Sample records for southern havre trough

  1. Impacts of convection schemes on simulating tropical-temperate troughs over southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tozuka, T


    Full Text Available This study examines southern African summer rainfall and tropical temperate troughs (TTTs) simulated with three versions of an atmospheric general circulation model differing only in the convection scheme. All three versions provide realistic...

  2. Report on DELP 1988 Cruises in the Okinawa Trough : Part 3. Crustal structure of the southern Okinawa Trough


    Hirata, Naoshi; Kinoshita, Hajimu; Katao, Hiroshi; Baba, Hisatoshi; Kaiho, Yuka; Koresawa, Sadayuki; Ono, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Kohichi


    A refraction seismic experiment was conducted in the southern Okinawa Trough to study the crustal structure of a back-arc basin. We deployed 18 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) every 11km along a 195-km profile. We shot three large explosives (600kg, 500kg, and 450 kg) and 50 small explosives (50 kg and 25 kg). The explosions were complemented by shots from an array of a 9-liter airgun and a 16-liter airgun. The average shot interval of the explosives was 3.8 km, and that of the airguns was 1...

  3. Hydrogeology of the Tully Trough in Southern Onondaga County and Northern Cortland County, New York (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Miller, Todd S.


    A trough valley near Tully, N.Y. was formed by the same glacial processes that formed the Finger Lake valleys to the west. Glacial ice eroded a preglacial bedrock divide along the northern rim of the Allegheny Plateau and deepened a preglacial valley to form a trough valley. Subsequent meltwater issuing from the ice transported and deposited large amounts of sediment which partly filled the trough. The Tully trough contains three distinct segments—the West Branch valley of the southward-flowing Tioughnioga River in the south, the Valley Heads Moraine near Tully, and the Tully valley of the northward-flowing Onondaga Creek in the north.The West Branch valley segment south of the moraine contains a two-aquifer system—a surficial unconfined sand and gravel aquifer and a confined basal sand and gravel aquifer that rests on bedrock, separated by a thick, fine-grained glaciolacustrine fine sand, silt, and clay unit. Water quality in the surficial aquifer is generally good, although it is typically hard. Water in the basal, confined aquifer is more mineralized and yields less water to wells than the surficial aquifer.The Valley Heads Moraine near Tully consists of layers of sand and gravel, fine sand, silt, clay, and till. The land surface contains many kettle-hole lakes, ponds, wetlands, and dry depressions. The moraine contains several aquifers, some of which are discontinuous. Water quality in the shallow aquifers is generally good, although hard. Water quality in the deep aquifer is generally good, although slightly mineralized by water discharging upward from shale.The Tully valley segment north of the moraine has a confined basal sand-and-gravel aquifer that is overlain by a thick layer of lacustrine silt and clay in the southern part of the valley and becomes interlayered with sand and some fine gravel in the northern part. Most homeowners obtain their water supply from streams or springs along the valley walls or from wells. Water from wells completed in

  4. Rapid sedimentation and overpressure in shallow sediments of the Bering Trough, offshore southern Alaska (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Worthington, Lindsay L.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Van Avendonk, Harm J. A.


    Pore pressures in sediments at convergent margins play an important role in driving chemical fluxes and controlling deformation styles and localization. In the Bering Trough offshore Southern Alaska, extreme sedimentation rates over the last 140 kyr as a result of glacial advance/retreats on the continental shelf have resulted in elevated pore fluid pressures in slope sediments overlying the Pamplona Zone fold and thrust belt, the accretionary wedge resulting from subduction of the Yakutat microplate beneath the North American Plate. Based on laboratory experiments and downhole logs acquired at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Site U1421, we predict that the overpressure in the slope sediments may be as high as 92% of the lithostatic stress. Results of one-dimensional numerical modeling accounting for changes in sedimentation rate over the last 130 kyr predicted overpressures that are consistent with our estimates, suggesting that the overpressure is a direct result of the rapid sedimentation experienced on the Bering shelf and slope. Comparisons with other convergent margins indicate that such rapid sedimentation and high overpressure are anomalous in sediments overlying accretionary wedges. We hypothesize that the shallow overpressure on the Bering shelf/slope has fundamentally altered the deformation style within the Pamplona Zone by suppressing development of faults and may inhibit seismicity by focusing faulting elsewhere or causing deformation on existing faults to be aseismic. These consequences are probably long-lived as it may take several million years for the excess pressure to dissipate.

  5. Lithofacies and depositional environment of the Amasiri Sandstone, southern Benue Trough, Nigeria (United States)

    Okoro, A. U.; Igwe, E. O.


    Eight lithofacies typical of tidally-influenced shelf, mass flow and turbidity current processes characterize the Amasiri Sandstone (Cenomanian - Turonian) in the southern Benue Trough, Nigeria. The cross bedded sandstone lithofacies (Sxm) in Afikpo area were deposited in tidally influenced, shallow sandy shoreline environment while similar lithofacies associated with the conglomeratic lithofacies (Sfc) in Akpoha are proximal canyon-fill deposits. The conglomeratic lithofacies with rip-up clasts together with the massive, horizontal-bedded lithofacies (Smm) and parallel-laminated sandstone lithofacies (Sfl) in Akpoha were deposited in confined channels in proximal submarine canyon setting. The wavy/ripple-laminated sandstone lithofacies (Sfw) and very fine grained bioturbated sandstones lithofacies (Sfb) represent weakly confined distributary splay and unconfined associations in proximal to distal submarine canyon settings. The bioturbated mudstone lithofacies (Msb) and parallel-laminated mudstones lithofacies (Msl) comprise the bypass/levees association in the inner to outer shelf and in the distal canyon settings. Overall, these lithofacies indicate deposition in shelf to deep water depositional environments.

  6. Core Description and a Preliminarily Sedimentology Study of Site 1202D, Leg 195, in the Southern Okinawa Trough

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    Chi-Yue Huang


    Full Text Available ODP Site 1202 of Leg 195 was designed primarily for a high-resolution study of the paleoceanography of the Kuroshio Current in the southern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. Four holes were drilled in which Hole 1202D is described in detail in this study for an assessment of core quality for paleoceanography study and understanding of sedimentological features, especially turbidite sedimentation and the sediment provenances during the Late Quaternary in the southern Okinawa Trough. Pelagic mud with insignificant silt or sand layers is observed from the core top down to 133 m (mbsf; Marine Isotope Stages 1-3, but the silt-sand layer ratio (SLR: total thickness of silt and sand layers / 1.5 m of core increases gradually from a value of 50 % between 223 and 279 m, followed by decreases to values 250 _ Slate fragments are commonly found in fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals (160 - 280 m, while mica flakes can be observed in the muds throughout the core. The major detrital components were derived primarily from the Miocene slate belt of the pre-collision accretionary prism of the Central Range in northern Taiwan. The occurrence of volcanics could represent submarine volcanic activity in the active-opening Okinawa Trough back-arc basin off NE Taiwan. Shallow-marine fossils including benthic foraminifers, echinoids, bryozoans and mollusks are also found in the fine-grained turbidite dominant intervals. These fossil assemblages could have been deposited in the shallow shelf and then transported to the depositional site along with voluminous terrigenous materials derived from Taiwan, via submarine channels or by slope failures due to frequent earthquakes induced by plate convergence/collision and extension in the southwestern Okinawa Trough off NE Taiwan. It is concluded that the top 133 m of the core is better suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction.

  7. CSP parabolic trough and power tower performance analysis through the Southern African universities radiometric network (SAURAN) data (United States)

    Pidaparthi, A. S.; Dall, E. P.; Hoffmann, J. E.; Dinter, F.


    The objective of this paper is to analyse the performance of parabolic trough and power tower technologies by selecting two radiometric stations in different geographic locations, with approximately equal annual direct normal irradiance (DNI) values, but with different monthly DNI distributions. The two stations chosen for this study are situated at the University of Free State, Bloemfontein, Free State Province and in Vanrhynsdorp, Western Cape Province. The annual measured DNI values for both these locations in South Africa are in the range of 2500-2700 kWh/m2. The comparison between the different monthly DNI distributions of these selected sites includes an assessment of annual hourly data in order to study the performance analysis of the most mature concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies, namely parabolic trough and power tower plants. The weather data has been obtained from the Southern African Universities Radiometric Network (SAURAN). A comparison between the different monthly DNI distributions of these selected sites includes the assessment of hourly data. Selection of these radiometric stations has also been done on the basis that they have been operational for at least one year. The first year that most SAURAN stations have been online for at least one year is 2014, thus data from this year has been considered. The annual performance analysis shows that parabolic trough plants have a higher energy yield in Vanrhynsdorp while power tower plants seem to be more suitable for Bloemfontein. Power tower plants in both the locations have a higher annual energy yield when compared with parabolic trough plants. A parabolic trough power plant in Vanrhynsdorp in the Western Cape Province has very low monthly electricity generation in the winter months of May, June, July and August. This is partly due to the higher cosine losses in the parabolic trough `one-axis' tracking systems and lower DNI values in the winter months. However, a power tower plant in

  8. Numerical simulation of tropical-temperate troughs over Southern Africa using the CSU RAMS model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Heever, SC


    Full Text Available ) and the wet (1981) late summer case studies has been examined. Model simulations reveal that the tropical-temperate troughs form when an upper westerly wave coincides with an easterly, wave or depression in lower levels. These systems occur preferentially over...

  9. Circulation anomalies associated with tropical-temperate troughs in southern Africa and the south west Indian Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, M.; Washington, R. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Geography


    Daily rainfall variability over southern Africa (SA) and the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) during the austral summer months has recently been described objectively for the first time, using newly derived satellite products. The principle mode of variability in all months is a dipole structure with bands of rainfall orientated northwest to southeast across the region. These represent the location of cloud bands associated with tropical temperate troughs (TTT). This study objectively identifies major TTT events during November to February, and on the basis of composites off NCEP reanalysis data describes the associated atmospheric structure. The two phases of the rainfall dipole are associated with markedly contrasting circulation patterns. There are also pronounced intraseasonal variations. In early summer the position of the temperate trough and TTT cloud band alternates between the SWIO and southwest Atlantic. In late summer the major TTT axis lies preferentially over the SWIO, associated with an eastward displacement in the Indian Ocean high. In all months, positive events, in which the TTT cloud band lies primarily over the SWIO, are associated with large-scale moisture flux anomalies, in which convergent fluxes form a pronounced poleward flux along the cloud band. This suggests that TTT events are a major mechanism of poleward transfer of energy and momentum. (orig.)

  10. Ambient Noise Tomography of Southern California Images Dipping San Andreas-Parallel Structure and Low-Velocity Salton Trough Mantle (United States)

    Barak, S.; Klemperer, S. L.; Lawrence, J. F.


    Ambient noise tomography (ANT) images the entire crust but does not depend on the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Our ANT high-resolution 3D velocity model of southern California uses 849 broadband stations, vastly more than previous studies, and four years of data, 1997-1998, 2007, and 2011, chosen to include our own broadband Salton Seismic Imaging Project, a 40-station transect across the Salton Trough, as well as other campaign stations in both Mexico and the U.S.A., and permanent stations. Our shear-wave model has 0.05° x 0.05° lateral and 1 km vertical blocks. We used the Harvard Community Velocity Model (CVM-H) as the initial model for the inversion. We show significant differences relative to the CVM-H model, especially in the lower crust and upper mantle. We observe prominent low-velocity anomalies in the upper mantle under the Salton Buttes and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields, indicating high-temperatures and possibly partial-melt. Similar low-velocity zones have been previously observed along the Gulf of California. We also observe vertical to gradually dipping lateral velocity contrasts in the lower crust under the southern part of the San Andreas Fault. The east to northeast dip may represent crustal fabric sheared by movement of the Pacific plate under the North American plate prior to the initiation of transform motion.

  11. Fault zone characteristics and basin complexity in the southern Salton Trough, California (United States)

    Persaud, Patricia; Ma, Yiran; Stock, Joann M.; Hole, John A.; Fuis, Gary S.; Han, Liang


    Ongoing oblique slip at the Pacific–North America plate boundary in the Salton Trough produced the Imperial Valley (California, USA), a seismically active area with deformation distributed across a complex network of exposed and buried faults. To better understand the shallow crustal structure in this region and the connectivity of faults and seismicity lineaments, we used data primarily from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project to construct a three-dimensional P-wave velocity model down to 8 km depth and a velocity profile to 15 km depth, both at 1 km grid spacing. A VP = 5.65–5.85 km/s layer of possibly metamorphosed sediments within, and crystalline basement outside, the valley is locally as thick as 5 km, but is thickest and deepest in fault zones and near seismicity lineaments, suggesting a causative relationship between the low velocities and faulting. Both seismicity lineaments and surface faults control the structural architecture of the western part of the larger wedge-shaped basin, where two deep subbasins are located. We estimate basement depths, and show that high velocities at shallow depths and possible basement highs characterize the geothermal areas.

  12. Designer Troughs (United States)


    11 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a wide, flat-floored trough flanked by several smaller, branching troughs in the Olympica Fossae region of Mars. Dark- and intermediate-toned slope streaks -- created by dry avalanches of dust -- occur on the trough walls. Location near: 25.1oN, 113.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  13. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO2 lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system. (United States)

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Tsunogai, Urumu; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro; Nakamura, Ko-Ichi; Treude, Tina; Ohkubo, Satoru; Nakaseama, Miwako; Gena, Kaul; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Hisako; Nunoura, Takuro; Takai, Ken; Jørgensen, Bo B; Horikoshi, Koki; Boetius, Antje


    Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for deep-water ecosystems have been predicted. Hence, ecosystems associated with natural CO2 reservoirs in the deep sea, and the dynamics of gaseous, liquid, and solid CO2 in such environments, are of great interest to science and society. We report here a biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of a microbial community inhabiting deep-sea sediments overlying a natural CO2 lake at the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field, southern Okinawa Trough. We found high abundances (>10(9) cm(-3)) of microbial cells in sediment pavements above the CO2 lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (10(7) cm(-3)) at the liquid CO2/CO2-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur-metabolizing chemolithotrophs within the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The detection of functional genes related to one-carbon assimilation and the presence of highly 13C-depleted archaeal and bacterial lipid biomarkers suggest that microorganisms assimilating CO2 and/or CH4 dominate the liquid CO2 and CO2-hydrate-bearing sediments. Clearly, the Yonaguni Knoll is an exceptional natural laboratory for the study of consequences of CO2 disposal as well as of natural CO2 reservoirs as potential microbial habitats on early Earth and other celestial bodies.

  14. La geografia come monumento. Il progetto di Auguste Perret per Le Havre / Geography as a monument. The Auguste Perret’s project for Le Havre

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    Antonio Nitti


    Full Text Available Nel progetto di Auguste Perret per Le Havre una forma chiaramente compatta ed evocativa dell’urbanità della città storica si definisce a partire dalle relazioni stabilite con quegli elementi della geografia fisica che costituiscono l’identità del luogo nel quale questa si colloca, e costruisce una significativa relazione con gli spazi aperti e vasti della natura, acquisendo in questo modo quella ‘dimensione’ e quei caratteri propri della città contemporanea. Nei suoi spazi collettivi, che rimandano a una cultura dell’abitare che affonda le proprie radici nella più generale storia della città francese, Le Havre rappresenta sé stessa e traduce nella Place de l’Hôtel de Ville le ripide pendici della falesia, nella Porte Océane l’orizzonte lontano dell’Oceano, nel Front-de-mer Sud l’altra riva della foce della Senna, e fa di questi i veri ‘monumenti’ della città. / In the Auguste Perret’s project for Le Havre a clearly compact form, evocative of urbanity of the historical city, is defined starting from the relations established with those elements of physical geography which constitute the identity of the place where the city is located, and builds a significant relationship with the open and vast spaces of nature, thus acquiring the ‘size’ and those features of the contemporary city. In its public spaces, which refer to a culture of inhabiting that is rooted in the more general history of the French city, Le Havre represents itself and translates in the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville, the steep slopes of the cliff, in the Porte Oceane the distant horizon of the ocean, in the Front-de-mer South the other bank of the mouth of the Seine, and defines these as the real 'monuments' of the city.

  15. Le Havre, Berlim, Jersalém: a cartografia do mundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvaine Bulle


    Full Text Available Por ocasião de uma exposição de fotos de três cidades (Le Havre, Berlim e Jerusalém, o artigo discute as culturas urbanas e os modos de representação e exposição de fatos urbanos modernos. Como vincular séries de imagens para que se tornem legíveis os enunciados políticos e a memória das cidades diante desses fatos? A análise das imagens de cidades no contexto da guerra (Jerusalém e da reconstrução (Berlim, Le Havre remete à produção de culturas urbanas e de arquiteturas entre uma memória local e os fluxos internacionais.Taking an exhibition of photos of three cities (Le Havre, Berlin and Jerusalém as a guideline, the article discusses urban cultures and possibilities of representation and exhibition of modern urban events. How to associate series of images in order to clarify political propositions and the memory of cities in face of these events? The analysis of images of cities in context of war (Jerusalém and of reconstruction (Berlin, Le Havre refers to the production of urban cultures and architectures between local memory and international flows.

  16. Gold enrichment and the Bi-Au association in pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide deposits, Escanaba trough, Southern Gorda Ridge (United States)

    Tormanen, T.O.; Koski, R.A.


    High gold contents (to 10.1 ppm, avg 1.4 ppm, n = 34) occur in pyrrhotite-rich massive sulfide samples from the sediment-covered floor of the Escanaba trough, the slow-spreading, southernmost segment of Gorda Ridge. These concentrations reflect the presence of primary gold, formed during high-temperature hydrothermal activity in mounds and chimneys, and secondary gold deposited during sea-floor weathering of massive sulfide. Primary gold occurs as fine-grained (2 ??m) secondary gold grains have a porous, flaky morphology and occur in samples in which pyrrhotite is oxidized and replaced by Fe oxyhydroxides, Fe sulfate, and sulfur. Mounds and chimneys dominated by pyrrhotite and containing lesser amounts of isocubanite, chalcopyrite, and Fe-rich sphalerite were formed by high-temperature (estimated range 325??-275??C), reduced, low-sulfur vent fluids. The mineral and fluid compositions during this main stage of hydrothermal venting reflect subsurface interaction between circulating hydrothermal fluids and turbiditic sediment containing as much as 1.1 percent organic carbon. As the deposition of pyrrhotite, Cu-Fe sulfides, and sphalerite waned, a volumetrically minor suite of sulfarsenide, arsenide, Bi, and Au minerals was deposited from highly reduced, late main-stage fluids diffusing through mounds and chimneys. The low solubility of Au as a bisulfide complex and the absence of fluid mixing during this stage of hydrothermal activity apparently inhibited the precipitation of gold directly from solution. Instead, gold precipitation is thought to be linked to elevated concentrations of Bi in the late main-stage fluids. The textural relationships of Au and Bi minerals in pyrrhotite-rich samples, low melting point of native bismuth (271.4??C), and recent experimental results on Au and Bi in hydrothermal fluids contribute to the hypothesis that gold was effectively scavenged from the Escanaba trough vent fluids by coexisting droplets of liquid bismuth. Additional phase

  17. Continental rupture and the creation of new crust in the Salton Trough rift, Southern California and northern Mexico: Results from the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John A.; Stock, Joann M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Kell, Annie; Driscoll, Neal W.; Kent, Graham M.; Harding, Alistair J.; Rymer, Michael J.; González-Fernández, Antonio; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio


    A refraction and wide-angle reflection seismic profile along the axis of the Salton Trough, California and Mexico, was analyzed to constrain crustal and upper mantle seismic velocity structure during active continental rifting. From the northern Salton Sea to the southern Imperial Valley, the crust is 17-18 km thick and approximately one-dimensional. The transition at depth from Colorado River sediment to underlying crystalline rock is gradual and is not a depositional surface. The crystalline rock from 3 to 8 km depth is interpreted as sediment metamorphosed by high heat flow. Deeper felsic crystalline rock could be stretched preexisting crust or higher-grade metamorphosed sediment. The lower crust below 12 km depth is interpreted to be gabbro emplaced by rift-related magmatic intrusion by underplating. Low upper mantle velocity indicates high temperature and partial melting. Under the Coachella Valley, sediment thins to the north and the underlying crystalline rock is interpreted as granitic basement. Mafic rock does not exist at 12-18 km depth as it does to the south, and a weak reflection suggests Moho at 28 km depth. Structure in adjacent Mexico has slower midcrustal velocity, and rocks with mantle velocity must be much deeper than in the Imperial Valley. Slower velocity and thicker crust in the Coachella and Mexicali valleys define the rift zone between them to be >100 km wide in the direction of plate motion. North American lithosphere in the central Salton Trough has been rifted apart and is being replaced by new crust created by magmatism, sedimentation, and metamorphism.

  18. Early Pliocene Hiatus in Sand Output by the Colorado River: Evidence From Marine Deposits in the Salton Trough, Southern California (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.


    Early Pliocene deposits in the western Salton Trough preserve a high-fidelity record of sediment dispersal into the marine realm during initiation and early evolution of the Colorado River (CR). Grain-size fractionation, sediment routing, and transport dynamics of the early CR delta are recorded in sediments of the Fish Creek - Vallecito basin, which was located ~100 km south of Yuma along the transform plate boundary at 5 Ma. Early Pliocene delivery of CR sand to the basin took place in two distinct pulses: (1) deposition of sandy turbidites (Wind Caves Mbr of the Latrania Fm) in a restricted submarine canyon at Split Mt Gorge between ~5.3 and 5.1 Ma; and (2) progradation of a thick, widespread, coarsening-up deltaic sequence of marine mudstone, sandstone, and coquinas (Deguynos Fm) between ~4.8 and 4.2 Ma. Estimated flux of CR sediment during Wind Caves deposition was weak (~3-5 Mt/yr) compared to the long-term average (172±64 Mt/yr). The two pulses of CR sand input are separated by the Coyote Clay (CC, ~5.1-4.8 Ma), a regionally correlable, greenish-yellow-weathering marine claystone unit at the base of the Deguynos Fm. CC gradationally overlies Wind Caves turbidites in the area of the paleocanyon. In contrast, in the Coyote Mts 15-23 km to the south and SE, CC rests on coarse-grained locally-derived late Miocene sedimentary rocks, Alverson volcanics, and metamorphic basement rock along a regional unconformity. Identical claystone facies occur in the NW Indio Hills (restores to Yuma at the mouth of the CR at 5 Ma), and Sierra Cucapa in Mexico (~200 km south of Yuma at 5 Ma). Marine localities outside of the Wind Caves paleocanyon experienced slow to negligible sedimentation along a rugged rocky shoreline until abrupt arrival of CR-derived clay. CC accumulated in a sand-starved, pro-delta marine setting (Winker, 1987) over an inferred N-S distance of ~200 km. We therefore reject an alternate hypothesis that CC accumulated on the muddy slope of the prograding CR

  19. Recent deformation on the San Diego Trough and San Pedro Basin fault systems, offshore Southern California: Assessing evidence for fault system connectivity. (United States)

    Bormann, J. M.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.


    The seismic hazard posed by offshore faults for coastal communities in Southern California is poorly understood and may be considerable, especially when these communities are located near long faults that have the ability to produce large earthquakes. The San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) and San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF) systems are active northwest striking, right-lateral faults in the Inner California Borderland that extend offshore between San Diego and Los Angeles. Recent work shows that the SDTF slip rate accounts for 25% of the 6-8 mm/yr of deformation accommodated by the offshore fault network, and seismic reflection data suggest that these two fault zones may be one continuous structure. Here, we use recently acquired CHIRP, high-resolution multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection, and multibeam bathymetric data in combination with USGS and industry MCS profiles to characterize recent deformation on the SDTF and SPBF zones and to evaluate the potential for an end-to-end rupture that spans both fault systems. The SDTF offsets young sediments at the seafloor for 130 km between the US/Mexico border and Avalon Knoll. The northern SPBF has robust geomorphic expression and offsets the seafloor in the Santa Monica Basin. The southern SPBF lies within a 25-km gap between high-resolution MCS surveys. Although there does appear to be a through-going fault at depth in industry MCS profiles, the low vertical resolution of these data inhibits our ability to confirm recent slip on the southern SPBF. Empirical scaling relationships indicate that a 200-km-long rupture of the SDTF and its southern extension, the Bahia Soledad fault, could produce a M7.7 earthquake. If the SDTF and the SPBF are linked, the length of the combined fault increases to >270 km. This may allow ruptures initiating on the SDTF to propagate within 25 km of the Los Angeles Basin. At present, the paleoseismic histories of the faults are unknown. We present new observations from CHIRP and coring surveys at

  20. Origin of lead-zinc mineralization in the southern Benue Trough, Nigeria — Fluid inclusion and trace element studies (United States)

    Olade, M. A.; Morton, R. D.


    The epigenetic Pb-Zn deposits of the southern Benue Valley (Nigeria) are localized within Cretaceous sediments of an intracontinental rift basin. Fluid inclusion studies of vein minerals from the Abakaliki and Ishiagu orebodies show that sphalerite and quartz were deposited at relatively low temperatures (102 175 °C), with ore-fluid salinity mostly in the range of 17 25 equiv. wt% NaCl. Trace-element contents of sphalerite and galena are also consistent with the low temperature of formation and epigenetic origin. On the basis of the geotectonic setting, the mode of occurrence and fluid-inclusion characteristics, mineralization is attributed to connate brines set into motion by a high geothermal gradient accompanying continental rifting. Mineral deposition was caused principally by rapid cooling due either to reaction with wall rocks or mixing with meteoric or descending water of low salinity.

  1. The outlook for oil content of the upper Jurassic deposits in the southern part of the Yarsomovskiy trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolovskiy, A.P.; Ramazanova, S.F.


    Based on analysis of paleogeographic features of the region, and also nature of distribution of sandstones in bed J/sub 1/ and laws governing accumulation in it of the initial organic matter, an evaluation is made of the outlook of oil and gas content. The following areas are isolated as promising for oil and gas in the bed J/sub 1/: 1. West Pokamasovskiy located to the west of Pokamasovskiy field. The structure has two cupolas, south and north. Within the north, wells 4 and 22 are drilled. In well 22 in testing bed J/sub 1/, industrial influx of oil was obtained. On this area independent formation is assumed. 2. Asomkinskiy, Shirokovskiy and West Asomkinskiy located in the southern part of the examined region. On these areas in bed J/sub 1/ a single oil formation is proposed with WOC at marker 2896 m. In well 36 Shirokovskiy and well 1 of the Asomkinskiy areas, industrial influxes of oil were obtained. 3. Yeloviy area, a small structure within whose limits two prospecting wells have been drilled. In well 1 in testing in an open shaft of interval 2750-2850 m, including deposits of the Achimovskiy block, Bazhenovskiy series J/sub 1/, and influx of degasified argillaceous mud with oil was obtained. In this same well additional tests were made of deposits of the Achimovskiy block, from which no influx was obtained. Thus, influx of oil in this well can only come from bed J/sub 1/. Among the promising are also the East Mokhoviy, South Mokhoviy, West Kechimovskiy and East Yeloviy areas.

  2. Quaternary geologic map of the Havre 1° x 2° quadrangle (United States)

    Compilations by Fullerton, David S.; Colton, Roger B.; Digital edition by Bush, Charles A.


    The Havre quadrangle encompasses approximately 16,084 km2 (6,210 mi2). The northern boundary is the Montana/Saskatchewan (U.S./Canada) boundary. The quadrangle is in the Northern Plains physiographic province and it includes parts of the Bearpaw Mountains, the Little Rocky Mountains, and the Boundary Plateau. The primary river is the Milk River. The ancestral Missouri River was diverted south of the Bearpaw Mountains by a Laurentide ice sheet. The fill in the buried ancestral valley at and southwest of Havre contains a complex stratigraphy of fluvial, glaciofluvial, ice-contact, glacial, lacustrine, and eolian deposits. The old valley east of Havre now is occupied by the Milk River. The map units are surficial deposits and materials, not landforms. Deposits that comprise some constructional landforms (e.g., ground-moraine deposits, end-moraine deposits, stagnation-moraine deposits, all composed of till) are distinguished for purposes of reconstruction of glacial history. Surficial deposits and materials are assigned to 24 map units on the basis of genesis, age, lithology or composition, texture or particle size, and other physical, chemical, and engineering characteristics. It is not a map of soils that are recognized in engineering geology, or of substrata or parent materials in which pedologic or agronomic soils are formed. Glaciotectonic (ice-thrust) structures and deposits are mapped separately, represented by a symbol. On the glaciated plains and on the Boundary Plateau the surficial deposits are glacial, ice-contact, glaciofluvial, catastrophic flood, alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits. In the Bearpaw Mountains and Little Rocky Mountains beyond the limit of Quaternary glaciation they are fluvial, colluvial, and mass-wasting deposits and residual materials. Tills of late Wisconsin and Illinoian ages are represented by map units. Tills of two pre-Illinoian glaciations are not mapped but are widespread in the subsurface and are identified in

  3. Iron-based microbial ecosystem on and below the seafloor: a case study of hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo eKato


    Full Text Available Microbial community structures in deep-sea hydrothermal vents fields are constrained by available energy yields provided by inorganic redox reactions, which are in turn controlled by chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids. In the past two decades, geochemical and microbiological studies have been conducted in deep-sea hydrothermal vents at three geographically different areas of the Southern Mariana Trough (SMT. A variety of geochemical data of hydrothermal fluids and an unparalleled microbiological dataset of various samples (i.e., sulfide structures of active vents, iron-rich mats, borehole fluids and ambient seawater are available for comparative analyses. Here, we summarize the geochemical and microbiological characteristics in the SMT and assess the relationship between the microbial community structures and the fluid geochemistry in the SMT by thermodynamic modeling. In the high-temperature vent fluids, aerobic sulfide-oxidation has the potential to yield large amounts of bioavailable energy in the vent fluids, which is consistent with the detection of species related to sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (such as Thiomicrospira in the Gammaproteobacteria and Sulfurimonas in the Epsilonproteobacteria. Conversely, the bioavailable energy yield from aerobic iron-oxidation reactions in the low-temperature fluids collected from man-made boreholes and several natural vents were comparable to or higher than those from sulfide-oxidation. This is also consistent with the detection of species related to iron-oxidizing bacteria (Mariprofundus in the Zetaproteobacteria in such low-temperature samples. The results of combination of microbiological, geochemical and thermodynamic analyses in the SMT provide novel insights into the presence and significance of iron-based microbial ecosystems in deep-sea hydrothermal fields.

  4. A Very Long Term Forecast of the Port Throughput in the Le Havre - Hamburg Range up to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, J.C.M.; Wolters, M.; Van Wee, G.P.


    This paper presents a new methodology for the development of a probabilistic very long term forecast of the total port throughput in the Le Havre – Hamburg range up to 2100. The forecast is based on a combination of System Dynamic Modelling, Judgement, and Causal Relations. It is intended to provide

  5. Trough for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A trough is disclosed for supplying piglets with mineral supplements in the suckling period. The trough is designed to awaken the piglets' curiosity and thus make them root in the bottom of the trough, where the mineral supplements are dispensed in form of a dry powder mixture, and thus reduce...

  6. Port Competition in the Northern Range from Le Havre to Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Thorez


    Full Text Available The main European ports of the Northern Range facingstrong competition develop various strategies. Rotterdam andLe Havre, fast transit, Antwe1p, logistic activities with storage,Hamburg, hub for central and eastem Europe. These strategieswill be described in the paper.All of them are building new container terminals and usenew tools in technology of communications to increase trafficand to enable shipping lines to achieve their own strategies. Thenew equipments will also b.: analysed.In the last years, the competition is mainly on the links withthe hinterland. Major ports t1y to enlarge their hinterlands bytransshipment, railway con"idors, waterway connections andhighways. The importance of ports and inland intermodalnodes is growing.Nowadays, port competition in the Northern Range is locatednot only in the ports.

  7. How to prioritize numerous environmental issues? Case study of the Havre-Saint-Pierre spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenon, S. [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Environmental Emergencies Div


    While docking at the QIT facility at Havre St. Pierre, Quebec, on March 23, 1999, the cargo ship M/V Gordon C. Leitch collided with the dock, ruptured a fuel tank, and spilled 49 metric tons of light bunker oil (IFO-180) in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The situation seemed under control at the beginning since the ice cover contained the migration of oil, but it quickly degenerated when the whole picture became clear. The spill occurred in a remote location where wildlife is abundant and diversified. The economy was largely dependant on ecotourism and several environmental and social factors had to be considered when devising the clean up procedure. Oil was found on 120 km of shoreline in the vicinity of the Mingan Archipelago National Park, a wildlife sanctuary protected by the government of Canada. There were oil-covered birds, a native hunting ground, several fishing zones and the National Park. The spill was cleaned up in two months. The authors described the different factors to be considered and the appropriateness and effectiveness of the Regional Environmental Emergency Team in setting priorities and choosing the best course of action to deal with each set of circumstances. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria) (United States)

    Benkhelil, J.

    The intracontinental Benue Trough was initiated during the Lower Cretaceous in relation with the Atlantic Ocean opening. The first stage of its evolution started in the Aptian, forming isolated basins with continental sedimentation. In the Albian times, a great delta developed in the Upper Benue Trough, while the first marine transgression coming from the opening Gulf of Guinea occurred in the south and reached the Middle Benue. The widespread Turonian transgression made the Atlantic and Tethys waters communicate through the Sahara, Niger basins and the Benue Trough. The tectonic evolution of the Benue Trough was closely controlled by transcurrent faulting through an axial fault system, developing local compressional and tensional regimes and resulting in basins and basement horsts along releasing and restraining bends of the faults. Two major compressional phases occurred: in the Abakaliki area (southern Benue) during the Santonian; and at the end of the Cretaceous in the Upper Benue Trough. In Abakaliki, the sedimentary infilling was severely deformed through folding and flattening, and moderate folding and fracturing occurred in the northeast. The Cretaceous magmatism was restricted to main fault zones in most of the trough but was particularly active in the Abakaliki Trough, where it has alkaline affinities. From Albian to Santonian, the magmatism was accompanied in part of the Abakaliki Trough by a low-grade metamorphism. Geophysical data indicate a crustal thinning beneath the Benue Trough and, at a superficial level, an axial basement high flanked by two elongated deep basins including isolated sub-basins. The model of the tectonic evolution of the trough is based upon a general sinistral wrenching along the trough responsible for the structural arrangement and the geometry of the sub-basins. During the early stages of the Gulf of Guinea opening the Benue Trough was probably the expression on land of the Equatorial Fracture Zones.

  9. Session: Parabolic Troughs (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.


    The project description is R and D activities at NREL and Sandia aimed at lowering the delivered energy cost of parabolic trough collector systems and FOA awards to support industry in trought development. The primary objectives are: (1) support development of near-term parabolic trought technology for central station power generation; (2) support development of next-generation trought fields; and (3) support expansion of US trough industry. The major FY08 activities were: (1) improving reflector optics; (2) reducing receiver heat loss (including improved receiver coating and mitigating hydrogen accumulation); (3) measuring collector optical efficiency; (4) optimizing plant performance and reducing cost; (5) reducing plant water consumption; and (6) directly supporting industry needs, including FOA support.

  10. Control of Volume and Porosity on Pumice Floatation Time: A Case Study with Pumice from the Havre Submarine Caldera Volcano (United States)

    Hosseini, B.; Fauria, K.; Manga, M.; Carey, R.; Soule, S. A.


    During the 2015 MESH (Mapping, Exploration, and Sampling at Havre) expedition to the submarine Havre caldera volcano, we collected pumice from the 2012 eruption. Here, we report pumice volume, porosity, and floatation time from measurements on 32 clasts (0.2-16 g) that provide insight into the eruption dynamics and mechanisms that deposited these clasts on the seafloor. We measured pumice volume using photogrammetry, capturing 100-180 images per sample. We used a series of open-source software—VisualSFM and MeshLab—to process the images and construct volume models. Combined with measurements of mass, we can determine pumice porosity. We calculated a mean porosity of 0.86+/-0.03 for the 32 samples. The lowest measured porosity of 0.78 was from a fragment of a giant 1.5-m diameter pumice clast. In addition to quantifying pumice volume and porosity, we conducted floatation experiments in which we cleaned, dried, and set the 32 samples on water and measured the time required for each clast to sink. Pumice floatation times varied from 0.8-226 days. We found that pumice floatation time scales with both pumice volume and porosity. These trends are consistent with a gas trapping mechanism for cold pumice floatation and suggest that pumice porosity, in addition to pumice volume, exerts an important control on the floatation time and fate of floating pumice. Despite the wide range of floatation times for these clasts, the proximal to vent collection suggests that these pumice (with the possible exception of the giant pumice fragment) were deposited on the seafloor soon after the 2012 eruption and never reached the ocean surface.

  11. The crustal structure along the Mbere trough in South Adamawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mbere Cretaceous trough is located in the southern part of the Adamawa province. A gravity interpretation based on data obtained from three NW-SE profiles on the residual anomaly map has been carried out using a 2.5D modelling program. Spectral analysis has been used to estimate the depth of geological ...

  12. INTRODUCTION The Benue trough is a linear northeast- southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    **Department of Geology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. (Received: 20th September, 2010; Accepted: .... Fig 1: Sketch Of Geological Map of Parts of Southern Benue Trough Showing Study Location. (Modified After Akpan and Nyong, 1987) ..... B io tu r bat e d sa n ds t o ne. C ro s s- str at if ie d. C ha nn e l s a n ds to ...

  13. Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Kwak, Young Hoon; Bong, Pil Yoon; Son, Jin Dam; Cheong, Tae Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Ryu, Byung Jae; Son, Byeong Kook; Hwang, In Gul; Kwon, Young Ihn; Lee, Yong Joo; Kim, Hag Ju; Yi, Sung Soog; Park, Kwan Soon; Park, Keun Pil; Shin, Chang Soo; Sunwoo, Don [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. Abundant marine micro-fossils such as foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and dinocysts were yielded in the sedimentary section of the above wells. Abundant palynomorphs originated from nearby onshore are also encountered. Based on nannofossils, the bio-stratigraphic zones from NN12 (Amaurolithus tricorniculatus Zone) to NN19 (Pseudoemiliania lacunosa Zone) are established. The sedimentary sequences are divided by local unconformity into Lower and Upper Groups, the ages of which are Late Miocene and Pliocene to Pleistocene, respectively. According to the geochemical analysis results, it is hard to expect a source rock that can generate enough hydrocarbons necessary for migration in the drilled intervals. Even though the thermal maturity reached the oil generation zone in the penetrated intervals, the calculation by the program GENEX of BEICIP shows that the amount of the generated hydrocarbons is not enough for the migration. A good source rock may be expected in the depth deeper than 4300 m horizon. Analysis of over 3300 Line-km of multichannel seismic data integrated with 2 well data serves to detail the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the western margin of the Okinawa Trough, offshore southern part of Korea peninsula. The overall tectonic style is characterized by a series of half-Graben and tilted fault blocks bounded by listric faults. Tectonics of the rift phase have been established on the basis of structural and stratigraphic analyses of depositional sequences and their seismic expressions. The potential hydrocarbon traps associated with titled fault block, fault and roll-over structure exist. (author). 44 refs.

  14. Fabrication of trough-shaped solar collectors (United States)

    Schertz, William W.


    There is provided a radiant energy concentration and collection device formed of a one-piece thin-walled plastic substrate including a plurality of nonimaging troughs with certain metallized surfaces of the substrate serving as reflective side walls for each trough. The one-piece plastic substrate is provided with a seating surface at the bottom of each trough which conforms to the shape of an energy receiver to be seated therein.

  15. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.


    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  16. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.


    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  17. Tectonic Significance of Intraoceanic Thrusts in the Nankai Trough (United States)

    Tsuji, T.; Kodaira, S.; Park, J.; Ashi, J.; Fukao, Y.; Moore, G. F.; Matsuoka, T.


    The Nankai Trough is a convergent margin where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath southwest Japan. Because this subduction zone has repeatedly generated great earthquakes with Mw>8, seismic reflection studies have been intensively carried out in the whole Nankai Trough region. However, the role of oceanic crust in plate convergent margins was not well understood. Recently, Tsuji et al. [2009] identified intraoceanic thrusts developed as imbricate structures within the subducting Philippine Sea plate off the Kii Peninsula in central Japan manifesting as strong-amplitude reflections observed in an industry-standard 3D seismic reflection data set. In this study, we use other 2D and 3D seismic reflection data acquired in the whole Nankai Trough region and extract geometries of (1) intraoceanic thrusts, (2) surface of oceanic crust and (3) Moho in order to discuss characteristics of intraoceanic thrusts distributed in the whole Nankai Trough region. We mainly use seismic reflection data acquired by JAMSTEC. Seismic profiles demonstrate that intraoceanic faults are densely distributed eastern side of the Cape Shionomisaki (southern edge of the Kii Peninsula). Large displacements of a few major intraoceanic thrusts elevate the crust surface, and the offset due to cumulative displacements reaches >1 km at the sediment-igneous crust interface. A part of Kashinozaki-Knoll is also uplifted by the thrust displacement. These imbricate intraoceanic thrusts cut through the oceanic crust as a discontinuous thrust plane. The intraoceanic thrusts strike nearly parallel to the trend of the trough axis. However the fault traces are bending at the western termination; the fault planes extend upward from side edges of the underlying intraoceanic thrusts and work as lateral faults. The deformation within oceanic crust may have continued until recently with subduction, because the shallow sediment as well as the seafloor is deformed due to the thrust displacement [Kodaira et

  18. Inflammation Is Associated with Voriconazole Trough Concentrations (United States)

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Span, Lambert F. R.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Uges, Donald R. A.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.


    Voriconazole concentrations display a large variability, which cannot completely be explained by known factors. Inflammation may be a contributing factor, as inflammatory stimuli can change the activities and expression levels of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. We explored the correlation between inflammation, reflected by C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and voriconazole trough concentrations. A retrospective chart review of patients with at least one steady-state voriconazole trough concentration and a CRP concentration measured on the same day was performed. A total of 128 patients were included. A significantly (P voriconazole trough concentration was observed in patients with severe inflammation (6.2 mg/liter; interquartile range [IQR], 3.4 to 8.7 mg/liter; n = 20) than in patients with moderate inflammation (3.4 mg/liter; IQR, 1.6 to 5.4 mg/liter; n = 60) and in patients with no to mild inflammation (1.6 mg/liter; IQR, 0.8 to 3.0 mg/liter; n = 48). The patients in all three groups received similar voriconazole doses based on mg/kg body weight (P = 0.368). Linear regression analyses, both unadjusted and adjusted for covariates of gender, age, dose, route of administration, liver enzymes, and interacting coadministered medications, showed a significant association between voriconazole and CRP concentration (P voriconazole trough concentration increased by 0.015 mg/liter (unadjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.011 to 0.020 mg/liter; adjusted 95% CI, 0.011 to 0.019 mg/liter). Inflammation, reflected by the C-reactive protein concentration, is associated with voriconazole trough concentrations. Further research is necessary to assess if taking the inflammatory status of a patient into account is helpful in therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole to maintain concentrations in the therapeutic window, thereby possibly preventing suboptimal treatment or adverse events. PMID:25223994

  19. Modeling, Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Trough

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    MODELING, SIMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF. PARABOLIC TROUGH. SOLAR COLLECTOR POWER GENERATION SYSTEM. Mekuannint Mesfin and Abebayehu Assefa. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. Model of a parabolic trough power plant, taking.

  20. Pasarela en Le Havre Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet, Guillaume


    Full Text Available The longitudinal profile of this is a cubic parabola with a 6 m rise and a length of 105 m. Essentially this footbridge consists of a metal pier —that supports two unequal spans— situated at 3/10 of the length so as to utilize the pier of an old bridge; it has the shape of a capital A, the posts of which are pyramids with triangular section and which are formed by sheet plates joined together by welding. The spans, however, consist of: two lateral metal welded beams; a series of bridge ties also of metal, at a distance of 2.50 m from each other and joined to the beams by means of bolts; and resting upon these, a 10 cm thick reinforced concrete slab, protected by a greatly adhesive covering due to the strong slope of the accesses. The suspended solution does not allow any greater thickness of the footbridge and thus the views of the harbour are hardly obstructed. Its assymmetric shape along with the slender form of the pier contributes to making its location in the centre of the city very suitable.El perfil longitudinal de esta pasarela es el de una parábola cúbica con 6 m de flecha y 105 m de longitud. Esencialmente está constituida por una pila metálica —que soporta dos tramos desiguales— situada a 3/10 de la longitud con el fin de reutilizar, para su cimentación, la pila de un antiguo puente; tiene la forma de una gran A, cuyos montantes son pirámides de sección triangular formados por palastros soldados entre sí. Los tramos, a su vez, están formados por: dos vigas laterales metálicas, soldadas; una serie de traviesas, también metálicas, distanciadas 2,50 m y unidas a las vigas mediante bulones; y, apoyando sobre estas últimas, una losa de hormigón armado de 10 cm de espesor, protegida por un revestimiento de gran adherencia motivado por la fuerte pendiente de los accesos. La solución suspendida ha permitido dar un espesor muy pequeño a la pasarela, con lo que apenas se obstaculizan las perspectivas de la dársena. Su forma asimétrica, unida a la gran esbeltez de la pila, la hacen muy adecuada a su emplazamiento en pleno centro de la ciudad.

  1. Alleviate Cellular Congestion Through Opportunistic Trough Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Wang


    Full Text Available The demand for cellular data service has been skyrocketing since the debut of data-intensive smart phones and touchpads. However, not all data are created equal. Many popular applications on mobile devices, such as email synchronization and social network updates, are delay tolerant. In addition, cellular load varies significantly in both large and small time scales. To alleviate network congestion and improve network performance, we present a set of opportunistic trough filling schemes that leverage the time-variation of network congestion and delay-tolerance of certain traffic in this paper. We consider average delay, deadline, and clearance time as the performance metrics. Simulation results show promising performance improvement over the standard schemes. The work shed lights on addressing the pressing issue of cellular overload.

  2. Tracing subducted sediment inputs to the Ryukyu arc-Okinawa Trough system: Evidence from thallium isotopes (United States)

    Shu, Yunchao; Nielsen, Sune G.; Zeng, Zhigang; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Chen, Shuai


    Sediments are actively subducted in virtually every arc worldwide. However, quantifying their contributions to arc lavas and thereby establishing budgets of how sediments participate in slab-mantle interaction is challenging. In this contribution we use thallium (Tl) abundances and isotopic compositions of lavas from the Ryukyu arc (including south Kyushu) and its back-arc basin, Okinawa Trough, to investigate the influence of sediments from arc to back-arc. We also present extensive geochemical data for sediments and altered oceanic crust (AOC) outboard of the northern (DSDP Sites 296, 442B, 443 and 444) and central (DSDP Sites 294 and 295) part of the Ryukyu arc. The Tl isotopic compositions of sediments change systematically from lighter outboard of northern Ryukyu arc to heavier outboard of central Ryukyu arc. The feature reflects the dominance of terrigenous material and pelagic sedimentation outboard of the northern and central Ryukyu arc, respectively. Central and northern sections of Ryukyu arc and Okinawa Trough display larger range of Tl isotopic variation than southern section, which is consistent with more pelagic provenance for sediments outboard of central and northern Ryukyu arcs than that of expected sediments outboard of southern Ryukyu arc. Identical Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotope variations are found when comparing arc and back arc lavas, which indicates that sediments fluxes also account for the Tl isotopic variations in the Okinawa Trough lavas. Two-end-member mixing models of Tl with Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes require sediment inputs ofsediment end members predict very similar sediment fluxes when using Tl, Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes, which indicates that fractionation of these elements must have happened after mixing between mantle and sediments. This conclusion is corroborated by model calculations of mixing between sediment melts with fractionated Sr/Nd ratios and mantle wedge, which show that no arc lava plot on such mixing lines. Thus bulk sediment

  3. Variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current transport through the Fawn Trough, Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    Vivier, Frédéric; Park, Young-Hyang; Sekma, Hela; Le Sommer, Julien


    The Kerguelen Plateau is a major topographic obstacle to the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). While approximately two-third of the ACC transport is diverted to the North, most of the remaining flow engulfs in the Fawn Trough, the only deep passage across the plateau. As part of the TRACK (TRansport ACross the Kerguelen plateau) project, three mooring lines of current meters were deployed in the Fawn Trough for one year in February 2009, underneath ground-track 94 of the Jason-2 satellite altimeter. Full depth CTD-LADCP casts carried out during the deployment cruise were previously analyzed to provide a comprehensive description of the regional circulation, featuring in particular a volume transport of ~43 Sv across the Fawn Trough (Park et al., 2009). Here we present a time series of the transport in the Fawn Trough estimated from current meter observations, featuring a mean eastward transport of 34 Sv (possibly biased low by at most 5 Sv) and a root mean squared variability of 6 Sv, consistent with LADCP estimates (43 Sv in February 2009 and 38 Sv in January 2010). In addition, we analyze to what extent the transport can be directly monitored from along-track satellite altimeter data, which would enable study of the variability of the Fawn Trough Current from a now 20-year long archive. The ability to reconstruct the flow from a limited set of moored instruments as well as from altimeter-derived surface geostrophic velocity is further assessed from synthetic data extracted from a high-resolution peri-Antarctic simulation. While a canonical method to derive transport from altimetry, previously applied to the Malvinas Current, gives here unsatisfactory comparisons with in situ estimates, an ad hoc approach using only the two northernmost mooring lines yields an estimate well correlated (~0.8) with in situ transport at subseasonal time scales during the one year period of observations. At interannual time scales, however, both methods provide

  4. Trough models: Universality classes, distribution of avalanches, and cluster sizes (United States)

    Leung, Kwan-Tai


    Extensions of the one-dimensional two-state trough model introduced by Carlson, Chayes, Grannan, and Swindle (CCGS) [Phys. Rev. A 42, 2467 (1990)] are considered. In particular, I investigate what kinds of physical processes are relevant to its scaling behavior. Short-range rearrangements of trough positions (slide events), which were neglected by CCGS, are shown to be irrelevant. By a simple modification of the dynamics, however, I obtain universality classes characterized by a single parameter. For trough models in general, including the two-state and the ``limited local'' sandpile models, asymptotically exact relations between the distribution of trough-trough distances and that of the mass of avalanches are derived. They yield moment relations in agreement with Krug's [J. Stat. Phys. 66, 1635 (1992)]. All results are verified by simulations.

  5. Parabolic Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Netter, J.; Bingham, C.; Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Brandemuehl, M.


    Parabolic trough receivers, or heat collection elements (HCEs), absorb sunlight focused by the mirrors and transfer that thermal energy to a fluid flowing within them. Thje absorbing tube of these receivers typically operates around 400 C (752 F). HCE manufacturers prevent thermal loss from the absorbing tube to the environment by using sputtered selective Cermet coatings on the absorber and by surrounding the absorber with a glass-enclosed evacuated annulus. This work quantifies the heat loss of the Solel UVAC2 and Schott PTR70 HCEs. At 400 C, the HCEs perform similarly, losing about 400 W/m of HCE length. To put this in perspective, the incident beam radiation on a 5 m mirror aperture is about 4500 W/m, with about 75% of that energy ({approx} 3400 W/m) reaching the absorber surface. Of the 3400 W/m on the absorber, about 3000 W/m is absorbed into the working fluid while 400 W/m is lost to the environment.

  6. Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Initial Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalya Pikra


    Full Text Available This paper discusses initial trials of parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC in Bandung. PTSC model consists of concentrator, absorber and tracking system. Concentrator designs are made with 2m aperture width, 6m length and 0.75m focal distance. The design is equipped with an automatic tracking system which is driven using 12V and 24Watt DC motor with 0.0125rpm rotational speed. Absorber/receiver is designed with evacuated tube type, with 1 inch core diameter and tube made of AISI304 and coated with black oxide, the outer tube is borosilicate glass with a 70 mm diameter and 1.5 m length. Working fluid stored in single type of thermal storage tank, a single phase with 37.7 liter volume. PTSC model testing carried out for 2 hours and 10 minutes produces heat output and input of 11.5 kW and 0.64 kW respectively. 

  7. Guidelines for reporting parabolic trough solar electric system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.W.


    The purpose of this activity is to develop a generic methodology which can be used to track and compare the performance of parabolic trough power plants. The approach needs to be general enough to work for all existing and future parabolic trough plant designs, provide meaningful comparisons of year to year performance, and allow for comparisons between dissimilar plant designs. The approach presented here uses the net annual system efficiency as the primary metric for evaluating the performance of parabolic trough power plants. However, given the complex nature of large parabolic trough plants, the net annual system efficiency by itself does not adequately characterize the performance of the plant. The approach taken here is to define a number of additional performance metrics which enable a more comprehensive understanding of overall plant performance.

  8. Magnetic studies in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Ramprasad, T.; Grahm, B.; Welsh, R.; Pathak, M.C.

    About 2400 line km of magnetic and bathymetric data were collected between the western margin of Jamaica and the eastern margin of Belize covering the Cayman Trough. The echograms show rugged topography between 80 degrees W and 85 degrees W...

  9. Technical Manual for the SAM Physical Trough Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Gilman, P.


    NREL, in conjunction with Sandia National Lab and the U.S Department of Energy, developed the System Advisor Model (SAM) analysis tool for renewable energy system performance and economic analysis. This paper documents the technical background and engineering formulation for one of SAM's two parabolic trough system models in SAM. The Physical Trough model calculates performance relationships based on physical first principles where possible, allowing the modeler to predict electricity production for a wider range of component geometries than is possible in the Empirical Trough model. This document describes the major parabolic trough plant subsystems in detail including the solar field, power block, thermal storage, piping, auxiliary heating, and control systems. This model makes use of both existing subsystem performance modeling approaches, and new approaches developed specifically for SAM.

  10. The De Long Trough: a newly discovered glacial trough on the East Siberian continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Regan


    Full Text Available Ice sheets extending over parts of the East Siberian continental shelf have been proposed for the last glacial period and during the larger Pleistocene glaciations. The sparse data available over this sector of the Arctic Ocean have left the timing, extent and even existence of these ice sheets largely unresolved. Here we present new geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope collected during the 2014 SWERUS-C3 expedition (SWERUS-C3: Swedish – Russian – US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions. The multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal a set of glacial landforms that include grounding zone formations along the outer continental shelf, seaward of which lies a  >  65 m thick sequence of glacio-genic debris flows. The glacial landforms are interpreted to lie at the seaward end of a glacial trough – the first to be reported on the East Siberian margin, here referred to as the De Long Trough because of its location due north of the De Long Islands. Stratigraphy and dating of sediment cores show that a drape of acoustically laminated sediments covering the glacial deposits is older than ∼ 50 cal kyr BP. This provides direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum and most likely occurred during the Saalian (Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 6.

  11. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.


    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  12. Performance Simulation Comparison for Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Wang


    Full Text Available Parabolic trough systems are the most used concentrated solar power technology. The operating performance and optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collectors (PTCs are different in different regions and different seasons. To determine the optimum design and operation of the parabolic trough solar collector throughout the year, an accurate estimation of the daily performance is needed. In this study, a mathematical model for the optical efficiency of the parabolic trough solar collector was established and three typical regions of solar thermal utilization in China were selected. The performance characteristics of cosine effect, shadowing effect, end loss effect, and optical efficiency were calculated and simulated during a whole year in these three areas by using the mathematical model. The simulation results show that the optical efficiency of PTCs changes from 0.4 to 0.8 in a whole year. The highest optical efficiency of PTCs is in June and the lowest is in December. The optical efficiency of PTCs is mainly influenced by the solar incidence angle. The model is validated by comparing the test results in parabolic trough power plant, with relative error range of 1% to about 5%.

  13. A biomarker record of temperature and phytoplankton community in Okinawa Trough since the last glacial maximum (United States)

    Ruan, Jiaping


    A variety of biomarkers were examined from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) core 1202B to reconstruct temperature and phytoplankton community structures in the southern Okinawa Trough for the past ca. 20000 years. Two molecular temperature proxies (Uk37 and TEX86) show 5-6 ℃ warming during the glacial/interglacial transition. Prior to the Holocene, the Uk37-derived temperature was generally 1-4 ℃ higher than TEX86-derived temperature. This difference, however, was reduced to phytoplankton biomarkers (e.g., C37:2 alkenone, brassicasterol, C30 1,15-diols and dinosterol) suggest a shift of planktonic community assemblages with coccolithophorids becoming more abundant in the Holocene at the expense of diatoms/dinoflagellates. Such a shift is related to the variability of nutrient, temperature and salinity in the Okinawa Trough, controlled by the sea level and the intensity of Kuroshio Current. The phytoplankton community change may have profound implications on atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during glacial/interglacial cycles since diatoms and dinoflagellates have a higher efficiency of biological pump than coccolithophorids.

  14. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  15. Long-term slow slip events along the Nankai trough subduction zone after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan (United States)

    Ozawa, Shinzaburo


    The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) network in Japan has detected transient crustal deformation in regions along the Nankai trough subduction zone in southwest Japan from approximately 2013, after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. Using the GNSS data, we estimated the spatiotemporal evolution of long-term aseismic slip along the Nankai trough. The result indicates that aseismic slip has occurred on the plate interface in the Bungo, northern Miyazaki, and southern Miyazaki regions, southwest Japan. The estimated time evolution between October 2013 and April 2015 shows the simultaneous occurrence of northern and southern Miyazaki slow slips with different durations followed by a Bungo slow slip in 2014. A southern Miyazaki slow slip occurred from approximately July 2015, which was followed by a northern Miyazaki slow slip and a Bungo slow slip in 2016. The 2016 Bungo slow slip occurred in a shallow area that did not slip at the time of the 2014 Bungo slow slip. The two different rupture processes from 2013 to 2015 and from 2015 to 2016 may be an important clue toward understanding subduction tectonics in southwest Japan. These interplate slow slip events are changing the stress state in favor of the occurrence of Nankai and Hyuga-nada earthquakes together with Tokai and Kii channel slow slips, which have been occurring since approximately 2013 and 2014, respectively.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Parabolic-Trough Technology Roadmap: A Pathway for Sustained Commercial Development and Deployment of Parabolic-Trough Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Kearney, D.


    Technology roadmapping is a needs-driven technology planning process to help identify, select, and develop technology alternatives to satisfy a set of market needs. The DOE's Office of Power Technologies' Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program recently sponsored a technology roadmapping workshop for parabolic trough technology. The workshop was attended by an impressive cross section of industry and research experts. The goals of the workshop were to evaluate the market potential for trough power projects, develop a better understanding of the current state of the technology, and to develop a conceptual plan for advancing the state of parabolic trough technology. This report documents and extends the roadmap that was conceptually developed during the workshop.

  17. Observations of mesoscale variability in the Rockall Trough

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullgren, J.E; White, M.


    The Rockall Trough west of Ireland displays a high level of mesoscale activity for an eastern ocean boundary region. Eddies off the continental slope at 50-56 degrees N have been studied using a combination of in situ observations of current velocity and hydrography from two deep-sea moorings at the

  18. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth (United States)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  19. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.


    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  20. Development and preliminary testing of a parabolic trough solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for ...

  1. Gravity Anomalies Over The Gongola Arm, Upper Benue Trough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A regional gravity survey of the Gongola Arm of the Benue trough was carried out with the aim of determining structures of interest. The results of the gravity interpretation showed that the area of study is characterized by negative Bouguer anomalies that trend in the NE-SW direction and range in value from -75 to -15 mGal ...

  2. Inversion tectonics of the benue trough | Mamah | Global Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Benue Trough, an aulacogen at the entrant of the Gulf of Guinea in Nigeria, has been historically studied from the concepts of ortho-mio-eu-geosynclines at outcrops and in the subsurface. Its structural evolution reveals a tectonic scenario compatible with Plate tectonic evolution of the Atlantic Ocean. Spreading was ...

  3. A prototype parabolic trough solar concentrators for steam production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTSCs) of dimensions: -aperture width of 1.2 m, Collector length of 5.8 m and aperture area of 6.95 m2 were investigated. The absorber pipe was a copper tube which carried water as the heat transfer fluid, were designed, fabricated, characterized and their efficiencies compared ...

  4. Performance simulation of parabolic trough solar collector using two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat ...

  5. Fabrication, Designing & Performance Analysis of Solar Parabolic Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur G. Tayade,


    Full Text Available A parabolic trough solar collector uses a parabolic cylinder to reflect and concentrate sun radiations towards a receiver tube located at the focus line of the parabolic cylinder. The receiver absorbs the incoming radiations and transforms them into thermal energy, the latter being transported and collected by a fluid medium circulating within the receiver tube.This method of concentrated solar collection has the advantage of high efficiency and low cost, and can be used either for thermal energy collection, for generating electricity or for both, This paper focused on the fabrication and designing of solar parabolic trough, The designing of trough is depend upon the following parameters : Aperture of the concentrator , Inner diameter of absorber tube, Outer diameter of absorber tube, Inner diameter of glass tube, Outer diameter of glass tube, Length of parabolic trough, Concentration ratio, Collector aperture area, Specular reflectivity of concentrator, Glass cover transitivity for solar radiation, Absorber tube emissivity/emissivity, Intercept factor, Emissivity of absorber tube surface and Emissivity of glass. The performance analysis will be based on the Experimental data collection and calculations with reference to: Thermal performance calculations, Overall loss coefficient and heat correlations. Heat transfer coefficient on the inside surface of the absorber tube and Heat transfer coefficient between the absorber tube and the Cover.

  6. Ostracods from the yola arm, Upper Benue Trough, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of nine genera of ostracods from the Yola Arm in the north-east of Nigeria are described. The various species, though from outcrop sections, supplement the list from the Upper Benue Trough already reported from Ashaka quarry and borehole (BH 2340) of the Gongila and Pindiga Formations respectively.

  7. Tear trough – Anatomy and treatment by autologous fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yung Chia


    Full Text Available Tear trough is the main irregularity at midface, of which treatment is difficult. There is no agreement in literature about its anatomy and best treatment. The author presented an anatomical study and personal autologous fat grafting technique for tear trough treatment. Anatomical dissections were done on two fresh cadavers to examine the skin, subcutaneous, muscle and bone layers, spaces, and attachments. Safety and efficacy were evaluated via retrospective analysis of the last 200 consecutive procedures performed by the author. Tear trough is caused by the abrupt transition of the palpebral orbicular oculi muscle (OOM (i.e., thin skin without subcutaneous fat compartment to the orbital OOM (i.e., thicker skin with malar fat compartment. The tear trough region is located at the OOM bony origin at the medial canthus where no specific ligament was found. The grafted fat volume stabilized at two or three months after the procedure, instead of six months as stated in literature, with excellent results and no severe complications. Tear trough is a personal characteristic, a natural anatomical depression caused by subcutaneous irregularity and can worsen with age. The lack of volume is not effectively corrected by surgeries and thus it must be filled. Fat grafting has several advantages over alloplastic fillers, although it may be more difficult. Fat graft is autologous and abundant, and tissue transplantation could enhance skin quality. Fat grafting is a simple, safe, and effective solution for adding extra volume to correct the deflation phenomenon of the midface aging process. There is no specific anatomical plane for volume injection; the fat graft must be evenly distributed in the deep and superficial plane for uniformity.

  8. Development of sheet-metal parabolic-trough reflector panels (United States)

    Biester, A. W.


    Efforts to develop accurate, durable, and mass producible sheet metal parabolic trough solar collectors and the associated support for the collectors are described. The design considered is similar to an automobile hood, a two-piece sheet metal structure consisting of a formed steel frame or stiffening panel and a smooth contoured skin. The two pieces may be bonded or welded to form a rigid structure, and a reflective surface applied such as a film, glass mirror, or any of the presently utilized materials. The work encompassed material selection, adhesive selection and testing, tool design and fabrication, prototype panel production, and design and development of torque tube assemblies on which the trough is inclined. Results of adhesive bonding studies are given. It is found that high volume technology can be used to produce accurate and structurally sound reflector panels, and one configuration was selected for fabrication in suitable quantities for performance testing.

  9. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.


    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  10. Modular Trough Power Plant Cycle and Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Hassani, V.


    This report summarizes an analysis to reduce the cost of power production from modular concentrating solar power plants through a relatively new and exciting concept that merges two mature technologies to produce distributed modular electric power in the range of 500 to 1,500 kWe. These are the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant and the concentrating solar parabolic (CSP) trough technologies that have been developed independent of each other over many years.

  11. Parabolic-trough solar collectors and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Zarza, E.; Valenzuela, L. [CIEMAT-Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Ctra. Senes, km. 4, Tabernas (Almeria) 04200 (Spain); Perez, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, Almeria 04120 (Spain)


    This paper presents an overview of the parabolic-trough collectors that have been built and marketed during the past century, as well as the prototypes currently under development. It also presents a survey of systems which could incorporate this type of concentrating solar system to supply thermal energy up to 400 C, especially steam power cycles for electricity generation, including examples of each application. (author)

  12. The Neo-Tectonic Structure of the South western Tip of the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Ku


    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain is located at the south western tip of the Okinawa Trough backarc basin, which prop a gates west ward into the Taiwan orogen. From three moderate earthquakes which occurred near the coast line of the Ilan Plain, one of magnitude 6.2 on 15 May 2002 and the other two of magnitudes 5.51 and 5.49 on 5 March 2005, we at tempted to understand the relation ship between the earthquake mechanisms and the geological context. Seven seismic reflection pro files collected roughly parallel to the coast line of the Ilan Plain were used in this work. A structural fault, with a significant normal faulting component trending approximately ENE-WSW, is identified to the east of the doublet earth quakes of 5 March 2005. Be cause this fault follows the ENE-WSW trend of the after shock seismicity, we named it the Ilan Shelf Fault, which might ex tend to the east be yond the Ilan continental shelf spur. How ever, the centroid seismic moment ten sorsolutions for the doublet earth quakes of 5 March 2005 are of a left-lateral strike-slip faulting type which are consistent with onland GPS observations. Hence, the Ilan Shelf Fault may have a left-lateral strike-slip component. Based on GPS data, we suggest that the northern Central Range block, bounded in the west by the Lishan Fault and in the north by the Ilan Shelf Fault, rotates clock wise. This rotation is ascribed to the northwestward collision of the Luzon Arc against Tai wan. Thus, there is a left-lateral strike-slip and an extensional motion along the Ilan Shelf Fault. The northern Central Range block is tilting north ward which may also in duce the normal faulting component of the Ilan Shelf Fault. In short, the Ilan Shelf Fault could be a major tectonic and structural feature bounding the southern end of the Okinawa Trough backarc basin.

  13. Salton Trough regional deformation estimated from combined trilateration and survey-mode GPS data (United States)

    Anderson, G.; Agnew, D.C.; Johnson, H.O.


    The Salton Trough in southeastern California, United States, has one of the highest seismicity and deformation rates in southern California, including 20 earthquakes M 6 or larger since 1892. From 1972 through 1987, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measured a 41-station trilateration network in this region. We remeasured 37 of the USGS baselines using survey-mode Global Positioning System methods from 1995 through 1999. We estimate the Salton Trough deformation field over a nearly 30-year period through combined analysis of baseline length time series from these two datasets. Our primary result is that strain accumulation has been steady over our observation span, at a resolution of about 0.05 ??strain/yr at 95% confidence, with no evidence for significant long-term strain transients despite the occurrence of seven large regional earthquakes during our observation period. Similar to earlier studies, we find that the regional strain field is consistent with 0.5 ?? 0.03 ??strain/yr total engineering shear strain along an axis oriented 311.6?? ?? 23?? east of north, approximately parallel to the strike of the major regional faults, the San Andreas and San Jacinto (all uncertainties in the text and tables are standard deviations unless otherwise noted). We also find that (1) the shear strain rate near the San Jacinto fault is at least as high as it is near the San Andreas fault, (2) the areal dilatation near the southeastern Salton Sea is significant, and (3) one station near the southeastern Salton Sea moved anomalously during the period 1987.95-1995.11.

  14. Full parabolic trough qualification from prototype to demonstration loop (United States)

    Janotte, Nicole; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Pottler, Klaus; Schmitz, Mark


    On the example of the HelioTrough® collector development the full accompanying and supporting qualification program for large-scale parabolic trough collectors for solar thermal power plants is described from prototype to demonstration loop scale. In the evaluation process the actual state and the optimization potential are assessed. This includes the optical and geometrical performance determined by concentrator shape, deformation, assembly quality and local intercept factor values. Furthermore, its mechanical performance in terms of tracking accuracy and torsional stiffness and its thermal system performance on the basis of the overall thermal output and heat loss are evaluated. Demonstration loop tests deliver results of collector modules statistical slope deviation of 1.9 to 2.6 mrad, intercept factor above 98%, peak optical performance of 81.6% and heat loss coefficients from field tests. The benefit of such a closely monitored development lies in prompt feedback on strengths, weaknesses and potential improvements on the new product at any development stage from first module tests until demonstration loop evaluation. The product developer takes advantage of the achieved technical maturity, already before the implementation in a commercial power plant. The well-understood performance characteristics allow the reduction of safety margins making the new HelioTrough collector competitive from the start.

  15. Effect of water trough type on the drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers. (United States)

    Coimbra, P A D; Machado Filho, L C P; Nunes, P A; Hötzel, M J; de Oliveira, A G L; Cecato, U


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different trough types on the water consumption and drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers. Two trials were implemented with 32 beef heifers to test two different types of water troughs, namely a rectangular concrete trough (RC) and a round polyvinyl chloride water tank (PVC). In Trial 1, both troughs were simultaneously available to groups of four animals within eight paddocks. In Trial 2, the animals were distributed in pairs throughout 16 paddocks and, in a crossover design, were exposed to one type of trough at a time. In both trials, estimated water intake was per four animals. Number of drinking bouts, time spent drinking and amount of water intake from the RC and PVC trough were recorded in both trials. Data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. In Trial 1, group and trough effect were in the model. In Trial 2, stage, pair and trough were tested. In Trial 1, where both types of troughs were available, animals had a higher number of drinking bouts (3.32 v. 0.57 ± 0.09; P water tank, compared to the RC trough. In Trial 2, all groups drank more often (5.10 v. 3.28 ± 0.32; P water tank in comparison to a RC trough.

  16. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data over southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... High resolution airborne magnetic data of parts of the southern Benue Trough were digitally processed and analyzed in order to estimate the depth of magnetic sources and to map the distribution and orientation of subsurface structural features.

  17. Noble gas and carbon isotopes in Mariana Trough basalt glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Rue Notre-Dame des Pauvres, BP 20, 54501 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Jambon, A. [Laboratoire de Magmatologie et Geochimie Inorganique et Experimentale, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Gamo, T. [Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Nakano-ku Tokyo 164 (Japan); Nishio, Y. [Geological Institute, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113 (Japan); Sano, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama Higashi Hiroshima 739 (Japan)


    oble gas elemental and isotopic compositions have been measured as well as the abundance of C and its isotopic ratios in 11 glasses from submarine pillow basalts collected from the Mariana Trough. The {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios of 8.22 and 8.51 R{sub atm} of samples dredged from the central Mariana Trough (similar18N) agree well with that of the Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) glasses (8.4{+-}0.3 R{sub atm}), whereas a mean ratio of 8.06{+-}0.35 R{sub atm} in samples from the northern Mariana Trough (similar20N) is slightly lower than those of MORB. One sample shows apparent excess of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne relative to atmospheric Ne, suggesting incorporation of solar-type Ne in the magma source. There is a positive correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratios, which may be explained by mixing between MORB-type and atmospheric noble gases. Excess {sup 129}Xe is observed in the sample which also shows {sup 20}Ne and {sup 21}Ne excesses. Observed {delta}{sup 13}C values of similar20N samples vary from -3.76 per thousand to -2.80 per thousand, and appear higher than those of MORB, and the corresponding CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He ratios are higher than those of MARA samples at similar18N, suggesting C contribution from the subducted slab. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. On purpose simulation model for molten salt CSP parabolic trough (United States)

    Caranese, Carlo; Matino, Francesca; Maccari, Augusto


    The utilization of computer codes and simulation software is one of the fundamental aspects for the development of any kind of technology and, in particular, in CSP sector for researchers, energy institutions, EPC and others stakeholders. In that extent, several models for the simulation of CSP plant have been developed with different main objectives (dynamic simulation, productivity analysis, techno economic optimization, etc.), each of which has shown its own validity and suitability. Some of those models have been designed to study several plant configurations taking into account different CSP plant technologies (Parabolic trough, Linear Fresnel, Solar Tower or Dish) and different settings for the heat transfer fluid, the thermal storage systems and for the overall plant operating logic. Due to a lack of direct experience of Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) commercial plant operation, most of the simulation tools do not foresee a suitable management of the thermal energy storage logic and of the solar field freeze protection system, but follow standard schemes. ASSALT, Ase Software for SALT csp plants, has been developed to improve MSPT plant's simulations, by exploiting the most correct operational strategies in order to provide more accurate technical and economical results. In particular, ASSALT applies MSPT specific control logics for the electric energy production and delivery strategy as well as the operation modes of the Solar Field in off-normal sunshine condition. With this approach, the estimated plant efficiency is increased and the electricity consumptions required for the plant operation and management is drastically reduced. Here we present a first comparative study on a real case 55 MWe Molten Salt Parabolic Trough CSP plant placed in the Tibetan highlands, using ASSALT and SAM (System Advisor Model), which is a commercially available simulation tool.

  19. Theoretical Study of the Compound Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Subhi S. Mahammed


    Full Text Available Theoretical design of compound parabolic trough solar collector (CPC without tracking is presented in this work. The thermal efficiency is obtained by using FORTRAN 90 program. The thermal efficiency is between (60-67% at mass flow rate between (0.02-0.03 kg/s at concentration ratio of (3.8 without need to tracking system.The total and diffused radiation is calculated for Tikrit city by using theoretical equations. Good agreement between present work and the previous work.

  20. The F-region trough: seasonal morphology and relation to interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Voiculescu


    Full Text Available We present here the results of a statistical study of the ionospheric trough observed in 2003 by means of satellite tomography. We focus on the seasonal morphology of the trough occurrence and investigate the trough latitude, width and the horizontal gradients at the edges, at different magnetic local times, as well as their relations to geomagnetic activity and the interplanetary magnetic field. A seasonal effect is noticed in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude, indicating that summer clearly differs from the other seasons. In winter the troughs seem to follow the solar terminator. The width of the trough has a diurnal variation and it depends on the season, as well. The broadest troughs are observed in winter and the narrowest ones in summer. A discontinuity in the diurnal variation of the trough latitude is observed before noon. It is suggested that this is an indication of a difference between the generation mechanisms of morningside and eveningside troughs. The density gradients at the edges have a complex dependence on the latitude of the trough and on geomagnetic activity. The photoionization and the auroral precipitation are competing in the formation of the trough walls at different magnetic local times. An important finding is that the interplanetary magnetic field plays a role in the occurrence of the trough at different levels of geomagnetic activity. This is probably associated with the topology of the polar cap convection pattern, which depends on the directions of the IMF components By and Bz.

  1. Geochemistry of hydrocarbons of the Terek-Caspian trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Sh. Yandarbiev


    Full Text Available Within the Terek-Caspian oil and gas bearing basin of the Eastern Ciscaucasia, oil deposits occur in a wide stratigraphic range of rocks of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section, from the Jurassic, at depths from 5800 to 200 m. In the sedimentary section, carbonate and terrigenous Middle Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, Oligocene-Lower Miocene and Miocene oil-mother rocks are distinguished. Organic matter from them have different geochemical characteristics and different maturity to realize the generation potential. The article presents the results of a comprehensive study of potential petroleum-bearing rocks and hydrocarbon fluids from the Terek-Sunzha folded zone of the Terek-Caspian Trough, including lithological, chemical-bituminological, pyrolytic, chromatographic and chromatographic-mass spectrometry investigations. A detailed description of hydrocarbon fluids at the molecular level and genetic correlations of oil-oil and oil-organic matter are given. Specific features of the oil deposits of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section are noted. Among the studied bitumens, the chromatographic characteristics of the extractable organic matter from the Khadum carbonate-clayey deposits and oils from the Cretaceous and Neogene reservoirs are most similar. The composition of a complex natural mixture of hydrocarbons from various sources, with different maturation during the geological history of the region, does not allow making unambiguous conclusions about the source or sources of hydrocarbons for the deposits of the Terek-Caspian Trough.

  2. Exergetic analysis of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Ruperez, B.; San Miguel, G.


    A very important component to achieve sustainable development in the energy sector is the improvement of energy efficiency of widely applied thermodynamic processes. Evaluation and optimization methods of energy processes play a crucial role in fulfilling this goal. A suitable method for the evaluation and optimization of energy conversion systems has been proven to be the exergetic analysis. In this work, two parabolic trough solar thermal power plants are simulated in detail using commercial software, and they are further analysed and compared using an exergetic analysis. The first plant uses a thermal fluid to produce the steam required in a steam generator, while the second one produces the steam directly in the solar field. The analysis involves the evaluation of the individual components of the power plants, as well as the performance evaluation of the overall structures. The main goal is to detect thermodynamic inefficiencies of the two different configurations and propose measures to minimize those. We find that the two examined plants have similar main sources of exergy destruction: the solar field (parabolic trough solar collectors), followed by the steam generator. This reveals the importance of an optimal design of these particular components, which could reduce inefficiencies present in the system. The differences in the exergy destruction and exergetic efficiencies of individual components of the two plants are analyzed in detail based on comparable operational conditions.

  3. Thermal and optical efficiency investigation of a parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Tzivanidis


    Full Text Available Solar energy utilization is a promising Renewable Energy source for covering a variety of energy needs of our society. This study presents the most well-known solar concentrating system, the parabolic trough collector, which is operating efficiently in high temperatures. The simulation tool of this analysis is the commercial software Solidworks which simulates complicated problems with an easy way using the finite elements method. A small parabolic trough collector model is designed and simulated for different operating conditions. The goal of this study is to predict the efficiency of this model and to analyze the heat transfer phenomena that take place. The efficiency curve is compared to a one dimensional numerical model in order to make a simple validation. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the absorber and inside the tube is presented while the heat flux distribution in the outer surface of the absorber is given. The heat convection coefficient inside the tube is calculated and compared with the theoretical one according to the literature. Also the angle efficiency modifier is calculated in order to predict the thermal and optical efficiency for different operating conditions. The final results show that the PTC model performs efficiently and all the calculations are validated.

  4. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners. (United States)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver


    Three-dimensional excitable systems can create nonlinear scroll waves that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities. Recent theoretical work predicts that these filaments drift along step-like height variations. Here, we test this prediction using experiments with thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. We observe that over short distances scroll waves are attracted towards the step and then rapidly commence a steady drift along the step line. The translating filaments always reside on the shallow side of the step near the edge. Accordingly, filaments in the deep domain initially collide with and shorten at the step wall. The drift speeds obey the predicted proportional dependence on the logarithm of the height ratio and the direction depends on the vortex chirality. We also observe drift along the perimeter of rectangular plateaus and find that the filaments perform sharp turns at the corners. In addition, we investigate rectangular troughs for which vortices of equal chirality can drift in different directions. The latter two effects are reproduced in numerical simulations with the Barkley model. The simulations show that narrow troughs instigate scroll wave encounters that induce repulsive interaction and symmetry breaking. Similar phenomena could exist in the geometrically complicated ventricles of the human heart where reentrant vortex waves cause tachycardia and fibrillation.

  5. Herbivore dung deposit counts around drinking troughs in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Thrash


    Full Text Available The density of deposits of dung of indigenous large herbivores was measured in transects starting at drinking troughs in the Kruger National Park. The aim was to test whether a relationship exists between intensity of (large indigenous herbivore use and distance from drinking troughs. There was a significant positive relationship between intensity of herbivore use and'distance from the troughs. The variance was too high, however, to detect relationships at individual transects or to warrant further modelling of the relationship. It was concluded that there was indeed a slight concentration of large herbivore rangeland use around the troughs.

  6. Shallow hydrothermal regime of the East Brawley and Glamis known geothermal resource areas, Salton Trough, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mase, C.W.; Sass, J.H.; Brook, C.A.; Munroe, R.J.


    Thermal gradients and thermal conductivities were obtained in real time using an in situ heat-flow technique in 15 shallow (90 to 150 m) wells drilled between Brawley and Glamis in the Imperial Valley, Southern California. The in situ measurements were supplemented by follow-up conventional temperature logs in seven of the wells and by laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity on drill cuttings. The deltaic sedimentary material comprising the upper approx. 100 m of the Salton Trough generally is poorly sorted and high in quartz resulting in quite high thermal conductivities (averaging 2.0 Wm/sup -1/ K/sup -1/ as opposed to 1.2 to 1.7 for typical alluvium). A broad heat-flow anomaly with maximum of about 200 mWm/sup -2/ (approx. 5 HFU) is centered between Glamis and East Brawley and is superimposed on a regional heat-flow high in excess of 100 mWm/sup -2/ (> 2.5 HFU). The heat-flow high corresponds with a gravity maximum and partially with a minimum in electrical resistivity, suggesting the presence of a hydrothermal system at depth in this area.

  7. The Characteristics of Fluid Potential in Mud Diapirs Associated with Gas Hydrates in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu


    Full Text Available Many mud diapirs have been identified in the southern Okinawa Trough from a seismic survey using R/V KEXUE I in 2001. The movement and accumulation of free gas related to mud diapirs are discussed in detail by an analysis of fluid potential which is based upon velocity data. It can be found that free gas moves from the higher fluid potential strata to the lower ones and the gas hydrate comes into being during free gas movement meeting the proper criteria of temperature and pressure. In fact, gas hydrates have been found in the upper layers above the mud diapirs and in host rocks exhibiting other geophysical characteristics. As the result of the formation of the gas hydrate, the free gas bearing strata are enclosed by the gas hydrate bearing strata. Due to the high pressure anomalies of the free gas bearing strata the fluid potential increases noticeably. It can then be concluded that the high fluid potential anomaly on the low fluid potential background may be caused by the presence of the free gas below the gas hydrate bearing strata.

  8. Trough Concentrations of Vancomycin in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Jin Park

    Full Text Available To investigate the appropriateness of the current vancomycin dosing strategy in adult patients with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, between March 2013 and November 2013, patients who were treated with vancomycin while on ECMO were enrolled. Control group consisted of 60 patients on vancomycin without ECMO, stayed in medical intensive care unit during the same study period and with the same exclusion criteria. Early trough levels were obtained within the fourth dosing, and maintenance levels were measured at steady state. A total of 20 patients were included in the analysis in ECMO group. Sixteen patients received an initial intravenous dose of 1.0 g vancomycin followed by 1.0 g every 12 hours. The non-steady state trough level of vancomycin after starting administration was subtherapeutic in 19 patients (95.00% in ECMO group as compared with 40 patients (66.67% in the control group (p = 0.013. Vancomycin clearance was 1.27±0.51 mL/min/kg, vancomycin clearance/creatinine clearance ratio was 0.90 ± 0.37, and elimination rate constant was 0.12 ± 0.04 h-1. Vancomycin dosingfrequency and total daily dose were significantly increased after clinical pharmacokinetic services of the pharmacist based on calculated pharmacokinetic parameters (from 2.10 ± 0.72 to 2.90 ± 0.97 times/day, p = 0.002 and from 32.54 ± 8.43 to 42.24 ± 14.62mg/kg, p = 0.014 in ECMO group in contrast with those (from 2.11 ± 0.69 to 2.37 ± 0.86 times/day, p = 0.071 and from 33.91 ± 11.85 to 31.61 ± 17.50 mg/kg, p = 0.350 in the control group.Although the elimination rate for vancomycin was similar with population parameter of non ECMO patients, the current dosing strategy of our institution for vancomycinin our ICU was not sufficient to achieve the target trough in the initial period in most patients receiving ECMO.

  9. Triggered surface slips in southern California associated with the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah, Baja California, Mexico, earthquake (United States)

    Rymer, Michael J.; Treiman, Jerome A.; Kendrick, Katherine J.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Weldon, Ray J.; Bilham, Roger; Wei, Meng; Fielding, Eric J.; Hernandez, Janis L.; Olson, Brian P.E.; Irvine, Pamela J.; Knepprath, Nichole; Sickler, Robert R.; Tong, Xiaopeng; Siem, Martin E.


    The April 4, 2010 (Mw7.2), El Mayor-Cucapah, Baja California, Mexico, earthquake is the strongest earthquake to shake the Salton Trough area since the 1992 (Mw7.3) Landers earthquake. Similar to the Landers event, ground-surface fracturing occurred on multiple faults in the trough. However, the 2010 event triggered surface slip on more faults in the central Salton Trough than previous earthquakes, including multiple faults in the Yuha Desert area, the southwestern section of the Salton Trough. In the central Salton Trough, surface fracturing occurred along the southern San Andreas, Coyote Creek, Superstition Hills, Wienert, Kalin, and Imperial Faults and along the Brawley Fault Zone, all of which are known to have slipped in historical time, either in primary (tectonic) slip and/or in triggered slip. Surface slip in association with the El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake is at least the eighth time in the past 42 years that a local or regional earthquake has triggered slip along faults in the central Salton Trough. In the southwestern part of the Salton Trough, surface fractures (triggered slip) occurred in a broad area of the Yuha Desert. This is the first time that triggered slip has been observed in the southwestern Salton Trough.

  10. Calibration Shots Recorded for the Salton Seismic Imaging Project, Salton Trough, California (United States)

    Murphy, J. M.; Rymer, M. J.; Fuis, G. S.; Stock, J. M.; Goldman, M.; Sickler, R. R.; Miller, S. A.; Criley, C. J.; Ricketts, J. W.; Hole, J. A.


    The Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) is a collaborative venture between the U.S. Geological Survey, California Institute of Technology, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, to acquire seismic reflection/wide angle refraction data, and currently is scheduled for data acquisition in 2010. The purpose of the project is to get a detailed subsurface 3-D image of the structure of the Salton Trough (including both the Coachella and Imperial Valleys) that can be used for earthquake hazards analysis, geothermal studies, and studies of the transition from ocean-ocean to continent-continent plate-boundary. In June 2009, a series of calibration shots were detonated in the southern Imperial Valley with specific goals in mind. First, these shots were used to measure peak particle velocity and acceleration at various distances from the shots. Second, the shots were used to calibrate the propagation of energy through sediments of the Imperial Valley. Third, the shots were used to test the effects of seismic energy on buried clay drainage pipes, which are abundant throughout the irrigated parts of the Salton Trough. Fourth, we tested the ODEX drilling technique, which uses a down-hole casing hammer for a tight casing fit. Information obtained from the calibration shots will be used for final planning of the main project. The shots were located in an unused field adjacent to Hwy 7, about 6 km north of the U.S. /Mexican border (about 18 km southeast of El Centro). Three closely spaced shot points (16 meters apart) were aligned N-S and drilled to 21-m, 23.5-m, and 27-m depth. The holes were filled with 23-kg, 68-kg, and 123-kg of ammonium-nitrate explosive, respectively. Four instrument types were used to record the seismic energy - six RefTek RT130 6-channel recorders with a 3-component accelerometer and a 3-component 2-Hz velocity sensor, seven RefTek RT130 3-channel recorders with a 3-component 4.5-Hz velocity sensor, 35 Texans with a vertical component 4

  11. Test results, Industrial Solar Technology parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, V.E. [EG and G MSI, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evans, L.R.; Matthews, C.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories and Industrial Solar Technology are cost-sharing development of advanced parabolic trough technology. As part of this effort, several configurations of an IST solar collector were tested to determine the collector efficiency and thermal losses with black chrome and black nickel receiver selective coatings, combined with aluminized film and silver film reflectors, using standard Pyrex{reg_sign} and anti-reflective coated Pyrex{reg_sign} glass receiver envelopes. The development effort has been successful, producing an advanced collector with 77% optical efficiency, using silver-film reflectors, a black nickel receiver coating, and a solgel anti-reflective glass receiver envelope. For each receiver configuration, performance equations were empirically derived relating collector efficiency and thermal losses to the operating temperature. Finally, equations were derived showing collector performance as a function of input insolation value, incident angle, and operating temperature.

  12. Observations of highly localized oscillons with multiple crests and troughs

    CERN Document Server

    LI, Xiaochen; Liao, Shijun


    Stable, highly localized Faraday's resonant standing waves with multiple crests and troughs were observed in the alcoholic solution partly filled in a Hele-Shaw cell vertically oscillated with a single frequency. Two types of oscillons were observed. The influence of the experimental parameters (such as the concentration of alcoholic solution, the water depth, the frequency and acceleration amplitude of oscillation) on these oscillons were investigated in details. In the same experimental parameters, all of these oscillons have the almost same wave height but rather irregular crest-to-crest distances. Our experiments highly suggest that the complicated oscillons can be regarded as combination of the two elementary oscillons discovered by Rajchenbach et al. (Physical Review Letters, 107, 2011).

  13. Experimental Investigation of Flow trough a Mechanical Heart Valve (United States)

    Haji-Esmaeili, Farida; Oshkai, Peter


    Turbulent flow trough a model of a mechanical heart valve is investigated using digital particle image velocimetry. The valve leaflets are represented by flat plates mounted in a duct. The emphasis is on the effect of the valve design on the platelet activation state associated with the resulting flow field. Global quantitative images corresponding to multiple planes of data acquisition provide insight into the three-dimensional nature of the flow. Turbulent flow structures including jet-like regions and shed vortices are characterized in terms of patterns of instantaneous and time-averaged velocity, vorticity, and streamline topology. Potential of bileaflet heart valves for being thrombogenic is assessed by quantitative comparison of the associated flow fields in terms of maximum values of turbulent stresses and platelet activation states.

  14. The Effect of Age and Weight on Vancomycin Serum Trough Concentrations in Pediatric Patients (United States)

    Madigan, Theresa; Sieve, Ronald M.; Graner, Kevin K.; Banerjee, Ritu


    Background Vancomycin treatment failure has been associated with low serum vancomycin trough concentrations, prompting recommendations to increase the daily doses in adults and children. Despite more aggressive vancomycin dosing, there continues to be significant variability in vancomycin trough concentrations in pediatric patients. Methods To determine if vancomycin trough concentrations in pediatric patients differ by age and weight, we reviewed records of hospitalized patients who received vancomycin between 2008 and 2012. Patients were divided into groups that received vancomycin 40 mg/kg/day (2008 to 2009) or 60 mg/kg/day (2010 to 2012). Vancomycin trough concentrations were compared between groups and within the 60-mg/kg/day group, stratified by patient age and weight. Results After increasing the vancomycin dose from 40 mg/kg/day to 60 mg/kg/day, initial trough concentrations increased significantly in patients younger than 2 and greater than 6 years of age, but not in patients between the ages of 2 and 5 years. In the 60-mg/kg/day group, only 16.7% of patients between 2 and 5 years of age had initial trough concentrations in the therapeutic range (10 mcg/mL to 20 mcg/mL). Initial trough concentrations were therapeutic in a greater proportion of patients ages 6 years to 12 years (38.7%) and 13 years to 18 years (63.0%). Patients between the ages of 13 and 18 had the highest proportion of supratherapeutic initial vancomycin trough concentrations (14.8%). Patients weighing > 50 kg had significantly higher trough concentrations than patients ≤ 50 kg (17.1 mcg/mL vs. 9.3 mcg/mL; p 50 kg are more likely to have elevated trough concentrations. Vancomycin dosing strategies in pediatric patients should consider age and weight as well as renal function and indication. PMID:23864541

  15. Source model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake tsunami based on historical documents and numerical simulations: modeling of an offshore fault along the Sagami Trough (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Hideaki; Goto, Kazuhisa


    The 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake and the resulting tsunami caused catastrophic damage in the Kanto region of Japan. Previous modeling of the 1703 earthquake applied inversion analyses of the observed terrestrial crustal deformations along the coast of the southern Boso Peninsula and revealed that the tsunami was generated along the Sagami Trough. Although these models readily explained the observed crustal deformation, they were unable to model an offshore fault along the Sagami Trough because of difficulties related to the distance of the offshore fault from the shoreline. In addition, information regarding the terrestrial crustal deformation is insufficient to constrain such inverted models. To model an offshore fault and investigate the triggering of large tsunamis off the Pacific coast of the Boso Peninsula, we studied historical documents related to the 1703 tsunami from Choshi City. Based on these historical documents, we estimated tsunami heights of ≥5.9, 11.4-11.7, ≥7.7, 10.8 and ≥4.8 m for the Choshi City regions of Isejiga- ura, Kobatake- ike, Nagasaki, Tokawa and Na'arai, respectively. Although previous studies assumed that the tsunami heights ranged from 3.0 to 4.0 m in Choshi City, we revealed that the tsunami reached heights exceeded 11 m in the city. We further studied the fault model of the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake numerically using the newly obtained tsunami height data. Consequently, we determined that the source of the 1703 earthquake was a 120-km-long offshore fault along the Sagami Trough, which is in close proximity to the Japan Trench. Our results suggest that earthquake energies resulting in magnitudes greater than Mw 8.32 along the entire length of the Sagami Trough could have been released during the 1703 Genroku Kanto earthquake.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Stress Fields Along Okinawa Trough and Ryukyu Arc Inferred From Regional Broadband Moment Tensors (United States)

    Kubo, A.; Fukuyama, E.


    Most shallow earthquakes along Okinawa trough and Ryukyu arc are relatively small (MFREESIA). Lower limit of magnitude of the earthquakes determined becomes 1.5 smaller in M{}w than that of Harvard moment tensors. As a result, we could examine the stress field in more detail than Fournier et al.(2001, JGR, 106, 13751-) did based on surface geology and teleseismic moment tensors. In the NE Okinawa trough, extension axes are oblique to the trough strike, while in SW Okinawa trough, they are perpendicular to the trough. Fault type in SW is normal fault and gradually changes to mixture of normal and strike slip toward NE. In the Ryukyu arc, extension axes are parallel to the arc. Although this feature is not clear in the NW Ryukyu arc, arc parallel extension may be a major property of entire arc. Dominant fault type is normal fault and several strike slips with the same extensional component are included. The volcanic train is located at the edge of arc parallel extension field faced A simple explanation of the arc parallel extension is the response to the opening motion of the Okinawa trough. Another possible mechanism is forearc movement due to oblique subduction which is enhanced in SW. We consider that the Okinawa trough and the Ryukyu arc are independent stress provinces.

  17. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  18. Parabolic Trough Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors: Design and Simulation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vanoli


    Full Text Available This paper presents a design procedure and a simulation model of a novel concentrating PVT collector. The layout of the PVT system under investigation was derived from a prototype recently presented in literature and commercially available. The prototype consisted in a parabolic trough concentrator and a linear triangular receiver. In that prototype, the bottom surfaces of the receiver are equipped with mono-crystalline silicon cells whereas the top surface is covered by an absorbing surface. The aperture area of the parabola was covered by a glass in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the system. In the modified version of the collector considered in this paper, two changes are implemented: the cover glass was eliminated and the mono-crystalline silicon cells were replaced by triple-junction cells. In order to analyze PVT performance, a detailed mathematical model was implemented. This model is based on zero-dimensional energy balances. The simulation model calculates the temperatures of the main components of the system and the main energy flows Results showed that the performance of the system is excellent even when the fluid temperature is very high (>100 °C. Conversely, both electrical and thermal efficiencies dramatically decrease when the incident beam radiation decreases.

  19. Update on water mass composition in the Filchner Trough, Antarctica (United States)

    Schröder, Michael; Hellmer, Hartmut


    Some coupled ice-ocean models predict that the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf will face dramatic changes in the second half of our century. These are related to a redirection of the slope current into the Filchner Trough (FT), causing an increase of basal mass loss by more than an order of magnitude. If the model results are to believed, it is important to monitor the variety of physical parameters of the present system in the 'pre-disturbed' case. The most recent 'Polarstern' expedition ANT XXIX/9 (19/12/2103 - 05/03/2014) is the first combined biological-oceanographic cruise into the southeastern Weddell Sea since 1998, designed to provide a marine census of the FT within the next 5 to 10 years. We will present the first oceanographic results from the FT, showing that the eastern branch of the southward propagating Modified Warm Deep Water (MWDW) was observed only north of 76°S more than 120 nm away from the ice shelf edge. Three moorings were deployed at that latitude for a period of two years to measure the time dependence and the characteristics of this warm water tongue with temperatures between -1.6°C to -1.4°C. The recovery of the moorings is planned for austral summer 2015/16.

  20. Origin and model of transform faults in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Li, Sanzhong; Jiang, Suhua; Suo, Yanhui; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Yongming; Zhang, Huixuan


    Transform faults in back-arc basins are the key to revealing the opening and development of marginal seas. The Okinawa Trough (OT) represents an incipient and active back-arc or marginal sea basin oriented in a general NE-SW direction. To determine the strikes and spatial distribution of transform faults in the OT, this paper dissects the NW- and NNE-SN-trending fault patterns on the basis of seismic profiles, gravity anomalies and region geological data. There are three main NW-trending transpressional faults in the OT, which are the seaward propagation of NW-trending faults in the East China Continent. The NNE-SN-trending faults with right-stepping distribution behave as right-lateral shearing. The strike-slip pull-apart process or transtensional faulting triggered the back-arc rifting or extension, and these faults evolved into transform faults with the emergence of oceanic crust. Thus, the transform fault patterns are inherited from pre-existing oblique transtensional faults at the offsets between rifting segments. Therefore, the OT performs the oblique spreading mechanism similar to nascent oceans such as the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

  1. Development of a Small Modular Parabolic trough Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffschmidt, B.; Schwarzer, K.; Spate, F.; Kotter, J.; Ebert, M.; Sierck, O.


    A small parabolic trough collector is developed with the purpose to achieve a high efficiency at temperatures up to 300 degree Celsius. The collector has an aperture area of 1 m width and 2 m length. Therefore it can be used very easily for roof installations. Tests at the collector test stand of the Solar-Institut Juelich show good results up to 100 degree celsius. The power is about 1 kW. The collector's efficiency is above 50%. Stagnation experiments have shown temperatures around 590 degree celsius at a direct radiation of 730 W/square meters and 7 degree Celsius ambient temperature. The collector consists of a form giving rib construction of stainless steel covered with an aluminum reflector with a reflection coefficient of 95%. A standard vacuum tube (Sidney-principle) 200 cm long is used as absorber. Anti Reflex Glass with a solar transmission of more than 95% is used as cover. The tracking system is consisting of a stepper motor, transmission, sun sensor and electronic steering. (Author)

  2. Parametric Study of Open Trough Steel Concrete Composite Deck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merool Devarsh Vakil


    Full Text Available Steel concrete composite deck is used in many parts of the world as fast and economical structural system. Recently the techniques are getting attention in India also. The profile deck is made up of thin cold formed steel sheet which can be formed in any desired shape. In this paper, critical study is made by varying the geometrical and material strength parameters of steel concrete deck. Its effect on flexural resistance and neutral axis location is analyzed. Ductile behavior of deck is another important concern. Here, authors put forward the limiting value of neutral axis for commonly used grades of steel for profile deck, which should be checked to ensure ductile behavior of composite deck. The paper considers variations in concrete thickness, yield strength of material, cylinder strength of concrete for an open trough type profile deck .Analysis of moment of resistance and depth of neutral axis are made as per Euro code EN-1994 assuming full bond between steel and concrete. The results show that there is significant variation in flexural capacity and neutral axis location on varying geometrical and material parameters.

  3. Teicoplanin use in adult patients with haematological malignancy: Exploring relationships between dose, trough concentrations, efficacy and nephrotoxicity. (United States)

    Byrne, Catherine J; Egan, Sean; Fennell, Jérôme P; O'Byrne, Philomena; Enright, Helen; Deasy, Evelyn; Ryder, Sheila A; D'Arcy, Deirdre M; McHugh, Johnny


    In 2010, our hospital introduced a higher target teicoplanin trough concentration of ≥20 mg/L by Day 3 for haematological malignancy patients. This study aimed to explore whether target trough concentrations were achieved, to identify factors associated with trough concentrations attained, and to assess clinical efficacy with teicoplanin treatments and nephrotoxicity. This was a retrospective, single-centre, cohort study of 172 teicoplanin treatments in 104 adults with haematological malignancy. Mixed-effects regression was used to evaluate factors affecting trough concentrations, and logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between trough concentrations and treatment outcomes. Nephrotoxicity was assessed using the RIFLE criteria. Considerable variability in trough concentrations was observed, with trough concentrations ≥20 mg/L rarely achieved early in therapy. A mixed-effects regression model explaining 52% of the variation in trough concentrations was developed. Dose and day of therapy were positively associated with trough concentration, whilst estimated renal function and, interestingly, acute myeloid leukaemia diagnosis were negatively associated (PTeicoplanin was well tolerated renally. Findings suggest a risk of underexposure if conventional teicoplanin doses are used in haematological malignancy patients. Given the variability in trough concentrations observed, the identified factors affecting trough concentrations attained and the suggested link with clinical outcome, individualised initial dosing followed by therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended to ensure early adequate exposure in this vulnerable patient group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524...... twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. RESULTS: There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either...... dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. CONCLUSION: The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size....

  5. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Hanoi Trough, Vietnam, 2017 (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.


    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 52 million barrels of oil and 591 billion cubic feet of gas in the Hanoi Trough of Vietnam.

  6. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.


    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  7. Wind Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors: March 2001--August 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, N.; Peterka, J. A.; Gee, R. C.; Kearney, D.


    Conducted extensive wind-tunnel tests on parabolic trough solar collectors to determine practical wind loads applicable to structural design for stress and deformation, and local component design for concentrator reflectors.

  8. Report on Radiocarbon Analysis of Surface Sediments from the Fore-Arc Basin of Nankai Trough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pohlman, John


    .... Radiocarbon analysis of the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) on 30 sediment samples from two multicores and six piston cores was performed to investigate the fate of methane carbon in sediment of the Nankal Trough...

  9. Influence of pen area and trough space on feedlot performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two exoeriments were conducted to measure the influence of trough space (170 mm, 350 mm and 700 mm/animal) and pen area (5,5 m2, 11 m2 and 22 mzlanimal) on feedlot performance. There was no advantage in allowing more than 170 mm trough space or more than 5,5 m2 floor area per animal with the conditions ...

  10. Optimising position control of a solar parabolic trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puramanathan Naidoo


    Full Text Available In today’s climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concerns, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. One such alternative is solar energy. This study is based on the implementation of a mathematical computation – the PSA (Plataforma Solar de Almeria computation developed at PSA (the European Test Centre for solar energy applications – embedded in a control algorithm to locate the position of the sun. Tests were conducted on a solar parabolic trough (SPT constructed at the Solar Thermal Applications Research Laboratory of the Mangosuthu University of Technology (Durban, South Africa for optimal position control using the PSA value. The designed control algorithm embedded in an industrial Siemens S7-314 C-2PtP programmable logic controller compared the PSA computation to a measured position of the SPT to optimally rotate the SPT to a desired position with the constant movement of the sun. The two main angles of the sun relative to the position of the SPT on earth, the zenith angle and the azimuth angle, both calculated in the PSA from the vertical and horizontal planes, respectively, were applied to the control algorithm to generate an appropriate final tracking angle within a 0.007 radian (0° 24′ 3.6″ tolerance, in accordance to the construction specifications and solar collector testing standards of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE, 1991. These values, together with the longitude and latitude applicable to the geographical location of the SPT, were processed in the control software to rotate the SPT to an optimal position with respect to the position of the sun in its daily path, for solar-to-thermal conversion.

  11. Performance and durability testing of parabolic trough receivers (United States)

    Lei, Dongqiang; Fu, Xuqiang; Zhao, Dongming; Yuan, Guofeng; Wang, Zhifeng; Guo, Minghuan


    The paper describes the key performance and durability testing facilities of the parabolic trough receiver developed by Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The indoor heat loss test can be applied at 4-7 different temperature levels within 200-550 on receivers. The optical efficiency test bench consists of 12 metal halide lamps as the solar simulator and a 5 m length half-elliptical cylinder reflector with flat end reflectors. 3 ultra-precision temperature sensors are used in receiver each end to get the temperature difference. The residual gas analysis test bench is applied to analyze and predict the vacuum lifetime of the receiver. It can test the variations of composition and partial pressure of residual gases with temperature and time in the receiver annulus space by a high sensitivity quadrupole mass spectrometer gas analyzer. A coating accelerated ageing test bench, which is also used to test the thermal cycle, has been developed. This test bench uses the absorber tube of the recevier as the resistance heater to heat up the whole receiver. The coating lifetime can be predicted by the Arrhenius parameters. For the cycling test, the compressed air is used to directly cool the inner surface of the absorber tube. The thermal cycling test is performed with temperature cycles from 150 °C to 450 °C for 160 cycles. The maximum thermal cycling frequency is 8 cycles per day. The mechanical fatigue test bench is used to test the bellows and the glass-to-metal seals durability at the same time. Both bellows are expanded and compressed to 6.5 mm in turn with 10,000 cycles. A new rotating test bench was also developed to test the thermal efficiency of the receiver.

  12. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited) (United States)

    Stock, J. M.


    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical

  13. Evolution of Rotations in the Fish Creek Vallecito Basin, Western Salton Trough, CA (United States)

    Housen, B. A.; Dorsey, R. J.; Janecke, S. U.; Axen, G. J.


    Rocks in the Western Salton Trough region record the history of slip on the transtensional West Salton detachment fault and initiation of younger strike-slip faults in this plate boundary zone. Spatial and temporal patterns of vertical axis rotations as determined by paleomagnetism can be used to provide valuable constraints on the structural-tectonic evolution of this area. Prior work includes the magnetostratigraphy of Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary rocks in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin (FCVB) (Opdyke et al., 1977; Johnson et al., 1983), who found that these rocks contain a complete record of geomagnetic field reversals spanning Pliocene-Pleistocene time. Johnson et al. (1983) also concluded that the FCVB had undergone 35° of CW rotation during the past 0.9 Ma. We resampled and reanalyzed their section, and sampled additional sedimentary and plutonic rocks in the Western Salton Trough in order to better document the history of vertical axis rotation recorded by these rocks. Results from 29 sites in the FCVB have well-defined magnetizations with two components. The first removed component in all samples is unblocked between 90 and 220 °C, and the second-removed components are unblocked between 300 and 590 °C. The second-removed components have either normal or reversed polarity. Sites from the Diablo Fm are predominantly reversed and have a mean of D = 204, I = -48.3, k = 37, α95 = 12.7°, N = 5. Sites from the middle of the section (Olla and Tapiado Fms) are predominantly normal and have a mean of D = 8.1, I = 48, k = 32, α95= 8.7°, N = 10. Sites from the upper portion of the section (Hueso Fm) have predominantly reversed polarity with means of D = 179.6, I = -43.4, k = 82, α95 = 10.2°, N = 4. Results from weakly-magnetized and deformed rocks of the La Posta pluton, on the south side of Whale Peak, have well-defined magnetizations with a group mean direction of D = 16.3, I = 37.3, k = 44, α95 = 7.4°, N = 10. The stratigraphic distribution of declination

  14. Morphological evolution of Jinshan Trough in Hangzhou Bay (China) from 1960 to 2011 (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Xia, Xiaoming; Chen, Shenliang; Jia, Jianjun; Cai, Tinglu


    An extensive system of tidal channels, starting with Jinshan Trough in the east, is located along the north shore of Hangzhou Bay, China. This contribution investigates the morphological evolution of Jinshan Trough by using 17 bathymetric charts from a series covering a period of 51 years from 1960 to 2011. Three stages of evolution during this period are distinguishable based on the morphology and annual mean volume data. The first stage (1960-1987) is characterized by extension of the trough; the second stage (1987-1996) is a relatively stable period with some adjustments in the trough morphology; the third stage (1996-2011) is marked by the processes of erosion and deposition in the beginning of the period and a subsequent slow erosion process. Spatio-temporal variability of the trough was evaluated by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The first eigenfunction indicates that erosion is the main evolution process and there exists three stages similar to those distinguished from volume variations. The second eigenfunction mainly reflects erosion and deposition in the northwest part of the trough located in the flood tidal current shadow area of the artificial headland in Jinshan. The third eigenfunction mainly reflects annual fluctuations of erosion and deposition in the side slope at the artificial headland in Jinshan. A particularly intense erosion process occurred between 1996 and 1998. The major effects on morphological evolution in Jinshan Trough from 1960 to 2011 were investigated and tentative conclusions were presented. Continuous coastal reclamations in Jinshan had the most pronounced effect on the morphological evolution during the first and the second stages. The storm surge had a pronounced effect on the evolution at the beginning of the third stage.

  15. Dermal Fillers for the Treatment of Tear Trough Deformity: A Review of Anatomy, Treatment Techniques, and their Outcomes


    Jaishree Sharad


    Tear trough deformity is a major concern in a lot of individuals seeking periorbital rejuvenation. A prominent tear trough deformity is characterised by a sunken appearance of the eye that results in the casting of a dark shadow over the lower eyelid, giving the patient a fatigued appearance despite adequate rest, and is refractory to attempts at cosmetic concealment. The tear trough deformity is a natural consequence of the anatomic attachments of the periorbital tissues. A variety of techni...

  16. Improvement of Predictivity of Teicoplanin Serum Trough Concentrations at Steady State Calculated by Vancomycin Pharmacokinetic Parameter. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Otomo, Shinya; Shiba, Yusuke; Ebinuma, Keiichi; Sudoh, Toshiaki


     According to a recent study and meta-analysis, trough levels of >10 μg/mL teicoplanin (TEIC) may be acceptable for the treatment of uncomplicated infection, but no method of TEIC personalized medicine has been established. Vancomycin (VCM) and TEIC are glycopeptide antibiotic agents effective against methicillin-resistance Staphyloccocus aureus. This study aimed to establish TEIC personalized medicine at a steady state calculated by VCM pharmacokinetic parameters. Bayesian forecasting and population mean methods were employed to estimate individual total VCM clearance (CL) using existing population pharmacokinetics (PPK) parameter, and the differences between the CL calculated by these two methods were defined as ΔCL. Serum drug concentration data for patients treated with TEIC were collected at a steady state concentration (>96 h post infusion). There was a significant relationship between the prediction error of TEIC trough level and ΔCL. The relation between ΔCL and TEIC trough concentration at steady state was used to develop the following equation to determine the maintenance dose: TEIC (μg/mL)=1.1119X-6.124ΔCL+3.9164 (X is defined as TEIC trough concentration calculated from the PPK parameter). The results of this study indicated that it is possible to improve the prediction error of TEIC trough concentration at a steady state for patients who have received VCM therapy.

  17. Evaluation of Teicoplanin Trough Values After the Recommended Loading Dose in Children With Associated Safety Analysis. (United States)

    Yamada, Takaaki; Kubota, Toshio; Yonezawa, Mahoro; Nishio, Hisanori; Kanno, Shunsuke; Yano, Takahisa; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Egashira, Nobuaki; Takada, Hidetoshi; Hara, Toshiro; Masuda, Satohiro


    This study evaluated whether the recommended teicoplanin loading dose (3 loading doses of 10 mg/kg every 12 hours) achieves a 15-30 μg/mL trough levels in 26 children (2-16 years). In addition, we examined the incidences of renal impairment and hepatic dysfunction in children treated with teicoplanin. This retrospective study was conducted between October 2008 and March 2014. The percentage of patients with a trough level <10 and <15 μg/mL were 15.4% (4/26) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. There were significant correlations between age and concentration/cumulative loading dose (C/D) ratio (P = 0.045), serum creatinine and C/D ratio (P < 0.001) and estimated glomerular filtration rate and C/D ratio (P = 0.005). Serum creatinine was significantly lower when trough levels were <15 μg/mL compared with ≥15 μg/mL. The incidences of renal impairment and hepatic dysfunction were 2.3% and 5.8%, respectively, with no significant difference between <20 and ≥20 μg/mL trough-level groups. The recommended loading dose may be insufficient to achieve 15-30 μg/mL in children with normal renal function. In addition, the target trough level ≥20 μg/mL for deep-seated infections seems to be safe in children.

  18. Prospective Trial of a Novel Nomogram to Achieve Updated Vancomycin Trough Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber R. Wesner


    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if the use of a novel vancomycin nomogram predicts dosing regimens that achieve target trough concentrations equal to or more accurate than dosing regimens calculated using traditional pharmacokinetic calculations, evaluate the incidence of subtherapeutic and supratherapeutic troughs, and assess pharmacist's impressions of the nomogram. Methods. Prospective, open-label study in 473 patients who had a new order for vancomycin and were >18 years of age and ≤120 kg. Patients were randomized to the active group, dosed using the nomogram, or to the control group, dosed using traditional pharmacokinetic calculations already in place at our institution. Results. Patients dosed via nomogram were within the appropriate trough range in 44% of cases compared to 33% in the control group (P=0.014. Vancomycin troughs less than 10 mcg/mL were significantly decreased with the use of nomogram (P=0.032. Incidence of supratherapeutic troughs, greater than 20 mcg/mL, was not significantly different between groups (P=0.706, and pharmacists agreed that the nomogram was easy to use and saved their time. Conclusions. A novel vancomycin nomogram was prospectively validated and found to be more effective than traditional pharmacokinetic dosing. The nomogram is being implemented as the standard dosing protocol at our institution.

  19. Great earthquakes and slow slip events along the Sagami trough and outline of the Kanto Asperity Project (United States)

    Kobayashi, R.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sato, T.; Shishikura, M.; Ito, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kawamura, K.; Shibazaki, B.


    The Kanto region is one of the most densely populated urban areas in the world. Complicated plate configurations are due to T-T-T type triple junction, island arc-island arc collision zone, and very shallow angle between axis of the Sagami trough and subducting direction. Great earthquakes along the Sagami trough have repeatedly occurred. The 1703 Genroku and 1923 (Taisho) Kanto earthquakes caused severe damages in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Intriguingly slow slip events have also repeatedly occurred in an area adjacent to the asperities of the great earthquakes, off Boso peninsula (e.g., Ozawa et al 2007). In the cases of the Nankai and Cascadia subduction zones, slow slip events occur at deeper levels than the asperity, in a transition zone between the asperity and a region of steady slip. In contrast, slow slip events in the Kanto region have occurred at relatively shallow depths, at the same level as the asperity, raising the possibility of friction controlled by different conditions to those (temperature and pressure) encountered at Nankai and Cascadia. We focus on three different types of seismic events occurring repeatedly at the almost same depth of the seismogenic zone along the Sagami trough (5-20 km) (1) The 1923 M~7.9 Taisho earthquake, located in Sagami Bay. Maximum slip is about 6 m, the recurrence interval is 200-400 yr, and the coupling rate is 80-100% (“coupling rates” = “slip amounts during earthquakes or slow-slip events” / [“rate of motion of the Philippine Sea Plate” - “recurrence interval”]) . (2) The 1703 M~8.2 Genroku earthquake, located in Sagami Bay, but also extending to the southern part of Boso Peninsula. Maximum slip is 15-20 m, the recurrence interval is ~2000 yr, and the coupling rate at the southern part of the Boso Peninsula is 10-30%. (3) Boso slow-slip events, located southeast of Boso Peninsula. Maximum slip is 15-20 cm over ~10 days, the recurrence interval is 5-6 yr, and the coupling rate is 70

  20. Flux and seasonality of planktonic foraminifera in the Xisha Trough, South China Sea (United States)

    Xiang, R.; Chen, M.; Wang, D.; Chen, Z.; Yan, W.


    The modern correlation between planktonic foraminiferal community dynamics and environmental conditions may provide a basis for establishing paleoclimatic proxies. We studied planktic foraminiferal shell fluxes and assemblages in samples collected in a time-series sediment trap deployments in the Xisha Trough, South China Sea (SCS), from June 2009 to August 2011. The general flux shows a unimodal pattern, with high planktonic foraminiferal flux (900-1000 tests m-2 day-1) occurs during the period from late September/October to February, and low flux (200-300 tests m-2 day-1)during the rest period of the year. This flux pattern is contrast to the bimodal pattern of planktonic foraminiferal flux obtained from the central and southern SCS. Ten species, Globigeroides sacculifer, Globigerinoides ruber, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globigerina calida, Globigerinella aequilateralis, Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata, Orbulina univera and Globorotalia menardii, contributed about 96% of the total flux in each year. Among them, the monsoonal driven seasonality is most prominent for P. obliquiloculata, N. dutertrei and G. bulloides, with more than 70% of their species-specific total fluxes (93% for G. bulloides) occur from late September/October to February. This suggests G. bulloides can be used as a winter proxy-species. On the contrary, Globigeroides conglobatus, mostly appeared during June to August. G. sacculifer, G. ruber and G. aequilateralis generally follow the trend of the total flux of planktonic foraminifer, with about 50-60% of their total fluxes occur from late September/October to February. We also compared the size distribution of the dominant foraminiferal species in the > 250 micrometer fraction and 250-154 micrometer fraction, we found that most shells of G. aequilateralis, O. univera and G. menardii, and G. conglobatus mainly occur in the >250 micrometer fraction, and about 40% of G. sacculifer, 35% of P

  1. Geological evidence for Holocene earthquakes and tsunamis along the Nankai-Suruga Trough, Japan (United States)

    Garrett, Ed; Fujiwara, Osamu; Garrett, Philip; Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Shishikura, Masanobu; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Hubert-Ferrari, Aurélia; Brückner, Helmut; Nakamura, Atsunori; De Batist, Marc


    The Nankai-Suruga Trough, lying immediately south of Japan's densely populated and highly industrialised southern coastline, generates devastating great earthquakes (magnitude > 8). Intense shaking, crustal deformation and tsunami generation accompany these ruptures. Forecasting the hazards associated with future earthquakes along this >700 km long fault requires a comprehensive understanding of past fault behaviour. While the region benefits from a long and detailed historical record, palaeoseismology has the potential to provide a longer-term perspective and additional insights. Here, we summarise the current state of knowledge regarding geological evidence for past earthquakes and tsunamis, incorporating literature originally published in both Japanese and English. This evidence comes from a wide variety of sources, including uplifted marine terraces and biota, marine and lacustrine turbidites, liquefaction features, subsided marshes and tsunami deposits in coastal lakes and lowlands. We enhance available results with new age modelling approaches. While publications describe proposed evidence from > 70 sites, only a limited number provide compelling, well-dated evidence. The best available records allow us to map the most likely rupture zones of eleven earthquakes occurring during the historical period. Our spatiotemporal compilation suggests the AD 1707 earthquake ruptured almost the full length of the subduction zone and that earthquakes in AD 1361 and 684 were predecessors of similar magnitude. Intervening earthquakes were of lesser magnitude, highlighting variability in rupture mode. Recurrence intervals for ruptures of the a single seismic segment range from less than 100 to more than 450 years during the historical period. Over longer timescales, palaeoseismic evidence suggests intervals ranging from 100 to 700 years. However, these figures reflect thresholds of evidence creation and preservation as well as genuine recurrence intervals. At present, we have

  2. A vacuum tube vee-trough collector for solar heating and air conditioning applications (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.


    An analysis is conducted of the performance of a vee-trough vacuum tube collector proposed for use in solar heating and cooling applications. The vee-trough reflector is a triangular sectioned, flat surfaced reflector, whose axis is laid in the East-West direction. A vacuum tube receiver placed at the bottom of the vee-trough collects solar heat most efficiently since convection is completely eliminated. Radiation losses are reduced by use of selective coatings on the absorber. Owing to its high temperature capabilities (300-400 F), the proposed scheme could also be used for power generation applications in combination with an organic Rankine conversion system. It is especially recommended for unattended pumping stations since the reflectors only require reversal once every six months.

  3. Tacrolimus trough-level variability predicts long-term allograft survival following kidney transplantation. (United States)

    O'Regan, John A; Canney, Mark; Connaughton, Dervla M; O'Kelly, Patrick; Williams, Yvonne; Collier, Geraldine; deFreitas, Declan G; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Conlon, Peter J


    The purpose of this study is to investigate tacrolimus trough-level variability from 3 to 12 months following transplantation and its association with allograft survival in renal transplant recipients. In this observational cohort study, tacrolimus trough-level variability was used as the predictor of all-cause allograft failure (defined as return to dialysis) and patient survival (all-cause mortality). In total, 394 transplants were included in the analysis. Sixty-two transplants failed during the study. Tacrolimus trough-level variability across quartile groups were: Q1 median variability 12.5 %, range 4.76-15.71 % (n = 99), Q2 median variability 18.17 %, range 15.74-21.29 % (n = 96), Q3 median variability 24.63 % range 21.42-28.88 % (n = 100), Q4 median variability 36.91 %, range 28.91-81.9 % (n = 99). Higher tacrolimus trough-level variability was associated with inferior allograft survival in univariate models [hazard ratio per quartile increase (HR), 1.46, 95 % CI 1.16-1.83, p value = 0.001] and multivariate models (HR 1.36, 95 % CI 1.05-1.78, p value = 0.019). Higher tacrolimus trough-level variability was not associated with patient survival; univariate model (HR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.90-1.74, p value = 0.17), multivariate model (HR 1.25, 95 % CI 0.86-1.83, p value = 0.23). Inferior renal allograft survival was observed in recipients with higher variability in tacrolimus trough-levels.

  4. Class II Eplet Mismatch Modulates Tacrolimus Trough Levels Required to Prevent Donor-Specific Antibody Development. (United States)

    Wiebe, Chris; Rush, David N; Nevins, Thomas E; Birk, Patricia E; Blydt-Hansen, Tom; Gibson, Ian W; Goldberg, Aviva; Ho, Julie; Karpinski, Martin; Pochinco, Denise; Sharma, Atul; Storsley, Leroy; Matas, Arthur J; Nickerson, Peter W


    Despite more than two decades of use, the optimal maintenance dose of tacrolimus for kidney transplant recipients is unknown. We hypothesized that HLA class II de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) development correlates with tacrolimus trough levels and the recipient's individualized alloimmune risk determined by HLA-DR/DQ epitope mismatch. A cohort of 596 renal transplant recipients with 50,011 serial tacrolimus trough levels had HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch determined using HLAMatchmaker software. We analyzed the frequency of tacrolimus trough levels below a series of thresholds tacrolimus levels before dnDSA development in the context of HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch. HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch was a significant multivariate predictor of dnDSA development. Recipients treated with a cyclosporin regimen had a 2.7-fold higher incidence of dnDSA development than recipients on a tacrolimus regimen. Recipients treated with tacrolimus who developed HLA-DR/DQ dnDSA had a higher proportion of tacrolimus trough levels tacrolimus trough levels in the 6 months before dnDSA development were significantly lower than the levels >6 months before dnDSA development in the same patients. Recipients with a high-risk HLA eplet mismatch score were less likely to tolerate low tacrolimus levels without developing dnDSA. We conclude that HLA-DR/DQ eplet mismatch and tacrolimus trough levels are independent predictors of dnDSA development. Recipients with high HLA alloimmune risk should not target tacrolimus levels <5 ng/ml unless essential, and monitoring for dnDSA may be advisable in this setting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Tracking local control of a parabolic trough collector; Control local de seguimiento cilindro parabolico ACE20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajona, J.I.; Alberdi, J.; Gamero, E.; Blanco, J.


    In the local control, the sun position related to the trough collector is measured by two photo-resistors. The provided electronic signal is then compared with reference levels in order to get a set of B logical signals which form a byte. This byte and the commands issued by a programmable controller are connected to the inputs of o P.R.O.M. memory which is programmed with the logical equations of the control system. The memory output lines give the control command of the parabolic trough collector motor. (Author)

  6. Neogene structural development in the Valencia trough margins from palaeomagnetic data (United States)

    Parés, J. M.; Freeman, R.; Roca, E.


    Reliable palaeomagnetic data from the emerged margins of the Valencia trough include results from Triassic, Jurassic, Paleogene and Miocene rocks. From these data, a clockwise rotation of the Catalan Coastal ranges relative to the western part of Iberia is apparent. In addition, a clockwise rotation is indicated by the magnetic directions from the Balearics with respect to those of the Catalan margin. Major Neogene structures in the evolution of the Valencia trough and thin-skinned tectonics rather than crustal-scale block motions play a large role throughout the Balearic Islands.

  7. Seabed morphology and sedimentary processes on high-gradient trough mouth fans offshore Troms, northern Norway


    Rydningen, Tom Arne; Laberg, Jan Sverre; Kolstad, Vidar


    Accepted manuscript version. Published version available at © 2015. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license Trough mouth fans (TMF) situated at the mouths of formerly glaciated cross-shelf troughs are important paleoclimatic archives. Whereas the sedimentary processes of large, low-gradient TMFs have received considerable interest, little attention has b...

  8. Investigation on medium temperature heat pipe receiver used in parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Dongdong; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Yun; Li, Sihai; Zhuang, Jun [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). Inst. of Thermal Energy Engineering


    In this paper, a novel medium temperature (250{proportional_to}500 C) heat pipe receiver was developed for parabolic trough solar collector and the feasibility study on the receiver was carried out. The lifetime analysis, thermal analysis and economic analysis of the heat pipe receiver were presented. The result showed that the heat pipe receiver was flexible, easily maintained, low manufacture cost and could be working reliability in the temperature and heat flux conditions of parabolic trough solar collector with a high heat collect efficiency. (orig.)

  9. Aspects of gulf surges and tropical upper tropospheric troughs in the North American monsoon (United States)

    Newman, Andrew James


    Gulf surges are transient events that propagate along the Gulf of California (GoC) from south to north, transporting cool moist air toward the deserts of northwest Mexico and the southwest United States during the North American monsoon (NAM). The general features and progression of surge events are well studied but the dynamical characteristics and evolution are still unclear. Tropical upper-tropospheric troughs (TUTTs) are another critical transient event occurring during the NAM that enhance precipitation on their western flank. The mechanism of precipitation enhancement associated with TUTT passage needs further refinement as well. To address these unknowns, a number of convection-permitting simulations are performed over the entire core monsoon region for the 12--14 July 2004 gulf surge and TUTT event that occurred during the North American Monsoon Experiment. This allows for extensive comparison with many observational platforms. A control simulation is able to reproduce the surge event reasonably well, capturing all the important observed features on 12 and 13 July. The dynamical evolution of the surge event notes two distinct features, a precursor event on 12 July and the actual surge on 13 July. Using shallow water theory, the feature on 12 July is likely a coastally trapped, slightly non-linear Kelvin wave. This feature is important because it introduces cooler, moister air into the southern and central GoC. The surge signature develops early on 13 July in the southern GoC and is likely a coastally trapped non-linear Kelvin wave throughout its lifetime. Sensitivity simulations show that the convective outflow is critical to the intensity of the simulated surge, in agreement with past studies. The removal of mountain gap flows into the GoC from the Pacific Ocean along the Baja Peninsula shows they are not critical in surge initiation and evolution; the surge and its general character remain. A unique approach to examine the TUTT precipitation enhancement

  10. Assessing long-term postseismic deformation following the M7.2 4 April 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake with implications for lithospheric rheology in the Salton Trough (United States)

    Spinler, Joshua C.; Bennett, Richard A.; Walls, Chris; Lawrence, Shawn; González García, J. Javier


    The 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake provides the best opportunity to date to study the lithospheric response to a large (>M6) magnitude earthquake in the Salton Trough region through analysis of Global Positioning System (GPS) data. In conjunction with the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), we installed six new continuous GPS stations in the months following the EMC earthquake to increase station coverage in the epicentral region of northern Baja California, Mexico. We modeled the pre-EMC deformation field using available campaign and continuous GPS data for southern California and northern Baja California and inferred a pre-EMC secular rate at each new station location. Through direct comparison of the pre- and post-EMC secular rates, we calculate long-term changes associated with viscoelastic relaxation in the Salton Trough region. We fit these velocity changes using numerical models employing an elastic upper crustal layer underlain by a viscoelastic lower crustal layer and a mantle half-space. Forward models that produce the smallest weighted sum of squared residuals have an upper mantle viscosity in the range 4-6 × 1018 Pa s and a less well-resolved lower crustal viscosity in the range 2 × 1019 to 1 × 1022 Pa s. A high-viscosity lower crust, despite high heat flow in the Salton Trough region, is inconsistent with felsic composition and might suggest accretion of mafic lower crust associated with crustal spreading obscured by thick sedimentary cover.

  11. Effect of early trough familiarity on the creep feeding behaviour in suckling piglets and after weaning. (United States)

    Delumeau, O; Meunier-Salaün, M C


    The incidence of an early contact with trough and/or feed on creep feeding behaviour was evaluated before and after weaning (day 28) using 28 litters Large-White X Pietrain. During the second week of life, litters were allocated to one of the four treatments: empty trough (group T), trough supplied with feed (group TF), feed supplied on floor (group F), and nothing (group N). Between days 14 and 28, all groups were supplied with trough and feed for 90 minutes per day. Behavioural recordings were carried out every two days during the feed supply. Over weeks 3 and 4, creep feed intake was highly variable between litters (range 0-2382 g) and within litters (range 0-674 g/piglet). Feeding activity started around day 21, concerned a low number of littermates (weaning, treatment had no effect on the feed intake. However, females exhibited a higher feed intake (P weaning (day 1: 20.5 g vs. 12 g; days 2-4: 254 g vs. 185 g), and less feed was ingested (P piglets exhibiting no creep feed behaviour during the behavioural recordings of the suckling period. Results suggest wide adaptive capacities of weaned piglets although an effect of learning cannot be eliminated.

  12. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia): Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content. (United States)

    García-Souto, Daniel; Pérez-García, Concepción; Kendall, Jack; Pasantes, Juan J


    The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells.

  13. Multiple-process origin of Valles Marineris basins and troughs, Mars (United States)

    Schultz, Richard A.


    An improved sequence of formation for Valles Marineris depressions is proposed. It involves three key stages; (a) dike emplacement radial to Syria Planum during Late Noachian to Early Hesperian time; (b) localized subsidence of crustal rocks during post-Early Hesperian time, forming ancestral basins such as Hebes Chasma; and (c) regional normal faulting that overprints the ancestral basins and forms the structural troughs, such as Coprates Chasma, principally during Amazonian time. Attainment of high topography at Syria Planum, completed by the Early Hesperian, was accompanied and/or followed by extrusion of ridged plains lavas, emplacement of subsurface dikes, and wrinkle-ridge deformation. The high topography contributed to a substantial hydrostatic head, leading to subsurface volume reduction, vertical displacement of crustal strata to from chaotic terrain and ancestral basins, and localized outbreaks of fluid as outflow channels. The dikes contributed a pervasive structural influence on the orientations of later nearsurface processes. Sometime after infilling of ancestral basins with their interior layered deposits, normal faults related to Tharsis centered stresses were superimposed on the relict high topography, ancestral basins, and dike network, forming large grabens. Recognition of the polygenetic origin of troughs such as Melas Chasma, and the disparate origins of irregular and rectangular troughs, provides the key to unraveling the conflicting accounts of trough origin and timing.

  14. A flow in a trough: An integral equations formulation | Shola | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of fluid flow in an open trough driven by the base moving horizontally along its plane, was considered in [2, 3]. The approach used was based on finite difference technique which takes a lot of memory. This paper reformulates the problem in terms of integral equations and the resulting equations solved ...

  15. Prospecting for oil formations along the marginal zone of the Aznayevskiy trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samoylov, V.A.; Danilova, A.P.


    Data are obtained which make it possible to outline areas on which new oil accumulations can be discovered. It has been proven that the Satayevskiy field is restricted by two graben-formed troughs, from the northwest Sergeyevsko-Demskiy, and from the southeast by the Aznayevskiy. Industrial influxes of oil have been obtained in well 224-Zildyarovo, 120-Satayvo and others in bed D-1 of the Pashiyskiy level. These formations are screened by the Aznayevskiy trough. Wells have established only their marginal parts. It is proposed that prospecting be accelerated for new formations of oil along the southeast marginal zone in the Aznayevskiy trough, especially in the area between wells 3-Zildyarovo and 18-Satayevo extending 9 km. The Satayevskiy field is divided by cross disorders into blocks which explains the presence in the fields of different water-oil contacts in bed D-1. Along the southeast edge of the Aznayevskiy trough, one should expect similar tectonic blocks, in whose limits the formations will have different water-oil contacts. Here autonomy of four oil formations is predicted which have different water-oil contacts. In order to confirm the detected formations in evaluating reserves, it is necessary to drill 3 wells at the apexes of the detected lower Permian elevations, where bed D-1 possibly is completely oil-saturated.

  16. A rapid assay for on-site monitoring of infliximab trough levels: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Fidder, Herma H.; Wiesmeijer, Karien C.; de Dood, Claudia J.; Rispens, Theo; Wolbink, Gert-Jan; Hommes, Daniel W.; Tanke, Hans J.


    Monitoring levels of biologicals against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been suggested to improve therapeutic outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This pilot study describes a rapid lateral flow (LF)-based assay for on-site monitoring of serum trough levels of humanized monoclonal

  17. Molecular Cytogenetics in Trough Shells (Mactridae, Bivalvia: Divergent GC-Rich Heterochromatin Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Souto


    Full Text Available The family Mactridae is composed of a diverse group of marine organisms, commonly known as trough shells or surf clams, which illustrate a global distribution. Although this family includes some of the most fished and cultured bivalve species, their chromosomes are poorly studied. In this work, we analyzed the chromosomes of Spisula solida, Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum by means of fluorochrome staining, C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization using 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA, 5S rDNA, H3 histone gene and telomeric probes. All three trough shells presented 2n = 38 chromosomes but different karyotype compositions. As happens in most bivalves, GC-rich regions were limited to the nucleolus organizing regions in Spisula solida. In contrast, many GC-rich heterochromatic bands were detected in both Spisula subtruncata and Mactra stultorum. Although the three trough shells presented single 5S rDNA and H3 histone gene clusters, their chromosomal locations differed. Regarding major rDNA clusters, while Spisula subtruncata presented a single cluster, both Spisula solida and Mactra stultorum showed two. No evidence of intercalary telomeric signals was detected in these species. The molecular cytogenetic characterization of these taxa will contribute to understanding the role played by chromosome changes in the evolution of trough shells.

  18. Basinal Structure Of Yola Arm Of The Upper Benue Trough Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... subsector and Yola (Muleng) axis. The upward continuation revealed lineament trends in the NE-SW Yola (Muleng) axis and NW-SE Lau (Barwa to Yanga) subsector. Keywords: Upper Benue Trough, Basin configuration upward continuation, Analytical signal, power spectrum. Global Journal of Geological Sciences Vol.

  19. Effect of Watering Trough Chlorination on Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosi (United States)

    The continued global increase in the number of cases of Johne’s disease suggests that more information is needed to understand the mechanisms by which the causative agent Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is spread among livestock on the farm site. Livestock watering troughs are freq...

  20. The behaviour of trough stiffener to crossbeam connections in orthotropic steel bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertz, J.S.; Kolstein, M.H.


    This article describes the behaviour and stress analysis of the crossbeams in orthotropic steel decks with continuous trapezoidal closed stiffeners. The trough stiffener to crossbeam connections, with or without cope holes, influence the behaviour of the crossbeam. The effects can be transferred to

  1. Evaluation of factors associated with the achievement of an optimal teicoplanin trough concentration
. (United States)

    Takechi, Kenshi; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Zamami, Yoshito; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Akihiro; Araki, Hiroaki


    Because teicoplanin has a long serum half-life, a longer period of time is needed to achieve a steady-state concentration compared with vancomycin. The administration of an initial loading dose has been recommended to reach an effective teicoplanin serum concentration for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, little is known regarding factors that affect teicoplanin concentration. This study aimed to retrospectively determine which factors are associated with achieving an optimal teicoplanin trough level. We analyzed patients with MRSA infections who were treated with teicoplanin intravenously between January 2010 and July 2014. The effect of loading dose administration was evaluated in patients treated with 1,200 mg or 1,600 mg of teicoplanin, respectively. Approximately 32% (31/97) of patients achieved the trough concentration target (≥ 15 µg/mL) on the 3rd or 4th day. Multivariate analysis showed that loading doses and body surface area (BSA) were associated with trough concentration > 15 µg/mL on the 3rd or 4th day. Moreover, patients treated with the 2-day loading dose (1,600 mg group: 800 mg/day on 2 days) promptly achieved a trough concentration > 15 µg/mL on the 3rd or 4th day compared with those receiving a 1-day loading dose (1,200 mg group: 800 mg/day on only 1 day). The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal cut-off point of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 56 mL/min with 1-day loading dose to achieve a trough concentration target > 15 µg/mL. These results suggested that patients with decreased renal function (eGFR < 56 mL/min) can safely achieve an optimal trough level with the 1-day loading dose. In patients with normal renal function (eGFR ≥ 56 mL/min), administration of a 2-day loading dose may be needed to rapidly achieve a trough concentration ≥ 15 µg/mL.

  2. The Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic: An Extinct Young Ocean Basin or a Failed Breakup Basin? (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy


    We investigate the crustal structure and composition of the Rockall Trough which is located in the NE Atlantic to the west of Ireland and the UK. The Rockall Trough is a large extensional basin formed in the Early Cretaceous and has dimensions of approximately 250 km in width and 1000 km in length. It is one of several basins formed during the complex Mesozoic northward propagation of rifting, continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation of the North Atlantic; other adjacent basins formed at this time include the Porcupine Trough to its east and the East and West Orphan Basins on the Canadian conjugate margin. To investigate the crustal structure of the Rockall Trough we have used three independent analyses of available 2D and 3D data: 1. 3D gravity inversion, using public-domain gravity and sediment-thickness information, has produced maps of (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness (figure 1) and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins. 2. Gravity inversion as above, but using public-domain gravity data combined with new proprietary 2D sediment-thickness information, has produced a series of cross-sections which show (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins 3. Geodynamic modelling, comprising 2D flexural backstripping and forward modelling, has been used to produce (i) estimates of stretching/thinning factor, (ii) whole-crustal cross-sections and (iii) predictions of palaeobathymetry through time along a series of project-specific transects. Our analysis of the Rockall Trough shows a rapid shallowing of crustal basement thicknesses on the flanks of the basin with central values of crustal thickness typically 8-10 km consistent with previously published seismic estimates. An important question is whether this thin crust is hyper-extended continental crust or proto-oceanic crust. Locally isolated patches of crustal thicknesses as low as 3km are observed which are consistent with the

  3. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India. (United States)

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K


    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

  4. GPS/acoustic Seafloor Geodetic Observations Near the Nankai Trough Axis (United States)

    Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Fujii, C.; Watanabe, T.; Nagai, S.


    The GPS/acoustic seafloor geodetic observation system, which uses precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques, has been developed as a useful tool for observing seafloor crustal deformations associated with plate convergence and with earthquakes that occurred in ocean area including the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake of Mw 9.0. Our research group installed eight seafloor benchmarks for this observation system in source areas of anticipated major interplate earthquakes along the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. We have performed campaign measurement for 4-8 years until the end of 2012. The error of displacement rate is almost 5 mm/y through the monitoring for more than four years. At the northern-most potion of the Nankai (Suruga) Trough, the observed steady horizontal displacement rate is 45 mm/y toward west. Also no significant velocity difference is observed across the trough, indicating strong interplate locking up to the shallowest segments. On the other hand, site velocities are 40 mm/y in the direction of N75W at the central region of the Nankai trough, 70-90 km landward from the trough axis. Although this result is the strong evidence for interplate locking, with coupling ratios of 60-80% on the basis of the back-slip model, it has no resolution for the interplate locking at the most-shallowest segments whose depths are 0-10 km. In other words, seaward up-dip limit of locked zone is never resolved from the present seafloor benchmark network [Tadokoro et al., 2012] . Large co-seismic slips larger than 40-50 m on the shallowest interplate segment [Ito et al., 2011; Fujii et al., 2011; Iinuma et al., 2012] are the cause of the unexpected high tsunami that has attacked the pacific coasts of the Tohoku region during the Tohoku-oki Earthquake; it is, therefore, essential to understand slip deficit or strain accumulation condition near the trench axis, also for the anticipated mega-thrust earthquake at the Nankai Trough. For this reason, we

  5. Present-day motion along the Owen Fracture Zone and Dalrymple Trough in the Arabian Sea (United States)

    Gordon, Richard G.; Demets, Charles


    All plate motion data available for describing the present-day motion between the Arabian and Indian plates are analyzed to understand the present-day tectonic role of the presumed plate boundary: the Owen fracture zone and Dalrymple trough in the northern Arabian Sea. All prior plate motion models are shown to be inconsistent with some of the data along the presumed boundary. In particular, published global plate motion models predict some convergence across the Owen fracture zone and Dalrymple trough. Convergence along the Owen fracture zone is contradicted by earthquake focal mechanisms, which show right-lateral strike slip. Convergence along the Dalrymple trough is contradicted by observed normal faulting in the trough, and by normal and strike-slip focal mechanisms for earthquakes occurring along or near the trough. The sense and rate of motion is further constrained by spreading rates along the Sheba Ridge (northwest of the Owen fracture zone) and along the Carlsberg Ridge (southeast of the Owen fracture zone). To estimate the present-day motion, we determine 43 3-m.y.-average spreading rates from Sheba Ridge, Carlsberg Ridge, and Central Indian Ridge magnetic profiles and have combined them with eight transform azimuths and 15 earthquake slip vectors along these ridges and the Arabia-India boundary. We determine an Arabia-India Euler vector that predicts 2 mm/yr of right-lateral strike-slip motion along the Owen fracture zone, with a 95% confidence interval of 0-7 mm/yr, which excludes the faster rates of slips predicted by several prior models. The direction of motion is 35°-50° counterclockwise from that predicted by published global plate motion models. If we omit the data along the Arabia-India boundary, the motion differs insignificantly from zero, suggesting that magnetic profiles from the Carlsberg and Sheba ridges give spreading rates too imprecise to detect the slow Arabia-India motion. If the Owen fracture zone and Dalrymple trough are regarded

  6. 3D Porosity Estimation of the Nankai Trough Sediments from Core-log-seismic Integration (United States)

    Park, J. O.


    The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake fault. Historic, great megathrust earthquakes with a recurrence interval of 100-200 yr have generated strong motion and large tsunamis along the Nankai Trough subduction zone. At the Nankai Trough margin, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate to the northwest at a convergence rate ~4 cm/yr. The Shikoku Basin, the northern part of the PSP, is estimated to have opened between 25 and 15 Ma by backarc spreading of the Izu-Bonin arc. The >100-km-wide Nankai accretionary wedge, which has developed landward of the trench since the Miocene, mainly consists of offscraped and underplated materials from the trough-fill turbidites and the Shikoku Basin hemipelagic sediments. Particularly, physical properties of the incoming hemipelagic sediments may be critical for seismogenic behavior of the megathrust fault. We have carried out core-log-seismic integration (CLSI) to estimate 3D acoustic impedance and porosity for the incoming sediments in the Nankai Trough. For the CLSI, we used 3D seismic reflection data, P-wave velocity and density data obtained during IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expeditions 322 and 333. We computed acoustic impedance depth profiles for the IODP drilling sites from P-wave velocity and density data. We constructed seismic convolution models with the acoustic impedance profiles and a source wavelet which is extracted from the seismic data, adjusting the seismic models to observed seismic traces with inversion method. As a result, we obtained 3D acoustic impedance volume and then converted it to 3D porosity volume. In general, the 3D porosities show decrease with depth. We found a porosity anomaly zone with alteration of high and low porosities seaward of the trough axis. In this talk, we will show detailed 3D porosity of the incoming sediments, and present implications of the porosity anomaly zone for the

  7. The effect of feed trough position on choice of defecation area in farrowing pens by loose sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi; Pedersen, Lene Juul


    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate how the feed trough position affects the sow’s choice of defecation area in a loose house farrowing pen. The eliminative behaviour of 24 1st parity sows was studied in a cross-over design. The feed trough and the water were positioned either...... in the activity area towards the neighbouring pen or in the activity area towards the aisle. On day 15 after farrowing, the feed trough and the water were moved to the opposite position. Videotapes were observed continuously on real time and the time of urination or defecation were recorded along with head...

  8. Towards standardization of in-site parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; de Jalón, Alberto García; Leon, Javier; Bernad, Ignacio David


    This paper presents a summary of the testing procedure and a validation of the methodology of parabolic trough collector in solar thermal power plants. The applied testing methodology is the one proposed within the Spanish standardization sub-committee AEN/CTN 206/SC117 working group WG2 related to the components for solar thermal power plants. This methodology is also proposed within the international committee IEC TC 117 (Standard draft IEC 62862-3-2 Ed. 1.0). This study is done at Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) in Almeria within the European project STAGE-STE. This paper presents the results of the optical and thermal efficiency of a large-size parabolic trough collector. The obtained values are similar to the previous analysis on this collector by PSA. The results of the tracking system have a good accuracy compared to the acceptance angle of the concentrator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Lasode


    Full Text Available Solar energy is a high-temperature, high-energy radiant energy source, with tremendous advantages over other alternative energy sources. It is a reliable, robust renewable resource which is largely undeveloped. The design and fabrication of parabolic trough solar water heater for water heating was executed. The procedure employed includes the design, construction and testing stages. The equipment which is made up of the reflector surface (curved mirror, reflector support, absorber pipe and a stand was fabricated using locally sourced materials. The results obtained. compared favourably with other research works in the literature. It depicts that employing a suitable design, selection of time of heating and proper focusing of the reflected rays to the focal spot region, solar radiation can efficiently be utilized for water heating in a tropical environment. This work presents a parabolic trough solar water heater as a suitable renewable energy technology for reducing water-heating costs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Boukelia


    Full Text Available The Parabolic trough solar collector is considered as one of the most proven, mature and commercial concentrating solar systems implemented in arid and semi-arid regions for energy production. It focuses sunlight onto a solar receiver by using mirrors and is finally converted to a useful thermal energy by means of a heat transfer fluid. The aims of this study are (i to develop a new methodology for simulation and performance evaluation of parabolic trough solar collector, in addition (i to compare the efficiencies of this system using two different fluids; thermic oil and molten solar salt. The validation of obtained results using this methodology shows a good agreement with those obtained by the experimental tests. Furthermore, this study favors the using of thermic oil as heat transfer fluid in the receiver instead of molten salt due to the high efficiency of the concentrator based on the first fluid in comparison to the second one.

  11. Heat Loss Testing of Schott's 2008 PTR70 Parabolic Trough Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kutscher, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Two Schott 2008 model year PTR70 HCEs were tested on NREL's heat loss test stand from 100 - 500 deg C in 50 deg C increments. Absorber emittance was determined from the laboratory testing so that the performance of the HCEs could be modeled in a parabolic trough collector. Collector/HCE simulation results for many different field operation conditions were used to create heat loss correlationcoefficients for Excelergy and SAM. SAM estimates that the decreased emittance of the 2008 PTR70 will decrease the LCOE for parabolic trough power plants by 0.5 cents/kWh and increase the electricity generated by 5% relative to previous PTR70s. These conclusions assume that the 2008 PTR70 is supplied at the same cost and with the same optical performance as earlier PTR70 models.

  12. Development and test of an end reflector for parabolic trough collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fend, T.; Bohmer, M.; Binner, P.; Deidewig, F. [Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft-und Raumfahrt e.V., Solare Energietechnik, Koln (Germany); Leon, J.; Kemme, R. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria (Spain)


    Within the DLR-Project PAREX (PArabolRinnen EXperiment) it could be shown by experiments and calculations, that collector efficiencies of parabolic troughs car be increased by up to 2% by means of the use of an end reflector, which is placed at the north end of each trough (in case of a north-south oriented plant at the northern hemisphere). Calculations show that the intensity of the incident concentrated radiation on the surface of the absorber increases by a factor of two. A first prototype of a 0,7 m{sup 2} end reflector was tested at the DLR in the PARMESAN (PArabolRinnenMESsANlage) test facility. The radiation profile around the absorber was measured and compared to the calculated results. A second 6,4 m{sup 2} end reflector was designed and built up at the LS-3 test loop at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA). (authors)

  13. Study on a Mid-Temperature Trough Solar Collector with Multisurface Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengliang Li


    Full Text Available A new trough solar concentrator which is composed of multiple reflection surfaces is developed in this paper. The concentrator was analyzed firstly by using optical software. The variation curves of the collecting efficiency affected by tracking error and the deviation angle were given out. It is found that the deviation tolerance for the collector tracking system is about 8 degrees when the receiver is a 90 mm flat. The trough solar concentrators were tested under real weather conditions. The experiment results indicate that, the new solar concentrator was validated to have relative good collecting efficiency, which can be more than 45 percent when it operated in more 145°C. It also has the characteristics of rdust, wind, and snow resistance and low tracking precision requirements.

  14. Shallow episodic tremor near the Nankai Trough axis off southeast Mie prefecture, Japan (United States)

    Annoura, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Kamaya, Noriko; Katsumata, Akio


    We analyzed long-term continuous seismic records (from September 2015 to April 2016) of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis, an ocean-floor observation system deployed around the fore-arc slope of the Nankai subduction zone to investigate shallow tremor near the trough axis. We found that the activity of shallow tremor was concentrated in two time periods: 6 days in October 2015 and 2 weeks in April 2016. During the episode in April 2016, migration and triggering of tremor were observed. These characteristics are similar to those of tremor in the deeper part of the subduction zone. The triggering of tremor indicates that the tremor activity is very sensitive to nearby stress perturbation in the area of this study, which is near the initiation points of past large earthquakes along the Nankai Trough. Therefore, it is very important to monitor tremor activity in this region for understanding the stress accumulation process of megathrust earthquakes.

  15. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.


    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  16. Geothermal resources of rifts: A comparison of the rio grande rift and the salton trough (United States)

    Swanberg, Chandler A.


    The Rio Grande Rift and the Salton Trough are the best developed rift systems in the United States and both share many features common to rifts in general, including geothermal resources. These two rifts have different tectonic and magmatic histories, however, and these differences are reflected in the nature of their geothermal resources. The Salton Trough is a well developed and successful rift. It is the landward extension of the Gulf of California spreading center, which has separated Baja, California, from the remainder of Mexico. Quaternary silicic magmatization has occurred and several of the geothermal resources are associated with recent rhyolitic intrusions. Such resources tend to be high temperature (> 200°C). Greenschist facies metamorphism has been observed in several of the geothermal wells. Localized upper crustal melting is a distinct possibility and there is increasing speculation that very high temperature (> 300°C) geothermal fluids may underlie a large portion of the central trough at depths in excess of 4 km. Low temperature geothermal resources associated with shallow hydrothermal convection are less common and tend to be located on the flanks of the trough or in the Coachella Valley to the north of the zone of active rifting. In contrast, the Rio Grande Rift is less well developed. Recent volcanism consists primarily of mantle-derived basalts, which have not had sufficient residence time within the crust to generate significant crustal melting. The geothermal resources within the Rio Grande Rift do not correlate well with these young basalts. Rather, the quantity of geothermal resources are low temperature (resources are less common and the only discovered example is the Valles Caldera of northern New Mexico ( T = 250-300°C). The deep interiors of the sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande Rift do not appear to be major geothermal exploration targets.

  17. Exergetic and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Solar Air Heating Processes Using a Parabolic Trough Collector


    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Román; Alejandro Manzano-Ramírez; Jorge Pineda-Piñón; Jorge Ortega-Moody


    This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by an electric power utility. The methodology evaluates the process by the first and second law of thermodynamics as the first step then the cost analysis is applied for getting the thermoeconomic cost. For this study, ...

  18. Examining EFL Pre-service Teachers' TPACK Trough Self-report, Lesson Plans and Actual Practice


    Thooptong Kwangsawad


    Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) has been proposed as a conceptual framework to describe the knowledge base teachers need for effective technology integration. The present study aimed to determine EFL pre-service teachers’ TPACK trough self-report, lesson plans and actual practice. This study used a wide range of approaches (self-report, lesson plan assessment and classroom observations) to measure TPACK of EFL pre-service teachers in order to examine EFL pre-service teache...

  19. Heat Transfer Analysis and Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Receiver Implemented in Engineering Equation Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forristall, R.


    This report describes the development, validation, and use of a heat transfer model implemented in Engineering Equation Solver. The model determines the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector's linear receiver, also called a heat collector element. All heat transfer and thermodynamic equations, optical properties, and parameters used in the model are discussed. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

  20. Meaningful learning trough planning didactic secuences, execution and asessment in the psychology


    Ramirez Gonzalez, Dora Aide; Catolica del Norte Fundación Universitaria; Cardona Marín, Álvaro Diego; Catolica del Norte Fundación Universitaria


    The text shows how is possible the meaningful learning for apprentices trough the use of miscellaneous infovirtual sources and didactic sequences of planning, execution and assessment of the family subjects, psycholinguistics and psychometrics from the psychology program of the “Católica del Norte Fundación Universitaria”. The methodology used is qualitative, documentary and hermeneutic analysis. The main finding is the exploration and analysis of the planning didactic sequences, execution an...

  1. Monitoring trough plasma concentrations of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with uveitis. (United States)

    Llinares-Tello, F; Hernández-Prats, C; Muñoz-Ruiz, C; Selva-Otaolaurruchi, J; Ordovás-Baines, J P


    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been used successfully in patients with various forms of uveitis not responsive to other immunosuppressants. Nevertheless, for these patients neither recommendations for optimal dosage of MMF nor data concerning drug exposure of MMF are available. To describe the results of the therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MMF trough concentrations in a cohort of patients with uveitis, with the aim of optimizing the dosage of this drug, by maintaining a target concentration to achieve adequate immunosuppression with a minimal risk of therapeutic failure or toxicity. This study describes the results of monitoring trough plasma concentrations of MMF in 12 patients with uveitis during a mean period of 21.4 months. Patients included one with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, one with Graves-Basedow's disease, one with Behcet's disease, one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and the rest with idiopathic uveitis. All patients were treated with steroids and additional therapy prior to treatment with MMF. Pharmacokinetic monitoring of mycophenolic acid (MPA) was performed with 108 trough plasma samples using an EMIT assay. Mean daily MMF dose was 24.5 +/- 6.3 mg/kg and mean trough MPA concentration was 2.9 +/- 1.9 microg/mL. Therapy was effective in 10 patients (83%). There were few side-effects: diarrhoea, excitement, agitation and cough that disappeared with daily dose reduction of MMF. MMF was effective in the majority of patients with uveitis with an acceptable profile of side-effects. TDM of MMF in patients with uveitis is clinically practicable and may help to optimize individual immunosuppressive therapy. We estimated that MMF dosages in the range of 0.5-1.5 g/day might be sufficient for treating uveitis and we recommend an initial target range of 2-4 microg/mL, which included 50% of our results. Randomized controlled trials are essential to confirm the efficacy of MMF in uveitis.

  2. Chronology of Late Quaternary Glacial Cycles in the Bering Trough, Gulf of Alaska: Constraints from Core-Log-Seismic Integration across the Continental Shelf and Slope (United States)

    Clary, W. A.; Worthington, L. L.; Daigle, H.; Slagle, A. L.; Gulick, S. P. S.


    Sediments offshore Southern Alaska offer a natural laboratory to study glacial erosion, sediment deposition, and orogenesis. A major goal of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341 was investigation of interrelationships among tectonic processes, paleoclimate, and glacial activity. Here, we focus on core-log-seismic integration of IODP Sites U1420 and U1421 on the shallow shelf and slope near the Bering Trough, a glacially derived shelf-crossing landform. These sites sample glacial and marine sediments that record a history of sedimentation following the onset of glacial intensification near the mid-Pleistocene transition (1.2 Ma) and Yakutat microplate convergence with North America. Ocean drilling provides important stratigraphic, physical properties, and age data in depth which support development of a stratigraphic model that can be extended across the shelf if carefully calibrated to local and regional seismic surveys. We use high resolution multichannel seismic, core, and logging data to develop a time-depth relationship (TDR) and update the developing chronostratigraphic model based on correlation of seismic sequence boundaries and drilling-related data, including biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic age controls. We calibrate, combine, and interpolate core and logging data at each site to minimize gaps in physical property information and generate synthetic seismic traces. At Site U1421, vertical seismic profiling further constrains the TDR, and provides input for the initial velocity model during the tie. Finally, we match reflectors in the synthetic trace with events in nearby seismic reflection data to establish a TDR at each site. We can use this relationship to better interpret the development of the Bering Trough, a recurring and favored path for ice streams and glacial advance. Initial results suggest late Pleistocene sedimentation rates of at least 1 km/m.y. on average, and variable sedimentation rates which are possibly correlated

  3. Absorber Tube with Internal Pin-Fins for Solar Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidasan B.


    Full Text Available Solar parabolic trough collectors exploit solar energy for power generation in solar thermal power stations. These systems require long arrays of reflective troughs with absorber tube running along the axis of parabolic dish. A successful attempt to reduce the length of arrays was accomplished by experimentally analysing the modifications done in absorber tube. Two out of three tubes were fabricated and they were employed to obtain the performance parameters through experimentation conducted at VIT University, Vellore, India. Distilled water was used as the working fluid. Maximum efficiency of 39.12% was obtained at 451.6 W/m2 of direct normal irradiance (DNI for absorber tube with internal pin-fins and without glass tube (AFWGt compared to 8.15% obtained at same value of DNI and other conditions for simple absorber tube without glass cover (AWGt. Cylindrical parabolic trough available at the university was utilized, providing the basis for designing and fabrication of the tubes. Plots for varying mass flow rate at interval of 10 minutes were made against instantaneous thermal efficiency and heat utilized, for direct normal irradiance vs. temperature difference across the tubes and instantaneous thermal efficiency. Through the experimentation conducted, better performance was procured compared to earlier works. Thus, the proposal infers that absorber tube with internal fins has good scope for its application, both domestically as well as industrially. It also calls for further research and development of proposed techniques so as to achieve better performance curves.

  4. Optical Tests on a Curve Fresnel Lens as Secondary Optics for Solar Troughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fontani


    Full Text Available A curve Fresnel lens is developed as secondary concentrator for solar parabolic troughs to reduce the number of photovoltaic cells. Specific measurements and optical tests are used to evaluate the optical features of manufactured samples. The cylindrical Fresnel lens transforms the focal line, produced by the primary mirror, into a series of focal points. The execution of special laboratory tests on some secondary concentrator samples is discussed in detail, illustrating the methodologies tailored to the specific case. Focusing tests are performed, illuminating different areas of the lens with solar divergence light and acquiring images on the plane of the photocell using a CMOS camera. Concentration measurements are carried out to select the best performing samples of curve Fresnel lens. The insertion of the secondary optics within the concentrating photovoltaic (CPV trough doubles the solar concentration of the system. The mean concentration ratio is 1.73, 2.13, and 2.09 for the three tested lenses. The concentration ratio of the solar trough is 140 and approaches 300 after the introduction of the secondary lens.

  5. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.


    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  6. Deep ventilation in the Okinawa Trough induced by Kerama Gap overflow (United States)

    Nishina, Ayako; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Tanaka, Yuki; Seo, Seongbong; Hibiya, Toshiyuki


    Near-bottom water flowing over the Kerama Gap's sills is thought to ventilate the deep water below ˜1100 m depth in the Okinawa Trough and then upwell with 5-10 years residence time. The present study follows up on this phenomenon, using comprehensive profile data of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, currents and turbulence obtained by intensive shipboard observations performed in June 2013 and June 2014 in the region. Strong near-bottom subtidal flow with speeds exceeding 0.5 m s-1 was observed within a layer of about 100 m thickness over the western side of the peak of the main sill. Temperature and salinity sections along the Kerama Gap indicated some depressions and overturns of the deep water downstream of the strong overflow, suggesting the existence of breaking internal gravity waves and hydraulic jumps. Associated vertical diffusivities, estimated using the Thorpe scale and the buoyancy frequency, were three to four orders of magnitude larger than typical values observed in the thermocline of the open ocean (˜10-5 m2 s-1). The dissolved oxygen section also indicated strong vertical mixing and associated upwelling with the entrainment of the near-bottom overflow water into the lower thermocline beneath the Kuroshio in the Okinawa Trough. The present study not only supports the previous conceptual model but also provides new evidence that the Okinawa Trough is an upwelling location where nutrient rich Philippine Sea intermediate water is sucked up into the lower thermocline below the Kuroshio.

  7. Tacrolimus trough levels before, during and after jejunostomy in a liver transplant patient: a case report. (United States)

    Preuss, Juliane; Gazon, Mathieu; Mabrut, Jean-Yves; Duperret, Serge; Mezoughi, Salim; Tod, Michel; Ducerf, Christian; Charpiat, Bruno


    Although the feasibility of oral tacrolimus administration in the presence of jejunostomy has already been reported, few studies monitoring tacrolimus trough blood levels have been analyzed in detail, either during or after a jejunostomy closure. We report on our experience with a 34-year-old patient who underwent liver transplantations, with a proximal jejunostomy constructed a few days prior to the second transplantation. He was administered tacrolimus by a predominantly oral route, and less frequently received it by jejunostomy. The aim of this paper is to discuss this administration strategy and whether a different method could have been more suitable. This case report highlights that during the jejunostomy period, the tacrolimus doses that were required to maintain trough concentrations within the therapeutic range were four times higher than those administered after the closure of the jejunostomy. We observed an increase in the Dose-Normalized Trough Concentration (DNTC) values when tacrolimus was administered for 4 consecutive days by jejunostomy as compared to oral administration, indicating that the relative bioavailability of tacrolimus increased. Moreover, when returning to oral administration, the subsequent DNTC value was halved, highlighting a reduction in the tacrolimus bioavailability. Thus, in such a case, administration by jejunostomy could be more appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Practicality and Performance of Daylight Trough in The Tropics: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Harn Lim


    Full Text Available The field of office daylighting is vital for both energy efficiency practice and occupants’ visual comfort. With the emergence of green building in Malaysia, building designers are exploring avenues for energy efficiency design; one common strategy is daylighting. The majority literature reviews on daylighting are skewed towards temperate or developed countries, where sky luminous condition is different from that of the Tropics. Conventional daylighting system designs redirect daylight from the envelope or atrium openings, such as light shelves. Presumed to be the pioneer daylight trough in the Tropics, this paper presents the simulated and in-situ lighting level measurements prior to occupancy. This case study presents an as-built daylight trough design which is able to daylight the office space as deep as 6 meters sufficiently. It achieves a lighting power density 1.90W/m2 and saves 39.2% of lighting energy over conventional office lighting energy. Discussed further is the practicality of working with such a system, including cost implication, return on investment and contractual challenges in reaching a consensus on the design. The results reinforce that the effectiveness of daylighting design is very dependable on the sun path and obstacles surrounding the office tower. The RADIANCE simulation correlates well to field measurement results. Further investigation into the light trough, its lighting energy savings, users’ interaction, visual comfort, and glare is still ongoing.

  9. Dermal Fillers for the Treatment of Tear Trough Deformity: A Review of Anatomy, Treatment Techniques, and their Outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharad, Jaishree


    .... A prominent tear trough deformity is characterised by a sunken appearance of the eye that results in the casting of a dark shadow over the lower eyelid, giving the patient a fatigued appearance...

  10. Eddy kinetic energy study of the snowstorm over Southern China in January 2008 (United States)

    Zuo, Qunjie; Gao, Shouting; Lü, Daren


    The energetics of the third stage of a snowstorm over China was analyzed using ECWMF data. The analysis of the energy budget for the Middle East trough and the western Pacific trough that developed toward China on 25-28 January 2008 showed the advection of the geopotential by the ageostrophic wind to be both a crucial source and the primary sink of the eddy kinetic energy centers associated with the troughs. The magnitudes of the energy conversion terms, interaction kinetic energy conversion and baroclinic conversion, were too small to explain the development of the energy centers and the jet streaks. The energy centers gained energy at their entrance regions via the convergence of the ageostrophic geopotential fluxes, and then lost energy at their exit regions by the same fluxes. At the entrance regions, the fluxes converged, increasing the geopotential gradient, which generated a stronger geostrophic wind and higher kinetic energy, resulting in an ascending motion in this area. When the troughs moved to China, the ascending motion caused by the convergence of the fluxes at entrance region intensified the snowstorms over central and southern China.

  11. Hazard assessment of long-period ground motions for the Nankai Trough earthquakes (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Morikawa, N.; Aoi, S.; Fujiwara, H.


    We evaluate a seismic hazard for long-period ground motions associated with the Nankai Trough earthquakes (M8~9) in southwest Japan. Large interplate earthquakes occurring around the Nankai Trough have caused serious damages due to strong ground motions and tsunami; most recent events were in 1944 and 1946. Such large interplate earthquake potentially causes damages to high-rise and large-scale structures due to long-period ground motions (e.g., 1985 Michoacan earthquake in Mexico, 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake in Japan). The long-period ground motions are amplified particularly on basins. Because major cities along the Nankai Trough have developed on alluvial plains, it is therefore important to evaluate long-period ground motions as well as strong motions and tsunami for the anticipated Nankai Trough earthquakes. The long-period ground motions are evaluated by the finite difference method (FDM) using 'characterized source models' and the 3-D underground structure model. The 'characterized source model' refers to a source model including the source parameters necessary for reproducing the strong ground motions. The parameters are determined based on a 'recipe' for predicting strong ground motion (Earthquake Research Committee (ERC), 2009). We construct various source models (~100 scenarios) giving the various case of source parameters such as source region, asperity configuration, and hypocenter location. Each source region is determined by 'the long-term evaluation of earthquakes in the Nankai Trough' published by ERC. The asperity configuration and hypocenter location control the rupture directivity effects. These parameters are important because our preliminary simulations are strongly affected by the rupture directivity. We apply the system called GMS (Ground Motion Simulator) for simulating the seismic wave propagation based on 3-D FDM scheme using discontinuous grids (Aoi and Fujiwara, 1999) to our study. The grid spacing for the shallow region is 200 m and

  12. Trough concentration of voriconazole and its relationship with efficacy and safety: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Jin, Haiying; Wang, Tiansheng; Falcione, Bonnie A; Olsen, Keith M; Chen, Ken; Tang, Huilin; Hui, John; Zhai, Suodi


    The optimum trough concentration of voriconazole for clinical response and safety is controversial. The objective of this review was to determine the optimum trough concentration of voriconazole and evaluate its relationship with efficacy and safety. MEDLINE, EMBASE,, the Cochrane Library and three Chinese literature databases were searched. Observational studies that compared clinical outcomes below and above the trough concentration cut-off value were included. We set the trough concentration cut-off value for efficacy as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/L and for safety as 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0 mg/L. The efficacy outcomes were invasive fungal infection-related mortality, all-cause mortality, rate of successful treatment and rate of prophylaxis failure. The safety outcomes included incidents of hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and visual disorders. A total of 21 studies involving 1158 patients were included. Compared with voriconazole trough concentrations of >0.5 mg/L, levels of 3.0, >4.0, >5.5 and >6.0 mg/L. The incidence of neurotoxicity was significantly increased with trough concentrations >4.0 and >5.5 mg/L. A voriconazole level of 0.5 mg/L should be considered the lower threshold associated with efficacy. A trough concentration >3.0 mg/L is associated with increased hepatotoxicity, particularly for the Asian population, and >4.0 mg/L is associated with increased neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  13. Towards to Resilience Science -Research on the Nankai trough seismogenic zone- (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Fujisawa, Kazuhito; Tokozakura, Eiji


    For the last few decades, many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis occurred in the world. Based on lessons learnt from 2004 Sumatra Earthquake/Tsunamis, 2010 Chilean Earthquake/Tsunami and 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami, we recognized the importance of real time monitoring on Earthquakes and Tsunamis for disaster mitigation. Recently, Kumamoto Earthquake occurred in 2006. This destructive Earthquake indicated that multi strong motions including pre shock and main shock generated severe earthquake damages buildings. Furthermore, we recognize recovers/ revivals are very important and difficult. In Tohoku area damaged by large tsunamis, recovers/revivals have been under progressing after over 5 years passed after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Therefore, we have to prepare the pre plan before next destructive disasters such as the Nankai trough mega thrust earthquake. As one of disaster countermeasures, we would like to propose that Disaster Mitigation Science. This disaster mitigation science is including engineering, science, medicine and social science such as sociology, informatics, law, literature, art, psychology etc. For Urgent evacuations, there are some kinds of real time monitoring system such as Dart buoy and ocean floor network. Especially, the real time monitoring system using multi kinds of sensors such as the accelerometer, broadband seismometer, pressure gauge, difference pressure gauge, hydrophone and thermometer is indispensable for Earthquakes/ Tsunamis monitoring. Furthermore, using multi kind of sensors, we can analyze and estimate broadband crustal activities around mega thrust earthquake seismogenic zones. Therefore, we deployed DONET1 and DONET2 which are dense ocean floor networks around the Nankai trough Southwestern Japan. We will explain about Resilience Science and real time monitoring systems around the Nankai trough seismogenic zone.

  14. LCOE reduction potential of parabolic trough and solar tower CSP technology until 2025 (United States)

    Dieckmann, Simon; Dersch, Jürgen; Giuliano, Stefano; Puppe, Michael; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Hennecke, Klaus; Pitz-Paal, Robert; Taylor, Michael; Ralon, Pablo


    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP), with an installed capacity of 4.9 GW by 2015, is a young technology compared to other renewable power generation technologies. A limited number of plants and installed capacity in a small challenging market environment make reliable and transparent cost data for CSP difficult to obtain. The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the DLR German Aerospace Center gathered and evaluated available cost data from various sources for this publication in order to yield transparent, reliable and up-to-date cost data for a set of reference parabolic trough and solar tower plants in the year 2015 [1]. Each component of the power plant is analyzed for future technical innovations and cost reduction potential based on current R&D activities, ongoing commercial developments and growth in market scale. The derived levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for 2015 and 2025 are finally contrasted with published power purchase agreements (PPA) of the NOOR II+III power plants in Morocco. At 7.5% weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and 25 years economic life time, the levelized costs of electricity for plants with 7.5 (trough) respectively 9 (tower) full-load hours thermal storage capacity decrease from 14-15 -ct/kWh today to 9-10 -ct/kWh by 2025 for both technologies at direct normal irradiation of 2500 kWh/(m².a). The capacity factor increases from 41.1% to 44.6% for troughs and from 45.5% to 49.0% for towers. Financing conditions are a major cost driver and offer potential for further cost reduction with the maturity of the technology and low interest rates (6-7 - ct/kWh for 2% WACC at 2500 kWh/(m2.a) in 2025).

  15. Accurate relocation of seismicity along the North Aegean Trough and its relation to active tectonics (United States)

    Konstantinou, K. I.


    The tectonics of northern Aegean are affected by the westward push of Anatolia and the gravitational spreading of the Aegean lithosphere that promote transtensional deformation in the area. This regime is also responsible for the creation of a series of pull-apart basins, collectively known as the North Aegean Trough. This work accurately relocates a total of 2300 earthquakes that were recorded along the North Aegean Trough during 2011-2016 by stations of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) and strong-motion sensors. Absolute locations for these events were obtained using a nonlinear probabilistic algorithm and utilizing a minimum 1D velocity model with station corrections. The hypocentral depth distribution of these events shows a peak at 8 km diminishing gradually down to 20 km. A systematic overestimation of hypocentral depths is observed in the routine locations provided by the National Observatory of Athens where the majority of events appear to be deeper than 15 km. In order to obtain more accurate relative locations these events were relocated using the double-difference method. A total of 1693 events were finally relocated with horizontal and vertical uncertainties that do not exceed 0.11 km and 0.22 km respectively. Well-defined clusters of seismicity can be observed along the Saros and Sporades basins as well as the Kassandra and Sithonia peninsulas. These clusters either occur along the well-known NE-SW strike-slip faults bounding the basins, or along normal faults whose strike is perpendicular to the regional minimum stress axis. Locking depth along the North Aegean Trough is found to be remarkably stable between 13 and 17 km. This is likely a consequence of simultaneous reduction along the SW direction of heat flow (from 89 to 51 mW/m2) and strain rate (from 600 to 50 nstrain/yr) whose opposite effects are canceled out, precluding any sharp changes in locking depth.

  16. IODP Expedition 333: Return to Nankai Trough Subduction Inputs Sites and Coring of Mass Transport Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Strasser


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 333 returned to two sites drilled during IODP Expedition 322 on the ocean side of the Nankai Trough to pursue the characterization of the inputs to the Nankai subduction and seismogenic zone, as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Experiment (NanTroSEIZE multi-expedition project. SiteC0011 is located at the seaward edge of the trench and Site C0012 on a basement high, Kashinozaki Knoll (Fig. 1. The main objectives of drilling again at these sites were to fill coring gaps in the upper part (<350 m of the sedimentary sequence, to measure heat flow, and to core the oceanic basement to a greater depth on the Knoll. New results include the observation of a diagenetic boundary within the Shikoku Basin sediments that may be compared to one documented further west by ODP Legs 131, 190 and 196 but occurs here at a lower temperature. Borehole heat flow measurements confirm spatial variations in the Shikoku Basin that were indicated by short probe surveys. Heat flow variations between topographic highs and lows may be related to fluid convection within the basement. This expedition also included the objectives of the Nankai Trough Submarine LandSLIDEhistory (NanTroSLIDE Ancillary Project Letter (APL and cored at Site C0018 a pile of mass transport deposits on the footwall of the megasplay fault, a major out of sequence thrust that presumably slips coseismically during large subduction earthquakes. This brought newinsight on the timing of these mass wasting events and on the deformation within the sliding slope sediments.

  17. Object-oriented simulation model of a parabolic trough solar collector: Static and dynamic validation (United States)

    Ubieta, Eduardo; Hoyo, Itzal del; Valenzuela, Loreto; Lopez-Martín, Rafael; Peña, Víctor de la; López, Susana


    A simulation model of a parabolic-trough solar collector developed in Modelica® language is calibrated and validated. The calibration is performed in order to approximate the behavior of the solar collector model to a real one due to the uncertainty in some of the system parameters, i.e. measured data is used during the calibration process. Afterwards, the validation of this calibrated model is done. During the validation, the results obtained from the model are compared to the ones obtained during real operation in a collector from the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA).

  18. Early trough levels and antibodies to infliximab predict safety and success of reinitiation of infliximab therapy. (United States)

    Baert, Filip; Drobne, David; Gils, Ann; Vande Casteele, Niels; Hauenstein, Scott; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine


    Few agents are available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, and patients frequently become unresponsive to biologics. We investigated the feasibility of reinitiating infliximab therapy for patients who previously received only episodic therapy with, lost response to, or had infusion reactions to infliximab. We also aimed to identify factors associated with the success and safety of restarting infliximab, such as antibodies to infliximab and trough levels of the drug. From the inflammatory bowel disease biobank, we identified 128 consecutive patients (105 patients with Crohn's disease, 23 patients with ulcerative colitis) who restarted infliximab after a median 15-month discontinuation (range, 6-125 mo; 28 patients for loss of response or infusion reactions, 100 patients for remission or pregnancy). We also analyzed serum samples that had been collected during the first period of infliximab therapy (T-1), when therapy was reinitiated (T0), and at later time points (T+1, T+2) for trough levels and antibodies to infliximab. We investigated correlations among response to treatment, infusion reactions, treatment modalities, trough levels, and antibodies to infliximab. Reinitiation of infliximab therapy produced a response in 84.5% of patients at week 14, 70% of patients at 1 year, and in 61% of patients at more than 4 years. Fifteen patients had acute infusion reactions and 10 patients had delayed infusion reactions. The absence of antibodies to infliximab at T+1 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.026-0.74; P = .021) and reinitiation with concomitant immunomodulator therapy were associated with short-term responses (HR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.3-27; P = .019). Pregnancy or remission as reason for discontinuation (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.09-6.67; P = .033) and higher trough levels at T+1 (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.18-7.69; P = .021) were associated with long-term response. Undetectable antibodies to infliximab at T+1 were associated with the safety

  19. Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of parabolic trough solar collector with hot water generation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valan-Arasu Amirtham


    Full Text Available The modeling of a parabolic trough collector with hot water generation system with a well-mixed type storage tank using a computer simulation program is presented in this paper. This is followed by an experimental verification of the model and an analysis of the experimental results. The maximum difference between the predicted and the actual storage tank water temperature values is found as 9.59% only. This variation is due to the difference between the actual weather during the test period compared to hourly values and the convection losses from the collector receiver, which were not constant as accounted by the computer simulation program. .

  20. Morphotectonics of the central Muertos thrust belt and Muertos Trough (northeastern Caribbean) (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J.L.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.


    Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of

  1. A Combined Optical, Thermal and Electrical Performance Study of a V-Trough PV System—Experimental and Analytical Investigations

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    Haitham M. Bahaidarah


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to achieve higher efficiency of a PV system while reducing of the cost of energy generation. Concentration photovoltaics was employed in the present case as it uses low cost reflectors to enhance the efficiency of the PV system and simultaneously reduces the cost of electricity generation. For this purpose a V-trough integrated with the PV system was employed for low concentration photovoltaic (LCPV. Since the electrical output of the concentrating PV system is significantly affected by the temperature of the PV cells, the motivation of the research also included studying the ability to actively cool PV cells to achieve the maximum benefit. The optical, thermal and electrical performance of the V-trough PV system was theoretically modeled and validated with experimental results. Optical modeling of V-trough was carried out to estimate the amount of enhanced absorbed radiation. Due to increase in the absorbed radiation the module temperature was also increased which was predicted by thermal model. Active cooling techniques were studied and the effect of cooling was analyzed on the performance of V-trough PV system. With absorbed radiation and module temperature as input parameters, electrical modeling was carried out and the maximum power was estimated. For the V-trough PV system, experiments were performed for validating the numerical models and very good agreement was found between the two.

  2. Harmonization of standards for parabolic trough collector testing in solar thermal power plants (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Valenzuela, Loreto; Palacin, Luis G.; Leon, Javier; Fischer, Stephan; Bohren, Andreas


    The technology of parabolic trough collectors (PTC) is used widely in concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants worldwide. However this type of large-size collectors cannot be officially tested by an accredited laboratory and certified by an accredited certification body so far, as there is no standard adapted to its particularity, and the current published standard for solar thermal collectors are not completely applicable to them. Recently some standardization committees have been working on this technology. This paper aims to give a summary of the standardized testing methodology of large-size PTC for CSP plants, giving the physical model chosen for modeling the thermal performance of the collector in the new revision of standard ISO 9806 and the points still to be improved in the standard draft IEC 62862-3-2. In this paper, a summary of the testing validation performed on one parabolic trough collector installed in one of the test facilities at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) with this new model is also presented.

  3. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator. (United States)

    Xu, Guoying; Chen, Wei; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhao, Sainan


    Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors' tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC) employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC). The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid's temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Nanofluid-Based Direct Absorption Solar Collector with Parabolic Trough Concentrator

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    Guoying Xu


    Full Text Available Application of solar collectors for hot water supply, space heating, and cooling plays a significant role in reducing building energy consumption. For conventional solar collectors, solar radiation is absorbed by spectral selective coating on the collectors’ tube/plate wall. The poor durability of the coating can lead to an increased manufacturing cost and unreliability for a solar collector operated at a higher temperature. Therefore, a novel nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collector (NDASC employing uncoated collector tubes has been proposed, and its operating characteristics for medium-temperature solar collection were theoretically and experimentally studied in this paper. CuO/oil nanofluid was prepared and used as working fluid of the NDASC. The heat-transfer mechanism of the NDASC with parabolic trough concentrator was theoretically evaluated and compared with a conventional indirect absorption solar collector (IASC. The theoretical analysis results suggested that the fluid’s temperature distribution in the NDASC was much more uniform than that in the IASC, and an enhanced collection efficiency could be achieved for the NDASC operated within a preferred working temperature range. To demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed NDASC, experimental performances of an NDASC and an IASC with the same parabolic trough concentrator were furthermore evaluated and comparatively discussed.

  5. Experimental and simulation studies of parabolic trough collector design for obtaining solar energy

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    Syed Ameen Murtuza


    Full Text Available Concentrated solar power has great potential for large scale renewable energy sources, and is currently an eye catching one for its utilization with wide area of improvement. Especially, parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSCs are gaining popularity due to their increased efficiency as compared to photovoltaics. In this work, an effort has been made to evaluate the performance of a designed 5-m length PTSC model. Heat collecting element was made of stainless steel with water as working fluid. The authentication of the proposed model is justified based on the results obtained on a yearly scale with respect to average inlet and outlet temperatures, surface temperatures and thermal efficiency for the climatic conditions of Ramanagaram. It was observed that March to May yielded better outlet temperatures ranging from 93 °C to 103 °C. Experiments were carried out at different flow rates of 0.4 LPM, 0.8 LPM and 1.2 LPM and corresponding Reynolds number was calculated. It was seen that February to May gave good surface and outlet temperatures as compared with other months while the liquid flow is laminar. Simulation studies were carried out using ANSYS software on receiver tube to ensure the robustness and design effectiveness under static loading conditions. Keywords: Parabolic trough solar collector, Receiver tube, Solar thermal, Static structural analysis

  6. Non-extensive statistical physics analysis of earthquake magnitude sequences in North Aegean Trough, Greece (United States)

    Papadakis, Giorgos; Vallianatos, Filippos


    In a recent study, Papadakis et al. (Physica A 456: 135-144, 2016) investigate seismicity in Greece, using the non-extensive statistical physics formalism. Moreover, these authors examine the spatial distribution of the non-extensive parameter q M and show that for shallow seismicity, increase of q M coincides with strong events. However, their study also reveals low q M values along the North Aegean Trough, despite the presence of strong events during 1976-2009. Consequently, the present study further examines the temporal behaviour of parameters q M and A, to reveal their relation with the evolution of the earthquake sequence. Through temporal examination of these parameters, we aim to show that the seismogenic system of the North Aegean Trough presents high degree of interactions after strong earthquakes during the studied period. Our findings indicate that increase of q M signifies the existence of long-range correlations. If its value does not significantly decrease after a strong earthquake (i.e. M ≥ 5) then the studied area has not reached the state of equilibrium.

  7. NanTroSEIZE: The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

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    Harold J. Tobin


    Full Text Available The IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE will, for the fi rst time ever, attempt to drill into, sample, and instrument the seismogenic portion of a plate-boundary fault or megathrust within a subduction zone. Access to the interior of active faults where in situ processes can be monitored and fresh fault zone materials can be sampled is of fundamental importance to the understanding of earthquake mechanics. As the December 2004 Sumatraearthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami so tragically demonstrated,large subduction earthquakes represent one of the greatest natural hazards on the planet. Accordingly, drilling into and instrumenting an active interplate seismogenic zone is a very high priority in the IODP Initial Science Plan (2001. Through a decade-long series of national and international workshops, a consensus emerged that the Nankai Trough is an ideal place to attempt drilling and monitoring of the seismogenic plate interface. The fi rst phase of NanTroSEIZE drilling operations has now been scheduled for the late summer of 2007. It involves parallel deployment of both the new U.S. Scientifi c Ocean Drilling Vessel (SODV, this volume and the riser drilling vessel Chikyu.

  8. Sensitive Analysis for the Efficiency of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector Based on Orthogonal Experiment

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    Xiaoyan Liu


    Full Text Available A multitude of the researches focus on the factors of the thermal efficiency of a parabolic trough solar collector, that is, the optical-thermal efficiency. However, it is limited to a single or double factors for available system. The aim of this paper is to investigate the multifactors effect on the system’s efficiency in cold climate region. Taking climatic performance into account, an average outlet temperature of LS-2 collector has been simulated successfully by coupling SolTrace software with CFD software. Effects of different factors on instantaneous efficiency have been determined by orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment. After that, the influence degree of different factors on the collector instantaneous efficiency is obtained clearly. The results show that the order of effect extent for average maximal deviation of each factor is inlet temperature, solar radiation intensity, diameter, flow rate, condensation area, pipe length, and ambient temperature. The encouraging results will provide a reference for the exploitation and utilization of parabolic trough solar collector in cold climate region.

  9. A Novel Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Heating for Cut Tobacco Drying System

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    Jiang Tao Liu


    Full Text Available A novel parabolic trough concentrating solar heating for cut tobacco drying system was established. The opening width effect of V type metal cavity absorber was investigated. A cut tobacco drying mathematical model calculated by fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method was used to simulate the cut tobacco drying process. And finally the orthogonal test method was used to optimize the parameters of cut tobacco drying process. The result shows that the heating rate, acquisition factor, and collector system efficiency increase with increasing the opening width of the absorber. The simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data for cut tobacco drying process. The relative errors between simulated and experimental values are less than 8%, indicating that this mathematical model is accurate for the cut tobacco airflow drying process. The optimum preparation conditions are an inlet airflow velocity of 15 m/s, an initial cut tobacco moisture content of 26%, and an inlet airflow temperature of 200°C. The thermal efficiency of the dryer and the final cut tobacco moisture content are 66.32% and 14.15%, respectively. The result shows that this parabolic trough concentrating solar heating will be one of the heat recourse candidates for cut tobacco drying system.

  10. Cambro-Ordovician potential of the Rome trough of Eastern Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, O.D.; McGuire, W.H.


    Studies of the Rome trough in central and E. Kentucky have delineated several large, untested areas containing thick pre-Knox, Cambrian sandstone reservoirs at moderate (5,500- to 10,000-ft) depths. Potentially productive reservoirs in the overlying Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician Knox Dolomite in Kentucky are equivalent in age and lithology to the prolific Ellenburger Dolomite of W. Texas and the Arbuckle Dolomite of the Mid-Continent. The Ordovician Trenton-Black River-St. Peter sequence of Kentucky is equivalent to the productive Simpson-Viola of Oklahoma. A lithological chart shows the oil- and gas-bearing zones. Age dating of hydrocarbons recovered from the Rome and Conasauga zones shows Cambrian origin, and shows of high-gravity oil or gas have been recorded in the zones indicated. Souce beds within the Cambro-Ordovician have been identified which interfinger with excellent sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. There is good evidence that growth faults developed with thick Cambrian sand buildups on their downward, basinward sides. Graphical presentations include (1) surface structure form lines and faults, Rome trough; (2) south to north cross section; and (3) pre-Knox cross section.

  11. Determination of saliva trough levels for monitoring voriconazole therapy in immunocompromised children and adults. (United States)

    Michael, Claudia; Bierbach, Uta; Frenzel, Katrin; Lange, Thoralf; Basara, Nadezda; Niederwieser, Dietger; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Preiss, Rainer


    To evaluate the reliability and practical use of saliva for therapeutic drug monitoring of the antifungal agent voriconazole in immunocompromised patients, a paired-sample study was conducted. Plasma and saliva trough levels were measured in seven children and nine adults who required treatment for the prevention or therapy of systemic fungal infections. The pediatric patients received a voriconazole dosage of 7 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Adults were treated with two loading doses of 6 mg/kg intravenously followed by a maintenance dose of 4 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Based on 104 paired plasma/saliva specimens, we found a significant correlation between the voriconazole concentrations in blood and saliva (r > 0.95). The median saliva/plasma voriconazole concentration ratio was 0.34 in children and 0.40 in adults. Intra- and interpatient variability in the saliva/plasma ratios were 22% and 23% in children and 16% and 24% in adults, respectively. Thirty-three percent of plasma trough levels were below 1.0 microg/mL or above 6.0 microg/mL and occurred in six pediatric and four adult patients. Monitoring of salivary concentrations proved to be a realistic alternative in patients when blood drawing is difficult. Especially in therapeutic drug monitoring, an easier sample collection being noninvasive and painless is more acceptable to patients, particularly children.

  12. Measurement of Hydrogen Purge Rates in Parabolic Trough Receiver Tubes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, G. C.


    The purpose of this research is to investigate and develop methods to remove hydrogen centrally from commercial parabolic trough power plants. A mathematical model was developed that tracks the generation and transport of hydrogen within an operating plant. Modeling results predicted the steady-state partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to be ~1 torr. This result agrees with measured values for the hydrogen partial pressure. The model also predicted the rate at which hydrogen must be actively removed from the expansion tank to reduce the partial pressure of hydrogen within the receiver annuli to less than 0.001 torr. Based on these results, mitigation strategies implemented at operating parabolic trough power plants can reduce hydrogen partial pressure to acceptable levels. Transient modeling predicted the time required to reduce the hydrogen partial pressures within receiver annuli to acceptable levels. The times were estimated as a function of bellows temperature, getter quantity, and getter temperature. This work also includes an experimental effort that will determine the time required to purge hydrogen from a receiver annulus with no getter.

  13. Shifting sources and transport paths for the late Quaternary Escanaba Trough sediment fill (northeast Pacific) (United States)

    Zuffa, G.G.; De Rosa, R.; Normark, W.R.


    Escanaba Trough, which forms the southernmost part of the axial valley of the actively spreading Gorda Ridge, is filled with several hundred meters of sediment of presumed late Quaternary age. Surficial sediment samples from gravity cores, deeper samples (as much as 390 m) from Site 35 of the Deep Sea Drilling Program (Leg 5), and the acoustic character of the sediment fill observed on seismic-reflection profiles indicate that much of the sediment fill is of turbidite origin. Gross composition and heavy- mineral analyses of sand samples show that two distinct petrofacies comprise the sediment fill. The lower part of the fill was derived primarily from the Klamath River source of northern California while the younger fill, including the surficial sand beds, are from the Columbia River drainage much farther north. The Escanaba Trough sediment provides an opportunity to evaluate concepts for paleogeographic and paleotectonic reconstructions that are based on facies analysis and compositional and textural data for the volcanic components because both intrabasinal and extrabasinal sources are present as well as coeval (neovolcanic) and non coeval (paleovolcanic) sourcre This study of a modern basin shows, that although the sediment sources could be identified, it was useful to have some knowledge of the sediment pathway(s), the effects of diagenesis, and the possible effects of sediment sorting as a result of long transport distances from the source area for some components. Application of these same techniques to ancient deposits without benefit of the additional parameters will face limitations.

  14. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  15. Spatial digital database of the geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough, Pima, Pinal, Gila, Graham, and Cochise counties, Arizona (United States)

    Dickinson, William R.; digital database by Hirschberg, Douglas M.; Pitts, G. Stephen; Bolm, Karen S.


    The geologic map of Catalina Core Complex and San Pedro Trough by Dickinson (1992) was digitized for input into a geographic information system (GIS) by the U.S. Geological Survey staff and contractors in 2000-2001. This digital geospatial database is one of many being created by the U.S. Geological Survey as an ongoing effort to provide geologic information in a geographic information system (GIS) for use in spatial analysis. The resulting digital geologic map database data can be queried in many ways to produce a variety of geologic maps and derivative products. Digital base map data (topography, roads, towns, rivers, lakes, and so forth) are not included; they may be obtained from a variety of commercial and government sources. This database is not meant to be used or displayed at any scale larger than 1:125,000 (for example, 1:100,000 or 1:24,000). The digital geologic map plot files that are provided herein are representations of the database. The map area is located in southern Arizona. This report lists the geologic map units, the methods used to convert the geologic map data into a digital format, the ArcInfo GIS file structures and relationships, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey public access World Wide Web site on the Internet. The manuscript and digital data review by Lorre Moyer (USGS) is greatly appreciated.

  16. Tertiary rifting and its related structural development of the southern offshore Korea (United States)

    Sunwoo, Don


    Analysis of regional multi-channel seismic data integrated with exploratory wells has helped to investigate the structural and stratigraphic evolution of the southern offshore Korea. The northeast-southwest trending Taiwan Sinzi Fold Belt separates the area into two regions, the northern East China Sea Shelf Basin and the northern Okinawa Trough, with different structural features. The northern East China Sea Shelf Basin is characterized by Hupijiao Rise and Oligocene and late Miocene folded structures, whereas no uplifted and folded structures exist in the northern Okinawa Trough. However, the basement structure in both regions is much similar. The structure is characterized by a series of half-grabens and tilted fault blocks bounded by listric faults associated with rifting activity. These structures are more distinct in the northern Okinawa Trough. Rifting and extension in the northern East China Sea Shelf Basin, probably initiated in the Paleogene, resulted in a series of grabens and half-grabens. In the late Oligocene, the area west of the Hupijiao Rise experienced compressional tectonism and subsequent erosion flattened the area. In the early Miocene, extension and rifting resumed and the Hupijiao Rise uplifted locally. A second phase of compression, probably triggered by changes in plate motions caused large-scale uplift and folding in the eastern part of the area during the late Miocene. Subsequent erosion leveled the area including the Taiwan Sinzi Fold Belt, resulting in a significant regional unconformity. In contrast, the rifting and extension in the northern Okinawa Trough probably began in late Miocene and continued until early Pleistocene. The most active rifting occurred during early Pliocene and the rifting seems to become weaker during late Pliocene and early Pleistocene. The late Miocene unconformity that eroded the Taiwan Sinzi Fold Belt forms a conformable surface in the northern Okinawa Trough

  17. Prevalence of middle mesial canals in mandibular molars after guided troughing under high magnification: an in vivo investigation. (United States)

    Azim, Adham A; Deutsch, Allan S; Solomon, Charles S


    A limited number of in vivo studies have discussed the prevalence of middle mesial canals in root canal systems of mandibular molars. The reported results have varied between 1% and 25%, with no detailed description of the depth and direction of troughing needed to identify such small canal orifices. The objective of the present study was to determine (1) the prevalence of a middle mesial canal before and after troughing by using a standardized troughing technique, (2) the pathway of the middle mesial canal in relation to the mesiobuccal (MB) and mesiolingual (ML) canals, and (3) its correlation with the patient's age. Ninety-one mandibular molars from 87 patients were included in this study. The patient's age and tooth number were recorded. After access cavity preparation, a standardized troughing technique was performed between MB and ML canals to search for a middle mesial canal by using a dental operating microscope. If a middle mesial canal was located, it was recorded as separate or as joining the MB or the ML canals. Results were statistically analyzed by using Z test and logistic regression. A middle mesial canal was found in 42 of 91 mandibular molars (46.2%). Six middle mesial canals were located after conventional access preparation (6.6%). The other 36 were located after standardized troughing (39.6%). The results were statistically significant (P magnification, troughing, and patient's age appeared to be determining factors in accessing the middle mesial canal. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of a Solar Parabolic Trough System: Thermal Oil as the Heat Transfer Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Rongrong


    Full Text Available The thermal oil is applied as the heat transfer fluid in a solar parabolic trough collector system. Firstly, the system dynamic model was established and validated by the real operating data in typical summer and spring days in references. Secondly, the alteration characteristics of different solar radiation, inlet water temperature and flow rate, and collectors’ area and length are analyzed and compared with the normal working condition. The model can be used for studying, system designing, and better understanding of the performance of parabolic trough systems.

  19. IODP Expedition 322 Drills Two Sites to Document Inputs to The Nankai Trough Subduction Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu’suke Kubo


    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program were to sample and log the incoming sedimentary strata and uppermost igneous basement of the Shikoku Basin, seaward of the Nankai Trough (southwestern Japan. Characterization of these subduction inputs is one piece of the overall science plan for the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment. Before we can assess how various material properties evolve down the dip of the plate interface, and potentially change the fault’s behavior from stable sliding to seismogenic slip, we must determine the initial pre-subduction conditions. Two sites were drilled seaward of the trench to demonstrate how facies characterand sedimentation rates responded to bathymetric architecture. Site C0011 is located on the northwest flank of a prominent basement high (Kashinosaki Knoll, and Site C0012 is located near the crest of the seamount. Even though significant gaps remain in the coring record, and attempts to recover wireline logs at Site C0012 failed, correlations can be made between stratigraphic units at the two sites.Sedimentation rates slowed down throughout the condensed section above the basement high, but the seafloor relief was never high enough during the basin’s evolution to prevent the accumulation of sandy turbidites near the crest of the seamount. We discovered a new stratigraphic unit, the middle Shikoku Basin facies, which is typified by late Miocene volcaniclastic turbidites. The sediment-basalt contact was recovered intact at Site C0012, giving a minimumbasement age of 18.9 Ma. Samples of interstitial water show a familiar freshening trend with depth at Site C0011, but chlorinity values at Site C0012 increase above the values for seawater toward the basement contact. The geochemical trends at Site C0012 are probably a response to hydration reactions in the volcaniclastic sediment and diffusional exchange with seawater-like fluid in the upper igneous basement. These data are important because they finallyestablish an

  20. Three-dimensional distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kaiho, Y.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine sea plate is subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. There are major faults segments of huge earthquakes that are called Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. According to the earthquake occurrence history over the past hundreds years, we must expect various rupture patters such as simultaneous or nearly continuous ruptures of plural fault segments. Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) conducted seismic surveys at Nankai trough in order to clarify mutual relations between seismic structures and fault segments, as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. This study evaluated the spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities from Hyuga-nada to Kii-channel by using velocity seismograms of small and moderate sized earthquakes. Random velocity inhomogeneities are estimated by the peak delay time analysis of S-wave envelopes (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2009). Peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This quantity mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities, and is quite insensitive to the inelastic attenuation. Peak delay times are measured from the rms envelopes of horizontal components at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. This study used the velocity seismograms that are recorded by 495 ocean bottom seismographs and 378 onshore seismic stations. Onshore stations are composed of the F-net and Hi-net stations that are maintained by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) of Japan. It is assumed that the random inhomogeneities are represented by the von Karman type PSDF. Preliminary result of inversion analysis shows that spectral gradient of PSDF (i.e., scale dependence of

  1. He isotope ratios in the Nankai Trough and Costa Rica subduction zones - implications for volatile cycling (United States)

    Kastner, M.; Hilton, D. R.; Jenkins, W. J.; Solomon, E. A.; Spivack, A. J.


    The noble gas 3He is a clear indicator of primordial volatile flux from the mantle, thus providing important insights on the interaction between Earth's interior and exterior reservoirs. Volatile cycling at ridge-crests and its impact on the evolution of seawater chemistry is rather well known as constrained by the 3He flux, whereas the impact of volatile cycling at subduction zones (SZs) on seawater chemistry is as yet poorly known. Constraining chemical and isotopic cycling at SZs is important for understanding the evolution of the mantle-crust and ocean-atmosphere systems. To gain insights on volatile cycling in SZs, pore fluids were sampled for He concentration and isotopic analyses at two tectonically contrasting SZs, Nankai Trough (offshore Japan, Muroto and Kumano transects), an accretionary SZ, and Costa Rica (Offshore Osa Peninsula), an erosional SZ. Sampling for He was achieved by rapidly subsampling core sediments, cleaning and transferring these samples into Ti squeezers in a glove bag, and storing the squeezed pore fluids in crimped Cu tubes for shore-based He concentration and isotope ratio analyses. At the Nankai Trough SZ there is a remarkable range of He isotopic values. The 3He/4He ratios relative to atmospheric ratio (RA) range from mostly crustal 0.47 RA to 4.30 RA which is ~55% of the MORB value of 8 RA. Whereas at the Costa Rica SZ, offshore Osa Peninsula, the ratios range from 0.86 to 1.14 RA, indicating the dominance of crustal radiogenic 4He that is from U and Th decay. The distribution of the He isotope values at Nankai Trough is most interesting, fluids that contain significant mantle 3He components (3He/4He >1) were sampled along and adjacent to fluid conduits that were identified by several chemical and isotopic data (i.e. Cl, B, and Li), including the presence of thermogenic hydrocarbons. Whereas the fluids dominated by 4He (3He/4He ≤1) were obtained from sediment sections that were between the fluid conduits. At Costa Rica, however

  2. Seabed morphology and sedimentary processes on high-gradient trough mouth fans offshore Troms, northern Norway (United States)

    Rydningen, Tom Arne; Laberg, Jan Sverre; Kolstad, Vidar


    Trough mouth fans (TMF) situated at the mouths of formerly glaciated cross-shelf troughs are important paleoclimatic archives. Whereas the sedimentary processes of large, low-gradient TMFs have received considerable interest, little attention has been paid to the other end member of this landform class, i.e. TMFs with higher slope gradients. Detailed swath-bathymetric data and seismic profiles from the continental margin offshore Troms, northern Norway cover three high-gradient TMFs (the Andfjorden, Malangsdjupet and Rebbenesdjupet TMFs; slope gradients generally between 1° and 15°), as well as inter-fan areas, which include two submarine canyons (the Andøya and Senja Canyon) and the Malangsgrunnen inter-fan slope. The present-day morphologies of the Andfjorden and Malangsdjupet TMFs have evolved from sediment transport and distribution through gully-channel complexes. The Andfjorden TMF has later been affected by a large submarine landslide that remobilized much of these complexes. The Rebbenesdjupet TMF is dominated by a number of small and relatively shallow slide scars, which are inferred to be related to small-scale sediment failure of glaciomarine and/or contouritic sediments. The canyons cut into the adjacent TMFs, and turbidity currents originating on the fans widened and deepened the canyons during downslope flow. The Malangsgrunnen shelf break and inter-fan slope acted as a funnel for turbidity currents originating on the upper slope, forming a dendritic pattern of gullies. A conceptual model for the high-gradient TMFs on the Troms margin has been compiled. The main sediment input onto the TMFs has occurred during peak glacials when the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet reached the shelf edge. The overall convex fan form and progradational seismic facies show that these glacigenic deposits were repeatedly distributed onto the fan. On the Andfjorden and Malangsdjupet TMFs, gully-channel complexes occur within such deposits. It is thus inferred that the steep

  3. Strike-slip Fault Structure in the Salton Trough and Deformation During and After the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake from Geodetic and Seismic Data (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sun, J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Freed, A. M.; Burgmann, R.; Samsonov, S. V.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa, A.


    The Pacific-North America plate boundary character changes southward from the strike-slip and transpressional configuration along most of California to oblique rifting in the Gulf of California, with a transitional zone of transtension beneath the Salton Trough in southernmost California and northern Mexico. The Salton Trough is characterized by extremely high heat flow and thin lithosphere with a thick fill of sedimentary material delivered by the Colorado River during the past 5-6 million years. Because of the rapid sedimentation, most of the faults in Salton Trough are buried and reveal themselves when they slip either seismically or aseismically. They can also be located by refraction and reflection of seismic waves. The 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) in Baja California and Sonora, Mexico is probably the largest earthquake in the Salton Trough for at least 120 years, and had primarily right-lateral strike-slip motion. The earthquake ruptured a complex set of faults that lie to the west of the main plate boundary fault, the Cerro Prieto Fault, and shows that the strike-slip fault system in the southern Salton Trough has multiple sub-parallel active faults, similar to southern California. The Cerro Prieto Fault is still likely absorbing the majority of strain in the plate boundary. We study the coseismic and postseismic deformation of the 2010 earthquake with interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images (InSAR) and pixel tracking by subpixel correlation of SAR and optical images. We combine sampled InSAR and subpixel correlation results with GPS (Global Positioning System) offsets at PBO (Plate Boundary Observatory) stations to estimate the likely subsurface geometry of the major faults that slipped during the earthquake and to derive a static coseismic slip model. We constrained the surface locations of the fault segments to mapped locations in the Sierra Cucapah to the northwest of the epicenter. SAR along-track offsets

  4. Influence of the monsoon trough on air-sea interaction in the head of the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon of 1990 (monsoon trough boundary layer experiment - 90)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, Y.V.B.; Seetaramayya, P.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, D.P.

    programme reveals considerable temporal variability in sea-level pressure, sea-surface temperature (SST) and the fluxes of heat and momentum at the air-sea interface. This variability is related closely to the north-south movement of the monsoon trough...

  5. Design and modeling of solar parabolic trough power plant with MATLAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sanan T.


    Full Text Available With the fact that Malaysia is one of the fast- growing countries, demand of energy increment is rapid. Malaysia is able to obtain ample amount of annual solar radiation due to its location at equator. If this is utilized proficiently and effectively, then, it can suffice the domestic needs as well as the industrial needs in terms of energy consumption. This article proposes a parabolic Trough Power Plant which is designed with 1.2 kW net electric output. Consequently, the results of theoretical calculations are detailed in the article, while, ensuring the analysing of design proposed through the MATLAB software. The results showed that by making use of aperture having an area of approximately 80 m2, maximum useful heat gain of 20701W at 13:00 pm was attained in March. The maximum net power is 11.84 kWh/day in February.

  6. Design and Optimization of Elliptical Cavity Tube Receivers in the Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cao


    Full Text Available The nonfragile cavity receiver is of high significance to the solar parabolic trough collector (PTC. In the present study, light distributions in the cavity under different tracking error angles and PTC configurations are analyzed. A new elliptical cavity geometry is proposed and analyzed. It is obtained from this study that light distribution on the tube receiver is asymmetrical when tracking error occurs. On increasing the tracking error angle, more lights are sheltered by the cavity outer surface. The PTC focal distance has negative correlation with the cavity open length, whereas the PTC concentration ratio has positive correlation with the cavity open length. Increasing the tracking error angle and increasing the PTC focal distance would both decrease the cavity blackness. Introducing a flat plate reflector at the elliptical cavity open inlet can largely increase the cavity darkness.

  7. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.


    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  8. Study on the Optical Properties of Triangular Cavity Absorber for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen


    Full Text Available A theoretical analytical method for optical properties of cavity absorber was proposed in this paper and the optical design software TracePro was used to analyze the optical properties of triangular cavity absorber. It was found that the optimal optical properties could be achieved with appropriate aperture width, depth-to-width ratio, and offset distance from focus of triangular cavity absorber. Based on the results of orthogonal experiment, the optimized triangular cavity absorber was designed. Results showed that the standard deviation of irradiance and optical efficiency of optimized designed cavity absorber were 30528 W/m2 and 89.23%, respectively. Therefore, this study could offer some valuable references for designing the parabolic trough solar concentrator in the future.

  9. Utility-Scale Parabolic Trough Solar Systems: Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines, April 2009 - December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, D.


    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The Guidelines contained here are specifically written for parabolic trough collector systems with a heat-transport system using a high-temperature synthetic oil, but the basic principles are relevant to other CSP systems.

  10. Examining EFL Pre-service Teachers’ TPACK trough Self-report, Lesson Plans and Actual Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thooptong Kwangsawad


    Full Text Available Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK has been proposed as a conceptual framework to describe the knowledge base teachers need for effective technology integration. The present study aimed to determine EFL pre-service teachers’ TPACK trough self-report, lesson plans and actual practice. This study used a wide range of approaches (self-report, lesson plan assessment and classroom observations to measure TPACK of EFL pre-service teachers in order to examine EFL pre-service teachers’ ability to apply and foster the interplay between content, pedagogy and technology in their classrooms. The results of self-reported data (as measured by TPACK survey, lesson plan assessment and classroom observations showed high scores for all domains. The EFL pre-service teachers’ actual practice aligned with their self-reported and their lesson plans. 

  11. Analisa Efisiensi Prototype Solar Collector Jenis Parabolic Trough dengan Menggunakan Cover Glass Tube pada Pipa Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartamas Ridho Prasetyo


    Full Text Available Energi tidak dapat diciptakan maupun dimusnahkan, hanya dapat dikonversikan dari satu bentuk ke bentuk lainnya (Hukum Kekekalan Energi. Energi sangat penting dalam kehidupan sehari – hari khususnya energi listrik yang kebutuhan terhadap energi ini sangat besar sedangkan sebagian besar energi listrik dihasilkan dari sumber daya fosil yang mulai menipis jumlahnya. Ketergantungan akan minyak bumi untuk jangka panjang tidak dapat di pertahankan lebih lama jika pemakaian melebihi batas wajar. Dalam Tugas Akhir ini penulis melakukan analisa alat Parabolic Trough Solar Collector dengan memanfaatkan energi radiasi matahari, yang di awali adanya perancangan desain alat PTSC dengan material yang sudah di tentukan sebelumnya. Prototype tersebut hanya bisa dilakukan pengujian dengan posisi steady state atau diam antara jam 11.30 sampai dengan 12.30 siang. Dengan adanya penelitian tentang analisa performa pada alat tersebut, telah di dapatkan beberapa hasil nilai variabel yang signifikan dan berpengaruh besar dengan nilai performa alat tersebut.

  12. Living (Rose-Bengal-Stained) benthic foraminifera along the Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea), environmental implications (United States)

    Sabbatini, Anna; Morigi, Caterina; Lucchi, Renata G.; de Vittor, Cinzia; Bazzano, Matteo


    The distribution and composition of benthic foraminiferal fauna in the Kveithola Trough (NW Barents Sea) were studied in three depositional settings identified on the basis of surface depositional structures, sediment types and present ecosystem characteristics. Sediment samples were collected during the CORIBAR cruise (Hanebuth et al., 2013) aimed at drilling glacigenic sediments in a palaeo-ice stream depositional system in the western Barents Sea. In particular, we report the quantitative data of the living benthic foraminiferal density, biodiversity and vertical distribution in three box-core sediment samples (0-10 cm) collected in two inner trough sites, the drift area and the channel/fault area and one outer shelf site. Rose-Bengal-stained foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two different size fractions (63-150 and >150 micrometres). In the drift area, the living benthic foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by the presence of oxygen-depleted environmental taxa with low foraminiferal density and biodiversity. This area appears a stagnant environment, strongly affected by low-oxygen, stressed environmental conditions in which foraminifera developed a life strategy aimed to increase the efficiency of food utilization and maximum resistance to ecological stress. As a further support to this interpretation, all the sediments recovered in the drift area are rich in organic matter and in Siboglinid-like tubes together with pockmark evidences on the surface of the box-corer. The sedimentation in the channel/fault area is very similar to that described for the drift area, evidencing stressed environmental conditions. Opportunistic species dominate the benthic foraminiferal fauna. The species distribution of the internal trough sites is consistent with the lithology and with data of quantity and biochemical composition (in terms of phytopigment, protein, lipid, carbohydrate and biopolymeric carbon) of the organic matter. Values of biopolymeric carbon

  13. Economic optimization of a Kalina cycle for a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Andreasen, J. G.


    technology for the conversion of solar thermal energy into electricity. In this paper, a Kalina cycle and a steam Rankine cycle are compared in terms of the total capital investment cost for use in a parabolic trough solar thermal power plant without storage. In order to minimize the total capital investment...... cost of the Kalina cycle power plant (the solar field plus the power cycle), an optimization was performed by varying the turbine outlet pressure, the separator inlet temperature and the separator inlet ammonia mass fraction. All the heat exchangers were modelled as shell and tube type using suitable......The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as a replacement for the more traditional steam Rankine cycle for geothermal, solar, ocean thermal energy conversion and waste heat recovery applications. The Kalina cycle uses a mixture of ammonia and water as the working fluid. The ammonia...

  14. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim


    . In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise...... the life of the components. Moreover, from an operability perspective it might not be optimal to have designs for the highest heating rates, as there may be other components limiting the power plant start-up. Therefore, it is important to look at the interaction between the steam turbine and steam...... generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated...

  15. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping


    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  16. Inflow of Atlantic-origin waters to the Barents Sea along glacial troughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Matishov


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of glacial shelf topography in the formation of general oceanological and biological mechanisms in the Barents Sea. Analysis of geomorphological data and oceanographic observations obtained on board MMBI research vessels in 2001-08 has shown that: fluxes of Atlantic-origin waters pass along glacial troughs; the inflow of Atlantic waters to the Barents Sea from the west increased from 2001 till 2007, although this advection began to weaken in 2008; vertical and horizontal thermohaline gradients intensified during the investigated period; a warm period similar to that of the 1930s was observed in the Barents Sea at the beginning of the 21st century.

  17. Revisiting Parabolic Trough Concentrators for Industrial Process Heat in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig S.; Kurup, Parthiv; Zhu, Guangdong


    After significant interest in the 1970s, but relatively few deployments, the use of concentrating solar collectors for thermal applications, including enhanced oil recovery, desalination, and industrial process heat (IPH), is again increasing in global interest. In particular, recent advances in collector design and manufacturing have led to reduced cost per square meter of aperture area. In this study, analysis of a modern parabolic trough that is suited for use in small solar IPH (SIPH) applications predicts that the installed solar field cost can be as low as $170/m2. A slightly higher cost of $200/m2 is estimated for facilities typical of a SIPH plant size. Full project costs will include additional costs for contingency, piping and heat exchanger interface, and project indirect costs. The cost for solar-generated heat by SIPH is quantified by defining the levelized cost of heat (LCOH). California offers a favorable environment for SIPH given its good insolation, gas prices typically higher than the national average, and policies promoting solar-thermal deployment. Given historically low gas prices, competing with natural gas remains the primary challenge to deployment. However, this study finds that the solar LCOH for many regions in California is lower than the LCOH from natural gas, using a representative installed solar hardware price and the average price for industrial natural gas in California. Lastly, modification are in progress to the parabolic trough model within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) to allow users to more easily predict performance for these steam-generation applications.

  18. The trochlear cleft: the ''black line'' of the trochlear trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissman, Robert D.; Nepute, Joshua; Fischer, Nathaniel von; Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Hendry, Daniel [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Ingalls, Jerrell [Desert Radiologists, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Kenter, Keith [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The ''cartilage black line sign'' is a recently described T2 dark cartilage lesion that we have identified appearing as a cleft in the trochlear trough. The purpose of our study was to define the MR imaging characteristics of a trochlear cleft, determine its incidence, and correlate the MR findings with arthroscopy. A total of 1,300 consecutive MR examinations of the knee were retrospectively reviewed by consensus of two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. The MR imaging characteristics and location of a trochlear cleft were determined. Imaging results were compared to arthroscopy when available. Patient age and gender were compared to 25 randomly selected control patients without trochlear clefts. A total of 25 (1.9%) individuals (11 females and 14 males; age range 19-45 years; mean age 28 years) were diagnosed with a trochlear cleft. The control group consisted of 11 females and 14 males; age range 19-83 years; mean age 46 years. Mean cleft length was 7 mm (range 6-12 mm); cleft location was consistently in the lower trochlear trough. No full-thickness cartilage defects were identified in the eight individuals in whom arthroscopic correlation was available. A grade 2 cartilage lesion was identified in a single individual; another progressed from grade 0 to a full-thickness trochlear lesion over an 8-month interval. Eight individuals were athletes. No significant difference in gender was noted between the two groups, however, the study group was significantly younger p < 0.0001. A trochlear cleft is a rare finding in young active individuals. It most likely indicates an incomplete cartilage fissure which may rarely progress to a full-thickness defect. (orig.)

  19. Prospective, Observational Study of Voriconazole Therapeutic Drug Monitoring among Lung Transplant Recipients Receiving Prophylaxis: Factors Impacting Levels of and Associations between Serum Troughs, Efficacy, and Toxicity (United States)

    Mitsani, Dimitra; Shields, Ryan K.; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Kwak, Eun J.; Silveira, Fernanda P.; Pilewski, Joseph M.; Crespo, Maria M.; Bermudez, Christian; Bhama, Jay K.; Clancy, Cornelius J.


    Voriconazole prophylaxis is common following lung transplantation, but the value of therapeutic drug monitoring is unknown. A prospective, observational study of lung transplant recipients (n = 93) receiving voriconazole prophylaxis was performed. Serum voriconazole troughs (n = 331) were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The median initial and subsequent troughs were 1.91 and 1.46 μg/ml, respectively. The age of the patient directly correlated with initial troughs (P = 0.005). Patients that were ≥60 years old and cystic fibrosis patients were significantly more likely to have higher and lower initial troughs, respectively. In 95% (88/93) of patients, ≥2 troughs were measured. In 28% (25/88) and 32% (28/88) of these patients, all troughs were ≤1.5 μg/ml or >1.5 μg/ml, respectively. Ten percent (10/93) and 27% (25/93) of the patients developed invasive fungal infection (tracheobronchitis) and fungal colonization, respectively. The median troughs at the times of positive and negative fungal cultures were 0.92 and 1.72 μg/ml (P = 0.07). Invasive fungal infections or colonization were more likely with troughs of ≤1.5 μg/ml (P = 0.01) and among patients with no trough of >1.5 μg/ml (P = 0.007). Other cutoff troughs correlated less strongly with microbiologic outcomes. Troughs correlated directly with aspartate transferase levels (P = 0.003), but not with other liver enzymes. Voriconazole was discontinued due to suspected toxicity in 27% (25/93) of the patients. The troughs did not differ at the times of suspected drug-induced hepatotoxicity, central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, or nausea/vomiting and in the absence of toxicity. Voriconazole prophylaxis was most effective at troughs of >1.5 μg/ml. A cutoff for toxicity was not identified, but troughs of >4 μg/ml were rare. The data support a target range of >1.5 to 4 μg/ml. PMID:22330924

  20. Distribution of Energy Density and Optimization on the Surface of the Receiver for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen


    Full Text Available The geometrical optics model about the offset effect of solar rays by the thickness of concentrating mirror and the diametric solar model were established. The radiant flux density on the surface of the receiver for parabolic trough solar concentrator was obtained by numerical calculation with the established models. Charge-coupled device (CCD was used for testing gray image on the surface of the receiver for parabolic trough solar concentrator. The image was analyzed by Matlab and the radiant flux density on the surface of the receiver for parabolic trough solar concentrator was achieved. It was found that the result of the theory is consistent with that of the experiment, and the relative deviation on the focal length width was 8.7%. The geometrical structure of receiver based on parabolic trough solar concentrator was optimized, a new parabolic receiver has been proposed, and it has been shown that the optimized geometrical structure of receiver was beneficial to improve the working performance of the entire system.

  1. Dermal Fillers for the Treatment of Tear Trough Deformity: A Review of Anatomy, Treatment Techniques, and their Outcomes. (United States)

    Sharad, Jaishree


    Tear trough deformity is a major concern in a lot of individuals seeking periorbital rejuvenation. A prominent tear trough deformity is characterised by a sunken appearance of the eye that results in the casting of a dark shadow over the lower eyelid, giving the patient a fatigued appearance despite adequate rest, and is refractory to attempts at cosmetic concealment. The tear trough deformity is a natural consequence of the anatomic attachments of the periorbital tissues. A variety of techniques have evolved to address this cosmetic issue. Traditional techniques relied on surgical excision of skin, muscle, and fat as well as chemical peels. Treatment is now tailored towards specific anatomic abnormalities and often employs multiple modalities including surgery, botulinum toxin, and replacement of volume. Various original research articles, text book publications and review articles were studied. Data specific to the historical aspect and anatomy of tear trough have been enumerated. Techniques of different authors were analysed and their results and complications have been summarised. The technique of the author has also been described here.

  2. Optimization of parabolic trough collector design for varying manufacturing tolerances using a closed-form expression for intercept factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueven, H.M. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)


    In this paper, a closed-form expression for intercept factor is used to carry out the optimization of parabolic trough collector geometry (rim angle and concentration ratio). It is shown that the presented closed-form expression eliminates the need for a detailed ray-trace computer code and facilitates optimization of the collector optical design parameters.

  3. Dermal fillers for the treatment of tear trough deformity: A review of anatomy, treatment techniques, and their outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaishree Sharad


    Full Text Available Tear trough deformity is a major concern in a lot of individuals seeking periorbital rejuvenation. A prominent tear trough deformity is characterised by a sunken appearance of the eye that results in the casting of a dark shadow over the lower eyelid, giving the patient a fatigued appearance despite adequate rest, and is refractory to attempts at cosmetic concealment. The tear trough deformity is a natural consequence of the anatomic attachments of the periorbital tissues. A variety of techniques have evolved to address this cosmetic issue. Traditional techniques relied on surgical excision of skin, muscle, and fat as well as chemical peels. Treatment is now tailored towards specific anatomic abnormalities and often employs multiple modalities including surgery, botulinum toxin, and replacement of volume. Various original research articles, text book publications and review articles were studied. Data specific to the historical aspect and anatomy of tear trough have been enumerated. Techniques of different authors were analysed and their results and complications have been summarised. The technique of the author has also been described here.

  4. Microstructures in the Cretaceous Bima Sandstone, Upper Benue Trough, N.E. Nigeria: Implication for hydrocarbon migration (United States)

    Samaila, N. K.; Dike, E. F. C.; Obaje, N. G.


    Faulting related to movements along major fault zones in the Upper Benue Trough during Albian times, with evidence of deformation in the Cretaceous Bima Sandstone are common especially around the Kaltungo, Gombe, Zambuk and Teli lineaments. Conjugate extensional systems of deformation bands show increased siliceous cementation of the sandstones adjacent to these lineaments. During the Late Cretaceous compressional event, the deformation bands and faults in the Upper Benue Trough were reactivated, resulting into dilational opening of fractures believed to have acted as fluid conduits and/or barriers. These deformation bands which decrease in density away from the major faults are characterized with increasing porosity and permeability in the host sandstone abruptly away from the tectonic barrier. It is proposed here that the master faults of the Benue Trough, linking it with the Anambra Basin and the Niger Delta probably served as conduits for the migration of hydrocarbons into the Cretaceous reservoirs of the Upper Benue Trough and by extension into the Niger Delta.

  5. Cycling of sulfur in subduction zones: The geochemistry of sulfur in the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc trough (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Jackson, M.C.


    The sulfur contents and sulfur isotopic compositions of 24 glassy submarine volcanics from the Mariana Island Arc and back-arc Mariana Trough were determined in order to investigate the hypothesis that subducted seawater sulfur (??34S = 21???) is recycled through arc volcanism. Our results for sulfur are similar to those for subaerial arc volcanics: Mariana Arc glasses are enriched in 34S (??34S = up to 10.3???, mean = 3.8???) and depleted in S (20-290 ppm, mean = 100 ppm) relative to MORB (850 ppm S, ??34S = 0.1 ?? 0.5???). The back-arc trough basalts contain 200-930 ppm S and have ??34S values of 1.1 ?? 0.5???, which overlap those for the arc and MORB. The low sulfur contents of the arc and some of the trough glasses are attributed to (1) early loss of small amounts of sulfur through separation of immiscible sulfide and (2) later vapor-melt equilibrium control of sulfur contents and loss of sulfur in a vapor phase from sulfide-undersaturated melts near the minimum in sulfur solubility at f{hook}O2 ??? NNO (nickel-nickel oxide). Although these processes removed sulfur from the melts their effects on the sulfur isotopic compositions of the melts were minimal. Positive trends of ??34S with 87Sr 86Sr, LILE and LREE contents of the arc volcanics are consistent with a metasomatic seawater sulfur component in the depleted sub-arc mantle source. The lack of a 34S-rich slab signature in the trough lavas may be attributed to equilibration of metasomatic fluid with mantle material along the longer pathway from the slab to the source of the trough volcanics. Sulfur is likely to have been transported into the mantle wedge by metasomatic fluid derived from subducted sediments and pore fluids. Gases extracted from vesicles in arc and back-arc samples are predominantly H2O, with minor CO2 and traces of H2S and SO2. CO2 in the arc and back-arc rocks has ??13C values of -2.1 to -13.1???, similar to MORB. These data suggest that degassing of CO2 could explain the slightly lower

  6. Empirical Vancomycin Dosing in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease and the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Trough Concentrations. (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher A; Picone, Amy; Menon, Sharad; Willis, Brigham C


    To determine the optimal vancomycin dosing regimen to achieve empirical goal trough concentrations in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease and to examine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass on vancomycin dosing requirements. Patients younger than 18 years admitted to the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) at our institution from October 1, 2012-December 31, 2014, who received at least one dose of vancomycin, were reviewed retrospectively. Included patients had a steady-state vancomycin trough concentration drawn during the study period. The first steady-state vancomycin trough drawn after being initiated on empirical vancomycin therapy was analyzed for each patient. Excluded patients were those who received mechanical circulatory support, any form of renal replacement therapy, or had a serum creatinine result greater than 1.0 mg/dl on the day of vancomycin initiation. Overall, 77 patients met inclusion criteria, of which 57.1% had undergone cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) before CVICU admission. Median age was 62 days (interquartile range [IQR] 8.3-176 days). Median daily vancomycin dose was 36.25 mg/kg/day (IQR 29-40 mg/kg/day), resulting in a median steady-state trough of 10.0 μg/ml (IQR 6.3-12.9 μg/ml). Therapeutic troughs occurred in 50.6% of patients; supratherapeutic and subtherapeutic concentrations were attained in 18.2% and 31.2% of patients, respectively. A subgroup analysis of patients who were post-CPB revealed that the only additional variable to affect vancomycin trough concentrations was aortic cross-clamp time (median 56 min, IQR 0-123.3 min, p=0.02). Empirical vancomycin dosing to achieve troughs of 8-15 μg/dl in patients with congenital heart disease without evidence of significant acute kidney injury should be 30 mg/kg/day for neonates, 35-40 mg/kg/day for infants, and 45 mg/kg/day in children, with adjustments required for patients with elevated creatinine or significant aortic cross-clamp time. The receipt and

  7. Crustal structure and tectonic history of the Kermadec arc inferred from MANGO seismic refraction profiles (United States)

    Bassett, D.; Kopp, H.; Sutherland, R.; Henrys, S.; Watts, A. B.; Timm, C.; Scherwath, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; de Ronde, C. E. J.


    We have analyzed three wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction profiles and applied spectral averaging techniques to regional grids of bathymetry and free-air gravity anomaly to place the first regional constraints on the crustal structure of the Kermadec arc. These observations are used to test contrasting tectonic models for an along-strike transition in margin structure, across which, 1) the remnant Lau-Colville and active Kermadec arc ridges narrow by >50%; 2) the backarc and forearc deepen by 1 km, and 3) the active volcanic arc is deflected west into the deepest known backarc basin. We use residual bathymetric anomalies to constrain the geometry of this boundary and propose the name Central Kermadec Discontinuity (CKD). North of the CKD, the buried Tonga Ridge occupies the forearc with VP 6.5-7.3 km s-1 and residual free-air gravity anomalies constrain its latitudinal extent (north of 30.5°S), width (110±20 km) and strike ( 005° south of 25°S). South of the CKD the forearc is structurally homogeneous down-dip with VP 5.7-7.3 km s-1. Lower crustal velocities are similar to the northern Kermadec forearc, but there is no seismic or gravimetric evidence for an extinct arc ridge within the forearc. In the Havre Trough backarc, crustal thickness south of the CKD is 8-9 km, which is up-to 4 km thinner than the northern Havre Trough and at least 1 km thinner than the southern Havre Trough. The northern Kermadec/Tonga arc preserves a substrate of the Eocene arc, the southern Kermadec forearc preserves Mesozoic forearc rocks accreted at the Gondwana margin, and the central Kermadec arc may have fomed in the Kupe Abyssal Plain. The oldest arc related rocks recovered north and south of the CKD are 52 Ma and 16.7 Ma respectively, and plate tectonic reconstruction suggest the Eocene arc was originally conjoined with the Three Kings Ridge. The separation of these ridges during the early Oligocene likely formed the CKD. In contrast to previous interpretations, we

  8. [Effects of multiple-trough sampling design and algorithm on the estimation of population and individual pharmacokinetic parameters]. (United States)

    Ling, Jing; Qian, Li-Xuan; Ding, Jun-Jie; Jiao, Zheng


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of multiple-trough sampling design and nonlinear mixed effect modeling (NONMEM) algorithm on the estimation of population and individual pharmacokinetic parameters. Oxcarbazepine and tacrolimus were used as one-compartment and two-compartment model drugs, respectively. Seven sampling designs were investigated using various number of trough concentrations per individual ranging from 1-4. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to produce state-steady trough concentrations. One-compartment model was used to fit simulated data from oxcarbazepine and tacrolimus. The accuracy and precision of the estimated parameters were evaluated using the median prediction error (PE), the median absolute PE and boxplot. The results indicated that trough concentrations could yield reliable estimates of apparent clearance (CL/F). For oxcarbazepine, as the number of trough concentrations per subject increased, the accuracy and precision of CL/F, between-subject variability (BSV) of CL/F and residual variability (RUV) tended to be improved. For tacrolimus, however, although no improvement were observed in the accuracy of CL/F and BSV of CL/F, the PE distribution ranges were significantly narrowed and the RUV estimates were less bias and imprecise. In terms of algorithm, Monte Carlo importance sampling (IMP) and IMP assisted by mode a posteriori estimation (IMPMAP) were consistently better than other methods. Additionally, the sampling design had no significant effects on the individual parameter estimates, which were only depended on the interaction between BSV and RUV in various algorithms. Decreased in BSV and RUV levels can improve the accuracy and precision of the estimation for both population and individual pharmacokinetic parameter estimates.

  9. Topography and distribution of central graben in Okinawa Trough Miyoko Section (United States)

    Luan, X.; Qin, Y.


    Based on geophysical data obtained by R/V "Science 1¡± of Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS) and R/V "Xiangyanghong 9¡± of State Oceanic Administration (SOA) in a 200 km long area of Okinawa Trough Miyoko Section recent years, we show the topography and distribution of central graben in great detail for the first time. Central graben within Miyoko Section is separated into 9 discontinuous segments by strike slip faults, from north to south namely Laoshan, Huangdao, Jiaonan, Jiaozhou, Pingdu, Jimo, Laixi, Chengyang and Licang Segment respectively, and shows a dextral echelon pattern in general. By cross shapes, three types of central graben can be distinguished, namely U type, V type and half graben. U type is the most common central graben among those found in our study area. The depth of central graben is from 40 m to 250 m, wide from 6 km to 14 km, length from 17 km to 33 km. The largest water depth of Miyoko Section is 2244.4 m, found at the east side of north end bottom of Chengyang Segment (125°19.3'E, 25°49.8'N). Within the dextral echelon pattern, Huangdao, Chengyang, Licang Segment moves to the west relatively to Laoshan, Laixi and Chengyang Segment respectively, showing a local sinistral echelon pattern. The striking direction of central graben is N60°E roughly, that is 15° more to the east comparing to the striking of the Okinawa Trough. There is 6 km long overlap distance between Laixi Segment and Chengyang Segments, simile with an overlap spreading center in the Mid-Ocean Ridge. Two volcanic chains, the central axis volcanic chain which located within the central graben and the island arc volcanic chain which located at the west side of Ryukyu Island Arc are clearly found in this section. The island volcanic chain has a good continuity, but the axis volcanic chain is sporadic comparatively. From seismic profile, we understand that the development of central axis volcanic chain is after the development of central graben

  10. Developing a numerical model of ice wedge degradation and trough formation (United States)

    Garayshin, V.; Nicolsky, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.


    The research was initiated as a part of the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) in the Arctic and also as a part of the Integrated Ecosystem Model for Alaska. The presented project explores influence of climate (mean annual and summer temperatures, and snow cover depth and density) and physical properties, soil textures and moisture content on thawing and destabilization of ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska. Recall that ice wedges formed many years ago, when ground cracked and the cracks were filled by water. The infiltrated water then became frozen and turned into ice. When the annual and summer air temperatures become higher, the depth of the active layer increases. Deeper seasonal thawing may cause melting of the ice wedges from their tops. Consequently, the ground starts to settle and a trough form above the ice wedge. Once the trough is formed, the winter snow cover becomes deeper above it and provides a potential feedback mechanism to the further degradation of permafrost. The work deals with analysis of temperature regimes and moisture distribution and dynamics during seasonal cycles of freezing and thawing. The research focuses on the development of a computational approach to the study of seasonal temperature dynamics of the active layer, ice wedge and surrounding it permafrost. A thermo-mechanical model of the ice wedge based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics is presented. The model includes the energy and mass conservation equations, a visco-poroelastic rheology for ground deformation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for the temperature, pore water pressure, ground velocities and porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of equations, which was solved iteratively. The model

  11. Seismic inversion for incoming sedimentary sequence in the Nankai Trough margin off Kumano Basin, southwest Japan (United States)

    Naito, K.; Park, J.


    The Nankai Trough off southwest Japan is one of the best subduction-zone to study megathrust earthquake mechanism. Huge earthquakes have been repeated in the cycle of 100-150 years in the area, and in these days the next emergence of the earthquake becomes one of the most serious issue in Japan. Therefore, detailed descriptions of geological structure are urgently needed there. IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) have investigated this area in the NanTroSEIZE science plan. Seismic reflection, core sampling and borehole logging surveys have been executed during the NanTroSEIZE expeditions. Core-log-seismic data integration (CLSI) is useful for understanding the Nankai seismogenic zone. We use the seismic inversion method to do the CLSI. The seismic inversion (acoustic impedance inversion, A.I. inversion) is a method to estimate rock physical properties using seismic reflection and logging data. Acoustic impedance volume is inverted for seismic data with density and P-wave velocity of several boreholes with the technique. We use high-resolution 3D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data obtained during KR06-02 cruise in 2006, and measured core sample properties by IODP Expeditions 322 and 333. P-wave velocities missing for some core sample are interpolated by the relationship between acoustic impedance and P-wave velocity. We used Hampson-Russell software for the seismic inversion. 3D porosity model is derived from the 3D acoustic impedance model to figure out rock physical properties of the incoming sedimentary sequence in the Nankai Trough off Kumano Basin. The result of our inversion analysis clearly shows heterogeneity of sediments; relatively high porosity sediments on the shallow layer of Kashinosaki Knoll, and distribution of many physical anomaly bands on volcanic and turbidite sediment layers around the 3D MCS survey area. In this talk, we will show 3D MCS, acoustic impedance, and porosity data for the incoming sedimentary sequence and discuss its

  12. Developing a numerical model of ice wedge degradation and trough formation (United States)

    Garayshin, V.; Nicolsky, D.; Romanovsky, V. E.


    The research was initiated as a part of the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) in the Arctic and also as a part of the Integrated Ecosystem Model for Alaska. The presented project explores influence of climate (mean annual and summer temperatures, snow cover depth and physical properties), and soil textures and moisture content on thawing and destabilization of ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska using numerical modeling. The ice wedges on the North Slope of Alaska have being forming for many millennia, when ground cracked and the cracks were filled with snowmelt water. The infiltrated water then became frozen and turned into ice. When the annual and summer air temperatures become higher, the depth of the active layer increases. Deeper seasonal thawing may cause melting of the ice wedges from their tops. Consequently, the ground starts to settle and a trough form above the ice wedge. Once the trough is formed, the winter snow cover becomes deeper above it and provides a potential positive feedback mechanism to the further degradation of permafrost. The presented work deals with analysis of temperature regimes and dynamics during seasonal cycles of freezing and thawing. The research focuses on the development of a computational approach to the study of seasonal temperature dynamics of the active layer, ice wedge and surrounding it permafrost. A thermo-mechanical model of the ice wedge based on principles of macroscopic thermodynamics and continuum mechanics was developed and will be presented. The model includes the energy and mass conservation equations, a visco-elastic rheology for ground deformation, and an empirical formula which relates unfrozen water content to temperature. The complete system is reduced to a computationally convenient set of coupled equations for the temperature, ground displacements and porosity in a two-dimensional domain. A finite element method and an implicit scheme in time were utilized to construct a non-linear system of

  13. Identifying the "Foot of the Continental Slope" of high-latitude continental margins influenced by trough mouth fans (United States)

    Sverre Laberg, Jan


    The continental slope of high-latitude margins often include trough mouth fans, which are sediment fans situated in front of large troughs crossing the continental shelf. The troughs acted as corridors for paleo-ice streams, sectors of fast-flowing ice within the large ice sheets of the last glacial maximum as well as previous glacials. The paleo-ice streams were highly efficient erosional agents, eroding and transporting large volumes of sediments to the continental shelf edge. Here, these sediments were released to move downslope as large debris flows, the "building blocks" of these fans. Due to the very large sediment volume included within these fans, they represent prominent depocenters forming low-gradient sectors (axial gradient often being as low as 1 degree or less) with no clear morphological distinction of the continental slope including its lower limit. Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the criteria provided in Article 76 includes the lower limit or "foot" of the continental slope as one important parameter in the extended Continental Shelf delineation (i.e. beyond the 200 M exclusive economic zone). Because of this, the Norwegian submission regarding the outer limits of the continental shelf in the Norwegian Sea and the Arctic Ocean argued that the origin of the sub-sea floor sediments on the slope needed to be considered when identifying the location of the foot of the continental slope. This was done by mapping the outer limits of the large debris flow deposits of the trough mouth fans, deposits that without doubt have their origin from the continental shelf. Thus, in these cases, the foot of the continental slope coincide with the downslope termination of the large debris flow deposits and the outer limit of the continental shelf lies 60 M beyond this point. The data used for mapping includes swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiles and short sediment samples (< 10 m), and we present and discuss examples from the Bear Island Trough Mouth

  14. Structural characteristics around the frontal thrust along the Nankai Trough revealed by bathymetric and seismic reflection survey (United States)

    Yamashita, M.; Nakanishi, A.; Moore, G. F.; Kodaira, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Miura, S.; Kaneda, Y.


    Great earthquakes with tsunamis with recurrence intervals of 100-200 years have occurred along the Nankai Trough near central Japan where the Shikoku Basin is subducting with thick sediments on the Philippine Sea plate. To predict the exact height of the tsunami on the coast region generated by these large ruptures, it is important to estimate the vertical deformation that occurs on the seaward end of the rupture area. Recent drilling results have also yielded evidence not only of splay faults that generate tsunamigenic rupture, but also new evidence of tsunamigenic rupture along the frontal thrust at the trench axis in the Nankai Trough. In order to understand the deformation around the frontal thrust at the trench axis, we conducted a dense high-resolution seismic reflection survey with 10-20 km spacing over 1500 km of line length during 2013 and 2014. Clear seismic reflection images of frontal thrusts in the accretionary prism and subducting Shikoku Basin, image deformation along the trench axis between off Muroto Cape and off Ashizuri Cape. The cumulative displacement along the frontal thrust and second thrust are measured from picked distinct reflectors in depth-converted profiles. The average value of cumulative displacement of the frontal thrust is more than 100 m within 2 km depth beneath the seafloor. The location of highest displacement of 300 m displacement agree with the seaward end of slip distribution of the 1946 Nankai event calculated by numerical simulations. We also evaluate the seaward structure for understanding the future rupture distribution. The protothrust zone (PTZ) consisting of many incipient thrusts is identifiable in the portion of trough-fill sediments seaward of the frontal thrust. In order to emphasize the characteristics of frontal thrust and PTZ, we construct the detailed relief image for focusing on the lineated slope of the PTZ at the trough axis. Although our surveys covered a part of Nankai seismogenic zone, it is important to

  15. Characteristics of southern California atmospheric rivers (United States)

    Harris, Sarah M.; Carvalho, Leila M. V.


    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are channels of high water vapor flux that transport moisture from low to higher latitudes on synoptic timescales. In areas of topographical variability, ARs may lead to high-intensity precipitation due to orographic forcing. ARs landfalling along North America's west coast are linked to extreme events including those leading to flooding and landslides. In southern California (SCA), proper AR forecasting is important for regional water resources as well as hazard mitigation and as the area's annual precipitation totals occur from relatively few storms per season, any changes to storm frequency and/or intensity may have dramatic consequences. Yet, as most regional AR studies focus on the Pacific Northwest, there is little information about SCA ARs. We develop an algorithm to identify ARs landfalling on North America's west coast between 1979 and 2013 within total precipitable water reanalysis fields. ARs are then categorized according to landfall region. To determine and differentiate the characteristics and spatial distributions of ARs affecting these areas, we examine lag composites of various atmospheric variables for each landfall region. SCA ARs differ from ARs landfalling farther north in the days prior to landfall with the position and amplitude of a trough offshore from the Asian continent and ridge over Alaska, as well as the displacement and eastward extension of the jet core that potentially guides AR moisture southwards. The relationships between AR landfalls and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), and the Pacific/North American Teleconnection Pattern (PNA) are also investigated.

  16. The Southern Supercluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Shyamal (Texas Univ., Austin (USA))


    The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from five catalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms of mass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Supercluster compares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is less massive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though the Southern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the Local Supercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However, there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting the Southern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster. 30 refs.

  17. Southern California Particle Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  18. IODP Expedition 331: Strong and Expansive Subseafloor Hydrothermal Activities in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    the IODP Expedition 331 Scientists


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expedition 331 drilled into the Iheya North hydrothermal system in the middle Okinawa Trough in order to investigate active subseafloor microbial ecosystems and their physical and chemical settings. We drilled five sites during Expedition 331 using special guide bases at three holes for reentry, casing, and capping, including installation of a steel mesh platformwith valve controls for postcruise sampling of fluids. At Site C0016, drilling at the base of the North Big Chimney (NBCmound yielded low recovery, but core included the first Kuroko-type black ore ever recovered from the modern subseafloor. The other four sites yielded interbedded hemipelagic and strongly pumiceous volcaniclastic sediment, along with volcanogenic breccias that are variably hydrothermally altered and mineralized. At most sites, analyses of interstitial water and headspace gas yielded complex patterns withdepth and lateral distance of only a few meters. Documented processes included formation of brines and vapor-rich fluids by phase separation and segregation, uptake of Mg and Na by alteration minerals in exchange for Ca, leaching of K at high temperature and uptake at low temperature, anhydrite precipitation, potential microbial oxidation of organic matter and anaerobic oxidation of methane utilizing sulfate, and methanogenesis. Shipboard analyses have found evidence for microbial activity in sediments within the upper 10–30 m below seafloor (mbsf where temperatures were relativelylow, but little evidence in the deeper hydrothermally altered zones and hydrothermal fluid regime.

  19. Development of Performance Acceptance Test Guidelines for Large Commercial Parabolic Trough Solar Fields: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, D.; Mehos, M.


    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the EPC contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of engineering code developed for this purpose, NREL has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. The fundamental differences between acceptance of a solar power plant and a conventional fossil-fired plant are the transient nature of the energy source and the necessity to utilize an analytical performance model in the acceptance process. These factors bring into play the need to establish methods to measure steady state performance, potential impacts of transient processes, comparison to performance model results, and the possible requirement to test, or model, multi-day performance within the scope of the acceptance test procedure. The power block and BOP are not within the boundaries of this guideline. The current guideline is restricted to the solar thermal performance of parabolic trough systems and has been critiqued by a broad range of stakeholders in CSP development and technology.

  20. Non-trough foF2 enhancements at near-equatorial dip latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kobea

    Full Text Available Fine resolution series from three equatorial ionosondes of the IEEY network in West Africa have revealed small-scale daytime peak F2 structures, superposed on the slowly varying minimum or "trough" distribution in the ±5° magnetic latitude zone. We report this new morphology, concentrating on foF2 enhancements of two types: near-equatorial crests (which travel either northwards or southwards and magnetic field-aligned domes, whose onsets last only tens of minutes. Both types are observed to start at mid-morning or early afternoon hours. We relate their occurrence with the available variations of Vz=E × B upward drift which feeds the equatorial plasma fountain. We suggest the foF2 enhancements to be triggered by brief slow-downs of the Vz velocity near F2 peak altitude in our West African sector. Their short latitude extent differentiates them from the larger-scale tropical crest system. Further analysis of these features should lead to weather-like models of the low latitude ionosphere variations, where unstable local coupling between processes seems to be the trigger.Key words. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere · Ionosphere-atmosphere interaction · Plasma temperature and density

  1. [Survival of VTEC O157 and non-O157 in water troughs and bovine feces]. (United States)

    Polifroni, Rosana; Etcheverría, Analía I; Arroyo, Guillermo H; Padola, Nora L


    Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) is the etiologic agent of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), which typically affects children ranging in age from six months to five years old. Transmission is produced by consumption of contaminated food, by direct contact with animals or the environment and from person to person. In previous studies we determined that the environment of a dairy farm is a non-animal reservoir; thus, we proposed to study the survival of 4 VTEC isolates (O20:H19; O91:H21; O157:H7 and O178:H19) in sterile water troughs and bovine feces by viable bacteria count and detection of virulence genes by PCR. It was demonstrated that the survival of different VTEC isolates (O157 and non-O157) varied in terms of their own characteristics as well as of the environmental conditions where they were found. The main differences between isolates were their survival time and the maximal counts reached. The competitive and adaptive characteristics of some isolates increase the infection risk for people that are visiting or working on a farm, as well as the risk for reinfection of the animals and food contamination. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of panoramic focal trough for the six-year-old child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yeon; Choi, Hang Moon; Han, Jin Woo; Lee, Sul Mi [Kangnung National University College of Medicine, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)


    To make a focal trough (image layer) for an average maxillary dental arch of 6-year-old Korean in panoramic radiography. Phantom for the maxillary dental arch was designed using intercanine width, intermolar width, tooth size, and interdental spacing to record the data of 6-year-old child. The characteristics of pre-corrected panoramic machine (for adult) was evaluated using the phantom, resolution test pattern for margin of the image layer, and metal ball for the center of the image layer. Panoramic image layer of the child was developed by means of decreasing the speed of film-cassette and positioning the phantom backwards, and then the characteristics of post-corrected panoramic machine (for child) were reevaluated. At post-corrected panoramic image layer, beam projection angles at all interdental areas increased for about 2.6 - 3.8 .deg., the position of the image layer was shifted toward the rotation center for about 2.5 mm at the deciduous central incisior area. The width of image layer decreased at all areas. Increased beam projection angle will reduce the disadvantage of tooth overlap, and the same form between the center of the image layer and dental arch will improve image resolution.

  3. Characteristics of hydrocarbons in sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough. (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Zeng, Zhigang; Pu, Xiaoqiang; Hou, Qinghua


    Sediment core samples from the northern Okinawa Trough (OT) were analyzed to determine abundances and distributions of hydrocarbons by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the n-alkanes in this sediment core conform to a bimodal distribution, and exhibit an odd-to-even predominance of high molecular weights compared to an even-to-odd predominance in low molecular weight n-alkanes with maxima at C16 and C18. The concentrations of bitumen, alkanes and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were higher in samples S10-07 than all others. Three maturity parameters as well as the ratios between parent phenanthrenes (Ps) and methylphenanthrenes (MPs) in samples S10-07 and S10-17 were higher. The distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in sample S10-07 suggest that one, or several, undetected hydrothermal fields may be present in the region of this sediment core. Results also suggest that volcanism may be the main reason for the observed distribution and composition of hydrocarbons in S10-17 sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inflating in a Trough: Single-Field Effective Theory from Multiple-Field Curved Valleys

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; Patil, Subodh P


    We examine the motion of light fields near the bottom of a potential valley in a multi-dimensional field space. In the case of two fields we identify three general scales, all of which must be large in order to justify an effective low-energy approximation involving only the light field, $\\ell$. (Typically only one of these -- the mass of the heavy field transverse to the trough -- is used in the literature when justifying the truncation of heavy fields.) We explicitly compute the resulting effective field theory, which has the form of a $P(\\ell,X)$ model, with $X = - 1/2(\\partial \\ell)^2$, as a function of these scales. This gives the leading ways each scale contributes to any low-energy dynamics, including (but not restricted to) those relevant for cosmology. We check our results with the special case of a homogeneous roll near the valley floor, placing into a broader context recent cosmological calculations that show how the truncation approximation can fail. By casting our results covariantly in field spa...

  5. Fold deformations of the paleozoic basement roof in the Chunkurchak Trough, Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range (United States)

    Przhiyalgovskii, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.


    A structural-geological study has been performed on the northern slope of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range. Deformations of the peneplaned Paleozoic basement surface, structures of granite disintegration, and morphostructural manifestation of Late Cenozoic tectonic movements have been investigated. Based on the location of pre-Paleocene peneplain remnants with the retained weathering mantle partly overlapped by Paleocene-Miocene sedimentary complexes, we have reconstructed the morphology of the folded surface of the Chunkurchak Trough separated from the Chu Basin at the early Miocene. The dome-fold forms, the morphology and arrangement of which are controlled by disintegration of the basement, have been described for the basement surface. It has been established that granites are broken by systems of steeply dipping, fanshaped, and gently dipping faults and fractures. Variously oriented insignificant offsets along slickensides, as well as displacements deduced from the geometry of fracture intersections, are a result of volumetric cataclastic flow of rocks. The tectonic mobility of disintegrated granites, which are abundant in the Paleozoic-Precambrian basement, explains the complexity and scale of tectonic processes initiated by Cenozoic activation. In paleotectonic reconstructions, which take into consideration tectonic flow and the redistribution of basement masses, the estimates of Cenozoic relative rapprochement of the Chu Basin and the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range decrease substantially to 4-6 km.

  6. Distribution of dehalogenation activity in subseafloor sediments of the Nankai Trough subduction zone. (United States)

    Futagami, Taiki; Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Kaksonen, Anna H; Inagaki, Fumio


    Halogenated organic matter buried in marine subsurface sediment may serve as a source of electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration of subseafloor microbes. Detection of a diverse array of reductive dehalogenase-homologous (rdhA) genes suggests that subseafloor organohalide-respiring microbial communities may play significant ecological roles in the biogeochemical carbon and halogen cycle in the subseafloor biosphere. We report here the spatial distribution of dehalogenation activity in the Nankai Trough plate-subduction zone of the northwest Pacific off the Kii Peninsula of Japan. Incubation experiments with slurries of sediment collected at various depths and locations showed that degradation of several organohalides tested only occurred in the shallow sedimentary basin, down to 4.7 metres below the seafloor, despite detection of rdhA in the deeper sediments. We studied the phylogenetic diversity of the metabolically active microbes in positive enrichment cultures by extracting RNA, and found that Desulfuromonadales bacteria predominate. In addition, for the isolation of genes involved in the dehalogenation reaction, we performed a substrate-induced gene expression screening on DNA extracted from the enrichment cultures. Diverse DNA fragments were obtained and some of them showed best BLAST hit to known organohalide respirers such as Dehalococcoides, whereas no functionally known dehalogenation-related genes such as rdhA were found, indicating the need to improve the molecular approach to assess functional genes for organohalide respiration.

  7. Exergetic and Thermoeconomic Analyses of Solar Air Heating Processes Using a Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández-Román


    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and practical analysis of the application of the thermoeconomic method. A furnace for heating air is evaluated using the methodology. The furnace works with solar energy, received from a parabolic trough collector and with electricity supplied by an electric power utility. The methodology evaluates the process by the first and second law of thermodynamics as the first step then the cost analysis is applied for getting the thermoeconomic cost. For this study, the climatic conditions of the city of Queretaro (Mexico are considered. Two periods were taken into account: from July 2006 to June 2007 and on 6 January 2011. The prototype, located at CICATA-IPN, Qro, was analyzed in two different scenarios i.e., with 100% of electricity and 100% of solar energy. The results showed that thermoeconomic costs for the heating process with electricity, inside the chamber, are less than those using solar heating. This may be ascribed to the high cost of the materials, fittings, and manufacturing of the solar equipment. Also, the influence of the mass flow, aperture area, length and diameter of the receiver of the solar prototype is a parameter for increasing the efficiency of the prototype in addition to the price of manufacturing. The optimum design parameters are: length is 3 to 5 m, mass flow rate is 0.03 kg/s, diameter of the receiver is around 10 to 30 mm and aperture area is 3 m2.

  8. Operating results of a thermocline thermal energy storage included in a parabolic trough mini power plant (United States)

    Fasquelle, Thomas; Falcoz, Quentin; Neveu, Pierre; Lecat, Florent; Boullet, Nicolas; Flamant, Gilles


    A thermocline thermal energy storage tank consists in using one single tank to store sensible heat. At almost any time, three zones coexist in the tank: a hot fluid zone at the top, a cold fluid zone at the bottom, and an intermediate zone called thermocline. Filling the tank with solid materials enables to reduce cost and to maintain the thermal stratification during stand-by periods. The present paper deals with a 230 kWh experimental thermocline tank that is included into a 150 kWth parabolic trough mini power plant. The heat transfer fluid is a non-pressurized synthetic oil (dibenzyltoluene) that flows through alumina spheres in the storage tank. The solid materials are contained into baskets in order to facilitate their removing and replacement. Thermocouples measure temperature along the center of the cylinder and along its radius. It is therefore possible to study the thermocline behavior thanks to the measured temperature profiles. A typical charge, a typical discharge and a stand-by process are presented and storage performances are discussed. The behavior of the tank in a dynamic system is also considered, by analyzing a typical day of solar production and storage of the energy surplus.

  9. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean) (United States)

    Granja, Bruna J. L.; Munoz-Martin, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martin-Davila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.


    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Norwich Technologies' Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); McBride, Troy O. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Brambles, Oliver J. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States); Cashin, Emil A. [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)


    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 °C and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  11. Dynamic Modeling of the Solar Field in Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes A. Barcia


    Full Text Available Parabolic trough solar power plants use a thermal fluid to transfer thermal energy from solar radiation to a water-steam Rankine cycle in order to drive a turbine that, coupled to an electrical generator, produces electricity. These plants have a heat transfer fluid (HTF system with the necessary elements to transform solar radiation into heat and to transfer that thermal energy to the water-steam exchangers. In order to get the best possible performance in the Rankine cycle and, hence, in the thermal plant, it is necessary that the thermal fluid reach its maximum temperature when leaving the solar field (SF. Also, it is mandatory that the thermal fluid does not exceed the maximum operating temperature of the HTF, above which it degrades. It must be noted that the optimal temperature of the thermal fluid is difficult to obtain, since solar radiation can change abruptly from one moment to another. The aim of this document is to provide a model of an HTF system that can be used to optimize the control of the temperature of the fluid without interfering with the normal operation of the plant. The results obtained with this model will be contrasted with those obtained in a real plant.

  12. Reducing the Cost of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawlik, Keith


    Thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials were evaluated for trough systems that use oil, steam, and high temperature salts as heat transfer fluids. A variety of eutectic salts and metal alloys were considered as phase change materials in a cascaded arrangement. Literature values of specific heat, latent heat, density, and other thermophysical properties were used in initial analyses. Testing laboratories were contracted to measure properties for candidate materials for comparison to the literature and for updating the models. A TRNSYS model from Phase 1 was further developed for optimizing the system, including a novel control algorithm. A concept for increasing the bulk thermal conductivity of the phase change system was developed using expanded metal sheets. Outside companies were contracted to design and cost systems using platecoil heat exchangers immersed in the phase change material. Laboratory evaluations of the one-dimensional and three-dimensional behavior of expanded metal sheets in a low conductivity medium were used to optimize the amount of thermal conductivity enhancement. The thermal energy storage systems were compared to baseline conventional systems. The best phase change system found in this project, which was for the high temperature plant, had a projected cost of $25.2 per kWhth, The best system also had a cost that was similar to the base case, a direct two-tank molten salt system.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal sediments from Iheya North Knoll in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Hu, Qiannan; Zhang, Xin; Jiang, Fuqing; Wang, Bing; Luan, Zhendong; Chen, Chang'an; Yan, Jun


    Thirty sediment subsamples were recovered from the Iheya North hydrothermal field (with an average of 38 m away from the hydrothermal vent) in the middle Okinawa Trough. Samples were obtained by the ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) Faxian during the virgin cruise of the R/V Kexue in 2014 with the application of push cores. The chemical compositions of the sediments show that the hydrothermal sediments near the hydrothermal vent are mainly composed of SO3, ZnO and Fe2O3. Moreover, the hydrothermal sediments are also highly enriched in Pb, As, Sb, Hg, Se, Ag, Ba, Mo and Cd comparing with previous analysis results. On the other hand, the concentrations of Sr, Hg and Ag in studied sediments are strongly and positively correlated, these elements can be used as an hydrothermal indicator. In addition, a factor analysis of the sediments suggested that the sediments were mainly influenced by hydrothermal origin, and terrestrial and biogenic input are limited in studied area. It is also suggested that different stages of crystallization were involved in the formation of hydrothermal chimney from factor analysis.

  14. Formation of levees, troughs and elevated channels by avalanches on erodible slopes (United States)

    Edwards, Andrew; Viroulet, Sylvain; Kokelaar, Peter; Gray, Nico

    Snow avalanches are typically initiated on marginally stable slopes with a layer of fresh snow that may easily be incorporated into the avalanche. The net balance of erosion and deposition of snow determines whether an avalanche grows, starves away or propagates steadily. We present the results of small scale experiments in which particles are released on a rough inclined plane coated with a static erodible layer of the same grains. For thick static layers on steep slopes the initial avalanche grows rapidly in size by entraining grains. On shallower slopes an elevated channel forms and material is eventually brought to rest due to a greater rate of deposition than erosion. On steep slopes with thinner erodible layers it is possible to generate avalanches that have a perfect balance between erosion and deposition, leaving a constant width trough with levees. We then show, by combining Pouliquen & Forterre (2002)'s friction law with Gray & Edwards (2014)'s depth-averaged μ (I) -rheology, that it is possible to develop a simple 2D shallow water-like avalanche model that qualitatively captures all of the experimental behaviours. Hence this model may have important practical implications for modeling the initiation, growth and decay of snow avalanches for hazard risk assessment. NERC Grants NE/E003206/1 and NE/K003011/1 and EPSRC Grants EP/I019189/1 and EP/K00428X/1.

  15. Possible climate preconditioning on submarine landslides along a convergent margin, Nankai Trough (NE Pacific) (United States)

    Kremer, Katrina; Usman, Muhammed O.; Satoguchi, Yasufumi; Nagahashi, Yoshitaka; Vadakkepuliyambatta, Sunil; Panieri, Giuliana; Strasser, Michael


    Submarine landslides are major agents of sediment mass transfer from the shallow to deep sea. Due to their rapid emplacement and tsunamigenic potential, such landslides are significant geohazards for society and off- and on-shore infrastructure. The relationship between climate change and the occurrence of submarine landslides is widely debated. However, there is a lack of continuous long-term submarine landslide records with which to comprehensively understand the relationship between climate-driven forces and submarine landslide occurrence. Here, using oxygen isotope stratigraphy in combination with tephrochronology, we date a 1 Myr continuous record of six landslide deposits (at 13.0-14.2, 323-339, 372-384, 394-413, 508-521, and 857-867 ka) recorded in a slope basin of the Nankai Trough subduction zone, off-shore Japan, which represents the major outcome of this study. The ages of the six landslides coincide mostly with interglacial periods. Thus, we propose that climate forcing might act as a preconditioning factor for slope instability in this active tectonic region.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Optimization of a Solar-Driven Trigeneration System with Nanofluid-Based Parabolic Trough Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bellos


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize and to evaluate a solar-driven trigeneration system which operates with nanofluid-based parabolic trough collectors. The trigeneration system includes an organic Rankine cycle (ORC and an absorption heat pump operating with LiBr-H2O which is powered by the rejected heat of the ORC. Toluene, n-octane, Octamethyltrisiloxane (MDM and cyclohexane are the examined working fluids in the ORC. The use of CuO and Al2O3 nanoparticles in the Syltherm 800 (base fluid is investigated in the solar field loop. The analysis is performed with Engineering Equation Solver (EES under steady state conditions in order to give the emphasis in the exergetic optimization of the system. Except for the different working fluid investigation, the system is optimized by examining three basic operating parameters in all the cases. The pressure in the turbine inlet, the temperature in the ORC condenser and the nanofluid concentration are the optimization variables. According to the final results, the combination of toluene in the ORC with the CuO nanofluid is the optimum choice. The global maximum exergetic efficiency is 24.66% with pressure ratio is equal to 0.7605, heat rejection temperature 113.7 °C and CuO concentration 4.35%.

  17. Simulation analysis of position error of parabolic trough concentrator mirror installation (United States)

    Tian, Guo-liang; Yan, Bi-xi; Dong, Mingli; Wang, Jun; Sun, Peng


    The research showed the simulation of position error when assembling a reflective mirror of parabolic trough concentrator. The shape of a reflective mirror is like a parabolic cylinder model, relying on the back of the four-point mounted on a special setup, making it unable to move. Therefore, it is of great importance of the machining precision of special bracket. We need to analyze the influence of reflective mirror`s intercept factor in order to guide the processing precision. It is assumed that each reflective mirror is rigid, we have calculated the intercept factor of reflector with mounting points' random error of different standard deviation, comparing the simulating results with TRACEPRO. As a sequence, we can approve the feasibility of the algorithm, and give the effect of different random errors on the light-gathering efficiency. On the basis, we provide the machining accuracy of bracket. The simulation results show that when the mounting points' standard deviation of position error is less than 0.5 mm, the intercept factor of receiver has reached upwards of 92% with 60 mm diameter for receiver, which can satisfy the design requirements.

  18. Objective detection of long-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough using GNSS data (1996-2016) (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akio


    This paper presents a method for objective detection of long-term slow slip events with durations on the order of years, on the plate boundary along the Nankai Trough, relying on global navigation satellite system daily coordinate data. The Chugoku region of Japan was held fixed to remove common mode errors, and a displacement component was calculated relative to the direction of plate subduction. Correlations were then calculated between this displacement component and a 3-year ramp function with a 1-year slope. Nearly all periods of strong correlation coincide with periods of previously reported long-term slow slip events. A period of strong correlation around the Kii Channel in 2000-2002 is attributed to a previously undocumented long-term slow slip event beneath the Kii Channel and the eastern part of Shikoku Island with an equivalent moment magnitude of 6.6. This detection method reveals variation among long-term slow slip events along the Nankai Trough.

  19. An analysis of the technical and economic performance of a parabolic trough concentrator for solar industrial process heat application (United States)

    Clark, J. A.


    Design parameters and economic projections of importance to the commercial realization of mass-produced parabolic trough solar concentrators as industrial heat suppliers are presented. Numerical formulas are defined for obtaining a figure of merit for the thermal efficiency of a concentrator, taking into account the reflectivity, the mirror-receiver intercept factor, the end loss factor, tracking and misalignment errors, the absorptivity-transmissivity product at normal incidence of the receiver tube and its glass envelope, and durability. An economic analysis which includes all costs, tax write-offs, comparisons with conventional fuels, inflation rate, time of borrowing, maintenance, profits, and conversion efficiencies is developed. It was determined that the trough systems will become competitive in the U.S. when installed costs are $15.79/sq ft over a 10-yr investment period

  20. Formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes in an estuarine turbidity zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Marius; Schrottke, Kerstin; Bartholomä, Alexander


    The formation and entrainment of fluid mud layers in troughs of subtidal dunes were investigated in the Weser Estuary, North Sea, Germany, based on hydroacoustic measurements. Near-bed suspension layers were found to consist of a suspension of large mud flocs of variable concentration, ranging from...... 25 g/L below the lutocline to 70 g/L at the river bed, whereas the gelling concentration was below 70 g/L. Sites of fluid mud formation coincided with the location of the estuarine turbidity zone during slack water. On average, near-bed density gradients were initially observed in dune troughs 1.2 h...... before slack water, and all fluid mud layers were entrained 2.3 h after slack water. No shear instabilities occurred until 1.8 h after slack water. While the flow was oriented in the dune direction, rapid entrainment was related to the development of the turbulent flow field behind dunes and is explained...

  1. The Nankai Trough earthquake tsunamis in Korea: Numerical studies of the 1707 Hoei earthquake and physics-based scenarios (United States)

    Kim, S.; Saito, T.; Fukuyama, E.; Kang, T. S.


    Historical documents in Korea and China report abnormal waves in the sea and rivers close to the date of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which occurred in the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. This indicates that the tsunami caused by the Hoei earthquake might have reached Korea and China, which suggests a potential hazard in Korea from large earthquakes in the Nankai Trough. We conducted tsunami simulations to study the details of tsunamis in Korea caused by large earthquakes. We employed the 1707 Hoei earthquake source model and physics-based scenarios of anticipated earthquake in the Nankai subduction zone. We also considered the effect of horizontal displacement on tsunami generation. Our simulation results from the Hoei earthquake model and the anticipated earthquake models showed that the maximum tsunami height along the Korean coast was less than 0.5 m. Even though the tsunami is not life-threatening, the effect of larger earthquakes should be still considered.

  2. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones

    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  3. Structure of the poleward wall of the trough and the inclination of the geomagnetic field above the EISCAT radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Jones


    Full Text Available A special high-resolution routine of the EISCAT radar has been used to investigate the structure and development of the poleward wall of a deep trough in electron density. The feature was tracked by the radar during a 7-hour period under very quiet geomagnetic conditions. The field-aligned nature of the structure enabled an estimate to be made of the inclination of the geomagnetic field above EISCAT that was in good agreement with the current model. Observations of narrow field-aligned enhancements in electron temperature demonstrated that the wall of this trough is a dynamic feature, reforming regularly as the electron density responds on a time scale of tens of minutes to energy input from soft-particle precipitation.

  4. Second Generation Novel High Temperature Commercial Receiver & Low Cost High Performance Mirror Collector for Parabolic Solar Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies, White River Junction, VT (United States)


    Norwich Technologies (NT) is developing a disruptively superior solar field for trough concentrating solar power (CSP). Troughs are the leading CSP technology (85% of installed capacity), being highly deployable and similar to photovoltaic (PV) systems for siting. NT has developed the SunTrap receiver, a disruptive alternative to vacuum-tube concentrating solar power (CSP) receivers, a market currently dominated by the Schott PTR-70. The SunTrap receiver will (1) operate at higher temperature (T) by using an insulated, recessed radiation-collection system to overcome the energy losses that plague vacuum-tube receivers at high T, (2) decrease acquisition costs via simpler structure, and (3) dramatically increase reliability by eliminating vacuum. It offers comparable optical efficiency with thermal loss reduction from ≥ 26% (at presently standard T) to ≥ 55% (at high T), lower acquisition costs, and near-zero O&M costs.

  5. Lopinavir/ritonavir trough concentrations with the tablet formulation in HIV-1-infected women during the third trimester of pregnancy. (United States)

    Calza, Leonardo; Manfredi, Roberto; Trapani, Filippo; Salvadori, Caterina; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Borderi, Marco; Grossi, Gabriele; Motta, Roberto; Viale, Pierluigi


    An observational, open-label study was performed to assess changes of lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations during pregnancy. Adult HIV-1-infected women during the third trimester of pregnancy and on stable antiretroviral treatment including zidovudine/lamivudine plus lopinavir/ritonavir tablets (400/100 mg twice daily) were asked to participate. This group was compared with a group of non-pregnant HIV-1-infected women receiving the same antiretroviral regimen. The trough plasma concentration (C(trough)) of lopinavir and ritonavir was assessed at steady-state by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry method. A total of 41 HIV-positive female patients were enrolled in the study, with a median age of 28 y (range 20-37 y). These patients were stratified into 2 groups: 21 women in the third trimester of pregnancy (group A) and 20 non-pregnant women (group B). The geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) plasma C(trough) of lopinavir was 4205 (2418-6896) ng/ml in group A and 5098 (3187-8084) ng/ml in group B. The reduction in lopinavir plasma levels observed in group A was not significant (geometric mean ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.62-1.32; p = 0.411). No correlation was found between lopinavir plasma levels and adverse events (such as diarrhoea and hyperlipidaemia) or immunological parameters of HIV disease, and no changes in plasma HIV viral load were reported. In this study, a slight but not significant decrease in the plasma lopinavir C(trough) was found during the third trimester of pregnancy, suggesting that standard dosing of the tablet formulation is also appropriate during the later stages of pregnancy.

  6. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography


    Aladjev, G. A.; Evstafiev, O. V.; Mingalev, V. S.; G. I. Mingaleva; E. D. Tereshchenko; Khudukon, B. Z.


    Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE) in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionospher...

  7. Inland stress accumulation in the Southwest Japan arc due to interseismic coupling along the Nankai trough and slab rollback under the Ryukyu trench (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya


    In the last 20 years, Southwest (SW) Japan has experienced M7 inland earthquakes, such as the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake. Korean Peninsula, which is regarded as a stable region, also suffered by the largest earthquake (Mw5.4) ever observed in 2016. The historical earthquake catalog based on paleographical studies implies that M7-class inland earthquakes were activated from 50 years before interplate earthquakes beneath the Nankai Trough, which repeatedly occurred with the interval of 100-200 years. Considering that 70 years has passed since the last interplate ruptures in 1944 and 1946, the recent M7 inland earthquakes appear related with stress accumulation before an interplate earthquake. We attempt to reveal this relation between the inland activity and the interplate earthquakes using a 3-D finite element model (FEM) including the viscoelastic feature in the mantle. Our FEM considers a region of 3700 km x 4600 km x 700 km, incorporating the Pacific and the Philippine sea slabs by interpolating models for the Northeast (NE) and SW Japan arcs, as well as the Ryukyu, Kuril and Izu-Bonin arcs. In particular, the complex geometry of the Philippine Sea slab with the large bend due to the subduciton of the Kyushu-Palau ridge is crucial to creat the stress field in SW Japan. The model region is divided into about 1000,000 tetrahedral elements with dimension ranging from 5-100 km. Using a distribution of interplate coupling on the plate interface from previous studies, we calculated velocity field and stress accumulation rate. Calculated velocity field and stress accumulation pattern well reproduced the observed velocity field and the mechanism of the recent inland earthquakes, respectively, in the middle region of the SW Japan. However, these results cannot explain the velocity and stress fields in the southern part of the Kyushu island, which is affected by the slab rollback occurring in the Ryukyu trench. We calculate the effect of slab rollback by assigning

  8. Numerical Analysis on Flow Behavior of Molten Iron and Slag in Main Trough of Blast Furnace during Tapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional model was developed according to number 4 of the main trough of blast furnace at China Steel Co. (CSC BF4. The k-ε equations and volume of fluid (VOF were used for describing the turbulent flow at the impinging zone of trough, indicating fluids of liquid iron, molten slag, and air in the governing equation, respectively, in this paper. The pressure field and velocity profile were then obtained by the finite volume method (FVM and the pressure implicit with splitting of operators (PISO, respectively, followed by calculating the wall shear stress through Newton’s law of viscosity for validation. Then, the operation conditions and the main trough geometry were numerically examined for the separation efficiency of iron from slag stream. As shown in the results, the molten iron losses associated with the slag can be reduced by increasing the height difference between the slag and iron ports, reducing the tapping rate, and increasing the height of the opening under the skimmer.

  9. Interplate locking condition derived from seafloor geodetic observation in the shallowest subduction segment at the Central Nankai Trough, Japan (United States)

    Yasuda, Kenji; Tadokoro, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Sota; Kimura, Hiroshi; Matsuhiro, Kenjiro


    We monitored seafloor crustal deformation at two observation stations on opposite sides of the Nankai Trough from 2013 to 2016 in order to investigate the interplate locking condition along the Central Nankai Trough. We estimated the seafloor crustal deformation with respect to the Amurian Plate based on five observations. The results for two stations, TCA and TOA, were 38±25 mm/yr toward N78°W and 57±21 mm/yr toward N69°W (1σ), respectively. The displacement rate at TOA is consistent with the motion of the Philippine Sea Plate with respect to the Amurian Plate using the Euler vector of the REVEL model. The displacement rate at TCA is similar to that at other seafloor geodetic stations, e.g., 48±10 mm/yr at KUM2 station, on the Kumano Basin. The interplate coupling rate was estimated to be roughly 70±40% (1σ) in the shallowest segment of the Nankai Trough.

  10. Exploring fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Guang-Hua; Xu, Xin-Ya; Nong, Xu-Hua; Wang, Jie; Amin, Muhammad; Qi, Shu-Hua


    The present study investigated the fungal diversity in four different deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS1). A total of 40,297 fungal ITS1 sequences clustered into 420 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% sequence similarity and 170 taxa were recovered from these sediments. Most ITS1 sequences (78%) belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota (17.3%), Zygomycota (1.5%) and Chytridiomycota (0.8%), and a small proportion (2.4%) belonged to unassigned fungal phyla. Compared with previous studies on fungal diversity of sediments from deep-sea environments by culture-dependent approach and clone library analysis, the present result suggested that Illumina sequencing had been dramatically accelerating the discovery of fungal community of deep-sea sediments. Furthermore, our results revealed that Sordariomycetes was the most diverse and abundant fungal class in this study, challenging the traditional view that the diversity of Sordariomycetes phylotypes was low in the deep-sea environments. In addition, more than 12 taxa accounted for 21.5% sequences were found to be rarely reported as deep-sea fungi, suggesting the deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough harbored a plethora of different fungal communities compared with other deep-sea environments. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments from Okinawa Trough using high-throughput Illumina sequencing.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Optical Evaluation and Comparison of Symmetric 2D CPC and V-Trough Collector for Photovoltaic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasen Ikwaba Paul


    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and experimental optical evaluation and comparison of symmetric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC and V-trough collector. For direct optical properties comparison, both concentrators were deliberately designed to have the same geometrical concentration ratio (1.96, aperture area, absorber area, and maximum concentrator length. The theoretical optical evaluation of the CPC and V-trough collector was carried out using a ray-trace technique while the experimental optical efficiency and solar energy flux distributions were analysed using an isolated cell PV module method. Results by simulation analysis showed that for the CPC, the highest optical efficiency was 95% achieved in the interval range of 0° to ±20° whereas the highest outdoor experimental optical efficiency was 94% in the interval range of 0° to ±20°. For the V-tough collector, the highest optical efficiency for simulation and outdoor experiments was about 96% and 93%, respectively, both in the interval range of 0° to ±5°. Simulation results also showed that the CPC and V-trough exhibit higher variation in non-illumination intensity distributions over the PV module surface for larger incidence angles than lower incidence angles. On the other hand, the maximum power output for the cells with concentrators varied depending on the location of the cell in the PV module.

  12. Standing and Travelling Wave Contributions to the Persistent Ridge-Trough Over North America During Winter 2013/14 (United States)

    Watt-Meyer, O.; Kushner, P. J.


    The winter season over North America during 2013/14 was dominated by a persistent ridge-trough that brought warm and dry conditions to the southwestern U.S., and markedly cold temperatures to central and eastern North America [Wang et al., 2014; Hartmann, 2015]. In addition, several cold air outbreaks occurred during the winter season, the strongest of which was around 7 January 2014 and led to minimum daily temperature records being set at many weather stations including Atlanta, Austin, Chicago and New York [Screen et al., in press]. This study uses a novel decomposition of wave variability into standing and travelling components [Watt-Meyer and Kushner, 2015] to diagnose the anomalous circulation of the 2013/14 winter season. This spectral decomposition is an improvement on previous methods because it explicitly accounts for the covariance between standing and travelling waves, and because the real-space components of the signal can be easily reconstructed. An index representing the ridge-trough dipole is computed using mid-tropospheric heights and shown to be well correlated with surface temperatures over central and eastern North America. The contributions to this dipole index from standing waves, westward travelling waves, and eastward travelling waves are calculated. The analysis demonstrates that the cold air outbreak of 7 January 2014 was driven by a synoptic wave of record breaking amplitude intensifying a persistent background amplification of the typical ridge-trough structure seen during North American winter.

  13. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to Shakespeare. Its geographical scope is not confined to Southern Africa. Contributions discussing the legacy of Shakespeare elsewhere in Africa, with a specific focus on the Shakespearean experience in particular African countries, ...

  14. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold


    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  15. Real-time drilling mud gas monitoring for qualitative evaluation of hydrocarbon gas composition during deep sea drilling in the Nankai Trough Kumano Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian B; Wiersberg, Thomas; Heuer, Verena B; Wendt, Jenny; Erzinger, Jörg; Kopf, Achim


    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 338 was the second scientific expedition with D/V Chikyu during which riser drilling was conducted as part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment...

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity associated with dosing schedules that maintain troughs between 15 and 20 milligrams per liter. (United States)

    van Hal, S J; Paterson, D L; Lodise, T P


    In an effort to maximize outcomes, recent expert guidelines recommend more-intensive vancomycin dosing schedules to maintain vancomycin troughs between 15 and 20 mg/liter. The widespread use of these more-intensive regimens has been associated with an increase in vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity reports. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to determine the nephrotoxicity potential of maintaining higher troughs in clinical practice. All studies pertaining to vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity between 1996 and April 2012 were identified from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trial Registry, and Medline databases and analyzed according to Cochrane guidelines. Of the initial 240 studies identified, 38 were reviewed, and 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, higher troughs (≥ 15 mg/liter) were associated with increased odds of nephrotoxicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.95 to 3.65) relative to lower troughs of liter. The relationship between a trough of ≥ 15 mg/liter and nephrotoxicity persisted when the analysis was restricted to studies that examined only initial trough concentrations (OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.81 to 5.37). The relationship between troughs of ≥ 15 mg/liter and nephrotoxicity persisted after adjustment for covariates known to independently increase the risk of a nephrotoxicity event. An incremental increase in nephrotoxicity was also observed with longer durations of vancomycin administration. Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity was reversible in the majority of cases, with short-term dialysis required only in 3% of nephrotoxic episodes. The collective literature indicates that an exposure-nephrotoxicity relationship for vancomycin exists. The probability of a nephrotoxic event increased as a function of the trough concentration and duration of therapy.

  17. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate (United States)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy


    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and δ18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for

  18. Ice sheet retreat dynamics inferred from glacial morphology of the central Pine Island Bay Trough, West Antarctica (United States)

    Jakobsson, Martin; Anderson, John B.; Nitsche, Frank O.; Gyllencreutz, Richard; Kirshner, Alexandra E.; Kirchner, Nina; O'Regan, Matthew; Mohammad, Rezwan; Eriksson, Björn


    Pine Island Glacier drains portions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet into the Amundsen Sea. During the Last Glacial Maximum the glacier extended nearly 500 km from its present location onto the outer continental shelf. Unusually restricted sea-ice cover during the austral summer of 2010 allowed for a systematic multibeam swath-bathymetric and chirp sonar survey of the mid-shelf section of Pine Island Trough. The mapped glacial landforms reveal new information about the paleo-Pine Island Ice Stream's dynamic retreat from the mid-shelf area and confirm previous suggestion of a retreat in distinct steps. The periods of grounding line stability during the overall retreat phase are marked by sediment accumulations, i.e. grounding zone wedges. These wedges are here mapped in sufficient detail to characterize spatial dimensions and estimate the volume of deposited sediment. Considering a range of sediment flux rates from the paleo-Pine Island Ice Stream we estimate that the largest and most clearly defined grounding zone wedge, located at about 73°S in the surveyed area, took between 600 and 2000 years to form. The ice stream retreated landward of this wedge before 12.3 cal ka BP. The swath-bathymetric imagery of landforms in Pine Island Trough includes glacial features that suggest that retreat between periods of grounding line stability may be associated with episodes of ice shelf break-up. The depths of grounding line wedges decrease in a landward direction, from 740 to 670 m, and record elevation of the grounding line as it stepped landward. In all, the grounding line elevation varied by only ˜80 m over a distance of just over 100 km, implying a low ice sheet profile during retreat. Finally, we revisited seismic reflection profile NB9902, acquired along Pine Island Trough in 1999, in combination with the newly acquired swath-bathymetric imagery from 2010. Together these data show that the ice stream paused during its retreat to form grounding zone wedges at an area

  19. Environmental risks of the gas hydrate field development in the Eastern Nankai Trough (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Nagakubo, S.


    To establish any kinds of new energy resources, environmental impacts of the technology should be well understood before full industrial implementation. Methane hydrate (MH), a relatively clean fossil energy with low CO2 and no SOx emission, is not an exception. Because methane gas itself has strong greenhouse gas effect, and methane hydrate is not stable under the atmospheric pressure and room temperature, public image of MH field development is very risky game and potentially disastrous to the global climate. However, the real physics of the MH bearing sediments is far different from such images. MH21 Research Consortium in Japan has studied about the resource assessment and production techniques to develop MH since 2001. As the results, we found several gas hydrate concentrated zones with pore filling type hydrate in sandy layers of turbidite sediment in the Eastern Nankai Trough area off coasts of the Central Japan. The depressurization technique, in the other word, in-situ MH dissociation by water production and natural heat supply from surrounding formation, will be used as the basic method to produce methane gas from MH. Under the conditions, we have evaluated realistic environmental risk of the MH production. Because the most MH found in the Eastern Nankai Trough are composed of biogenic and almost pure methane, there is no concern of sea water contamination by oil releases that is the most common environmental disaster caused by misconducts of the oil industry. Also MH reservoirs there are not pressurized, and blowout of wells during drilling is very unlikely. Endothermic MH dissociation process decreases formation temperature with depressurization, and give negative feedback, then, there is no chance of chain reaction. Heat supply from surrounding formations is necessary for continuous dissociation, but heat transfer in the formations is relatively slow, and the dissociation rate is limited. Once the operation to pump water in boreholes for

  20. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy


    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  1. Sensor for measuring hydrogen partial pressure in parabolic trough power plant expansion tanks (United States)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  2. In air durability study of solar selective coating for parabolic trough technology (United States)

    Raccurt, Olivier; Matino, Francesca; Disdier, Angela; Braillon, Julien; Stollo, Alessio; Bourdon, Delphine; Maccari, Augusto


    The effectiveness of Parabolic Trough CSP (Concentrated Solar Power) is strongly dependent on the Heat Collector Element (HCE) and specifically on the thermal stability of solar absorber at high temperature. For Molten Salt applications, operative temperature up to 600°C can be reached with vacuum solar receiver tubes (HCE). Nevertheless operation in air is also possible: such operative mode requires yet a deep knowledge of the possible degradation mechanisms of the solar selective coating. Here we report on the results of the optical and thermal investigation performed by CEA LITEN on Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) absorber coating according to the established procedures and the experimental facilities settled in the framework of the STAGE-STE project. A complete study of the accelerating thermal ageing test in air at high temperatures (up to 500°C) of ASE solar absorber is presented. The relation between optical parameter, such as solar absorbance and emittance, and temperature as function of time is used to study the thermal stability of coating. To this aim, we use a performance criterion defined as the variation of solar emittance solar absorbance during the ageing test. The degradation mechanism at elevated temperatures has been identified as oxidation of the metallic part of the cermet layer, W to WO3 and WOx. By means of an Arrhenius analysis, an activation energy of approximately 150 kJ/mol is calculated for this degradation process. Such a value has been found consistent with the expects from literature. Additionally, the lifetime prediction in the case of CSP plant in Ouarzazate is presented. The results of this analysis show a good thermal stability of samples up to 375°C for 25 years of uses in CSP plants working in air.

  3. Modelling and performance study of a continuous adsorption refrigeration system driven by parabolic trough solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadar, A. El; Mimet, A. [Energetics Laboratory, Sciences Faculty, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, BP 2121, 93000 Tetouan (Morocco); Perez-Garcia, M. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria (Spain)


    This article suggests a numerical study of a continuous adsorption refrigeration system consisting of two adsorbent beds and powered by parabolic trough solar collector (PTC). Activated carbon as adsorbent and ammonia as refrigerant are selected. A predictive model accounting for heat balance in the solar collector components and instantaneous heat and mass transfer in adsorbent bed is presented. The validity of the theoretical model has been tested by comparison with experimental data of the temperature evolution within the adsorber during isosteric heating phase. A good agreement is obtained. The system performance is assessed in terms of specific cooling power (SCP), refrigeration cycle COP (COP{sub cycle}) and solar coefficient of performance (COP{sub s}), which were evaluated by a cycle simulation computer program. The temperature, pressure and adsorbed mass profiles in the two adsorbers have been shown. The influences of some important operating and design parameters on the system performance have been analyzed. The study has put in evidence the ability of such a system to achieve a promising performance and to overcome the intermittence of the adsorption refrigeration systems driven by solar energy. Under the climatic conditions of daily solar radiation being about 14 MJ per 0.8 m{sup 2} (17.5 MJ/m{sup 2}) and operating conditions of evaporating temperature, T{sub ev} = 0 C, condensing temperature, T{sub con} = 30 C and heat source temperature of 100 C, the results indicate that the system could achieve a SCP of the order of 104 W/kg, a refrigeration cycle COP of 0.43, and it could produce a daily useful cooling of 2515 kJ per 0.8 m{sup 2} of collector area, while its gross solar COP could reach 0.18. (author)

  4. Gas hydrate saturation and distribution in the Kumano Forearc Basin of the Nankai Trough (United States)

    Jia, Jihui; Tsuji, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Toshifumi


    The Kumano Forearc Basin is located to the south-east of the Kii Peninsula, Japan, overlying the accretionary prism in the Nankai Trough. The presence of gas hydrate in submarine sediments of the forearc basin has resulted in the widespread occurrence of bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) on seismic profiles, and has caused distinct anomalies in logging data in the region. We estimated the in situ gas hydrate saturation from logging data by using three methods: effective rock physics models, Archie's equation, and empirical relationships between acoustic impedance (AI) and water-filled porosity. The results derived from rock physics models demonstrate that gas hydrates are attached to the grain surfaces of the rock matrix and are not floating in pore space. By applying the empirical relationships to the AI distribution derived from model-based AI inversion of the three-dimensional (3D) seismic data, we mapped the spatial distribution of hydrate saturation within the Kumano Basin and characterised locally concentrated gas hydrates. Based on the results, we propose two different mechanisms of free gas supply to explain the process of gas hydrate formation in the basin: (1) migration along inclined strata that dip landwards, and (2) migration through the faults or cracks generated by intensive tectonic movements of the accretionary prism. The dipping strata with relatively low AI in the forearc basin could indicate the presence of hydrate formation due to gas migration along the dipping strata. However, high hydrate concentration is observed at fault zones with high pore pressures, thus the second mechanism likely plays an important role in the genesis of gas hydrates in the Kumano Basin. Therefore, the tectonic activities in the accretionary wedge significantly influence the hydrate saturation and distribution in the Kumano Forearc Basin.

  5. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej


    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  6. Diagenetic evaluation of Pannonian lacustrine deposits in the Makó Trough, southeastern Hungary (United States)

    Szőcs, Emese; Milovský, Rastislav; Gier, Susanne; Hips, Kinga; Sztanó, Orsolya


    The Makó Trough is the deepest sub-basin of the Pannonian Basin. As a possible shale gas and tight gas accumulation the area was explored by several hydrocarbon companies. In this study, we present the preliminary results on the diagenetic history and the porosity evolution of sandstones and shales. Petrographic (optical microscopy, CL, blue light microscopy) and geochemical methods (SEM-EDX, WDX, O and C stable isotopes) were applied on core samples of Makó-7 well (3408- 5479 m). Processes which influenced the porosity evolution of the sandstones were compaction, cementation, mineral replacement and dissolution. The most common diagenetic minerals are carbonates (non-ferroan and Fe-bearing calcite, dolomite and ankerite), clay minerals (kaolinite, mixed layer illite-smectite and chlorite) and other silicates (quartz and feldspar). Initial clay mineral and ductile grain content also influences reservoir quality. The volumetrically most significant diagenetic minerals are calcite and clay minerals. The petrography of calcite is variable (bright orange to dull red luminescence color, pore-filling cement, replacive phases which are occasionally scattered in the matrix). The δ13 C-PDB values of calcite range from 1.7 ‰ to -5.5 ‰, while δ18 O-PDB values range from 0.5 ‰ to -9.1 ‰, no depth related trend was observed. These data suggest that calcite occurs in more generations, i.e. eogenetic pre-compactional and mesogenetic post-compactional. Kaolinite is present in mottles in size similar to detrital grains, where remnants of feldspars can be seen. This indicates feldspar alteration via influx of water rich in organic derived carbon dioxide. Secondary porosity can be observed in carbonates and feldspars at some levels, causing the improvement of the reservoir quality.

  7. A rapid assay for on-site monitoring of infliximab trough levels: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Fidder, Herma H; Wiesmeijer, Karien C; de Dood, Claudia J; Rispens, Theo; Wolbink, Gert-Jan; Hommes, Daniel W; Tanke, Hans J


    Monitoring levels of biologicals against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been suggested to improve therapeutic outcomes in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). This pilot study describes a rapid lateral flow (LF)-based assay for on-site monitoring of serum trough levels of humanized monoclonal antibody infliximab (IFX). The applied chromatographic method utilizes sequential flows of diluted serum, wash buffer, and an immunoglobulin generic label on LF strips with a Test line comprised of TNF-α. The successive flows permitted enrichment of IFX at the Test line before the label was applied. The label, luminescent upconverting phosphor (UCP) particles coated with protein-A, emits a 550-nm visible light upon excitation with 980-nm infrared light. IFX concentrations were determined through measurement of UCP fluorescence at the Test line. The assay was optimized to detect IFX levels as low as 0.17 μg/mL in serum. For patients with IBD, this limit is appropriate to detect levels associated with loss of response (0.5 μg IFX/mL). The assay was evaluated with clinical samples from patients with Crohn's disease and correlated well within the physiologically relevant range from 0.17 to 10 μg/mL with an IFX-specific ELISA. Performance of the assay was further successfully validated with samples from blood donors, IFX negative IBD patients, and rheumatoid arthritis patients that had developed anti-IFX antibodies. Because of its generic nature, the assay is suited for detecting most therapeutic anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibodies.

  8. Higher infliximab trough levels are associated with perianal fistula healing in patients with Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Yarur, A J; Kanagala, V; Stein, D J; Czul, F; Quintero, M A; Agrawal, D; Patel, A; Best, K; Fox, C; Idstein, K; Abreu, M T


    Infliximab has been found to be efficacious in the treatment of fistulas in the setting of Crohn's disease, even though some patients do not benefit from therapy. To assess the correlation between perianal fistula healing and trough levels of infliximab. In this cross-sectional study, we identified patients with Crohn's disease who had perianal fistulas and were treated with infliximab for at least 24 weeks. We excluded patients who underwent a faecal diversion procedure or proctectomy. Predictive variables included demographics, disease phenotype, disease activity, infliximab levels, anti-infliximab antibodies. The primary outcome was fistula healing defined as the absence of drainage. The secondary outcome was complete fistula closure and mucosal healing. 117 patients were included. Patients with fistula healing had significantly higher median serum infliximab levels when compared to those with active fistulas [15.8 vs. 4.4 μg/mL, respectively (P infliximab levels. The AUC for the association between fistula healing and infliximab levels was 0.82 (P infliximab levels and fistula closure was 0.69 (P = 0.014). Patients with anti-infliximab antibodies had a lower chance of achieving fistula healing (OR: 0.04 [95%CI: 0.005-0.3], P infliximab levels and rates of fistula healing. Achieving infliximab levels ≥10.1 mcg/mL in patients with Crohn's disease and perianal fistulas may improve outcomes as part of a treat-to-target strategy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mantle Source of Cretaceous Seafloor in the Nova-Canton Trough (United States)

    Pyle, D. G.; Mahoney, J. J.


    The Nova-Canton Trough (NCT) is an 8-km-deep abyss that merges with the far western trace of the Clipperton Fracture Zone north-northwest of the Manihiki Plateau. Ocean crust in this region formed during Cretaceous long magnetic normal Chron 34. Larson (Geology, 25, 779) argued that the NCT is part of an aborted rift system that formed between the Ontong Java and Manihiki plume heads, and terminated plateau construction around 120 Ma via drain-off of plume mantle to the region of rifting. Taylor (EPSL, 241, 372) instead proposed the two plateaus formed as one short-lived mega-plateau that broke apart, and that the NCT is part of the post-breakup transform system that separated a series of short spreading segments. Recently, the R.V. Kilo Moana dredged four sites along the prominent north-facing escarpment of the NCT between 168° 06' W and 168° 42' W at ~1° 24' S, and retrieved basalt, diabase, gabbro, pyroxenite, peridotite, serpentinite, breccias and sedimentary rocks. The diversity of rock types recovered demonstrates that a large cross-section through Cretaceous seafloor is exposed. The MgO content of the basalt and diabase samples varies from 8.9-4.3 wt.%. Incompatible element patterns display relative depletions in alteration- resistant large-ion lithophile elements, and most samples have a distinctive hump-shaped REE pattern, with chondrite-normalized (Sm/Yb)n >1.3 and (La/Sm)n values between +8.2 and +7.5. In contrast, data for the Ontong Java and Manihiki plateaus fall well below the Pacific MORB field at lower 206Pb/204Pb and ɛNd < +6.6. Thus, our data provide no evidence for Ontong Java or Manihiki mantle components in the NCT source.

  10. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.


    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  11. Start-up performance of parabolic trough concentrating solar power plants (United States)

    Ferruzza, Davide; Topel, Monika; Basaran, Ibrahim; Laumert, Björn; Haglind, Fredrik


    Concentrating solar power plants, even though they can be integrated with thermal energy storage, are still subjected to cyclic start-up and shut-downs. As a consequence, in order to maximize their profitability and performance, the flexibility with respect to transient operations is essential. In this regard, two of the key components identified are the steam generation system and steam turbine. In general it is desirable to have fast ramp-up rates during the start-up of a power plant. However ramp-up rates are limited by, among other things, thermal stresses, which if high enough can compromise the life of the components. Moreover, from an operability perspective it might not be optimal to have designs for the highest heating rates, as there may be other components limiting the power plant start-up. Therefore, it is important to look at the interaction between the steam turbine and steam generator to determine the optimal ramp rates. This paper presents a methodology to account for thermal stresses limitations during the power plant start up, aiming at identifying which components limit the ramp rates. A detailed dynamic model of a parabolic trough power plant was developed and integrated with a control strategy to account for the start-up limitations of both the turbine and steam generator. The models have been introduced in an existing techno-economic tool developed by the authors (DYESOPT). The results indicated that for each application, an optimal heating rates range can be identified. For the specific case presented in the paper, an optimal range of 7-10 K/min of evaporator heating rate can result in a 1.7-2.1% increase in electricity production compared to a slower component (4 K/min).

  12. Deepest and hottest hydrothermal activity in the Okinawa Trough: the Yokosuka site at Yaeyama Knoll (United States)

    Miyazaki, Junichi; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Makabe, Akiko; Takahashi, Ayu; Kitada, Kazuya; Torimoto, Junji; Matsui, Yohei; Tasumi, Eiji; Shibuya, Takazo; Nakamura, Kentaro; Horai, Shunsuke; Sato, Shun; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kanzaki, Hayato; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Hirai, Miho; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Okino, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiromi Kayama; Kumagai, Hidenori; Chen, Chong


    Since the initial discovery of hydrothermal vents in 1977, these `extreme' chemosynthetic systems have been a focus of interdisciplinary research. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the semi-enclosed East China Sea between the Eurasian continent and the Ryukyu arc, hosts more than 20 known vent sites but all within a relatively narrow depth range (600-1880 m). Depth is a significant factor in determining fluid temperature and chemistry, as well as biological composition. However, due to the narrow depth range of known sites, the actual influence of depth here has been poorly resolved. Here, the Yokosuka site (2190 m), the first OT vent exceeding 2000 m depth is reported. A highly active hydrothermal vent site centred around four active vent chimneys reaching 364°C in temperature, it is the hottest in the OT. Notable Cl depletion (130 mM) and both high H2 and CH4 concentrations (approx. 10 mM) probably result from subcritical phase separation and thermal decomposition of sedimentary organic matter. Microbiota and fauna were generally similar to other sites in the OT, although with some different characteristics. In terms of microbiota, the H2-rich vent fluids in Neuschwanstein chimney resulted in the dominance of hydrogenotrophic chemolithoautotrophs such as Thioreductor and Desulfobacterium. For fauna, the dominance of the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus aduloides is surprising given other nearby vent sites are usually dominated by B. platifrons and/or B. japonicus, and a sponge field in the periphery dominated by Poecilosclerida is unusual for OT vents. Our insights from the Yokosuka site implies that although the distribution of animal species may be linked to depth, the constraint is perhaps not water pressure and resulting chemical properties of the vent fluid but instead physical properties of the surrounding seawater. The potential significance of these preliminary results and prospect for future research on this unique site are discussed.

  13. Comparison of Southern California Shear Strain Rates From Triangulation, Trilateration, and GPS (United States)

    King, N.; Yong, A.; Langbein, J.


    Changes in crustal deformation measurement techniques improve precision but interrupt the geodetic record. We compare maximum shear strain rates and directions from various measurement techniques used in the same regions during different time periods. The data were 1898-1967 triangulation, 1971-1992 trilateration, 1991-2000 survey-mode GPS, and 1997-2006 GPS data from permanent stations. In the Salton Trough, results tend to disagree, both between techniques and different triangulation epochs. This may be due to coseismic and postseismic signals from large earthquakes, non-uniform strain at the southern end of the San Andreas fault, or monument instability in the region's deep sediments. Survey-mode GPS results differ significantly, but not systematically, from trilateration and permanent GPS results in many regions. It is unlikely that these differences reflect true differences in tectonic strain; it is more probable that this is due to underestimated formal errors, monument instability, or setup problems in the survey-mode data. Outside the Salton Trough, trilateration and permanent GPS results are generally consistent, as are triangulation and both survey-mode and permanent GPS results. All techniques show that the maximum shear strain rate is typically 0.2 to 0.3 ppm/yr near the junction of the San Andreas and Garlock faults, 0.2 to 0.8 ppm/yr in the Salton Trough, and 0.1 ppm/yr over a broad region centered near the Los Angeles basin. Direction of maximum shear generally parallels the strike of local faults, rotating with the San Andreas as it undergoes its Big Bend. In summary, southern California strain rate patterns have been steady during the past century.

  14. Southern deepwater swamps (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford


    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  15. University of Southern California (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  16. Southern pulpwood production, 1961 (United States)

    Vernon L. Robinson; Agnes C. Nichols


    Southern pulpwood production reached 24,230,728 cords in 1961--60 percent of the Nations total. Significant increases were noted in the consumption of hardwood and residues. But pine roundwood remained virtually unchanged for the third consecutive year.

  17. Earthquakes in Southern California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  18. Southern hemisphere observations (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  19. Fate of liquid CO2 discharged from the hydrothermal area in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Shitashima, K.; Maeda, Y.


    Deep-sea hydrothermal systems are suitable for the on-site field analysis of a high CO2 environment in the ocean. Hydrothermal fluids are highly enriched in CO2 and show lower pH (about pH2-3) relative to seawater. The observation of the hydrothermal CO2 would provide the opportunity for understanding the physic-chemical behavior and diffusion process of CO2 in the ocean. Furthermore, the information on the hydrothermal ecosystem in the high CO2 environment is important for an environment impact assessment of the CO2 ocean sequestration. The observation of behavior of natural CO2 droplets (8-10?, 0.5ml) was carried out in the deep-sea hydrothermal system at the Okinawa Trough. The natural CO2 droplet contains CO2 of 95-98%, H2S of 2-3% and other gas species. The rising CO2 droplets were tracked by an ROV, and depth, temperature, salinity, pH and pCO2 in seawater near the CO2 droplets were measured during their ascent by using CTD and in-situ pH/pCO2 sensor. The behavior of the rising CO2 droplets was observed with an HDTV camera on an ROV. Mapping survey (400m X 400m, 3 layers) of low pH distribution was performed on the natural CO2 venting area by the grid navigation of the ROV that installed a pH/pCO2 sensor. The droplet size and the rise rate of CO2 droplets decreased during their ascent in water column (from 1470m to 900m depth). The CO2 droplets dissolved gradually and became small CO2 clathrate while rising, and the rising clathrate materials were found to disappear at 918m depth (552m above the bottom). Although the pH just above the sea floor CO2 vents showed pH 5, the pH depression in seawater surrounding the rising CO2 droplets was not observed. The results of pH mapping survey showed only localized pH depression at the CO2 venting site.

  20. Crustal deformation in the Kumano Basin along the Nankai Trough inferred from repeated seafloor geodetic observations (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Okuda, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Miyata, K.; Kuno, M.


    At the Nankai Trough (NT), the Philippine Sea plate (PH) subducts beneath the southwest Japan at a rate of about 4-6 cm/yr, where great interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-200 years. A number of researchers have investigated crustal deformation caused by subduction of the PH based on geodetic measurements as represented by GPS observation. However it is difficult to infer the plate coupling strength in offshore areas, due to the poverty of offshore geodetic data. From a viewpoint of disaster mitigation, it is important to know the updip and downdip limit of the plate locking depth. For this issue, we have conducted observations of the seafloor crustal deformations around the NT using a GPS/Acoustic technique since 2004. In this system, we estimate the position of a surveying vessel by Kinematic GPS analysis and measure the distance between the vessel and the benchmark on the sea floor by Acoustic measurements. Next we determine the location of the benchmark. For the repeatability of observation, the location of benchmark is determined within a precision of 2-3 cm at horizontal components (Tadokoro et al., 2006). In the Kumano Basin, we have two seafloor benchmarks, which are located about 60 and 80 km away from the deformation front of the NT. The observations from 2005 to 2008 have illustrated that these benchmarks are moving at rates of about 5-6 cm/yr with velocity uncertainties of 1-3 cm/yr relative to the Amurian plate. In this study, in order to estimate interplate coupling at the NT, we calculated surface deformations accompanied with plate subduction in an elastic half-space and compared them with on- and offshore GPS velocities. Then, we investigated the effect of observation for the seafloor crustal deformations on slip resolution on the plate interface. We conclude that offshore crustal deformation data provide good constraints for the estimation of fault slips at the shallower part of the plate interface, especially at the depths

  1. Observations of Beach-Dune Interaction in Man-Made Trough Blowouts (United States)

    Ruessink, G.; Arens, B.; Kuipers, M.; Van Onselen, E.; Donker, J.


    Dunes act as an indispensable natural safety barrier against marine flooding, are valuable natural environments, serve for the production of drinking water, and offer recreational opportunities. The safety function has dominated dune management in the Netherlands, as well as on other developed shores, for decades. Measures to minimize the seaward loss of foredune sand under storm wave attack have resulted in over-stabilized foredunes and, accordingly, have impoverished natural beauty and degraded biodiversity. Stabilized foredunes are nowadays increasingly reactivated by removing vegetation and by digging trenches that resemble natural trough blowouts as corridors for aeolian transport from the beach into the backdunes. Crucially, such measures see the beach-dune system as an integrated landscape, reconnecting the beach, foredune and backdunes through aeolian transport. This raises questions on how much sand is actually blown into the dunes, which factors affect this amount, and how effective the large-scale dune-restoration measures are. This contribution addresses the evolution of five trenches that were dug through the 20-m high foredune at the Dutch National Park Zuid-Kennemerland. The width of the trenches was 50 - 100 m, their cross-dune length was 60 - 100 m, and the heighest part of the valley floor was 9 m above mean sea level. Since their construction in the 2012/2013 winter the trenches have been surveyed approximately 3 times per year using airborne laser scanning or UAV photography, resulting in a multi-temporal data set of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) with a 1x1 m resolution. Difference maps illustrate that the sidewalls of the trenches have steepened during the first two years after construction, but that their width and the height of the valley floor have remained largely unaltered. Landward of the trenches large sedimentation lobes have formed, which with time have grown both laterally and vertically. Locally, the lobe thickness now exceeds 5 m

  2. A study investigating the association of dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab and infliximab trough levels (United States)

    Huang, Vivian Wai-Mei; Dhami, Neil; Fedorak, Darryl; Prosser, Connie; Shalapay, Carol; Kroeker, Karen Ivy; Halloran, Brendan Phillip; Dieleman, Levinus Albert; Fedorak, Richard Neil


    BACKGROUND: Although infliximab is an effective therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), it is associated with dermatological events and infusion reactions. It is not known whether a relationship between these adverse events (AEs) and infliximab trough levels (ITLs) exists. OBJECTIVES: To report the prevalence of infliximab-associated AEs in IBD patients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy, and to correlate ITLs with dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab. METHODS: Adult IBD patients receiving stable maintenance infliximab therapy were recruited from the University of Alberta Infusion Clinic (Edmonton, Alberta). ITLs were measured in blood samples collected before infusion, and the patients’ records were reviewed for dermatological and infusion reactions to infliximab. RESULTS: One-quarter (18 of 71 [25.4%]) of patients experienced dermatological or infusion reactions to infliximab: nine (12.7%) dermatological events and nine (12.7%) infusion reactions. The median ITL was similar among patients with and without these AEs (7.2 μg/mL [interquartile range (IQR) 2.0 μg/mL to 13.3 μg/mL] versus 6.6 μg/mL [IQR 3.2 μg/mL to 12.7 μg/mL]; P=0.648). The median ITL of patients who experienced infusion reactions (2.0 μg/mL [IQR 0.1 μg/mL to 5.7 μg/mL]) was lower than that of patients who experienced no such AEs (6.6 μg/mL [IQR 3.2 μg/mL to 12.7 μg/mL]; P=0.008]) and lower than that of patients who experienced dermatological AEs (13.3 μg/mL [IQR 8.8 μg/mL to 17.4 μg/mL]; Pinfliximab therapy experienced dermatological and infusion reactions. Low ITLs were correlated with infusion reactions, and normal or high ITLs with dermatological events. PMID:25706572

  3. Hydro-bio-geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments from Nankai Trough (United States)

    Santamarina, J.C.; Dai, Shifeng; Terzariol, M.; Jang, Jeonghwan; Waite, William F.; Winters, William J.; Nagao, J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.


    Natural hydrate-bearing sediments from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, were studied using the Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs) to obtain geomechanical, hydrological, electrical, and biological properties under in situ pressure, temperature, and restored effective stress conditions. Measurement results, combined with index-property data and analytical physics-based models, provide unique insight into hydrate-bearing sediments in situ. Tested cores contain some silty-sands, but are predominantly sandy- and clayey-silts. Hydrate saturations Sh range from 0.15 to 0.74, with significant concentrations in the silty-sands. Wave velocity and flexible-wall permeameter measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core sediments suggest hydrates in the coarser-grained zones, the silty-sands where Sh exceeds 0.4, contribute to soil-skeletal stability and are load-bearing. In the sandy- and clayey-silts, where Sh < 0.4, the state of effective stress and stress history are significant factors determining sediment stiffness. Controlled depressurization tests show that hydrate dissociation occurs too quickly to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure–temperature conditions track the hydrate stability boundary in pure-water, rather than that in seawater, in spite of both the in situ pore water and the water used to maintain specimen pore pressure prior to dissociation being saline. Hydrate dissociation accompanied with fines migration caused up to 2.4% vertical strain contraction. The first-ever direct shear measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core specimens show hydrate-bearing sediments have higher sediment strength and peak friction angle than post-dissociation sediments, but the residual friction angle remains the same in both cases. Permeability measurements made before and after hydrate dissociation demonstrate that water permeability increases after dissociation, but the gain is limited by the transition from hydrate saturation

  4. High-dose regimen to achieve novel target trough concentration in teicoplanin. (United States)

    Ueda, Takashi; Takesue, Yoshio; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Ichki, Kaoru; Wada, Yasunao; Komatsu, Miyuki; Tsuchida, Toshie; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Mika; Kimura, Takeshi; Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki


    In the treatment of severe MRSA infections such as endocarditis, more than 20 mg/L of plasma trough concentration (C(min)) is recommended for teicoplanin; however, in the treatment of common MRSA infections, recommended C(min) remains more than 10 mg/L. In this study, we set C(min) as 15-30 mg/L to obtain a favorable clinical outcome in the treatment of common MRSA infections, and investigated the optimal loading regimen that achieved the target C(min) in patients with normal renal function. Seventy-eight patients received the high-dose regimen A (6 mg/kg every 12-h for initial two days) and 60 patients received the high-dose regimen B (the first five loading doses of 10-12 mg/kg at 12-h intervals for initial three days, followed by 6 mg/kg once daily). The mean C(min) on the 4th day was 13.7 ± 5.3 mg/L in regimen A, and 20.0 ± 6.6 mg/L in regimen B (P < 0.001), and the proportion of patients achieving the 15-30 mg/L was 25.6% and 68.3% (P < 0.001). Clinical response at end-of treatment were 66.7% and 85.0% (P = 0.014). The patients of initial C(min) with ≥15 mg/L had tended to be higher clinical response than those with <15 mg/L (80.9% vs 68.6%, P = 0.084). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of adverse effects in regimen A and B (nephrotoxicity; 1.3% vs 3.3%, P = 0.413, hepatotoxicity; 5.1% vs 3.3%, P = 0.608). In conclusion, to obtain C(min) 15-30 mg/L, the first five loading doses of 10-12 mg/kg at 12-h intervals was required in patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ESR dating of barite in sea-floor hydrothermal sulfide deposits at Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Fujiwara, T.; Toyoda, S.; Uchida, A.; Ishibashi, J.; Nakai, S.; Takamasa, A.


    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). With this aspect, Okumura et al. (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite to obtain preliminary ages, while Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. ESR is a method to observe radicals having unpaired electrons. As natural radiation creates unpaired electrons in minerals, the age is deduced by dividing the natural radiation dose (obtained from the amount of unpaired electrons) by the dose rate which is estimated by the amount of environmental radioactive elements. The samples were taken by the research cruises, NT12-10 and NT11-20 and NT12-06 operated by JAMSTEC from Hatoma, Yoron, Izena, North Iheya, and Yonaguni IV Knolls of Okinawa Trough. The blocks of sulfide deposits were cut into pieces, and about 2.0g was crushed. The samples were soaked in 12M hydrochloric acid, left for approximately 24 hours. Then, 13M nitric acid was added. Finally, after rinsing in distilled water, the sample was filtered and dried. Impurities were removed by handpicking. A X-ray diffraction study was made to confirm that the grains are pure barite. After γ-ray irradiation at Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, they were measured at room temperature with an ESR spectrometer (JES-PX2300) with a microwave power of 1mW, and the magnetic field modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. The equivalent natural radiation doses were obtained from the increase of ESR signal intensity of SO3- by irradiation. The bulk Ra concentration was measured by the low background pure Ge gamma ray spectrometer. Assuming that Ra is populated only in barite

  6. Mid- Atlantic Gas Hydrate, Heat Flow, and Basin Analysis: Implications to Hydrocarbon Production in the Carolina Trough (United States)

    Phrampus, B. J.


    The new Mid- and South Atlantic Planning Areas for oil and gas leasing is proposed to open in 2021. This region lacks in contemporary geologic and geophysical petroleum data and has no conventional wells drilled within the proposed leasing area. As such, addressing the hydrocarbon potential of this region is particularly difficult. Here, we use new and legacy multi-channel seismic data with heat flow observations, ocean temperature measurements, and new seismic interpretations of gas hydrate deposits to determine basin-wide heat flow along the Mid- Atlantic. These data reveal a conductive heat flow regime along the continental margin with a lack of fluid flow that is consistent with sea floor spreading rates and cooling oceanic crust. We then use these observations in combination with basal heat flow models and sedimentation records to determine the thermal history of a cross section of the Carolina Trough. These models reveal varying depth of potential hydrocarbon production that begin at ~ 2000 mbsf and extend down to depths greater than 7000 mbsf across the Carolina Trough. These potentially productive depths correspond to varying stratal ages, but all models contain the Late Jurassic, which is a potential analog to the U.S. Gulf Coast's Smackover Formation. Additionally, the timing of hydrocarbon generation reveal that Early through Middle Jurassic evaporite deposits and Late Jurassic tight limestones should have been in place before the Early Jurassic source rocks reached a depth of burial sufficiently deep for the production of hydrocarbons. These potential seals may trap significant quantities of hydrocarbons with in the Jurassic layers, resulting in significant hydrocarbon potential within the Carolina Trough.

  7. Geochemical features of trace and rare earth elements of pumice in middle Okinawa Trough and its indication of magmatic process (United States)

    Zhai, Shikui; Guo, Kun; Zong, Tong; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Cai, Zongwei; Zhang, Xia


    Pumice, the most widely distributed volcanic rock in Okinawa Trough, is loose and porous. Since its formation, it has definitely suffered from the denudation of the sea to different degrees. In order to truly reveal the geochemical features of pumice, we choose the method of mineral separation. Firstly, the phenocryst is separated from glass. Then the phenocryst is divided into light and heavy mineral compositions. By ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) analytical technology, the contents of trace and rare earth elements in the whole pumice, the glass and the heavy and light mineral compositions are determined respectively. By researching the elemental geochemical features, the magma dynamic processes are found. It shows that the initial magma for the pumice in Okinawa Trough came from the depleted mantle, from which the N-MORB (normal type of mid-ocean ridge basalt) is formed, homologous with the local basalts. But they are formed in different periods of magma crystal fractionation. Featured with sufficient crystal fractionation for pumice, it is found that the earlier crystallizing minerals are olivine, plagioclase and pyroxene. The pumice magma, formed from the depleted mantle, was mixed with additional subduction-related materials (components), and contaminated with the mass from upper crust when it rose up into the crust. As the Okinawa Trough is a back-arc basin in its early back-arc spreading stage, its magmatism has a series of its own unique characteristics, different from not only the mid-ocean ridge expansion, but also the mature back-arc basin.

  8. Serum trough infliximab and anti-infliximab antibodies in a cohort of gastroenterology and rheumatology patients' infliximab therapeutic drug monitoring. (United States)

    Barlow, Nicola L; Mohammed, Pervaz; Berg, Jonathan D


    Infliximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against tumour necrosis factor, is widely used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions including Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Its use is limited by development of anti-infliximab antibodies, which can lead to loss of therapeutic efficacy. Serum infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody measurements have recently become routinely available in the UK. The study aimed to assess the clinical utility of antibodies as an adjunct to trough infliximab. Serum trough infliximab was measured in 201 samples from 108 gastroenterology and rheumatology patients on maintenance infliximab therapy. Results were correlated with C-reactive protein concentrations. Total anti-infliximab antibodies were measured in 164 samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) trough infliximab was 3.7 µg/mL (1.2-5.2 µg/mL) and 23% of samples had a concentration ≤1 µg/mL. A notable proportion had positive anti-infliximab antibodies: 84/164 (51%), which subdivided to 85% and 28% with infliximab ≤1 and >1 µg/mL, respectively.Serum C-reactive protein was found to be significantly higher where infliximab was ≤1 compared to >1 µg/mL (10 mg/L [infliximab and C-reactive protein differed depending on antibody status and there was no association between C-reactive protein and the presence or absence of antibodies. Our findings support measurement of anti-infliximab antibodies only in the context of low infliximab concentrations infliximab concentrations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Investigation of severe slugging under flow conditions of a parabolic trough power plant with direct steam generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Alexander [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Reactor Safety


    The DISS test facility at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria, Spain, produces high pressure steam directly within the parabolic trough collectors. Two collectors are connected with a U-shaped connection pipe which can suffer under the flow phenomenon of severe slugging at low mass flow operation. The objective is to investigate numerically the flow situations with ATHLET and state the relevance of severe slugging in the installed U-shaped pipes. The simulation results reveal that normal operation conditions are uncritical and no severe slugging can be expected.

  10. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Aladjev

    Full Text Available Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionosphere developed in the Polar Geophysical Institute have been applied for interpretation of the observed tomographic images.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ion chemistry and composition; plasma convection

  11. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl


    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves. Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  12. Wave and plasma measurements and GPS diagnostics of the main ionospheric trough as a hybrid method used for Space Weather purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rothkaehl


    Full Text Available The region of the main ionospheric trough is a unique region of the ionosphere, where different types of waves and instabilities can be generated. This region of the ionosphere acts like a lens, focusing a variety of indicators from the equator of plasmapause and local ionospheric plasma. This paper reports the results of monitoring the mid-latitude trough structure, dynamics and wave activity. For these purposes, the data gathered by the currently-operating DEMETER satellite and past diagnostics located on IK-19, Apex, and MAGION-3 spacecraft, as well as TEC measurements were used. A global-time varying picture of the ionospheric trough was reconstructed using the sequence of wave spectra registered and plasma measurements in the top-side ionosphere. The authors present the wave activity from ULF frequency band to the HF frequency detected inside the trough region and discuss its properties during geomagnetic disturbances. It is thought that broadband emissions are correlated with low frequency radiation, which is excited by the wave-particle interaction in the equatorial plasmapause and moves to the ionosphere along the geomagnetic field line. In the ionosphere, the suprathermal electrons can interact with these electrostatic waves and excite electron acoustic waves or HF longitudinal plasma waves.

    Furthermore, the electron density trough can provide useful data on the magnetosphere ionosphere dynamics and morphology and, in consequence, can be used for Space Weather purposes.

  13. On the effect of topography and wind on warm water inflow—An idealized study of the southern Weddell Sea continental shelf system (United States)

    Daae, K.; Hattermann, T.; Darelius, E.; Fer, I.


    An idealized eddy-resolving numerical model, with topographic features common to the southern Weddell Sea, is constructed to study mechanisms through which warm deep water enters a wide continental shelf with a trough. The open ocean, represented by a 1700 m deep channel, is connected to a 400 m deep shelf with a continental slope. The shelf is narrow (50 km) in the east but widens to 300 km at the center of the model domain. Over the narrow shelf, the slope front is balanced by wind-driven Ekman downwelling and counteracting eddy overturning, favoring on-shelf transport of warm water in summer scenarios when fresher surface water is present. Over the wide shelf, the Ekman downwelling ceases, and the mesoscale eddies relax the front. Inflow of warm water is sensitive to along-shelf salinity gradients and is most efficient when denser water over the wide shelf favors up-slope eddy transport along isopycnals of the V-shaped slope front. Inflow along the eastern side of the trough cannot penetrate the sill region due to potential vorticity constraints, while along the western trough flank, eddy-induced inflow crosses the sill and reaches the ice front. The warm inflow into the trough is sensitive to the density of the outflowing dense shelf water. For weaker winds, absence of the dense water outflow leads to a reversal of the trough circulation and a strong inflow of warm water, while for stronger winds, baroclinic effects become less important and the inflow is similar to experiments including dense water outflow.

  14. Microbial community in a sediment-hosted CO(2) lake of the southern Okinawa Trough hydrothermal system RID C-8303-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inagaki, Fumio; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Tsunogai, Urumu


    pavements above the CO(2) lake, decreasing to strikingly low cell numbers (107 CM-3) at the liquid CO(2)/CO(2)-hydrate interface. The key groups in these sediments were as follows: (i) the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea ANME-2c and the Eel-2 group of Deltaproteobacteria and (ii) sulfur...

  15. Resin rodlets in shale and coal (Lower Cretaceous), Baltimore Canyon Trough (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Hatcher, P.G.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.; Larson, R.R.; Brown, Z.A.; Pheifer, R.N.


    Rodlets, occurring in shale and coal (uppermost Berriasian to middle Aptian, Lower Cretaceous), were identified from drill cuttings taken from depths between 9330 ft (2844 m) and 11, 460 ft (3493 m) in the Texaco et al., Federal Block 598, No. 2 well, in the Baltimore Canyon Trough. Under the binocular microscope, most of the rodlets appear black, but a few are reddish brown, or brownish and translucent on thin edges. They range in diameter from about 0.4 to 1.7 mm and are commonly flattened. The rodlets break with a conchoidal fracture, and some show an apparent cellular cast on their longitudinal surfaces. When polished and viewed in reflected light, the rodlets appear dark gray and have an average random reflectance of less than 0.1% whereas mean maximum reflectances are 0.48-0.55% for vitrinite in the associated shale and coal. These vitrinite reflectances indicate either subbituminous A or high-volatile C bituminous coal. The rodlets fluoresce dull gray yellow to dull yellow. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscope reveal the presence of swirl-like features in the rodlet interiors. Minerals associated with the rodlets occur as sand-size grains attached to the outer surface, as finely disseminated interior grains, and as fracture fillings. Electron microprobe and SEM-energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) anlayses indicate that the minerals are dominantly clays (probably illite and chlorite) and iron disulfide; calcium carbonate, silicon dioxide, potassium aluminum silicate (feldspar), titanium dioxide, zinc sulfide, and iron sulfate minerals have been also identified. The rodlets were analyzed directly for C, H, N, O, and total S and are interpreted as true resins on the basis of C and H contents that range from 75.6 to 80.3 and from 7.4 to 8.7 wt. % (dry, ash-free basis), respectively. Elemental and infrared data support a composition similar to that of resinite from bituminous coal. Elements determined to be organically associated in the rodlets

  16. Impact of Trough Levels of Tacrolimus on Kidney Function and Graft Survival in Short and Longer Periods After Renal Transplantation. (United States)

    Žilinská, Z; Dedinská, I; Breza, J; Laca, L


    Optimizing immunosuppressive treatment in the early posttransplant period is important for achieving long-term graft function and survival. There were 205 renal transplant recipients involved in this study. Patients were divided into groups according to the induction therapy (no induction vs basiliximab/daclizumab vs rabbit antithymocyte globulin), maintenance therapy at the time of transplantation (tacrolimus [TAC] vs cyclosporine), the average trough TAC levels in months 4 to 6 after TO and serum creatinine 5 years after renal transplantation. The incidence of acute rejection was significantly higher in cyclosporine than in TAC group of patients (P = .0364). The average TAC levels on elapsed time after transplantation significantly decreased (P < .0001). Five years after renal transplantation, there were higher TAC levels (5.6 ± 0.7 ng/mL) in the group with "zero" low levels than in the group with "zero" high levels (4.6 ± 1.1 ng/mL), which was statistically significant (P < .0001). We did not find any difference in graft and patient survival in posttransplant years 2 to 5 according to TAC levels or the induction treatment. In our study, we have confirmed that better graft function 5 years after transplantation was connected with higher trough tacrolimus levels on elapsed time after renal transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analisa Performa Kolektor Surya Tipe Parabolic Trough Sebagai Pengganti Sumber Pemanas Pada Generator Sistem Pendingin Difusi Absorpsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardika Oki Pratama Suwito


    Full Text Available Kolektor surya merupakan sebuah alat yang dirancang untuk mengumpulkan panas dengan menyerap sinar matahari. Penelitian dilakukan pada kolektor surya tipe parabolic trough yang diintregasikan dengan sistem pendingin difusi absorbsi atau Diffusi Absorbtion Refrigeration (DAR.Eksperimen dilakukan dengan mendesain ulang kolektor surya tipe parabolic trough yang sudah ada di jurusan Teknik Mesin ITS dengan menggantikan ukuran pipa absorber, diameter parabola dan fluida menggunakan oli diharapkan diperoleh unjuk kerja yang berbeda. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan memvariasikan debit oli yang mengalir dalam pipa absorber, yaitu debit 4, 5, dan 6 liter/jam dan penelitian dilakukan selama 1 bulan. Hasil yang didapat dari dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah dengan debit 4 liter/jam didapat temperatur oli out tertinggi sebesar 106.1 oC dengan intensitas matahari yang tercatat sebesar 980.39 W/m2 pada saat jam 12.00 wib. Untuk effisiensi tertinggi yang dihasilkan tercatat saat debit 5 liter/jam sebesar 36.97 % saat intensitas matahari sebesar 1019.61 W/m2 dengan Q yang diterima 147.272 watt dan Q yang digunakan 54.448 watt.

  18. The Nankai Trough earthquake tsunamis in Korea: numerical studies of the 1707 Hoei earthquake and physics-based scenarios (United States)

    Kim, SatByul; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Kang, Tae-Seob


    Historical documents in Korea and China report abnormal waves in the sea and rivers close to the date of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which occurred in the Nankai Trough, off southwestern Japan. This indicates that the tsunami caused by the Hoei earthquake might have reached Korea and China, which suggests a potential hazard in Korea from large earthquakes in the Nankai Trough. We conducted tsunami simulations to study the details of tsunamis in Korea caused by large earthquakes. Our results showed that the Hoei earthquake (Mw 8.8) tsunami reached the Korean Peninsula about 200 min after the earthquake occurred. The maximum tsunami height was ~0.5 m along the Korean coast. The model of the Hoei earthquake predicted a long-lasting tsunami whose highest peak arrived 600 min later after the first arrival near the coastline of Jeju Island. In addition, we conducted tsunami simulations using physics-based scenarios of anticipated earthquakes in the Nankai subduction zone. The maximum tsunami height in the scenarios (Mw 8.5-8.6) was ~0.4 m along the Korean coast. As a simple evaluation of larger possible tsunamis, we increased the amount of stress released by the earthquake by a factor of two and three, resulting in scenarios for Mw 8.8 and 8.9 earthquakes, respectively. The tsunami height increased by 0.1-0.4 m compared to that estimated by the Hoei earthquake.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of voriconazole helps to decrease the percentage of patients with off-target trough serum levels. (United States)

    Guinea, Jesús; Escribano, Pilar; Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Peláez, Teresa; Kestler, Marta; Muñoz, Patricia; Vena, Antonio; López-Fabal, Fátima; Bouza, Emilio


    We monitored trough voriconazole serum concentrations from 107 patients (n = 258 samples) at 6 hospitals in Madrid. Most of the patients were male (67%) and had the following underlying conditions: hematological cancer (42%), solid organ transplantation (15%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14%), human immunodeficiency virus infection (8.4%), solid cancer (5.6%), and other (29%). The indication for voriconazole administration was aspergillosis treatment (74.6%) and prophylaxis (14%). The main reasons for voriconazole trough drug monitoring were initiation of treatment/prophylaxis (33%), patient monitoring (47%), and suspected toxicity (3.5%). Levels (μg/ml) were subtherapeutic (5.5; 10.5%). The samples percentage with on-target levels was significantly lower for the first sample than for subsequent samples (62.6% vs. 77.5%). "Subsequent samples," "admission in nonpediatric wards," "voriconazole used for treatment of invasive aspergillosis," and "use of proton pump inhibitors" were predictors of voriconazole therapeutic levels (≥1 μg/ml). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Available Energy and Cumulative Frequency Curves for Parabolic Trough Concentrators with Alignment North–South, in the Northwest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Lentz–Herrea


    Full Text Available The Northwest of Mexico is a well known region with the highest ambient temperatures along the summer and the highest levels of irradiance, which make it feasible to install solar field concentrators. This work provides beam irradiance data that can be used to design a solar north–south parabolic trough system. The variation between the value of beam solar irradiance estimated by a pyranometer and the direct irradiance received by the aperture area of a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC is well–known as cosθ. This variation was evaluated every day of the year, obtaining values of average irradiance for Cerro Prieto (CP lat. 32°39', long. 115° 21', and San Luis Rio Colorado (SLR lat. 32°30', long. 114°46', with which they were elaborated the available energy and cumulative frequency curves (CFC. These are useful to know the number of hours of field solar concentrators which can operate at different levels of energy, as well as the steam production of a solar–geothermal hybrid system to produce electricity.

  1. Preparing for the Future Nankai Trough Tsunami: A Data Assimilation and Inversion Analysis From Various Observational Systems (United States)

    Mulia, Iyan E.; Inazu, Daisuke; Waseda, Takuji; Gusman, Aditya Riadi


    The future Nankai Trough tsunami is one of the imminent threats to the Japanese coastal communities that could potentially cause a catastrophic event. As a part of the countermeasure efforts for such an occurrence, this study analyzes the efficacy of combining tsunami data assimilation (DA) and waveform inversion (WI). The DA is used to continuously refine a wavefield model whereas the WI is used to estimate the tsunami source. We consider a future scenario of the Nankai Trough tsunami recorded at various observational systems, including ocean bottom pressure (OBP) gauges, global positioning system (GPS) buoys, and ship height positioning data. Since most of the OBP gauges are located inside the source region, the recorded tsunami signals exhibit significant offsets from surface measurements due to coseismic seafloor deformation effects. Such biased data are not applicable to the standard DA, but can be taken into account in the WI. On the other hand, the use of WI for the ship data may not be practical because a considerably large precomputed tsunami database is needed to cope with the spontaneous ship locations. The DA is more suitable for such an observational system as it can be executed sequentially in time and does not require precomputed scenarios. Therefore, the combined approach of DA and WI allows us to concurrently make use of all observational resources. Additionally, we introduce a bias correction scheme for the OBP data to improve the accuracy, and an adaptive thinning of observations to determine the efficient number of observations.

  2. Annual measured and simulated thermal performance analysis of a hybrid solar district heating plant with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon


    the district heating network to about 70 °C and then the parabolic trough collectors would heat the preheated water to the required supply temperature of the district heating network. Annual measured and simulated thermal performances of both the parabolic trough collector field and the flat plate collector...... in large solar heating plants for a district heating network, a hybrid solar collector field with 5960 m2 flat plate collectors and 4039 m2 parabolic trough collectors in series was constructed in Taars, Denmark. The design principle is that the flat plate collectors preheat the return water from...... field are presented in this paper. The thermal performance of both collector fields with weather data of a Design Reference Year was simulated to have a whole understanding of the application of both collectors under Danish climate conditions as well. These results not only can provide a design basis...

  3. The evolution of the Southern Hemisphere climate within transient simulations of the Holocene (United States)

    Phipps, Steven; Rojas, Maisa; Ackerley, Duncan; Pedro, Joel; González, Charles


    The Southern Hemisphere Assessment of PaleoEnvironments (SHAPE) project aims to reconstruct and understand past changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation of the Southern Hemisphere. Within this context, climate modelling plays a critical role in testing the interpretation of the proxy data and exploring the underlying dynamical mechanisms. Here, we analyse a suite of transient simulations of the Holocene climate. These are generated using state-of-the-art climate system models, and include simulations conducted by Phase Three of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project. We examine the changes in the atmospheric circulation and surface temperature. The majority of the models simulate a progressive strengthening and poleward shift in the position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) during the Holocene. This trend is accompanied by cooling over Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, combined with a deepening and a poleward contraction of the circumpolar trough. The results are sensitive to the spatial resolution of the models and to the combination of forcings applied, with the lowest-resolution model simulating no changes in the location of the westerly wind belt. There is strong seasonality in the simulated response of the SHWW to external forcings, and also in the relationship between the SHWW and local climate. This needs to be taken into account when using palaeoclimate proxies to reconstruct changes in the SHWW during the Holocene.

  4. Geological evolution and analysis of confirmed or suspected gas hydrate localities: Volume 13: Basin analysis, formation and stability of gas hydrates of the Nankai Trough: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesnik, M.; Krason, J.


    Geological factors controlling the formation, stability, and distribution of gas hydrates were investigated by basin analysis of the Nankai Trough region. The Nankai Trough is located beneath the western Pacific, south of the Japanese islands Shikoku and central Kyushu. Geological, geophysical, and geochemical data from the region were assembled and critically evaluated to develop consistent interpretations of the relationships of geological environments and gas hydrates. This study was performed for the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center by Geoexplorers International, Inc., as part of a worldwide evaluation of 21 offshore sites where the presence of gas hydrates has been confirmed or inferred. 60 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 13, 2010 ... Length-weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 13 fish species which are of economic relevance in the commercial fisheries of the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia). A total of 2403 fish specimens were sampled with several fishing gears from October 2008 to September 2009. The sample size ranged ...

  6. Southern pulpwood production, 1962 (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson


    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  7. Southern Appalachian Case Study (United States)

    Charles C. van Sickle


    The Southern Appalachian study covers a region of 37.4 million acres. Its mountains, foothills, and valleys stretch from northern Virginia and northern West Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama. When Native Americans came to the region, forests dominated the landscape and they still do, covering 70% of the land (Figure 32.1). Terrain characteristics are...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between soils and geomorphic processes on the piedmont slopes of the Wurgo valley of southern Welo, Ethiopia. The results revealed that slope processes have played major role in the development of Eutric Cambisols with typical A/Bw/Bb horizon sequences on the convergent footslopes, Luvic Phaeozems with A/Bt/Cr.

  9. Literacy in Southern Africa. (United States)

    Bhola, H. S.


    This review covers the status of languages and literacy in the countries of southern Africa, policies of literacy promotion, and the emerging symbioses among spoken languages and among literacies in mother tongues, national or official languages, and metropolitan languages. Five statistical tables are included. (66 references) (LB)

  10. Restoration of southern ecosystems (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Kenneth Outcalt; William H. Conner; James M. Guldin


    Restoration of the myriad communities of bottomland hardwood and wetland forests and of the diverse communities of fire-dominated pine forests is the subject of intense interest in the Southern United States. Restoration practice is relatively advanced for bottomland hardwoods and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), and less so for swamps and...

  11. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  12. The Neogene-Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the central Calabrian Arc: A case study from the western Catanzaro Trough basin (United States)

    Brutto, F.; Muto, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Paola, N. De; Tripodi, V.; Critelli, S.; Facchin, L.


    The Catanzaro Trough is a Neogene-Quaternary basin developed in the central Calabrian Arc, between the Serre and the Sila Massifs, and filled by up to 2000 m of continental to marine deposits. It extends from the Sant'Eufemia Basin (SE Tyrrhenian Sea), offshore, to the Catanzaro Basin, onshore. Here, onshore structural data have been integrated with structural features interpreted using marine geophysical data to infer the main tectonic processes that have controlled the geodynamic evolution of the western portion of the Catanzaro Trough, since Upper Miocene to present. The data show a complex tectonostratigraphic architecture of the basin, which is mainly controlled by the activity of NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems. In particular, during late Miocene, the NW-SE oriented faults system was characterized by left lateral kinematics. The same structural regime produces secondary fault systems represented by E-W and NE-SW oriented faults. The ca. E-W lineaments show extensional kinematics, which may have played an important role during the opening of the WNW-ESE paleo-strait; whereas the NE-SW oriented system represents the conjugate faults of the NW-SE oriented structural system, showing a right lateral component of motion. During the Piacenzian-Lower Pleistocene, structural field and geophysical data show a switch from left-lateral to right-lateral kinematics of the NW-SE oriented faults, due to a change of the stress field. This new structural regime influenced the kinematics of the NE-SW faults system, which registered left lateral movement. Since Middle Pleistocene, the study area experienced an extensional phase, WNW-ESE oriented, controlled mainly by NE-SW and, subordinately, N-S oriented normal faults. This type of faulting splits obliquely the western Catanzaro Trough, producing up-faulted and down-faulted blocks, arranged as graben-type system (i.e Lamezia Basin). The multidisciplinary approach adopted, allowed us to constrain the structural setting of

  13. The influence of a subduction component on magmatism in the Okinawa Trough: Evidence from thorium and related trace element ratios (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Shuai; Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Qi, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yao


    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a back-arc, initial continental marginal sea basin located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. Formation and evolution of the OT have been intimately related to subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) since the late Miocene; thus, the magma source of the trough has been affected by subduction components, as in the case of other active back-arc basins, including the Lau Basin (LB) and Mariana Trough (MT). We review all the available geochemical data relating to basaltic lavas from the OT and the middle Ryukyu Arc (RA) in this paper in order to determine the influence of the subduction components on the formation of arc and back-arc magmas within this subduction system. The results of this study reveal that the abundances of Th in OT basalts (OTBs) are higher than that in LB (LBBs) and MT basalts (MTBs) due to the mixing of subducted sediments and EMI-like enriched materials. The geochemical characteristics of Th and other trace element ratios indicate that the OTB originated from a more enriched mantle source (compared to N-mid-ocean ridge basalt, N-MORB) and was augmented by subducted sediments. Data show that the magma sources of the south OT (SOT) and middle Ryukyu Arc (MRA) basalts were principally influenced by subducted aqueous fluids and bulk sediments, which were potentially added into magma sources by accretion and underplating. At the same time, the magma sources of the middle OT (MOT) and Kobi-syo and Sekibi-Syo (KBS+SBS) basalts were impacted by subducted aqueous fluids from both altered oceanic crust (AOC) and sediment. The variable geochemical characteristics of these basalts are due to different Wadati-Benioff depths and tectonic environments of formation, while the addition of subducted bulk sediment to SOT and MRA basalts may be due to accretion and underplating, and subsequent to form mélange formation, which would occur partial melting after aqueous fluids are added. The addition of AOC and sediment aqueous fluid

  14. A mid-winter, tropical flood-producing storm in southern israel (United States)

    Ziv, B.; Dayan, U.


    An exceptional rainstorm affected the Negev Desert, the southern part of Israel, during 20-23 Dec 1993 as a result of a low pressure trough that extended from eastern Africa northward along the Red Sea, accompanied by an eastward moving upper-level cyclonic system (ARST). Rainfall totals recorded along the storm period in the central and eastern Negev exceeded the long-term averages for December by a factor of 5. The precipitating systems had a structure typical to MCS, accompanied by showers, with peak intensities of 60 - 80 mm/h, and by hail and flash floods, resulting in loss of life and damage, estimated as 10 mi. The tropical elements, i.e., the origin of the storm and of the moisture, being at lower latitudes, and the type of precipitation involved, are outstanding in the timing of the storm - the winter solstice. Abnormal synoptic circumstances explain the development and intensity of this storm. In contrast to the normal situation in December the mid-level subtropical high over the Sahara was replaced by a cyclone, while the persistent high over the Arabian Peninsula intensified. As a result, a southerly flow persisted over the Red Sea several days prior to the storm initiation and transported tropical moisture northward. The ascending air motion observed along the Red Sea enhanced convection there, which transported lower-level moisture originated from the water surface and spread it to the surrounding regions. A lower-level warm advection over the Negev induced by the surface trough enhanced static instability there. The moving upper-trough that approached the region from the west supplied the conditions that transformed this moisture and instability into heavy showers and the resulting floods.

  15. Back-arc basin opening and closure along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Claringbould, Johan; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Abe, Susumu; Kawasaki, Shinji


    (PHS) moved northward towards the Nankai trough on the southeastern side of the SW-Japan arc. Due to the high thermal regime of the Shikoku basin, the resistance along the Nankai trough was so large that shortening deformation occurred along in the failed marginal rift zone that was developed previously along the southern margin of the Sea of Japan. This resulted in the Shinji fold belt. After the start of the subduction of the Shikoku basin along the Nankai trough, the rate of shortening in the Shinji fold belt was decreased and the folded strata were covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. Reverse faulting of the arc-parallel faults from Pliocene to early Pleistocene along the small number of faults suggests that the compression from the Nankai trough still has been continued in this stage. A change in the direction of the motion of PHS at 1 Ma produced major change in stress regime from NS compression to EW compression in the back-arc. Following the change of stress regime, the former reverse faults reactivated as strike-slip faults. The structural evolution and inherited structure presented here provide essential information for constructing the tsunami source-fault model along southern margin of the Sea of Japan.

  16. Simulation of thermal fluid dynamics in parabolic trough receiver tubes with direct steam generation using the computer code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Alexander; Merk, Bruno [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Hirsch, Tobias; Pitz-Paal, Robert [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Solarforschung


    In the present feasibility study the system code ATHLET, which originates from nuclear engineering, is applied to a parabolic trough test facility. A model of the DISS (DIrect Solar Steam) test facility at Plataforma Solar de Almeria in Spain is assembled and the results of the simulations are compared to measured data and the simulation results of the Modelica library 'DissDyn'. A profound comparison between ATHLET Mod 3.0 Cycle A and the 'DissDyn' library reveals the capabilities of these codes. The calculated mass and energy balance in the ATHLET simulations are in good agreement with the results of the measurements and confirm the applicability for thermodynamic simulations of DSG processes in principle. Supplementary, the capabilities of the 6-equation model with transient momentum balances in ATHLET are used to study the slip between liquid and gas phases and to investigate pressure wave oscillations after a sudden valve closure. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of Mixed-mode Integral Invariant for Polymer Material Trough The Couple Experimental-Numerical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Absi J.


    Full Text Available Usually the element of real structures is subject of the mixed mode loadings. This fact can be explained by the elements geometry and the loading orientations. In this case the propagation of the eventual cracks is characterised by the mixed mode kinematics. In order to characterize the fracture process in mixed mode it’s necessary to separate the fracture process in order to evaluate the influence of each mode. Our study is limited to plane configurations. The mixed mode is considered as an association of opening and shear modes. The mixed mode fracture is evaluated trough the experimental tests using the SEN specimen for different mixed mode ratios. The fracture process separation is operated by the invariant integral Mθ. Moreover, our study regroups an experimental and a numerical approaches.

  18. Energetic and exergetic analysis of Rankine cycles for solar power plants with parabolic trough and thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenuşă Victor-Eduard


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the “secondary” circuit (for thermodynamic conversion of a Concentrated Solar Power (CSP plant with thermodynamic cycle, whose mirrors field supplies a thermal power, averaged over a sunny day, of about 100 MW heat. We study the case of parabolic trough solar collector using silicone oil in the “primary” circuit, which limits the peak temperature below 400 °C. The “primary” circuit uses thermal storage, allowing a delay between the power generation in rapport with the solar energy capture. We choose a water-steam cycle, type Hirn. For increasing its efficiency, it has regenerative feed water preheating and steam reheating. We compared, energetic and exergetic, two types of cycles, using a numerical model with iterative structure, developed by the authors. The results showed that the simplified design achieves practically the same thermodynamic performances with the advanced one.

  19. Low infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies are prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab in daily clinical practice: results of an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A. van der; Bemt, B.J. van den; Wolbink, G.; Hoogen, F.H.J. van den; Riel, P.L. van; Broeder, A.A. den


    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To get insight in the prevalence of high, or low/no serum infliximab trough levels in patients with low disease activity and if serum trough levels are stable and reliable longitudinally we conducted a prospective cohort study METHODS: In a longitudinal, observational cohort of

  20. Amplitude versus offset analysis to marine seismic data acquired in Nankai Trough, offshore Japan where methane hydrate exists (United States)

    Hato, M.; Inamori, T.; Matsuoka, T.; Shimizu, S.


    Occurrence of methane hydrates in the Nankai Trough, located off the south-eastern coast of Japan, was confirmed by the exploratory test well drilling conducted by Japan’s Ministry of International Trade and Industry in 1999. Confirmation of methane hydrate has given so big impact to the Japan's future energy strategy and scientific and technological interest was derived from the information of the coring and logging results at the well. Following the above results, Japan National Oil Corporation (JNOC) launched the national project, named as MH21, for establishing the technology of methane hydrate exploration and related technologies such as production and development. As one of the research project for evaluating the total amount of the methane hydrate, Amplitude versus Offset (AVO) was applied to the seismic data acquired in the Nankai Trough area. The main purpose of the AVO application is to evaluate the validity of delineation of methane hydrate-bearing zones. Since methane hydrate is thought to accompany with free-gas in general just below the methane hydrate-bearing zones, the AVO has a possibility of describing the presence of free-gas. The free-gas is thought to be located just below the base of methane hydrate stability zone which is characterized by the Bottom Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) on the seismic section. In this sense, AVO technology, which was developed as gas delineation tools, can be utilized for methane hydrate exploration. The result of AVO analysis clearly shows gas-related anomaly below the BSRs. Appearance of the AVO anomaly has so wide variety. Some of the anomalies might not correspond to the free-gas existence, however, some of them may show free-gas. We are now going to develop methodology to clearly discriminate free-gas from non-gas zone by integrating various types of seismic methods such as seismic inversion and seismic attribute analysis.

  1. Effect of infliximab dose increase in rheumatoid arthritis at different trough concentrations: a cohort study in clinical practice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamaida ePlasencia


    Full Text Available BackgroundEvidence supporting treatment intensification in rheumatoid arthritis is limited and controversial. We explored outcomes of infliximab dose increases and accounted for pre-existing trough levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA.MethodsThis study was a retrospective study of 42 RA patients who received increased infliximab following an insufficient response (DAS28 > 3.2. Serum concentrations of infliximab and antibodies to infliximab (ATI and DAS28 and EULAR clinical response parameters were recorded for one year. Analyses were performed in three patient groups that were defined by infliximab serum concentration prior to treatment enhancement: No detectable, Low (< 1.1 µg/mL or High (≥ 1.1 µg/mL drug levels. Results No circulating infliximab was detected in 20 patients (47.6 %, but 13 (30.9 % and 9 (21.4 % patients exhibited Low and High levels, respectively. ATI were only detected in patients with No detectable drug levels because the drug interferes with ELISA. DAS28 disease activity globally showed a modest improvement after dose escalation, but this improvement did not persist after 6 and 12 months. Infliximab serum levels increased significantly in the High group (p=0.016, but no increase was achieved in the Low and No detectable groups. The three study groups exhibited similar disease activity over time, and no improvement was observed in the non-responder EULAR rates. ConclusionsThese results suggest that the efficacy of an infliximab dose increase is limited, and the response is independent of the infliximab trough serum concentration that is achieved prior to escalation.

  2. Petrology and Geochemistry of Hydrothermally Altered Volcanic Rocks in the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field, Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.


    The Iheya North hydrothermal field is located in the middle Okinawa Trough, a young and actively spreading back-arc basin extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. In this hydrothermal field, two scientific drilling expeditions (IODP Exp 331 and SIP CK14-04) were conducted using a deep-sea drilling vessel "Chikyu," and samples from a total of 27 holes were taken. Through these expeditions, Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMS), hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, and pumiceous and pelagic sediments were recovered. The recovered core provided important information about the relationship between hydrothermal activity, alteration, and ore mineralization. Whole-rock major element composition and trace element (TE) patterns of pumices were very similar to those of rhyolites in the middle Okinawa Trough (RMO). However, pumices were relatively enriched in chalcophile elements Sr and Nb, which suggest incipient mineralization. Volcanic rock generally demonstrated strong silicification and was greenish pale gray in color. Regardless of severe alteration, some rock displayed major element composition broadly similar to the RMO. Alteration was evidenced by an increase in the content of SiO2 and MgO, and decrease in Al2O3, Na2O, and K2O content. The most striking geochemical feature of altered volcanic rock was the discordance between texture and the degree of modification of TEs. Some samples showed decussate texture occupied by petal-like quartz with severe silicification, but no prominent disturbance of concentration and patterns of TEs were observed. In contrast, samples with well-preserved igneous porphyritic texture showed very low TE content and modification of TE patterns. These results suggest that the modification of texture and composition of TEs, as well as silicification, do not occur by a uniform process, but several processes. This may reflect the differences in temperature and the

  3. Microplastic pollution identified in deep-sea water and ingested by benthic invertebrates in the Rockall Trough, North Atlantic Ocean. (United States)

    Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Quinn, Brian; Gary, Stefan F; Mogg, Andrew O M; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E


    Microplastics are widespread in the natural environment and present numerous ecological threats. While the ultimate fate of marine microplastics are not well known, it is hypothesized that the deep sea is the final sink for this anthropogenic contaminant. This study provides a quantification and characterisation of microplastic pollution ingested by benthic macroinvertebrates with different feeding modes (Ophiomusium lymani, Hymenaster pellucidus and Colus jeffreysianus) and in adjacent deep water > 2200 m, in the Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Despite the remote location, microplastic fibres were identified in deep-sea water at a concentration of 70.8 particles m(-3), comparable to that in surface waters. Of the invertebrates examined (n = 66), 48% ingested microplastics with quantities enumerated comparable to coastal species. The number of ingested microplastics differed significantly between species and generalized linear modelling identified that the number of microplastics ingested for a given tissue mass was related to species and not organism feeding mode or the length or overall weight of the individual. Deep-sea microplastics were visually highly degraded with surface areas more than double that of pristine particles. The identification of synthetic polymers with densities greater and less than seawater along with comparable quantities to the upper ocean indicates processes of vertical re-distribution. This study presents the first snapshot of deep ocean microplastics and the quantification of microplastic pollution in the Rockall Trough. Additional sampling throughout the deep-sea is required to assess levels of microplastic pollution, vertical transportation and sequestration, which have the potential to impact the largest global ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contrasting behavior of tungsten and molybdenum in the Okinawa Trough, the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohrin, Yoshiki; Matsui, Masakazu; Nakayama, Eiichiro


    By using catalytic current polarography and high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, W and Mo in seawater were determined in the Okinawa Trough, a backarc rift, and in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Mo was distributed conservatively throughout the study area, and its salinity-normalized concentration was 104 {+-} 6 nM (n = 105). W was also uniformly distributed south of the Kuroshio Current (56 {+-} 7 pM, n = 51). Anomalous high concentrations of W (maximum 254 pM) were found in the Iheya Graben in the middle Okinawa Trough ({gt}1,000 m depth), which were probably supplied by hydrothermal activity. The concentrations of Mo and W in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea showed linear correlation with salinity (26 {lt} S {lt} 35). The Mo data can be explained by mixing of seawater and river water of the Changjiang (Mo = 10 nM; Qu et al., 1993). However, the values of W extrapolated to S = 0 were largely different between two cruises (1,200 pM in May-June 1987 and 540 pM in June 1994) and much higher than the reported concentrations of 160 pM for world rivers by Turekian (1969) and 30 pM for unpolluted Japanese rivers by Sohrin et al. (1989). Moreover, significantly high W was observed in the bottom water at stations near the Changjiang River estuary and the western Yellow Sea. While these data may suggest that W is released from the anoxic sediments of the continental shelf, more data are needed to elucidate the mechanism controlling the distribution of W.

  5. Earthquake generation cycles and tsunami simulations providing possible scenarios for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench) (United States)

    Hori, Takane; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ozel, Nurcan; Kilic, Irfan; Miyazaki, Shin'ichi; Hyodo, Mamoru


    In order to obtain comprehensive earthquake and tsunami scenarios for disaster assessment, numerical simulations of earthquake generation cycles and resultant tsunami generations have been performed in Japan. The occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake has realized us the necessity to consider all the possible scenarios without preconceptions. We have performed large-scale numerical simulations using Earth Simulator and K-computer for earthquake generation cycles along the Nankai trough, southwest Japan, where megathrust earthquakes with some segments have sequentially occurred. We have succeeded to reproduce various rupture pattern seen in historical data and geological evidences (such as tsunami deposit) being consistent with GEONET data during interseismic period. Using the results of such earthquake generation cycle simulations, we performed tsunami generation, propagation and inundation simulation. In Turkey, tsunami simulation methods and tsunami scenario database have been developed. In the research project of SATREPS -Earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey, we are applying such earthquake generation cycle and tsunami simulations to the North Anatolian fault system to obtain possible earthquake scenarios and to improve tsunami scenario data base for Sea of Marmara. For the modeling of the fault system, we will use observation results by the earthquake source modeling group in this project to improve the existing models. The earthquake scenarios will be used also for strong motion predictions by the group of seismic characterization and damage prediction. We will visualize the simulation results for disaster education. Furthermore, we will contribute to improve semi-realtime earthquake analyses and tsunami forecasting. In the presentation, we will show some recent simulation results of earthquake generation cycles and tsunamis for Turkey (Marmara sea) and Japan (Nankai trough and Japan trench

  6. A {approx}180,000 years sedimentation history of a perialpine overdeepened glacial trough (Wehntal, N-Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmetti, F. S. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Drescher-Schneider, R. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Karl-Fanzen-Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria); Furrer, H. [Palaeontologisches Institut und Museum, Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Graf, H. R. [Matousek, Baumann und Niggli AG, Baden (Switzerland); Lowick, S. E.; Preusser, F. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Riedi, M. A. [Marc A. Riedi, Susenbuehlstrasse 41, Chur (Switzerland)


    A 30 m-deep drill core from a glacially overdeepened trough in Northern Switzerland recovered a {approx} 180 ka old sedimentary succession that provides new insights into the timing and nature of erosion-sedimentation processes in the Swiss lowlands. The luminescence-dated stratigraphic succession starts at the bottom of the core with laminated carbonate-rich lake sediments reflecting deposition in a proglacial lake between {approx} 180 and 130 ka ago (Marine Isotope Stage MIS 6). Anomalies in geotechnical properties and the occurrence of deformation structures suggest temporary ice contact around 140 ka. Up-core, organic content increases in the lake deposits indicating a warming of climate. These sediments are overlain by a peat deposit characterised by pollen assemblages typical of the late Eemian (MIS 5e). An abrupt transition following this interglacial encompasses a likely hiatus and probably marks a sudden lowering of the water level. The peat unit is overlain by deposits of a cold unproductive lake dated to late MIS 5 and MIS 4, which do not show any direct influence from glaciers. An upper peat unit, the so-called {sup M}ammoth peat{sup ,} previously encountered in construction pits, interrupts this cold lacustrine phase and marks more temperate climatic conditions between 60 and 45 ka (MIS 3). In the upper part of the core, a succession of fluvial and alluvial deposits documents the Late Glacial and Holocene sedimentation in the basin. The sedimentary succession at Wehntal confirms that the glaciation during MIS 6 did not apparently cause the overdeepening of the valley, as the lacustrine basin fill covering most of MIS 6 is still preserved. Consequently, erosion of the basin is most likely linked to an older glaciation. This study shows that new dating techniques combined with paleoenvironmental interpretations of sediments from such overdeepened troughs provide valuable insights into the past glacial history. (authors)

  7. C2 (2-h) levels are not superior to trough levels as estimates of the area under the curve in tacrolimus-treated renal-transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj; Povlsen, Johan; Madsen, Søren


    BACKGROUND: Recently, 2-h samples (C2) have been found superior to trough levels for therapeutic monitoring of transplanted patients receiving cyclosporin. The present study was undertaken to see if the same was the case for tacrolimus. METHODS: Blood tacrolimus levels were determined in 21 conse...

  8. Gravimetric model of the Gastre trough, province of Chubut, Argentina; Modelo gravimetrico en la fosa de Gastre, provincia de Chubut, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lince Klinger, F.; Nacif, S.; Martinez, M. P.; Gimenez, M. E.; Ruiz, F.; Alvarez, O.


    A gravimetric study of the Gastre trough in the Province of Chubut, to the southwest of the Canadon Asfalto basin, has allowed us to determine the geometry of its crystalline basement. Using filtering techniques we were able to map residual Bouguer anomalies, which show the heterogeneities situated within the upper crust, some of which are linked to recognised geological structures. The gravimetric minima in the residual Bouguer anomaly map are associated with graben-type basins, flanked by positive gravity values associated with alignments identified on the surface and with the overall topographic relief of the Gastre trough. After suitable treatment of the density values of the outcrops and seismic data we were able to construct a 2D density model, perpendicular to the trough, which indicated a depth of 3600 m. The importance of this study lies in the fact that it has been possible to arrive at a gravimetric characterization of the Gastre trough in the Canadon Asfalto basin sector, a potentially hydrocarbon-bearing area hitherto lacking in reliable data concerning its subsoil. (Author)

  9. Discharge of hydrothermal fluids through sediment at the Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge (ODP Leg 169): assessing the effects on the rock magnetic signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbat, Michael; Dekkers, M.J.; Krumsiek, Klaus


    An integrated rock-magnetic and multivariate statistical analysis of a suite of sediment samples recovered from ODP Sites 1037 and 1038 (Leg 169, Escanaba Trough, Gorda Ridge spreading center, NE Pacific Ocean) has been carried out to assess the use of the sediment magnetic signal as a tracer of

  10. The combined use of disease activity and infliximab serum trough concentrations for early prediction of (non-)response to infliximab in rheumatoid arthritis (United States)

    van den Bemt, Bart J F; den Broeder, Alfons A; Wolbink, Gert-Jan; van den Maas, Aatke; Hekster, Yechiel A; van Riel, Piet L C M; Benraad, H Bart; van den Hoogen, Frank H J


    Aim Early prediction of (non-)response to infliximab therapy can improve therapeutic benefit by avoiding unnecessary periods of high disease activity during ineffective therapy. This prospective cohort study therefore aimed to study the predictive value of (1) disease activity alone and (2) infliximab serum trough concentrations in addition to disease activity 6 weeks after start of treatment for achieving low disease activity after 6 months. Methods Disease activity and infliximab serum trough concentrations were assessed in all rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients at 2, 6 and 26 weeks after initiation of infliximab therapy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and Youden indices were used to calculate specificity for prediction of good response after 6 months while aiming for maximum sensitivity. Results Fifty-seven consecutive RA patients starting with infliximab therapy were included. After 6 months, 15 (26%, 95 % CI 15, 38%) patients reached good European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) response. A disease activity score Infliximab serum trough concentrations (>2.5 mg l−1) as predictor complimentary to disease activity (infliximab serum trough concentrations could be a fair predictor to identify early (after 6 weeks) patients who have insufficient response after 6 months of therapy. PMID:23601129


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This report describes and interprets two stratigraphic sections across the regressive part of Baronia Synthem, located near the villages of Flumeri and Vallesaccarda (Ariano Irpino area, Southern Italy. Four different depositional environments have been recognized: fluvial, lagoon, foreshore and shoreface. Fluvial deposits, occurring in the Flumeri section, consist of clast-supported conglomerates, horizontal laminated sands and muddy silts with freshwater ostracod assemblages, indicating deposition in braided river low-sinuosity channels. In the Flumeri section lagoonal deposits are generally represented by structureless layers of dark clay including ostracods of brackish coastal lagoon connected with shallow-marine waters. In the Vallesaccarda section lagoonal sediments only occur as muddy clasts. Foreshore deposits are represented by well sorted yellow sands with low-angle cross lamination; a horizontal layer of stratified gravels outcrops in Vallesaccarda section. The shoreface deposits consist of poorly sorted sands with trough cross stratification formed in a bar and trough system, of symmetric ripples layers, and of abundant mollusc shell debris; in the Vallesaccarda section a tempestite interval generated by storm activity has been found. In Flumeri section littoral and lagoonal facies assemblages alternate; in Vallesaccarda section only nearshore sediments crop out. Nearshore deposits denote a wave-dominated coastal marine environments. These data contribute to a better knowledge of the distribution of paralic facies on the Western margin of the Pliocene Irpinia-Daunia Basin. 

  12. High-temperature process-steam application at the Southern Union Refining Company, Hobbs, New Mexico (solar energy in the oil patch). Phase I design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Southern Union Refining Company's Famariss Energy Refinery has worked diligently with Monument Solar Corporation in the conceptual and detail design for this unique application of solar generated steam. An area closely adjacent to the refinery and fronting New Mexico State Highway No. 18 has been designated for the solar collector array. Space planned for the demonstration parabolic trough array is sufficiently large to handle an array of 25,200 square feet in size - an array more than twice the size of the 10,080 square feet proposed originally. The conceptual design, performance, safety, environmental impact, and economic analysis are described. Engineering drawings are included. (WHK)

  13. New insights on Southern Coyote Creek Fault and Superstition Hills Fault (United States)

    van Zandt, A. J.; Mellors, R. J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Burgess, M. K.; O'Hare, M.


    Recent field work has confirmed an extension of the southern Coyote Creek (CCF) branch of the San Jacinto fault in the western Salton trough. The fault marks the western edge of an area of subsidence caused by groundwater extraction, and field measurements suggest that recent strike-slip motion has occurred on this fault as well. We attempt to determine whether this fault connects at depth with the Superstition Hills fault (SHF) to the southeast by modeling observed surface deformation between the two faults measured by InSAR. Stacked ERS (descending) InSAR data from 1992 to 2000 is initially modeled using a finite fault in an elastic half-space. Observed deformation along the SHF and Elmore Ranch fault is modeled assuming shallow (< 5 km) creep. We test various models to explain surface deformation between the two faults.

  14. Solar power output correlation with utility demand in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, J.A.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Various solar electric system performance codes are used to predict the power generated by different solar power systems in the Southern Nevada area during 1990 by using the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) for the Las Vegas region. The system types evaluated along with the predicted codes (shown in parenthesis) are: a central receiver or a power tower system with various amounts of storage (SOLERGY), a Luz-type SEGS parabolic trough system without fossil fuel backup or storage (LUZERGY), a dish-Stirling system (DISH2, a conversion of direct beam radiation with constant collector/engine efficiency was used for this), and various arrangements of non-concentrating photovoltaic devices (PVFORM). Comparisons of these results are made with the daily variations of load requirements of an electrical utility operating in the same geographical area. It is shown that several of the power generation schemes have peak outputs that occur at times very near to, but not coincident with, the peak utility load requirements. The power with a relatively small amount of thermal storage was the only scheme able to provide full power output at the times of peak demands. Several comparisons are made that illuminate the load serving capability of solar generation. Included in this comparison is the determination of the difference in time between the peak power output and the peak demand, as well as the normalized fraction of the peak power generated at the peak demand times.

  15. Structural-depth analysis of the Yola Arm of the Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria using high resolution aeromagnetic data (United States)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Olobaniyi, S. B.


    The Yola Arm is the east-west trending part of the Upper Benue Trough made up of Cretaceous sediments that are Albian to Maastrichtian in age. This work involves interpreting satellite imagery and aeromagnetic data to map out structures within the basin and estimate the depth to the magnetic basement which could be an aid to further exploratory work in the basin. The SPOT 5 imagery covering the basin was processed and interpreted and lineaments extracted from it. The digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was also used to extract the drainage pattern of the area and as an aid in mapping the lineaments that are visible on the surface. The geomagnetic field of the earth was removed from the aeromagnetic data using the IGRF-12 model. The vertical derivative (VDR) enhanced the high frequency and short wavelength components of the data which could be volcanics. The source parameter imaging (SPI) technique which works well at all magnetic latitudes and the spectral analysis were applied to the data to estimate the sediment thickness within the basin. A low pass filter with a cut-off wavelength of 1000 m was applied to the data to remove the high frequency short wavelength component of the data after which the tilt derivative (TDR) was computed to enhance anomalies that may be faults on the underlying basement. The lineaments from the SPOT 5 data show a predominant NNE-SSW, NE-SW followed by the NNW-SSE with a few N-S and E-W trends and the TDR of the aeromagnetic data show a predominantly NE-SW trend which is the predominant trend in the Benue Trough while a few strike in the N-S,NW-SE, and WNW-ESE direction. This suggests that the basin was subjected to several stress regimes. Differential uplift of the basement fault blocks may have given rise to drape folds observed in the overlying sediments. The depths to the magnetic basement range from about 1 km to about 4.3 km with the deepest part in the eastern part of the Basin. The depth analysis indicates that the

  16. Aqueous prostaglandin E(2) of cataract patients at trough ketorolac and bromfenac levels after 2 days dosing. (United States)

    Bucci, Frank A; Waterbury, L David


    Ketorolac 0.4% administered four times daily (q.i.d.) has long been used safely and effectively for the alleviation of ocular inflamation and pain and the prevention of intraoperative miosis in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09% was recently developed as an ocular anti-inflammatory drug with a twice-daily (b.i.d.) dosing regimen. This study was designed to evaluate if b.i.d. dosing with bromfenac 0.09%, in comparison with q.i.d. dosing with ketorolac 0.4%, provides adequate trough nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug levels that were effective enough to reduce aqueous prostaglandin (PG) E(2) levels of patients after cataract surgery toward the end of its dosing cycle. In this single-center, investigator-masked trial, patients undergoing cataract surgery were randomized to receive either ketorolac 0.4% q.i.d. or bromfenac 0.09% b.i.d. for 2 days preoperatively. Aqueous humor was collected at the start of surgery 6 hours after the last dose of ketorolac 0.4% and 12 hours after the last dose of bromfenac 0.09%. Aqueous PGE(2) levels and drug concentrations were evaluated by a competitive enzyme immunoassay and reverse-phase HPLC-mass spectroscopy, respectively. A total of 61 patients received ketorolac 0.4% (n=30) or bromfenac 0.09% (n=31). The mean (+/-SD) aqueous PGE(2) level was 285.6+/-141.9 pg/mL in patients treated with ketorolac 0.4% and 386.2+/-131.0 pg/mL in patients treated with bromfenac 0.09% (P=0.006). The mean (+/-SD) aqueous concentrations of ketorolac and bromfenac were 83.6+/-73.8 ng/mL and 9.2+/-6.6 ng/mL, respectively (P<0.001). Ketorolac 0.4% maintained significantly higher aqueous concentrations and lowered aqueous PGE(2) levels significantly more than bromfenac 0.09% at trough levels. Ketorolac 0.4% administered q.i.d. may provide a more sustained control of intraocular inflammation and pain than bromfenac 0.09% administered b.i.d.

  17. Drilling constraints on bimodal volcanism and subsequent formation of contrasted uppermost crustal compositions at the middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Yamasaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Mukae, N.; Nagase, T.; Tindell, T.; Totsuka, S.; Uno, Y.; Yonezu, K.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Shipboard Scientist, C.


    The Okinawa Trough (OT) is a young and actively spreading back-arc basin, extending behind the Ryukyu arc-trench system in the southeastern margin of the East China Sea. The OT is believed to be in an initial rifting stage (starting from 6-9 Ma), prior to the normal/stable seafloor spreading which constitutes the main stage of back-arc basin formation. Two drilling cruises ‒ the IODP Exp. 331 and SIP CK14-04 D/V Chikyu Cruise (Exp. 907) in 2010 and 2014 ‒ were conducted at the Iheya North Knoll, middle OT. The Iheya North Knoll is a domal volcanic complex consisting of small volcanic bodies. On these cruises, pumiceous gravel and altered rhyolitic rocks, as well as hemi-pelagic sediments, hydrothermal clay and Kuroko-type ores, were recovered from the upper 200 m of the crust. From Feb. 11, 2016 to Mar. 17, 2016, the SIP CK16-01 (Exp. 908) D/V Chikyu cruise was conducted at Iheya North Knoll and the sediment-covered rifting center of the Iheya-Minor Ridge area, middle OT. The Iheya-Minor ridge area is also an active hydrothermal field, located 25 km southeast of the Iheya North Knoll. In this area, basaltic rocks are widely distributed, and drilling has confirmed that the basaltic materials continue to 120 m below the seafloor. From an igneous petrological point of view, the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough are characterized by bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, with a compositional gap between SiO2 = 56-66 wt%. The origin of the rhyolitic rock has been interpreted as magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma. However, the existence of an active basalt-hosted hydrothermal field in the Iheya-Minor ridge area suggests the presence of hot basaltic rocks at a shallow position in the crust, and reaching recharged seawater at this depth. Furthermore, the composition of felsic rocks just after the compositional gap (SiO2 = 67 wt%) is very similar to that of the minimum melt of a granitic system, and experimental partial melt of hydrous basalt. Therefore

  18. Modeling of Giant Impact into a Differentiated Asteroid and Implications for the Large-Scale Troughs on Vesta (United States)

    Buczkowski, D.; Iyer, K.; Raymond, C. A.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Kahn, E.; Nathues, A.; Gaskell, R. W.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Russell, C. T.


    Linear structures have been identified in a concentric orientation around impact craters on several asteroids (e.g. Ida [1], Eros [2], Lutetia [3]) and their formation tied to the impact event [1,2]. Images of Vesta taken by the Dawn spacecraft reveal large-scale linear structural features in a similar orientation around the Rheasilvia and Veneneia basins [4]. However, the dimensions and shape of these features suggest that they are graben similar to those observed on terrestrial planets, not fractures or grooves such as are found on Ida, Eros and Lutetia [5]. Although the fault plane analysis [4] implies that impact may have been responsible for triggering the formation of these features as on the smaller asteroids, we suggest the significantly different morphology implies that some other component must also have been involved in their development. It has been established that Vesta is a differentiated body with a core [6]. This differentiated interior could be a factor in the troughs' resemblance to planetary faults rather than asteroidal fractures, as it is predicted that the stresses resultant from impact would be amplified and reoriented compared to a similar impact on an undifferentiated body. Preliminary CTH hydrocode [7] models of a 530 km sphere composed of a basalt analog with a 220 km iron core [6] show that the impact of a 50 km object results in different patterns of tensile stress and pressure compared to an undifferentiated sphere of the same material and diameter. While these first-order models have yet to fully mimic the observations we've made on Vesta, they do demonstrate that the density contrast in Vesta's differentiated interior affects the stresses resulting from the Rheasilivia and Veneneia impacts. It is this impedance mismatch that we suggest is responsible for the development of Vesta's planet-like troughs. Thus, future identification of planetary-style tectonic features on small solar system bodies may then imply a differentiated

  19. Spatiotemporal characterization and mapping of PM2.5concentrations in southern Jiangsu Province, China. (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George; Yang, Xue; He, Junyu


    As a result of rapid industrialization and urbanization, China is experiencing severe air pollution problems. Understanding the spatiotemporal variation and trends of air pollution is a key element of an improved understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and the implementation of the most effective risk assessment and environmental policy in the region. The motivation behind the present work is that the study region of southern Jiangsu province of China is one of the most populated and developed regions in China. The daily concentrations of particulate matter with particle diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in southern Jiangsu province obtained during the year 2014 were used to derive the variogram model that provided a quantitative characterization of the spatiotemporal (ST) variation of PM 2.5 concentrations in the study region. A spatiotemporal ordinary kriging (STOK) technique was subsequently employed to generate informative maps of the ST pollutant distribution in southern Jiangsu province. The results generated by STOK showed that during 2014 about 29.3% of the area was PM 2.5 polluted (at various severity levels, according to the criteria established by the Chinese government), and that the number of days characterized as polluted varied from 59 to 164 at different parts of the study region. Nanjing, the capital of Jiangsu province, was the place with the highest PM 2.5 pollution (including 3 days of serious pollution). The PM 2.5 pollution exhibited a decreasing spatial trend from the western to the eastern part of southern Jiangsu. A similar temporal PM 2.5 pattern was found from the western to the eastern part of southern Jiangsu, which was characterized by 4 peaks and 3 troughs linked to different meteorological conditions and human factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) (United States)

    Valli Peacher


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  1. Region of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moreno


    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  2. Development of aluminium free castable for blast furnace trough materials. Koro toiyo Al mutenka nagashikomizai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaoi, H.; Tsutsui, N.; Suzuki, T. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Yoshino, H.; Sugiyama, K.; Yasuda, N.; Ninomiya, H.; Itose, S. (Harima Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))


    In recent years a densification of castable materials is being developed in order to elongate a life of the blast furnace trough. As a risk of dry expansion in the drying process becomes to be higher due to it, the castable materials added the metallic Al are being used as a countermeasure against it. Since the metallic Al generates the hydrogen gas by a reaction with the water and forms the vent holes, it is superior in an explosion resistance. When the hydrogen gas generated by a reaction of this metallic Al retains during a period from the execution to the curing, there is a danger to generate an explosion by catching a fire. Accordingly in this repost, the organic foaming agent was added as the castable materials free from the metallic Al. As a result, an explosion resistance could be raised substantially. This is thought due to generation of N2 gas because the hydrolysis occurs in an alumina cement-water system. The microporess caused by a generation of N2 gas are a size of about 10[mu]m, or many of them are bigger than it. Although the effect of the added organic foaming agent on the various material property values is a little, an appropriate quantity is thought to be within 0.2%. 1 ref., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Investigation of the Effect of Physical and Optical Factors on the Optical Performance of a Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majedul Islam


    Full Text Available The overall thermal performance of a Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC depends on its optical performance, particularly the uniformity of the irradiance distribution and the resultant optical efficiency of the collector. Local Concentration Ratio (LCR, optical efficiency and average light concentration are three fundamental parameters of the optical performance of a PTC. These parameters are affected by various optical and physical factors. The effects of these individual factors on the performance parameters were investigated in this study using a verified Monte Carlo ray tracing optical simulation model. The investigation revealed that all three performance parameters are directly related to the optical properties of the collector components. The values decreased gradually with the increase of focal length of the mirror. Uniformity of the LCR profile was observed to decrease with increasing rim angle and geometric concentration. Defocus dislocation of the receiver was found to improve the uniformity of the LCR distribution by decreasing its peak concentrations, Cmax. Off-focus dislocation of the receiver, and inward angular deviation of the mirror profile were observed to increase the Cmax and decrease the uniformity of the LCR distribition. Out-focus dislocation of the receiver and solar tracking error distort the bi-symmetry of a normal LCR profile.

  4. Dust emissions in the West African heat trough. The role of the diurnal cycle and of extratropical disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippertz, P. [Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany)


    The summertime West African heat trough (HT) is one of the most active dust sources in the world. A detailed case study during May/June 2006 based upon analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and a new Meteosat dust product illustrates two important mechanisms of dust emissions in this region: (1) The dry continental-scale HT circulation exhibits a strong diurnal cycle characterized by nocturnal low-level jets and downward mixing of momentum to the surface during the build-up of the planetary boundary layer in the morning. This leads to strong gusty surface winds and dust emission, mostly along the northern side of the HT, but also within the southerly monsoon flow. Transports lead to an accumulation of dust near the axis of the HT. (2) Triggered by a lee cyclogenesis south of the Atlas Mountains, the Intertropical Discontinuity that separates dry Saharan and moist monsoonal air shifts northward and allows deep moist convection to penetrate into the Sahara. The evaporation of precipitation in the dry desert air also generates strong gusty winds and dust emissions. This study helps to clarify the physical mechanisms for a previously discovered relation between the annual cycles of dustiness on one hand and near-surface convergence and gustiness on the other hand. (orig.)

  5. Variation of the Tropical Upper-tropospheric Trough and Its Linkage to the Asian-Pacific-North American Summer Climate (United States)

    Deng, Kaiqiang; Yang, Song


    The tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) is one of the most prominent features in Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer, which peaks at 200-150 hPa in July and August. It is found that the TUTT varies largely from year to year, which indicates that the TUTT may exert great effects on the NH summer climate. In order to explore the causes that lead to the interannual variations of the TUTT, an area-weighted empirical orthogonal function decomposition analysis was applied to. The first mode reflects the northeastward-southwestward displacement of the TUTT, which is significantly related to the planetary wave originating from the Indo-western Pacific during a developing La Niña. The second mode presents the intensity change of the TUTT, which is attributed to the enhanced convection over the central Pacific where the anomalous warming sea surface temperature is appearing. The third mode shows the northwestward-southeastward displacement of the TUTT, which is correlated well with the north-south direction shift of east Asian westerly jet. Anomalous warming over the midlatitudes and cooling over the subtropics suggests a decreased meridional temperature gradient, which results in the northward displacement of westerly jet. The variations of TUTT's location and strength have distinct effects on the variation of South Asian high, the northwestern Pacific subtropical high, and the Mexican high, which subsequently modulate the climate anomalies in different regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis RAMO AKGJUN


    Full Text Available While working with pupils with special educational needs, the necessity of compassion while communicating with them is more obvious. The exchange of emotions between the child and the special educator, as well as the way the special educator responds to them, is fundamental for the further development of their feelings. For this reason, the goal of our research was to confirm the necessity of more sensitive communication while working with pupils with moderate intellectual disability following the emotional-expressive principles of the ICDP program. According to the defined goal, the subject of this research was to gather information regarding the level of sensitive communication in our special educational system, trough special educators' self-evaluation procedure and evaluation of pupils with moderate intellectual disability and their parents. The representative sample was consisted of three groups: special educators, pupils with moderate intellectual disability and their parents. Every group was consisted of twenty examinees or in total the research included 60 participants. The statistical data processing was achieved via tables, graphics and with determination of the R X C Exact Contingency Table. The research results showed strong statistically significant difference in the answers provided by the three groups of examinees. Based on the results, the main conclusion is that during the educational activities in the special educational system, the pupils with moderate intellectual disability have needs for greater sensitivity in the communication and interaction with their special educators.

  7. Deep-Sea Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and its Application to Hydrothermal Mineral Surveys in the Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Thornton, B.; Takahashi, T.; Sato, T.; Sakka, T.; Ohki, T.; Ohki, K.


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a form of atomic emission spectroscopy that uses a focused laser-pulse to create a plasma of excited material that can be used to determine the multi-elemental composition of targets in situ. In this work, the authors describe the development of a 3000m depth rated LIBS instrument and its deployments from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) at depths of more than 1000m. Exemplary measurements of the multi-element composition of both seawater and mineral deposits made at an active hydrothermal vent field in the Okinawa trough will be presented and methods developed to process the measurements made by the instrument will be discussed. This is the first application of LIBS to oceanographic studies and the technique is currently one of the few methods available to perform in situ multi-element analysis underwater at oceanic pressures. Through integration with platforms such as underwater vehicles, drilling systems and subsea observatories, it is hoped that this technology can contribute to more efficient scientific surveys of the deep-sea environment.

  8. The glacially overdeepened trough of the Salzach Valley, Austria: Bedrock geometry and sedimentary fill of a major Alpine subglacial basin (United States)

    Pomper, Johannes; Salcher, Bernhard C.; Eichkitz, Christoph; Prasicek, Günther; Lang, Andreas; Lindner, Martin; Götz, Joachim


    Overdeepened valleys are unambiguous features of glacially sculpted landscapes. They result from erosion at the bed of the glacier and their size and shape is determined by ice dynamics and the characteristics of the underlying bedrock. Major overdeepened valleys representing vertical bedrock erosion of several hundreds of meters are characteristic features of many trunk valleys in the formerly glaciated parts of the Alpine mountain belt. The thick sedimentary fill usually hinders attempts to unravel bedrock geometry, formation history and fill characteristics. Based on reflection seismic data and core-logs from multiple deep drillings we construct a detailed bedrock model of the Lower Salzach Valley trough, one of the largest overdeepened valleys in the European Alps. The analysed overdeepened structure characterized by a strongly undulating topography. Two reaches of enhanced erosion can be identified and are suggested to be related to variations in bedrock erodibility and a triple glacier confluence. The sedimentary fill shows clear characteristics of rapid infilling and subaqueous fan delta deposits indicate a strong influence of tributary streams. Associated surface lowering of the valley floor had a major impact on tributary stream incision but also on the available ice accumulation area at subsequent glaciations. The extent to which fills of earlier glaciations have been preserved from erosion during the last glacial maximum remains ambiguous and demands further exploration. To our knowledge the presented bedrock model is one of the best defined of any major overdeepened trunk valley.

  9. Study on the Instability of Two-Phase Flow in the Heat-Absorbing Tube of Trough Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang


    Full Text Available The Marangoni effect and Rayleigh-Benard effect in the two-phase region of solar trough heat-absorbing tube are simulated by FTM (front tracking method. Considering the Marangoni effect alone, although surface tension gradient and surface tension affect the interface wave, the two effects have different characteristics. The surface tension gradient caused by the temperature gradient is one of the factors that swing the interface. The amplitude attenuation of the interface wave decreases with the increase of the Marangoni number (Ma. In general, the surface tension gradient enhances the convection opposite to the temperature gradient. Under the gravity field, the Rayleigh-Benard effect influences the development of the vortex structure in the flow field, which in turn affects the velocity gradient near the interface to influence the evolution of the interface fluctuation. In a small Rayleigh number (Ra, the buoyancy convection reduces the velocity gradient, thus suppressing the evolution of the interfacial wave. In the range of Ra  4.0E4, the situation is just the opposite. The larger the Ra is, the stronger the promoting effect is.

  10. Imaging of the subducted Kyushu-Palau Ridge in the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai Trough subduction zone (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakanishi, Ayako; Kodaira, Shuichi; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki


    We performed 3D seismic tomography of the Hyuga-nada region, western Nankai subduction zone, to investigate the relationship of the subducted part of Kyushu-Palau Ridge (KPR) to coseismic rupture propagation, seismicity, and shallow very low frequency earthquakes. Combining active-source and passive-source data recorded both onshore and offshore, we imaged the deep slab from near the trough axis to the coastal area. Our results show the subducted KPR as a low-velocity belt oriented NW-SE extending down the plate boundary to around 30 km depth. At this depth, we suggest that the subducted KPR detaches from the slab and becomes underplated on the overriding continental plate. As the coseismic slip areas of past large earthquakes do not extend into the subducted KPR, we suggest that it may inhibit rupture propagation. The interior of the subducted KPR shows active intraslab seismicity with a wide depth distribution. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes are continuously active above the location of the subducted KPR, whereas they are intermittent to the northeast of the subducted KPR. Thus, the subducted KPR appears to be an important factor in coseismic rupture propagation and seismic phenomena in this region.

  11. Promising prediction of the monsoon trough and its implication for tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Lu, Riyu; Chen, Guanghua


    The monsoon trough (MT) is generally recognized as a feeding ground for tropical cyclones (TCs) over the western North Pacific (WNP). In view of the many challenges that remain in current seasonal TC forecasting, it would be a profound benefit to understand the predictability of variations in the MT and the implications of this for the seasonal prediction of TC activity. This study reveals that high predictability of the MT is shown by the current atmosphere-ocean coupled forecasting system, with the correlation coefficient being 0.84 for the model-ensemble prediction with observations from 1960 to 2005. This high predictability arises mainly from the tropical dipole sea surface temperature over the Maritime Continent and tropical Pacific Ocean, which favors convection around the warm pool and further excites the vorticity anomalies over the WNP. It is further found that good knowledge of the MT could provide promising prediction of TC activity over the WNP, including the occurrence and energy of TCs. The findings of this study suggest that coupling between the WNP circulation and tropical ocean acts as an important source of seasonal predictability in the WNP, and highlight the importance of the MT for seasonal prediction of TCs over the WNP.

  12. Tsunami simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough (Japan) based on stochastic rupture scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro


    In this study, earthquake rupture models for future mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai subduction zone are developed by incorporating the main characteristics of inverted source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These scenario ruptures also account for key features of the national tsunami source model for the Nankai–Tonankai earthquake by the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Government. The source models capture a wide range of realistic slip distributions and kinematic rupture processes, reflecting the current best understanding of what may happen due to a future mega-earthquake in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough, and therefore are useful for conducting probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk analysis. A large suite of scenario rupture models is then used to investigate the variability of tsunami effects in coastal areas, such as offshore tsunami wave heights and onshore inundation depths, due to realistic variations in source characteristics. Such investigations are particularly valuable for tsunami hazard mapping and evacuation planning in municipalities along the Nankai–Tonankai coast.

  13. Life cycle assessment of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant and the impacts of key design alternatives. (United States)

    Burkhardt, John J; Heath, Garvin A; Turchi, Craig S


    Climate change and water scarcity are important issues for today's power sector. To inform capacity expansion decisions, hybrid life cycle assessment is used to evaluate a reference design of a parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) facility located in Daggett, CA, along four sustainability metrics: life cycle (LC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, cumulative energy demand (CED), and energy payback time (EPBT). This wet-cooled, 103 MW plant utilizes mined nitrates salts in its two-tank, thermal energy storage (TES) system. Design alternatives of dry-cooling, a thermocline TES, and synthetically derived nitrate salt are evaluated. During its LC, the reference CSP plant is estimated to emit 26 g of CO(2eq) per kWh, consume 4.7 L/kWh of water, and demand 0.40 MJ(eq)/kWh of energy, resulting in an EPBT of approximately 1 year. The dry-cooled alternative is estimated to reduce LC water consumption by 77% but increase LC GHG emissions and CED by 8%. Synthetic nitrate salts may increase LC GHG emissions by 52% compared to mined. Switching from two-tank to thermocline TES configuration reduces LC GHG emissions, most significantly for plants using synthetically derived nitrate salts. CSP can significantly reduce GHG emissions compared to fossil-fueled generation; however, dry-cooling may be required in many locations to minimize water consumption.

  14. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, ...

  15. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Shakespeare in Southern Africa sets out to publish articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on the response to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Scholarly notes of a factual nature are also welcome. Submissions are reviewed ...

  16. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger. (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, ...

  17. Analysis and validation of a quasi-dynamic model for a solar collector field with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series for district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Zhiyong; Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon


    performance of the hybrid solar district heating plants is also presented. The measured and simulated results show that the integration of parabolic trough collectors in solar district heating plants can guarantee that the system produces hot water with relatively constant outlet temperature. The daily energy......A quasi-dynamic TRNSYS simulation model for a solar collector field with flat plate collectors and parabolic trough collectors in series was described and validated. A simplified method was implemented in TRNSYS in order to carry out long-term energy production analyses of the whole solar heating...... plant. The advantages of the model include faster computation with fewer resources, flexibility of different collector types in solar heating plant configuration and satisfactory accuracy in both dynamic and long-term analyses. In situ measurements were taken from a pilot solar heating plant with 5960 m...

  18. Fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope studies in probable modern analogue Kuroko-type ores from the JADE hydrothermal field (Central Okinawa Trough, Japan)


    Volker Lüders; B. Pracejus; Halbach, P.


    Fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopic compositions were studied in sulfides and barites from the JADE active hydrothermal field in the Central Okinawa Trough. The mineral assemblages in the JADE field strongly resemble ancient Kuroko-type deposits. The formation of massive sulfide mineralization is related to alteration of felsic volcanic rocks by deep penetrating heated seawater. Fluid inclusions in sphalerite from stockwork mineralization show homogenization temperatures that range between 2...

  19. New Zealand's Southern Alps (United States)


    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National Park

  20. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland (United States)


    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  1. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria (United States)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.


    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  2. Increased pulsatility, process irregularity, and nocturnal trough concentrations of growth hormone in amenorrheic compared to eumenorrheic athletes. (United States)

    Waters, D L; Qualls, C R; Dorin, R; Veldhuis, J D; Baumgartner, R N


    Amenorrheic athletes exhibit a spectrum of neuroendocrine disturbances, including alterations in the GH-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) axis. Whether these changes are due to exercise or amenorrhea is incompletely characterized. The present study investigates spontaneous (overnight) and exercise-stimulated GH secretion and associated IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in amenorrheic (AA; n = 5), and eumenorrheic athletes ( n = 5) matched for age, percent body fat (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), training history, and maximal oxygen consumption. Each volunteer participated in two hospital admissions consisting of a 50-min submaximal exercise bout (70% maximal oxygen consumption) and an 8-h nocturnal sampling period. Deconvolution analysis of serum GH concentration time series revealed increases in the half-life of GH (60%) and the number of secretory bursts (85%) as well as a decrease in their half-duration (50%) and the mass of GH secreted per pulse (300%) in the AA cohort. Time occupancy at elevated trough GH concentrations was significantly increased, and GH pulsatility (approximate entropy) was more irregular in the AA group. During exercise, AA exhibited a reversal of the normal relationship between IGF-I and GH, and a 4- to 5-fold blunting of stimulated peak and integrated GH secretion. Fasting levels of plasma IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-1 appeared to be unaffected by menstrual status. In ensemble, this phenotype of GH release in amenorrheic athletes suggests disrupted neuroregulation of episodic GH secretion, possibly reflecting decreased somatostinergic inhibition basally, and reduced GHRH output in response to exercise compared with eumenorrheic athletes. Accordingly, we postulate that the amenorrheic state, beyond the exercise experience per se, alters the neuroendocrine control of GH output in amenorrheic athletes.

  3. The role of overpressure and seismic activity for the generation of the Tampen Slide, North Sea Trough Mouth Fan (United States)

    Bellwald, Benjamin; Urlaub, Morelia; Oline Hjelstuen, Berit; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Sørensen, Mathilde; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik; Vanneste, Maarten


    Trough mouth fans (TMFs) are environments characterized by high sediment supply during glacial stages and repeated slope failure. The Tampen Slide, which removed 1800 km3 of sediment at 130 ka BP, is one of several paleo-slides at the North Sea TMF deposited at the outlet of the Norwegian Channel, SE Nordic Sea margin. Here we use 2D Finite Element Modeling to evaluate the effects of variations in sedimentation rates and sediment properties on overpressure generation and slope stability of this TMF system. The model domain, 40 km in length and 2 km in height, is dominated by deposits of glacigenic debris flows and glacimarine processes. We use geotechnical values measured on samples of glacial debris and (glaci)marine deposits from over the Ormen Lange gas field area. Slope stability has been modeled for constant temporal sediment loading, episodic changes in sedimentation rates and abrupt pulses in sediment delivery for the 61 ka of marine isotope stage 6. The models show that increased sedimentation rates during glacial stages generate insufficient overpressure to trigger the Tampen Slide. Furthermore, the simulated overpressures do not significantly differ at the end of the model runs characterized by different sedimentation patterns. The results also highlight the importance of a basal glacimarine layer underneath the rapidly-deposited sediments for the build-up of overpressure. Consequently, this glacimarine layer has the inherited potential to act as a weak layer facilitating instability. However, as overpressure due to sediment deposition alone does not result in slope failure, we couple the preconditioned slope with earthquake ground shaking. Based on attenuation models, an earthquake of M6.9 or larger at a short distance from the Tampen Slide headwall could have triggered the Tampen Slide. Therefore we suggest glacial sedimentation and a glacimarine layer to represent preconditioning factors, and seismic shaking as the controlling factor for the Tampen

  4. Utilizing Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Reactive Transport to Model CH4 Production from the Nankai Trough Gas Hydrate Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Qorbani


    Full Text Available The ongoing search for new sources of energy has brought natural gas hydrate (NGH reservoirs to the forefront of attention in both academia and the industry. The amount of gas reserves trapped within these reservoirs surpasses all of the conventional fossil fuel sources explored so far, which makes it of utmost importance to predict their production potential and safety. One of the challenges facing those attempting to analyse their behaviour is that the large number of involved phases make NGHs unable to ever reach equilibrium in nature. Field-scale experiments are expensive and time consuming. However, computer simulations have now become capable of modelling different gas production scenarios, as well as production optimization analyses. In addition to temperature and pressure, independent thermodynamic parameters for hydrate stabilization include the hydrate composition and concentrations for all co-existing phases. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement realistic kinetic models accounting for all significant routes for dissociation and reformation. The reactive transport simulator makes it easy to deploy nonequilibrium thermodynamics for the study of CH4 production from hydrate-bearing sediments by considering each hydrate-related transition as a separate pseudo reaction. In this work, we have used the expanded version of the RetrasoCodeBright (RCB reactive transport simulator to model exploitation of the methane hydrate (MH reservoir located in the Nankai Trough, Japan. Our results showed that higher permeabilities in the horizontal direction dominated the pressure drop propagation throughout the hydrate layers and affected their hydrate dissociation rates. Additionally, the comparison of the vertical well versus the horizontal well pattern indicated that hydrate dissociation was slightly higher in the vertical well scenario compared to the horizontal.

  5. Formation of carbonate pipes in the northern Okinawa Trough linked to strong sulfate exhaustion and iron supply (United States)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Guo, Zixiao; Chen, Shun; Sun, Zhilei; Xu, Hengchao; Ta, Kaiwen; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Jiwei; Du, Mengran


    The microbial anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a key biogeochemical process that consumes substantial amounts of methane produced in seafloor sediments, can lead to the formation of carbonate deposits at or beneath the sea floor. Although Fe oxide-driven AOM has been identified in cold seep sediments, the exact mode by which it may influence the formation of carbonate deposits remains poorly understood. Here, we characterize the morphology, petrology and geochemistry of a methane-derived Fe-rich carbonate pipe in the northern Okinawa Trough (OT). We detect abundant authigenic pyrites, as well as widespread trace Fe, within microbial mat-like carbonate veins in the pipe. The in situ δ34S values of these pyrites range from -3.9 to 31.6‰ (VCDT), suggesting a strong consumption of seawater sulfate by sulfate-driven AOM at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone. The positive δ56Fe values of pyrite and notable enrichment of Fe in the OT pipe concurrently indicate that the pyrites are primarily derived from Fe oxides in deep sediments. We propose that the Fe-rich carbonate pipe formed at the bottom of sulfate reduction zone, below which Fe-driven AOM, rather than Fe-oxide reduction coupled to organic matter degradation, might be responsible for the abundantly available Fe2+ in the fluids from which pyrites precipitated. The Fe-rich carbonate pipe described in this study probably represents the first fossil example of carbonate deposits linked to Fe-driven AOM. Because Fe-rich carbonate deposits have also been found at other cold seeps worldwide, we infer that similar processes may play an essential role in biogeochemical cycling of sub-seafloor methane and Fe at continental margins.

  6. Toward a robust workflow for deep crustal imaging by FWI of OBS data: The eastern Nankai Trough revisited (United States)

    Górszczyk, Andrzej; Operto, Stéphane; Malinowski, Michał


    Crustal-scale imaging by the full-waveform inversion (FWI) of long-offset seismic data is inherently difficult because the large number of wavelengths propagating through the crust makes the inversion prone to cycle skipping. Therefore, efficient crustal-scale FWI requires an accurate starting model and a stable workflow minimizing the nonlinearity of the inversion. Here we attempt to reprocess a challenging 2-D ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) data set from the eastern Nankai Trough. The starting model is built by first-arrival traveltime tomography (FAT), which is FWI assisted for tracking cycle skipping. We iteratively refine the picked traveltimes and then reiterate the FAT until the traveltime residuals remain below the cycle-skipping limit. Subsequently, we apply Laplace-Fourier FWI, in which progressive relaxation of time damping is nested within frequency continuation to hierarchically inject more data into the inversion. These two multiscale levels are complemented by a layer-stripping approach implemented through offset continuation. The reliability of the FWI velocity model is assessed by means of source wavelet estimation, synthetic seismogram modeling, ray tracing modeling, dynamic warping, and checkerboard tests. Although the viscoacoustic approximation is used for wave modeling, the synthetic seismograms reproduce most of the complexity of the data with a high traveltime accuracy. The revised FWI scheme produces a high-resolution velocity model of the entire crust that can be jointly interpreted with migrated images derived from multichannel seismic data. This study opens a new perspective on the design of OBS crustal-scale experiments amenable to FWI; however, a further assessment of the optimal OBS spacing is required for reliable FWI.

  7. Investigation of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team response guidelines assuming catastrophic damage from a Nankai Trough earthquake. (United States)

    Anan, Hideaki; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Akasaka, Osamu; Oshiro, Kenichi; Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Kiyozumi, Tetsuro; Yamada, Norihiko; Homma, Masato; Morino, Kazuma; Nakayama, Shinichi; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Koido, Yuichi


    Transporting critically ill patients outside of disaster-affected areas for treatment is an important activity of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs). We investigated whether this activity is possible after possible catastrophic damage from a Nankai Trough earthquake. Japan was divided into three areas based on the level of predicted damage (definitely, possibly, and non-affected areas). A survey of DMATs and the locations of emergency base hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) in each area was carried out, and the ability to support disaster areas was investigated. Next, a survey of wide-area medical transport by Self-Defense Force aircraft and the medical transport abilities of helicopter ambulances was carried out. The numbers of ICU beds in each area were compared, and the capacity to accept patients was investigated. Finally, subjects for further study were examined. The number of DMATs that could be sent from non-affected areas was insufficient. The number of patients that can be transported by Self-Defense Force aircraft and helicopter ambulance during the first 3 days was determined to be 1,443. The number of patients that can be accepted by ICUs in non-affected areas was insufficient. A system needs to be developed to provide medical treatment for critically ill patients within disaster areas during the acute phase. This will require DMAT operational reforms and the creation of logistics systems such as the supply of resources for earthquake-reinforced hospitals. In addition to patient transport, systems to provide medical care inside disaster-affected areas are needed.

  8. Isotopic composition and speciation of sedimentary nitrogen and carbon in the Okinawa Trough over the past 30 ka (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Hsiao, Silver Sung-Yun; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Dawei; Chang, Yuan-Pin; Kao, Shuh-Ji


    Total organic carbon to total nitrogen ratios (C/N) and their isotopic compositions (δ13CTOC and δ15NTN) are oft-applied proxies to discern terrigenous from marine-sourced organics and to unravel ancient environmental information. In high depositional Asian marginal seas, the inclusion of N-bearing minerals in the bulk sediment dilutes or masks signals sought after in δ15N and δ13C analyses, thus leading to incorrect and even contradictory interpretations. We used KOH-KOBr to separate operationally defined total organic matter into oxidizable (labile) and residual fractions for content and isotope measurements. In a sediment core in the Okinawa Trough, significant amounts of carbon and nitrogen existed in the residual phase, in which the C/N ratio was ~9, resembling most documented sedimentary bulk C/N ratios in the China marginal seas. The residual carbon, which was included in operationally defined total organic carbon (TOC), displayed a δ13C range (-22.7 to -18.9‰, mean -20.7‰) similar to the oft-used marine end-member. After removing the interference from the residual fraction, we found that the temporal pattern of δ13CLOC (LOC denotes labile organic carbon) was more variable. The residual nitrogen content was associated with illite, suggesting a terrestrial origin. Additionally, δ15N in the residual fraction likely reflected the climatic controls (e.g., precipitation) on lithogenic source materials. Further studies are required to explore the controlling factors for carbon and nitrogen isotopic speciation and to retrieve the information locked in the residual fraction.

  9. Sedimentological analysis and bed thickness statistics from a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex: Myall Trough, SE Australia (United States)

    Palozzi, Jason; Pantopoulos, George; Maravelis, Angelos G.; Nordsvan, Adam; Zelilidis, Avraam


    This investigation presents an outcrop-based integrated study of internal division analysis and statistical treatment of turbidite bed thickness applied to a Carboniferous deep-water channel-levee complex in the Myall Trough, southeast Australia. Turbidite beds of the studied succession are characterized by a range of sedimentary structures grouped into two main associations, a thick-bedded and a thin-bedded one, that reflect channel-fill and overbank/levee deposits, respectively. Three vertically stacked channel-levee cycles have been identified. Results of statistical analysis of bed thickness, grain-size and internal division patterns applied on the studied channel-levee succession, indicate that turbidite bed thickness data seem to be well characterized by a bimodal lognormal distribution, which is possibly reflecting the difference between deposition from lower-density flows (in a levee/overbank setting) and very high-density flows (in a channel fill setting). Power law and exponential distributions were observed to hold only for the thick-bedded parts of the succession and cannot characterize the whole bed thickness range of the studied sediments. The succession also exhibits non-random clustering of bed thickness and grain-size measurements. The studied sediments are also characterized by the presence of statistically detected fining-upward sandstone packets. A novel quantitative approach (change-point analysis) is proposed for the detection of those packets. Markov permutation statistics also revealed the existence of order in the alternation of internal divisions in the succession expressed by an optimal internal division cycle reflecting two main types of gravity flow events deposited within both thick-bedded conglomeratic and thin-bedded sandstone associations. The analytical methods presented in this study can be used as additional tools for quantitative analysis and recognition of depositional environments in hydrocarbon-bearing research of ancient

  10. Dissolved Fe and Fe binding ligand concentrations at the hydrothermal vent fields in the Coriolis Troughs, New Hebrides Island Arc (United States)

    Kleint, C.; Hawkes, J. A.; Sander, S. G.; Koschinsky, A.


    It is globally accepted that hydrothermal vent fluids are highly enriched in Fe compared to the surrounding seawater and for long it was believed that the majority of the dissolved Fe is precipitated either directly out of the fluid with seawater contact or from the plume within a short distance. Recent research at other deep-sea hydrothermal vents has shown, however, that organic ligands are able to keep Fe soluble and therefore facilitating its transport into the open ocean. This is important since Fe is also considered a limiting factor for primary production in large parts of the world`s surface ocean. The New Hebrides Island Arc is not studied well with respect to the fluid chemistry of its numerous vents. Up until now, no data is published for the crucial micronutrient Fe in these fluids. Several hydrothermal vent fluids, divided into mixing zone, outlet and pure fluid as well as one hydrothermal plume from the Coriolis Troughs have been analyzed with respect to total dissolved Fe (dFe) and Fe binding ligands (FeL), using competitive ligand exchange - adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE - AdCSV) with Salicylaldoxime as the artificial ligand. Our dFe data for the hydrothermal plume show concentrations ranging from 9.6 nM to 30.1 nM, being highly enriched compared to the surrounding seawater. Good correlation is observed between dFe and turbidity, which can be used as a proxy for hydrothermal plumes. Hydrothermal fluid samples collected near and directly from the vent outlet show total dissolved Fe concentrations varying from 0.46 µM up to 380 µM, respectively. We find enriched organic ligand concentrations in the plume samples as well as in the samples taken near the hydrothermal vent outlets. Pure hydrothermal fluid samples with an in-situ temperature of up to 370 °C show different ligand properties than low to mid temperature samples.

  11. Clinical correlations of infliximab trough levels and antibodies to infliximab in South Korean patients with Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Oh, Eun Hye; Ko, Dae-Hyun; Seo, Hyungil; Chang, Kiju; Kim, Gwang-Un; Song, Eun Mi; Seo, Myeongsook; Lee, Ho-Su; Hwang, Sung Wook; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Park, Sang Hyoung


    To investigate the clinical implications of infliximab trough levels (IFX-TLs) and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) levels in Crohn's disease (CD) patients in Asian countries. IFX-TL and ATI level were measured using prospectively collected samples obtained with informed consent from CD patients being treated at Asan Medical Center, South Korea. We analyzed the correlations between IFX-TLs/ATI levels and the clinical activity of CD (quiescent vs active disease) based on the CD activity index, C-reactive protein level, and physician's judgment of patients' clinical status at enrollment. The impact of concomitant immunomodulators was also investigated. This study enrolled 138 patients with CD (84 with quiescent and 54 with active disease). In patients with quiescent and active diseases, the median IFX-TLs were 1.423 μg/mL and 0.163 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001) and the median ATI levels were 8.064 AU/mL and 11.209 AU/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In the ATI-negative and -positive groups, the median IFX-TLs were 1.415 μg/mL and 0.141 μg/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). In patients with and without concomitant immunomodulator use, there were no differences in IFX-TLs (0.632 μg/mL and 1.150 μg/mL, respectively; P = 0.274) or ATI levels (8.655 AU/mL and 9.017 AU/mL, respectively; P = 0.083). IFX-TL/ATI levels were well correlated with the clinical activity in South Korean CD patients. Our findings support the usefulness of IFX-TLs/ATI levels in treating CD patients receiving IFX in clinical practice.

  12. Preliminary study on optimization of pH, oxidant and catalyst dose for high COD content: solar parabolic trough collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Chandan


    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater. Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using a parabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated. The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant (H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  13. Preliminary study on optimization of pH, oxidant and catalyst dose for high COD content: solar parabolic trough collector. (United States)

    Singh, Chandan; Chaudhary, Rubina; Gandhi, Kavita


    In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater. Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using a parabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated.The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst) and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant (H2O2). All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH). For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8). The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  14. Factors on trough teicoplanin levels, associations between levels, efficacy and safety in patients with gram-positive infections. (United States)

    Wang, Taotao; Li, Na; Hu, Sasa; Xie, Jiao; Lei, Jin'e; Wang, Yan; Zheng, Xiaowei; Xing, Jianfeng; Dong, Yalin


    The objective of this study was to identify the factors influencing trough teicoplanin concentrations (C(min)), to investigate the relationship between teicoplanin C(min) with efficacy and safety, and to determine a target therapeutic concentration. An analysis was performed on 95 serum concentrations from 50 patients with gram-positive infections who received teicoplanin treatment. Teicoplanin serum concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Univariate and multivariable analysis were performed to investigate the effect of independent variables on teicoplanin C(min). A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between teicoplanin C(min) and efficacy and safety. Teicoplanin therapy was effective in 74.0% (37/50) of patients, and 10.0% (5/50) of patients exhibited signs of adverse events. Using multivariable linear regression, two covariates were found to be a significant effect on teicoplanin C(min): dosage (mg/kg), and creatinine clearance rate (CL(cr). There was no covariate that has a significant impact on the safety of teicoplanin and only teicoplanin C(min) has a significant impact on the efficacy of treatment in the logistics regression. The logistics regression analysis showed that teicoplanin C(min) of 10 mg/L was associated with a 79.4% probability of success response. This study highlighted that teicoplanin C(min) was strongly influenced by the values of dosage (mg/kg) and CL(cr) and the teicoplanin C(min) range of 10 -€“ 20 mg/L was identified as the therapeutic target with optimum clinical efficacy and safety.

  15. Preliminary Study on Optimization of pH, Oxidant and Catalyst Dose for High COD Content: Solar Parabolic Trough Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Singh


    Full Text Available In the present study, solar photocatalytic oxidation has been investigated through laboratory experiments as an alternative to conventional secondary treatment for the organic content reduction of high COD wastewater.Experiments have been performed on synthetic high COD wastewater for solar photocatalytic oxidation using aparabolic trough reactor. Parameters affecting the oxidation of organics have been investigated.The experimental design followed the sequence of dark adsorption studies of organics, followed by photolytic studies (in absence of catalyst and finally photocatalytic studies in presence and absence of additional oxidant(H2O2. All the experimental studies have been performed at pH values of 2, 4, 6,8,10 and the initial pH value of the wastewater (normal pH. For photocatalytic studies, TiO2 has been used as a photocatalyst. Optimization of catalyst dose, pH and H2O2 concentration has been done. Maximum reduction of organic content was observed at the normal pH value of the wastewater (pH = 6.8. The reaction rate was significantly enhanced in presence ofhydrogen peroxide. The optimum pH other than the Normal was in the alkaline range. Acidic pH was not found to be favourable for organic content reduction. pH was found to be a dominant factor affecting reaction rate even in presence of H2O2 as an additional oxidant. Also, the solar detoxification process was effective in treating a waste with a COD level of more than 7500 mg/L, which is a otherwise a difficult waste to treat. It can therefore be used as a treatment step in the high organic wastewater treatment during the primary stage also as it effectively reduces the COD content by 86%.

  16. Interdecadal variation of tropical cyclone genesis and its relationship to the monsoon trough over the western North Pacific (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wen


    This study reexamines the recent interdecadal shift in tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s. An interdecadal decrease in the frequency of the WNP TC genesis was observed during 1998-2013 compared to the period of 1979-1997. The spatial distribution of the interdecadal decrease of the WNP TC genesis running northwest-southeast, consistent with the monsoon trough (MT) zone. The results imply that the WNP genesis may be closely related to the MT on the interdecadal timescale. After the late 1990s, the intensity of the WNP MT becomes weaker and it extends more westward, thereby providing an unfavorable condition for the TC genesis. Through a diagnosis of the energetics, we suggested that the barotropic energy conversion in the eastern part of the WNP MT tends to be weakened in the late 1990s, hence less energy to support the WNP TC genesis. Both the meridional shear and the convergence of the mean zonal winds over the eastern WNP MT have an important impact on the conversion from mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy, which can be considered as the atmospheric cause of the interdecadal decrease of TC genesis. Additionally, the tropical depression (TD)-type waves associated with the WNP MT are significantly different before and after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s, the off-equatorial TD-type waves could be distinctly observed, with clear transitions along the WNP MT. However, these transitions were vague after the late 1990s.

  17. Trough level from twice daily to once daily tacrolimus in early conversion kidney transplant recipients: a prospective study. (United States)

    Sukkha, Sayamon; Chindavijak, Busba; Montakantikul, Preecha; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Nosoongnoen, Wichit; Sumethkul, Vasant


    Background Early conversion from twice-daily tacrolimus (TAC-BID) to once-daily tacrolimus (TAC-OD) provides a greater benefit of reducing under-exposure of TAC-OD during the first period after transplantation. Information regarding the conversion dose among Asian kidney transplant recipients is still limited. Objective This study aimed to compare the trough levels (Cmin) of TAC-BID (Prograf®) and TAC-OD (Advagraf®). The values were obtained from early conversion intervention by 1:1 milligram per-milligram. Setting A university-based hospital. Method This study employed a single-center, open-label, prospective and single-armed design. Fifteen de novo standard risk kidney transplant recipients were enrolled. Fourteen days after transplantation, the Cmin of TAC-BID (pre-conversion Cmin) was determined. Subsequently, TAC-BID was converted to TAC-OD with a similar dose. The Cmin of TAC-OD was first measured at a steady state (immediate post-conversion Cmin) and compared. All enrolled patients received therapeutic monitoring at the first and second months. Main outcome measure Pre-conversion Cmin of TAC-BID and immediate post-conversion Cmin of TAC-OD. Results The immediate post-conversion Cmin was found to be 23% lowered than the pre-conversion Cmin. However, the Cmin of TAC-OD was found to be similar to the pre-conversion Cmin compared during the follow-up period. Renal function was found to be stable in all patients over 2 months. Conclusion Early conversion therapy was associated with a significantly lower immediate post-conversion Cmin but comparable Cmin throughout the follow-up period. The "one to one conversion ratio" from TAC-BID to TAC-OD could be performed among Asian de novo kidney transplant recipients at an early period after transplantation.

  18. ParaTrough v1.0: Librería en Modelica para Simulación de Plantas Termosolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Romera Cabrerizo


    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente trabajo describe una librería desarrollada en Modelica que utiliza el entorno Dymola 6.1 para modelar y simular plantas termosolares de tecnología de colector cilindro-parabólico. El actual software de modelado y simulación es cada vez más potente gracias a los avances en computación y programación, pudiendo conseguir estimaciones muy precisas del comportamiento de estas plantas térmicas. Como mejora a otras propuestas actuales, la librería ParaTrough se ofrece como una herramienta pública, gratuita bajo licencia Modelica License 2, de código libre, flexible, modular, y por lo tanto fácilmente ampliable y modificable para los requerimientos específicos de cada planta y proceso en particular. En la versión 1.0 contemplada en este artículo, esta librería se puede usar para el modelado y simulación del recurso solar y del sistema de fluido de transferencia calorífica sin cambio de fase. Los modelos han sido validados con datos reales de una planta en operación, Andasol 3, en los términos municipales de Aldeire y La Calahorra (Granada. El objetivo de ParaTrough es poder ser utilizada gratuitamente y de forma amigable por analistas de procesos para uno o varios de los siguientes casos: evaluación del rendimiento, detección de fallos, exploración de nuevos modos de operación y optimización de la planta. Aunque en futuras versiones se puedan añadir otros elementos, esta aportación cubre una nueva área de aplicación específica para el software de Modelica y en su estado actual facilita la operación y mantenimiento de estas plantas. Abstract: This paper describes a Modelica-based library developed to the modeling and simulation of solar thermal plants with parabolic trough collectors. The Dymola 6.1 environment has been used. Unlike other commercial tools, the ParaTrough library is offered as a free open source tool, under Modelica License 2. Its modular code makes it easily extensible and modifiable to

  19. Persistent severe drought in southern China during winter-spring 2011: Large-scale circulation patterns and possible impacting factors (United States)

    Sun, Chenghu; Yang, Song


    Severe drought persisted in southern China from January to May in 2011. In this study, a statistical analysis is carried out to discuss the multiple possible impacting factors including La Niña, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the thermal condition of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The La Niña event in 2010-11 excited a lower-tropospheric anomalous cyclone over the northwestern Pacific, weakening the northwestern Pacific subtropical high and caused an eastward shift of the high. As a result, transportation of wet and warm moisture from tropical oceans to southern China decreased. The La Niña event also strengthened the upper-tropospheric East Asian jet stream and deepened the East Asian trough, favoring a southward intrusion of dry northerly flow from the Siberia. The La Niña condition in the previous two seasons also seemed to provide precursory signals for the drought. Moreover, in January-May 2011, the NAO was in a positive phase and it tended to excite stationary Rossby waves that were distributed along the sub-polar and subtropical waveguides, respectively. The sub-polar one induced an anomalous anticyclone over the Siberia, favoring a southward intrusion of high-latitude northerly flow to southern China. The subtropical one, associated possibly with the enhanced convection over the broad region from the Mediterranean to Sahara, was favorable for an influence of upper-tropospheric flow on southern China. The TP might also exert an influence on the drought by weakening the westerly flow to the southern flank of TP and reducing water vapor transport from the Bay of Bengal to southern China.

  20. Interactions between synoptic, intraseasonal and interannual convective variability over Southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, B.; Richard, Y. [CNRS/Universite de Bourgogne, Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, Dijon (France); Fauchereau, N.; Rouault, M.; Reason, C.J.C. [University of Cape Town, Department of Oceanography, Cape Town (South Africa)


    After removing the annual cycle, a principal component analysis is applied to the daily outgoing longwave radiation anomaly field, used here as a proxy for atmospheric convection. The analysis is carried out over the southern African region (7.5 E-70 E, 10 S-40 S) for austral summer (November through February) for the period 1979-1980 to 2006-2007. The first five principal components (PC) are retained. The first two PCs describe spatial patterns oriented north-west to south-east from tropical southern Africa (SA) to the mid-latitudes. They are interpreted to be different possible locations for synoptic-scale tropical-temperate troughs (TTT), one dominant rainfall-producing synoptic system in the region. The phase relationship between these two PCs describes a tendency for these TTT to propagate eastwards from SA to the Mozambique Channel and southern Madagascar. The next three PCs describe convective fluctuations, respectively, located over the north-west, the south and the centre of SA. Their time series are significantly associated with Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) activity in the tropics. However, we find that TTT systems are statistically independent of the MJO, i.e. they are equally liable to occur during any phase of the MJO. Three PCs out of five also show a significant association with El Nino southern oscillation, confirming that El Nino years mostly coincide with suppressed convection at the intraseasonal time-scales, a result consistent with its impact on seasonal averages diagnosed in previous studies. (orig.)

  1. Snowfall in Southern Appalachia (United States)


    The snowstorm which swept across the eastern United States on December 4 and 5 also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and Virginia are apparent in this view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). This natural-color image was captured by MISR's downward-looking (nadir) camera on December 7, 2002.The Appalachians are bounded by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher elevation areas retain the green and reddish-brown hues of autumn, and many rivers and lakes appear blue and unfrozen. The highest peak in the eastern United States, Mount Mitchell, is found in North Carolina's western tip, near the Great Smoky Mountains (the dark-colored range at lower right).The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15805. The image covers an area of 347 kilometers x 279 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 60 to 62 within World Reference System-2 path 19.

  2. Eastern and Southern Africa. (United States)

    Girdler-brown, B


    This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified.

  3. Invertebrate diversity in southern California (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  4. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J


    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  5. Internal Structure of the Southern Polar Cap of Mars and Formation Implications (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.


    The surfaces of the Martian polar caps have been studied in detail but little is known about their internal structure. Exposures of the cap interior can be seen in the many troughs and scarps which incise them. The layered sequences visible in these topographic features have been known to exist for many years, however first order questions concerning the internal stratigraphy remain. We have identified a prominent bench forming layer near the top of the southern layered deposits. We have mapped its exposure in high-resolution MOC images on the eastern and western scarps. These images have been carefully registered to a MOLA derived DEM so topographic measurements along this bench can be extracted along with the location of each trace. What results are a set of measurements of the top of the bench forming layer in three dimensions. The top of this layer represents a distinct stratigraphic horizon. The prominent bench outcrops on both the eastern and western scarps which bound the highest portion of the southern layered deposits. Confirmation that these are two benches are indeed the same stratigraphic surface comes from the similarity of surrounding (nonbench forming) layers.

  6. Dynamic effects of CYP3A5 polymorphism on dose requirement and trough concentration of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. (United States)

    Chen, P; Li, J; Li, J; Deng, R; Fu, Q; Chen, J; Huang, M; Chen, X; Wang, C


    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug with marked pharmacokinetic variability partly due to CYP3A5 polymorphism. Our study aimed to investigate the dynamic effects of CYP3A5 genotypes on dose requirement and trough concentration (C0 ) of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. A total of 194 Chinese renal transplant recipients received oral tacrolimus twice daily. Whole-blood C0 of tacrolimus were measured on the 3rd day, 7th day, 14th day, 1st month, 3rd month and 6th month post-transplantation. CYP3A5 genotypes were determined and the recipients were categorized as CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 allele carriers) and non-expressers (homozygous CYP3A5*3). The correlated serum creatinine, haematocrit and albumin were also detected. The allele frequencies for CYP3A5*1/*1, *1/*3 and *3/*3 were 7·7%, 44·8% and 47·4%, respectively. There were no significant variability in serum creatinine, haematocrit and albumin values between CYP3A5 expressers and non-expressers. Larger doses were administered to CYP3A5 expressers than to non-expressers after surgery except the initial dose. C0 were much lower in CYP3A5 expressers than in non-expressers on the 3rd day, 7th day, 14th day and 1st month post-transplantation (P 8 ng/mL) during 3 months post-transplantation. Besides, the proportions in the two groups both increased gradually over time and up to 91·8% and 94% on the 6th month, respectively. There are no significant differences in serum creatinine, haematocrit and albumin values between CYP3A5 expressers and non-expressers. CYP3A5 expressers have decreased dose-adjusted tacrolimus C0 when compared to non-expressers. Dose-adjusted C0 of tacrolimus increases in a time-dependent manner in both groups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rare Earth Element Compositions of Chlorite-rich Hydrothermal Sediments in the middle Okinawa Trough, East China Sea (United States)

    Shao, H.; Yang, S.; Humphris, S. E.; Cai, D.; Wang, Q.


    Rare earth elements (REEs) have been used as powerful tracers in the study of hot fluid-rock reaction in hydrothermal system. However, the behavior of the REEs during interaction of hydrothermal solution with rocks remains to be clarified more quantitatively. The Okinawa Trough (OT), located in the East Asian continental margin, is characterized by thick terrigenous sediment and ubiquitous volcanic-hydrothermal activities. In this study, the sediments collected during IODP Expedition 331 to the mid-OT were determined for mineralogical and REEs as well as Nd isotopic compositions, aiming to investigate the geochemical behavior of REEs during hydrothermal processes. All samples were separated into bulk and clay-size (˂ 2 μm) fractions and pretreated by 1N HCl to remove carbonate and other unstable components. The hydrothermal sediments in the mid-OT is dominated by Mg-rich chlorite based on the XRD analysis, especially the clay-size fraction comprising pure chlorite. The clay-size samples bear different mineralogical and geochemical compositions between the upper and lower parts in this hydrothermal area. All hydrothermal samples are relatively enriched in HREEs in the residues. The upper clays have higher values of δEu and (La/Yb)N as well as LREEs concentration than the lower part, while the bulk samples have weak REE differentiation. In the 1N HCl leachates, the concentrations of REEs in the bulk samples are higher than in the clays in the lower part but LREEs are obviously enriched in the upper clays. We infer that the grain size may be an important factor controlling the behavior of REEs in the mid-OT hydrothermal system. Both bulk and clay samples show negative Eu anomalies relative to chondrite, similar as the detrital sediments and volcanic rocks. This study confirms the hypothesis that HREEs patterns are constant throughout the system compatible with higher LREEs mobility as chlorine ion complexes in acidic solutions (Mills and Elderfield 1995; Douville

  8. Initiation and development of slickenlined surfaces in clay-rich material of the Nankai Trough accretionary prism (United States)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Schleicher, Anja


    During the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, which is part of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (stage 3), the drilling vessel Chikyu advanced the deep riser hole at Site C0002, located 80 km offshore of the Kii Peninsula (Japan), from a depth of 860 meters below sea floor (mbsf) to 3058.5 mbsf. Underlying the Kumano Basin sediments, the Nankai accretionary prism appears, below 975.5 mbsf. It accreted during Upper Miocene to Pliocene times and is formed mainly by turbiditic silty claystone with rarely observed sandstone intercalations. Cuttings from both the 1-4 mm and >4 mm size fractions were investigated, showing slickenlined surfaces and deformation bands together with carbonate veins throughout the entire section from 1045.5 until 3058.5 mbsf. A scaly fabric is increasingly observed below approximately 2400 mbsf. Clay-rich cuttings were selected at different depth for specific SEM-EDS analysis, in order to investigate the initiation and development of the slickenlined surfaces, from both a structural and mineralogical point of view. Two end-members of the slickenlined surface types were observed: a) isolated smooth and uniform planes, between 20 and 50 μm long, formed by single grains of smectite with marked lineations and frequently jagged boundaries and b) microfaults (longer than 100 μm) with sharp boundaries to the undeformed rock, formed by aggregates of illite and smectite and with a well-developed lineation. In transition between these two end-member types, planes that are apparently unconnected draw a single plane and show subparallel lineations. Concerning the orientation of the slickenlines, it seems to be coherent with that observed in an array of conjugated faults, i.e. all the slickenlines belong to the same plane, in turn sub-perpendicular to the intersection of conjugated planes. These observations suggest that the slickenlined surfaces initiated along single grains of smectite and that with increasing

  9. Knowledge of Fecal Calprotectin and Infliximab Trough Levels Alters Clinical Decision-making for IBD Outpatients on Maintenance Infliximab Therapy (United States)

    Prosser, Connie; Kroeker, Karen I.; Wang, Haili; Shalapay, Carol; Dhami, Neil; Fedorak, Darryl K.; Halloran, Brendan; Dieleman, Levinus A.; Goodman, Karen J.; Fedorak, Richard N.


    Background: Infliximab is an effective therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, more than 50% of patients lose response. Empiric dose intensification is not effective for all patients because not all patients have objective disease activity or subtherapeutic drug level. The aim was to determine how an objective marker of disease activity or therapeutic drug monitoring affects clinical decisions regarding maintenance infliximab therapy in outpatients with IBD. Methods: Consecutive patients with IBD on maintenance infliximab therapy were invited to participate by providing preinfusion stool and blood samples. Fecal calprotectin (FCP) and infliximab trough levels (ITLs) were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Three decisions were compared: (1) actual clinical decision, (2) algorithmic FCP or ITL decisions, and (3) expert panel decision based on (a) clinical data, (b) clinical data plus FCP, and (c) clinical data plus FCP plus ITL. In secondary analysis, Receiver-operating curves were used to assess the ability of FCP and ITL in predicting clinical disease activity or remission. Results: A total of 36 sets of blood and stool were available for analysis; median FCP 191.5 μg/g, median ITLs 7.3 μg/mL. The actual clinical decision differed from the hypothetical decision in 47.2% (FCP algorithm); 69.4% (ITL algorithm); 25.0% (expert panel clinical decision); 44.4% (expert panel clinical plus FCP); 58.3% (expert panel clinical plus FCP plus ITL) cases. FCP predicted clinical relapse (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.417; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.197–0.641) and subtherapeutic ITL (AUC = 0.774; 95% CI, 0.536–1.000). ITL predicted clinical remission (AUC = 0.498; 95% CI, 0.254–0.742) and objective remission (AUC = 0.773; 95% CI, 0.622–0.924). Conclusions: Using FCP and ITLs in addition to clinical data results in an increased number of decisions to optimize management in outpatients with IBD on stable maintenance infliximab therapy. PMID

  10. The formation of gold-rich seafloor sulfide deposits: Evidence from the Beebe hydrothermal vent field, Cayman Trough (United States)

    Webber, Alexander P.; Roberts, Stephen; Murton, Bramley J.; Mills, Rachel A.; Hodgkinson, Matthew R. S.


    The Beebe vent field (BVF) in the Cayman Trough has built an auriferous massive sulfide deposit on the ultraslow spreading mid-Cayman spreading center. The genesis of auriferous sulfide deposits at mid-ocean ridges is not fully understood, although there is a growing recognition that slow and ultraslow spreading centers are conducive to gold mineralization. Analysis of hydrothermal precipitates from the BVF indicates that the highest gold contents are present within "beehive diffusers," which have developed a highly porous pyrrhotite framework. The beehive structure allows vent fluids to effuse slowly while allowing ingress of seawater to cool the fluid. The prevalence of pyrrhotite in the beehive samples, lack of sulfates, association between pyrrhotite and gold grains, and results of thermodynamic modeling suggest gold precipitation occurred under highly reduced conditions even during mixing with seawater. In contrast, high-temperature chimneys, with a single orifice, maintain high temperatures to the primary vent orifice and much of the gold is lost to seawater. Despite this, both chimney types are relatively gold-enriched, which points to a further underlying cause for high gold at the BVF such as interaction of hydrothermal fluids with ultramafic lithologies in the basement. The final gold composition of the deposit is partially controlled by loss of gold during mass-wasting of the material, with gold depletion most prevalent in blocks formed at beehive-type chimneys. The BVF demonstrates that the overall gold content of a massive sulfide deposit is the sum of basement, precipitation, and surface processes.Plain Language SummaryMineral deposits form on the seafloor at hydrothermal vent sites and are rich in metals including copper, zinc, lead, and sometimes precious metals like gold and silver. However, the processes controlling the amount of gold that ends up in these deposits is not clearly understood. In this article we show that as hydrothermal fluid vents

  11. Nexant Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plant Systems Analysis; Task 1: Preferred Plant Size, 20 January 2005 - 31 December 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B.


    The Rankine cycles for commercial parabolic trough solar projects range in capacity from 13.5 MWe at the Solar Electric Generating Station I (SEGS I) plant, to a maximum of 89 MWe at the SEGS VIII/IX plants. The series of SEGS projects showed a consistent reduction in the levelized energy cost due to a combination of improvements in collector field technology and economies of scale in both the Rankine cycle and the operation and maintenance costs. Nonetheless, the question of the optimum Rankine cycle capacity remains an open issue. The capacities of the SEGS VIII/IX plants were limited by Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act requirements to a maximum net output of 80 MWe. Further improvements in the Rankine cycle efficiency, and economies of scale in both the capital and the operating cost, should be available at larger plant sizes. An analysis was conducted to determine the effect of Rankine cycle capacities greater than 80 MWe on the levelized energy cost. The study was conducted through the following steps: (1) Three gross cycle capacities of 88 MWe, 165 MWe, and 220 MWe were selected. (2) Three Rankine cycle models were developed using the GateCycle program. The models were based on single reheat turbine cycles, with main steam conditions of 1,450 lb{sub f}/in{sup 2} and 703 F, and reheat steam conditions of 239 lb{sub f}/in{sup 2} and 703 F. The feedwater heater system consisted of 5 closed heaters and 1 open deaerating heater. The design condenser pressure was 2.5 in. HgA. (3) The optimization function within Excelergy was used to determine the preferred solar multiple for each plant. Two cases were considered for each plant: (a) a solar-only project without thermal storage, and (b) a solar-fossil hybrid project, with 3 hours of thermal storage and a heat transport fluid heater fired by natural gas. (4) For each of the 6 cases, collector field geometries, heat transport fluid pressure losses, and heat transport pump

  12. Solar power output correlation with utility demand in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, J.A.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Various solar electric system performance codes are used to predict the power generated by different solar power systems in the Southern Nevada area during 1990 by using the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) for Las Vegas. The system types evaluated along with the prediction codes (shown in parenthesis) are as follows: a central receiver or a power tower system with various amounts of storage (SOLERGY), a Luz type SEGS parabolic trough system without fossil fuel backup or storage (LUZERGY), a dish-Stirling system (DISH2, a conversion of direct beam radiation with constant collector/engine efficiency was used for this), and various arrangements of nonconcentrating photovoltaic devices (PVFORM). Comparisons of these results are made with the daily variations of load requirements of an electrical utility operating in the same geographical area. These comparisons are made for summer and winter periods. It is shown that several of the power generation schemes have summer peak outputs that occur at times very near to, but not coincident with, the peak utility load requirements. The power tower with a relatively small amount of thermal storage was the only scheme able to provide full power output at the times of summer peak demands. Winter peaks in this region occur during the night. Two comparisons are made that illuminate the summer load serving capability of solar generation in addition to simply showing time-variations of outputs. Included in these comparisons are the determination of the difference in time between the peak power output and the peak demand, as well as the normalized fraction of the peak power generated at the peak demand times.

  13. Low Dose Infliximab for Prevention of Postoperative Recurrence of Crohn’s Disease: Long Term Follow-Up and Impact of Infliximab Trough Levels and Antibodies to Infliximab (United States)

    Sorrentino, Dario; Marino, Marco; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Zarifi, Dimitra; Del Bianco, Tiziana


    Objective In patients with postoperative recurrence of Crohn’s disease endoscopic and clinical remission can be maintained for up to 1 year with low infliximab doses (3 mg/Kg). However, in theory low-dose infliximab treated patients could develop subtherapeutic trough levels, infiximab antibodies, and might loose response to therapy. To verify this hypothesis infliximab pharmacokinetics and clinical/endoscopic response were checked in a group of patients treated in the long term with low infliximab doses. Design Infliximab antibodies, infliximab levels, highly-sensitive CRP and fecal calprotectin were measured during the 8-week interval in 5 consecutive patients in clinical (Crohn’s Disease Activity Index infliximab 3 mg/Kg. For comparison with reported standards, infliximab pharmacokinetics and inflammatory parameters were also tested in 6 Crohn’s disease patients who did not undergo surgery and who were in clinical remission while on infliximab 5 mg/Kg. Patients on low infliximab dose also underwent colonoscopy after 18 additional months of therapy. Results Highly sensitive CRP and fecal calprotectin increased in all patients during the 8-week interval. Infliximab trough levels were lower in patients treated with the low dose compared to controls (mean±SE: 2.0±0.3 vs 4.75±0.83 μg/mL respectively pInfliximab antibodies were present in two of the subjects treated with low infliximab dose and in none of the controls. However, in low dose-treated patients after 18 additional months of therapy endoscopy continued to show mucosal remission and none of them developed clinical recurrence or side effects. Conclusions Patients treated with low infliximab doses had lower trough levels compared to patients treated with 5 mg/Kg and some developed antibodies to infliximab. However, low infliximab doses sustained clinical and endoscopic remission for a total of 30 months of treatment. PMID:26670274

  14. Development of psoriasis in IBD patients under TNF-antagonist therapy is associated neither with anti-TNF-antagonist antibodies nor trough levels. (United States)

    Protic, Marijana; Schoepfer, Alain; Yawalkar, Nikhil; Vavricka, Stephan; Seibold, Frank


    The cause of anti-TNF-induced psoriasis is still unknown. We aimed to evaluate if the appearance of psoriasis under anti-TNF therapy is associated with anti-TNF antibody levels and TNF-antagonist trough levels. In this case-control study we identified 23 patients (21 with Crohn's disease [CD], two with ulcerative colitis [UC]) who developed psoriasis under infliximab (IFX, n = 20), adalimumab (ADA, n = 2), and certolizumab pegol (CZP, n= 1) and compared them regarding the anti-TNF-antagonist antibody levels with 85 IBD patients (72 with CD, 13 with UC) on anti-TNF therapy without psoriasis. Median disease duration was not different between the two groups (7 years in the group with psoriasis under TNF-antagonists vs. 10 years in the control group, p = 0.072). No patient from the psoriasis group had antibodies against TNF-antagonists compared to 10.6% in the control group (p = 0.103). No difference was found in IFX trough levels in the group of patients with psoriasis compared to the control group (2.6 μg/mL [IQR 0.9-5.5] vs. 3.4 μg/mL [IQR 1.4-8.1], p = 0.573). TNF-antagonist therapy could be continued in 91.3% of patients with TNF-antagonist related psoriasis and most patients responded to topical therapies. Anti-TNF-induced psoriasis seems to be independent of anti-TNF antibodies and trough levels. Interruption of Anti-TNF therapy is rarely necessary.

  15. Support for the Confederate Battle Flag in the Southern United States: Racism or Southern Pride?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joshua D. Wright; Victoria M. Esses


    ... in the Southern United States. We evaluate these two competing views in explaining attitudes toward the Confederate battle flag in the Southern United States through a survey of 526 Southerners...

  16. Numerical tsunami simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea from hypothetical M 9 earthquakes along the Nankai trough (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Furumura, Takashi


    We carried out tsunami numerical simulations in the western Pacific Ocean and East China Sea in order to examine the behavior of massive tsunami outside Japan from the hypothetical M 9 tsunami source models along the Nankai Trough proposed by the Cabinet Office of Japanese government (2012). The distribution of MTHs (maximum tsunami heights for 24 h after the earthquakes) on the east coast of China, the east coast of the Philippine Islands, and north coast of the New Guinea Island show peaks with approximately 1.0-1.7 m,4.0-7.0 m,4.0-5.0 m, respectively. They are significantly higher than that from the 1707 Ho'ei earthquake (M 8.7), the largest earthquake along the Nankai trough in recent Japanese history. Moreover, the MTH distributions vary with the location of the huge slip(s) in the tsunami source models although the three coasts are far from the Nankai trough. Huge slip(s) in the Nankai segment mainly contributes to the MTHs, while huge slip(s) or splay faulting in the Tokai segment hardly affects the MTHs. The tsunami source model was developed for responding to the unexpected occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, with 11 models along the Nanakai trough, and simulated MTHs along the Pacific coasts of the western Japan from these models exceed 10 m, with a maximum height of 34.4 m. Tsunami propagation was computed by the finite-difference method of the non-liner long-wave equations with the Corioli's force and bottom friction (Satake, 1995) in the area of 115-155 ° E and 8° S-40° N. Because water depth of the East China Sea is shallower than 200 m, the tsunami propagation is likely to be affected by the ocean bottom fiction. The 30 arc-seconds gridded bathymetry data provided by the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO-2014) are used. For long propagation of tsunami we simulated tsunamis for 24 hours after the earthquakes. This study was supported by the"New disaster mitigation research project on Mega thrust earthquakes around Nankai

  17. Crustal structure of the Southeast Georgia embayment-Carolina trough: Preliminary results of a composite seismic image of a continental suture ( ) and a volcanic passive margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, J.A. Jr.; Stoffa, P.L.; Phillips, J.D. (Univ. of Texas Institute for Geophysics, Austin (USA)); Oh, Jinyong (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA)); Sawyer, D.S. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Purdy, G.M.; Reiter, E. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA)); Makris, J. (Universitaet Hamburg, Bundesstrasse, Hamburg (West Germany))


    New deep-penetration multichannel seismic reflection data, combined with refraction results and magnetics modeling, support a hypothesis that the Carolina trough is a Mesozoic volcanic passive margin exhibiting a seaward-dipping wedge and associated underplating. The structure of Carolina platform continental crust is consistent with the late Paleozoic continental collision that produced the Appalachians, but imbrication has had no obvious effect on shallower structures produced by Mesozoic extension and volcanism. The origin of prominent magnetic anomalies crossing the Southeast Georgia embayment can be explained by processes attending Mesozoic separation of Africa and North America, and is not related to a Paleozoic continental suture, as previously postulated.

  18. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts of Laurentian affinity from blocks of limestone in the Rosroe Formation, South Mayo Trough, western Ireland and their palaeogeographic implication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stouge, Svend; Harper, David A. T.; Sevastopulo, George D.


    with, respectively, the Tourmakeady Formation (Floian-Dapingian) and Srah Formation (Darriwilian) in the Tourmakeady Volcanic Group in the eastern part of the South Mayo Trough and probably are derived from the same or similar laterally equivalent short-lived carbonate successions that accumulated...... at offshore 'peri-Laurentian' islands, close to and along the Laurentian margin. During collapse of the carbonate system in the late Mid Ordovician, the blocks were transported down a steep slope and into deep-water by debris flows, mixing with other rock types now found in the coarse polymict clastics...

  19. Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis; DONET/ DONET2, Part2 -Development and data application for the mega thrust earthquakes around the Nankai trough- (United States)

    Kaneda, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.; Araki, E.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, M.; Kamiya, S.; Ariyoshi, K.; Baba, T.; Ohori, M.; Hori, T.; Takahashi, N.; Kaneko, S.; Donet Research; Development Group


    Yoshiyuki Kaneda Katsuyoshi Kawaguchi*, Eiichiro Araki*, Shou Kaneko*, Hiroyuki Matsumoto*, Takeshi Nakamura*, Masaru Nakano*, Shinichirou Kamiya*, Keisuke Ariyoshi*, Toshitaka Baba*, Michihiro Ohori*, Narumi Takakahashi*, and Takane Hori** * Earthquake and Tsunami Research Project for Disaster Prevention, Leading Project , Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) **Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) DONET (Dense Ocean Floor Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis) is the real time monitoring system of the Tonankai seismogenic zones around the Nankai trough southwestern Japan. We were starting to develop DONET to perform real time monitoring of crustal activities over there and the advanced early warning system. DONET will provide important and useful data to understand the Nankai trough maga thrust earthquake seismogenic zones and to improve the accuracy of the earthquake recurrence cycle simulation. Details of DONET concept are as follows. 1) Redundancy, Extendable function and advanced maintenance system using the looped cable system, junction boxes and the ROV/AUV. DONET has 20 observatories and incorporated in a double land stations concept. Also, we are developed ROV for the 10km cable extensions and heavy weight operations. 2) Multi kinds of sensors to observe broad band phenomena such as long period tremors, very low frequency earthquakes and strong motions of mega thrust earthquakes over M8: Therefore, sensors such as a broadband seismometer, an accelerometer, a hydrophone, a precise pressure gauge, a differential pressure gauge and a thermometer are equipped with each observatory in DONET. 3) For speedy detections, evaluations and notifications of earthquakes and tsunamis: DONET system will be deployed around the Tonankai seismogenic zone. 4) Provide data of ocean floor crustal deformations derived from pressure sensors: Simultaneously, the development of data

  20. A new species and new record of deep-sea scale-worms (Polynoidae: Polychaeta) from the Okinawa Trough and the South China Sea. (United States)

    Sui, Jixing; Li, Xinzheng


    A new species of scale-worm, Lepidonotopodium okinawae sp. nov. from the Okinawa Trough is described. The new species differs from the other species of Lepidonotopodium by having 24 segments and numerous foveolae on the surface of elytra with one globular micropapilla in every foveola. A new record of the mussel commensal Branchipolynoe pettiboneae Miura & Hashimoto, 1991 is reported and described from the northern South China Sea, where for the first time the scale-worm is noted as occurring at a cold-seep. Keys to distinguish the species of Branchipolynoe and Lepidonotopodium are provided.

  1. Treasures of the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Gendler, Robert; Malin, David


    In these pages, the reader can follow the engaging saga of astronomical exploration in the southern hemisphere, in a modern merger of aesthetics, science, and a story of human endeavor. This book is truly a celebration of southern skies.  Jerry Bonnell, Editor - Astronomy Picture of the Day The southern sky became accessible to scientific scrutiny only a few centuries ago, after the first European explorers ventured south of the equator. Modern observing and imaging techniques have since revealed what seems like a new Universe, previously hidden below the horizon, a fresh astronomical bounty of beauty and knowledge uniquely different from the northern sky. The authors have crafted a book that brings this hidden Universe to all, regardless of location or latitude. Treasures of the Southern Sky celebrates the remarkable beauty and richness of the southern sky in words and with world-class imagery. In part, a photographic anthology of deep sky wonders south of the celestial equator, this book also celebrates th...

  2. An Introduction: Around Southern Modernisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Leal, Joana


    Full Text Available In this special issue you will find a discussion on southern modernisms stemming from an exploratory research project funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT between 2014 and 2015. As a project, southern modernisms had a theoretical and historiographical focus driven to discuss the resonances of the two words associated in its title, as well as the disquieting effect of their combination in the fields of visual arts and architecture. The first word – modernisms – stood against the standardized canon of modernism, thus bonding the research to the critical revision of that concept occurring in art history since the closing decades of the 20th century; the second word based the project in southern Europe, meaning that Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece would set the ground for selecting case studies.

  3. Pteropods in Southern Ocean ecosystems (United States)

    Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.


    To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean ecosystems. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean ecosystems, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed current knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population

  4. Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFex)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coale, Kenneth H.


    The Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX) was an experiment decades in the planning. It's implementation was among the most complex ship operations that SIO has been involved in. The SOFeX field expedition was successful in creating and tracking two experimentally enriched areas of the Southern Ocean, one characterized by low silicic acid, one characterized by high silicic acid. Both experimental sites were replete with abundant nitrate. About 100 scientists were involved overall. The major findings of this study were significant in several ways: (1) The productivity of the southern ocean is limited by iron availability. (2) Carbon uptake and flux is therefore controlled by iron availability (3) In spite of low silicic acid, iron promotes non-silicious phytoplankton growth and the uptake of carbon dioxide. (4) The transport of fixed carbon from the surface layers proceeds with a C:N ratio that would indicate differential remineralization of nitrogen at shallow depths. (5) These finding have major implications for modeling of carbon export based on nitrate utilization. (6) The general results of the experiment indicate that, beyond other southern ocean enrichment experiments, iron inputs have a much wider impact of productivity and carbon cycling than previously demonstrated. Scientific presentations: Coale, K., Johnson, K, Buesseler, K., 2002. The SOFeX Group. Eos. Trans. AGU 83(47) OS11A-0199. Coale, K., Johnson, K. Buesseler, K., 2002. SOFeX: Southern Ocean Iron Experiments. Overview and Experimental Design. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47) OS22D-01. Buesseler, K.,et al. 2002. Does Iron Fertilization Enhance Carbon Sequestration? Particle flux results from the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-09. Johnson, K. et al. 2002. Open Ocean Iron Fertilization Experiments From IronEx-I through SOFeX: What We Know and What We Still Need to Understand. Eos. Trans. AGU 83 (47), OS22D-12. Coale, K. H., 2003. Carbon and Nutrient Cycling During the


    We examined the diet of a February-May sample of the southern toad (Bufo Terrestris) from the Everglades National Park. Above the familial level, 13 taxa were consumed, but ants (Hymenoptera) and beetles (Coleoptera) were consumed most by, and in the greatest number of s...

  6. Sexty Southerners: Sexting Content and Behaviors among Selected Southern Undergraduates (United States)

    Hudson, Heather K.; Marshall, S. Alexandra

    Sexting is defined as sending/posting/sharing sexually explicit messages or nude/semi-nude images via electronic communication. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess and determine relationships of sexting behavioral intentions, sexting behaviors, and sexting content among selected Southern undergraduate students. Methods: Survey…

  7. A brittle (normal?) shear zone cored in Site C0002 of Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (IODP Expedition 348) (United States)

    Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Sample, James; Brown, Kevin; Otsubo, Makoto; Yamamoto, Yuzuru


    Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 348, which belongs to the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, conducted riser-drilling to make deeper an existing hole at Site C0002, up to 3058.5 meters below seafloor (mbsf). This site is located 80 km SE of the Kii Peninsula (Japan) in the Kumano forearc basin, in turn situated on top of the Nankai accretionary prism. Cuttings (875.5-3058.5 mbsf) and cores (2163.0-2217.5 mbsf) were collected in the upper Miocene to Pliocene turbiditic silty claystone with few intercalations of sandstone which characterize the accretionary prism lithological units. A remarkably preserved fault zone has been cored around 2205 mbsf (core section Hole C0002P-348-5R-4). It is characterized by 34 cm of fault breccia, in which an anastomosed cataclastic foliation is present. The rocks of the damaged zone are formed by silty claystone with an incipient scaly fabric and scarce levels of sandstones. Extra-large thin sections were made along the whole core section. In the brittle shear zone, they reveal a catalogue of deformation structures characteristic of a high structural level. In particular, almond-type structures and arrays of microfaults cutting the stratification are the most common structures and outline the cataclastic foliation. The occurrence of calcite veins in the recovered cores is limited to this fault zone, which is indicative of its role as fluid path, accompanied by carbonate cementation. Generally fault veins have lower δ18O values than carbonate cements in the sedimentary matrix, consistent with veins forming at higher temperatures and/or from a fluid more strongly depleted in 18O. A continuum of the relationships between calcite veins and cataclastic deformation is observed, from veins that precipitated early in the fault history, with calcite grains broken during subsequent deformation, to late veins which seal the almond-type structures within the claystones. The geometry of the calcite grains within the

  8. Modeling and Characteristic Parameters Analysis of a Trough Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal System with GaAs and Super Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji


    Full Text Available The paper established the one-dimension steady models of a trough concentrating photovoltaic/thermal system with a super cell array and a GaAs cell array, respectively, and verified the models by experiments. The gaps between calculation results and experimental results were less than 5%. Utilizing the models, the paper analyzed the influences of the characteristic parameters on the performances of the TCPV/T system with a super cell array and a GaAs cell array, respectively. The reflectivity of the parabolic mirror in the TCPV/T system was an important factor to determine the utilizing efficiency of solar energy. The performances of the TCPV/T system can be optimized by improving the mirror reflectivity and the thermal solar radiation absorptivity of the lighting plate and pursuing a suitable focal line with uniform light intensity distribution. All these works will benefit to the utilization of the trough concentrating system and the combined heat/power supply.

  9. Precipitation stable isotope records from the northern Hengduan Mountains in China capture signals of the winter India-Burma Trough and the Indian Summer Monsoon (United States)

    Yu, Wusheng; Tian, Lide; Yao, Tandong; Xu, Baiqing; Wei, Feili; Ma, Yaoming; Zhu, Haifeng; Luo, Lun; Qu, Dongmei


    This project reports results of the first precipitation stable isotope (δ18 O and δD) time series produced for Qamdo in the northern Hengduan Mountains in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The data showed that the fluctuations of precipitation stable isotopes at Qamdo during the different seasons revealed various moisture sources. The westerlies and local recycling moisture dominated at the study area before the pre-monsoon and after the post-monsoon seasons, which resulted in similar trends of both precipitation stable isotopes and temperature. The marine moisture was transported to the northern Hengduan Mountains by the winter India-Burma Trough combined with convection. Consequently, stable isotopes in subsequent precipitation were occasionally observed to decrease suddenly. However, δ18 O and δD values of precipitation at Qamdo were lower during the monsoon period and the duration of those low values was longer because of the effects of the Indian Summer Monsoon and the strengthening convection. Our findings indicate that the effects of seasonal precipitation differences caused by various climate systems, including the winter India-Burma Trough and Indian Summer Monsoon, need to be considered when attempting to interpret tree-ring and ice core records for the Hengduan Mountains.

  10. New constraints on the timing of flexural deformation along the northern Australian margin: Implications for arc-continent collision and the development of the Timor Trough (United States)

    Saqab, Muhammad Mudasar; Bourget, Julien; Trotter, Julie; Keep, Myra


    Numerous extensional faults offset the passive margin strata of the northern Bonaparte Basin. This extensional deformation has been attributed to lithospheric flexure of the descending Australian Plate, in an overall convergence setting. Here we use an extensive 2D and 3D seismic dataset calibrated with well biostratigraphy and strontium (Sr) isotope age data to constrain the timing of deformation along the northern Australian margin during the Neogene. Analysis of fault throw and differential thickness variations give new insights on the propagation and slip history of the faults. Along-dip throw profiles exhibit 'D' shape distributions, skewed towards the top. Positive throw gradients above the throw maxima, coinciding with intervals of growth strata, indicate multiphase fault activity. Results indicate that post-rift extensional deformation initiated during the latest Miocene (ca. 6 Ma). The development of the modern Timor Trough (as a foreland basin) and Cartier Trough also commenced during this period. A second episode of increased tectonic activity occurred around the Pliocene-Quaternary boundary (ca. 3 Ma), and the deformation continued intermittently to the present-day. These new results are in agreement with the timing of initiation of collision between the Australian Plate and the Banda Arc and uplift of the Timor Island, recently derived from stratigraphic analysis in Timor. These regional tectonic events have profoundly affected the paleogeography of the Timor Sea and may explain major changes in oceanic circulation and climate during the Neogene.

  11. Design of a 25 MWe Solar Thermal Power Plant in Iran with Using Parabolic Trough Collectors and a Two-Tank Molten Salt Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Alinezhad Kordmahaleh


    Full Text Available Nowadays, parabolic trough solar thermal plants are prevalent around the world. In different areas concerning the amount of solar radiation, their standard size is approximately between 20 and 100 MWe. Certainly, the right size of the solar field is the first selection with regard to nominal electrical power. A vast area will be economically unreasonable whereas a small area will mainly cause the power plant to operate at the part-load condition. This paper presents an economic modeling of a solar parabolic trough plant, operating at 25 MWe in Yazd, Iran. The varying types of collector dimensions have been investigated; then, by selecting autumnal equinox (22 September at 12:00 PM as the design point, thermal performance of the solar power plant has been featured annually, in all conditions. The total operating time of the power plant is about 1726 hours (1248 hours in full-load condition. In the end, the effect of thermal storage tanks has been analyzed to save extra solar heat and use it at nights in hot months. By implementing a storage system, the total operating time will be increased to 3169 hours (2785 in full-load condition. Moreover, 7974 GJ useful thermal energy can be obtained from the solar field and storage system.

  12. Crustal Recycling by Surface Processes Along the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary: From the Colorado Plateau to the Salton Trough and Gulf of California (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.


    Delivery of sediment from the Colorado Plateau to basins in the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California exerts an incompletely understood control on structure, magmatism, rheology, and rift evolution. This study examines the volumetric rate at which crust of the continent interior is moved as sediment and converted into new crust in deep sedimentary basins along the active oblique-divergent plate boundary. The modern Colorado River was integrated by a series of lake spillover events that propagated from Lake Mead to the Salton Trough between 6.0 and 5.3 Ma (Spencer et al., 2001, 2008; House et al., 2005; Dorsey et al., 2007). Thus all transfer of sediment from the Colorado Plateau to the Salton Trough and northern Gulf post-dates 5.3 Ma. The volume of Colorado River sediment in subsurface basins of the Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California is estimated using published geophysical and borehole data, and two end-member crustal models. In the first model, pre-existing granitic crust has been fully ruptured by oblique rifting, and new crust is being formed by input of sediment from above mixed with mafic intrusions from below (Fuis et al., 1984). In the second model, the middle and lower crust consists of thinned granitic rock that has undergone large-scale crustal flow (Gonzalez et al., 2005). Using the two crustal models for basin depth, and measured basin areas, the total volume of Colorado River sediment in subsurface basins is bracketed between 198,000 and 291,000 km3. The volume of rock eroded from the Colorado Plateau can be approximated by multiplying the pre-dam sediment discharge (1.2-1.5 x 108 t/yr; Meade and Parker, 1985) by the total lifetime of sediment output (5.3 m.y.) and converting mass to volume by bracketing average sediment density between 2300 and 2500 kg/m3. This yields an equivalent sediment volume of 200,000-270,000 km3 that would have been delivered to the plate boundary at early-1900's discharge rates. Thus, despite current

  13. Archives: Southern African Journal of Critical Care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 24 of 24 ... Archives: Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Journal Home > Archives: Southern African Journal of Critical Care. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Review of Southern African Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Southern African Studies is a multidisciplinary journal of Arts, Social and Behavioural Sciences. Vol 13, No 1 (2009). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. Health-Care Waste Practices in Selected Health-Care Facilities in Maseru ...

  15. Threatened plants of Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV


    Full Text Available Lists are provided of 1 915 vascular plant taxa regarded to be either extinct or variously threatened in southern Africa, the region south of (but excluding) Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. These include 39 recently extinct taxa} 105 endangered...

  16. (reptilia: gekkonidae) in southern africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additional notes on the herpetology of South West Africa with descriptions of two new subspecies of geckos. Cimbebasia. II: 1-40. HAACKE. W D 1970. New herpetological records from South West Africa. Ann. Transv. Mus. 26: 277-283. HAACKE, W D 1976. The burrowing geckos of southern Africa, 5 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae).


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By means of this review the authors wish to stimulate a discussion in southern Africa of the relevance of antiviral therapy strategic treatment interruptions. To achieve this aim we will review the current literature of treatment- related immune reconstitution and HIV-specific immune control of HIV replication, and will propose ...

  18. Long-term Treatment of Teicoplanin for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Sternal Osteomyelitis with Renal Impairment: A Case of High Teicoplanin Trough Levels Maintained by Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. (United States)

    Shiohira, Hideo; Nakamatsu, Masashi; Kise, Yuya; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Hokama, Nobuo; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ueda, Shinichiro; Nakamura, Katsunori; Fujita, Jiro


    Teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is recommended for therapeutic drug monitoring during treatment. Maintaining a high trough range of teicoplanin is also recommended for severe infectious disease. However, the optimal dose and interval of treatment for severe renal impairment is unknown. We report a 79-year-old man who received long-term teicoplanin treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to postoperative sternal osteomyelitis with renal impairment. Plasma teicoplanin trough levels were maintained at a high range (20-30 μg/mL). Although the patient required long-term teicoplanin treatment, a further decline in renal function was not observed, and blood culture remained negative after the start of treatment. Teicoplanin treatment that is maintained at a high trough level by therapeutic drug monitoring might be beneficial for severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection accompanied by renal impairment.

  19. Serial Serum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Trough Levels in Patients with X-linked Agammaglobulinemia on Replacement Therapy with Intravenous Immunoglobulin: Its Correlation with Infections in Indian Children. (United States)

    Suri, Deepti; Bhattad, Sagar; Sharma, Avinash; Gupta, Anju; Rawat, Amit; Sehgal, Shobha; Singh, Surjit; Gupta, Sudhir


    Patients with primary antibody deficiency (PAD) are being increasingly diagnosed in the developing world. However, care of these children continues to remain suboptimal due to financial and social constraints. Immunoglobulin (Ig) trough level is an important predicting factor for infections in children on replacement immunoglobulin therapy. There are no data on this aspect from the developing world. Therefore, we studied serial immunoglobulin G (IgG) trough levels in 14 children with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) receiving replacement intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Infections during the course of enrolment were documented prospectively. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 5.1 years (range 2-11 years). Mean time from onset of symptoms and initiation of therapy was 3.3 years. Two children had established chronic lung disease prior to enrolment. Total numbers of major and minor infections were 7 and 40, respectively. At a mean dose of 414 mg/kg/month of IVIG, mean trough IgG level was 435 mg/dl. Median IgG trough levels during the episodes of major and minor infections were 244 and 335 mg/dl, respectively. An escalation in IVIG dose of 100 mg/kg produced an increase in serum IgG levels by 53.6 mg/dl. Median trough IgG level of 354 mg/dl was found to be protective with 64% sensitivity and 75% specificity. A median dose of 397 mg/kg was required to keep children free of infections. Despite financial constraints and several challenges in the context of a developing country, children with XLA have good outcome on replacement immunoglobulin therapy. Furthermore, mean biological trough IgG levels are much lower than reported in for Western patients; however, studies involving larger number of subjects are required in future to draw firm conclusions.

  20. Low infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies are prevalent in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with infliximab in daily clinical practice: results of an observational cohort study (United States)


    Background To get insight in the prevalence of high, or low/no serum infliximab trough levels in patients with low disease activity and if serum trough levels are stable and reliable longitudinally we conducted a prospective cohort study Methods In a longitudinal, observational cohort of RA patients treated with infliximab for at least 6 months, treatment interval, DAS28, infliximab trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies were assessed. Prevalence of low (5 mg/l) infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies was recorded. Relationship of a change in anti-infliximab antibodies and treatment interval was described. Reliability of consecutive infliximab serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies in patients with stable DAS28 and treatment was analysed with Spearman correlation and kappa-analysis. Results 147 patients with a mean disease duration of 11 years (sd7) and DAS28 of 3.5 (sd1.3) at baseline were followed during 1.5 years. Inter-individual variability in infliximab levels in patients with low DAS28 was high (median 1.4 mg/L, IQR 3.35), with 31% (95%CI: 20-42%) having low (5 mg/L). Interestingly also in RA patients with DAS28 ≤ 3.2, anti-infliximab antibodies were found in one-third of the patients, with half of them having antibodies every visit during a median of more than one year. Agreement for consecutive measurements of serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies was high in stable patients: r = 0.97 (p = 0.00001) and kappa = 1.0 (SE 0.14) Anti-infliximab antibody appearance was influenced by interval increases (relative risk (RR) 5.2, 2.6-10.7), but patients still showed low infliximab levels. Conclusions Low (and high) infliximab serum trough levels are prevalent, interestingly also in patients with low disease activity. Consecutive measurements of serum trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies are reliable in stable patients. These test could be used to lower or stop infliximab in

  1. Variations of the ionospheric plasma concentration in the region of the main ionospheric trough during the magnetic storm of December 18-19, 1978, in connection with measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdalevich, G.L.; Afonin, V.V.; Eliseev, A.Y.; Kolomiitsev, O.P.; Ozerov, V.D.; Soboleva, T.N.


    Data from the Kosmos-900 satellite are used to examine variations of the ion concentration in the region of the main ionospheric trough at altitudes of about 500 km during the storm of December 18-19, 1978. These variations of ion densities are compared with the variations of the parameters of the interplanetary medium, in particular, with the E /sub y/ = -VB /sub z/ component of the interplanetary electric field. The results of the comparison are discussed. A scheme is proposed for the formation and motion of the trough during magnetic disturbances.

  2. Lithospheric Structure and Active Deformation in the Salton Trough from Coseismic and Postseismic Models of the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Huang, M. H.; Dickinson, H.; Freed, A. M.; Burgmann, R.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.; Andronicos, C.


    The 4 April 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) Earthquake ruptured about 120 km along several NW-striking faults to the west of the Cerro Prieto Fault in the Salton Trough of Baja California, Mexico. We analyzed interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), SAR and optical pixel offsets, and continuous and campaign GPS data to optimize an EMC coseismic rupture model with 9 fault segments, which fits the complex structure of the faults. Coseismic slip inversion with a layered elastic model shows that largely right-lateral slip is confined to upper 10 km with strong variations along strike. Near-field GPS measures slip on a north-striking normal fault that ruptured at the beginning of the earthquake, previously inferred from seismic waveforms. EMC Earthquake postseismic deformation shows the Earth's response to the large coseismic stress changes. InSAR shows rapid shallow afterslip at the north and south ends of the main ruptures. Continuous GPS from the Plate Boundary Observatory operated by UNAVCO measures the first six years of postseismic deformation, extremely rapid near the rupture. Afterslip on faults beneath the coseismic rupture cannot explain far-field displacements that are best explained by viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and upper mantle. We built a viscoelastic 3D finite element model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere based on available data for the region with the EMC coseismic faults embedded inside. Coseismic slip was imposed on the model, allowed to relax for 5 years, and then compared to the observed surface deformation. Systematic exploration of the viscoelastic parameters shows that horizontal and vertical heterogeneity is required to fit the postseismic deformation. Our preferred viscoelastic model has weaker viscosity layers beneath the Salton Trough than adjacent blocks that are consistent with the inferred differences in the geotherms. Defining mechanical lithosphere as rocks that have viscosities greater than 10^19 Pa s (able

  3. Post-LGM grounding line and calving front translations of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Whales Deep paleo-ice-stream trough, eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica (United States)

    McGlannan, A. J.; Bart, P. J.; Chow, J.


    A large-area (2500 km2) multibeam survey of the Whales Deep paleo-ice-stream trough, eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica was acquired during NBP1502B. This sector of the continental shelf is important as it was covered by grounded and floating ice, which drained the central part of an expanded West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) during the last glacial cycle. The seafloor geomorphology shows a well-defined cluster of four back stepping grounding zone wedges (GZWs) that were deposited in a partly overlapping fashion on the middle continental shelf during WAIS retreat. These observations permit two end-member possibilities for how the WAIS grounding line and calving front vacated the trough. In the first scenario, each GZW represents successive landward shifts of the grounding line and calving front. In the second scenario, each GZW represents a large-scale retreat and re-advance of grounded and floating ice. To determine which of these two end-member scenarios most accurately describes WAIS retreat from this sector of Ross Sea, we evaluated a grid of kasten and piston cores. The core stations were selected on the basis of backstepping GZWs along the trough axis. Our core data analyses included an integration of visual core descriptions, x-ray images, grain size, water content, total organic carbon, shear strengths, and diatom assemblage data. Core data reveal a single transgressive succession from proximal diamict overlain by sub-ice-shelf and/or open-marine sediments. These data strongly support the first scenario, suggesting that an ice shelf remained continuously intact during the time that the grounding line successively moved from the shelf edge to the middle shelf by small-scale landward translations until the end of the fourth grounding event. Sedimentologic and diatom-assemblage data from the inner shelf show that only the last middle shelf grounding event ended with a long-distance retreat of grounded and then floating ice to south of the modern calving front.

  4. Ground-Water-Flow Modeling of a Freshwater and Brine-Filled Aquifer in the Onondaga Trough, Onondaga County, New York - A Summary of Findings (United States)

    Kappel, William M.; Yager, Richard M.


    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a hydrogeologic study that included the development of a groundwater-flow model of the glacial-drift aquifer in the Onondaga Trough near Syracuse, N.Y., which extends from the Valley Heads Moraine near Tully, N.Y., to Onondaga Lake (fig. 1). Glacial sediments within the Onondaga Trough contain freshwater, saline water, and brine, which has historically supported several chemical industries in Syracuse. The ground-water-flow model was developed as a means to assist the members of the Onondaga Lake Partnership (local, State, and Federal governmental agencies) to assess remediation plans for Onondaga Lake and the Onondaga Creek watershed. Prior to this study, in the late 1990s, very little information was known about the physical nature of the valley-fill aquifer or the quality of water within it. Acquisition of this information would help local agencies understand the interactions of fresh and saline water within the aquifer and Onondaga Lake, and would facilitate the design of proposed and ongoing remediation work in and near the lake. The USGS study characterized the geology and geochemistry of the aquifer system, estimated the rate and direction of ground-water movement, and estimated mass loadings of chloride to Onondaga Lake and its tributaries from natural and anthropogenic sources. The study required analysis of existing hydrogeologic data and drilling of new test wells to collect additional hydrogeologic data to supplement this database. A three-dimensional geologic model of the unconsolidated deposits that fill the Onondaga Trough was developed from this information. Water-quality samples were collected, and hydraulic head (water-level) measurements were made in the test wells. The water samples were analyzed for a variety of chemical constituents to determine the composition and age of saline waters within the aquifer. The geologic model, together with the water-quality and hydraulic-head data, supported

  5. The storm tracks and the energy cycle of the Southern Hemisphere: sensitivity to sea-ice boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Menéndez

    Full Text Available The effect of sea-ice on various aspects of the Southern Hemisphere (SH extratropical climate is examined. Two simulations using the LMD GCM are performed: a control run with the observed sea-ice distribution and an anomaly run in which all SH sea-ice is replaced by open ocean. When sea-ice is removed, the mean sea level pressure displays anomalies predominantly negatives near the Antarctic coast. In general, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced over most of the Southern Ocean, the polar jet is weaker and the sea level pressure rises equatorward of the control ice edge. The high frequency filtered standard deviation of both the sea level pressure and the 300-hPa geopotential height decreases over the southern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic oceans, especially to the north of the ice edge (as prescribed in the control. In contrast, over the Indian Ocean the perturbed simulation exhibits less variability equatorward of about 50°S and increased variability to the south. The zonal averages of the zonal and eddy potential and kinetic energies were evaluated. The effect of removing sea-ice is to diminish the available potential energy of the mean zonal flow, the available potential energy of the perturbations, the kinetic energy of the growing disturbances and the kinetic energy of the mean zonal flow over most of the Southern Ocean. The zonally averaged intensity of the subpolar trough and the rate of the baroclinic energy conversions are also weaker.

    Key words. Air-sea interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; ocean · atmosphere interactions

  6. The storm tracks and the energy cycle of the Southern Hemisphere: sensitivity to sea-ice boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Menéndez


    Full Text Available The effect of sea-ice on various aspects of the Southern Hemisphere (SH extratropical climate is examined. Two simulations using the LMD GCM are performed: a control run with the observed sea-ice distribution and an anomaly run in which all SH sea-ice is replaced by open ocean. When sea-ice is removed, the mean sea level pressure displays anomalies predominantly negatives near the Antarctic coast. In general, the meridional temperature gradient is reduced over most of the Southern Ocean, the polar jet is weaker and the sea level pressure rises equatorward of the control ice edge. The high frequency filtered standard deviation of both the sea level pressure and the 300-hPa geopotential height decreases over the southern Pacific and southwestern Atlantic oceans, especially to the north of the ice edge (as prescribed in the control. In contrast, over the Indian Ocean the perturbed simulation exhibits less variability equatorward of about 50°S and increased variability to the south. The zonal averages of the zonal and eddy potential and kinetic energies were evaluated. The effect of removing sea-ice is to diminish the available potential energy of the mean zonal flow, the available potential energy of the perturbations, the kinetic energy of the growing disturbances and the kinetic energy of the mean zonal flow over most of the Southern Ocean. The zonally averaged intensity of the subpolar trough and the rate of the baroclinic energy conversions are also weaker.Key words. Air-sea interactions · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; ocean · atmosphere interactions

  7. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil. (United States)

    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S


    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  8. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John


    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  9. Youth Unemployment in Southern Europe


    João Leão; Guida Nogueira


    The youth unemployment rate in Europe increased to very high levels after the great recession of 2008, reaching 23% in European Union and 45% in southern European countries. We examine the causes of the high youth unemployment rate which is consistently bigger than the overall unemployment rate. The empirical evidence shows that the youth unemployment rate depends crucially of the level of the overall unemployment rate and on the variation of the unemployment rate.

  10. NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 Expeditions 314, 315, and 316: First Drilling Program of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Masago


    Full Text Available Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP Expeditions 314, 315, and 316 were carried out as a unified program of drilling collectively known as Stage 1 of the Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment, or NanTroSEIZE, the first multi-stage complex drilling project in IODP and the most ambitious effort in scientific ocean drilling to date (Tobin and Kinoshita, 2006b; Kinoshita et al., 2006. The first of four planned operational stages, the Stage 1 expeditions were conducted aboard the new riser-capable drilling vessel Chikyu from September 2007 to February 2008, and were Chikyu’s inaugural IODP expeditions. Seventy-one scientists from twelve countries took part in the three expeditions as shipboard participants, and thirty-three holes in total were drilled at eight sites, to as much as 1400 meters below the sea floor (Table 1, Fig. 1.

  11. Adaptive Energy-based Bilinear Control of First-Order 1-D Hyperbolic PDEs: Application to a One-Loop Parabolic Solar Collector Trough

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra


    In this paper, the adaptive bilinear control of a first-order 1-D hyperbolic partial differential equation (PDE) with an unknown time-varying source term is investigated where only boundary measurements are available. By means of boundary injection, the bilinear adaptive law is developed in the Lyapunov approach. It consists of a state observer and an input adaptation law combined with a bilinear control method derived using an energy-like principle. Both global asymptotic practical convergence of the tracking error and input-to-state stability of the system are guaranteed. A potential application of this control strategy is the one-loop solar collector parabolic trough where the solar irradiance is the unknown input (source term) and the flow rate is the control variable. The objective is to drive the boundary temperature at the outlet to track a desired profile. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Moisture transport between the South Atlantic Ocean and southern Africa: relationships with summer rainfall and associated dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigaud, N.; Rouault, M. [University of Cape Town, Oceanography Department, Rondebosch (South Africa); Richard, Y.; Fauchereau, N. [UMR 5210 CNRS/ Universite de Bourgogne, Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, Dijon (France)


    Moisture exchange between the South Atlantic and southern Africa is examined in this study through zonal moisture transport. Along the west coast of southern Africa, a multivariate analysis of the zonal flow of moisture computed from NCEP-DOE AMIP II Re-analyses reveals a primary mode of variability typical of variations in intensity and of the latitudinal migration of the circulation associated with the midlatitude westerlies and the South Atlantic anticyclone. In austral summer (January-February), this mode, referred to as the South Atlantic midlatitude mode, is found to be well correlated with rainfall over southern Africa (i.e. to the south of the upper lands surrounding the Congo basin). Its positive/negative phases are found to correspond with surface pressures changes over the South Atlantic region in austral summer when the South Atlantic anticyclone is shifted northward/southward respectively. Such changes are accompanied by dipole-like SST anomalies in the midlatitude South Atlantic Ocean, while simultaneous SST anomalies with a similar structure are also found over South Indian Ocean regions. In January-February, positive/negative events linked to the South Atlantic midlatitude mode are marked by meridional shifts (northward/southward) and weakening/strengthening of the ITCZ over the southern tropics, together with modulations in intensity (weakened/sustained) of the Angola low, which could act as a tropical source of moisture for Tropical Temperate Troughs (TTTs). In association with a strengthened/weakened zonal component of the southern extension of the African Easterly Jet (AEJ), this could modulate the meridional transfer of moisture south of 15 S to the advantage/detriment of Angolan coastal regions, where above/below rainfall are expected. Variations in the latitudinal position (northward/southward) of the South Atlantic anticyclone, and thus of the midlatitude westerlies, are also found to reduce/favour moisture advection towards southern Africa

  13. Landscape: A Southern Hemisphere perspective (United States)

    Squires, V. R.


    Well into the Mesozoic Era, Africa, South America, India and Australia were joined to Antarctica in one supercontinent—Gondwanaland. The northern continents were also joined to form the supercontinent Laurasia. Southern Hemisphere land masses, especially Australia, have been characterised by a long period of relative geological stability and a short period of glaciation during the Quaternary. These circumstances have led to the development of quite old landscapes, developed on surfaces subjected to the processes of weathering for millions of years. Unlike the Gondwanaland continents, much of the Northern Hemisphere has been tectonically active with orogenic processes producing young uplifted surfaces subjected to active erosion. The Northern Hemisphere has experienced four extensive and intense Pleistocene glaciations. The consequence of these periods of glaciation is that present-day landscapes are substantially the product of climate over the past 10,000 years and commonly have not undergone extensive weathering. The applicability therefore of Northern Hemisphere-derived models to explain things as diverse as landforms, stream patterns and processes, soil genesis and ecological theory in the Southern Hemisphere has increasingly come into question. Because southern landscapes have a physiography and palaeohistory quite different from that of the Northern Hemisphere, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop new concepts and theories which may have implications for the whole globe.

  14. Sirolimus and everolimus clearance in maintenance kidney and liver transplant recipients: diagnostic efficiency of the concentration/dose ratio for the prediction of trough steady-state concentrations. (United States)

    Bouzas, Lorena; Hermida, Jesús; Tutor, J Carlos


    Therapeutic monitoring of sirolimus and everolimus is necessary in order to minimize adverse side-effects and to ensure effective immunosuppression. A sirolimus-dosing model using the concentration/dose ratio has been previously proposed for kidney transplant patients, and the aim of our study was the evaluation of this single model for the prediction of trough sirolimus and everolimus concentrations. Trough steady-state sirolimus concentrations were determined in several blood samples from each of 7 kidney and 9 liver maintenance transplant recipients, and everolimus concentrations from 20 kidney, 17 liver, and 3 kidney/liver maintenance transplant recipients. Predicted sirolimus and everolimus concentrations (Css), corresponding to the doses (D), were calculated using the measured concentrations (Css(0)) and corresponding doses (D(0)) on starting the study: Css = (Css(0))(D)/D(0). The diagnostic efficiency of the predicting model for the correct classification as subtherapeutic, therapeutic, and supratherapeutic values with respect to the experimentally obtained concentrations was 91.3% for sirolimus and 81.4% for everolimus in the kidney transplant patients. In the liver transplant patients the efficiency was 69.2% for sirolimus and 72.6% for everolimus, and in the kidney/liver transplant recipients the efficiency for everolimus was 67.9%. The model has an acceptable diagnostic efficiency (>80%) for the prediction of sirolimus and everolimus concentrations in kidney transplant recipients, but not in liver transplant recipients. However, considering the wide ranges found for the prediction error of sirolimus and everolimus concentrations, the clinical relevance of this dosing model is weak.

  15. Performance of coagulation tests in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. A cross-sectional pharmacodynamic study based on peak and trough plasma levels. (United States)

    Francart, Suzanne J; Hawes, Emily M; Deal, Allison M; Adcock, Dorothy M; Gosselin, Robert; Jeanneret, Cheryl; Friedman, Kenneth D; Moll, Stephan


    Knowledge of anticoagulation status during rivaroxaban therapy is desirable in certain clinical situations. It was the study objective to determine coagulation tests most useful for assessing rivaroxaban's anticoagulant effect. Peak and trough blood samples from 29 patients taking rivaroxaban 20 mg daily were collected. Mass spectrometry and various coagulation assays were performed. "On-therapy range" was defined as the rivaroxaban concentrations determined by LC-MS/MS. A "misprediction percentage" was calculated based on how often results of each coagulation assay were in the normal reference range, while the rivaroxaban concentration was in the "on-therapy" range. The on-therapy range was 8.9-660 ng/ml. The misprediction percentages for prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), using multiple reagents and coagulometers, ranged from 10%-52% and 31%-59%, respectively. PT, aPTT and activated clotting time (ACT) were insensitive to trough rivaroxaban: 59%, 62%, and 80% of samples had a normal result, respectively. Over 95% of PT and ACT values were elevated at peak. Four different rivaroxaban calibrated anti-Xa assays had R² values >0.98, demonstrating strong correlations with rivaroxaban drug levels. In conclusion, PT, aPTT and ACT are often normal in patients on therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban. However, PT and ACT may have clinical utility at higher drug plasma levels. Rivaroxaban calibrated anti-factor Xa assays can accurately identify low and high on-therapy rivaroxaban drug levels and, therefore, have superior utility in all clinical situations where assessment of anticoagulation status may be beneficial.

  16. Mapping of tecto-lineaments and their influence on sedimentological processes in a GIS environment: a case study of the Iberian trough, Spain (United States)

    Herrero-Hernández, Antonio; López-Moro, Francisco Javier; Valle-Feijóo, María Elena; Gómez-Fernández, Fernando; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Ramón


    The subsurface sedimentary succession of the Iberian Trough, Spain was examined using geophysical techniques (analogue seismic profiles) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation algorithm implemented in a gvGIS open source software. The results showed that the Late Cretaceous succession is divided into two depositional sequences: DS-1 (Late Albian-Middle Turonian) and DS-2 (Late Turonian-Campanian). From the analogical seismic sections, digital data and quantitative isopach maps for DS-1 and DS-2 were obtained. The new isopach maps obtained for the DS-1 sequence showed that the deeper sectors of the basin were located to the northeast and the proximal ones to the southwest. The palaeoshoreline was inferred to be situated in the N 150 direction. Across and parallel to this direction several blocks were delimited by faults, with a direction between 30 N and N 65. The thickness of the sediments in these blocks varied in direction NW-SE, with subsidence and depocentres in hangingwall and uplift in the footwall. These variations may have been related to active synsedimentary faults (e.g., Boñar and Yugueros Faults). In the DS-2 sequence, a lineament separated the smaller thicknesses to the southwest from the larger thicknesses (up to 1400 m) to the northeast. This lineament had an N170 orientation and it indicated the position of the palaeoshoreline. In the isopach map for DS-2 there were two groups of lineaments. The first showed a block structure that was limited by N100-120, they were foundering toward the S and had large thicknesses (depocentres), and rose towards the N, where there were smaller thicknesses. The second group of lineaments had a N 50-65 direction and, in this case, they had a similar interpretation as the one in DS-1. The maps obtained are of great help for geologists and permit better understanding of the geological setting and stratigraphic succession of the Late Cretaceous of the Iberian Trough.

  17. Loading dose required to achieve rapid therapeutic teicoplanin trough plasma concentration in patients with multidrug-resistant gram-positive infections. (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Tay; Liao, Hsin-I; Wu Lin, Fe-Lin; Chang, Shan-Chwen


    Teicoplanin is an antibiotic drug prescribed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections. However, there is currently no consensus as to the optimal teicoplanin loading dose. The objective of this study was to compare plasma concentrations of teicoplanin in patients with multidrug-resistant Gram-positive infections after the administration of two different loading doses. Two groups of patients were infused intravenously with four loading doses of 6 mg/kg body-weight (group A, n = 12) or 12 mg/kg body-weight (group B, n = 11). The first three loading doses were administered at 12-hr intervals, and the fourth was given 24 hr after the third dose. Maintenance doses of 6 mg/kg were administered every day, every other day or every third day depending on the individual's creatinine clearance, and teicoplanin trough plasma concentrations were monitored. Only samples obtained on the same day for both groups were compared statistically. A higher percentage of group B patients achieved the desired therapeutic concentration of teicoplanin (C(min.)  ≥ 10 mg/L) on days 2 and 3 (90.0% and 100%, respectively) compared with patients in group A (18.2% and 16.7%, respectively) (p teicoplanin loading dose of 12 mg/kg body-weight results in a safe and rapid attainment of therapeutic trough plasma concentrations. This regimen may enhance treatment efficacy. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  18. Unit-bar migration and bar-trough deposition: impacts on hydraulic conductivity and grain size heterogeneity in a sandy streambed (United States)

    Korus, Jesse T.; Gilmore, Troy E.; Waszgis, Michele M.; Mittelstet, Aaron R.


    The hydrologic function of riverbeds is greatly dependent upon the spatiotemporal distribution of hydraulic conductivity and grain size. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (K v) is highly variable in space and time, and controls the rate of stream-aquifer interaction. Links between sedimentary processes, deposits, and K v heterogeneity have not been well established from field studies. Unit bars are building blocks of fluvial deposits and are key to understanding controls on heterogeneity. This study links unit bar migration to K v and grain size variability in a sand-dominated, low-sinuosity stream in Nebraska (USA) during a single 10-day hydrologic event. An incipient bar formed parallel to the thalweg and was highly permeable and homogenous. During high flow, this bar was submerged under 10-20 cm of water and migrated 100 m downstream and toward the channel margin, where it became markedly heterogeneous. Low-K v zones formed in the subsequent heterogeneous bar downstream of the original 15-40-cm-thick bar front and past abandoned bridge pilings. These low-K v zones correspond to a discontinuous 1-cm layer of fine sand and silt deposited in the bar trough. Findings show that K v heterogeneity relates chiefly to the deposition of suspended materials in low-velocity zones downstream of the bar and obstructions, and to their subsequent burial by migration of the bar during high flow. Deposition of the unit bar itself, although it emplaced the vast majority of the sediment volume, was secondary to bar-trough deposition as a control on the overall pattern of heterogeneity.

  19. Ice-dammed lateral lake and epishelf lake insights into Holocene dynamics of Marguerite Trough Ice Stream and George VI Ice Shelf, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula (United States)

    Davies, Bethan J.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Glasser, Neil F.; Holt, Tom; Rodés, Angél; Smellie, John L.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Blockley, Simon P. E.


    We present new data regarding the past dynamics of Marguerite Trough Ice Stream, George VI Ice Shelf and valley glaciers from Ablation Point Massif on Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula. This ice-free oasis preserves a geological record of ice stream lateral moraines, ice-dammed lakes, ice-shelf moraines and valley glacier moraines, which we dated using cosmogenic nuclide ages. We provide one of the first detailed sediment-landform assemblage descriptions of epishelf lake shorelines. Marguerite Trough Ice Stream imprinted lateral moraines against eastern Alexander Island at 120 m at Ablation Point Massif. During deglaciation, lateral lakes formed in the Ablation and Moutonnée valleys, dammed against the ice stream in George VI Sound. Exposure ages from boulders on these shorelines yielded ages of 13.9 to 9.7 ka. Following recession of the ice stream, George VI Ice Shelf formed in George VI Sound. An epishelf lake formed at 15-20 m asl in Ablation and Moutonnée valleys, dated from 9.4 to 4.6 ka, suggesting that the lake was stable and persistent for some 5000 years. Lake-level lowering occurred after this, with the lake level at 12 m at 3.1 ± 0.4 ka and at 5 m asl today. A readvance of the valley glaciers on Alexander Island at 4.4 ± 0.7 ka is recorded by valley glacier moraines overlying epishelf lake sediments. We speculate that the glacier readvance, which occurred during a period of warmth, may have been caused by a dynamic response of the glaciers to a lowering in surface elevation of George VI Ice Shelf.

  20. Vertical crustal movements in Southern California, 1974 to 1978 (United States)

    Burford, R.O.; Gilmore, Thomas D.


    An extensive resurvey of most of the first-order leveling network in southern California, known as the Southern California Releveling Program (SCRP), was carried out during the first 5 months of 1978. The primary scientific purpose of these measurements was to rapidly update the vertical control record throughout a recently uplifted region of southern California in order to more thoroughly document the vertical component of tectonic movement and to provide a reliable base for comparison with future levelings. Analyses of historic first-order leveling results have clearly demonstrated that a broad crustal upwarping, largely contained within a region consisting of the Transverse Ranges province and an area along the intervening section of the San Andreas fault system, had developed between about 1959 and 1974. Unfortunately, there is strong evidence that parts of the 1978 SCRP data are contaminated by the effects of intrasurvey tectonic deformation, limited surficial failures, and, less certainly, magnetically induced systematic error associated with the use of automatic levels. However, any distortions in leveling results caused by these or other factors are not so serious as to render the SCRP data useless. In fact, the bulk of these data can be accepted at face value, and most of the remaining data can be incorporated with some caution to augment the more reliable parts of the network. The evaluation of the 1978 leveling is based on a combination of circuit-misclosures, local timing of the field observations, analysis of profiles of apparent height changes derived from comparisons with previous levelings, and an analysis of the position and orientation of the various routes in relation to the regional structural grain and the gradients of differential vertical motion established by previous investigations. Comparisons of the 1978 SCRP results with the latest of the previous surveys along each route retained in the analysis show that all but about one-third of the

  1. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.


    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP;, the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  2. Bio- and Petroleum Geochemistry of Mud Volcanoes in the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic): From Fluid Sources to Microbial Methane Oxidation and Carbonate Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.N.


    The Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea) and the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic) are both mud volcano (MV) provinces characterized by the presence of gas hydrates, methane-related carbonates, and chemosynthetic biota but possess differences in geological history, tectonics, composition of sedimentary cover,

  3. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.


    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments

  4. Focal mechanisms of Southern California offshore earthquakes: the effects of incomplete geographical data coverage on understanding rupture patterns (United States)

    Brunner, K.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.


    Calculating accurate focal mechanisms for offshore seismic events is difficult due to a lack of nearby seismic stations, limited azimuthal coverage, and uncertain velocity structure. We conducted an experiment to determine what effect data from island seismic stations in Southern California (San Miguel, Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, and San Clemente Islands), and ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) have on constraining focal mechanisms for earthquakes in the California Borderland with a local magnitude greater than three. Thirty-four OBSs were deployed in August of 2010 with the ALBACORE project to collect data for over a year before being recovered in September of 2011. Waveform data from those stations as well as the Southern California Seismic Network were analyzed to determine P-wave first-motion polarities for twenty-nine earthquakes with an acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. These data were then used to calculate focal mechanisms with and without the offshore stations using HASH v.1.2 [Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002], an algorithm that accounts for errors in earthquake location, velocity model, and polarity observations. Comparisons of these results show that including offshore stations improves the errors in fault plane uncertainty and solution probability due to the increased azimuthal coverage and smaller source-receiver distance. Plots of these solutions on maps of the offshore region indicate that the San Clemente fault, San Diego Trough fault, Palos Verdes fault, and additional unmapped faults are currently active. These observations agree with maps of more comprehensive seismicity patterns from the past twenty years. Additionally, the focal mechanisms show that the San Clemente fault, San Diego Trough fault, and a region south of San Nicolas Island all exhibit right lateral movement. The Palos Verdes fault exhibits reverse faulting and a region west of the northern Channel Islands exhibits normal faulting. These

  5. Thunderstorms caused by southern cyclones in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaupo Mändla


    Full Text Available The relationships between the frequency and duration of thunderstorms, lightning and southern cyclones over Estonia are presented for the period 1950–2010. A total of 545 southern cyclones and 2106 thunderstorm days were detected, whereas 11.3% of the observed thunder days were associated with southern cyclones. At the same time, 29.2% of all southern cyclones were accompanied by thunderstorms. In the thunder season, however, this percentage was much higher, reaching up to 80% in summer months. The number of thunder days was largest when the centres of southern cyclones passed a measuring station at a distance less than 500 km. The number of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes related to southern cyclones was larger than that of any other thunder events. The results of our study demonstrate that the intensity of thunderstorms related to southern cyclones is higher than that of other thunderstorms. Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant relationships between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and the frequency of southern cyclones, also between the frequency of thunder days related to southern cyclones and days of other thunder events.

  6. Postinduction serum infliximab trough level and decrease of C-reactive protein level are associated with durable sustained response to infliximab: a retrospective analysis of the ACCENT I trial (United States)

    Cornillie, Freddy; Hanauer, Stephen B; Diamond, Robert H; Wang, Jianping; Tang, Kezhen L; Xu, Zhenhua; Rutgeerts, Paul; Vermeire, Séverine


    Background Serum infliximab trough levels correlate with efficacy; dose escalation is often beneficial in patients with Crohn's disease who stop responding to infliximab treatment. Objective To carry out a post hoc analysis of A Crohn's Disease Clinical Trial Evaluating Infliximab in a New Long-term Treatment Regimen I (ACCENT I) to evaluate the association between serum infliximab trough levels and C-reactive protein (CRP) after 14 weeks of induction treatment with durable sustained long-term response (Crohn's Disease Activity Index decrease ≥70 points and reduction ≥25% from baseline). Design ACCENT I was a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Week 14 trough levels and CRP percentage decrease from baseline to week 14 were compared between patients with and without durable sustained response through week 54. Sensitivity and specificity were determined to predict durable sustained response. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified optimal cut-off points; logistic regression determined ORs. Results After induction with 5 mg/kg infliximab, 25% (37/147) and 33% (47/144) of patients sustained week 14 response to infliximab 5 or 10 mg/kg, respectively, administered every 8 weeks without dose escalation, through week 54. Median week 14 trough levels of patients with and without durable sustained response to infliximab 5 mg/kg were 4.0 and 1.9 μg/mL, respectively (p=0.0331). Optimal predictors of durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg were week 14 trough level ≥3.5 µg/mL and ≥60% CRP decrease (ORs (95% CI), 3.5 (1.1 to 11.4) and 7.3 (1.4 to 36.7)), respectively, in patients with raised baseline CRP (>8.0 mg/L); area under the ROC curve was 0.75 for both predictors. A ≥3.5 µg/mL week 14 infliximab serum level did not predict durable sustained response to 10 mg/kg maintenance infliximab. Conclusions Patients with durable sustained response to maintenance infliximab 5 mg/kg had higher

  7. Amphibians of the “Cilento e Vallo di Diano” National Park (Campania, Southern Italy: updated check list, distribution and conservation notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romano


    Full Text Available In this study, we present the results of our field and bibliographic survey on the amphibians of the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park (Southern Italy. Two hundred and thirty three spawning sites (167 original and 66 derived from literature, and 11 amphibian species were found. Reproductive activity was recorded for Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina terdigitata, Triturus carnifex, Lissotriton italicus, Bufo bufo, Hyla intermedia, Rana italica, Rana dalmatina and Pelophylax synkl. hispanica. The distribution record of many species is widely improved with respect to bibliographic data. Our results also suggested that preservation and restoration of small aquatic sites, in particular of the artificial ones, such as stony wells and drinking-troughs, are fundamental for an appropriate conservation management of amphibians in the “Cilento and Vallo di Diano” National Park.

  8. Leptospira Contamination in Household and Environmental Water in Rural Communities in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Muñoz-Zanzi


    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global distribution that affects tropical and temperate areas. Under suitable conditions, Leptospira can survive in water and soil and contribute to human and animal infections. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in peri-domestic water samples from rural households in southern Chile. Water samples, including puddles, containers, animal troughs, rivers, canals, and drinking water were collected from 236 households and tested for Leptospira using a PCR assay targeting the lipL32 gene. Evidence of Leptospira presence was detected in all sample types; overall, 13.5% (77/570 samples tested positive. A total of 10/22 (45.5% open containers, 12/83 (14.5% animal drinking sources, 9/47 (19.1% human drinking sources, and 36/306 (19.3% puddles tested positive. Lower income (OR = 4.35, p = 0.003, increased temperature (OR = 1.23, p < 0.001, and presence of dogs (OR = 15.9, p = 0.022 were positively associated with positive puddles. Increased number of rodent signs was associated with positive puddles in the household (OR = 3.22; however, only in the lower income households. There was no association between PCR positive rodents and puddles at the household level. Results revealed the ubiquity of Leptospira in the household environment and highlight the need to develop formal approaches for systematic monitoring.

  9. Leptospira contamination in household and environmental water in rural communities in southern Chile. (United States)

    Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Mason, Meghan R; Encina, Carolina; Astroza, Angel; Romero, Alex


    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis of global distribution that affects tropical and temperate areas. Under suitable conditions, Leptospira can survive in water and soil and contribute to human and animal infections. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in peri-domestic water samples from rural households in southern Chile. Water samples, including puddles, containers, animal troughs, rivers, canals, and drinking water were collected from 236 households and tested for Leptospira using a PCR assay targeting the lipL32 gene. Evidence of Leptospira presence was detected in all sample types; overall, 13.5% (77/570) samples tested positive. A total of 10/22 (45.5%) open containers, 12/83 (14.5%) animal drinking sources, 9/47 (19.1%) human drinking sources, and 36/306 (19.3%) puddles tested positive. Lower income (OR = 4.35, p = 0.003), increased temperature (OR = 1.23, p Leptospira in the household environment and highlight the need to develop formal approaches for systematic monitoring.

  10. The Southern Hemisphere semiannual oscillation and circulation variability during the Mid-Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ackerley


    Full Text Available The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP was undertaken to assess the climatic effects of the presence of large ice-sheets and changes in the Earth's orbital parameters in fully coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs. Much of the previous literature has focussed on the tropics and the Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial maximum and Mid-Holocene whereas this study focuses only on the Southern Hemisphere. This study addresses the representation of the Semiannual Oscillation (SAO in the PMIP2 models and how it may have changed during the Mid-Holocene. The output from the five models suggest a weakening of the (austral autumn circumpolar trough (CPT and (in all but one model a strengthening of the spring CPT. The effects of changing the orbital parameters are to cause warming and drying during spring over New Zealand and a cooling and moistening during autumn. The amount of spring warming/drying and autumn cooling/moistening is variable between the models and depends on the climatological locations of surface pressure anomalies associated with changes in the SAO. This study also undertakes an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis of the leading modes of atmospheric variability during the control and Mid-Holocene phases for each model. Despite the seasonal changes, the overall month by month and interannual variability was simulated to have changed little from the Mid-Holocene to present.

  11. Cystic echinococcosis in Southern Israel. (United States)

    Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Sagi, Orli; Houri, Ohad; Bazarsky, Elina; Berkowitz, Anat; Bulkowstein, Shlomi; Barrett, Chiya; Greenberg, David


    The aim of this retrospective, population-based study was to characterize demographically and clinically cystic-echinococcosis (CE) in southern Israel, between 2005 and 2012. Newly-diagnosed (nd-CE) and past-diagnosed (pd-CE, diagnosed before the study) cases were defined. Two populations live in southern-Israel, receiving medical treatment at a single hospital: the Jewish and the Bedouin populations (resembling resource-rich and resource-poor populations, respectively). 126 CE cases were identified; 55 nd-CE and 71 pd-CE. Mean annual nd-CE incidence per 100,000 in the Bedouin and Jewish populations were 2.7 ± 1.2 and 0.4 ± 0.3, respectively (PIsrael. Liver and lung involvement were recorded in 85.7% and 15.1% of overall-CE, respectively. Abdominal pain, cough, fever, eosinophilia and asymptomatic disease were documented in 63.6%, 32.7%, 27.3%, 41.5% and 12.7% of nd-CE, respectively. Serology sensitivity for first test and any positive test were 67.3% and 83.3%, respectively. Computed tomography, ultrasonography and X-ray diagnosis were documented in 79.2%, 58.4% and 17.0% of overall-CE, respectively, with ultrasonography mainly used in liver-CE and X-ray in lung-CE. Treatment included surgery and albendazole in 50.0% and 55.3% of CE, respectively. We conclude that CE is endemic in southern-Israel among the Bedouin population, while disease is probably mainly imported in the Jewish population. Liver involvement and eosinophilia rates were high compared with those of other endemic regions, possibly due to differences in the timing of diagnosis. These findings may help developing treatment and prevention strategies.

  12. Handbook: Southern Finland as a wedding destination


    Ishmuradov, Ismat; Nadan, Kumarsingh


    The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the creation and further developing of Southern Finland’s image as wedding destination. The main aim is to achieve it by creating a destination wedding handbook for Southern Finland while studying its potential of usage for foreign wedding couples who wish to celebrate their wedding in Southern Finland. Based on qualitative research methods, primary data was generated from unstructured interviews and by participants’ observation. The theo...

  13. Tectonic deformation in southern California (United States)

    Jackson, David D.


    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  14. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.


    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  15. How does the 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah Earthquake Rupture Connect to the Southern California Plate Boundary Fault System (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Arrowsmith, R.


    The Pacific - North American plate boundary in southern California is marked by several major strike slip faults. The 2010 M7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake ruptured 120 km of upper crust in Baja California to the US-Mexico border. The earthquake triggered slip along an extensive network of faults in the Salton Trough from the Mexican border to the southern end of the San Andreas fault. Earthquakes >M5 were triggered in the gap between the Laguna Salada and Elsinore faults at Ocotillo and on the Coyote Creek segment of the San Jacinto fault 20 km northwest of Borrego Springs. UAVSAR observations, collected since October of 2009, measure slip associated with the M5.7 Ocotillo aftershock with deformation continuing into 2014. The Elsinore fault has been remarkably quiet, however, with only M5.0 and M5.2 earthquakes occurring on the Coyote Mountains segment of the fault in 1940 and 1968 respectively. In contrast, the Imperial Valley has been quite active historically with numerous moderate events occurring since 1935. Moderate event activity is increasing along the San Jacinto fault zone (SJFZ), especially the trifurcation area, where 6 of 12 historic earthquakes in this 20 km long fault zone have occurred since 2000. However, no recent deformation has been detected using UAVSAR measurements in this area, including the recent M5.2 June 2016 Borrego earthquake. Does the El Mayor - Cucapah rupture connect to and transfer stress primarily to a single southern California fault or several? What is its role relative to the background plate motion? UAVSAR observations indicate that the southward extension of the Elsinore fault has recently experienced the most localized deformation. Seismicity suggests that the San Jacinto fault is more active than neighboring major faults, and geologic evidence suggests that the Southern San Andreas fault has been the major plate boundary fault in southern California. Topographic data with 3-4 cm resolution using structure from motion from

  16. Southern African AIDS Training Programme. (United States)

    Dafoe, G H


    The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) with the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), in a little over 2 years, have established a Southern African AIDS Training Programme (SAT) that is effective in developing community-based responses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Based in Harare, Zimbabwe, the program provides financial assistance, training, monitoring, and advice and information to 120 project partners. The average grant size is $40,000. In a second phase of the project, SAT will attempt to meet the requests of its partners for more services. Currently, to meet needs for rapid, responsive training, and novel approaches to skill building, SAT has developed a collaborative nongovernmental organization (NGO) initiative, "The School Without Walls". This program identifies and amplifies what has worked effectively for organizations and programs. Other similar organizations and programs learn from these experiences. Site visits, apprenticeships, mentor organizations, and skills-building based on shared problem-diagnosis and resolution are some of the techniques employed. A draft report of the CIDA midterm external evaluation of SAT recommends renewal of the program, resourcing of the program to meet its regional responsibilities, and adoption of "The School Without Walls" as a central strategy for southern Africa.

  17. Airborne Particulates over Southern Africa (United States)


    This map shows the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle concentrations are shown in shades of blue, and high concentrations in shades of red. The results were generated from MISR imagery acquired over this time period, and processed using MISR's automated software system. The approach for deriving aerosol amount makes use of the variation of scene brightness and contrast as a function of observation angle. Black areas over the land area correspond to places where a result was not obtained, for example, due to the presence of clouds.Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. Vegetation availability increases northward, hence the greater abundance of haze and smoke in Angola and southern Zaire. The lower aerosol abundance around Lesotho and southeastern South Africa is consistent with the higher terrain elevations near the Drakensberg Mountains.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. Geologic map of Southern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, R.A.


    A surface geologic map of the Southern Hemisphere should be useful to geologists and geophysicists studying continental drift and petroleum exploration because it relates Antarctic geology to the other continents. The most dominant feature appears to be the Transantarctic lineament that ties with the South American Andes and, to a lesser degree, with tectonic elements in eastern Australia. From the rocks exposed, it appears that Gondwanaland may have broken up during early Paleozoic time, and then the hemisphere remained stable until the end of Jurassic time when the existence of widespread volcanic rocks suggests that further rifting took place. During early Tertiary time, drifting was renewed and it more or less continued until recent time. Several island arcs and deep trenches indicate that rifting is still active today. There appears to be a significant west-to-east drift of crustal material at the far southern latitudes corresponding to the circum-polar ocean currents. Offshore petroleum prospects are related to the age of the continental margins as determined by continental drift, i.e. the trailing edges of the continents have the most mature basins beginning with coastal plain sequences that are prograded over isostatically sinking margins. Thick sedimentary columns which began to form in the Mesozoic include reef facies and diapirs. There are exceptions to this model, and various offshore petroleum basins are described with emphasis on the exposed coastal plain morphology as providing the dominant indicator for large reserves.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley D. Williamson


    This is the second quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others.

  20. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.


    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP;, the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  1. Results of Physical Property Measurements Obtained during the CHIKYU Cruise CK16-01 to Hydrothermal Fields of the Middle Okinawa Trough (United States)

    Tanikawa, W.; Masaki, Y.; Komori, S.; Torimoto, J.; Makio, M.; Ohta, Y.; Nozaki, T.; Ishibashi, J. I.; Kumagai, H.; Maeda, L.; Hamada, Y.


    The middle Okinawa trough, along the Ryukyu-arc on the margin of the western Pacific, fosters several hydrothermal fields. The cruise CK16-01 of D/V CHIKYU targeted the Iheya-North Field and Noho hydrothermal site. More than ten-days extensive coring was carried out with Logging While Drilling (LWD) and deployment of Kuroko cultivation apparatus between February 29th to March 17th2016. Here we present the results of the physical property measurements obtained using Chikyu's on-board laboratory. Cores were sampled among three sites where the seafloor environments were quite different: the Noho site (C9017), a site between the Natsu and Aki sites of the Iheya-North field (C9021), and the Iheya-North Aki site (C9023). Site C9017 was near the center of the hydrothermal activity, and the obtained core was limited 36 m in length and 30 % in the recovery rate. At 70 mbsf (meters below seafloor), the grain density and bulk density of the sediment reached their maxim (3.7 g/m3 and 2.7 g/cm3, respectively), while thermal conductivity reached its lowest value (0.6 W/m·K). Site C9021 yielded a 54 m core, with a core recovery rate of 50 %. Coarse pumiceous layers were found at 68 mbsf, with a hydrothermally altered layer appearing below 68 mbsf. The mean grain density value was 2.4 g/cm3 and was uniform throughout the core. The mean bulk density value of the pumiceous layers was 1.3 g/cm3, and of the hydrothermally altered layer was 2.1 g/cm3. Site C9023 was close to the active hydrothermal chimneys of the Iheya-North Aki site, and yielded 33 m of core with a core recovery rate of 16 %. Massive sulfide layers were found below 48 mbsf with grain density and bulk density values varying between 2.8-4.7 g/cm3 and 1.5-3.9 g/cm3, respectively. Magnetic susceptibility exhibited a high anomaly in a sedimented anhydrite layer found between 95 and 135 mbsf, and a high porosity and low resistivity zone was found below 150 mbsf. Together, these data from drilling cores and onboard

  2. Ledipasvir and tenofovir drug interaction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Impact on tenofovir trough concentrations and renal safety. (United States)

    Solas, Caroline; Bregigeon, Sylvie; Faucher-Zaegel, Olivia; Quaranta, Sylvie; Obry-Roguet, Véronique; Tamalet, Catherine; Lacarelle, Bruno; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle


    We evaluate the impact of ledipasvir on both tenofovir plasma trough concentration and estimated glomerular renal function in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients receiving a tenofovir-based antiretroviral regimen and treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Twenty-six patients [81% male, median age: 51 years; hepatitis C virus genotype 1(75%)/4(15%)] were included. Tenofovir trough concentration (interquartile range) increased from 78 ng ml -1 (53-110) at baseline to 141 ng ml -1 (72-176) at 1 month (P = 0.003). No significant difference on estimated glomerular renal function using both Cockroft-Gault and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulae, respectively, [median (interquartile range)] was observed between baseline [101.3 ml min -1 (91.1-114.1); 95.6 ml min -1 (86.5-111.2)], 1 month [102.4 ml min -1 (89.8-112.9), P = 0.26; 92.5 ml min -1 (88.1-114.3), P = 0.27], end-of-treatment [96.5 ml min -1 (82.4-115.4), P = 0.39; 95.4 ml min -1 (84.2-105.4), P = 0.16] and 12 weeks after the end of treatment [100.5 ml min -1 (83.3-111.9), P = 0.24; 93.4 ml min -1 (82.2-103.5), P = 0.16]. Three patients progressed from chronic kidney disease stage 1 to stage 2 at 12 weeks post-treatment. A significant increase in tenofovir exposure through P-glycoprotein inhibition by ledipasvir was confirmed without significant impact on glomerular renal function in our population with normal renal function or mild renal impairment. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Hydrocarbon potential of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation, Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Insight from organic geochemistry and petrology (United States)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Abubakar, M. B.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Maigari, A. S.; Haruna, A. I.; Yaro, Usman Y.


    The Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments from Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, northeastern Nigeria were studied based on organic geochemistry and petrology. This is in other to provide information on hydrocarbon generation potential; organic matter type (quality), richness (quantity), origin/source inputs, redox conditions (preservation) and thermal maturation in relation to thermal effect of Tertiary volcanics. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents ranges from 0.38 to 0.86 wt % with extractable organic matter (EOM) below 1000 ppm and pyrolysis S2 yield values from 0.16 to 0.68 mg/g, suggesting poor to fair source rock richness. Based on kerogen pyrolysis and microscopy coupled with biomarker parameters, the organic matters contain Type I (lacustrine algae), Type III (terrestrially derived land-plants) and Type IV kerogens deposited in a mixed lacustrine-terrestrial environment under suboxic to relatively anoxic conditions. This suggest potential occurrence of Early Cretaceous lacustrine sediments (perhaps Lower Cretaceous petroleum system) in Yola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough as present in the neighbouring basins of Chad, Niger and Sudan Republics that have both oil and gas generation potential within the same rift trend (WCARS). Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) and Tmax values of the lacustrine shales ranges from 1.12 to 2.32 VRo% and 448-501 °C, respectively, indicating peak-late to post-maturity stage. This is supported by the presence of dark brown palynomorphs, amorphous organic matter and phytoclasts as well as inertinite macerals. Consequently, the organic matters in the lacustrine shales of Bima Formation in the Yola Sub-basin appeared as a source of oil (most likely even waxy) and gas prone at a relatively deeper part of the basin. However, the high thermal maturity enhanced the organic matters and most of the hydrocarbons that formed in the course of thermal maturation were likely expelled to the reservoir rock units

  4. Methane seep events of the southern Joetsu Knoll since middle Pleistocene based on benthic foraminifera (United States)

    Oi, T.; Akiba, F.; Matsumoto, R.; Kakuwa, Y.


    Gas hydrates were collected at several sites off Joetsu which presented anomalous seismic structures. "Gas chimneys", major host structures for shallow gas hydrates, were recognized ROV off Joetsu in eastern margin of the Japan Sea, as were a number of active methane seeps. The assemblage components and carbon isotope of benthic foraminifera, which are ubiquitous in global marine settings, can indicate methane seep environments (Akimoto et al., 1994; Bhaumik and Gupta, 2007). Preliminary work by Oi et al. (2015) documented the obvious occurrences of methane related foraminifera, Rutherfordoides sp., in three core sediments recovered from Umitaka Spur, west Oki Trough and north Mogami Trough in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea, and found them to comprise the early part of the MIS 2, calculated to 28-25ka. These records suggest that active methane seep events might occur at the same time during early MIS 2, but were confined within the last 100ka. In this study, we analyzed benthic foraminiferal fossils from drilling core J04RB (core length 122 m; one of the gas hydrate bearing sites at a southern part of the Joetsu Knoll) in order to document methane seep events during the last 500ka. Firstly, we estimated sedimentation ages from diatom biostratigraphy and identification of Aso-1 tephra. Based on diatom components, we recognized a boundary between NPD (Neogene North Pacific diatom Zonations) 12 and NPD11, estimated at 300 ka (MIS8/9; Yanagisawa and Akiba, 1998). The bottom age was estimated to almost 530-560 ka (around MIS14) especially from the alternation with warm and cold diatom zones (Akiba et al., 2014). Secondary, we could suppose the paleoenvironments from benthic foraminifera as below. 1. The rare benthic foraminifera during the cold stages (MIS8, MIS10, and MIS12) indicate anoxic bottom conditions characteristic of falling sea level, just as with MIS 2. 2. We recognized the continuous distributions of tiny methane related specimens of Rutherfordoides sp

  5. Strike-slip faulting in the Inner California Borderlands, offshore Southern California. (United States)

    Bormann, J. M.; Kent, G. M.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Sahakian, V. J.; Holmes, J. J.; Klotsko, S.; Kell, A. M.; Wesnousky, S. G.


    In the Inner California Borderlands (ICB), offshore of Southern California, modern dextral strike-slip faulting overprints a prominent system of basins and ridges formed during plate boundary reorganization 30-15 Ma. Geodetic data indicate faults in the ICB accommodate 6-8 mm/yr of Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation; however, the hazard posed by the ICB faults is poorly understood due to unknown fault geometry and loosely constrained slip rates. We present observations from high-resolution and reprocessed legacy 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection datasets and multibeam bathymetry to constrain the modern fault architecture and tectonic evolution of the ICB. We use a sequence stratigraphy approach to identify discrete episodes of deformation in the MCS data and present the results of our mapping in a regional fault model that distinguishes active faults from relict structures. Significant differences exist between our model of modern ICB deformation and existing models. From east to west, the major active faults are the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon, Palos Verdes, San Diego Trough, and San Clemente fault zones. Localized deformation on the continental slope along the San Mateo, San Onofre, and Carlsbad trends results from geometrical complexities in the dextral fault system. Undeformed early to mid-Pleistocene age sediments onlap and overlie deformation associated with the northern Coronado Bank fault (CBF) and the breakaway zone of the purported Oceanside Blind Thrust. Therefore, we interpret the northern CBF to be inactive, and slip rate estimates based on linkage with the Holocene active Palos Verdes fault are unwarranted. In the western ICB, the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) and San Clemente fault have robust linear geomorphic expression, which suggests that these faults may accommodate a significant portion of modern ICB slip in a westward temporal migration of slip. The SDTF offsets young sediments between the US/Mexico border and the

  6. Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern Algeria chott Baghdad natural brine. M Zatout, M Hacini, A.H. Hamzaoui, A M'nif. Abstract. Southern Algerian's natural brine sampled from chott Baghdad may be a source of mineral salts with a high economic value. These salts are recoverable by simple ...

  7. Seroepidemiology of leptospirosis in southern Vietnamese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Binh, Tran Quang; Giao, Phan Trong; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Hung, Le Quoc; van Nam, Nguyen; Nga, Tran Thanh; Goris, Marga G. A.; de Vries, Peter J.


    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the seroprevalence of human leptospirosis in southern Vietnam. METHODS: All pupils (n=961) of two primary schools in two communes in southern Vietnam were screened for the presence of serum Leptospira immunoglobulin (Ig)G. Leptospira IgM was tested in 92 randomly selected

  8. Understanding Southern Influence in Cyberspace Security and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Southern Influence in Cyberspace Security and Governance: Toward a Global Network of Southern-based Cyber Scholars. The securitization of cyberspace - that is, making it a matter of national security - is perhaps the most important force shaping global communications today. It is particularly troublesome ...

  9. Southern African Journal of Environmental Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Journal of Environmental Education (SAJEE) is an accredited and internationally refereed journal. It is published at least once a year, by the Environmental Education Association of Southern Africa (EEASA). The SAJEE aims to publish and report on a wide range of aspects relating to Environmental ...

  10. The Southern Forest Futures Project: technical report (United States)

    David N. Wear; John G. Greis


    Please visit the Southern Forest Futures Project website for more information.The Southern Forest Futures Project provides a science-based “futuring” analysis of the forests of the 13 States of the Southeastern United States. With findings...

  11. New Moho map of southern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratford, Wanda Rose; Thybo, Hans; Faleide, J.-I.


    A recent seismic refraction study across southern Norway has revealed that the up to 2469 m high Southern Scandes Mountains are not isostatically compensated by a thick crust. Rather, the Moho depths are close to average for continental crust with elevations of ~1 km. Evidence from new seismic da...

  12. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Shakespeare in Southern Africa publishes articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on the response to Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked ...

  13. Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies publishes articles on a wide range of linguistic topics and acts as a forum for research into ALL the languages of southern Africa, including English and Afrikaans. Original contributions are welcomed on any of the core areas of Linguistics, both theoretical (e.g. ...

  14. Understanding Southern Influence in Cyberspace Security and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Southern Influence in Cyberspace Security and Governance: Toward a Global Network of Southern-based Cyber Scholars. The securitization of cyberspace - that is, making it a matter ... Téléchargez le PDF. Dossiers. Collecting state : a study about Argentina and citizens' personal data. Téléchargez le PDF ...

  15. Ecological Impacts of Southern Pine Beetle (United States)

    Maria D. Tchakerian; Robert N. Coulson


    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most important biotic disturbance in southern pine forests and causes extensive changes to the forest environment. In this chapter we provide an overview of the ecological impacts of the SPB on forest conditions (the state of the forest) and on forest resources (uses and values associated with the forest). We define ecological...

  16. Southern African Development Research Network | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will build on lessons learned from an earlier IDRC-supported effort, the Southern African Trade Research Network (SATRN), funded under project 100816. The grant will support a broad-based research network, the Southern Africa Development Research Network (SADRN) with a view to filling some of the gaps ...

  17. An Observing System for the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Newman, L.; Schofield, O.; Wahlin, A.; Constable, A.; Swart, S.


    The Southern Ocean is fundamental to the operation of the Earth system, as it plays a central role in global climate and planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles. The Southern Ocean is changing rapidly, and the critical need to observe and understand the Southern Ocean is well established; however, the harsh conditions and remote location have led to it being the most under-sampled region of the world. Sustained observations are required to detect, interpret, and respond to the physical, chemical, and biological changes that are, and will continue to be measured. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) is an international initiative with the mission to integrate the global assets and efforts of the international community to enhance data collection, provide access to datasets, and guide the development of strategic-sustained-multidisciplinary science in the Southern Ocean. This presentation will provide an update on SOOS implementation activities, key products and tools, and data management efforts.

  18. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney


    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network