the management of forest resources in Sudan. By providing an overview and description of the motives, perceptions, and management objectives and strategies of social actors,

  3. There is no doubt. Muslim scholarship and society in 17th-century Central Sudanic Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, Dorrit van

    2015-01-01

    In central sudanic Africa, the seventeenth century was a period of upheaval and major social change. Relations of power shifted, as did trade-routes and the meaning of Islam for ruling elites. Islam spread from royal courts to rural communities, leading to new identities, new boundaries and new

  4. The Naivasha Language Policy: The Language of Politics and the Politics of Language in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf Kamal; Makoni, Busi; Makoni, Sinfree Bullock

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a textual analysis of the Naivasha language provisions in Sudan in an attempt to explore how political discourse is manifested in each policy statement. Using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as an analytic and interpretive framework, the article argues that the Naivasha language provisions as political discourse are shaped…

  5. Lay perceptions of malaria and therapeutic itinerary of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 95% of South Sudan is malaria-endemic and transmission is high throughout the year. Annually, 2.3 million people are at risk of malarial infection, but children under 5 years, pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly at high risk. Appropriate policies...

  6. 59 months at Al-Sabah Children Hospital, Juba, South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malnutrition is a critical public health concern in South Sudan where an estimated 200,000 children aged under five years are at risk of being malnourished. Studies have shown that adequate and timely treatment of these children leads to reduced mortality. Objective: To determine the proportion of children ...

  7. Human Security in the Context of Sudan's State Crisis: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... lost more than 5 million citizens in civil wars. A violent confl ict erupted in 2003, with more than 250 000 civilians killed and more than 2 million people displaced. This article traces and examines the genesis and magnitude of human security challenges in the Darfur region of the Sudan. Africa Insight Vol. 37 (4) 2008 pp.

  8. Recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons in the Mixteco terrane, southern Mexico: Paleogeographic implications during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Paleogene times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Morales-Yáñez, Axél; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the northeastern Mixteco terrane of southern Mexico, in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region, the recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons records the paleogeography during the Mesozoic period in the context of the breakup of Pangea, a phenomenon that disarticulated the Sanozama-La Mora paleo-river. The clastic units of southern Mexico in the Ayuquila, Otlaltepec and Zapotitlán Mesozoic basins, as well as in the Atzumba Cenozoic basin, are characterized by detrital zircon contents with ages specific to the Amazonian craton, ranging between 3040 and 1278 Ma. The presence of zircons of Amazonian affinity suggests a provenance by recycling from carrier units such as the La Mora Formation or the Ayú Complex. In the area, the Ayú and Acatlán complexes form the Cosoltepec block, a paleogeographic element that during Early Cretaceous time acted as the divide between the slopes of the paleo-Gulf of Mexico and the paleo-Pacific Ocean. The sedimentological characteristics of the Jurassic-Cenozoic clastic successions in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region denote relatively short transport in braided fluvial systems and alluvial fans. In this way, several basins are recognized around the Cosoltepec block. At the southeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, the Ayuquila and Tecomazúchil formations accumulated in the Ayuquila continental basin on the paleo-Pacific Ocean slope. On the other hand, within the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope, in the Otlaltepec continental basin, the Piedra Hueca and the Otlaltepec formations accumulated. The upper member of the Santa Lucía Formation accumulated in a transitional environment on the southwestern shoulder of the Zapotitlán basin, as well as on the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope. In the Ayuquila basin, a marine transgression is recognized that advanced from south to north during the Late Jurassic. At the northeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, we propose that the Santa Lucía formation attests to a transgression from the paleo-Gulf of Mexico

  9. Determination of polonium 210 in different types of tobacco consumed in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Sudan is one of the consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The aim of this study was the determination polonium-210 in different parts of tobacco plant comes from China and Brazil consumed in cigarette in Sudan and determination of 210 Po in five most frequently smoked brands more consumption in Sudan. The annual committed effective dose from cigarette was determined and comparison with other results reported in literature. The tobacco plant (leaves and root) for analysis were collected from Haggar factory in Sudan and another brand were collected randomly from markets, only the most popular one was chosen for analysis (Bringi, Lord, Winner, Goal, Benson). The polonium-210 activity was measured on an alpha-spectrometer equipped with semiconductor surface barrier silicon detectors after spontaneously plated onto asilver disc from hydrochloric acid medium. Polonium samples were measured for 2-3 days. The accuracy and precision of radiochemical method were evaluated using (IAEA-326). The values of activity concentration of 210 Po found in cigarettes consumed in Sudan are within of the range of values found in the literature. The 210 Po presented concentration in different brands ranging from 22.8 to 51.6 Bqkg -1 (average 36.54 Bq kg -1 ). The activity concentration of 210 Po in popular brand cigarette tobacco is higher than that in fine brand cigarette tobacco. Found the highest concentration in the raw material compared to the final product is attributed that to the import, storage and manufacturing processes. Activity determination indicates those cigarettes consumed in Sudan are comparable to the values reported in China and Brazil that the raw material comes from these two countries. The polonium is non-uniformly distributed within the tobacco plants analyzed in this study, the highest levels were found in the leaves

  10. Determination of polonium 210 in different types of tobacco consumed in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulrahman, M E [Sudan Academy of Sciences, Atomic Energy Council, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2011-01-15

    The carcinogenic effect of {sup 210} Po with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Sudan is one of the consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The aim of this study was the determination polonium-210 in different parts of tobacco plant comes from China and Brazil consumed in cigarette in Sudan and determination of {sup 210} Po in five most frequently smoked brands more consumption in Sudan. The annual committed effective dose from cigarette was determined and comparison with other results reported in literature. The tobacco plant (leaves and root) for analysis were collected from Haggar factory in Sudan and another brand were collected randomly from markets, only the most popular one was chosen for analysis (Bringi, Lord, Winner, Goal, Benson). The polonium-210 activity was measured on an alpha-spectrometer equipped with semiconductor surface barrier silicon detectors after spontaneously plated onto asilver disc from hydrochloric acid medium. Polonium samples were measured for 2-3 days. The accuracy and precision of radiochemical method were evaluated using (IAEA-326). The values of activity concentration of {sup 210} Po found in cigarettes consumed in Sudan are within of the range of values found in the literature. The {sup 210} Po presented concentration in different brands ranging from 22.8 to 51.6 Bqkg{sup -1}(average 36.54 Bq kg{sup -1}). The activity concentration of {sup 210} Po in popular brand cigarette tobacco is higher than that in fine brand cigarette tobacco. Found the highest concentration in the raw material compared to the final product is attributed that to the import, storage and manufacturing processes. Activity determination indicates those cigarettes consumed in Sudan are comparable to the values reported in China and Brazil that the raw material comes from these two countries. The polonium is non-uniformly distributed within the tobacco plants analyzed in this study, the highest

  11. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs and wild mammals in southern Pantanal, Brazil with implications in the transmission route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Fernandes, Marina Pugnaghi; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Campos, João Bosco; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Battesti, Darci Barros; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-04-15

    Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated. DNA samples were submitted to PCR assays for Hepatozoon spp. targeting 18S rRNA gene. Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores (C. thous [91.02%], dogs [45.23%], N. nasua [41.9%] and L. pardalis [71.4%]) was found. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. canis, H. americanum and H. felis. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. macrurus marsupial to Hepatozoon from reptiles and amphibians suggest a possible transmission of those Hepatozoon species between hosts by ectoparasites or by predation. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals. Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles

  12. Biome specificity of distinct genetic lineages within the four-striped mouse Rhabdomys pumilio (Rodentia: Muridae) from southern Africa with implications for taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Nina; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2012-10-01

    Within southern Africa, a link between past climatic changes and faunal diversification has been hypothesized for a diversity of taxa. To test the hypothesis that evolutionary divergences may be correlated to vegetation changes (induced by changes in climate), we selected the widely distributed four-striped mouse, Rhabdomys, as a model. Two species are currently recognized, the mesic-adapted R. dilectus and arid-adapted R. pumilio. However, the morphology-based taxonomy and the distribution boundaries of previously described subspecies remain poorly defined. The current study, which spans seven biomes, focuses on the spatial genetic structure of the arid-adapted R. pumilio (521 specimens from 31 localities), but also includes limited sampling of the mesic-adapted R. dilectus (33 specimens from 10 localities) to act as a reference for interspecific variation within the genus. The mitochondrial COI gene and four nuclear introns (Eef1a1, MGF, SPTBN1, Bfib7) were used for the construction of gene trees. Mitochondrial DNA analyses indicate that Rhabdomys consists of four reciprocally monophyletic, geographically structured clades, with three distinct lineages present within the arid-adapted R. pumilio. These monophyletic lineages differ by at least 7.9% (±0.3) and these results are partly confirmed by a multilocus network of the combined nuclear intron dataset. Ecological niche modeling in MaxEnt supports a strong correlation between regional biomes and the distribution of distinct evolutionary lineages of Rhabdomys. A Bayesian relaxed molecular clock suggests that the geographic clades diverged between 3.09 and 4.30Ma, supporting the hypothesis that the radiation within the genus coincides with paleoclimatic changes (and the establishment of the biomes) characterizing the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Marked genetic divergence at the mitochondrial DNA level, coupled with strong nuclear and mtDNA signals of non-monophyly of R. pumilio, support the notion that a taxonomic

  13. Some aspects of the ecology of the Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica (Erxleben, 1777 in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India and their conservation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Giant Squirrel Ratufa indica, an endemic species to India, is widely distributed from the evergreen to moist and dry deciduous forests of Western and Eastern Ghats and the central Indian hills. We studied its population distribution, activity, feeding, ranging and nesting behaviour across three major habitats in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, southern India, during 1998-2000 to manage the species effectively. Extensive survey of the three major habitats—tropical moist, dry deciduous and dry thorn—in the sanctuary shows that its distribution is continuous in moist and dry deciduous forests with good canopy contiguity and patchy along riverine areas in dry thorn and dry deciduous forests with sparse trees and broken canopy. Density estimates using 55 direct sightings from 199 km line transects show a mean of 2.9 (plus or minus 0.313 squirrels/km2. Daylight activity and feeding patterns assessed through 24,098 minutes of focal sampling reveal that animals feed and rest equal amounts of time. The diet constitutes seeds, bark, petioles, leaves and fruits from 25 plants, with Tectona grandis as the principal food source (41%. Its home range size varied from 0.8-1.7 ha with a mean of 1.3ha. Nesting characteristics assessed through 83 nests surveyed along 54km transects showed that the squirrel uses 15 of the 33 tree species found, with higher preference to Schleichera oleosa and Mangifera indica. Nest trees are significantly larger in height, gbh and canopy contiguity than nearest non-nest trees, which are attributed to better protection and escape from predators. Maintenance of diverse natural habitats and reduction in anthropogenic pressure are measures suggested for the conservation of giant squirrel populations in the study area.

  14. Deciphering shallow paleomagnetic inclinations: 1. Implications from correlation of Albian volcanic rocks along the Insular/Intermontane Superterrane boundary in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, M. L.; Enkin, R. J.; Mahoney, J. B.; Mustard, P. S.; Baker, J.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic and paleomagnetic data lead to two contradictory hypotheses regarding the paleoposition of the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes that presently constitute the western Canadian Cordillera. Paleomagnetic data from the Insular and Intermontane superterranes suggest a southerly origin coinciding with the latitude of Mexico and the northwest United States, respectively, during the mid-Cretaceous. Geologic evidence points to a northerly origin for these same tectonic entities during this period; both models cannot be correct. Geologic and paleomagnetic data from the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area in south central British Columbia (51.5°N, 122.5°W) are critical to resolving these contradictory hypotheses. Late Cretaceous rocks correlated to the Insular Superterrane with large paleomagnetic displacements unconformably overlie mid-Cretaceous rocks correlative to the Spences Bridge Group of the Intermontane Superterrane. We provide paleomagnetic evidence of this correlation based on similar magnetic properties, opaque mineral assemblages, demagnetization behavior, fold test results, mean inclinations, clockwise vertical axes rotations, and statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic poles and displacement estimates. This correlation and the observed geologic relationships in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area indicate that the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes were linked by the mid-Cretaceous. Sites from the two previous Spences Bridge Group studies are combined with their correlatives in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area to give 81 sites that yield a paleomagnetic pole of 60.5°N, 304.5°E, dp = 3.7°, dm = 5.5° which corresponds to 1050 ± 450 km of displacement from the south. This new displacement estimate suggests that the Spences Bridge arc formed at the latitude of southern Oregon during the mid-Cretaceous.

  15. High-Resolution Topographic Analyses of Mounds in Southern Acidalia Planitia, Mars: Implications for Possible Mud Volcanism in Submarine and Subaerial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryodo Hemmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A northern ocean of Mars is still debated and, if it existed, it may have accompanied valley networks and/or outflow channels, which may have led to the emplacement of a large amount of water to the northern lowlands during the Noachian and/or Hesperian times. However, it is unclear how and under what conditions (submarine or subaerial geologic features such as mounds and giant polygons formed in the northern lowlands. The densely-distributed mounds in Chryse and Acidalia Planitia, >1000 km-wide basins of the northern plains, were suggested to be ancient mud volcanoes formed in an aqueous setting, which is controversial (i.e., mud vs. igneous and submarine vs. subaerial. However, these mounds have not been quantitatively well characterized, particularly with respect to their detailed topography. Here we generated forty digital elevation models (DEMs with resolution of up to 1 m/pixel from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE stereo image pairs, and we accurately measured the morphometric parameters of ~1300 mounds within the southern part of the Acidalia basin. Their heights and diameters resulted in good accordance with those of mud and igneous volcanoes in submarine/subaerial settings on Earth. Maximum depths of their source reservoirs vary from ~30 to ~450 m for a subaqueous setting and from ~110 to ~860 m for a subaerial setting, both of which are consistent with fluid expulsion from the ~100–4500 m-thick flood deposits (Vastitas Borealis Formation, VBF. On the basis of the morphometric values, we estimated rheological properties of materials forming the mounds and found them consistent with a mud flow origin, which does not rule out an igneous origin. The conditions of possible submarine mud or igneous volcanoes may have harbored less hazardous environments for past life on Mars than those on an ocean-free surface.

  16. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Holden

    Full Text Available The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower

  17. The Structure Difference in the Southern Margin of the Dangerous Grounds: Implications for the Final Evolution of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, P.; Shen, C.; Zhao, Z.; Xie, X.; Mei, L.; Gong, J.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We interpret two multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, more than 900 km across the entire Dangerous Grounds, locating in east and west of the southern margin of the South China Sea respectively. Eight Cenozoic sequence boundaries are determined as well as three tectono-stratigraphic units. Detailed analysis of extensional features and unconformities revealed the tectonic in the east and west. Early extension (syn-rifting sequence) occurred in the two profiles during continental rifting, which lasted from Palaeocene to Early Oligocene, and resulted in formation of half-grabens and rotated fault-blocks. Late extension (drift-rifting sequence) has the significant difference in the both profiles. The eastern Dangerous Grounds entered rifting-depression stage and some compressional deformation occurred in the Reed Bank basin at about the beginning of Early Miocene, probably resulting from the collision of the Dangerous Grounds and the Sabah-Cagayan Arc. The western Dangerous Grounds was still in rifting until the end of Early Miocene, forming the MMU or DRU which is strongly erosional and represents a major break in sedimentation and/or erosion in partial area. Denudation fold and inverted fault can be distinguished blow the MMU, indicating the cessation of the South China Sea accompanied the NW compression, while the boundary corresponding the MMU is nearly a plano-conformity in the east. The thermal sag (post-rifting sequence) is characterized by non-faulted draping strata in the whole area. The different structure in east and west may be related to the final evolution of the SCS. When the proto-SCS closed in a scissor fashion plus the clockwise rotation of Borneo, the initial collision (c.20Ma) appeared in east part building the NW foreland basin system from Palawan Trough to Reed Bank in a short-live process, while the west part was drifting southwards until c.15Ma to form the even more remarkable foreland system from Borneo Trough to deep-water Sarawak.

  18. Leafcutter bee nests and pupae from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits of Southern California: implications for understanding the paleoenvironment of the Late Pleistocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Anna R; Koch, Jonathan B; Griswold, Terry; Erwin, Diane M; Hall, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Rancho La Brea Tar Pits is the world's richest and most important Late Pleistocene fossil locality and best renowned for numerous fossil mammals and birds excavated over the past century. Less researched are insects, even though these specimens frequently serve as the most valuable paleoenvironemental indicators due to their narrow climate restrictions and life cycles. Our goal was to examine fossil material that included insect-plant associations, and thus an even higher potential for significant paleoenviromental data. Micro-CT scans of two exceptionally preserved leafcutter bee nest cells from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, California reveal intact pupae dated between ∼23,000-40,000 radiocarbon years BP. Here identified as best matched to Megachile (Litomegachile) gentilis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) based on environmental niche models as well as morphometrics, the nest cells (LACMRLP 388E) document rare preservation and life-stage. The result of complex plant-insect interactions, they offer new insights into the environment of the Late Pleistocene in southern California. The remarkable preservation of the nest cells suggests they were assembled and nested in the ground where they were excavated. The four different types of dicotyledonous leaves used to construct the cells were likely collected in close proximity to the nest and infer a wooded or riparian habitat with sufficient pollen sources for larval provisions. LACMRLP 388E is the first record of fossil Megachile Latreille cells with pupae. Consequently, it provides a pre-modern age location for a Nearctic group, whose phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history remain poorly understood. Megachile gentilis appears to respond to climate change as it has expanded its distribution across elevation gradients over time as estimated by habitat suitability comparisons between low and high elevations; it currently inhabits mesic habitats which occurred at a lower elevation during

  19. Henry Solomon Wellcome: A philanthropist and a pioneer sponsor of medical research in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel, Ahmed Awad A

    2013-01-01

    Henry Solomon Wellcome, the famous drug manufacturer had a fascinating association with the Sudan. Besides supporting tropical medicine research in this country, he established an extensive project in the Sudan that aimed at combining archeological excavations, philanthropy and social reform. This article is an archives-based account on this side of Wellcome's association with the Sudan. The article starts with Wellcome's early years in the American Midwest and the evolution of his career and his rise as a world-renowned drug manufacturer. After the battle of Omdurman, Wellcome visited Sudan in 1900 - 1901 where he offered to support the establishment of the research laboratories which later came to be known as the Wellcome Tropical Research Laboratories in Khartoum. He then became directly involved in the planning and running of extensive archeological excavations in the central Sudan. This project served as a field in which Wellcome found an outlet for his philanthropy. More than 4000 labourers were employed in Jebel Moya. Professional archeologists and anatomists were recruited by Wellcome to supervise the work, and all the requirements in terms of equipment were catered for. Wellcome devised a Savings Bank System whereby part of the earnings of each labourer were saved to him till the end of the season. He also introduced one of his innovations: aerial photography using box kite which was used for the first time in archeology. Wellcome made it a rule that no applicant should be turned away. The Camp Commandant had to find suitable work for each applicant, including the handicapped who were assigned to appropriate jobs like mending baskets or cutting grass for building huts. Wellcome's welfare work had a significant impact on the local inhabitants of Jebel Moya. Henry Solomon Wellcome, 1906. Oil painting by Hugh Goldwin Riviere. Credit: Wellcome Library.

  20. Health Care System in Sudan: Review and Analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats (SWOT Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim M. A. Ebrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Republic of the Sudan located in north-east of Africa and is considered to be a lower-middle income country. The country has well established healthcare system with many drawbacks mainly due to economic and managerial reasons followed by prolonged political instability and sanctions. Objective: The aim of this study is to give an insight over the health services system in Sudan and to analyze the strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats (SWOT. Materials and Methods: The search was done from two electronic databases: MEDLINE/Pubmed and from public search engines: Google Scholar and Google with key Search words used mainly as “Healthcare system in Sudan“. Additionally, SWOT analysis of healthcare system in Sudan was carried out based on the Roemer's model of health service system. Results: The Sudanese healthcare system was analyzed for different components of the system: The system in Sudan has full package of strategic plans and policies be it in a long term or short. Despite this there is poor implementation and organization along with frail health information system. The main external factors that drawback the system is the overall economic instability which resulted in cutting of the health expenditure. Conclusion: The Sudan is a rich country in terms of natural resources and population. Its health service system has strengths and weaknesses. It needs to build on its qualified human work force, stress on its well-designed short and long-term strategies on health care system and the partnership with external funding institutions, while overcoming the challenges on creating the proper health information system, economic support system and centralization of health service and professionals.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

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    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Kouyoumjian, Silva P; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2016-01-01

    To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five. We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%), 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9%) and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%), respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4%) in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients), pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2%) in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men), pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9%) in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8%) in Sudan. National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  3. Iodine versus thyroxine in treatment of simple goiter in sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M; Khangi, F.A; Ali, N.I.; Besheir, S.O.; Eltom, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to update the existing information concening goiter prevalence and iodine deficiency disorders in omdurman city and to compare the effects of thyroxine versus iodine in the treament of simlpe goiter. Thyroxine in different doses is commonly used in treatment of simple goiter in Sudan. The goiter survey was conducted in Omdurman secondary school for girls (Khartoum state). Of the goitrous subjects 99 girls were selected to participate in the treament protocol. A control group of 54 non-goitrous subjects from the same school were also included. The goitrous subjects were divided randomly into two groups receiving either daily dose of 100 μg thyroxine for six months or a single dose of 400 mg of oral iodine in the form of iodized oil. Blood and urine samples were collected from the goitrous and control group and recollected from the goitrous subjects every six weeks for six months. Goiter size was assessed at 3,6 and 14 months after the commencement of the treament. Blood samples were analyzed for serum level of T4,T3 and TSH using sensitive radioimmunoassay techniques. Urine samples were analyzed for urinary iodine excretion. Goiter was found in 139 students out of 1034, (13.4%). They were all euthyroid with simple diffuse goiter.T4 in the goitrous group (93.3±26.9 nmole /L (mean±SD)) was significanty lower than in the control group (106.4±18.2nmole/L,p<0.05). T3 was significantly higher in the goitrous (1.6±0.4 nmole/L) than in the control group (1.3±0.3 nmole/L,p<0.05) while there was no significant difference in the mean serum TSH or urinary iodine excretion between the two groups. More than 70% of the goitrous and the control subjects excreted 2 μg 1 / dI or less. Of the subjects treated with thyroxine 87.8% showed complete disappearance or definite regression of the goiter size compared with 90% of those received iodine after the treament.(Author) =

  4. Leather quality of some Sudan desert sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alhadi Ebrahiem

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This trial is aimed to study leather properties that produced from Sudan Desert sheep and goats in relation to breed type and age category. Thirty pieces of fresh sheep and goats skins were collected randomly (15 for each during January 2015. The collected skins were tanned and the produced leather properties were studied. The Statistix 8 program for variance analysis was used for data analysis. The study samples were taken according to the Complete Randomized Design. Sheep leather results revealed that, lamb's skin was significantly (P ≥ 0.05 produced better quality leather than ram's and ewe's skins in elongation (%, tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, thickness (mm, tear load (kg/cm, flexibility and moisture%. While it was yielded leather with the same characteristics to ram's and ewe's leather in Ash (%, fat (% and chrome (%. Leather properties [elongation (%, tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, tear load (kg/cm, flexibility and Ash (%] were significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed variation. On the other hand thickness (mm, moisture (%, fat (% and chrome (% were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed. Ram's skin was produced better quality leather than ewe's skins. Goat's leather results revealed that, kid goat's skin was significantly (P ≥ 0.05 produced better quality leather than bucks and doe's skin in tensile strength (kg/cm2, cracking load (kg, thickness (mm, tear load (kg/cm and flexibility degree. But kids and buck's skins were produced the same quality leather in elongation % and moisture% with significant variation (P ≥ 0.05 to doe's leather. Kid's skin yields leather with the same characteristics to buck's and doe's leather in Ash (%, fat (% and chrome (%. Generally Desert goats produce slightly better quality leather than Nubian goats. Leather prosperities [cracking load (kg, tear load (kg/cm, and Ash (%] were significantly (P ≥ 0.05 affected by breed variation. Elongation (%, tensile

  5. Iodine versus thyroxine in treatment of simple goiter in sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltom, M.A.; Ali, N.

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to update the existing information concerning goiter prevalence and iodine deficiency disorders in Omdurman city and to compare the effects of thyroxine versus iodine in the treatment of simple goiter. Thyroxine in different doses is commonly used in treatment of sample goiter in sudan. This goiter survey was conducted in Omdurman secondary school for girls (Khartoum state). Of the goitrous subjects 99 girls were selected to participate in the treatment protocol. A control group of 54 non-goitrous subjects from the same school were also included. This goitrous subjects were divided randomly into two groups receiving either daily dose of 100 μg thyroxine for six months or a single dose of 400 mg of oral iodine in the form iodized oil. Blood and urine samples were collected from the goitrous and control group and recollected from the goitrous subjects every six weeks for six months. Goiter size was assessed at 3,6 and 14 months after the commencement of the treatment. Blood samples were analyzed for serum level of T4, T3 and TSH using sensitive radioimmunoassay techniques. Urine samples were analyzed for urinary iodine excretion. Goiter was found in 139 students out of 1034, (13.4%). They were all euthyroid with simple diffuse goiter. T4 in the goitrous group (93.3±26.9 n mole/L (mean±SD)) was significantly lower than in the control group (106.4±18.2 n mole /L, p<0.05). T3 was significantly higher in the goitrous (1.3 ±0.3 n mole/L, p<0.05) while there was no significant difference in the mean serum TSH or urinary iodine excretion between the two groups. More than 70% of goitrous and the control subjects excreted 2 μg I /dl or less. Of the subjects treated with thyroxine 87.8% showed complete disappearance or definite regression of the goiter sized compared with 90% of those received iodine after the treatment

  6. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic dynamics of subarctic soils and plants in southern Yukon Territory and its implications for paleoecological and paleodietary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Fred J.; Zazula, Grant; Bennett, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with a positive shift occurring with depth in two soil profiles analyzed. All plants analyzed have an average whole plant δ13C of −27.5 ± 1.2 ‰ and foliar δ13C of –28.0 ± 1.3 ‰, and average whole plant δ15N of −0.3 ± 2.2 ‰ and foliar δ15N of –0.6 ± 2.7 ‰. Plants analyzed here showed relatively smaller variability in δ13C than δ15N. Their average δ13C after suitable corrections for the Suess effect should be suitable as baseline for interpreting diets of Late Pleistocene herbivores that lived in eastern Beringia. Water availability, nitrogen availability, spacial differences and intra-plant variability are important controls on δ15N of herbaceous plants in the study area. The wider range of δ15N, the more numerous factors that affect nitrogen isotopic composition and their likely differences in the past, however, limit use of the modern N isotopic baseline for vegetation in paleodietary models for such ecosystems. That said, the positive correlation between foliar δ15N and N content shown for the modern plants could support use of plant δ15N as an index for plant N content and therefore forage quality. The modern N isotopic baseline cannot be applied directly to the past, but it is prerequisite to future efforts to detect shifts in N cycling and forage quality since the Late Pleistocene through comparison with fossil plants from the same

  7. Nitrogen and carbon isotopic dynamics of subarctic soils and plants in southern Yukon Territory and its implications for paleoecological and paleodietary studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Tahmasebi

    Full Text Available We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area. The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with a positive shift occurring with depth in two soil profiles analyzed. All plants analyzed have an average whole plant δ13C of -27.5 ± 1.2 ‰ and foliar δ13C of -28.0 ± 1.3 ‰, and average whole plant δ15N of -0.3 ± 2.2 ‰ and foliar δ15N of -0.6 ± 2.7 ‰. Plants analyzed here showed relatively smaller variability in δ13C than δ15N. Their average δ13C after suitable corrections for the Suess effect should be suitable as baseline for interpreting diets of Late Pleistocene herbivores that lived in eastern Beringia. Water availability, nitrogen availability, spacial differences and intra-plant variability are important controls on δ15N of herbaceous plants in the study area. The wider range of δ15N, the more numerous factors that affect nitrogen isotopic composition and their likely differences in the past, however, limit use of the modern N isotopic baseline for vegetation in paleodietary models for such ecosystems. That said, the positive correlation between foliar δ15N and N content shown for the modern plants could support use of plant δ15N as an index for plant N content and therefore forage quality. The modern N isotopic baseline cannot be applied directly to the past, but it is prerequisite to future efforts to detect shifts in N cycling and forage quality since the Late Pleistocene through comparison with fossil plants from

  8. Insecticide resistance profile of Anopheles gambiae from a phase II field station in Cové, southern Benin: implications for the evaluation of novel vector control products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; N'Guessan, Raphael; Fagbohoun, Josias; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Odjo, Abibatou; Fongnikin, Augustin; Akogbeto, Martin; Weetman, David; Rowland, Mark

    2015-11-18

    Novel indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) products aimed at improving the control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors have to be evaluated in Phase II semi-field experimental studies against highly pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes. To better understand their performance it is necessary to fully characterize the species composition, resistance status and resistance mechanisms of the vector populations in the experimental hut sites. Bioassays were performed to assess phenotypic insecticide resistance in the malaria vector population at a newly constructed experimental hut site in Cové, a rice growing area in southern Benin, being used for WHOPES Phase II evaluation of newly developed LLIN and IRS products. The efficacy of standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid LLIN and IRS products was also assessed in the experimental huts. Diagnostic genotyping techniques and microarray studies were performed to investigate the genetic basis of pyrethroid resistance in the Cové Anopheles gambiae population. The vector population at the Cové experimental hut site consisted of a mixture of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. with the latter occurring at lower frequencies (23 %) and only in samples collected in the dry season. There was a high prevalence of resistance to pyrethroids and DDT (>90 % bioassay survival) with pyrethroid resistance intensity reaching 200-fold compared to the laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. Standard WHOPES-approved pyrethroid IRS and LLIN products were ineffective in the experimental huts against this vector population (8-29 % mortality). The L1014F allele frequency was 89 %. CYP6P3, a cytochrome P450 validated as an efficient metabolizer of pyrethroids, was over-expressed. Characterizing pyrethroid resistance at Phase II field sites is crucial to the accurate interpretation of the performance of novel vector control products. The strong levels of pyrethroid resistance at the Cové experimental hut

  9. New paleomagnetic results on ˜ ˜2367 Ma Dharwar giant dyke swarm, Dharwar craton, southern India: implications for Paleoproterozoic continental reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, N. Ramesh; Venkateshwarlu, M.; Shankar, Ravi; Nagaraju, E.; Parashuramulu, V.

    2018-02-01

    Here we report new paleomagnetic results and precise paleopole position of the extensional study on ˜ 2367 Ma mafic giant radiating dyke swarm in the Dharwar craton, southern India. We have sampled 29 sites on 12 dykes from NE-SW Karimnagar-Hyderabad dykes and Dhone-Gooty sector dykes, eastern Dharwar craton to provide unambiguous paleomagnetism evidence on the spectacular radiating dyke swarm and thereby strengthening the presence of single magmatic event at ˜ 2367 Ma. A total of 158 samples were subjected to detailed alternating field and thermal demagnetization techniques and the results are presented here along with previously reported data on the same dyke swarm. The remanent magnetic directions are showing two components, viz., seven sites representing four dykes show component (A) with mean declination of 94{{}°} and mean inclination of - 70{{}°} (k=87, α_{95}=10{{}°}) and corresponding paleopole at 16{{}°}N, 41{{}°}E (dp=15{{}°} and dm=17{{}°}) and 22 sites representing 8 dykes yielded a component (B) with mean declination of 41{{}°} and mean inclination of - 21{{}°} (k=41, α_{95}=9{{}°}) with a paleopole at 41{{}°}N, 200{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°} and dm=10{{}°}). Component (A) results are similar to the previously reported directions from the ˜ 2367 Ma dyke swarm, which have been confirmed fairly reliably to be of primary origin. The component (B) directions appear to be strongly overprinted by the 2080 Ma event. The grand mean for the primary component (A) combined with earlier reported studies gives mean declination of 97{{}°} and mean inclination of - 79{{}°} (k=55, α_{95}=3{{}°}) with a paleopole at 15{{}°}N, 57{{}°}E (dp=5{{}°}, dm=6{{}°}). Paleogeographical position for the Dharwar craton at ˜ 2367 Ma suggests that there may be a chance to possible spatial link between Dharwar dykes of Dharwar craton (India), Widgemooltha and Erayinia dykes of Yilgarn craton (Australia), Sebanga Poort Dykes of Zimbabwe craton (Africa) and Karelian

  10. Formation of Cretaceous Cordilleran and post-orogenic granites and their microgranular enclaves from the Dalat zone, southern Vietnam: Tectonic implications for the evolution of Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Lan, Ching-Ying; Van Long, Trinh; Usuki, Tadashi; Yang, Huai-Jen; Mertzman, Stanley A.; Iizuka, Yoshi; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Hsu, Wen-Yu

    2013-12-01

    Cordilleran-type batholiths are useful in understanding the duration, cyclicity and tectonic evolution of continental margins. The Dalat zone of southern Vietnam preserves evidence of Late Mesozoic convergent zone magmatism superimposed on Precambrian rocks of the Indochina Block. The Dinhquan, Deoca and Ankroet plutons and their enclaves indicate that the Dalat zone transitioned from an active continental margin producing Cordilleran-type batholiths to highly extended crust producing within-plate plutons. The Deoca and Dinhquan plutons are compositionally similar to Cordilleran I-type granitic rocks and yield mean zircon U/Pb ages between 118 ± 1.4 Ma and 115 ± 1.2 Ma. Their Sr-Nd whole rock isotopes (ISr = 0.7044 to 0.7062; εNd(T) = - 2.4 to + 0.2) and zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(T) = + 8.2 ± 1.2 and + 6.4 ± 0.9) indicate that they were derived by mixing between a mantle component and an enriched component (i.e. GLOSS). The Ankroet pluton is chemically similar to post-orogenic/within-plate granitic rocks and has a zircon U/Pb age of 87 ± 1.6 Ma. Geobarometric calculations indicate that amphibole within the Ankroet pluton crystallized at a depth of ~ 6 kbar which is consistent with the somewhat more depleted Sr-Nd isotope (ISr = 0.7017 to 0.7111; εNd(T) = - 2.8 to + 0.6) and variable εHf(T) compositions suggesting a stronger influence of crustal material in the parental magma. The compositional change of the Dalat zone granitic rocks during the middle to late Cretaceous indicates that the tectonic regime evolved from a continental arc environment to one of post-orogenic extension. The appearance of sporadic post-90 Ma magmatism in the Dalat zone and along the eastern margin of Eurasian indicates that there was no subsequent orogenic event and the region was likely one of highly extended crust that facilitated the opening of the South China Sea during the latter half of the Cenozoic.

  11. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-03-11

    Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were collected from two central open-aired markets (namely; Elshaabi and Central markets) during November 2011 to May 2012. The samples were microscopically examined for detection of parasitic life forms using standardized parasitological techniques for protozoans and helminthes worms. Of the 260 fresh vegetable samples, 35 (13.5 %) were microscopically positive for intestinal parasites whereas 7/50 (14 %) of water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) were found positives. Remarkably, high level of contamination in fresh vegetable samples was recorded in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) 36.4 % (4/11) while cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were not contaminated. The identified protozoans and helminthes were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, T. trichiura and hookworms. The most predominant parasite encountered was E. histolytica/dispar (42.9 %) whereas both T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides (2.9 %) were the least detected parasites. None of the fresh vegetables had single parasitic contamination. The highest percentages found in water samples used to sprinkle vegetable(s) was for Strongyloides larvae 60 % (3/5). It is worth-mentioned that the rate of contamination in Elshaabi market was higher compared with Central market. However, there was no significant correlation between the type of vegetables and existence of parasites in both markets and a high significant

  12. The Land Use and Cover Change in Miombo Woodlands under Community Based Forest Management and Its Implication to Climate Change Mitigation: A Case of Southern Highlands of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Lupala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania, miombo woodland is the most significant forest vegetation with both ecological and socioeconomic importance. The vegetation has been threatened from land use and cover change due to unsustainable utilization. Over the past two decades, community based forest management (CBFM has been practiced to address the problem. Given the current need to mitigate global climate change, little is known on the influence of CBFM to the land use and cover change in miombo woodlands and therefore compromising climate change mitigation strategies. This study explored the dynamic of land use and covers change and biomass due to CBFM and established the implication to climate change mitigation. The study revealed increasing miombo woodland cover density with decreasing unsustainable utilization. The observed improvement in cover density and biomass provides potential for climate change mitigation strategies. CBFM also developed solidarity, cohesion, and social control of miombo woodlands illegal extraction. This further enhances permanence, reduces leakage, and increases accountability requirement for carbon credits. Collectively with these promising results, good land use plan at village level and introduction of alternative income generating activities can be among the best options to further reduce land use change and biomass loss in miombo woodlands.

  13. Preparation of carbon quantum dots from cigarette filters and its application for fluorescence detection of Sudan I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anmei, Su; Qingmei, Zhong; Yuye, Chen; Yilin, Wang

    2018-09-06

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) with quantum yield of 14% were successfully synthesized via a simple, low-cost, and green hydrothermal treatment using cigarette filters as carbon source for the first time. The obtained CQDs showed a strong emission at the wavelength of 465 nm, with an optimum excitation of 365 nm.Sudan I with maximum absorption wavelength at 477 nm could selectively quench the fluorescence of CQDs. Based on this principle, a fluorescence probe was developed for Sudan I determination. Furthermore, the quenching mechanism of the CQDs was elucidated. A linear relationship was found in the range of 2.40-104.0 μmol/L Sudan I with the detection limit (3σ/k) of 0.95 μmol/L. Satisfactory results were achieved when the method was submitted to the determination of Sudan I in food samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mass-movement and flood-induced deposits in Lake Ledro, southern Alps, Italy: implications for Holocene palaeohydrology and natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Simonneau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution seismic profiles and sediment cores from Lake Ledro combined with soil and riverbed samples from the lake's catchment area are used to assess the recurrence of natural hazards (earthquakes and flood events in the southern Italian Alps during the Holocene. Two well-developed deltas and a flat central basin are identified on seismic profiles in Lake Ledro. Lake sediments have been finely laminated in the basin since 9000 cal. yr BP and frequently interrupted by two types of sedimentary events (SEs: light-coloured massive layers and dark-coloured graded beds. Optical analysis (quantitative organic petrography of the organic matter present in soil, riverbed and lacustrine samples together with lake sediment bulk density and grain-size analysis illustrate that light-coloured layers consist of a mixture of lacustrine sediments and mainly contain algal particles similar to the ones observed in background sediments. Light-coloured layers thicker than 1.5 cm in the main basin of Lake Ledro are synchronous to numerous coeval mass-wasting deposits remoulding the slopes of the basin. They are interpreted as subaquatic mass-movements triggered by historical and pre-historical regional earthquakes dated to AD 2005, AD 1891, AD 1045 and 1260, 2545, 2595, 3350, 3815, 4740, 7190, 9185 and 11 495 cal. yr BP. Dark-coloured SEs develop high-amplitude reflections in front of the deltas and in the deep central basin. These beds are mainly made of terrestrial organic matter (soils and lignocellulosic debris and are interpreted as resulting from intense hyperpycnal flood event. Mapping and quantifying the amount of soil material accumulated in the Holocene hyperpycnal flood deposits of the sequence allow estimating that the equivalent soil thickness eroded over the catchment area reached up to 5 mm during the largest Holocene flood events. Such significant soil erosion is interpreted as resulting from the combination of heavy rainfall and snowmelt. The

  15. A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) Survey of KIilbourne Hole, Southern New Mexico: Implication for Paleohydrology and Near Surface Geophysical Exploration of Mars and the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, N.; Hurtado, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of a phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The types and sizes of pyroclastic rocks produced by a phreatomagmatic eruption are indicative of the behavior of the explosion and the characteristics of the groundwater reservoir. Analysis of the pyroclast size distribution can be used to determine magma volatile content. We conduct an analysis of pyroclast size distribution using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to make a quantitative estimate of the presence of past groundwater at Kilbourne Hole, a well-known phreatomagmatic crater located in southern Dona Ana County, New Mexico. As basaltic magma intruded the groundwater reservoir in the mid-Pleistocene, the water vaporized and caused a phreatomagmatic explosion that excavated the 2-km wide and 200-m deep depression. The pyroclastic units produced during a phreatomagmatic explosion are proportional to the size and the duration of the explosion and the size of the groundwater reservoir such that the wetter the eruption, the stronger the explosion. In a violent volcanic eruption, magma changes from a liquid into solid fragments and the explosion releases kinetic energy (Ek) by ejecting liquid water, vapor water (with mass Mw) and solid fragments (with mass Mf) at an ejection velocity (Ve). In order to determine Mw, we must know Ve. The relationship between Ve and the distance from center of the eruption (R) is such that Ve exponentially decreases with time (t) and R. A numerical model relating pyroclast size and Ve for material ejected in Hawaiian and Plinian eruptions shows that clast size also exponentially decreases with decreasing Ve. Based on these relationships, we use GPR to map the ejected clast size distribution as a function of distance from the edge of Kilbourne Hole in an effort to determine Ve and Mw. GPR surveys were performed in January 2012 and January 2013 using a Noggins 250 MHz

  16. New information on Riograndia guaibensis Bonaparte, Ferigolo & Ribeiro, 2001 (Eucynodontia, Tritheledontidae from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil: anatomical and biostratigraphic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina B. Soares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The tritheledontid Riograndia guaibensis was the first cynodont described for the "Caturrita Formation" fauna from the Late Triassic of southern Brazil (Santa Maria 2 Sequence. The type materials did not preserve anatomical information regarding braincase, occiput, basicranium, zygomatic arch, postdentary bones and craniomandibular joint. Here new materials are described and supply the missing information. Riograndia shows a suite of important anatomical features quite derived among the non-mammaliaform eucynodonts, such as the partial closure of the medial orbital wall and braincase, extensive secondary osseous palate, wide primary palate, basicranium with jugular foramen separated from the periphery of fenestra rotunda, narrow zygomatic arch and much reduced postdentary bones. Many of these features constitute synapomorphies shared only with the other members of mammaliamorpha. Thus, the almost complete cranial, mandibular and dental information from the new fossils of Riograndia can bring a significant improve in the understanding of the anatomy and phylogenetic relationships of the tritheledontids and help to elucidate the transformational steps involved in the cynodont-mammal transition. Additionally, Riograndia is a key taxon in refining the "Caturrita Formation" biostratigraphy, enabling the connection of several fossiliferous outcrops that have a rich tetrapod fauna that can be correlated with other Triassic faunas from Gondwana and Laurasia.O triteledontídeo Riograndia guiabensis foi o primeiro cinodonte descrito para a fauna da "Formação Caturrita" do Triássico Superior do sul do Brasil (Sequência Santa Maria 2. Os materiais da série-tipo não forneceram informações anatômicas relativas à caixa craniana, ociput, basicrânio, arco zigomático, ossos pós-dentários e articulação crânio-mandibular. Neste artigo são descritos novos materiais que suprem as informações anatômicas não contempladas anteriormente. Riograndia

  17. Assessment of Routine Immunization Coverage in Nyala Locality, Reasons behind Incomplete Immunization in South Darfur State, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Ismail Tibin Adam; El-Tayeb, Elsadeg Mahgoob; Omer, Mohammed Diaaeldin F.A.; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed; El-Sayed, El-Tayeb Ahmed; Deribe, Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the coverage of routine immunization service in South Darfur state, Sudan. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the vaccination rate and barriers for vaccination. A cross-sectional community-based study was undertaken in Nyala locality, south Darfur, Sudan, including urban, rural and Internal Displaced Peoples (IDPs) population in proportional representation. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 213 childr...

  18. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bocklitz, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Weber, Karina [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Cialla-May, Dana, E-mail: dana.cialla-may@uni-jena.de [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts.

  19. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie; Bocklitz, Thomas; Weber, Karina; Cialla-May, Dana; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts

  20. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally