WorldWideScience

Sample records for southern coastal islands

  1. Ground water input to coastal salt ponds of southern Rhode Island estimated using 226Ra as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M K; Moran, S B

    2001-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 years) was used as a tracer to determine ground water input to Point Judith, Potter, Green Hill and Ninigret ponds in southern Rhode Island. Measurements of 226Ra activity were made in samples collected from salt ponds, pore waters, sediments, and local ground water wells during June-August, 1997. These results were combined with a simple box model to derive ground water input fluxes of 0.1-0.3 cm3 cm-2 d-1 (2-5 x 10(7) L d-1), which are comparable to previous estimates of ground water input to these ponds.

  2. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  3. A Late Quaternary palynological and sedimentological record from two coastal swamps at southern Kaitoke, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from southern Kaitoke (Forsythes' Paddock and Blackwells' Bush), Great Barrier Island, show that at c. 7500 cal. yr BP, the area was an estuary with tidal flats and Avicennia. By c. 3000 cal. yr BP, a Restionaceae (Leptocarpus) salt marsh had developed in the estuary as marine influences lessened. By c. cal. 2550 yr BP, fresh water swamp (Cyperacceae-Gleichenia-Leptspermum) had replaced the salt marsh. Conifer-hardwood forest surrounding the southern Kaitoke sites from c. 7500-c. 2800 cal. yr BP was dominated by Daceydium, Metrosideros and Libocedrus. After c. 2800 cal. yr BP Metrosideros was replaced by Agathis, Phyllocladus and Prumnopitys taxifolia, suggesting climatic change to more variable conditions. The presence of the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at southern Kaitoke began c. 600 cal. yr BP Minor pre-Kaharoa fire disturbance is evident c. 1750 cal. yr BP and c. 1290-970 cal. yr BP (author). 52 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin; Ruch, Joel; Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-01-01

    on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal

  5. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  6. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  7. Community management of coastal resources, southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chansnoh, P.

    1993-01-01

    The involvement of communities with the assistance and support of government and non government organizations on the management of the coastal resources in Southern Thailand are discussed. The 3 most important resources, mangrove, seagrass and coral, create a complex coastal ecology. Several man-made activities causing the deterioration of this resources are also presented.

  8. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  9. Coastal management strategy for small island: ecotourism potency development in Karimata Island, West Kalimantan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiastuti, A. W.; Munawaroh; Setyawan, I. E.; Pramono, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Sustainable coastal management is playing an important role in coastal resources conservation, particularly on small islands. Karimata archipelago has unique characteristics and great potential to be developed as a tourism object, one of which is Karimata Island as the largest island and also reserve area. The concept of ecotourism focuses on the ecology conservation, economic benefits, and social life. Ecotourism aims to build sustainable tourism that provides economically viable and social benefits to the community. This study aims to develop coastal management strategy based on ecotourism at Karimata Island. Spatial approaching through coastal type was done. Qualitative descriptive analysis and SWOT are used to develop sustainable management strategies for the coast of Karimata Island, where the opportunities and challenges to the development of coastal ecotourism Karimata Island also included. If this potential is optimally utilized, it can be relied as an economic opportunity for local communities. Structurally shaped coast, marine depositional coast and coast build by organism are several of coastal types found at Karimata Island. Coastal ecosystems inhabited Karimata Island are mangroves, coral reefs, and macro-algae. Karimata Island have not been optimally utilized for tourist destinations. The biggest obstacle encountered is the accessibility from Kalimantan or other island at Karimata islands. Several problems related to the utilization of coastal resources were found such as mangrove and coral reef damage, also regulation that less supportive. The results of this study are expected to provide an overview of solutions for the development of coastal tourism potentials in Karimata Island.

  10. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of a Coastal Island Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case in Hatiya Island, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, S.; Mahmud, M. S.; Hossain, M. A.; Hasan, M.; Ashrafi, Z. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh is recognized for its high vulnerability to sea level rise (SLR). SLR directly and indirectly (by altering morphology of river estuary) accelerates erosion processes, washes out the loose materials of the coast and coastal islands. Hatiya, highly populated coastal island, located in Meghna river estuary is under severe threat of coastal erosion, which has not been quantified yet. The accurate mapping of the shoreline and coastal changes are very important for adopting conservation measures e.g. protection of human life, property and the natural environment. The objectives of the present study are to use remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in the shoreline and coastal land area of the Hatiya Island between the year of 1985 and 2016 from multi-temporal satellite images, i.e. assessing shifting of the shoreline position through digital shoreline analysis besides the erosion-accretion measurements. Study reveals that about 67 square kilometer areas has been lost between 1985 and 2016 which was about 17 percent of original area (1985). Erosion mainly took place in northern, north-western banks of the island. In these areas, the landward movement and rate of the shoreline were higher with a highest value of the net shoreline movement (NSM) around 6.2 km. Erosion rate is significant in exposed part of the island where tidal water pressure, shoreline configuration, loose bank materials and steep slope were observed. However, the accretion was noticed in recent years (2010-2016) in southern part of the island where slopes were gentle, perhaps due to backwash sediment deposition. As erosion process is prominent in this island, significant amounnt of usable land was lost. Therefore, local livelihood pattern has changed that has noticable effect on local economy. By quantifying the erosion-accretion rate, livelihood planning can be initiated in climatically threated vulnerable islands.

  11. Microlevel mapping of coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram island, India: A remote sensing and GIS perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; Shivaprasad, A.; Karikalan, R.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.

    Coastal areas are facing serious threats from both manmade and natural disturbances; coastal erosion, sea-level variation, and cyclones are the major factors that alter the coastal topography and coastal resources of the island ecosystems...

  12. Sustainable Mobility for Tourists at the Dutch Coastal Islands (Waddeneilanden)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, O.; Vogtländer, J.G.; Brezet, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The European Coastal Islands around the North sea, are joined together in a project that stimulates sustainable development. Within this 'Cradle-to-Cradle Islands' project, some islands were selected as breading grounds for potentially sustainable projects. One of these projects was the development

  13. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  14. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sensitive/rare coastal plants and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) for Long Island, New York. Vector...

  15. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Long Island,...

  16. 13 CFR 120.175 - Coastal barrier islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coastal barrier islands. 120.175 Section 120.175 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Policies Applying to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.175 Coastal barrier...

  17. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  18. The Southern Kurile Islands: Shrouded in Eternal Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    Kurile Islands?”44 during a meeting of the Japanese Diet on October 19, 1951. His initial answer was that the Northern and the Southern Kuriles were...Islands: Vietnam, China, and Taiwan, and 2) the Spratly Islands: Vietnam, China, Taiwan, Malaysia , Philippines, and Brunei. 7 John J. Stephan, The

  19. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  20. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  1. Environmental sensitivity of the coastal islands of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps for Oil Spills (ESI Maps, or SAO in Portuguese constitute an essential component and source of basic information for emergency planning, response decision support and damage evaluation in case of oil spills. This study aims at the elaboration of sensitivity maps for oil spills for the islands within the Ubatuba municipality, north coast of the State of São Paulo. The adopted methodology is based on the Technical Specifications for the production of Environmental Sensitivity Maps for oil spills (SAO maps proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment. The study involved the gathering of secondary data, followed by field work carried out in the summer and winter periods of 2007; the elaboration of the cartographic base maps and, finally, the integration of the data to a GIS (Geographic Information System. As a result it was registered and mapped the physical (geology, geomorphology, oceanography and climatology, biological (fauna, flora and coastal environments and socioeconomic (anthropic influence, human use, artificial structures and impacts resources of Ubatuba coastal islands. Eleven beaches have been identified, located at six islands, with distinct topographic and geomorphologic features. The beaches were classified with sensitivity index 4, because they are sheltered from actions of waves and currents. Most of the mapped environments (44.8% were classified with sensitivity index 8, indicating high sensitivity of the islands. The oil spill impacts on coastal environments can be significantly minimized during the contingency actions when previous knowledge of the ecosystems that compose the islands environment is available, especially when it is integrated into GIS data basis, capable of displaying easy-to-use maps. The environmental sensitivity mapping is an important management instrument, especially when dealing with sensible and poorly studied areas such as the islands of Ubatuba.

  2. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  3. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Development of the coastal aquifer systems of Southern California has resulted in overdraft, changes in streamflow, seawater intrusion, land subsidence, increased vertical flow between aquifers, and a redirection of regional flow toward pumping centers. These water-management challenges can be more effectively addressed by incorporating new understanding of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical setting of these aquifers.

  4. Coastal erosion and mangrove progradation of Southern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Sinsakul, S.; Panapitukkul, N.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the southern Thai coastline used to be occupied by mangroves according to the first mangrove forest assessment in 1961. During the past three decades, these mangrove areas have been reduced to about 50% with less than 10% left on the east coast. Coastal erosion and accretion

  5. Photo-Geomorphology of Coastal Landforms, Cat Island, Bahamas. Volume II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report provides the aerial imagery used in the analysis of the coastal landforms of Cat Island in the east-central Bahama Islands. Interpretive...published volume Coastal Landform of Cat Island, Bahamas: A Study of Holocene Accretionary Topography and Sea-Level Change but may also serve as an

  6. Southern California Coastal Processes Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    05/01/71 TITLE : Avalon Transportation Wharf CITATION : Journal of Waterways, Harbors and Coastal Engineering Division, ASCE, N. Y., Vol. 97, No. WW2 ...105, No. WW2 ; ASCE, N. Y., pp. 131-147 DESCRIPTION s Effect of various offshore structures as significant barriers to normal wave progress...California, 33 pp. DESCRIPTION Infrared satellite images are shown for each of two areas near +- the California coast, Cape Mendocino and Point

  7. Artesian water in the Malabar coastal plain of southern Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1964-01-01

    The present report is based on a geological and hydrological reconnaissance during 1954 of the Malabar Coastal Plain and adjacent island area of southern Kerala to evaluate the availability of ground water for coastal villages and municipalities and associated industries and the potentialities for future development. The work was done in cooperation with the Geological Survey of India and under the auspices of the U.S. Technical Cooperation Mission to India. The State of Kerala, which lies near the southern tip of India and along the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea, contains a total area of 14,937 square miles. The eastern part of the state is s rugged mountainous highland which attains altitudes of more than 6,000 feet. This highland descends westward through piedmont upland to s narrow coastal plain, which reaches a maximum width of about 16 miles in the latitude of Shertalli. A tropical monsoon rain-forest climate prevails in most of Kerala, and annual rainfall ranges from 65 to 130 inches in the southern part of the coastal plain to as much a 200 inches in the highland. The highland and piedmont upland tracts of Kerala are underlain by Precambrian meamorphic and igneous rocks belonging in large parabola-the so-called Charnockite Series. Beneath ahe coastal plain are semiconsolidated asunconsolidated sedimentary deposits whose age ranges from Miocene to Recent. These deposits include sofa sandstone and clay shale containing some marl or limestone and sand, and clay and pea containing some gravel. The sofa sandstone, sand, and gravel beds constitute important aquifers a depths ranging from a few tens of feet to 400 feet or more below the land surface. The shallow ground war is under water-able or unconfined conditions, but the deeper aquifers contain water under artesian pressure. Near the coast, drilled wells tapping the deeper aquifers commonly flow with artesian heads as much as 10 to 12 feet above the land surface. The draft from existing wells in the

  8. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  9. Urbanization Causes Increased Cloud Base Height and Decreased Fog in Coastal Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Schwartz, Rachel E.; Iacobellis, Sam; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Still, Christopher J.; Husak, Gregory; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical marine stratus clouds regulate coastal and global climate, but future trends in these clouds are uncertain. In coastal Southern California (CSCA), interannual variations in summer stratus cloud occurrence are spatially coherent across 24 airfields and dictated by positive relationships with stability above the marine boundary layer (MBL) and MBL height. Trends, however, have been spatially variable since records began in the mid-1900s due to differences in nighttime warming. Among CSCA airfields, differences in nighttime warming, but not daytime warming, are strongly and positively related to fraction of nearby urban cover, consistent with an urban heat island effect. Nighttime warming raises the near-surface dew point depression, which lifts the altitude of condensation and cloud base height, thereby reducing fog frequency. Continued urban warming, rising cloud base heights, and associated effects on energy and water balance would profoundly impact ecological and human systems in highly populated and ecologically diverse CSCA.

  10. Coastal lagoon sediments and benthic foraminifera as indicator for Holocene sea-level change: Samsø, southern Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Morigi, Caterina; Pejrup, Morten

    The island of Samsø is located in the southern Kattegat region of Denmark, a relatively sheltered micro-tidal environment. The area experienced a period of rapid transgression during the early Altantic period, reaching its maximum approx. 7,600 yr BP. Since then, isostatic uplift gradually caused....... Over time, an extensive beach ridge system formed, which eventually connected the islands, giving Samsø its characteristic shape. Ephemeral shallow-water lagoons evolved in topographic depressions along the shores of the island, most of which became inactive until today. A semi-enclosed coastal lagoon......-level and to investigate associated geomorphic responses in coastal lagoon and beach ridge systems. Vibracorings will be carried out in these sedimentary environments and will be supplemented with manual auger corings and ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys to assess vertical variations in the deposited sediments...

  11. Airborne dust transport to the eastern Pacific Ocean off southern California: Evidence from San Clemente Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.

    2007-01-01

    Islands are natural dust traps, and San Clemente Island, California, is a good example. Soils on marine terraces cut into Miocene andesite on this island are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols with vertic properties. These soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles, 5-20 cm thick, that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich subsoils. The silt mantles have a mineralogy that is distinct from the island bedrock. Silt mantles are rich in quartz, which is rare in the island andesite. The clay fraction of the silt mantles is dominated by mica, also absent from local andesite, and contrasts with the subsoils, dominated by smectite. Ternary plots of immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) show that the island andesite has a composition intermediate between average upper continental crust and average oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantles have compositions closer to average upper continental crust. The silt mantles have particle size distributions similar to loess and Mojave Desert dust, but are coarser than long-range-transported Asian dust. We infer from these observations that the silt mantles are derived from airborne dust from the North American mainland, probably river valleys in the coastal mountains of southern California and/or the Mojave Desert. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. Examination of satellite imagery shows that easterly Santa Ana winds carry abundant dust to the eastern Pacific Ocean and the California Channel Islands. Airborne dust from mainland North America may be an important component of the offshore sediment budget in the easternmost Pacific Ocean, a finding of potential biogeochemical and climatic significance.

  12. Killer whales ( Orcinus orca ) at Marion Island, Southern Ocean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) were studied using data obtained on an opportunistic basis between 1973 and 1996 at Marion Island (46°54'S, 37°45'E) in the Southern Indian Ocean. A clear seasonal pattern of occurrence with the main peak between October and December was evident. Most killer whales were observed ...

  13. Trends in the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of china: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zou, Safeng; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Bo; Fu, Lingyu; Wang, Hailong; Shi, Jingpu

    2014-12-01

    With the economic development in recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hypertension in some coastal cities of China; however, the number of reports regarding the prevalence of hypertension based on a nationwide study of island and coastal areas of China is limited. We estimated the prevalence and described the trends of hypertension during the last 3 decades in these specific areas. Authoritative databases were searched for cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of China published in the past 3 decades, and 37 studies that involved 760,428 individuals representing 22 different locations were identified and included in our analysis. The estimated prevalence of hypertension was 9.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3%-14.9%) in the 1980s, 18.5% (95% CI = 13.6%-24.8%) in the 1990s, and 30.0% (95% CI = 26.7%-33.6%) in the 2000s (χ(2) for trend: P = 0.00). In the 2000s, adjusted prevalence estimate of hypertension was 21.6% according to the national standard population composition in 1990, and the pooled prevalence estimate for the northern region in coastal areas of China was significantly higher than the southern region (36.2% vs. 26.2%; P = 0.002). Thus, the prevalence of hypertension in the island and coastal areas of China appears to have increased 21.5% in the last 3 decades; the increasing trend was observed in men and women. Our findings highlight the urgent need for public health strategies with more emphasis on improvement of primary health care in the island and coastal areas of China. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Fire and vegetation history on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands, and long-term environmental change in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, Scott W.; Pinter, N.; Anderson, Robert S.; Jass, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term history of vegetation and fire was investigated at two locations – Soledad Pond (275 m; from ca. 12 000 cal. a BP) and Abalone Rocks Marsh (0 m; from ca. 7000 cal. a BP) – on Santa Rosa Island, situated off the coast of southern California. A coastal conifer forest covered highlands of Santa Rosa during the last glacial, but by ca. 11 800 cal. a BP Pinus stands, coastal sage scrub and grassland replaced the forest as the climate warmed. The early Holocene became increasingly drier, particularly after ca. 9150 cal. a BP, as the pond dried frequently, and coastal sage scrub covered the nearby hillslopes. By ca. 6900 cal. a BP grasslands recovered at both sites. Pollen of wetland plants became prominent at Soledad Pond after ca. 4500 cal. a BP, and at Abalone Rocks Marsh after ca. 3465 cal. a BP. Diatoms suggest freshening of the Abalone Rocks Marsh somewhat later, probably by additional runoff from the highlands. Introduction of non-native species by ranchers occurred subsequent to AD 1850. Charcoal influx is high early in the record, but declines during the early Holocene when minimal biomass suggests extended drought. A general increase occurs after ca. 7000 cal. a BP, and especially after ca. 4500 cal. a BP. The Holocene pattern closely resembles population levels constructed from the archaeological record, and suggests a potential influence by humans on the fire regime of the islands, particularly during the late Holocene.

  15. Nearshore marine fish diversity in southern California using trawl information from the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of mean fish diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water Research...

  16. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and...

  17. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - US Virgin Islands 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for St Croix, St. John and St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  18. St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3 arc-second St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation...

  19. Coastal ocean transport patterns in the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Rosenberger, K.J.; Hamilton, P.; Xu, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, several large programs that monitor currents and transport patterns for periods from a few months to a few years were conducted by a consortium of university, federal, state, and municipal agencies in the central Southern California Bight, a heavily urbanized section of the coastal ocean off the west coast of the United States encompassing Santa Monica Bay, San Pedro Bay, and the Palos Verdes shelf. These programs were designed in part to determine how alongshelf and cross-shelf currents move sediments, pollutants, and suspended material through the region. Analysis of the data sets showed that the current patterns in this portion of the Bight have distinct changes in frequency and amplitude with location, in part because the topography of the shelf and upper slope varies rapidly over small spatial scales. However, because the mean, subtidal, and tidal-current patterns in any particular location were reasonably stable with time, one could determine a regional pattern for these current fields in the central Southern California Bight even though measurements at the various locations were obtained at different times. In particular, because the mean near-surface flows over the San Pedro and Palos Verdes shelves are divergent, near-surface waters from the upper slope tend to carry suspended material onto the shelf in the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. Water and suspended material are also carried off the shelf by the mean and subtidal flow fields in places where the orientation of the shelf break changes abruptly. The barotropic tidal currents in the central Southern California Bight flow primarily alongshore, but they have pronounced amplitude variations over relatively small changes in alongshelf location that are not totally predicted by numerical tidal models. Nonlinear internal tides and internal bores at tidal frequencies are oriented more across the shelf. They do not have a uniform transport direction, since they move fine sediment

  20. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2017-10-01

    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  1. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  2. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  3. Bluff evolution along coastal drumlins: Boston Harbor Islands, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstoss, E.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Rosen, P.S.; Allen, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    A series of partially drowned drumlins forms the backbone of the inner islands within Boston Harbor. The shoreline of these rounded glacial deposits is composed of actively retreating bluffs formed by continual wave attack. Comparisons of bluffs reveal variability in their height and lateral extent, as well as in the dominant mechanism causing their retreat. Two processes are responsible for bluff erosion and yield distinct bluff morphologies: (1) wave attack undercuts the bluff and causes episodic slumping, yielding planar bluff slopes, and (2) subaerial processes such as rainfall create irregular slopes characterized by rills and gullies. We propose a model of drumlin bluff evolution that is based on processes of erosion and physical characteristics such as bluff height, slope morphology, and the orientation of the bluff with respect to the long axis of the drumlin and its topographic crest. The four phases of drumlin bluff evolution consist of (1) initial formation of bluff, with retreat dominated by wave notching and slumping processes; (2) rill and gully development as bluff heights exceed 10 m and slumped sediment at bluff base inhibits wave attack; (3) return of wave notching and slumping as bluff heights decrease; and (4) final development of boulder retreat lag as last remnants of drumlin are eroded by wave action. These phases capture the important physical processes of drumlin evolution in Boston Harbor and could apply to other eroding coastal drumlin deposits.

  4. Microcystin Prevalence throughout Lentic Waterbodies in Coastal Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith D. A. Howard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin producing cyanobacterial blooms have increased globally in recent decades in both frequency and intensity. Despite the recognition of this growing risk, the extent and magnitude of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxin prevalence is poorly characterized in the heavily populated region of southern California. Recent assessments of lentic waterbodies (depressional wetlands, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons determined the prevalence of microcystins and, in some cases, additional cyanotoxins. Microcystins were present in all waterbody types surveyed although toxin concentrations were generally low across most habitats, as only a small number of sites exceeded California’s recreational health thresholds for acute toxicity. Results from passive samplers (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT indicated microcystins were prevalent throughout lentic waterbodies and that traditional discrete samples underestimated the presence of microcystins. Multiple cyanotoxins were detected simultaneously in some systems, indicating multiple stressors, the risk of which is uncertain since health thresholds are based on exposures to single toxins. Anatoxin-a was detected for the first time from lakes in southern California. The persistence of detectable microcystins across years and seasons indicates a low-level, chronic risk through both direct and indirect exposure. The influence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a more complex stressor than presently recognized and should be included in water quality monitoring programs.

  5. COASTAL STUDY, KENT COUNTY,RHODE ISLAND USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  6. COASTAL STUDY, BRISTOL COUNTY,RHODE ISLAND USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  7. Islands of Education: Schooling, Civil War and the Southern Sudanese (1983-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Victims of warfare, famine, slavery, and isolation, the Southern Sudanese are one of the most undereducated populations in the world. Since the inception of formal education in southern Sudan a century ago, schooling has largely consisted of island-like entities surrounded by oceans of educational emptiness. Islands of Education is the first book…

  8. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  9. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Southern...

  10. Cool PDO phase leads to recent rebound in coastal southern California fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witiw, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between coastal fog in southern California and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO is investigated during the last decade. Fog occurrence was examined at two locations in southern California: San Diego and Los Angeles international airports. Both locations are located near the Pacific coast with strong marine influences. The period looked at was 2001 through 2012. The cool season (October-March and warm season (April-September were examined separately because of the different types of fog that prevail in each season. Previous studies have shown a relation between fog and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. However, a switch in polarity in the PDO in the mid-1970s (from a cool to a warm phase coupled with a sharp decrease in particulate concentrations calls into question the strong relationship shown. Further studies suggest that the decrease in dense fog seen from the 1960s through the 1990s was largely due to increasing urban heat island effects coupled with a decrease in atmospheric particulate matter. Since 1998, the PDO again changed polarity and fog frequencies began to rise. However, urban heat island and particulate effects were relatively constant making it easier to isolate any effects of the PDO on fog occurrence. Previous studies examined the occurrence of dense fog (visibility less than 400 meters, but because of the decrease in fog in this category, 800 meters was chosen this time. That also corresponds to the 0.5 mile visibility which triggers special reports at the California airports when visibility moves through this threshold. Although there was no strong relationship between fog and PDO in the most recent period, Pacific Ocean oscillations were found to show significant relationships with fog frequencies historically. Upwelling indices show a significant relationship with fog frequencies when examined by the phase of the PDO. Even stronger relationships are found when selecting La Niña and El Niño events.

  11. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Ross Island area, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Foley, Kevin M.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth?s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. The Ross Island area map is bounded by long 141? E. and 175? E. and by lat 76? S. and 81? S. The map covers the part of southern Victoria Land that includes the northwestern Ross Ice Shelf, the McMurdo Ice Shelf, part of the polar plateau and Transantarctic Mountains, the McMurdo Dry Valleys, northernmost Shackleton Coast, Hillary Coast, the southern part of Scott Coast, and Ross Island. Little noticeable change has occurred in the ice fronts on the map, so the focus is on glaciological features. In the western part of the map area, the polar plateau of East Antarctica, once thought to be a featureless region, has subtle wavelike surface forms (megadunes) and flow traces of glaciers that originate far inland and extend to the coast or into the Ross Ice Shelf. There are numerous outlet glaciers. Glaciers drain into the McMurdo Dry Valleys, through the Transantarctic Mountains into the Ross Sea, or into the Ross Ice Shelf. Byrd Glacier is the largest. West of the Transantarctic Mountains are areas of blue ice, readily identifiable on Landsat images, that have been determined to be prime areas for finding meteorites. Three subglacial lakes have been identified in the map area. Because McMurdo Station, the main U.S. scientific research station in Antarctica, is located on Ross Island in the map area, many of these and other features in the area have been studied extensively. The paper version of this map is

  12. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  13. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  14. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  15. Outlook for coastal plain forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Richard Shelfer; Zanethia Choice

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Coastal Plain consists of seven sections: the Northern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic, Peninsular Florida, Southern Gulf, Middle Gulf-East, Middle Gulf-West, and Western Gulf. It covers a large area, consists of a diverse array of habitats, and supports a diverse array of uses. This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are...

  16. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  17. Lake size and fish diversity in southern Brazil coastal lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, presents a series of shallow lagoons with diverse size and morphology. The objective of this study is to determine whether the size of the lagoon is an effective factor for structuring fish diversity. In this regard, nine lagoons with distinct areas were sampled: three with an area up to 40 hectares, three with area between 40 and 80 hectares, and three with an area of over 80 hectares. Each lagoon was sampled once on the littoral and pelagic zones. At each point, fish were captured through a set of gill nets with different mesh sizes. Captured specimens were identified, quantified and evaluated for weight and length. A total of 24 fish species belonging to 10 families was obtained, with Characidae presenting the highest species richness. Cyanocharax alburnus was the only species that occurred in all lagoons. Cyphocharax voga, Astyanax eigenmmaniorum, Oligosarcus jenynsii and O. robustus were also frequent species, present in most of the sampled lagoons. Lycengraulis grossidens was captured in just two lagoons with increased conductivity. The community structure showed the highest species richness in lakes with an area over 40 ha, however the highest mean diversity values were observed in ponds up to 40 ha. Cluster Analysis yielded the formation of two groups: a group formed by just one lagoon and a second one cluster grouping all the other lagoons. This pattern may be associated with the presence of Lycengraulis grossidens as a dominant species in this lagoon clustered apart. The results indicate that lagoons with up to 40 ha present greater homogeneity on the species composition and higher average values of diversity; while intermediate ponds (between 40 and 80 ha have lower average diversity for the fish fauna due to increased heterogeneity in species abundance.

  18. Waveform identification and retracking analyses of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data for improving sea surface height estimation in Southern Java Island Waters and Java Sea, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nababan, Bisman; Hakim, Muhammad R.; Panjaitan, James P.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesian waters containing many small islands and shallow waters leads to a less accurate of sea surface height (SSH) estimation from satellite altimetry. Little efforts are also given for the validation of SSH estimation from the satellite in Indonesian waters. The purpose of this research was to identify and retrack waveforms of Jason-2 altimeter satellite data in southern Java island waters and Java Sea using several retrackers and performed improvement percentage analyses for new SSH estimation. The study used data of the Sensor Geophysical Data Record type D (SGDR-D) of Jason-2 satellite altimeter of the year 2010 in the southern Java island waters and 2012-2014 in Java Sea. Waveform retracking analyses were conducted using several retrackers (Offset Center of Gravity, Ice, Threshold, and Improved Threshold) and examined using a world reference undulation geoid of EGM08 and Oceanic retracker. Result showed that shape and pattern of waveforms were varied in all passes, seasons, and locations specifically along the coastal regions. In general, non-Brownish and complex waveforms were identified along coastal region specifically within the distance of 0-10 km from the shoreline. In contrary, generally Brownish waveforms were found in offshore. However, Brownish waveform can also be found within coastal region and non-Brownish waveforms within offshore region. The results were also showed that the four retrackers produced a better SSH estimation in coastal region. However, there was no dominant retracker to improve the accuracy of the SSH estimate.

  19. Terrestrial and coastal landscape evolution on tropical oceanic islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viles, H.A.; Spencer, T.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical oceanic islands owe their origin to volcanic eruptions, their location to plate tectonics, and their morphology to the interplay over time between a range of constructional and erosional processes. A broad distinction can be made between high volcanic islands, with summits up to 4,000 m,

  20. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  1. Coastal bathymetry data collected in 2011 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Bernier, Julie C.; Buster, Noreen A.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted nearshore geophysical surveys off the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in June of 2011. The overall objectives of the study are to better understand barrier-island geomorphic evolution, particularly storm-related depositional and erosional processes that shape the islands over annual to interannual timescales (1-5 years). Collection of geophysical data will allow us to identify relationships between the geologic history of the island and its present day morphology and sediment distribution. This mapping effort was the first in a series of three planned surveys in this area. High resolution geophysical data collected in each of three consecutive years along this rapidly changing barrier-island system will provide a unique time-series dataset that will significantly further the analyses and geomorphological interpretations of this and other coastal systems, improving our understanding of coastal response and evolution over short time scales (1-5 years).

  2. San Juan Islands, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Rhode Island 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2010. The data types...

  4. U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Rhode Island 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2005. The data types...

  6. Rhode Island 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2007. The data types...

  7. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  8. Distributions and characteristics of dissolved organic matter in temperate coastal waters (Southern North Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübben, Andrea; Dellwig, Olaf; Koch, Sandra; Beck, Melanie; Badewien, Thomas H.; Fischer, Sibylle; Reuter, Rainer

    2009-04-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was studied in the East-Frisian Wadden Sea (Southern North Sea) during several cruises between 2002 and 2005. The spatial distribution of CDOM in the German Bight shows a strong gradient towards the coast. Tidal and seasonal variations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) identify freshwater discharge via flood-gates at the coastline and pore water efflux from tidal flat sediments as the most important CDOM sources within the backbarrier area of the Island of Spiekeroog. However, the amount and pattern of CDOM and DOC is strongly affected by various parameters, e.g. changes in the amount of terrestrial run-off, precipitation, evaporation, biological activity and photooxidation. A decoupling of CDOM and DOC, especially during periods of pronounced biological activity (algae blooms and microbial activity), is observed in spring and especially in summer. Mixing of the endmembers freshwater, pore water, and open sea water results in the formation of a coastal transition zone. Whilst an almost conservative behaviour during mixing is observed in winter, summer data point towards non-conservative mixing.

  9. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  10. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and amphibians for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1 arc-second Virgin Islands DEM will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for tsunami inundation modeling. This DEM encompasses the Virgin...

  12. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  13. Ecological biogeography of southern ocean islands: species-area relationships, human impacts, and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chown, S.L.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Gaston, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have concluded that southern ocean islands are anomalous because past glacial extent and current temperature apparently explain most variance in their species richness. Here, the relationships between physical variables and species richness of vascular plants, insects, land and

  14. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3 arc-second St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for...

  15. Effect of Gravity Waves from Small Islands in the Southern Ocean on the Southern Hemisphere Atmospheric Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, C. I.; Oman, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of small islands in the Southern Ocean on the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is considered with a series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model in which the gravity wave stress generated by these islands is increased to resemble observed values. The enhanced gravity wave drag leads to a 2 K warming of the springtime polar stratosphere, partially ameliorating biases in this region. Resolved wave drag declines in the stratospheric region in which the added orographic gravity waves deposit their momentum, such that changes in gravity waves are partially compensated by changes in resolved waves, though resolved wave drag increases further poleward. The orographic drag from these islands has impacts for surface climate, as biases in tropospheric jet position are also partially ameliorated. These results suggest that these small islands are likely contributing to the missing drag near 60 degrees S in the upper stratosphere evident in many data assimilation products.

  16. Optimization of coastal protection measures on small islands in the northfrisian part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöffler, T.; Jensen, J.; Schüttrumpf, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low lying small islands are among the most vulnerable regions worldwide due to the consequences of climate change. The reasons for this are the concentration of infrastructure, geographical features and their small size. Worldwide special forms and adaptations of coastal protection strategies and measures can be found on small islands. In the northfrisian part of the North Sea worldwide unique strategies and measures have been developed in the last centuries due to the geographic location and the isolation during extreme events. One special feature of their coastal protection strategy is the lack of dikes. For this reason, the houses are built on artificial dwelling mounds in order to protect the inhabitants and their goods against frequently occurring inundations during storm surge seasons (up to 30 times a year). The Hallig islands themselves benefit by these inundations due to sediments, which are accumulated on the island's surfaces. This sedimentation has enabled a natural adaption to sea level rise in the past. Nevertheless, the construction methods of the coastal protection measures are mainly based on tradition and the knowledge of the inhabitants. No resilient design approaches and safety standards for these special structures like dwelling mounds and elevated revetments exist today. For this reason, neither a cost efficient construction nor a prioritization of measures is possible. Main part of this paper is the scientific investigation of the existing coastal protection measures with the objective of the development of design approaches and safety standards. The results will optimize the construction of the existing coastal protection measures and can be transferred to other small islands and low lying areas worldwide.

  17. Eogenetic karst, glacioeustatic cave pools and anchialine environments on Mallorca Island: a discussion of coastal speleogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ginès

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal karst is characterized by special geomorphologic and hydrodynamic conditions as well as by peculiar sedimentary, geochemical, and biospeleological environments. Generally, the more distinctive karstic features produced near the coastline are strongly influenced by sea-level changes, which generate a broad set of interactions between littoral processes and karst development. The glacioeustatic rises and falls of sea level affected the littoral karst in different ways, namely: vertical and horizontal shifts in the shoreline position, changes in elevation of the local water table, and vertical displacements of the halocline. Most eogenetic karsts have been subjected over long time spans to repeated changes of a variety of vertically-zoned geochemical environments: vadose, phreatic meteoric-water, brackish mixing-waters and even marine water. Many coastal caves appear to be passively drowned by Holocene sea-level rise, and to contain glacioeustatic pools of varied size where the current water table intersects formerly air-filled chambers or passages. These coastal phreatic waters are controlled by sea level and fluctuate with tides. Significantly, features such as phreatic speleothems that are able to record ancient sea levels occur closely associated to the surface of the pools. The cave pools are brackish or even marine anchialine environments that contain remarkable communities of troglobitic stygofauna. All of these aspects can be studied in detail along the southern and eastern coast of Mallorca Island owing to the widespread outcrop of Upper Miocene calcarenites, in which the development of eogenetic karst features started approximately 6 Ma ago, at the end of Messinian times. Some outstanding coastal caves result and include the celebrated Coves del Drac (explored by E.A. Martel in 1896, the labyrinthine Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (more than 30 km in length and the recently explored Cova de sa Gleda (whose submerged passages exceed

  18. Coastal Urbanization and Land Planning in Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Robert , Samuel; Prévost , Aurélie; Fox , Dennis; Trémélo , Marie-Laure; Pasqualini , Vanina

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Urban sprawl is one of the main pressures affecting coastal areas in the Mediterranean. To assist spatial planning and coastal management policies, the study of urbanization and the characterization of the evolution of built-up areas along the coast are essential prerequisites. In this perspective, the production of land use data sets at a large-scale is necessary. They allow spatio-temporal analysis and, simultaneously, may be used to assess the efficiency of city pla...

  19. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  20. NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  1. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Channel Islands, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  2. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Simon; Aswani, Shankar; Fisher, Paul L; Albert, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  3. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Albert

    Full Text Available Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort, and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  4. Limnology of southern African coastal lakes — new vistas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen mostly small, isolated, and relatively deep coastal inundation lakes were surveyed during the cool season (August) of 1996. No thermal or chemical stratification existed, but near-bottom hypoxia was evident in several systems. Ionic conductivity varied quite widely, but was highest in isolated systems, suggesting ...

  5. Predictive equations for dimensions and leaf area of coastal Southern California street trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson; S.M. Mori

    2001-01-01

    Tree height, crown height, crown width, diameter at breast height (dbh), and leaf area were measured for 16 species of commonly planted street trees in the coastal southern California city of Santa Monica, USA. The randomly sampled trees were planted from 1 to 44 years ago. Using number of years after planting or dbh as explanatory variables, mean values of dbh, tree...

  6. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  7. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  8. Salmonella infections in Antarctic fauna and island populations of wildlife exposed to human activities in coastal areas of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Shellam, G R; Bradshaw, S D; Smith, D W; Mackenzie, J S; Mofflin, R G

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970 and in a search for evidence linking isolations with exposure to human activities, a comparison was made of serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region from 1982-2004 with those from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. This revealed that 10 (83%) Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from Antarctic penguins and seals were classifiable in high-frequency (HF) quotients for serovars prevalent in humans and domesticated animals. In Australia, 16 (90%) HF serovars were isolated from marine birds and mammals compared with 12 (86%) HF serovars reported from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. In Western Australia, HF serovars from marine species were also recorded in humans, livestock, mussels, effluents and island populations of wildlife in urban coastal areas. Low-frequency S. enterica serovars were rarely detected in humans and not detected in seagulls or marine species. The isolation of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), PT8 and PT23 strains from Adélie penguins and a diversity of HF serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region and coastal areas of Australia, signal the possibility of transient serovars and endemic Salmonella strains recycling back to humans from southern latitudes in marine foodstuffs and feed ingredients.

  9. Seasonal electrical resistivity surveys of a coastal bluff, Barter Island, North Slope Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Johnson, Cordell; Lorenson, Thomas; Conaway, Christopher H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li; Richmond, Bruce M.; Waldrop, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Select coastal regions of the North Slope of Alaska are experiencing high erosion rates that can be attributed in part to recent warming trends and associated increased storm intensity and frequency. The upper sediment column of the coastal North Slope of Alaska can be described as continuous permafrost underlying a thin (typically less than 1–2 m) active layer that responds variably to seasonal thaw cycles. Assessing the temporal and spatial variability of the active layer and underlying permafrost is essential to better constrain how heightened erosion may impact material fluxes to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean, and how enhanced thaw cycles may impact the stability of the coastal bluffs. In this study, multi-channel electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to image shallow subsurface features of a coastal bluff west of Kaktovik, on Barter Island, northeast Alaska. A comparison of a suite of paired resistivity surveys conducted in early and late summer 2014 provided detailed information on how the active layer and permafrost are impacted during the short Arctic summer. Such results are useful in the development of coastal resilience models that tie together fluvial, terrestrial, climatic, geologic, and oceanographic forcings on shoreline stability.

  10. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Virginia, Southern

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  11. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: North Carolina, Southern 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  12. Changes of hydrological environment and their influences on coastal wetlands in the southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuliang; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Sun, Hongxia; Xia, Dongxing

    2006-08-01

    The structure and function of the coastal wetland ecosystem in the southern Laizhou Bay have been changed greatly and influenced by regional hydrological changes. The coastal wetlands have degraded significantly during the latest 30 years due to successive drought, decreasing of runoff, pollution, underground saline water intrusion, and aggravating marine disasters such as storm tides and sea level rising. Most archaic lakes have vanished, while artificial wetlands have been extending since natural coastal wetlands replaced by salt areas and ponds of shrimps and crabs. The pollution of sediments in inter-tidal wetlands and the pollution of water quality in sub-tidal wetlands are getting worse and therefore "red tides" happen more often than before. The biodiversity in the study area has been decreased. Further studies are still needed to protect the degraded coastal wetlands in the area.

  13. Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRI WIDAWATI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Widawati S (2011 Diversity and phosphate solubilization by bacteria isolated from Laki Island coastal ecosystem. Biodiversitas 12: 17-21. Soil, water, sand, and plant rhizosphere samples collected from coastal ecosystem of Laki Island-Jakarta were screened for phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB. While the population was dependent on the cultivation media and the sample type, the highest bacterial population was observed in the rhizosphere of Ipomea aquatica. The PSB strains isolated from the sample registered 18.59 g-1L-1, 18.31 g-1L-1, and 5.68 g-1L-1 of calcium phosphate (Ca-P, Al-P and rock phosphate solubilization after 7-days. Phosphate solubilizing capacity was the highest in the Ca-P medium. Two strains, 13 and 14, registered highest Phosphomonoesterase activities (2.01 µgNP.g-1.h-1 and 1.85NP µg.g-1.h-1 were identified as Serattia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescense, respectively. Both strains were isolated from the crops of Amaranthus hybridus and I. aquatica, respectively, which are commonly observed in coastal ecosystems. The presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their ability to solubilize various types of phosphate species are indicative of the important role of both species of bacteria in the biogeochemical cycle of phosphorus and the plant growth in coastal ecosystems.

  14. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  15. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Risk assessment of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments on Hainan Island: A full-scale set of 474 geographical locations covering the entire island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Lin, Ze-Feng; Wen, Jia-Sheng; Wei, Yan-Sha; Gan, Hua-Yang; He, Hai-Jun; Lin, Jin-Qin; Xia, Zhen; Chen, Bi-Shuang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Tan, Cha-Sheng; Cai, Hua-Yang

    2017-12-15

    Hainan Island is the second largest island and one of the most famous tourist destinations in China, but sediment contamination by trace metals in coastal areas is a major issue. However, full-scale risk assessments of trace metal-polluted coastal sediments are lacking. In this study, coastal surface sediments from 474 geographical locations covering almost the entire island were collected to identify risk-related variables. Controlling factors and possible sources of trace metals were identified, and the toxicity effects were carefully evaluated. Our results suggest that trace-metal pollution in coastal sediments, which was mainly caused by Pb, Zn and Cu emissions, has primarily resulted from industrial sewage and shipping activities and has threatened the offshore ecosystem of Hainan Island and warrants extensive consideration. This is the first study that has systematically investigated trace metal-polluted coastal sediments throughout the entirety of Hainan Island and provides solid evidence for sustainable marine management in the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coastal ground water at risk - Saltwater contamination at Brunswick, Georgia and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.; Clarke, John S.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionSaltwater contamination is restricting the development of ground-water supply in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The principal source of water in the coastal area is the Upper Floridan aquifer—an extremely permeable and high-yielding aquifer—which was first developed in the late 1800s. Pumping from the aquifer has resulted in substantial ground-water-level decline and subsequent saltwater intrusion of the aquifer from underlying strata containing highly saline water at Brunswick, Georgia, and with encroachment of sea-water into the aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The saltwater contamination at these locations has constrained further development of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the coastal area and has created competing demands for the limited supply of freshwater. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) has restricted permitted withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in parts of the coastal area (including the Savannah and Brunswick areas) to 1997 rates, and also has restricted additional permitted pumpage in all 24 coastal area counties to 36 million gallons per day above 1997 rates. These actions have prompted interest in alternative management of the aquifer and in the development of supplemental sources of water supply including those from the shallower surficial and upper and lower Brunswick aquifers and from the deeper Lower Floridan aquifer.

  18. Coastal bathymetry and backscatter data collected in 2012 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Bernier, Julie C.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Reynolds, B.J.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted nearshore geophysical surveys off the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in July and August of 2012. The objective of the study is to better understand barrier island geomorphic evolution, particularly storm-related depositional and erosional processes that shape the islands over annual to interannual timescales (1-5 years). Collecting geophysical data will allow us to identify relationships between the geologic history of the island and its present day morphology and sediment distribution. This mapping effort was the second in a series of three planned surveys in this area. High resolution geophysical data collected in each of 3 consecutive years along this rapidly changing barrier island system will provide a unique time-series dataset that will significantly further the analyses and geomorphological interpretations of this and other coastal systems, improving our understanding of coastal response and evolution over short time scales (1-5 years). This Data Series report includes the geophysical data that were collected during two cruises (USGS Field Activity Numbers 12BIM03 and 12BIM04) aboard the RV Survey Cat and the RV Twin Vee along the northern portion of the Chandeleur Islands, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana. Data were acquired with the following equipment: a Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SWATHplus interferometric sonar (468 kilohertz (kHz)), an EdgeTech 424 (4-24 kHz) chirp sub-bottom profiling system, and a Knudsen 320BP (210 kHz) echosounder. This report serves as an archive of processed interferometric swath and single-beam bathymetry data. Geographic information system data products include an interpolated digital elevation model, an acoustic backscatter mosaic, trackline maps, and point data files. Additional files include error analysis maps, Field Activity

  19. Coastal change analysis of Lovells Island using high resolution ground based LiDAR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jennifer K.

    Many methods have been employed to study coastline change. These methods range from historical map analysis to GPS surveys to modern airborne LiDAR and satellite imagery. These previously used methods can be time consuming, labor intensive, and expensive and have varying degrees of accuracy and temporal coverage. Additionally, it is often difficult to apply such techniques in direct response to an isolated event within an appropriate temporal framework. Here we utilize a new ground based Canopy Biomass LiDAR (CBL) system built at The University of Massachusetts Boston (in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology) in order to identify and analyze coastal change on Lovells Island, Boston Harbor. Surveys of a bluff developing in an eroding drumlin and beach cusps on a high-energy cobble beach on Lovells Island were conducted in June, September and December of 2013. At each site for each survey, the CBL was set up and multiple scans of each feature were taken on a predetermined transect that was established parallel to the high-water mark at distances relative to the scale of the bluff and cusps. The scans from each feature were compiled, integrated and visualized using Meshlab. Results from our surveys indicate that the highly portable and easy to deploy CBL system produces images of exceptional clarity, with the capacity to resolve small-scale changes to coastal features and systems. The CBL, while still under development (and coastal surveying protocols with it are just being established), appears to be an ideal tool for analyzing coastal geological features and is anticipated to prove to be a useful tool for the observation and analysis of coastal change. Furthermore, there is significant potential for utilizing the low cost ultra-portable CBL in frequent deployments to develop small-scale erosion rate and sediment budget analyses.

  20. Recent coastal evolution in a carbonate sandy environments and relation to beach ridge formation: the case of Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Anna Lisa; Cooper, J. Andrew G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.

    2014-05-01

    In a changing climate context coastal areas will be affected by more frequent extreme events. Understanding the relationship between extreme events and coastal geomorphic response is critical to future adaptation plans. Beach ridge landforms commonly identified as hurricane deposits along tropical coasts in Australia and in the Caribbean Sea. However their formative processes in such environments are still not well understood. In particular, the role of different extreme wave events (storm waves, tsunami waves and extreme swell), in generating beach ridges is critical to their use as palaeotempestology archives. Anegada Island is a carbonate platform situated in the British Virgin Island between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Pleistocene in age, Anegada is surrounded by the Horseshoe fringing coral reef. Two Holocene sandy beach ridge plains are present on the western part of the island. The north beach ridge plain is Atlantic facing and has at least 30 ridges; the south beach ridge plain is Caribbean Sea facing and contains 10 ridges. Historical aerial photos enabled the shoreline evolution from 1953 to 2012 to be studied. Three different coastal domains are associate with the beach ridge plains: strong east-west longshore transport affects the north coastline, the south-west coastline from West End to Pomato Point represents an export corridor for these sediments and finally, along the southern coastline, from Pomato Point to Settling Point the area presents a depositional zone with little to no change in the last 70 years. The link between the extreme wave events that have affected Anegada Island in the last 70 years and beach ridge creation is discussed. Hurricane Donna crossed over Anegada Island in 1960: its geomorphological signature is tracked in the shoreline change analysis and its implication in beach ridge formation is discussed. Anegada Island has also been impacted by tsunami waves (Atwater et al., 2012) and a comparative discussion of the

  1. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  2. Quantifying coastal erosion rates using anatomical change in exposed tree roots at Porquerolles Island (Var, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Pauline; Corona, Christophe; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Rovéra, Georges; Dewez, Thomas; Stoffel, Markus; Berger, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    Rocky coasts are the most common type of ocean-land contacts and can be found in all types of morphogenetic environments. Most work on rocky environments focused on the impacts of modern sea level rise on cliff stability derived from sequential surveys, direct measurements or erosional features in anthropogenic structures. Studies mainly focused on rapid erosion so that little is known about erosion rates of the French Mediterranean coastal area. Using anatomical reactions in roots, has been successfully used in various environments in the past to quantify continuous denudation rates, mostly in relation with gullying processes (Vandekerckhove, 2001; Malik, 2008), aerial (or sheet) (Bodoque et al., 2005; Lopez Saez et al., 2011; Lucia et al., 2011), river bank (Malik, 2006; Hitz et al., 2008a; Stoffel et al., 2012), or lake shore (Fantucci, 2007) erosion, but never so far on coastal cliffs environment. This study aims at exploring the potential of dendrogeomorphic approach to quantify multidecadal changes in coastal environments on Porquerolles Island (Var, France). We sampled 56 discs from Pinus halepensis Mill. roots on former alluvial deposits eroded by present day sea level (escarpments of a few meter in height) and on sandy-gravelly cliffs. We were able to dates erosion pulses as well as changes in cliff geometry with annual resolution over 30-40 years showing an average erosion rate of 2.1 cm yr-1. Our results are consistent with those found in the study of Giuliano (2015) on Mediterranean coastal environment. This contribution therefore demonstrates that dendrogeomorphic analyses of roots clearly have significant potential and are a powerful tool for the quantification of multidecadal cliff retreats rates in areas where measurements of past erosion is lacking. References: Bodoque J, Díez-Herrero A, Martín-Duque J, Rubiales J, Godfrey A, Pedraza J, Carrasco R, Sanz M. 2005. Sheet erosion rates determined by using dendrogeomorphological analysis of exposed

  3. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  4. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Solano

    Full Text Available We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness.We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  5. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  6. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  7. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g −1 (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. -- Highlights: • Total and methylmercury in marine fish from estuarine and coastal ecosystems were compared. • Hg levels were generally low in the coastal wild fish in southern China. • Overfishing and decreased wetland coverage may be responsible for the low Hg concentration. • Stable isotopes signatures reveal that the two fish communities had contrasting trophic structures. -- Overfishing and habitat-specific geochemical properties are related to the low Hg concentrations in the wild fish

  8. Dispersion of chlorine at seven southern California coastal generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine chlorine concentrations and exposure time gradients of chlorine through seven coastal generating stations and (2) assess the dispersion characteristics of chlorine in the receiving waters. Remarkable variability in chlorine injection concentrations, condenser outlet concentrations, outfall concentrations, and dissipation rates between generating stations and, to a lesser extent, between surveys at the same generating station was found in this chlorine monitoring study. Other than quite consistent low injection and correspondingly low outfall concentrations at San Onofre (a generating station that had one of the more rigorous chlorine control and minimization programs in effect at the time), no recognizable patterns of chlorination could be discerned in the data. Over half of the outfall chlorine surveys had chlorine concentrations below 0.08 mg/L, which is the accepted level of detection for the titrator being used in the surveys. The post-outfall dilution calculations further showed that the chlorine that does enter the receiving water is initially diluted with entrained ambient water at a ratio of 5.2:19.0

  9. 76 FR 6517 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35461] Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  10. Identifying earthworms (Oligochaeta, Megadrili of the Southern Kuril Islands using DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhovtsov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available he Kuril Islands are a volcanic archipelago located between Hokkaido and Kamchatka. In this study we investigated earthworm fauna of three of the Southern Kuril Islands, Kunashir, Shikotan, and Yuri, using both morphological analysis and DNA barcoding. Our results highlight the potential of DNA barcoding for studying earthworm fauna: while previous studies reported only six earthworm species and subspecies on the Southern Kurils, we detected 15 genetic clusters. Six of them correspond to European cosmopolites; six, to Asian species, and three, to unidentified species. While no European earthworms were found on Yuri that is uninhabited since WWII, they dominated on larger and inhabited Kunashir and Shikotan, suggesting that they are recent invaders. Of the six Asian species, five had cox1 sequences identical or very closely related to published sequences from the mainland or the Japanese islands and thus are recent invaders.

  11. Whole genome sequencing analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples collected from the Southern coastal area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baisheng; Yang, Xingfen; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Wang, Haiyan; Chen, Qiuxia; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yonghui

    2018-02-02

    Salmonella enterica serovar Weltevreden is the most common non-typhoid Salmonella found in South and Southeast Asia. It causes zoonoses worldwide through the consumption of contaminated foods and seafood, and is considered as an important food-borne pathogen in China, especially in the Southern coastal area. We compared the whole genomes of 44 S. Weltevreden strains isolated from human stool and contaminated food samples from Southern Coastal China, in order to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and establish their genetic relatedness to known international strains. ResFinder analysis of the draft genomes of isolated strains detected antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in only eight isolates, equivalent to minimum inhibitory concentration assay, and only a few isolates showed resistance to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin or ampicillin. In silico MLST analysis revealed that 43 out of 44 S. Weltevreden strains belonged to sequence type 365 (CC205), the most common sequence type of the serovars. Phylogenetic analysis of the 44 domestic and 26 international isolates suggested that the population of S. Weltevreden could be segregated into six phylogenetic clusters. Cluster I included two strains from food and strains of the "Island Cluster", indicating potential inter-transmission between different countries and regions through foods. The predominant S. Weltevreden isolates obtained from the samples from Southern coastal China were found to be phylogenetically related to strains from Southern East Asia, and formed clusters II-VI. The study has demonstrated that WGS-based analysis may be used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of this bacterium as part of a food-borne disease surveillance program. The methods used are also more widely applicable to other geographical regions and areas and could therefore be useful for improving our understanding of the international spread of S. Weltevreden on a global scale. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  12. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  13. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  14. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  15. Aeromagnetic anomaly images of Vulcano and Southern Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chiappini

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Newly acquired high-resolution, low-altitude aeromagnetic data over Vulcano Island and Southwestern Lipari in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea resolve the major volcanic features in the area associated with the past and present activity. The magnetic character changes in amplitude and frequency from south-east to north-west. The Primordial Vulcano, the Lentia Complex, the Piano Caldera units, the Fossa Caldera deposits, and the currently active La Fossa cone and Vulcanello represent the main volcanic phases on Vulcano Island. They show a distinct magnetic anomaly pattern, whereas prior to this survey, no magnetic signatures of these features were found.

  16. Hydrologic Effects and Biogeographic Impacts of Coastal Fog, Channel Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Fog has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrological cycle in many ecosystems, including coastal desert fog belts, tropical cloud forests, and montane areas worldwide. Fog drip can be a major source of water, particularly during the dry season, and there is evidence in some ecosystems of direct fogwater uptake by foliar absorption. Fog and low clouds can also increase availability of water by reducing evaporative water losses. In the California Channel Islands, fog and low stratus clouds dramatically affect the water budget of coastal vegetation, particularly during the long summer drought. This work focuses on a population of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. This is the southernmost large stand of this species, and tree growth and survival appears to be strongly limited by water availability. We have used parallel measurement and modeling approaches to quantify the importance of fogwater inputs and persistent cloud cover to Bishop pine growth. We have modeled drought stress over the last century based on local climate records, calibrated against a dense network of 12 weather stations on a 7km coastal-inland elevation gradient. Water availability is highly variable year to year, with episodic droughts that are associated with widespread tree mortality. Frequent cloud cover near the coast reduces evapotranspiration relative to the inland site (on the order of 25%), thereby delaying the onset of, and moderating the severity of the annual summer drought. Substantial summer fog drip at higher elevations provides additional water inputs that also reduce drought severity. Beyond the theoretical availability of extra water from fog drip, tree ring analysis and xylem water isotopic data suggest that significant amounts of fog water are actually taken up by these trees. Stand boundaries appear to be driven by spatial patterns of mortality related to water availability and frequency of severe drought. These results suggest that

  17. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g −1 dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g −1 dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ 15 N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ 13 C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults displayed

  18. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ{sup 15}N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ{sup 13}C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults

  19. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    , laurel wilt disease also kills other native trees that are members of the laurel family, including swamp bay (Persea palustris), silk bay (Persea borbonia var. humilis), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as the economically important cultivated avocado (Persea americana) (Fraedrich and others, 2008). This paper is concerned primarily with swamp bay, an important component of Everglades tree islands.The spread of the redbay ambrosia beetle and its fungal symbiont has been very rapid, exceeding model predictions (Koch and Smith, 2008); by 2011, laurel wilt disease was found from the southern coastal plain of North Carolina to southern peninsular Florida. The first redbay ambrosia beetle was trapped in Miami-Dade County in March 2010, and laurel wilt disease was discovered in swamp bays in February 2011 and in commercial avocado groves about a year later (Kendra and others, 2013). By 2013, laurel wilt disease was seen in swamp bays throughout the southern Everglades in Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, and Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 3A and 3B (Rodgers and others, 2014).

  20. Constraining Big Hurricanes: Remotely sensing Galveston Islands' changing coastal landscape from days to millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, A. J.; Choi, J. H.; Heo, S.; Dosseto, A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change models forecast increased storm intensity, which will drive coastal erosion as sea-level rise accelerates with global warming. Over the last five years the largest hurricanes ever recorded in the Pacific (Patricia) and the Atlantic (Irma) occurred as well as the devastation of Harvey. The preceding decade was marked with Super Storm Sandy, Katrina and Ike. A century prior, the deadliest natural disaster in North America occurred as a category 4 hurricane known as `The 1900 Storm' hit Galveston Island. This research aims to contextualize the impact of storms long before infrastructure and historical/scientific accounts documented erosion. Unlike the majority of barrier islands in the US, Galveston built seaward over the Holocene. As the beach prograded it preserved a history of storms and shoreline change over millennia to the present-day. These systems (called prograded barriers) were first studied over 50 years ago using topographic profiles, sediment cores and radiocarbon dating. This research revisits some of these benchmark study sites to augment existing data utilizing state-of-the-art Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques. In 2016 GPR and OSL data were collected from Galveston Island, with the aim to combine GPR, OSL and LiDAR (GOaL) to extract a high-resolution geologic record spanning 6,000 years. The resulting millennia-scale coastal evolution can be used to contextualize the impact of historic hurricanes over the past century (`The 1900 Storm'), decade (Ike in 2008) and year (now with Harvey). Preliminary results reveal a recent change in shoreline behaviour, and data from Harvey are currently being accessed within the perspective of these initial findings. This dataset will be discussed with respect to the other two benchmark prograded barriers studied in North America: Nayarit Barrier (Mexico) that Hurricane Patricia passed directly over in 2013 and

  1. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  2. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am accumulation in an ombrotrophic peatland from Amsterdam Island (Southern Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuxian; Le Roux, Gaël; Sonke, Jeroen; van Beek, Pieter; Souhaut, Marc; Van der Putten, Nathalie; De Vleeschouwer, François

    2017-09-01

    Over the past 50 years, 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 241 Am have been abundantly used in reconstructing recent sediment and peat chronologies. The study of global aerosol-climate interaction is also partially depending on our understanding of 222 Rn- 210 Pb cycling, as radionuclides are useful aerosol tracers. However, in comparison with the Northern Hemisphere, few data are available for these radionuclides in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the South Indian Ocean. A peat core was collected in an ombrotrophic peatland from the remote Amsterdam Island (AMS) and was analyzed for 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 241 Am radionuclides using an underground ultra-low background gamma spectrometer. The 210 Pb Constant Rate of Supply (CRS) model of peat accumulations is validated by peaks of artificial radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 241 Am) that are related to nuclear weapon tests. We compared the AMS 210 Pb data with an updated 210 Pb deposition database. The 210 Pb flux of 98 ± 6 Bq·m -2 ·y -1 derived from the AMS core agrees with data from Madagascar and South Africa. The elevated flux observed at such a remote location may result from the enhanced 222 Rn activity and frequent rainfall in AMS. This enhanced 222 Rn activity itself may be explained by continental air masses passing over southern Africa and/or Madagascar. The 210 Pb flux at AMS is higher than those derived from cores collected in coastal areas in Argentina and Chile, which are areas dominated by marine westerly winds with low 222 Rn activities. We report a 137 Cs inventory at AMS of 144 ± 13 Bq·m -2 (corrected to 1969). Our data thus contribute to the under-represented data coverage in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing Tiban island as tourist destination and sustainable coastal in Bleder village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwanti, Sri; Setiawan, Agung

    2018-05-01

    This study is on tourism development process, which involves the function of local potential tourist attraction confronted to the needs for area natural conservation. The study location is a village called Bleder, or Kartika Jaya, in Patebon sub district, Kendal regency CentralJjava. The research unit is the management of a sandy island called “pulau tiban”or ‘suddenly appears island’, and village’s surrounding area. Qualitative methods approach is utilized in order to understand the village situation, community social economy activities toward the sandy island, and the meaning of thatt sandy island for the village sustainability. The study result shows that some problems have evident in the exploitation of natural potential for tourist attraction as confronted to environment conservation. Conflict of interests have also emerged among groups of people and group to group regarding the management of turism attraction. To deal with the problems, comprehensive program is proposed especially to increase community’s awareness on sustainable tourism, marine and coastal conservation, and the benefit and risk of ecotourism. For Bleder tourism development, the community need to concern to their village environmental safety more than on economic benefit purpose only. Introduction

  5. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work deal with the environmental assessment of Tarut Island Coastal area. • Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been chemically analyzed. • Thirteen major and trace metals have been recorded. • The area of study is highly polluted with Arsenic and Mercury. - Abstract: Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area

  6. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  7. Hydrological and Oceanographic Considerations for Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Southern Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman; Kjerfve

    1999-09-01

    / The objectives of this study are to: (1) characterize the meteorology and hydrology of the Maya Mountain-Marine Area Transect in southern Belize, (2) employ a simple water balance model to examine the discharge rates of seven watersheds to Port Honduras, (3) test the validity of the hydrological model, (4) explore the implications of potential landscape and hydrological alterations, and (5) examine the value of protected areas. The southern coastal portion of the study area is classified as wet tropical forest and the remainder as moist tropical forest. Rainfall is 3000-4000 mm annually. Resulting annual freshwater discharge directly into Port Honduras is calculated at 2.5 x 10(9) m3, a volume equal to the basin. During the rainy season, June-September, 84% of the annual discharge occurs, which causes the bay to become brackish. Port Honduras serves as an important nursery ground for many species of commercially important fish and shellfish. The removal of forest cover in the uplands, as a result of agriculture, aquaculture, and village development, is likely to significantly accelerate erosion. Increased erosion would reduce soil fertility in the uplands and negatively affect mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef productivity in the receiving coastal embayment. Alternatively, the conservation of an existing protected areas corridor, linking the Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea, is likely to enhance regional sustainable economic development. This study aims to support environmental management at the scale of the "ecoscape"-a sensible ecological unit of linked watersheds and coastal and marine environments.KEY WORDS: Ecosystem management; Coastal zone management; Belize; Hydrologyhttp://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/journals/00267/bibs/24n2p229.html

  8. Population Structure of Acanthaster Planci on the Reef Flat at the Southern Part of Bunaken Island

    OpenAIRE

    Napitupulu, Patritia; Tioho, Hanny; Windarto, Agung

    2013-01-01

    The information on population structure of Acanthaster planci in Bunaken National Park (BNP) is urgent to be presented in order to be considered in decision making especially on coral reef management in BNP. The objectives of this study was to examine the population structure of A. planci, represented by the diameter and weight, number of arms, while the density, distribution and types of coral predation by reef animals in the Southern part of Bunaken Island also observed. Data were collect...

  9. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  10. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Variability From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gilmer, G. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Dagg, B. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L. G.; Aebig, C.; McGlone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid latitude climate and carbon dioxide exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere. Despite their importance, our understanding of past changes in the SHWW is limited by few paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum that are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S) where the ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and middle latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate results from two research cruises in 2014 and 2015 suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. In ombrotrophic peatlands, hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow reconstructions of the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, which is related to precipitation source area and the latitudinal position of the SHWW. Using macrofossil counts paired with abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at peatland coring sites. Early results indicate an overall strengthening of the SHWW at the Auckland Islands through the Holocene. We will discuss these results within the context of complimentary records developed from New Zealand and southern South America to ultimately

  11. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulekha Rao, N.; Sengupta, D.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation of radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 μSv h -1 and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  12. Seasonal levels of radon and thoron in the dwellings along southern coastal Orissa, Eastern India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulekha Rao, N [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India)], E-mail: dsgg@gg.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2010-01-15

    Inhalation of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and thoron ({sup 220}Rn) are a major source of natural radiation exposure. Indoor radon-thoron study has been carried out in some dwellings of Ganjam district, southern coastal Orissa, India using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. Seasonal variation of indoor radon and thoron shows high values in winter and low values in both summer and rainy. The inhalation dose lies in the range of 0-0.06 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} and is not high from those found elsewhere in India.

  13. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  14. 10Be application to soil development on Marion Island, southern Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussmann, N.; Aldahan, A.; Boelhouwers, J.; Possnert, G.

    2010-01-01

    Marion Island, located in the southern Indian Ocean, constitutes the summit of an active shield volcano. It is a small terrestrial environment where glacially abraded bedrock became exposed c x 10 kyr ago. These conditions provide an interesting possibility for the assessment of 10 Be accumulation rates and their application to soil erosion studies on the island. 10 Be concentrations were measured in precipitation, soil profiles and an Azorella selago cushion plant. The data reveal a 10 Be precipitation flux several times higher than model prediction. Estimation of the 10 Be accumulation based on the soil inventory suggests a span between 2000 and 7000 yr. This time span is not in accordance with the accepted notion that the island was covered with ice about 10,000 yr ago and suggests either removal of 10 Be from the soil profile, an overestimated Holocene 10 Be-flux or a delayed soil development history. Our results provide new data on 10 Be concentrations from the sub-Antarctic islands and contribute towards enlarging the southern-hemisphere 10 Be database.

  15. LiDAR Mapping of Earthquake Uplifted Paleo-shorelines, Southern Wairarapa Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Angenent, J.; Marshall, J. S.; Clark, K.; Litchfield, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Pronounced forearc uplift occurs at the southern end of the margin along the Wairarapa coast, onshore of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. Along a narrow coastal lowland, a series of uplifted Holocene marine terraces and beach ridges preserve a geologic record of prehistoric coseismic uplift events. In January 2017, we participated in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program of the NSF SHIRE Project (Subduction at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment). We visited multiple coastal sites for reconnaissance fieldwork to select locations for future in-depth study. For the coastline between Flat Point and Te Kaukau Point, we used airborne LiDAR data provided by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) to create ArcGIS digital terrain models for mapping and correlating uplifted paleo-shorelines. Terrace elevations derived from the LiDAR data were calibrated through the use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying at one field site (Glenburn Station). Prior field mapping and radiocarbon dating results (Berryman et al., 2001; Litchfield and Clark, 2015) were used to guide our LiDAR mapping efforts. The resultant maps show between four and seven uplifted terraces and associated beach ridges along this coastal segment. At some sites, terrace mapping and lateral correlation are impeded by discontinuous exposures and the presence of landslide debris, alluvial fan deposits, and sand dunes. Tectonic uplift along the southern Hikurangi margin is generated by a complex interaction between deep megathrust slip and shallow upper-plate faulting. Each uplifted Holocene paleo-shoreline is interpreted to represent a single coseismic uplift event. Continued mapping, surveying, and age dating may help differentiate between very large margin-wide megathrust earthquakes (M8.0-9.0+) and

  16. The Glacial and Relative Sea Level History of Southern Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica Megan

    The mapping and dating of surficial glacial landforms and sediments across southern Banks Island document glaciation by the northwest Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the last glacial maximum. Geomorphic landforms confirm the operation of an ice stream at least 1000 m thick in Amundsen Gulf that was coalescent with thin, cold-based ice crossing the island's interior, both advancing offshore onto the polar continental shelf. Raised marine shorelines across western and southern Banks Island are barren, recording early withdrawal of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream prior to the resubmergence of Bering Strait and the re-entry of Pacific molluscs ~13,750 cal yr BP. This withdrawal resulted in a loss of ~60,000 km2 of ice --triggering drawdown from the primary northwest LIS divide and instigating changes in subsequent ice flow. The Jesse moraine belt on eastern Banks Island records a lateglacial stillstand and/or readvance of Laurentide ice in Prince of Wales Strait (13,750 -- 12,750 cal yr BP). Fossiliferous raised marine sediments that onlap the Jesse moraine belt constrain final deglaciation to ~12,600 cal yr BP, a minimum age for the breakup of the Amundsen Gulf Ice Stream. The investigation of a 30 m thick and 6 km wide stratigraphic sequence at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, identifies an advance of the ancestral LIS during the Mid-Pleistocene (sensu lato), substantially diversifying the glacial record on Banks Island. Glacial ice emplaced during this advance has persisted through at least two glacial-interglacial cycles, demonstrating the resilience of circumpolar permafrost. Pervasive deformation of the stratigraphic sequence also records a detailed history of glaciotectonism in proglacial and subglacial settings that can result from interactions between cold-based ice and permafrost terrain. This newly recognized history rejects the long-established paleoenvironmental model of Worth Point that assumed a simple 'layer-cake' stratigraphy.

  17. Distribution of birds and plants at the western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Islands in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Flesch; Lisa A. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    The western and southern edges of the Madrean Sky Island region are poorly defined and have received little study. After exploring mountains in these areas, we documented range extensions and additional records for several species of interest. Although many of these disjunct mountains have not been considered Sky Islands, their flora and fauna are similar to other...

  18. Tsunami Stratigraphy in a Coastal Salt Pond, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P.; Browning, T. N.; Brooks, G.; Larson, R. A.; Cook, A.; Sawyer, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Caribbean has significant exposure to tsunamis from multiple sources, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and landslides. Due to the limited historical record in the region, paleotsunami deposits provide important information about the size, location, and sources of these events. In turn, these data inform the public and policymakers about the tsunamigenic threat to their communities. A key challenge is that tsunami deposits are often poorly preserved. However, a good candidate for high preservation potential are coastal salt ponds commonly found on the perimeter of tropical islands. The US Virgin Islands has both high susceptibility to tsunamis and large, low lying salt ponds. The most prominent historical example of a tsunami in the US Virgin Islands is the 1867 event which caused widespread devastation throughout the region, including Puerto Rico. One of the hardest hit locations was Frederiksted, on the western end of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands with 7m runups that beached the USS Monongahela. Frederiksted is also in close proximity to a large coastal salt pond. We targeted this, and older, events by collecting a series of sediment cores at four sites in the salt pond during a summer 2017 field campaign. At each location we acquired a 3" aluminum core and a 4" acrylic companion core to core refusal, which most often occurred at a impenetrable horizon. Maximum core recovery was .79m and the average was .54m. Each 4" core was extruded in 1cm intervals and used to determine grain size, total carbon content, and age dating via radioisotope dating. The 3" core was scanned in a X-Ray CT Lab, split, described, and samples from key layers were targeted for detailed sedimentological analyses. The defining stratigraphic sequence is fine-grained muds interspersed with coarse-grained units that exhibit a fining-upwards trend and contained a variety of marine debris, which we infer to represent tsunami or tropical storm event deposits. However, each core did not exhibit

  19. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  20. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  1. Synchronization of Long Ocean Waves by Coastal Relief on the Southeast Shelf of Sakhalin Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Dmitry P.; Kovalev, Peter D.

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of synchronization (trapping) of coming waves by the resonant water area in a coastal zone of the sea found from the observed data is considered in the paper. Edge waves with the period of about 10.7 minutes are visually observed in sea level fluctuations near the village of Okhotskoye and the cape Ostri on the southeast coast of Sakhalin Island. These waves are synchronized with the resonance water area. It becomes apparent from the unlimited increase of a phase between the bottom stations installed at distance of about 7.5km. In relation to the phenomenon found, the problem of weak and periodic impact on regular self-oscillatory system — Van der Paul’s oscillator — is considered. Good compliance between theoretical model and data of experiments is obtained.

  2. Satellite Remote Sensing Detection of Coastal Pollution in Southern California: Stormwater Runoff and Wastewater Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Gierach, M.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal pollution poses a major health and environmental hazard, not only for beach goers and coastal communities but for marine organisms as well. Stormwater runoff is the largest source of environmental pollution in coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) and is of great concern in increasingly urbanized areas. Buoyant wastewater plumes also pose a marine environmental risk. In this study we provide a comprehensive overview of satellite remote sensing capabilities in detecting buoyant coastal pollutants in the form of stormwater runoff and wastewater effluent. The SCB is the final destination of four major urban rivers that act as channels for runoff and pollution during and after rainstorms. We analyzed and compared sea surface roughness data from various Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments to ocean color data from the Moderate Imaging System (MODIS) sensor on board the Aqua satellite and correlated the results with existing environmental data in order to create a climatology of naturally occurring stormwater plumes in coastal waters after rain events, from 1992 to 2014 from four major rivers in the area. Heat maps of the primary extent of stormwater plumes were constructed to specify areas that may be subject to the greatest risk of coastal contamination. In conjunction with our efforts to monitor coastal pollution and validate the abilities of satellite remote sensing, a recent Fall 2015 wastewater diversion from the City of Los Angeles Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) provided the opportunity to apply these remote sensing methodologies of plume detection to wastewater. During maintenance of their 5-mile long outfall pipe, wastewater is diverted to a shorter outfall pipe that terminates 1-mile offshore and in shallower waters. Sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (chl-a) fluorescence, remote sensing reflectance and particulate backscatter signatures were analyzed from MODIS. Terra-ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal infrared data were also

  3. Earthquakes in southern Dalmatia and coastal Montenegro before the large 6 April 1667 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Rovida, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    The fourteenth to seventeenth century seismicity of southern Dalmatia (Croatia) and coastal Montenegro deserved to be fully reappraised because of the ascertained imperfect knowledge offered by modern seismological studies and of the awareness of the smokescreen effect due to the large 6 April 1667 M 6.4 earthquake that impacted exactly the area of study. The investigation consisted of (i) a reconsideration of earthquake records made available by previous studies and (ii) a systematic analysis of historical sources contemporary to the earthquakes, especially those not yet taken into account in seismological studies. The 168 contemporary and independent records collected cast a different light on more than 300 years of seismicity of this area. Records are reckoned to be unevenly distributed among the 39 studied earthquakes, out of which 15 still rely upon a single testimony. Each record has been reevaluated with respect to its content and attributed a level of reliability, which for those reporting other 14 events was so low to prevent us from confirming their real occurrence. Completely unreliable records have been identified and discussed, to conclude that they are at the root of five fake earthquakes. Altogether, 34 intensity values in EMS-98 were assessed related to 15 moderate and five damaging earthquakes. Existing and newly obtained data contributed to putting the pre-1667 seismicity of southern Dalmatia and coastal Montenegro into a substantially different perspective.

  4. A Geochemical Comparison of the Northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith in Southern California and the Coastal Batholith in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, B. L.; Martínez Ardila, A. M.; Morton, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    An extensive geochemical data set from the northern Peninsular Ranges Batholith (PRB) in southern California is compared and contrasted with the Arequipa segment of the Peruvian Coastal Batholith, including new granitoid samples recently collected near Ica (14°S, 76°W). The data include major and trace elements and Sr isotope ratios. This is part of an on-going study of subduction-related magmatism to refine a petrogenetic model of crust formation at plate boundaries, with a particular interest in the role of magma mixing. Research in the northern PRB suggests that continental crust is formed in several cycles: (1) mantle melting to give mafic volcanics and gabbroic intrusives, (2) basalt/gabbro melting to give felsic granitoids uncontaminated by continental crust and having low initial 87Sr/86Sr (Sri) values less than 0.704, and (3) crustal melting to give high Sri values greater than 0.704. Geochemical evidence was used to determine the extent of mixing between mafic and felsic magma that produced rocks of intermediate SiO2 composition. These differentiation cycles formed a west to east chronologic sequence and yielded granitoids of gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite composition. Using principal component analysis on the northern PRB granitoids, the four factors affecting geochemical composition were categorized as differentiation, crustal contamination, depth of magma source, and conditions that yield a range from calcic to more alkaline granitoids. A similar major and trace element analysis is being done for a classic result of subduction in the Peruvian Coastal Batholith. The Peruvian samples recently collected include granitoids of the upper Cretaceous Coastal Batholith, as well as the associated volcanics of Cretaceous and Jurassic age. The Coastal Batholith samples include a range of granitoids from the early gabbros and from the four batholithic super-units (from west to east: Linga, Pampahuasi, Tiabaya, and Incahuasi) containing a combination of diorite

  5. Seawater and Freshwater Circulations through Coastal Forested Wetlands on a Caribbean Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lambs

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure and composition of coastal forested wetlands are mainly controlled by local topography and soil salinity. Hydrology plays a major role in relation with tides, seaward, and freshwater inputs, landward. We report here the results of a two-year study undertaken in a coastal plain of the Guadeloupe archipelago (FWI. As elsewhere in the Caribbean islands, the study area is characterized by a micro-tidal regime and a highly seasonal climate. This work aimed at understanding groundwater dynamics and origin (seawater/freshwater both at ecosystems and stand levels. These hydrological processes were assessed through 18O/16O and 2H/1H isotopic analyses, and from monthly monitoring of water level and soil salinity at five study sites located in mangrove (3 and swamp forest (2. Our results highlight the importance of freshwater budget imbalance during low rainfall periods. Sustained and/or delayed dry seasons cause soil salinity to rise at the mangrove/swamp forest ecotone. As current models on climate change project decreasing rainfall amounts over the inner Caribbean region, one may expect for this area an inland progression of the mangrove forest to the expense of the nearby swamp forest.

  6. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  7. Reconstructing Environmental Changes of a Coastal Lagoon with Coral Reefs in Southeastern Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Liang; GAO Shu; GAO Jianhua; ZHAO Yangyang; HAN Zhuochen; YANG Yang; JIA Peihong

    2017-01-01

    Coastal lagoons with small catchment basins are highly sensitive to natural processes and anthropogenic activities.To figure out the environmental changes of a coastal lagoon and its contribution to carbon burial,two sediment cores were collected in Xincun Lagoon,southeastern Hainan Island and 210pb activities,grain size parameters,total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen (TN),total inorganic carbon (TIC) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were measured.The results show that in 1770-1815,the decreasing water exchange capacity with outer open water,probably caused by the shifting and narrowing of the tidal inlet,not only diminished the currents and fined the sediments in the lagoon,but also reduced the organic matter of marine sources.From 1815 to 1950,the sedimentary environment of Xincun Lagoon was frequently influenced by storm events.These extreme events resulted in the high fluctuation of sediment grain size and sorting,as well as the great variation in contributions of terrestrial (higher plants,soils) and marine sources (phytoplankton,algae,seagrass).The extremely high content of TIC,compared to TOC before 1950 could be attributed to the large-scale coverage of coral reefs.However,with the boost of seawater aquaculture activities after 1970,the health growth of coral species was severely threatened,and corresponding production and inorganic carbon burial flux reduced.The apparent enhanced inorganic carbon burial rate after 1990 might result from the concomitant carbonate debris produced by seawater aquaculture.This result is important for local government long-term coastal management and environmental planning.

  8. Attitudinal Factors and Personal Characteristics Influence Support for Shellfish Aquaculture in Rhode Island (US) Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Tracey M; Jin, Di

    2018-05-01

    This study explores public interests associated with shellfish aquaculture development in coastal waters of Rhode Island (US). Specifically, we examine (1) the levels of public support for (or opposition to) shellfish aquaculture development and (2) factors driving the levels of support, using survey data and ordinal logistic regressions. Results of the analysis identify several key attitudinal factors affecting individual's support for shellfish aquaculture in Rhode Island (RI). The level of support is positively associated with attitudes related to shellfish aquaculture's benefits to the local economy and its role as a nutritional food option, and negatively influenced by attitudes related to aquaculture farms' effects on aesthetic quality and their interference with other uses. Findings highlight that support for (or opposition to) aquaculture in RI is driven more by attitudes associated with social impacts than by those associated with environmental impacts. The level of support is also affected by personal characteristics related to an individual's participation in recreational activities. For instance, bicycle riders tend to be supportive of shellfish aquaculture while respondents who participate in sailing and birding are less supportive. By identifying the broader public's interests in shellfish aquaculture, findings from this study and others like it can be used to address public concerns, incorporate public perceptions and attitudes into permitting decisions, and develop outreach targeted at specific stakeholder groups.

  9. New insight into defining the lakes of the southern Baltic coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśliński, Roman; Olszewska, Alicja

    2018-01-29

    There exist many classification systems of hydrographic entities such as lakes found along the coastlines of seas and oceans. Each system has its advantages and can be used with some success in the area of protection and management. This paper aims to evaluate whether the studied lakes are only coastal lakes or rather bodies of water of a completely different hydrological and hydrochemical nature. The attempt to create a new classification system of Polish coastal lakes is related to the incompleteness of lake information in existing classifications. Thus far, the most frequently used are classifications based solely on lake basin morphogenesis or hydrochemical properties. The classifications in this paper are based not only on the magnitude of lake water salinity or hydrochemical analysis but also on isolation from the Baltic Sea and other sources of water. The key element of the new classification system for coastal bodies of water is a departure from the existing system used to classify lakes in Poland and the introduction of ion-"tracking" methods designed to identify anion and cation distributions in each body of water of interest. As a result of the work, a new classification of lakes of the southern Baltic Sea coastal zone was created. Featured objects such as permanently brackish lakes, brackish lakes that may turn into freshwater lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that may turn into brackish lakes from time to time, freshwater lakes that experience low levels of salinity due to specific incidents, and permanently freshwater lakes. The authors have adopted 200 mg Cl -  dm -3 as a maximum value of lake water salinity. There are many conditions that determine the membership of a lake to a particular group, but the most important is the isolation lakes from the Baltic Sea. Changing a condition may change the classification of a lake.

  10. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  11. Coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea: Variability of the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Ian A.; King, John C.; Markus, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The surface energy budget of coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea has been evaluated for the period 1992-1998 using a combination of satellite observations, meteorological data, and simple physical models. The study focuses on polynyas that habitually form off the Ronne Ice Shelf. The coastal polynya areal data are derived from an advanced multichannel polynya detection algorithm applied to passive microwave brightness temperatures. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are calculated via a fetch-dependent model of the convective-thermal internal boundary layer. The radiative fluxes are calculated using well-established empirical formulae and an innovative cloud model. Standard meteorological variables that are required for the flux calculations are taken from automatic weather stations and from the National Centers for Environmental Production/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses. The 7 year surface energy budget shows an overall oceanic warming due to the presence of coastal polynyas. For most of the period the summertime oceanic warming, due to the absorption of shortwave radiation, is approximately in balance with the wintertime oceanic cooling. However, the anomalously large summertime polynya of 1997-1998 allowed a large oceanic warming of the region. Wintertime freezing seasons are characterized by episodes of high heat fluxes interspersed with more quiescent periods and controlled by coastal polynya dynamics. The high heat fluxes are primarily due to the sensible heat flux component, with smaller complementary latent and radiative flux components. The average freezing season area-integrated energy exchange is 3.48 × 1019 J, with contributions of 63, 22, and 15% from the sensible, latent, and radiative components, respectively. The average melting season area-integrated energy exchange is -5.31 × 1019 J, almost entirely due to the radiative component. There is considerable interannual variability in the surface energy budget

  12. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marites B. Sanguila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion.

  13. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  14. Boulder coastal deposits at Favignana Island rocky coast (Sicily, Italy): Litho-structural and hydrodynamic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Fabrizio; Corradino, Marta; Parrino, Nicolò; Besio, Giovanni; Presti, Valeria Lo; Renda, Pietro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Quarta, Gianluca; Sulli, Attilio; Antonioli, Fabrizio

    2018-02-01

    Boulders are frequently dislodged from rock platforms, transported and deposited along coastal zones by high-magnitude storm waves or tsunamis. Their size and shape are often controlled by the thickness of bedding planes as well as by high-angle to bedding fracture network. We investigate these processes along two coastal areas of Favignana Island by integrating geological data for 81 boulders, 49 rupture surfaces (called sockets) and fracture orientation and spacing with four radiocarbon dates, numerical hydrodynamic analysis, and hindcast numerical simulation data. Boulders are scattered along the carbonate platform as isolated blocks or in small groups, which form, as a whole, a discontinuous berm. Underwater surveys also highlight free boulders with sharp edges and sockets carved out in the rock platform. Boulders are composed of ruditic- to arenitic-size clastic carbonates. Their size ranges from 0.6 to 3.7 m, 0.55 to 2.4 m, and 0.2 to 1 m on the major (A), medium (B), and minor (C) axes, respectively. The highest value of mass estimation is 12.5 t. Almost all of boulders and sockets are characterized by a tabular or bladed shape. The comparisons between a) the fractures spacing and the length of A- and B-axes, and b) the frequency peaks of C-axis with the recurrent thickness of beds measured along the coastal zone demonstrate the litho-structural control in the size and shape of joint-bounded boulders. These comparisons, together with the similarity between the shapes of the boulders and those of the sockets as well as between the lithology of boulders and the areas surrounding the sockets, suggest that blocks originate by detachment from the platform edge. Thus, the most common pre-transport setting is the joint-bounded scenario. Hydrodynamic equations estimate that the storm wave heights necessary to initiate the transport of blocks diverge from 2 m to 8 m for joint-bounded boulders and from few tens of centimeters up to 11 m for submerged boulders. The

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne

  16. Volcanism, Iron, and Phytoplankton in the Heard and McDonald Islands Region, Southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Trull, T. W.; Heobi in2016 v01 Shipboard Party, T.

    2016-12-01

    Phytoplankton supply approximately half of the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, and iron supply limits the growth of phytoplankton in the anemic Southern Ocean. Situated entirely within the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean are Australia's only active subaerial volcanoes, Heard and McDonald islands (HIMI) on the central Kerguelen Plateau, a large igneous province. Widespread fields of submarine volcanoes, some of which may be active, extend for distances of up to several hundred kilometers from the islands. The predominantly eastward-flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current sweeps across the central Kerguelen Plateau, and extensive blooms of phytoplankton are observed on the Plateau down-current of HIMI. The goal of RV Investigator voyage IN2016_V01, conducted in January/February 2016, is to test the hypothesis that hydrothermal fluids, which cool active submarine volcanoes in the HIMI region, ascend from the seafloor and fertilise surface waters with iron, thereby enhancing biological productivity beginning with phytoplankton. Significant initial shipboard results include: Documentation, for the first time, of the role of active HIMI and nearby submarine volcanoes in supplying iron to the Southern Ocean. Nearshore waters had elevated dissolved iron levels. Although biomass was not correspondingly elevated, fluorescence induction data indicated highly productive resident phytoplankton. Discovery of >200 acoustic plumes emanating from the seafloor and ascending up to tens of meters into the water column near HIMI. Deep tow camera footage shows bubbles rising from the seafloor in an acoustic plume field north of Heard Island. Mapping 1,000 km2 of uncharted seafloor around HIMI. Submarine volcanic edifices punctuate the adjacent seafloor, and yielded iron-rich rocks similar to those found on HIMI, respectively. Acoustic plumes emanating from some of these features suggest active seafloor hydrothermal systems.

  17. Ichthyoplankton in the neritic and coastal zone of Antarctica and Subantarctic islands: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubbi, Philippe; Duhamel, Guy; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Beans, Cristina; Loots, Christophe; Pruvost, Patrice; Tavernier, Eric; Vacchi, Marino; Vallet, Carole

    2009-11-01

    Since the article published by Loeb et al. [Loeb, V.J., Kellermann, A., Koubbi, P., North, A.W., White, M., 1993. Antarctic larval fish assemblages: a review. Bull. Mar. Sci. 53(2), 416-449.] about Antarctic ichthyoplankton, many surveys were carried out in different sectors of the Southern Ocean focusing on different aspects of the ecology of fish larvae. Some of these researches were conducted in the Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands and others on the continental shelf off Terre Adélie and Georges V land. Oceanographic and geographic features influence fish larvae ecology such as island mass effects, gyres, canyons. Antarctic fishes show also temporal segregation of spawning which induces temporal succession of early stage larvae. This avoids competition and probably the predation on early stages for species having few recruits. In that case, we have to understand how these larvae can deal with the match-mismatch with their preys and how they find sufficient food to survive. But our knowledge on Antarctic fish larvae is still insufficient as we do not know larvae for quite a lot of species and because of the difficulty to sample during winter.

  18. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  19. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.

  20. The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

    2012-04-01

    The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  2. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  3. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.; Caravaca, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cadiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided.

  4. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Long Island Sound, Jamaica Bay, and Lower Bay of NY/NJ Harbor, NY, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0089467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the coastal Long Island Sound, NY region in GIS shapefile (.shp, .dbf, .shx, and .prj...

  5. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  6. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  7. Temporal annual changes of 210Po concentrations in coastal seawater at Kyushu Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachyov, S.; Maeda, Y.; Momoshima, N.

    2001-01-01

    Polonium-210 ( 210 Po, T 1/2 =138.4 d) arises from the decay of 210 Pb (T 1/2 =22.3 yr) via intermediary 210 Bi (T 1/2 =5.03 d). Virtually, all of 210 Po in seawater is originated by in situ decay of 210 Pb, which in turn originated due to in situ decay of 226 Ra, and decay of 222 Rn in the sea and in the atmosphere followed by deposition. In seawater, 210 Po is considered an insoluble element, therefore the concentration of dissolved 210 Po is very low. The concentration levels of 210 Po in marine environmental samples are well documented, however, scanty information is available about long-scale 210 Po behavior in open oceans and/or coastal seawater. Few studies have quantified temporal variation of 210 Po concentrations with relation to environmental parameters and seasonality. Nevertheless, seasonal detail allows us to make inferences about what geochemical parameters can effected on 210 Po behavior in the marine environment that will obviously improve our present understanding of the rates and mechanisms of 210 Po scavenging from seawater column. This paper presents the results of annual observation of 210 Po concentration in the coastal seawater at Kyushu Island (Japan). Besides the 210 Po concentrations, concentration of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), which is generally used as an indicator of plankton activity, fluctuations of loaded suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration (C p ) and monthly rainfall collected at the place close to the sampling area were examined to confirm if their behavior mirrors that of 210 Po. (author)

  8. Evaluation of reproductive endocrine status in hornyhead turbot sampled from Southern California's urbanized coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jesus A; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris E; Schlenk, Daniel; Bay, Steven M; Armstrong, Jeffrey L; Gully, Joseph R; Cash, Curtis; Baker, Michael; Stebbins, Timothy D; Hardiman, Gary; Kelley, Kevin M

    2012-12-01

    As part of a regionwide collaboration to determine the occurrence of contaminants and biological effects in coastal ecosystems offshore of urban southern California, the present study characterized the reproductive endocrinology of an indigenous flatfish, the hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis), and compared groups sampled from different study sites representing varying degrees of pollution to screen for potential endocrine disruptive effects. Turbot were sampled from locations near the coastal discharge sites of four large municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, USA, and were compared with fish sampled from three far-field reference locations in the region. Despite environmental presence of both legacy contaminants and contaminants of emerging concern and evidence for fish exposure to several classes of contaminants, both males and females generally exhibited coordinated seasonal reproductive cycles at all study sites. Patterns observed included peaks in sex steroids (17β-estradiol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone) in the spring and low levels in the fall, changes corresponding to similarly timed gonadal changes and plasma vitellogenin concentrations in females. Comparisons between fish captured at the different study sites demonstrated some regional differences in plasma levels of estrogens and androgens, indicative of location-associated effects on the endocrine system. The observed differences, however, could not be linked to the ocean discharge locations of four of the largest WWTPs in the world. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Mercury concentration variability in the zooplankton of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella

    2017-12-01

    Being a toxic element, mercury is introduced to the human organism through the consumption of fish and seafood, which in turn often feed on zooplankton. The bioaccumulation of Hg by zooplankton is an important factor influencing the magnitude of the mercury load introduced with food into the predator organism. Therefore the present article attempts to identify the processes and factors influencing Hg concentration in the zooplankton of the coastal zone, an area where marine organisms - an attractive food source for humans - thrive. This is particularly important in areas where climate changes influence the species composition and quantity of plankton. The studies were carried out on three test sites in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea in the period from December 2011 to May 2013. The obtained results show that the shorting of the winter season is conducive to Hg increase in zooplankton and, consequently, in the trophic chain. High mercury concentrations were measured in genus Synchaeta and Keratella when Mesodinium rubrum were predominant in phytoplankton, while other sources of this metal in the plankton fauna were epilithon, epiphton and microbenthos. This is of particular importance when it comes to sheltered bays and estuaries with low water dynamics.

  10. Elemental and organic carbon in aerosols over urbanized coastal region (southern Baltic Sea, Gdynia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna; Murawiec, Dominika; Pryputniewicz, Dorota; Burska, Dorota; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2010-09-15

    Studies on PM 10, total particulate matter (TSP), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations were carried out in the Polish coastal zone of the Baltic Sea, in urbanized Gdynia. The interaction between the land, the air and the sea was clearly observed. The highest concentrations of PM 10, TSP and both carbon fractions were noted in the air masses moving from southern and western Poland and Europe. The EC was generally of primary origin and its contribution to TSP and PM 10 mass was on average 2.3% and 3.7% respectively. Under low wind speed conditions local sources (traffic and industry) influenced increases in elemental carbon and PM 10 concentrations in Gdynia. Elemental carbon demonstrated a pronounced weekly cycle, yielding minimum values at the weekend and maximum values on Thursdays. The role of harbors and ship yards in creating high EC concentrations was clearly observed. Concentration of organic carbon was ten times higher than that of elemental carbon, and the average OC contribution to PM 10 mass was very high (31.6%). An inverse situation was observed when air masses were transported from over the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. These clean air masses were characterized by the lowest concentrations of all analysed compounds. Obtained results for organic and elemental carbon fluxes showed that atmospheric aerosols can be treated, along with water run-off, as a carbon source for the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The enrichment of surface water was more effective in the case of organic carbon (0.27+/-0.19 mmol m(-2) d(-1)). Elemental carbon fluxes were one order of magnitude smaller, on average 0.03+/-0.04 mmol m(-2) d(-1). We suggest that in some situations atmospheric carbon input can explain up to 18% of total carbon fluxes into the Baltic coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Probabilistic Forecasting of Coastal Morphodynamic Storm Response at Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Adams, P. N.; Hapke, C. J.; Lentz, E. E.; Brenner, O.

    2013-12-01

    Site-specific probabilistic models of shoreline change are useful because they are derived from direct observations so that local factors, which greatly influence coastal response, are inherently considered by the model. Fire Island, a 50-km barrier island off Long Island, New York, is periodically subject to large storms, whose waves and storm surge dramatically alter beach morphology. Nor'Ida, which impacted the Fire Island coast in 2009, was one of the larger storms to occur in the early 2000s. In this study, we improve upon a Bayesian Network (BN) model informed with historical data to predict shoreline change from Nor'Ida. We present two BN models, referred to as 'original' model (BNo) and 'revised' model (BNr), designed to predict the most probable magnitude of net shoreline movement (NSM), as measured at 934 cross-shore transects, spanning 46 km. Both are informed with observational data (wave impact hours, shoreline and dune toe change rates, pre-storm beach width, and measured NSM) organized within five nodes, but the revised model contains a sixth node to represent the distribution of material added during an April 2009 nourishment project. We evaluate model success by examining the percentage of transects on which the model chooses the correct (observed) bin value of NSM. Comparisons of observed to model-predicted NSM show BNr has slightly higher predictive success over the total study area and significantly higher success at nourished locations. The BNo, which neglects anthropogenic modification history, correctly predicted the most probable NSM in 66.6% of transects, with ambiguous prediction at 12.7% of the locations. BNr, which incorporates anthropogenic modification history, resulted in 69.4% predictive accuracy and 13.9% ambiguity. However, across nourished transects, BNr reported 72.9% predictive success, while BNo reported 61.5% success. Further, at nourished transects, BNr reported higher ambiguity of 23.5% compared to 9.9% in BNo. These results

  12. Weddellian marine/coastal vertebrates diversity from a basal horizon (Ypresian, Eocene of the Cucullaea I Allomember, La Meseta formation, Seymour (Marambio Island, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Reguero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Meseta Formation crops out in Seymour/Marambio Island, Weddell Sea, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula and contains one of the world's most diverse assemblages of Weddellian marine/coastal verte-brates of Early Eocene (Ypresian age. The La Meseta Formation is composed of poorly consolidated, marine sandstones and siltstones which were deposited in a coastal, deltaic and/or estuarine environment. It includes marine invertebrates and vertebrates as well as terrestrial vertebrates and plants. The highly fossiliferous basal horizon (Cucullaeashell bed, Telm 4 of Sadler 1988 of the CucullaeaI Allomember is a laterally extensive shell bed with sandy matrix. The fish remains, including 35 species from 26 families, of the Ypresian Cucullaeabed represent one of the most abundant and diverse fossil vertebrate faunas yet recorded in southern latitudes. Stratigraphic distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the Weddellian sphenisciforms are consistent with a first radiation of this group in the Early Eocene. The first inquestionable archaeocete from Antarctica is recorded in this unit and is referred to a new taxon.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Field Physico-Chemical Parameters in the Vulcano Island (Italy) Coastal Aquifer: Volcanological and Hydrogeological Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Madonia; Giorgio Capasso; Rocco Favara; Salvatore Francofonte; Paolo Tommasi

    2015-01-01

    Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy), is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has never been developed due to the lack of direct information about the litho-stratigraphic columns of the wells and the depth of water bearing levels. We present and discuss here the ...

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography-Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 8, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the

  15. A new Scleromystax species (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from coastal rivers of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. Britto

    Full Text Available The recently resurrected callichthyid catfish genus Scleromystax includes species occurring in several Brazilian coastal river basins from southern Bahia to southern Santa Catarina. Several character states, especially those related to sexual dimorphism, demonstrate the monophyly of Scleromystax. Examination of Scleromystax specimens sampled from streams in the Ilha de Santa Catarina and Nova Veneza, and the rio Mampituba basin, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul States, revealed that they constitute a new taxon, and thus the southernmost record for the genus. Scleromystax salmacis, new species, has coloration similar to that of S. macropterus, differing from that species mainly by the absence of a black spot on the base of the median caudal-fin rays, and transverse blotches along the body more irregular than those in S. macropterus. In addition to differences in coloration and external and osteological characters, the new species differs from S. barbatus and S. prionotos by its more rounded snout. The new taxon is also distinguished from its congeners by the presence of a single perforated dorsolateral body plate, similar to the condition found in some Aspidoras species, orientation of the ventral keel of the scapulocoracoid, and by the absence of sexually dimorphic features.

  16. A Multiproxy Reconstruction of Holocene Southern Westerlies from the Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. E.; Moy, C. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Weiss, A.; Curtin, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind belt plays an important role in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and glacial-interglacial climate change. We present a paleoclimate record that is primarily influenced by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds from a late Holocene lake sediment core and a peat core that spans the last 13,000 years, both obtained from New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland Islands (50°S, 166°E). Several proxy indicators contribute to our reconstruction. Hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow us to reconstruct the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation. Using macrofossil counts and the abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at our sites. Model simulations of the Westerlies and the rate and isotope ratios of precipitation allow us to interpret our proxy data as changes in the strength and position of the Westerly Winds. In our lacustrine sediment, we found that the Westerlies have been shifting southward since the Little Ice Age, consistent with modern observations of a southward shift. In the peatland sediment, we found a multi-millennial northward shift in the Westerlies during the middle Holocene. We will present further ongoing work that strengthens the chronology of Auckland Islands environmental change and integrates these results with vegetation shifts identified in pollen and macrofossil data.

  17. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Climate and Oceanographic Change From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Gilmer, G.; Nichols, J. E.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L.; Vandergoes, M.; Aebig, C.; Wilson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid-latitude climate and CO2 exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere along seasonal to glaicial-interglacial timescales. Despite their importance, our understanding of past SHWW change is limited by the small number of paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum, which are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S), a key latitude where ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and mid-latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have multiple protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate studies suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. During the Late Glacial and early Holocene (15 to 9 ka), elevated long-chain n-alkane δD values from ombrotrophic peatlands and an increase in the concentration of redox-sensitive elements in fjord sediment cores, signal weakening of the SHWW that appears to be coincident with periods of rapid deglacial warming of West Antarctica. Since 5.5 ka, we interpret declining n-alkane δD values to indicate enhanced westerly flow. These interpretations are in broad agreement with terrestrial paleoclimate records developed from southern South America and argue for a symmetrical response of the SHWW during

  18. Analysis of Tide and Offshore Storm-Induced Water Table Fluctuations for Structural Characterization of a Coastal Island Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trglavcnik, Victoria; Morrow, Dean; Weber, Kela P.; Li, Ling; Robinson, Clare E.

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of water table fluctuations can provide important insight into the hydraulic properties and structure of a coastal aquifer system including the connectivity between the aquifer and ocean. This study presents an improved approach for characterizing a permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifer system through analysis of the propagation of the tidal signal, as well as offshore storm pulse signals through a coastal aquifer. Offshore storms produce high wave activity, but are not necessarily linked to significant onshore precipitation. In this study, we focused on offshore storm events during which no onshore precipitation occurred. Extensive groundwater level data collected on a sand barrier island (Sable Island, NS, Canada) show nonuniform discontinuous propagation of the tide and offshore storm pulse signals through the aquifer with isolated inland areas showing enhanced response to both oceanic forcing signals. Propagation analysis suggests that isolated inland water table fluctuations may be caused by localized leakage from a confined aquifer that is connected to the ocean offshore but within the wave setup zone. Two-dimensional groundwater flow simulations were conducted to test the leaky confined-unconfined aquifer conceptualization and to identify the effect of key parameters on tidal signal propagation in leaky confined-unconfined coastal aquifers. This study illustrates that analysis of offshore storm signal propagation, in addition to tidal signal propagation, provides a valuable and low resource approach for large-scale characterization of permeable heterogeneous coastal aquifers. Such an approach is needed for the effective management of coastal environments where water resources are threatened by human activities and the changing climate.

  19. Effects of an Unusual Cold-Water Intrusion in 2008 on the Catch of Coastal Fishing Methods around Penghu Islands, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon long-term observations (1993 - 2010 of satellite-derived winter sea surface temperature (SST data, an exceptional cold-water intrusion into the southern Taiwan Strait (TS was noted in February 2008. In the winter of 2008, La Niña caused a strong and continuous northeasterly wind that drove the cold ocean current, the China Coastal Current, more southward to penetrate the southern TS north of the Chang-Yuen Ridge. A portion of this current turned eastward to the south of Penghu Islands (PHI. The low-SST event significantly impeded local marine aquaculture and wild fish, causing the death of more than 73 tons of fish around PHI. Comparing variations of the first quarterly catches in 2008 with the long-term averages from 1993 to 2010 (excluding 2008, we noted a 50 to 80% decrease in catches from pole-and-line, long-line, and gill-net fishery. Non-migratory species dominated the composition of the catches. We also noted a greater than 230% increase in the catches from set-net fishery, with the majority being migratory species. These results illustrate the positive and negative effects of cold-water intrusion on several fish communities and species.

  20. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  1. Sunburn risk among children and outdoor workers in South Africa and Reunion Island coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Brogniez, Colette; Ncongwane, Katlego P; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; Coetzee, Gerrie; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Sauvage, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    To estimate potential sunburn risk for schoolchildren and outdoor workers, ground-based ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) measurements were converted into possible child (5% of ambient solar UVR) and outdoor worker (20% of ambient solar UVR) solar UVR exposures by skin type and season for three coastal sites: Durban, Cape Point (South Africa) and Saint Denis (Reunion Island, France). Cumulative daily ambient solar UVR levels were relatively high at all sites, especially during summer, with maximum values of about 67, 57 and 74 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) (1 SED = 100 J m(-2)) at Durban, Cape Point and Saint Denis respectively. Sunburn risk was evident for both children and outdoor workers, especially those with skin types I and II (extremely to moderately sensitive) during summer, early autumn and/or late spring at all three sites. Although results need to be verified with real-time, instantaneous and nonintegrated personal solar UVR measurements, this understanding of sunburn risk is useful for initiating the development skin cancer prevention and sun protection awareness campaigns in both countries. © 2013 The American Society of Photobiology.

  2. Role of Snow Deposition of Perfluoroalkylated Substances at Coastal Livingston Island (Maritime Antarctica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Paulo; Zhang, Yifeng; Martin, Jonathan W; Pizarro, Mariana; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous in the environment, including remote polar regions. To evaluate the role of snow deposition as an input of PFAS to Maritime Antarctica, fresh snow deposition, surface snow, streams from melted snow, coastal seawater, and plankton samples were collected over a three-month period (December 2014-February 2015) at Livingston Island. Local sources of PFASs were significant for perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and C7-14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) in snow but limited to the transited areas of the research station. The concentrations of 14 ionizable PFAS (∑PFAS) in freshly deposited snow (760-3600 pg L -1 ) were 1 order of magnitude higher than those in background surface snow (82-430 pg L -1 ). ∑PFAS ranged from 94 to 420 pg L -1 in seawater and from 3.1 to 16 ng g dw -1 in plankton. Ratios of individual PFAS concentrations in freshly deposited snow relative to surface snow (C SD /C Snow ), snowmelt (C SD /C SM ), and seawater (C SD /C SW ) were close to 1 (from 0.44 to 1.4) for all perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) isomers, suggesting that snowfall does not contribute significantly to PFOS in seawater. Conversely, these ratios for PFCAs ranged from 1 to 33 and were positively correlated with the number of carbons in the PFCA alkylated chain. These trends suggest that snow deposition, scavenging sea-salt aerosol bound PFAS, plays a role as a significant input of PFCAs to the Maritime Antarctica.

  3. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Boston Weather Forecast Office (BOX WFO) - Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  4. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Honolulu Weather Forecast Office (HFO WFO) - Hawaii Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  5. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffal, A.; Givaudan, N.; Betoulle, S.; Terreau, A.; Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S.; Beall, E.; Roche, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49 o S, 70 o E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g -1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g -1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  8. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  10. Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a strong development of coastal areas with a high concentration of water-demanding human activities, resulting in weakly controlled withdrawals of groundwater which accentuate the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. The worsening of groundwater quality is a huge problem especially for those regions, like Salento (southern Italy), where a karst aquifer system represents the most important water resource because of the deficiency of a well developed superficial water supply. In this frame, the first 2D numerical model describing the groundwater flow in the karst aquifer of Salento peninsula was developed by Giudici et al. [1] at the regional scale and then improved by De Filippis et al. [2]. In particular, the estimate of the saturated thickness of the deep aquifer highlighted that the Taranto area is particularly sensitive to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, both for the specific hydrostratigraphic configuration and for the presence of highly water-demanding industrial activities. These remarks motivate a research project which is part of the research program RITMARE (The Italian Research for the Sea), within which a subprogram is specifically dedicated to the problem of the protection and preservation of groundwater quality in Italian coastal aquifers and in particular, among the others, in the Taranto area. In this context, the CINFAI operative unit aims at providing a contribution to the characterization of groundwater in the study area. The specific objectives are: a. the reconstruction of the groundwater dynamic (i.e., the preliminary identification of a conceptual model for the aquifer system and the subsequent modeling of groundwater flow in a multilayered system which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphical point of view); b. the characterization of groundwater outflows through submarine and subaerial springs and the water exchanges with the shallow coastal water bodies (e.g. Mar Piccolo) and the off

  11. Multimedia screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECS) in coastal urban watersheds in southern California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Sengupta, Ashmita; Smith, Deborah J; Lyons, J Michael; Heil, Ann T; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the occurrence and fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and inform future monitoring of CECs in coastal urban waterways, water, sediment, and fish tissue samples were collected and analyzed for a broad suite of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial and/or household chemicals, current use pesticides, and hormones in an effluent-dominated river and multiple embayments in southern California (USA). In the Santa Clara River, which receives treated wastewater from several facilities, aqueous phase CECs were detectable at stations nearest discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants but were attenuated downstream. Sucralose and the chlorinated phosphate flame retardants tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were most abundant in water, with maximum concentrations of 35 μg/L, 3.3 μg/L, 1.4 μg/L, and 0.81 μg/L, respectively. Triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent in use for decades, was more prevalent in water than triclosan or nonylphenol. Maximum concentrations of bifenthrin, permethrin, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and degradates of fipronil exceeded CEC-specific monitoring trigger levels recently established for freshwater and estuarine sediments by factors of 10 to 1000, respectively. Maximum fish tissue concentrations of PBDEs varied widely (370 ng/g and 7.0 ng/g for the Santa Clara River and coastal embayments, respectively), with most species exhibiting concentrations at the lower end of this range. These results suggest that continued monitoring of pyrethroids, PBDEs, and degradates of fipronil in sediment is warranted in these systems. In contrast, aqueous pharmaceutical concentrations in the Santa Clara River were not close to exceeding current monitoring trigger levels, suggesting a lower priority for targeted monitoring in this medium. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1986-1994. © 2016 SETAC

  12. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  15. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  16. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 2: Tools for assessing climate change-driven coastal hazards and socio-economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; O'Neill, Andrea; Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Finzi Hart, Juliette; Vitousek, Sean; Limber, Patrick; Hayden, Maya; Fitzgibbon, Michael; Lovering, Jessica; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second of two that describes the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) approach for quantifying physical hazards and socio-economic hazard exposure in coastal zones affected by sea-level rise and changing coastal storms. The modelling approach, presented in Part 1, downscales atmospheric global-scale projections to local scale coastal flood impacts by deterministically computing the combined hazards of sea-level rise, waves, storm surges, astronomic tides, fluvial discharges, and changes in shoreline positions. The method is demonstrated through an application to Southern California, United States, where the shoreline is a mix of bluffs, beaches, highly managed coastal communities, and infrastructure of high economic value. Results show that inclusion of 100-year projected coastal storms will increase flooding by 9–350% (an additional average 53.0 ± 16.0 km2) in addition to a 25–500 cm sea-level rise. The greater flooding extents translate to a 55–110% increase in residential impact and a 40–90% increase in building replacement costs. To communicate hazards and ranges in socio-economic exposures to these hazards, a set of tools were collaboratively designed and tested with stakeholders and policy makers; these tools consist of two web-based mapping and analytic applications as well as virtual reality visualizations. To reach a larger audience and enhance usability of the data, outreach and engagement included workshop-style trainings for targeted end-users and innovative applications of the virtual reality visualizations.

  17. The Forests of Southern New England, 2007: A report on the forest resources of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Charles J. Barnett; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale Gormanson; William N. Hill; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya Lister; Christopher Martin; Patrick D. Miles; Randall Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fifth forest inventory of the forests of Southern New England, defined as Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and analysis program. Information on forest attributes, ownership, land use change, carbon, timber products, forest health, and statistics and quality...

  18. Fire history and moisture influences on historical forest age structure in the sky islands of southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose M. Iniguez; Thomas W. Swetnam; Christopher H. Baisan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of moisture and fire on historical ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) age structure patterns. Location: We used a natural experiment created over time by the unique desert island geography of southern Arizona. Methods: We sampled tree establishment dates in two sites on Rincon Peak and...

  19. Key role of organic complexation of iron in sustaining phytoplankton blooms in the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, Charles-Edouard; Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Mills, Matthew M.; Van Dijken, Gert L.; De Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Primary productivity in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean) is among the highest in Antarctica. The summer phytoplankton bloom in 2009 lasted for > 70 days in both the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas. Such productive blooms require a large supply of nutrients, including the trace metal iron (Fe).

  20. Structural control of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone east of Taiwan Island on the southern Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yanpeng; LIU; Baohua; WU; Jinlong; LIANG; Ruicai; L

    2005-01-01

    Based on compositive analysis and interpretation of the observed and historical data, the geophysical field characters and structural properties of the Gagua "Wedge" Zone of the sea area east of Taiwan Island and the primary tectonic stress direction and its variabilities of backarc spreading in the southern Okinawa Trough are studied. It is concluded from the study results that the Gagua "Wedge" Zone is structurally consistent with the Gagua ridge and two fault basins on both sides of the Gagua ridge, and adjusts the moving direction and distance of the western Philippine Sea plate to make the northwestward motion of the plate on its east side change to the northward subduction of the plate on its west side so that the primary tectonic stress direction of the Okinawa Trough changed from NW-SE to nearly N-S, which provided the stress source for the Okinawa Trough to enter the second spreading stage.

  1. The mud deposits and the high turbidity in the Belgian-Dutch coastal zone, Southern Bight of the North Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Fettweis, M.; Van den Eynde, D.

    2003-01-01

    The suspended sediment processes and the mudfields found in the Belgian/Dutch coastal area (Southern North Sea) are discussed by presenting an integrated data-modelling approach of the suspended sediment transport along the Belgian-Dutch coast, using a fine-grid coupled 2D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model and existing field and literature data. These mudfields and turbidity maxima are situated in a well-mixed, highly energetic hydrodynamic environment. In the past the occurrence of t...

  2. Nutrient dynamics and primary production in a pristine coastal mangrove ecosystem: Andaman Islands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, E. N.; Nickodem, K.; Siemann, A. L.; Hoeher, A.; Sundareshwar, P. V.; Ramesh, R.; Purvaja, R.; Banerjee, K.; Manickam, S.; Haran, H.

    2012-12-01

    Mangrove ecosystems play a key role in supporting coastal food webs and nutrient cycles in the coastal zone. Their strategic position between the land and the sea make them important sites for land-ocean interaction. As part of an Indo-US summer field course we investigated changes in the water chemistry in a pristine mangrove creek located at Wright Myo in the Andaman Islands, India. This study was conducted during the wet season (June 2012) to evaluate the influence of the coastal mangrove wetlands on the water quality and productivity in adjoining pelagic waters. Over a full tidal cycle spanning approximately 24 hrs, we measured nutrient concentrations and other ancillary parameters (e.g. dissolved oxygen, turbidity, salinity, etc.) hourly to evaluate water quality changes in incoming and ebbing tides. Nutrient analyses had the following concentration ranges (μM): nitrite 0.2-0.9, nitrate 2.0-11.5, ammonium 1.3-7.5, dissolved inorganic phosphate 0.7-2.8. The dissolved inorganic nitrogen to dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIN/DIP) ratio was very low relative to an optimal ratio, suggesting growth is nitrogen limited. In addition, we conducted primary production assays to investigate the factors that controlled primary production in this pristine creek. The experiment was carried out in situ using the Winkler method at low and high tide. Four-hour incubation of light and dark bottles representing a fixed control, non-fertilized, fertilized with nitrate, and fertilized with phosphate enabled the measurement of both net oxygen production and dark respiration. The low tide experiment suggests the ecosystem is heterotrophic because the oxygen measured in the light bottles was consistently less than that of the dark bottles. This result may be an experimental artifact of placing the glass bottles in the sun for too long prior to incubation, potentially leading to photolysis of large organic molecules in the light bottles. The high tide experiment also displayed

  3. Evolution of Subaerial Coastal Fluvial Delta Island Topography into Multiple Stable States Under Influence of Vegetation and Stochastic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, K. B.; Smith, B. C.; O'Connor, M.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal fluvial delta morphodynamics are prominently controlled by external fluvial sediment and water supplies; however, internal sediment-water-vegetation feedbacks are now being proposed as potentially equally significant in organizing and maintaining the progradation and aggradation of such systems. The time scales of fluvial and climate influences on these feedbacks, and of their responses, are also open questions. Historical remote sensing study of the Wax Lake Delta model system (Louisiana, USA) revealed trends in the evolution of the subaerial island surfaces from a non-systematic arrangement of elevations to a discrete set of levees and intra-island platforms with distinct vegetation types, designated as high marsh, low marsh, and mudflat habitat. We propose that this elevation zonation is consistent with multiple stable state theory, e.g. as applied to tidal salt marsh systems but not previously to deltas. According to zonally-distributed sediment core analyses, differentiation of island elevations was not due to organic matter accumulation as in salt marshes, but rather by differential mineral sediment accumulation with some organic contributions. Mineral sediment accumulation rates suggested that elevation growth was accelerating or holding steady over time, at least to date in this young delta, in contrast to theory suggesting rates should slow as elevation increases above mean water level. Hydrological analysis of island flooding suggested a prominent role of stochastic local storm events in raising island water levels and supplying mineral sediment to the subaerial island surfaces at short time scales; over longer time scales, the relative influences of local storms and inland/regional floods on the coupled sediment-water-vegetation system of the subaerial delta island surfaces remain the subject of ongoing study. These results help provide an empirical foundation for the next generation of coupled sediment-water-vegetation modeling and theory.

  4. Emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-03-02

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100-200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  5. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people. Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance.

  6. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  7. Climate and Non-Climate Drivers of Dengue Epidemics in Southern Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Lowe, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    We report a statistical mixed model for assessing the importance of climate and non-climate drivers of interannual variability in dengue fever in southern coastal Ecuador. Local climate data and Pacific sea surface temperatures (Oceanic Niño Index [ONI]) were used to predict dengue standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs; 1995–2010). Unobserved confounding factors were accounted for using non-structured yearly random effects. We found that ONI, rainfall, and minimum temperature were positively associated with dengue, with more cases of dengue during El Niño events. We assessed the influence of non-climatic factors on dengue SMR using a subset of data (2001–2010) and found that the percent of households with Aedes aegypti immatures was also a significant predictor. Our results indicate that monitoring the climate and non-climate drivers identified in this study could provide some predictive lead for forecasting dengue epidemics, showing the potential to develop a dengue early-warning system in this region. PMID:23478584

  8. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF COASTAL EROSION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTHERN ROMANIAN BLACK SEA COASTLINE

    OpenAIRE

    STAN Mari-Isabella

    2014-01-01

    The influence of human uses, especially the urbanization and economic activities in the coastal zone have transformed the coastal erosion from a natural phenomenon into a growing problem. The paper aims to analyze and present several important aspects of the influence of the anthropic factors on the coastal erosion along the Romanian Black Sea coast, attempting to answer the following question: what is the framework of development that the coastal zone of the Black Sea could access in order t...

  10. Post-Hurricane Ivan coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Crawfordville, Florida, to Petit Bois Island, Mississippi, September 17, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Peterson, Russell D.; Thompson, Philip R.; Subino, Janice A.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On September 17, 2004, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Crawfordville, Florida, to Petit Bois Island, Mississippi aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ivan data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey in 2001, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  11. Coastal bathymetry data collected in May 2015 from Fire Island, New York—Wilderness breach and shoreface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wilson, Kathleen E.

    2017-05-12

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, conducted a bathymetric survey of Fire Island from May 6-20, 2015. The USGS is involved in a post-Hurricane Sandy effort to map and monitor the morphologic evolution of the wilderness breach as a part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. During this study, bathymetry data were collected with single-beam echo sounders and Global Positioning Systems, which were mounted to personal watercraft, along the Fire Island shoreface and within the wilderness breach. Additional bathymetry and elevation data were collected using backpack Global Positioning Systems on flood shoals and in shallow channels within the wilderness breach.

  12. [Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Yu

    2011-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas, and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance, fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control. alpha and beta species diversity indices, index of relative importance (IRI), relative catch rate, and dominance curve for abundance and biomass (ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition, diversity, and community pattern between the two habitats, and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to 11 orders, 38 families, and 56 genera were collected, of which, 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom, the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness, and the abundance catch rate (ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months, the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However, the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat, because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish (Paraplagusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat, and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the large

  13. Holocene sedimentology and coastal geomorphology of Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea : A history of a divided Mediterranean island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramidis, P.; Iliopoulos, G.; Nikolaou, K; Kontopoulos, N.; Koutsodendris, A.; van Wijngaarden, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    The island of Zakynthos is one of the most seismically active areas in the Mediterranean region because it is located very close to the convergent boundary between the African and Eurasian plates. Its evolution during the Holocene has been influenced by tectonic activity, catastrophic events and

  14. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Fritz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settlement on Herschel Island, a UNESCO World Heritage candidate site. The resulting map may help local stakeholders devise management strategies to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. We analyzed shoreline movement using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) after digitizing shorelines from 1952, 1970, and 2011. Using these data, forecasts of shoreline positions were made for 20 and 50 years into the future. Flooding risk was assessed using a cost-distance map based on a high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset and current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level estimates. Widespread erosion characterizes the study area. The rate of shoreline movement for different periods of the study ranges from -5.5 to 2.7 m·a-1 (mean -0.6 m·a-1). Mean coastal retreat decreased from -0.6 m·a-1 to -0.5 m·a-1, for 1952-1970 and 1970-2000, respectively, and increased to -1.3 m·a-1 in the period 2000-2011. Ice-rich coastal sections, and coastal sections most exposed to wave attack exhibited the highest rates of coastal retreat. The geohazard map resulting from shoreline projections and flood risk analysis indicates that most of the area occupied by the historic settlement is at extreme or very high risk of flooding, and some buildings are vulnerable to coastal erosion. The results of this study indicate a greater threat by coastal flooding than erosion. Our assessment may be applied in other locations where limited data are available.

  15. Elemental signature of terrigenous sediment runoff as recorded in coastal salt ponds: US Virgin Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Rebekka A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Devine, Barry; Schwing, Patrick T.; Holmes, Charles W.; Jilbert, Tom; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-proxy approach is utilized on mm- to cm-scale laminated coastal salt pond sediments from St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, to determine: (1) the sedimentological signature of depositional events/processes, (2) link this sedimentological signature with known depositional events/processes in the historical (past ∼100 years) record; and, (3) project back into the recent geologic past (past ∼1400 years) to investigate the natural variability of depositional events/processes. High-resolution, short-lived radioisotope geochronology ("2"1"0Pb, "1"3"7Cs, "7Be) combined with high-resolution elemental scanning techniques (scanning XRF and scanning LA-ICP-MS) allows for the direct comparison of well-preserved salt pond deposits to historical records of depositional events (e.g., runoff/rainfall, tropical cyclones, tsunamis) to identify the sedimentary signature of each type of event. There is a robust sedimentary record of terrigenous sediment runoff linked to the frequency of rainfall events that exceed a threshold of ∼12 mm/day (minimum to mobilize and transport sediment) for study sites. This is manifested in the sedimentary record as increases in terrigenous indicator elements (%Al, %Fe, %Ti, %Si), which agree well with rainfall records over the past ∼50 years. Variability in the sedimentary record over the past ∼100 years reflects decadal-scale fluctuations between periods of increased frequency of rainfall events, and decreased frequency of rainfall events. Dm-scale variability in terrigenous indicator elements over the past ∼1400 years represents the natural system variability on a decadal–centennial scale, and provides a high-resolution, long-term baseline of natural variability of rainfall/runoff events. A period of increased terrigenous sediment delivery during the 1700s and 1800s likely indicates increased erosion in response to anthropogenic activities associated with the island’s plantation era, and perhaps increased

  16. Urban Thermodynamic Island in a Coastal City Analysed from an Optimized Surface Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Grégoire; Lemonsu, Aude; Long, Nathalie; Barrié, Joël; Masson, Valéry; Durand, Pierre

    2006-08-01

    Within the framework of ESCOMPTE, a French experiment performed in June and July 2001 in the south-east of France to study the photo-oxidant pollution at the regional scale, the urban boundary layer (UBL) program focused on the study of the urban atmosphere over the coastal city of Marseille. A methodology developed to optimize a network of 20 stations measuring air temperature and moisture over the city is presented. It is based on the analysis of a numerical simulation, performed with the non-hydrostatic, mesoscale Meso-NH model, run with four nested-grids down to a horizontal resolution of 250 m over the city and including a specific parametrization for the urban surface energy balance. A three-day period was modelled and evaluated against data collected during the preparatory phase for the project in summer 2000. The simulated thermodynamic surface fields were analysed using an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition in order to determine the optimal network configuration designed to capture the dominant characteristics of the fields. It is the first attempt of application of this kind of methodology to the field of urban meteorology. The network, of 20 temperature and moisture sensors, was implemented during the UBL-ESCOMPTE experiment and continuously recorded data from 12 June to 14 July 2001. The measurements were analysed in order to assess the urban thermodynamic island spatio-temporal structure, also using EOF decomposition. During nighttime, the influence of urbanization on temperature is clear the field is characterized by concentric thermo-pleths around the old core of the city, which is the warmest area of the domain. The moisture field is more influenced by proximity to the sea and airflow patterns. During the day, the sea breeze often moves from west or south-west and consequently the spatial pattern for both parameters is characterized by a gradient perpendicular to the shoreline. Finally, in order to assess the methodology adopted, the

  17. Impact of ISWEC sea wave energy converter on posidonia oceanica meadows assessed by satellite remote sensing in the coastal areas of Pantelleria island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borfecchia, Flavio; Micheli, Carla; Belmonte, Alessandro; De Cecco, Luigi; Sannino, Gianmaria; Bracco, Giovanni; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Vittoria Struglia, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy extraction plays a key role both in energy security of small islands and in mitigation of climate change, but at the same time poses the important question of monitoring the effects of the interaction of such devices with the marine environment. In this work we present a new methodology, integrating satellite remote sensing techniques with in situ observations and biophysical parameters analysis, for the monitoring and mapping of Posidonia Oceanica (PO) meadows in shallow coastal waters. This methodology has been applied to the coastal area offshore Pantelleria Island (Southern Mediterranean) where the first Italian Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter (ISWEC) prototype has been recently installed. The prototype, developed by the Polytechnic of Turin consists of a platform 8 meters wide, 15 meters long and 4.5 meters high, moored at about 800 meters from the shore and at 31 m depth. It is characterized by high conversion efficiency, resulting from its adaptability to different wave conditions, and a limited environmental impact due to its mooring innovative method with absence of fixed anchors to the seabed. The island of Pantelleria, is characterized by high transparency of coastal waters and PO meadows ecosystems with still significant levels of biodiversity and specific adaptation to accentuated hydrodynamics of these shores. Although ISWEC is a low-impact mooring inertial system able to ensure a reliable connection to the electric grid with minimal impact on seagrass growing in the seabed, the prototype installation and operation involves an interaction with local PO and seagrass meadows and possible water transparency decreasing. In this view monitoring of local PO ecosystem is mandatory in order to allow the detection of potential stress and damages due to ISWEC related activities and/or other factors. However, monitoring and collection of accurate and repetitive information over large areas of the necessary parameters by means of

  18. Introducing mixotrophy into a biogeochemical model describing an eutrophied coastal ecosystem: The Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyoot, Caroline; Lancelot, Christiane; Flynn, Kevin J.; Mitra, Aditee; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    Most biogeochemical/ecological models divide planktonic protists between phototrophs (phytoplankton) and heterotrophs (zooplankton). However, a large number of planktonic protists are able to combine several mechanisms of carbon and nutrient acquisition. Not representing these multiple mechanisms in biogeochemical/ecological models describing eutrophied coastal ecosystems can potentially lead to different conclusions regarding ecosystem functioning, especially regarding the success of harmful algae, which are often reported as mixotrophic. This modelling study investigates the implications for trophic dynamics of including 3 contrasting forms of mixotrophy, namely osmotrophy (using alkaline phosphatase activity, APA), non-constitutive mixotrophy (acquired phototrophy by microzooplankton) and also constitutive mixotrophy. The application is in the Southern North Sea, an ecosystem that faced, between 1985 and 2005, a significant increase in the nutrient supply N:P ratio (from 31 to 81 mol N:P). The comparison with a traditional model shows that, when the winter N:P ratio in the Southern North Sea is above 22 molN molP-1 (as occurred from mid-1990s), APA allows a 3-32% increase of annual gross primary production (GPP). In result of the higher GPP, the annual sedimentation increases as well as the bacterial production. By contrast, APA does not affect the export of matter to higher trophic levels because the increased GPP is mainly due to Phaeocystis colonies, which are not grazed by copepods. Under high irradiance, non-constitutive mixotrophy appreciably increases annual GPP, transfer to higher trophic levels, sedimentation, and nutrient remineralisation. In this ecosystem, non-constitutive mixotrophy is also observed to have an indirect stimulating effect on diatoms. Constitutive mixotrophy in nanoflagellates appears to have little influence on this ecosystem functioning. An important conclusion from this work is that contrasting forms of mixotrophy have different

  19. Biogeography in Cellana (Patellogastropoda, Nacellidae with Special Emphasis on the Relationships of Southern Hemisphere Oceanic Island Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A González-Wevar

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands lacking connections to other land are extremely isolated from sources of potential colonists and have acquired their biota mainly through dispersal from geographically distant areas. Hence, isolated island biota constitutes interesting models to infer biogeographical mechanisms of dispersal, colonization, differentiation, and speciation. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Nacellidae: Patellogastropoda show limited dispersal capacity but are broadly distributed across the Indo-Pacific including many endemic species in isolated oceanic islands. Here, we examined main distributional patterns and geographic boundaries among Cellana lineages with special emphasis in the relationships of Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA (COI recognized three main clades in Cellana including taxa from different provinces of the Indo-Pacific. Clear genetic discontinuities characterize the biogeography of Cellana and several lineages are associated to particular areas of the Indo-Pacific supporting the low dispersal capacity of the genus across recognized biogeographical barriers in the region. However, evolutionary relationships within Cellana suggest that long-distance dispersal processes have been common in the history of the genus and probably associated to the origin of the species in Hawaii and Juan Fernández Archipelago. Therefore, the presence of Cellana species in geographically distant Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands, such as the Juan Fernández Archipelago, suggests that long-distance dispersal mediated by rafting may have played an important role in the biogeography of the genus.

  20. Biogeography in Cellana (Patellogastropoda, Nacellidae) with Special Emphasis on the Relationships of Southern Hemisphere Oceanic Island Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Palma, Alvaro; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic islands lacking connections to other land are extremely isolated from sources of potential colonists and have acquired their biota mainly through dispersal from geographically distant areas. Hence, isolated island biota constitutes interesting models to infer biogeographical mechanisms of dispersal, colonization, differentiation, and speciation. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Nacellidae: Patellogastropoda) show limited dispersal capacity but are broadly distributed across the Indo-Pacific including many endemic species in isolated oceanic islands. Here, we examined main distributional patterns and geographic boundaries among Cellana lineages with special emphasis in the relationships of Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA (COI) recognized three main clades in Cellana including taxa from different provinces of the Indo-Pacific. Clear genetic discontinuities characterize the biogeography of Cellana and several lineages are associated to particular areas of the Indo-Pacific supporting the low dispersal capacity of the genus across recognized biogeographical barriers in the region. However, evolutionary relationships within Cellana suggest that long-distance dispersal processes have been common in the history of the genus and probably associated to the origin of the species in Hawaii and Juan Fernández Archipelago. Therefore, the presence of Cellana species in geographically distant Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands, such as the Juan Fernández Archipelago, suggests that long-distance dispersal mediated by rafting may have played an important role in the biogeography of the genus. PMID:28099466

  1. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  2. Feeding ecology of Rivulus luelingi (Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae in a Coastal Atlantic Rainforest stream, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Abilhoa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the killifish Rivulus luelingi collected in a black water stream of the Coastal Atlantic Rainforest in southern Brazil were investigated. Eight samplings were made between April 2003 and January 2004. The diet, assessed through a similarity matrix with the estimated contribution values of food items, included microcrustaceans, aquatic immature insects (larvae and pupae, aquatic adult insects, terrestrial insects, insect fragments, spiders, and plant fragments. Differences in the diet according to temporal variations (months were registered, but changes related with size classes evaluated and high/low precipitation period were not observed. The species presented an insectivorous feeding habit, and its diet in the studied stream was composed of autochthonous (mainly aquatic immature insects and allochthonous (mainly insect fragments material.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do peixe anual Rivulus luelingi em um riacho de água escura da Floresta Atlântica Costeira do Sul do Brasil. Oito amostragens foram realizadas entre abril de 2003 e janeiro de 2004. A dieta, avaliada através de uma matriz de similaridade com os valores de contribuição estimados para os itens alimentares, inclui microcrustáceos, insetos imaturos aquáticos, insetos aquáticos e terrestres, fragmentos de insetos, aranhas e fragmentos de plantas. Diferenças relacionadas ao período amostral (meses foram registradas, mas mudanças na dieta em função das classes de tamanho avaliadas e o período de alta/baixa precipitação não foram observadas. A espécie apresentou hábito alimentar insetívoro, e sua dieta no riacho estudado foi composta por itens autóctones (principalmente insetos imaturos aquáticos e alóctones (principalmente fragmentos de insetos.

  3. Atmospheric trace elements in aerosols observed over the Southern Ocean and coastal East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected over the Southern Ocean (SO and coastal East Antarctica (CEA during the austral summer of 2010/11. Samples were analysed for trace elements, including Na, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Se, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean atmospheric concentrations over the SO were 1100 ng m−3 for Na, 190 ng m−3 for Mg, 150 ng m−3 for Al, 14 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.46 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.25 ng m−3 for Se. Over CEA, the mean concentrations were 990 ng m−3 for Na, 180 ng m−3 for Mg, 190 ng m−3 for Al, 26 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.70 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.29 ng m−3 for Se. Particle size distributions, enrichment factors (EFs and correlation analysis indicate that Na, Mg and K mainly came from the marine source, while Al, Fe and Mn were mainly from the crustal source, which also contributed to Mg and K over CEA. High EFs were associated with Ni, Cd and Se, suggesting likely contributions from mixed sources from the Antarctic continent, long-range transport, marine biogenic emissions and anthropogenic emissions. Sea-salt elements (Na, Mg, K were mainly accumulated in the coarse mode, and crustal elements (Al, Fe, Mn presented a bimodal size distribution pattern. Bioactive elements (Fe, Ni, Cd were enriched in the fine mode, especially with samples collected over the SO, possibly affecting biogeochemical cycles in this oceanic region.

  4. Invasive Ponto-Caspian hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia (hydrozoa: Cnidaria) in southern Baltic coastal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolewski, Krystian; Jarosiewicz, Anna; Ożgo, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Cordylophora caspia Pall. is a highly invasive Ponto-Caspian colonial hydroid with a worldwide distribution. It is a biofouling organism colonizing industrial water installations and causing serious economic problems. Here, we give the first report of its occurrence in southern Baltic coastal lakes, and analyze its distribution in relation to environmental factors and likely colonization routes. Samples were collected from the stalks of Phragmites australis at the total of 102 sites in 15 lakes and lagoons. The species was most numerous in lagoons, i.e. ß-oligohaline water bodies with a surface hydrological connection with the sea, where it reached mean densities of 1200-4800 hydranths m-2. In regression tree analysis, chloride concentration, followed by pH, were the strongest explanatory variables for its occurrence, with highest densities observed at chloride concentration above 1.18 g Cl L-1 and pH 8.05-9.26. At pH 5.77-8.04 higher densities were observed at temperatures above 20.3 °C. Generally, within the range of parameters observed in our study, high densities of C. caspia were associated with high chloride concentration, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity values. The species was also present in freshwater lakes; these colonies may have the highest capacity for future invasions of such habitats. Within lakes, high densities were observed at canals connecting these water bodies with the sea, and at sites close to the inflow of rivers. This distribution pattern can facilitate its further spread into inland waters.

  5. Fluometuron and pendimethalin runoff from strip and conventionally tilled cotton in the southern atlantic coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig

    2004-01-01

    In the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of southern Georgia (USA), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) acreage increased threefold in the past decade. To more effectively protect water quality in the region, best management practices are needed that reduce pesticide runoff from fields in cotton production. This study compared runoff of two herbicides, fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-urea] and pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine], from plots in strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT) management near Tifton, GA. Rainfall simulations were conducted one day after preemergence herbicide applications to 0.0006-ha plots and runoff from 0.15-ha plots due to natural rainfall following preemergence pendimethalin and fluometuron and postemergence fluometuron use was monitored. Pendimethalin runoff was greater under CT than ST due to strong pendimethalin soil sorption and higher erosion and runoff under CT. The highest losses, 1.3% of applied in CT and 0.22% of applied in ST, were observed during rainfall simulations conducted 1 DAT. Fluometuron runoff from natural rainfall was substantially lower from ST than from CT plots but the trend was reversed in rainfall simulations. In all studies, fluometuron runoff was also relatively low (<1% of applied), and on plots under natural rainfall, desmethylfluometuron (DMF) represented about 50% of total fluometuron runoff. Fluometuron's relatively low runoff rate appeared linked to its rapid leaching, and high DMF detection rates in runoff support DMF inclusion in fluometuron risk assessments. Results showed that ST has the potential to reduce runoff of both herbicides, but fluometuron leaching may be a ground water quality concern.

  6. Coastal dune facies, Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone), Capitol Reef National Park area, southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamola, Diane L.; Chan, Marjorie A.

    1988-04-01

    The Permian Cutler Formation (White Rim Sandstone) in the Capitol Reef National Park area in southern Utah is an excellent example of a coastal dune complex subjected to periodic flooding by marine waters. Wind-ripple, grainfall and grainflow laminae compose the cross-sets deposited by eolian dunes. However, wave-reworked structures such as oscillation ripples, the occurrence of the characteristically marine trace fossils Thalassinoides and Chondrites, and interfingering marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation collectively indicate marine interaction with the eolian environment. Four facies are distinguished: cross-stratified sandstone, burrowed to bioturbated sandstone, brecciated and deformed sandstone, and ripple-laminated sandstone and thin carbonate beds. One unusual aspect of the cross-stratified sandstone facies is the abundance of coarse-grained sand. Coarse-grained sand is atypical in many ancient eolian slipface deposits, but occurs here in large slipface foresets as both grainflow and wind-ripple deposits. No water-laid structures are found in these slipface deposits. Coarse-grained sand was probably transported to the Cutler shoreline by fluvial systems draining the Uncompahgre Uplift to the east, and then concentrated as coarse-grained ripples in interdune areas. Some of these coarse-grained ripples migrated up the stoss side of the dunes and accumulations of coarse-grained sand avalanched down the crest to form grainflow deposits. An extensive amount of soft-sediment deformation is indicated by the presence of convolute bedding and brecciation. These features occur near the zone of interfingering with marine carbonate beds of the Kaibab Formation. The water-saturated and moist conditions required for extensive deformation may have been controlled by the proximity of these sandstones to the shoreline, and fluctuations in the associated groundwater table.

  7. Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

  8. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  9. Simulation of radioactive cesium transfer in the southern Fukushima coastal biota using a dynamic food chain transfer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident occurred on 11 March 2011. The accident introduced 137 Cs into the coastal waters which was subsequently transferred to the local coastal biota thereby elevating the concentration of this radionuclide in coastal organisms. In this study, the radioactive cesium levels in coastal biota from the southern Fukushima area were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. The simulation derived the possible maximum radioactive cesium levels in organisms, indicating that the maximum 137 Cs concentrations in invertebrates, benthic fish and predator fish occurred during late April, late May and late July, respectively in the studied area where the source was mainly the direct leakage of 137 Cs effluent from the 1F NPP. The delay of a 137 Cs increase in fish was explained by the gradual food chain transfer of 137 Cs introduced to the ecosystem from the initial contamination of the seawater. The model also provided the degree of radionuclide depuration in organisms, and it demonstrated the latest start of the decontamination phase in benthic fish. The ecological half-lives, derived both from model simulation and observation, were 1–4 months in invertebrates, and 2–9 months in plankton feeding fish and coastal predator fish from the studied area. In contrast, it was not possible to similarly calculate these parameters in benthic fish because of an unidentified additional radionuclide source which was deduced from the biological compartment model. To adequately reconstruct the in-situ depuration of radiocesium in benthic fish in the natural ecosystem, a contamination source associated with the bottom sediments is necessary. -- Highlights: • Cs-137 in the southern Fukushima coastal biota were simulated using a dynamic biological compartment model. • Simulation derived contamination phase of marine biota was completed until late April to July 2011. • The delay of Cs-137 concentration increase in fish

  10. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  11. Controls on Nitrous Oxide Production in, and Fluxes from a Coastal Aquifer in Long Island, NY, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O has 265 times greater greenhouse potential than carbon dioxide and its atmospheric concentration has increased by about 20% since industrialization; however, N2O production and emissions from aquatic systems are poorly constrained. To evaluate N2O fluxes associated with meteoric groundwater discharge to coastal zones, we measured N2O concentrations in May and October 2011 from two discharge points of the Upper Glacial aquifer on Long Island, NY, USA. One coastal zone contains only fresh water and the other contains an upper saline zone. N2O concentrations decreased by around 40% for the fresh water and a factor of two for the salt water from May to October, 2011. Fluxes were around 100 to 200 times greater from the freshwater (246 to 448 µmol/m shoreline/day than saltwater aquifer (26.1 to 26.5 µmol/m shoreline/day. N2O concentrations correlate positively with NO3− and dissolved oxygen concentrations and negatively with salinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and N2 denitrification concentrations. The smaller saltwater N2O export resulted from DOC enrichment in the upper saline zone, which appears to have driven denitrification to completion, removed N2O, and increased N2 denitrification. DOC concentrations should be considered in global N2O flux estimates for coastal aquifers.

  12. 226Ra and 228Ra tracer study on nutrient transport in east coastal waters of Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Su

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Material fluxes (e.g., nutrients from coastal waters to offshore areas play an important role in controlling the water quality of the adjacent sea areas not only by increasing nutrient concentration but also by changing nutrient structures. In this study, naturally occurring isotopes, 226Ra and 228Ra, were measured with the alpha spectrometry in the Wenjiao-Wenchang and Wanquan estuaries and adjacent sea areas along the east coast of Hainan Island. The excess 226Ra and 228Ra activities were observed by comparison with the values derived from the conservative mixing of freshwater and seawater end-members in both estuaries. Using a one-dimensional diffusion model, the horizontal eddy diffusion coefficient of 3.16 x 105 cm2/s, for nutrients diffusing from their sources, was derived from 228Ra activities. Consequently, the corresponding nutrient fluxes flowing into the coastal waters were assessed. The results can provide useful information for the study of the mixing and exchange processes of coastal waters as well as dissoluble pollutant transport in this sea area.

  13. Sup(210)Pb and 210Po distributions and disequilibrium in the coastal and shelf waters of the southern North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhizheng, Zuo; Eisma, Doeke

    1993-01-01

    Concentration profiles of 210 Pb and 210 Po were measured at 10 stations in the coastal and shelf areas of the southern North Sea. Scavenging processes in this study area are revealed by 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibrium and their distributions in the water column. Results for 210 Po show strong excess, relative to 210 Pb, in both dissolved and particulate forms, indicating an additional flux of 210 Po from the coastal and shelf sediment. A significant maximum of the dissolved 210 Po and 210 Pb over the fine grained depositional area (Oyster Ground) was observed to correspond with resuspension of the underlying muddy sediments. A comparison of the data between the water and sediment columns shows that the excess of 210 Po found in the water body could be balanced by only a small amount of deficit of 210 Po in the sediment, due to the characteristics of this continental shelf area. (author)

  14. Coastal landforms and the Holocene evolution of the Island of Samso, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The geomorphology of a coastal landscape may reveal an indication of past shoreline configurations. The spatial arrangement of the preserved morphologies may further contain indications on the importance of the different key parameters influencing shoreline evolution over millennial timescales...

  15. Gaillard Island, AL 2004 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2004. The data...

  16. Deer Island, Mississippi 2004 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico coastline of MS in 2004. The data...

  17. St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Wake Island 3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Wake Island 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Little Dauphin Island, AL 2004 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2004. The data...

  3. Examining the assumptions of integrated coastal management: Stakeholder agendas and elite cooption in Babuyan Islands, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.K.; Acebes, J.M.; Belen, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Philippines, Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) represents the dominant response to narratives of ecosystem decline. However, there are persistent challenges to implementation, manifested in continued resource degradation, questioning of the exercise of stakeholder involvement and rising

  4. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1002: PUDGET SOUND - WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  5. Tenneco and Greenwood Islands Disposal Sites (Mississippi) 2004 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico coastline of MS in 2004. The data...

  6. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for Coastal Resource Service Area (CRSA) boundaries, mineral sites, airports, boat ramps, marinas, and Coast Guard...

  8. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Taxonomic survey of Drosophilidae (Diptera) from mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Hermes J; Valente, Vera L S; Hofmann, Paulo R P

    2007-01-01

    Assemblages of drosophilids have been characterised in several environments of the Brazilian territory, like the Atlantic Rain Forest, urban areas, cerrados, the Amazon Forest, and others. The present survey is the first attempt to characterise the fauna of Drosophilidae in mangrove forests, an environment typical of tropical coasts worldwide. Twenty-eight samples were collected from the three main mangrove forests of Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, using banana-baited traps hung in trees. Samples were taken in January (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) between July 2002 and July 2005. In total, 82,942 specimens of drosophilids were caught, belonging to 69 species of six genera - Amiota Loew, Drosophila Fallén, Leucophenga Mik, Scaptodrosophila Duda, Zaprionus Coquillett and Zygothrica Wiedemann. The high abundance of D. simulans Sturtevant was remarkable, with some notable peaks of D. malerkotliana Parshad & Paika in autumn samples. Other common species were Zaprionus indianus Gupta, D. mediostriata Duda and D. willistoni Sturtevant. We also collected 45,826 flies of family Curtonotidae, the sister-group of Drosophilidae virtually absent in other environments. The assemblages of drosophilids were very similar in the three mangrove forests surveyed, despite the different surrounding environments. In general, the species sampled in the mangroves were the same as those observed in the surrounding environments, but in varying abundances. This suggests that drosophilids are differently affected by environmental pressures operating in mangroves.

  10. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cesar A; Madureira, Luiz A S

    2012-09-01

    The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa) and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g(-1) of extractable organic matter); low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.

  11. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-09-09

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  12. HYDROACOUSTIC OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK EARTHQUAKES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF THE SOUTHERN KURIL ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Borisov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of hydroacoustic observations of signals from weak earthquakes in natural conditions in the region of the Southern Kuril Islands are presented. Some earthquakes were registered by the the Yuzhno-Kurilsk Seismic Station, other were only recorded by hydrophone stations. The observations were specific as seismic signals were recorded in shallow waters, i.e. in high noise level conditions. Hydrophones were installed in Lake Lagunnoe (Kunashir and Khromovaya Bay (Shikotan. Our analysis of hydroacoustic records received from the hydrophone stations revealed no evident precursory response of the geological medium to weak distant events. This means that neither before the period of earthquake preparation nor during the earthquake preparation period, any geoacoustic emission was not detected. It is shown that despite the unfavourable noise level conditions, even distant weak earthquakes can be confidently registered by hydrophone stations, and pending application of proper signal processing techniques, it can be possible to determine arrival times of seismic waves and to measure parameters of seismic waves. It is also established that the frequency spectrum of acoustic signals from the weak earthquakes recordable by the hydrophone stations is continuous and of noise type in the frequency range up to 90–100 Hz. It is revealed that in some cases, weak earthquakes and microearthquakes may be forerun by low frequency signals.

  13. Spatial Distribution of Field Physico-Chemical Parameters in the Vulcano Island (Italy Coastal Aquifer: Volcanological and Hydrogeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Madonia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vulcano, the southernmost of the Aeolian island arc (Italy, is characterized by a shallow coastal aquifer resulting from the mixing of seawater, meteoric recharge and volcanogenic fluids. The aquifer has been intensively studied during the last decades, but a comprehensive hydrogeological model has never been developed due to the lack of direct information about the litho-stratigraphic columns of the wells and the depth of water bearing levels. We present and discuss here the time and spatial analysis of water table elevation, temperature and electric conductivity data, acquired during the last 20 years in 33 wells located at Vulcano Island, with the aim of developing a groundwater circulation scheme able to fit the field observations. We retrieved a circulation scheme characterized by an intricate geometry of flow paths driven by horizontal and vertical permeability variations, accounting for the strong variability of geochemical data evidenced in this area by the related scientific literature. Extending these results to a general context, particular care must be taken in approaching the study of aquifers in volcanic islands, because a strong, small spatial scale variability of the hydrogeochemical parameters is expected, and a reliable knowledge of the local conditions is required for developing successful groundwater circulation schemes.

  14. The association between El Niño/Southern Oscillation events and typhoons in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennemann, D H; Marschner, I C

    1995-09-01

    An analysis of the historic record of typhoons in the Marshall Islands has identified a significant association between the occurrence of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) and the occurrence of typhoons in the Marshall Islands. Whilst typhoons normally occur further to the east, the warming of the ocean waters around the Marshall Islands, as part of the ENSO phenomenon, generates typhoons further to the west. The results suggest that typhoons are 2.6 times more likely to occur during ENSO years, with a 71 per cent chance of a typhoon striking during an ENSO year, and only a 26 per cent chance of one happening during a non-ENSO year. This has implications for planning and public safety, which the relevant authorities may wish to take note of.

  15. Urban Heat Island and Park Cool Island Intensities in the Coastal City of Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Anjos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an evaluation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and Park Cool Island (PCI intensities in Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil, was performed. The basis of our evaluation is a 2-year dataset from the urban climatological network installed with the principles and concepts defined for urban areas related to climatic scales, sitting and exposure, urban morphology, and metadata. The current findings update UHI intensities in Aracaju refuting the trend registered in previous studies. On average, the UHI was more intense in the cool season (1.3 °C than in hot season (0.5 °C, which was caused by wind speed decrease. In relation to the PCI, mitigation of high air temperatures of 1.5–2 °C on average was registered in the city. However, the urban park is not always cooler than the surrounding built environment. Consistent long-term monitoring in the cities is very important to provide more accurate climatic information about the UHI and PCI to be applied in urban planning properly, e.g., to provide pleasant thermal comfort in urban spaces.

  16. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF COLORED DISSOLOVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) IN SOUTHERN NEW ENGALND COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a primary factor affecting the absorption of incident sunlight in coastal and estuarine waters. CDOM is extracted from water-soluble humic substances and transported by runoff into lakes and coastal waters. CDOM is a...

  17. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  18. Dissolved trace metals (Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, Al, and Mn) around the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Statham, Peter J.; Fones, Gary R.; Planquette, Hélène; Idrus, Farah; Roberts, Keiron

    2013-10-01

    A phytoplankton bloom shown to be naturally iron (Fe) induced occurs north of the Crozet Islands (Southern Ocean) every year, providing an ideal opportunity to study dissolved trace metal distributions within an island system located in a high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) region. We present water column profiles of dissolved nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) obtained as part of the NERC CROZEX program during austral summer (2004-2005). Two stations (M3 and M1) were sampled downstream (north) of Crozet in the bloom area and near the islands, along with a control station (M2) in the HNLC zone upstream (south) of the islands. The general range found was for Ni, 4.64-6.31 nM; Zn, 1.59-7.75 nM; Co, 24-49 pM; Cd, 135-673 pM; Pb, 6-22 pM; Al, 0.13-2.15 nM; and Mn, 0.07-0.64 nM. Vertical profiles indicate little island influence to the south with values in the range of other trace metal deprived regions of the Southern Ocean. Significant removal of Ni and Cd was observed in the bloom and Zn was moderately correlated with reactive silicate (Si) indicating diatom control over the internal cycling of this metal. Higher concentrations of Zn and Cd were observed near the islands. Pb, Al, and Mn distributions also suggest small but significant atmospheric dust supply particularly in the northern region.

  19. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  20. Coastal Mapping for Baseline Geoscience Knowledge to Support Community Hazard Assessment and Sustainable Development, Eastern Baffin Island, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Bell, T.; Campbell, D. C.; Cowan, B.; Deering, R. L.; Hatcher, S. V.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Irvine, M.; Manson, G. K.; Smith, I. R.; Edinger, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012 we have carried out extensive multibeam bathymetric and backscatter surveys in coastal waters of eastern Baffin Island, supplemented by sub-bottom imaging and coring. Shore-zone surveys have been undertaken in proximity to the communities of Iqaluit and Qikiqtarjuaq, following earlier work in Clyde River. These support benthic habitat mapping, geological exploration, analysis of past and present sea-level trends, and assessment of coastal hazards relating to climate change and seabed instability. Outputs include a seamless topographic-bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) of extensive boulder-strewn tidal flats in the large tidal-range setting at Iqaluit, supporting analysis of coastal flooding, wave run-up, and sea-ice impacts on a rapidly developing urban waterfront in the context of climate change. Seabed mapping of inner Frobisher Bay seaward of Iqaluit reveals a potential local tsunami hazard in widespread submarine slope failures, the triggers, magnitudes, and ages of which are the subject of ongoing research. In fjords of the Cumberland Peninsula, this project has mapped numerous submerged delta terraces at 19 to 45 m present water depth. These attest to an early postglacial submerged shoreline, displaced by glacial-isostatic adjustment. It rises linearly over a distance of 100 km east to west, where a submerged boulder barricade on a -16 m shoreline was discovered at a proposed port site in Broughton Channel near Qikiqtarjuaq. Palaeotopographic mapping using the multibeam data revealed an enclosed estuarine environment quite different from the present-day open passage swept by tidal currents. At Clyde River, combined seabed and onshore DEMs with geohazard mapping provided foundation data for community assessment and planning under a local knowledge co-production initiative. The geohazard work identified portions of the town-site more vulnerable to both coastal flooding and potential thaw subsidence, while the shallow delta terrace suggested a

  1. Population structure and condition factor of Pseudotothyris obtusa (hypoptopomatinae from three coastal streams in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Freitas Takeuti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Population structure features and condition factor of Pseudotothyris obtusa were compared between three coastal streams in southern Brazil. Fishes were monthly collected through electric fishing and measured in the total length. Fifteen fishes from each stream were dissected to identify their sex. The structure in size, sex ratio and young/adults ratio of populations were analysed and the length-weight relationship was obtained. The condition factor (K1 and the relative condition factor (Kn were calculated for each stream. Fishes were grouped in 11 lenght classes of 3mm. The intermediate and bigger size classes were preponderant in the "Mergulhão" and "Colônia Pereira" streams, and the smaller and intermediate ones in the "Ribeirão" stream. Females prevailed in bigger size classes, reached bigger lengths than males, and were preponderant in all streams. The condition factors (K1 and Kn were different in all streams, indicating better condition and higher weight values in fishes from the "Mergulhão" and "Colônia Pereira" streams.Características da estrutura da população e o fator de condição de Pseudotothyris obtusa foram comparados em três rios costeiros na região sul do Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente através de pesca elétrica e medidos quanto ao comprimento total. Quinze peixes de cada rio foram dissecados e identificados quanto ao sexo. A estrutura da população em tamanho, a proporção sexual e a relação jovem/adultos foram analisadas e foi obtida a relação peso/comprimento. O fator de condição (K1 e o fator de condição relativo (Kn foram calculados em cada rio. Os peixes foram agrupados em 11 classes de comprimento de 3mm. As classes de tamanho maiores e intermediárias foram preponderantes nos rios Mergulhão e Colônia Pereira, e as classes menores e intermediárias no rio Ribeirão. Fêmeas prevaleceram nas maiores classes de comprimento, atingiram maiores comprimentos que os machos, e foram

  2. Southern Dobrogea coastal potable water sources and Upper Quaternary Black Sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraivan, Glicherie; Stefanescu, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Southern Dobrogea is a typical geologic platform unit, placed in the south-eastern part of Romania, with a Pre-Cambrian crystalline basement and a Paleozoic - Quaternary sedimentary cover. It is bordered to the north by the Capidava - Ovidiu fault and by the Black Sea to the east. A regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system divides the Southern Dobrogea structure in several tectonic blocks. Four drinking water sources have been identified: surface water, phreatic water, medium depth Sarmatian aquifer, and deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer. Surface water sources are represented by several springs emerged from the base of the loess cliff, and a few small rivers, barred by coastal beaches. The phreatic aquifer develops at the base of the loess deposits, on the impervious red clay, overlapping the Sarmatian limestones. The medium depth aquifer is located in the altered and karstified Sarmatian limestones, and discharges into the Black Sea. The Sarmatian aquifer is unconfined where covered by silty loess deposits, and locally confined, where capped by clayey loess deposits. The aquifer is supplied from the Pre-Balkan Plateau. The Deep Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer, located in the limestone and dolomite deposits, is generally confined and affected by the regional WNW - ESE and NNE - SSW fault system. In the south-eastern Dobrogea, the deep aquifer complex is separated from the Sarmatian aquifer by a Senonian aquitard (chalk and marls). The natural boundary of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is the Capidava - Ovidiu Fault. The piezometric heads show that the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous aquifer is supplied from the Bulgarian territory, where the Upper Jurassic deposits crop out. The aquifer discharges into the Black Sea to the east and into Lake Siutghiol to the northeast. The cyclic Upper Quaternary climate changes induced drastic remodeling of the Black Sea level and the corresponding shorelines. During the Last Glacial

  3. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  4. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  5. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for northern river otter, mink, muskrat, and beaver for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, and porpoises for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  7. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: NESTS (Nest Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls and terns in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska....

  8. Channel-Island Connectivity Affects Water Exposure Time Distributions in a Coastal River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Matthew; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Twilley, Robert; Hodges, Ben R.; Passalacqua, Paola

    2018-03-01

    The exposure time is a water transport time scale defined as the cumulative amount of time a water parcel spends in the domain of interest regardless of the number of excursions from the domain. Transport time scales are often used to characterize the nutrient removal potential of aquatic systems, but exposure time distribution estimates are scarce for deltaic systems. Here we analyze the controls on exposure time distributions using a hydrodynamic model in two domains: the Wax Lake delta in Louisiana, USA, and an idealized channel-island complex. In particular, we study the effects of river discharge, vegetation, network geometry, and tides and use a simple model for the fractional removal of nitrate. In both domains, we find that channel-island hydrological connectivity significantly affects exposure time distributions and nitrate removal. The relative contributions of the island and channel portions of the delta to the overall exposure time distribution are controlled by island vegetation roughness and network geometry. Tides have a limited effect on the system's exposure time distribution but can introduce significant spatial variability in local exposure times. The median exposure time for the WLD model is 10 h under the conditions tested and water transport within the islands contributes to 37-50% of the network-scale exposure time distribution and 52-73% of the modeled nitrate removal, indicating that islands may account for the majority of nitrate removal in river deltas.

  9. Tidal notches, coastal landforms and relative sea-level changes during the Late Quaternary at Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Cavallaro, Danilo; Chirco, Pietro; Caldareri, Francesco; Martin, Franco Foresta; Morticelli, Maurizio Gasparo; Monaco, Carmelo; Sulli, Attilio; Quarta, Gianluca; Biolchi, Sara; Sannino, Gianmaria; de Vita, Sandro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Agate, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present and discuss data concerning the morphostructural evolution at Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) during Late Quaternary. New insights on the relative sea-level changes of Ustica are coming from data collected during a geomorphological field survey around the island, together with the bathymetric analysis of the surrounding seabed and 14C datings on samples of speleothems, flowstones and marine shells found inside three selected sea caves. The survey was mainly accomplished on June 2015 through the first complete snorkel investigation off the about 18 km-long volcanic coast of the island, which allowed to precisely define location, relationship and morphometric features of coastal landforms associated with modern sea level. This study highlights the occurrence, for the first time in the Mediterranean, of tidal notches in correspondence of carbonate inclusions in volcanic rocks. The elevation of the modern tidal notch suggests that no significant vertical deformations occurred in the southeastern and eastern sectors of Ustica in the last 100 years. However, the presence of pillow lavas along the coast demonstrates that Ustica was affected by a regional uplift since the Late Quaternary, as also confirmed by MIS5.5 deposits located at about 30 m a.s.l., which suggests an average uplift rate of 0.23 mm/y. Radiocarbon dating of fossil barnacles collected inside the Grotta Segreta cave indicate an age of 1823 ± 104 cal. BP. The difference in height with respect to living barnacles in the same site suggests that their present elevation could be related to stick-slip coseismic deformations caused by the four earthquake sequences (two of which with Mw = 4.63 ± 0.46) that strongly struck the island between 1906 and 1924.

  10. Ancient xenocrystic zircon in young volcanic rocks of the southern Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Williams, Ian S.; Arculus, Richard; Kröner, Alfred; García-Casco, Antonio; Lázaro, Concepción; Buhre, Stephan; Wong, Jean; Geng, Helen; Echeverría, Carlos Morales; Jeffries, Teresa; Xie, Hangqian; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is one of the best global examples in which to examine the effects of the involvement of subducted sediment and crustal assimilation in the generation of arc crust. Most of the zircon recovered in our study of igneous and volcaniclastic rocks from Grenada and Carriacou (part of the Grenadines chain) is younger than 2 Ma. Within some late Paleogene to Neogene ( 34-0.2 Ma) lavas and volcaniclastic sediments however, there are Paleozoic to Paleoarchean ( 250-3469 Ma) xenocrysts, and Late Jurassic to Precambrian zircon ( 158-2667 Ma) are found in beach and river sands. The trace element characteristics of zircon clearly differentiate between different types of magmas generated in the southern Lesser Antilles through time. The zircon population from the younger arc (Miocene, 22-19 Ma, to Present) has minor negative Eu anomalies, well-defined positive Ce anomalies, and a marked enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE), consistent with crystallization from very oxidized magmas in which Eu2 + was in low abundance. In contrast, zircon from the older arc (Eocene to mid-Oligocene, 30-28 Ma) has two different REE patterns: 1) slight enrichment in the light (L)REE, small to absent Ce anomalies, and negative Eu anomalies and 2) enriched High (H)REE, positive Ce anomalies and negative Eu anomalies (a similar pattern is observed in the xenocrystic zircon population). The combination of positive Ce and negative Eu anomalies in the zircon population of the older arc indicates crystallization from magmas that were variably, but considerably less oxidized than those of the younger arc. All the igneous zircon has positive εHf(t), reflecting derivation from a predominantly juvenile mantle source. However, the εHf(t) values vary significantly within samples, reflecting considerable Hf isotopic heterogeneity in the source. The presence of xenocrystic zircon in the southern Lesser Antilles is evidence for the assimilation of intra-arc crustal sediments and

  11. Projected 21st century coastal flooding in the Southern California Bight. Part 1: Development of the third generation CoSMoS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Andrea; Erikson, Li; Barnard, Patrick; Limber, Patrick; Vitousek, Sean; Warrick, Jonathan; Foxgrover, Amy C.; Lovering, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Due to the effects of climate change over the course of the next century, the combination of rising sea levels, severe storms, and coastal change will threaten the sustainability of coastal communities, development, and ecosystems as we know them today. To clearly identify coastal vulnerabilities and develop appropriate adaptation strategies due to projected increased levels of coastal flooding and erosion, coastal managers need local-scale hazards projections using the best available climate and coastal science. In collaboration with leading scientists world-wide, the USGS designed the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) to assess the coastal impacts of climate change for the California coast, including the combination of sea-level rise, storms, and coastal change. In this project, we directly address the needs of coastal resource managers in Southern California by integrating a vast range of global climate change projections in a thorough and comprehensive numerical modeling framework. In Part 1 of a two-part submission on CoSMoS, methods and the latest improvements are discussed, and an example of hazard projections is presented.

  12. Flood risk mitigation and anthropogenic modifications of a coastal plain in southern Italy: combined effects over the past 150 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Petrucci

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effects of human modification of a coastal plain mainly involving land reclamation and flood protection is proposed. The approach involves historical, geomorphological and hydrological data as a whole, taking into account the equilibrium of rivers, plains and coastal areas.

    The test area, a telling example of profound economic and social transformation of a coastal plain, is the Piana di Sibari (Calabria, southern Italy, subject to major human modifications over the last 150 years. The study area, at most 300 m a.s.l., is 450 km2 wide and comprises 24 hydrographic basins.

    The approach is based on the creation and analysis of four databases: 1 a historical series of geo-coded flood damage (DAMAGES database, concerning damaging floods which occurred over the past few centuries in the study area; 2 a geocoded series of protection works for land reclamation, protection from floods and improvement of soil stability in steep areas (WORKS database, gathered from the archives of the agencies that carried out the works, organized in a GIS-format; 3 a historical series of maximum flood discharges and extreme rainy events (HYMAX database aimed at defining the trends of occurrence and the intensity of flooding; 4 a coastal line position and migration over time (COASTAL database, created using mainly literature data based on discontinuous data such as historical maps and images.

    The work describes the complex succession of floods, protection and reclamation works, human transformation of the plain and major land use changes over the last two centuries in the test area. The new characteristics of the plain and its modifications, including major engineering works, land-use transformation and urbanisation, are illustrated. The damaging floods of the last 200 years, the modifications of runoff and flooding due to works built over the basins, hydrological data and the records concerning coastal

  13. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  14. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Sutula, Martha; Caron, David A.; Chao, Yi; Farrara, John D.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Jones, Burton; Robertson, George; McLaughlin, Karen; Sengupta, Ashmita

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  15. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  16. Climate change and Mediterranean coastal karst aquifers: the case of Salento (southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Polemio, M.; Romanazzi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Second half of the 20th century was characterized by an increase of groundwater discharge. Numerous aquifers are overexploited in the world and in particular in the Mediterranean area. Problems tie to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are amplified in karst coastal aquifers where the whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. Focusing on Mediterranean countries, most part of coastal aquifers of Spain, France, Portugal, S...

  17. Community Empowerment Strategy Based on Social and Cultural Capital of Coastal Communities at Makassar Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzil, Tanzil

    2018-05-01

    The study aims to (1) analyze the form and the function of social capital in fisher communities of Makasar Island (2) formulate a strategy of empowerment through reinforcement of social capital in fisher communities in Makasar Island. The methodological design used is a case study. The data is then analysed through descriptive-qualitative, an analysis carried out continuously from the collection of data until the investigation is completed. The study findings showed that the fisher communities in Makasar Island have social and cultural capital that can be identified on the forms of trust, values/norms, and networks in which each social and cultural capital has become a power for fishermen to survive and adapt to its environment. The results of this study also identify various problems related to the process of empowering fishing communities on the island of Makassar. The problems also become a constraint for fishermen to improve their business so that they obtain relatively low incomes. The problems are: firstly, the weakness on the use of technology so that the productivity of fishermen is relatively low and the small business scale, the second, the difficulty in business development because of the limited access to capital and the third, the poor of business management as the result of limited ability in business management. These factors then lead the fishing communities on the island of Makasar powerless to exploit the rich potential of marine resources.

  18. Aliens in Paradise. Boat density and exotic coastal mollusks in Moorea Island (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardura, Alba; Planes, Serge; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-12-01

    Pacific islands are particularly vulnerable to the effects of invasive species. After habitat destruction or modification, invasive species are responsible for more biological extinctions than any other cause. Further, the rate of extinction of native species has been higher on islands than anywhere else in the world. Invasive species have also degraded native ecosystems. In order to detect exotic intertidal mollusk species, an extensive sampling around Moorea Island, a more or less unspoiled island surrounded by a rich coral reef habitat, has been developed considering that sampled points have different characteristics in wave exposure, algae coverage, type of substrate, distance to ports, distance to freshwater, distance sewage and boat traffic. Samples were DNA barcoded for unequivocal species assignation. The presence of five NIS among 26 species seems an important signal of introduction of alien biota in Moorea Island coast. However they were represented by a total of 38 individuals among 1487 mollusks (2.55%). While the distance to relatively big ports influenced directly species richness, the intensity of maritime traffic measured as boat density near sampling points was significantly associated with the frequency of exotic species. Other environmental factors did not show significant correlation with the frequency of exotics, suggesting that in an environment without big discontinuities, with little habitat modification, local boat traffic is the most influential factor in the spread of exotic species. This could be mitigated relatively easily by reducing boat density in local zones of ecological interest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  20. Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: implications for natural coastal resources and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatje, Sven; Heilmayer, Olaf; Laudien, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) significantly influences marine ecosystems and the sustained exploitation of marine resources in the coastal zone of the Humboldt Current upwelling system. Both its warm (El Niño: EN) and cold (La Niña: LN) phase have drastic implications for the ecology, socio-economy and infrastructure along most of Pacific South America. Local artisanal fisheries, which especially suffer from the effects of EN, represent a major part for the domestic economy of Chile and Peru and in consequence a huge amount of published and unpublished studies exists aiming at identifying effects of EN and LN. However, most processes and underlying mechanisms fostering the ecology of organisms along Pacific South America have not been analyzed yet and for the marine realm most knowledge is traditionally based on rather descriptive approaches. We herein advocate that small-scale comparative and interdisciplinary process studies work as one possible solution to understand better the variability observed in EN/LN effects at local scale. We propose that differences in small-scale impacts of ENSO along the coast rather than the macro-ecological and oceanographic view are essential for the sustainable management of costal ecosystems and the livelihood of the people depending on it. Based on this, we summarize the conceptual approach from the EU-funded International Science and Technology Cooperation (INCO) project “Climate variability and El Niño Southern Oscillation: Implications for Natural Coastal Resources and Management (CENSOR)” that aims at enhancing the detection, compilation, and understanding of EN and LN effects on the coastal zone and its natural resources. We promote a multidisciplinary avenue within present international funding schemes, with the intention to bridge the traditional gap between basic and applied coastal research. The long-term aim is an increased mitigation of harm caused by EN as well as a better use of beneficial effects

  1. Resistivity-Chemistry Integrated Approaches for Investigating Groundwater Salinity of Water Supply and Agricultural Activity at Island Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, M. F. T.; Masirin, M. I. M.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Azman, M. A. A.; Madun, A.

    2018-04-01

    Groundwater suitability for water supply and agriculture in an island coastal area may easily be influenced by seawater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate seawater intrusion to the suitability of the groundwater for water supply and oil palm cultivation on Carey Island in Malaysia. This is the first study that used integrated method of geo-electrical resistivity and hydrogeochemical methods to investigate seawater intrusion to the suitability of groundwater for water supply and oil palm cultivation at two different surface elevation and land cover. The relationship between earth resistivity, total dissolved solids and earth conductivity was derived with water type classifications and crop suitability classification according to salinity, used to identify water types and also oil palm tolerance to salinity. Results from the contour resistivity and conductivity maps showed that the area facing severe coastal erosion (east area) exhibited unsuitable groundwater condition for water supply and oil palm at the unconfined aquifer thickness of 7.8 m and 14.1 m, respectively. Comparing to the area that are still intact with mangrove (west area), at the same depth, groundwater condition exhibits suitable usage for both socioeconomic activities. Different characteristics of surface elevation and land cover are paramount factors influencing saltwater distribution at the west and east area. By the end of the twenty-first century there will no longer be suitable water for supply and oil palm plantation based on the local sea-level rise prediction and Ghyben–Herzberg assumption (sharp interface), focusing on the severe erosion area of the study site.

  2. Geochemical characterization and heavy metal migration in a coastal polluted aquifer incorporating tidal effects: field investigation in Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Bo; Dai, Chaomeng; Lou, Sha; Tao, An; Zhong, Guihui

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and migration of heavy metal in coastal aquifer incorporating tidal effects were investigated in detail by the field geological survey and observation. The continuous groundwater sampling, field observation (for groundwater potentiometric surface elevation, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity), and laboratory analysis (for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentration) were conducted through eight monitoring wells located around the landfill in the northern part of Chongming Island, China. The results showed that the unconfined aquifer medium was estuary-littoral facies deposit of Holocene, mainly gray clayey silt and grey sandy silt, and the groundwater flow was mainly controlled by topography condition of the aquifer formation strike. The background values of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Chongming Island were 3.10 ± 3.09, 0.81 ± 0.25, 1.48 ± 1.09, 43.32 ± 33.06, 0.08 ± 0.16, and 0.88 ± 1.74 μg/L, respectively. Compared with the groundwater samples around the study area, the drinking water was qualified and was free from the seawater intrusion/estuarine facies contaminant encroachment. Pollutant discharge was reflected in water quality parameters, the Cr and Cu concentrations elevated to the peak of 50.07 and 46.00 μg/L, respectively, and meanwhile specific migration regularity was embodied in observation time series as well as other elements. This migration regularity was not fully identical according to correlations between these analyzed elements. Ambient watery environment, anthropogenic disturbance, regional hydrogeological condition, and biogeochemical reactivity on heavy metals reduced/altered the significance of elements correlation in the migration pathway in coastal aquifer.

  3. Assemblage characteristics and diet of fish in the shallow coastal waters of James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Roche, Kevin Francis; Sedláček, I.; Všetičková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2016), s. 2299-2309 ISSN 0722-4060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Antarctic Peninsula * Fish assemblage structure * Notothenioidei * Shallow coastal waters * Ice pack * Czech Antarctic Station Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  4. Maintaining a way of life for São Miguel Island (the Azores archipelago, Portugal): an assessment of coastal processes and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K; Phillips, M R; Borges, P; Thomas, T; August, P; Calado, H; Veloso-Gomes, F

    2014-05-15

    Traditional hard engineering structures and recently emerging soft engineering alternatives have been employed to protect vulnerable coastlines. Despite negative publicity, they have ensured community survival where socio-economic benefits outweigh adverse impacts. This is especially true for Small Islands (SI) where increasing sea levels and storm intensities threaten already limited land availability. This paper presents coastal vulnerability in São Miguel Island (the Azores SI archipelago) and considers SI issues with regard to coastal land loss. Regional wave statistics using 1998 to 2011 wind record showed: periods ranging from 7 to 13s (circa 83%); wave heights between 1 and 3m (circa 60%); and increasing trends in westerly (p=0.473), easterly (p=0.632) and southeasterly (p=0.932) waves. Sea level analyses between 1978 and 2007 indicated a statistically significant rising trend (2.5 ± 0.4 mm yr(-1); p=0.000), while between 1996 and 2007 it was 3.3 ± 1.5 mm yr(-1) (p=0.025), agreeing with other global sea level studies. Based on 2001 and 2008 population data and using zonal statistics, circa 60% of the Island's population was found to reside within 1 km of the sea and the percentage of total population was linearly correlated with distance from the shoreline (r(2)=99%). Three case studies show hard coastal engineering solutions preserved Azorean coastal lifestyle and had little or no observed negative impacts on their environs. Although hard engineering is likely to remain a valuable and feasible coastal protection option, an inventory of São Miguel's population distribution, surf breaks, bathymetry and coastal erosion rates showed the potential of using multifunctional artificial reefs as a soft engineering solution. These offshore submerged breakwaters offer coastal protection while providing additional benefits such as surfing amenity and beach widening. Consequently, findings of this work can inform other SI communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  5. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Weiss, R.; Renteria, W.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Local Time, Galapagos), the magnitude 9.0 Mw Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan. The purpose of this presentation is to provide the results of a tsunami field survey in the Galapagos Islands performed by an International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) with great assistance from INOCAR, the oceanographic service of the Ecuadorian Navy, and the Galapagos National Park. The Galapagos Islands are a volcanic chain composed of many islands of various sizes. The four largest islands are the focus of this survey, and are, from west to east, Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Aside from approximately 10 sandy beaches that are open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are strictly off limits to anyone without a research permit. All access to the shoreline is coordinated through the Galapagos National Park, and any landing requires a chaperone, a Park Ranger. While a few of the visited areas in this survey were tourist sites, the vast majority were not. Due to time constraints and a generally inaccessibility of the coastline, the survey locations were strongly guided by numerical computations performed previous to the surveys. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum flow elevations were generally in the range of 3-4 meters, while Isabela experienced the largest flow elevation of 6 m in a small pocket beach. The largest harbor in the Islands, Puerto Ayora, experienced moderate damage, with significant flooding and some structural damage. Currents in the Baltra Channel, a small waterway between Santa Cruz and Baltra, were strong enough to transport navigation buoys distances greater than 800 m. Extreme dune erosion, and the associated destruction of sea turtle nesting habit, was widespread and noted on all of the islands visited.

  6. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  7. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Charlton-Robb

    Full Text Available Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic

  8. Accelerated relative sea-level rise and rapid coastal erosion: Testing a causal relationship for the Louisiana barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H.; Hansen, M.E.; Jaffe, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The role of relative sea-level rise as a cause for the rapid erosion of Louisiana's barrier island coast is investigated through a numerical implementation of a modified Bruun rule that accounts for the low percentage of sand-sized sediment in the eroding Louisiana shoreface. Shore-normal profiles from 150 km of coastline west of the Mississippi delta are derived from bathymetric surveys conducted during the 1880s. 1930s and 1980s. An RMS difference criterion is employed to test whether an equilibrium profile form is maintained between survey years. Only about half the studied profiles meet the equilibrium Criterion this represents a significant limitation on the potential applicability of the Bruun rule. The profiles meeting the equilibrium criterion, along with measured rates of relative sea-level rise, are used to hindcast shoreline retreat rates at 37 locations within the study area. Modeled and observed shoreline retreat rates show no significant correlation. Thus in terms of the Bruun approach relative sea-level rise has no power for hindcasting (and presumably forecasting) rates of coastal erosion for the Louisiana barrier islands.

  9. Desalination Brine Discharge Impacts on Coastal Biology and Water Chemistry - A Case Study from Carlsbad Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K. L.; Heck, N.; Potts, D. C.; Paytan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh water demand is increasing world-wide due to on-going droughts, climate change and increasing human population and associated demand for food and water. Desalination of seawater is a reliable source of potable water; however the effects of byproduct brine discharge from desalination plants on coastal areas have not been thoroughly assessed. Here we report results from in-situmeasurements of the effects of brine discharge on water chemistry and coastal biology from a desalination plant in Carlsbad, Southern California. We compared select parameters in the coastal zone around the discharge site before and after operation began and conducted additional controlled laboratory incubations with key coastal species and brine effluent. Our in-situ data shows differences in salinity and temperature between the discharge area and a control site both before and after the desalination plant started operation. The discharge water is warmer by 3-5 Co than the ambient seawater and a temperature gradient is seen around the discharge channel. This is likely a result of mixing of the desalination brine with power plant cooling water for dilution prior to discharge and the higher temperatures are not directly attributed to the desalination. Our post-discharge results show a decipherable salinity plume at the bottom of the water column ( 6 m depth) reaching up to 600 m offshore from the discharge site. This indicates inefficient mixing of the brine in the coastal discharge zone. No significant differences are found in nutrient levels, organic carbon or chlorophyll a concentrations around the discharge. The benthic biology assemblage post-discharge is significantly different from the pre-discharge organisms' assemblage. However, the role of seasonal changes in temperature may also have impacted the data as the sampling was conducted during different seasons. Controlled incubation experiments of brittle stars (Ophiothrix spiculata) shows no significant difference in growth or

  10. Coastal cliff geometry derived from structure-from-motion photogrammetry at Stara Ba\\vska, Krk Island, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ružić, Igor; Marović, Ivan; Benac, Čedomir; Ilić, Suzana

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the capability of structure-from-motion photogrammetry in defining the geometry of cliffs and undercuts in rocks of complex geomorphology. A case site was chosen along pocket beaches near the village of Stara Ba\\vska on the Adriatic Sea island of Krk, Gulf of Kvarner, Croatia, where cliff erosion of 5 m in breccias was identified by comparison of aerial photographs from 1960 and 2004. The 3D point cloud was derived from approx. 800 photos taken on 9 January 2014 by a single camera from various elevations and angles, and processed using the online software ReCap (Autodesk). Data acquisition was found to be quick and the method easy to implement. The difference between the georeferenced 3D cloud points and an RTK-GPS survey was 7 cm, i.e. within the limits of RTK-GPS precision. Quantifying the spatial variation in undercut geometries revealed that the deepest and largest (17 m3) undercut was in the south-eastern sector of the beach. Reconstructing the detailed geomorphology of this 3.8-m-deep undercut convincingly demonstrates the high efficiency of the method. Such assessments of spatiotemporal changes in undercut and overhang volumes can prove useful for evaluations of cliff erosion risk. Coupled with the low cost and relatively simple application, this is evidently an attractive technique for meaningful geotechnical and coastal engineering monitoring in the future on the island of Krk and, for that matter, also on other Adriatic islands and in similar settings worldwide.

  11. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  12. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone.

  13. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihu; Zhu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone. PMID:28286690

  14. Changes of freshwater-lens thickness in basaltic island aquifers overlain by thick coastal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotzoll, Kolja; Oki, Delwyn S.; El-Kadi, Aly I.

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater-lens thickness and long-term changes in freshwater volume in coastal aquifers are commonly assessed through repeated measurement of salinity profiles from monitor wells that penetrate into underlying salt water. In Hawaii, the thickest measured freshwater lens is currently 262 m in dike-free, volcanic-rock aquifers that are overlain by thick coastal sediments. The midpoint depth (depth where salinity is 50% salt water) between freshwater and salt water can serve as an indicator for freshwater thickness. Most measured midpoints have risen over the past 40 years, indicating a shrinking lens. The mean rate of rise of the midpoint from 1999–2009 varied locally, with faster rates in highly developed areas (1.0 m/year) and slower rates in less developed areas (0.5 m/year). The thinning of the freshwater lenses is the result of long-term groundwater withdrawal and reduced recharge. Freshwater/salt-water interface locations predicted from measured water levels and the Ghyben-Herzberg principle may be deeper than measured midpoints during some periods and shallower during other periods, although depths may differ up to 100 m in some cases. Moreover, changes in the midpoint are slower than changes in water level. Thus, water levels may not be a reliable indicator of the amount of freshwater in a coastal aquifer.

  15. Salt-water encroachment in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Swarzenski, Wolfgang V.

    1966-01-01

    deposits. It extends from the seaward areas inland about 2 miles into Island Park. The deep wedge extends into southeastern Queens County and southern Nassau County principally in the deeper parts of the Magothy (?) Formation and in the underlying clay member of the Raritan Formation. The leading edge of the deep wedge is at the base of the Magothy (?) Formation. This edge is apparently at the shoreline east of Lido Beach and extends inland about 4 miles to Woodmere and about 7 miles to South Ozone Park. Zones of diffusion as much as 6 miles wide and about 500 feet thick were delineated in the frontal part of the salty-water wedges. These thick and broad zones of diffusion were probably formed during the past 1,000 or more years in heterogeneous unconsolidated deposits by long- and short-term changes in sea level and in fresh-water outflow to the sea and by dispersion caused by the movements of the water and its salt mass. Changes in sea level and fresh-water outflow together produced appreciable advances and recessions of the salt-water front. The chemical compositions of the diffused water in all wedges are modified to some extent by base exchange and other physical and chemical processes and also by diffusion. The intermediate wedge of salty water is moving landward at a rate of less than 20 feet a year in the vicinity of Island Park and, thus, has moved less than 1,000 feet since 1900. The leading edge of the deep wedge has advanced landward at about 300 feet a :ear in Woodmere in southwestern Nassau County and about 160 feet a year at South Ozone Park in southeastern Queens County, principally under the influence of local withdrawals near the toe of the wedge. Between Hewlett and Lido Beach, the deep wedge is moving inland at the rate of about 10 feet a year under the influence of regional withdrawals in inland areas. Regional encroachment of the deep wedge is apparently retarded appreciably by cyclic flow, that is, by the return seaward in the upper

  16. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sangyoung; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel

    2013-06-01

    On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5

  17. Αutomated 2D shoreline detection from coastal video imagery: an example from the island of Crete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velegrakis, A. F.; Trygonis, V.; Vousdoukas, M. I.; Ghionis, G.; Chatzipavlis, A.; Andreadis, O.; Psarros, F.; Hasiotis, Th.

    2015-06-01

    Beaches are both sensitive and critical coastal system components as they: (i) are vulnerable to coastal erosion (due to e.g. wave regime changes and the short- and long-term sea level rise) and (ii) form valuable ecosystems and economic resources. In order to identify/understand the current and future beach morphodynamics, effective monitoring of the beach spatial characteristics (e.g. the shoreline position) at adequate spatio-temporal resolutions is required. In this contribution we present the results of a new, fully-automated detection method of the (2-D) shoreline positions using high resolution video imaging from a Greek island beach (Ammoudara, Crete). A fully-automated feature detection method was developed/used to monitor the shoreline position in geo-rectified coastal imagery obtained through a video system set to collect 10 min videos every daylight hour with a sampling rate of 5 Hz, from which snapshot, time-averaged (TIMEX) and variance images (SIGMA) were generated. The developed coastal feature detector is based on a very fast algorithm using a localised kernel that progressively grows along the SIGMA or TIMEX digital image, following the maximum backscatter intensity along the feature of interest; the detector results were found to compare very well with those obtained from a semi-automated `manual' shoreline detection procedure. The automated procedure was tested on video imagery obtained from the eastern part of Ammoudara beach in two 5-day periods, a low wave energy period (6-10 April 2014) and a high wave energy period (1 -5 November 2014). The results showed that, during the high wave energy event, there have been much higher levels of shoreline variance which, however, appeared to be similarly unevenly distributed along the shoreline as that related to the low wave energy event, Shoreline variance `hot spots' were found to be related to the presence/architecture of an offshore submerged shallow beachrock reef, found at a distance of 50-80 m

  18. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  19. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endandered/rare and/or anadromous fish species in Southern California. Vector lines in this...

  20. Body size of commom opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied 1826 (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae on southern brazilian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. Salvador

    Full Text Available The body size of vertebrates isolated on islands can undergo changes due to ecological features of these environments. This study aimed to compare the body size of the common opossum, Didelphis aurita, from different insular populations within the same archipelago in southern Brazil. The opossum populations showed corporal variation and different hypotheses were raised to understand the results. This study constitutes the most detailed body size comparison of a marsupial within different insular populations in the Neotropical zone and the data gathered represents an initial contribution for regional fauna biometric knowledge.

  1. Environmental assessment of coastal surface sediments at Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al Kahtany, Khaled; Al Otiaby, Naif

    2015-07-15

    Thirty eight surface sediments samples have been collected in the area around Tarut Island, Saudi Arabian Gulf to determine the spatial distribution of metals, and to assess the magnitude of pollution. Total concentrations of Fe, Mn, As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn in the sediments were measured using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer). Nature of sediments and heavy metals distribution reflect marked changes in lithology, biological activities in Tarut bay. Very high arsenic concentrations were reported in all studied locations from Tarut Island. The concentrations of Mercury are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea. The concentrations of As and Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (MEC, PEC) indicating possible As and Hg contamination. Dredging and land filling, sewage, and oil pollution are the most important sources of pollution in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Akit’s house: identification of vernacular coastal architecture in Meranti Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, G.; Amanati, R.

    2018-03-01

    Akit people can be found on Meranti islands near east coast Sumatra. Their houses made mainly by wood construction as stilt type house. The roof of the house was made by leaves, and bark of the tree was used on house wall. Nowadays, some changes have occurred on this vernacular house. The changes are not only as responding to the environment, environment but also are affecting by way of their life. In turn, this changing becomes an interesting phenomenon, particular comparing to the house on other islands. This research has conducted in qualitative research approach to identify how the changes of the house. Field data gathered by a range of methods such as observation, story-telling, and documentation. The data are analyzed and interpreted within an iterative process to expand understanding of the house’s changing. This research offers an architectural insight into how the vernacular houses are changing.

  3. The monitoring of atmospheric mercury species in the Southern Indian Ocean at Amsterdam Island (38°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barret M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of oceans in the global cycle of mercury is still poorly characterized, mainly because of a lack a long-term data on atmospheric mercury concentrations in the remote Southern Ocean. In the frame of GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System, we present here the first results from a new monitoring station at Amsterdam Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. For the period January to April 2012, we recorded mean concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate-bounded mercury (PHg of 1.03 ng m−3, 0.37 and 0.34 pg m−3 respectively. While GEM concentrations showed little variations, RGM and PHg exhibited fast variations with alternation of value below the instrumental detection limit and maximum values up to 4 pg m−3.

  4. Coastal Inlets Research Program. Barrier Island Migration Over a Consolidating Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    the toe of the dune to the high water line) for full development of eolian transport. However, the original Shore Protection Manual (1984...tested. Barrier islands overlying a compressible substrate are more likely to have reduced dune elevations due to consolidation, incur overall...migra- tion when the dune reaches a critical elevation with respect to the prev- alent storm conditions. Initial large-scale infusion of sand from an

  5. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes situated on the coast of the southern Baltic function in different conditions than those in which typically inland reservoirs occur. They are situated in the contact zone of two environments: land and sea. These reservoirs together with their direct catchments form specific hydrographic arrangement, in which the course of physical, chemical and biological processes depends on the fact which of these two environments exerts a stronger influence at a given moment. This is important as the lakes situated in the shore zone of the southern Baltic are not exposed to phenomena caused by constant tides, as it is the case in open seas (Ataie-Ashtiani et al., 1999), but only to extreme hydrometeorological conditions, which lead to the formation of the phenomenon of intrusions of sea waters and of damming the free outflow of potamic waters (Demirel, 2004; Cieśliński, Drwal, 2005). What should also be remembered are the local hydrographic, hydrological and morphometric conditions. As a result of intrusions, in the waters of coastal lakes, apart from inland waters there are also waters of sea origin. The proportions of these genetically distinct waters are variable and differ in individual lakes (Grassi, Netti, 2000; Drwal, Cieśliński, 2007). Despite the difference in the causal factor triggering the phenomenon of salt water intrusions, the effect is usually the same as that observed, for instance, in lakes and lagoons of seas with tides (Ishitobi et al., 1999; De Louw, Oude Essink, 2001) and poorly flushed lagoon (Hsing-Juh et al., 2006) or estuaries (Uncles et al., 2002), though the scale of qualitative changes is greater in the case of open seas than in half-closed and closed seas. The status of the research carried out so far enables proposing a hypothesis that chlorides concentrations, as the best indicators for establishing the occurrence of the phenomenon of intrusions, depend not only on the meteorological factor but in some of the lakes on various

  6. Magnitudes and Moment-Duration Scaling of Low-Frequency Earthquakes Beneath Southern Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.; Thomas, A.; Rubin, A. M.; Savard, G.; Chuang, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We employ 130 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing tremor sources on the plate boundary below southern Vancouver Island to examine LFE magnitudes. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing over 300,000 independent detections from major episodic-tremor-and- slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. Template displacement waveforms for direct P- and S-waves at near epicentral distances are remarkably simple at many stations, approaching the zero-phase, single pulse expected for a point dislocation source in a homogeneous medium. High spatio-temporal precision of template match-filtered detections facilitates precise alignment of individual LFE detections and analysis of waveforms. Upon correction for 1-D geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve a large, sparse linear system for 3-D path corrections and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a single ETS template. The spatio-temporal distribution of magnitudes indicates that typically half the total moment release occurs within the first 12-24 hours of LFE activity during an ETS episode when tidal sensitity is low. The remainder is released in bursts over several days, particularly as spatially extensive RTRs, during which tidal sensitivity is high. RTR's are characterized by large magnitude LFEs, and are most strongly expressed in the updip portions of the ETS transition zone and less organized at downdip levels. LFE magnitude-frequency relations are better described by power-law than exponential distributions although they exhibit very high b-values ≥ 6. We examine LFE moment-duration scaling by generating templates using detections for limiting magnitude ranges MW<1.5, MW≥ 2.0. LFE duration displays a weaker dependence upon moment than expected for self-similarity, suggesting that LFE asperities are limited in dimension and that moment variation is dominated by slip. This behaviour implies

  7. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  8. Hydrothermal venting on the flanks of Heard and McDonald islands, southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J. E.; Arculus, R. J.; Coffin, M.; Bradney, A.; Baumberger, T.; Wilkinson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Heard Island and the nearby McDonald Islands are two sites of active volcanism associated with the so-called Kerguelen mantle plume or hot spot. In fact, it has been proposed that the Kerguelen hot spot is currently located beneath Heard Island. During its maiden maximum endurance voyage (IN2016_V01), the recently commissioned Australian R/V Investigator conducted a detailed bathymetric and water column survey of the waters around Heard Island and the McDonald Islands as well as other sites on the Kerguelen Plateau. Some 50 hydrographic profiles were completed using the CTD/rosette system equipped with trace metal sampling and a nephelometer for suspended particle concentrations. In addition to the hydrographic profiles, 244 bubble plumes were detected in the vicinity of the Heard and McDonald Islands using the ship's multibeam system. It is thought that the bubble plumes observed on sea knolls and other seafloor surrounding the McDonald Islands are likely hydrothermal in origin, while plumes northeast of Heard Island may be biogenic methane from cold seeps. At 29 of the hydrographic stations water samples for helium isotope measurements were drawn from the CTD rosette and hermetically sealed into copper tubing for subsequent shorebased mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph analysis. In this paper we report results for 3He/4He ratios and CO2 and CH4 concentrations in water samples collected with the CTD/rosette, and discuss how these results are correlated with suspended particle concentrations and temperature anomalies.

  9. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  10. The structural evolution of the coastal area between Danger Point and Struisbaai in the southern Cape Fold Belt, with implications for the siting of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.J.B.; Andreoli, M.A.G.

    1990-01-01

    A structural analysis of the coastal area between Danger Point and Struisbaai in the Southern Cape has been undertaken, using the technique of structural domain analysis coupled with geophysical interpretation and geological mapping. This study forms part of the country-wide geological investigations that are being carried out for the purpose of siting South Africa's future nuclear power stations. 30 refs., 18 figs

  11. Dissolved methane concentration and flux in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector: Possible influence of wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured dissolved methane concentrations ([CH4]) in the coastal zone of the Southern California Bight-Mexican sector (SCBMex) during two cruises: S1 in the USA–Mexico Border Area (BA) during a short rainstorm and S2 in the entire SCBMex during a drier period a few days later....

  12. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  13. The Influence of Weather Anomalies on Mercury Cycling in the Marine Coastal Zone of the Southern Baltic-Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decreased emission loads of mercury, historical deposits of this metal in various compartments of the environment may become an additional diffuse source in the future. Global climate change manifests itself in the temperate zone in several ways: warmer winters, shorter icing periods, increased precipitation and heightened frequency of extreme events such as strong gales and floods, all of which cause disturbances in the rate and direction of mercury biogeochemical cycling. The present study was conducted at two sites, Oslonino and Gdynia Orlowo (both in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk), from which samples were collected once a month between January 2012 and December 2012. In the Southern Baltic region, climate changes can certainly enhance coast to basin fluxes of mercury and the transfer of bioavailable forms of this metal to the food web. They may also, in the future, contribute to uncontrollable increases of mercury in the seawater.

  14. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic chronostratigraphy of coastal southern Peru: Temporal evolution of sedimentation along an active margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, F.; Sempere, T.; Spikings, R.; Schaltegger, U.

    2013-11-01

    We present an integrated geochronological and sedimentological study that significantly revises the basin and magmatic history associated with lithospheric thinning in southern coastal Peru (15-18°S) since the onset of subduction at ˜530 Ma. Until now, estimating the age of the sedimentary and volcanic rocks has heavily relied on paleontologic determinations. Our new geochronological data, combined with numerous field observations, provide the first robust constraints on their chronostratigraphy, which is discussed in the light of biostratigraphical attributions. A detailed review of the existing local units simplifies the current stratigraphic nomenclature and clarifies its absolute chronology using zircon U-Pb ages. We observe that the Late Paleozoic to Jurassic stratigraphy of coastal southern Peru consists of two first-order units, namely (1) the Yamayo Group, a sedimentary succession of variable (0-2 km) thickness, with apparently no nearby volcanic lateral equivalent, and (2) the overlying Yura Group, consisting of a lower, 1-6 km-thick volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Chocolate Formation, and an upper, 1-2 km-thick sedimentary succession that are in markedly diachronous contact across the coeval arc and back-arc. We date the local base of the Chocolate Formation, and thus of the Yura Group, to 216 Ma, and show that the underlying Yamayo Group spans a >110 Myr-long time interval, from at least the Late Visean to the Late Triassic, and is apparently devoid of significant internal discontinuities. The age of the top of the Chocolate Formation, i.e. of the volcanic arc pile, varies from ˜194 Ma to less than ˜135 Ma across the study area. We suggest that this simplified and updated stratigraphic framework can be reliably used as a reference for future studies.

  15. Combining sound science, legal action and stakeholder involvement to protect a vulnerable coastal aquifer on the island of St. Kitts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahely, H.; Nettles, S.; Burrowes, R.; Haas, G.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources in small island developing states (SIDS), especially those in the Caribbean are among the most vulnerable systems to human activities and climate change. This vulnerability is exacerbated by a fragmented approach to water resources management. The unconfined coastal aquifer underlying the Basseterre Valley is a significant asset for the people of St. Kitts-Nevis. The potable water extracted from this aquifer represents over 40% of the total water supply for St. Kitts. The area is subject to urban encroachment, inappropriate land use and threats from pollution. A project was implemented using an integrated approach to help government and communities take practical actions to protect this vulnerable aquifer by demonstrating proper management on three fronts: mitigation of threats from contaminants, protection of the aquifer and improved water resources management. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as part of the Integrating Watershed and Coastal Areas Management (IWCAM) project for Caribbean Small Island States. A comprehensive hydrogeologic evaluation of the aquifer was undertaken in order to aid in the development of a water resources management strategy for the Basseterre Valley Aquifer. Multi-electrode electrical resistivity (MER), a novel surface geophysical technique, was used to delineate the thickness and distribution of sediments throughout the aquifer, zones of increased porosity, zones of possible contamination and the fresh/salt water interface. Together with slowly declining static water levels and elevated dissolved solids levels, the early stages of salt water intrusion have been documented. Groundwater modelling suggests that adjusting the pumping regime, redeveloping some of the existing wells and relocating other wells is a viable option for increasing efficiency and preventing long term dewatering. Overall, the study has provided a wealth of new information about the aquifer for a reasonable cost. A

  16. Impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on a demersal hard-bottom fish community in the southern North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    In the coming decades, artificial defence structures will increase in importance worldwide for the protection of coasts against the impacts of global warming. However, the ecological effects of such structures on the natural surroundings remain unclear. We investigated the impact of experimentally introduced tetrapod fields on the demersal fish community in a hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. The results indicated a significant decrease in fish abundance in the surrounding area caused by migration effects towards the artificial structures. Diversity (HB) and evenness (E) values exhibited greater variation after the introduction of the tetrapods. Additionally, a distinct increase in young-of-the-year (YOY) fish was observed near the structures within the second year after introduction. We suggest that the availability of adequate refuges in combination with additional food resources provided by the artificial structures has a highly species-specific attraction effect. However, these findings also demonstrate that our knowledge regarding the impact of artificial structures on temperate fish communities is still too limited to truly understand the ecological processes that are initiated by the introduction of artificial structures. Long-term investigations and additional experimental in situ work worldwide will be indispensable for a full understanding of the mechanisms by which coastal defence structures interact with the coastal environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Near-coastal ocean variability off southern Tamaulipas - northern Veracruz, western Gulf of Mexico, during spring-summer 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David

    2016-04-01

    Six months of observations from a near-coastal mooring deployed off southern Tamaulipas-northern Veracruz coast (western Gulf of Mexico) during spring-summer 2013 provides velocity, temperature, salinity, sea level, and dissolved oxygen series in a region which ocean dynamics is still poorly understood. As shown in a preceding analysis of this region's winter circulation for winter 2012-2013, coastal trapped motions associated with the regional invasion of synoptic cold fronts modulate the local variability; this pattern remains in the spring 2013, when even more intense events of alongshore flow (>50 cm/s) are observed. This intensified flow is associated with a significant decrease in the dissolved oxygen, most probably related to an influence of hypoxic waters coming from the northern Gulf. In late spring-mid summer, the wind pattern corresponds to persistent southeasterly winds that favor the occurrence of a local upwelling, which maintains a local thermal reduction (>3 degrees Celsius) and is associated with a persistent northward flow (>30 cm/s). The late summer was characterized by a significant tropical-cyclone activity, when a depression, a storm, and a hurricane affected the western Gulf. These tropical systems caused an intense precipitation and hence an important intensification of the local riverine discharge, and the winds enhanced the mixing of such riverine waters, via mostly kinetic stirring and Ekman pumping.

  18. Variability of coastal water hydrodynamics in the southern Baltic - hindcast modelling of an upwelling event along the Polish coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an attempt to reproduce, with theaid of a numerical circulation model, the hydrological conditions observedin the coastal area of the southern Baltic in September 1989.A large fall in surface layer seawater temperature was recordedin September 1989 at two coastal stations in the vicinity ofKolobrzeg and Wladyslawowo. This upwelling-like phenomenon was assumed tobe related to the specific anemobaric situation in September 1989,however typical of this phenomenon to occur along the Polish Baltic coast(Malicki & Mietus 1994. A three-dimensional (3-D sigma-coordinatebaroclinic model of the Baltic Sea, with a horizontal resolution of~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical, was applied to investigatewater circulation and thermohaline variability. Hindcastnumerical simulation showed that the model provided a good reproductionof the temporal history of the surface seawater temperature and theduration of the upwelling-like fall, but that the model results wereunderestimated. The maxima of this large fall in the surface layertemperature at both coastal stations are closely related to the phase ofchange of the upwelling-favourable wind direction to the opposite one.The results of simulation runs showed details of upwelling developmentdue to wind field fluctuations in time and differences in shaping thetemperature and current patterns in conjunction with the variations intopography and coastline features in some areas along the Polish coast.Two different hydrodynamic regimes of water movements along the coastresulting from topographical features (the Slupsk Bank can be distinguished.From the model simulation the specific conditions for the occurrence anddevelopment of upwelling at the eastern end of the Polish coast(in the vicinity of Wladyslawowo can be deduced.

  19. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Zhang, Yanpeng; Chen, Wen; Yu, Shaowen

    2018-03-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers is usually related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The results of chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai, southern China. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in seawater (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO4 2- ), as well as the isotopic content and ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C), suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer of the coastal plain is related to seawater and that the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization has occurred in an area that is significantly influenced by land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds are identified in the shallowest confined aquifer (I) in the middle of the area (site BBW2). Leakage from this polluted confined aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the underlying confined aquifer (II). At the coastal monitoring site (BBW3), confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are heavily contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity between the upper aquifers, and the seaward movement of freshwater, prevents saltwater from encroaching the deepest confined aquifer (III). A conceptual model is presented. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for the planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources in this region.

  20. Distribution of anti fouling biocides in coastal seawater of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massanisso, Paolo; Ubaldi, Carla; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Pezza, Massimo; Cannarsa, Sigfrido; Bordone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The pollution level due to anti fouling biocides in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (MPA) has been evaluated by both grab and passive sampling. Analyses of tributyltin (TBT), diuron, irgarol, chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid have been carried out on seawater and sediments. The results indicate a good condition of the coastline, but further studies with passive sampling for TBT are required to help the MPA administrators to control the status of the seawater with a methodology suitable to reach the Environmental Quality Standard values established by the Water Framework Directive [it

  1. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Verrastro

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a species’ diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard’s diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, “sit-and-wait” or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.

  2. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrastro, L; Ely, I

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.

  3. KERENTANAN PENYUSUPAN AIR LAUT DI PESISIR UTARA PULAU TERNATE (Vulnerability of Sea Water Intrusion in Northern Coastal of Ternate Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Achmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah pesisir bagian utara Pulau Ternate, dengan tujuan mengetahui kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dan menganalisis akuifer serta cara pengambilan airtanah sehingga tidak terjadi penyusupan air laut ke dalam tubuh airtanah. Sampel air sumur diukur untuk mengetahui kadar salinitas dan daya hantar listrik (DHL. Kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dukur dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik. Hasil pengukuran DHL dan salinitas airtanah di wilayah pesisir utara menunjukkan, terdapat penyusupan air laut di Desa Tobolo dan Sulamadaha, dengan rentang nilai masing-masing antara 0,5-3,3 mS/cm dan 0,2-1,7 ppt. Hasil pengukuran geolistrik menunjukkan batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut rata-rata antara 12-15 m dari permukaan. Nilai resistivitas air laut berkisar antara 0,01-20 Ωm. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan peringatan untuk tidak melakukan pengeboran sumur di wilayah pesisir. Sebagai contoh kasus, pengeboran sumur hingga 80 m dengan jarak sekitar 250 m dari garis pantai di Desa Takome, di mana batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut pada kedalaman 15 m. Pengukuran nilai DHL dan salinatas air dari sumur ini menunjukkan masing-masing 6,1 mS/cm dan 3,3 ppt. Nilai ini menunjukkan kedalaman sumur bor telah melewati zona pencampuran antara airtanah dengan air laut (interface.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the coastal areas of northern part of Ternate island, in order to know the depth of interface and to analyze the aquifers and to avoid seawater intrusion caused of groundwater extraction. Well water samples were measured to determine levels of salinity and DHL. The depth of interface was measured using geoelectric method. The results of electrical conductivity (EC and salinity of groundwater measurement in the northern coastal area showed that, there is infiltration of sea water in Tobolo and Sulamadaha. The EC and salinity values ranging between 0.5-3.3 mS/cm and 0.2-1.7 ppt

  4. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  5. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  6. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  7. Islands in the Sky: Ecophysiological Cloud-Vegetation Linkages in Southern Appalachian Mountain Cloud Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; Emanuel, R. E.; Johnson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain cloud forest (MCF) ecosystems are characterized by a high frequency of cloud fog, with vegetation enshrouded in fog. The altitudinal boundaries of cloud-fog zones co-occur with conspicuous, sharp vegetation ecotones between MCF- and non-MCF-vegetation. This suggests linkages between cloud-fog and vegetation physiology and ecosystem functioning. However, very few studies have provided a mechanistic explanation for the sharp changes in vegetation communities, or how (if) cloud-fog and vegetation are linked. We investigated ecophysiological linkages between clouds and trees in Southern Appalachian spruce-fir MCF. These refugial forests occur in only six mountain-top, sky-island populations, and are immersed in clouds on up to 80% of all growing season days. Our fundamental research questions was: How are cloud-fog and cloud-forest trees linked? We measured microclimate and physiology of canopy tree species across a range of sky conditions (cloud immersed, partly cloudy, sunny). Measurements included: 1) sunlight intensity and spectral quality; 2) carbon gain and photosynthetic capacity at leaf (gas exchange) and ecosystem (eddy covariance) scales; and 3) relative limitations to carbon gain (biochemical, stomatal, hydraulic). RESULTS: 1) Midday sunlight intensity ranged from very dark (2500 μmol m-2 s-1), and was highly variable on minute-to-minute timescales whenever clouds were present in the sky. Clouds and cloud-fog increased the proportion of blue-light wavelengths 5-15% compared to sunny conditions, and altered blue:red and red:far red ratios, both of which have been shown to strongly affect stomatal functioning. 2) Cloud-fog resulted in ~50% decreased carbon gain at leaf and ecosystem scales, due to sunlight levels below photosynthetic light-saturation-points. However, greenhouse studies and light-response-curve analyses demonstrated that MCF tree species have low light-compensation points (can photosynthesize even at low light levels), and maximum

  8. Heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, and Fe) concentration on coralreef in panjang island coastal, Jepara

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heni Susiati; Yarianto SBS; Ali Arman L; Yulizon Menri

    2008-01-01

    Observation on the accumulation of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Fe heavy metals in coral tissue were carried out in Panjang island, Jepara by NAA method. The purpose of this research is to determine the concentration of heavy metals on coral reef tissue in order to update environmental data to support site licensing and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The result indicated that the concentration of Zn is 1,78 - 42,34 ppm, Cu is undetected - 0,41 ppm, Cr is 0,03 - 0,35 ppm and Fe is 5,25 - 30,56 ppm. The data shows that the accumulation of heavy metals in the coral reef tissue is higher than environmental threshold value, especially for marine biota life referring to the Environmental Ministry Decree Number 51 year 2004. (author)

  9. Localised human impacts on the Harataonga coastal landscape, Great Barrier Island, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.; Cockrem, J.; Shane, P.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present results of analyses of sediment profiles and cores, and coprolites, from Harataonga Bay, Great Barrier Island. Using a range of analyses (sedimentological, plant microfossils, parasitological, microbial, and steroids and myoglobin) we concentrate on human impact and reconstruction of the geomorphology and vegetation of the near-shore environments. Two different sub--environments are represented: dunes and alluvial plain. Dune instability coincides with a major increase in disturbance-related plants (especially ground ferns) as a result of forest clearance. The present form of much of the Harataonga dunes and the swamp at the eastern end of the bay is directly a result of human impact, no earlier than 737 ± 178 14 C yr BP. In the record from the alluvial plain of the main Harataonga watercourse, at the western end of the bay, it is difficult to clearly resolve sedimentary inputs that directly relate to human presence in this former tidal inlet that was open to storm surge and stream floods. The only exception is the slopewash materials forming the terrace surface, sediments of which bear pollen consistent with vegetation disturbance. The landforms are natural but the rate at which the tidal inlet was infilled to form a terrace was accelerated by human activity. The nature and timing of the localised human impacts at Harataonga are consistent with those observed elsewhere on Great Barrier Island and mainland New Zealand. Some of our techniques (e.g. bacteria, steroids) are newly applied to coprolites in New Zealand but none provided any useful information because of poor preservation. (author). 34 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Alien species of fish parasites in the coastal lakes and lagoons of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus.

  11. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189

  12. Magnetotelluric imaging of the resurgent caldera on the island of Ischia (southern Italy): inferences for its structure and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Carlino, S.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Ischia (located in the Bay of Naples, Italy) represents a peculiar case of a well-exposed caldera that has experienced a large (>800 m) and rapid resurgence, accompanied by volcanic activity. What drives the resurgence of calderas is a crucial issue to investigate, because this process is associated with potential eruptions and high risk to people living within and around such large active volcanic systems. To improve the knowledge of volcano-tectonic processes affecting the caldera of Ischia, electromagnetic imaging of the structures associated with its resurgence was performed and integrated with available geological information. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey of the island was carried out along two main profiles through the central-western sector, providing an electrical resistivity map to a depth of 3 km. These resistivity cross sections allowed us to identify the presence of a very shallow magmatic intrusion, possibly a laccolith, at a depth of about 1 km, which was responsible for both the resurgence and the volcanic activity. Furthermore, the tectonic structures bordering the resurgent area and the occurrence of a large thermal anomaly in the western sector of the caldera also provided a signature in the resistivity cross sections, with the magma intrusion producing advection of hot fluids with high geothermal gradients (>150 °C km-1) in the southern and western sectors. All of these data are fundamental for the assessment of the island's volcano-tectonic dynamics and their associated hazards. The structure and activity of the island have been controlled by the process of resurgence associated with the arrival of new magma and the progressive intrusion of a laccolith at a shallow depth. The reactivation of such a shallow system may imply imminent eruption which would pose a major volcanic hazard.

  13. Coastal plain pond water quality and mercury contend of biota of the Long Island Central Pine Barrens and Mashomack Preserve: Effects of atmospheric deposition and human development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Siemion, Jason; Lane, Oksana P.

    2015-01-01

    Pine barrens are considered an imperiled ecosystem in the northeastern U.S. The Suffolk County Pine Barrens, once the second largest in the Northeast, were substantially reduced and fragmented by development during the 20th century. The coastal plain ponds being considered in this study occur in central Suffolk County within the Long Island Central Pine Barrens region. This highly unique natural environment, embedded with forests and woodlands, resulted from its glacial origins and a land use history that predates European colonization. Included in this study was The Nature Conservancy’s Mashomack Preserve, located on Shelter Island between Peconic Bay and Gardiner’s Bay. There are no freshwater ponds in the Mashomack Preserve, but this area was included with the Central Pine Barrens investigation, because Shelter Island has a similar geologic and land-use history that has resulted in a similarly unique low-nutrient forest and woodland ecosystem with extremely coarse-textured soils.

  14. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1 shell resources, (2 parasite impact, (3 competition, (4 predation, and (5 food. We found no supporting evidence for the first three hypotheses; the shells used by the hermit crabs on Dongsha were in poorer condition than were those used elsewhere, extremely few individuals in the region had ectoparasites, and the density of hermit crabs varied considerably among localities within each island. However, significantly higher percentages of C. rugosus reached age 3 years on Dongsha than at Siziwan bay in Taiwan. Two growth rate indices inferred from size structures suggested faster growth on Dongsha than at Siziwan. The condition index (i.e., the body mass/shield length ratio of C. rugosus was also greater on Dongsha than at Siziwan. Therefore, Dongsha hermit crabs seem to have superior diet and growth performance. Seagrass debris accumulation at the shore of Dongsha was considerable, whereas none was observed at Siziwan or on the other islands, where dicot leaves were the dominant food item for the vegetarian hermit crabs. We then experimentally evaluated the possible role of seagrass as food for C. rugosus. The crabs on Dongsha preferred seagrass to dicot leaves, and their growth increment was faster when they fed on seagrass than when they fed on dicot leaves; no such differences were found in the Siziwan hermit crabs. The aforementioned results are compatible with the food hypothesis explaining the size differences among the islands. The predator hypothesis could explain the greater life span but

  15. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined by RI CRMC were identified on quad maps and manually digitized from tablets, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset current as of 1989. Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined...

  16. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², p<0.05 test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p<0.05. Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  17. Occurrence and persistence of antifouling biocide Irgarol 1051 and its main metabolite in the coastal waters of Southern England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, John L.

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity and persistence of antifouling booster biocides are of major concern. This study reports the occurrence of Irgarol 1051 and its degradation product M1, in coastal waters of Southern England, during 2004-2005. The highest concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were 89 ng/L in water and 45 ng/g dry weight in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 13 ng/L and 16 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. As the degradation product of Irgarol 1051, M1 was less widespread, with the highest concentration of 30 ng/L in water and 14 ng/g in sediments, with an overall mean (n = 108) of 5 ng/L and 4 ng/g in water and sediments, respectively. Overall, the concentration of Irgarol 1051 and M1 decreased significantly during the sampling period and in comparison to earlier studies during 2000 to early 2004, indicating that control measures by restricting the use of Irgarol 1051 are effective in reducing its concentrations in coastal waters. The distribution of Irgarol 1051 between sediments and water was significantly related to sediment organic carbon content. In addition, significantly higher concentrations of Irgarol 1051 were detected in paint particles than in sediment. The rate of release of Irgarol 1051 from paint residues is very slow, with a half life of approximately 1 y. Two important findings are emerging, first the importance of organic rich sediments and paint residues as major sites of storage for Irgarol 1051, and secondly Irgarol 1051 may be classified as a persistent organic pollutant due to its long half life

  18. How coastal upwelling influences spatial patterns of size-structured diversity of copepods off central-southern Chile (summer 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Pamela; Escribano, Ruben; Fuentes, Marcelo; Jorquera, Erika; Vergara, Odette

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the structure of the copepod community in the upper 200 m of the coastal upwelling region off central-southern Chile in late summer 2009. Vertically stratified zooplankton samples and hydrographic variables were obtained from 42 stations over the continental shelf and oceanic areas. The survey took place during active upwelling, reflected by a cold upwelling plume extending out to 150 km offshore. A total of 62 copepod species were found. Of these, Oithona similis and Paracalanusindicus accounted for ca. 60% of the whole community. Species richness ( R) and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H‧) were estimated, and the latter was additionally modified to incorporate the effect of copepod size on diversity ( H‧ s). Samples were analyzed for two depth strata (0-50, 50-200 m) and for day vs. night conditions. Significant effects of day vs. night and strata on R, H‧ and H‧ s indicated that diel vertical migration between these two layers was an important source of variation in the zooplankton community. H‧ s seemed to represent copepod diversity better than R and H‧ over the spatial scale. H‧ s was also closely linked to colder upwelled water and the depth of the oxygen minimum zone following a principal component analysis. A positive relationship was even detected between depth of the oxygen minimum zone and H‧ s when strata and day/night effects were excluded. Our findings suggested that the coastal upwelling process could be an important driver of copepod diversity in this region. Upwelling leads to changes in the depth of the oxygen minimum zone and these changes impact the community composition due to species-dependent tolerances to low oxygen water.

  19. Rainfall drives atmospheric ice-nucleating particles in the coastal climate of southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice-nucleating particles (INPs active at modest supercooling (e.g. −8 °C; INP−8 can transform clouds from liquid to mixed phase, even at very small number concentrations (< 10 m−3. Over the course of 15 months, we found very similar patterns in weekly concentrations of INP−8 in PM10 (median  =  1.7 m−3, maximum  =  10.1 m−3 and weekly amounts of rainfall (median  =  28 mm, maximum  =  153 mm at Birkenes, southern Norway. Most INP−8 were probably aerosolised locally by the impact of raindrops on plant, litter and soil surfaces. Major snowfall and heavy rain onto snow-covered ground were not mirrored by enhanced numbers of INP−8. Further, transport model calculations for large (> 4 m−3 and small (< 4 m−3 numbers of INP−8 revealed that potential source regions likely to provide precipitation to southern Norway were associated with large numbers of INP−8. The proportion of land cover and land use type in potential source regions was similar for large and small numbers of INP−8. In PM2. 5 we found consistently about half as many INP−8 as in PM10. From mid-May to mid-September, INP−8 correlated positively with the fungal spore markers arabitol and mannitol, suggesting that some fraction of INP−8 during that period may consist of fungal spores. In the future, warmer winters with more rain instead of snow may enhance airborne concentrations of INP−8 during the cold season in southern Norway and in other regions with a similar climate.

  20. Diatom species abundance and morphologically-based dissolution proxies in coastal Southern Ocean assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Jonathan P.; Scherer, Reed P.

    2015-07-01

    Taphonomic processes alter diatom assemblages in sediments, thus potentially negatively impacting paleoclimate records at various rates across space, time, and taxa. However, quantitative taphonomic data is rarely included in diatom-based paleoenvironmental reconstructions and no objective standard exists for comparing diatom dissolution in sediments recovered from marine depositional settings, including the Southern Ocean's opal belt. Furthermore, identifying changes to diatom dissolution through time can provide insight into the efficiency of both upper water column nutrient recycling and the biological pump. This is significant in that reactive metal proxies (e.g. Al, Ti) in the sediments only account for post-depositional dissolution, not the water column where the majority of dissolution occurs. In order to assess the range of variability of responses to dissolution in a typical Southern Ocean diatom community and provide a quantitative guideline for assessing taphonomic variability in diatoms recovered from core material, a sediment trap sample was subjected to controlled, serial dissolution. By evaluating dissolution-induced changes to diatom species' relative abundance, three preservational categories of diatoms have been identified: gracile, intermediate, and robust. The relative abundances of these categories can be used to establish a preservation grade for diatom assemblages. However, changes to the relative abundances of diatom species in sediment samples may reflect taphonomic or ecological factors. In order to address this complication, relative abundance changes have been tied to dissolution-induced morphological change to the areolae of Fragilariopsis curta, a significant sea-ice indicator in Southern Ocean sediments. This correlation allows differentiation between gracile species loss to dissolution versus ecological factors or sediment winnowing. These results mirror a similar morphological dissolution index from a parallel study utilizing

  1. Microglanis pataxo, a new catfish from southern Bahia coastal rivers, northeastern Brazil (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Sarmento-Soares

    Full Text Available A new pseudopimelodid catfish of the genus Microglanis, collected in small rivers at the lower and middle Peruípe, middle Jucuruçu and Cahy basins, in the southeastern coast of the Bahia state, is described. The new species has a comparatively high number of anal fin proximal radials, 12, shaped as thin tubes, the last one bearing a laminar extension; a pectoral fin spine with a bony point and with a smaller number of serrations on its posterior border; seven pleural ribs and a narrow head width. We provide information on the external morphology and also on some osteological features for the new species. A key to species is presented for the coastal drainages between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia states.

  2. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  3. Effects of dredged sediment disposal on the coastal marine macrobenthic assemblage in Southern Brazil

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    L. G. Angonesi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the deposition impact of dredged material from Patos lagoon estuary on a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in an adjacent coastal marine area. Nine sampling stations were chosen at random in the disposal area, and nine others in the same way in an adjacent control area. Samples were collected at a 19 m depth before sediment disposal (11 July 2000, during dredging and disposal operations (25 Oct. 2000, and three months thereafter (24 Aug. 2001. Statistical analysis indicated that sampling periods presented similar characteristics in both the control and disposal sites. Disposal of dredged sediment from Patos lagoon had no detectable detrimental effects upon macrobenthic faunal assemblage at the dumping site. This result is attributed both to adaptation of resident biota to dynamic sedimentary conditions and to the fine estuarine sediment dredged, the dispersion of which in the water column might have minimized sediment deposition and consequent damage to the benthic fauna.

  4. Mercury in precipitation over the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siudek, Patrycja; Falkowska, Lucyna; Brodecka, Aleksandra; Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-02-01

    An investigation of atmospheric mercury was conducted in the urban coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk (Baltic Sea, Poland) in 2008. Rainwater samples were collected in bulk samplers and Hg concentration was determined using AAS method. Total mercury concentration ranged from 1.9 to 14.8 ng l(-1) (the mean was 8.3 ng l(-1) with standard deviation ±3.7), out of which about 34 % were water-soluble Hg(II) forms. Distribution of Hg species in rainwater was related to both the emission source and the atmospheric processes. During the sampling period, two maxima of Hg concentration in precipitation were observed: the first in the cold season and the second one in the warm season. Elevated concentrations of Hg in wintertime precipitation were generally the result of local urban atmospheric emission connected with the following anthropogenic sources: intensive combustion of fossil fuels in domestic furnaces, individual power/heat generating plants, and motor vehicles. During summertime, Hg° re-emitted from contaminated land and sea surfaces was photochemically oxidized by active atmospheric substances (e.g., hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, halogens) and could be an additional source of atmospherically deposited Hg. The results presented in this work indicate that rainwater Hg concentration and deposition values are not much higher in comparison with other urban locations along the Baltic Sea basin and other coastal cities. However, the elevated mercury concentration in rainwater and, consequently, higher deposition ratio could appear occasionally as an effect of intensive anthropogenic emissions (domestic heating) and/or photochemical reactions.

  5. Metal diagenesis and transport in coastal sediments around Penang Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood; Zaharudin Ahmad; Noor Azhar Md Shazili; Rosnan Yaakob; Carpenter, R.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of several metals and isotopes in sediment cores from around Penang Island, an area with economically important biological resources off the northwest coast of peninsular Malaysia, are reported. Because of a typical, monazite rich mineralogy in surrounding drainage basins, sedimentary metal enrichment factors relative to global average materials, enrichment factors (EFs) of >1.0 do not always indicate significant anthropogenic metal inputs. Because of extensive metal solubilization in the hot, organic carbon rich area, EFs of < 1.0 may be observed for several metals despite significant anthropogenic contributions. Comparison of metal-Al relationships in Penang area surface sediments with those in nearby and presumed uncontaminated Strait of Malacca sediments more accurately correct for atypical regional solubilization and mineralogical effects than comparison to global average materials. Such comparisons show concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Sb, Zn and V have changed by less than a factor of two by anthropogenic discharges. Sedimentary concentration profiles of Pb, Zn and Cu, ratioed to Sc to normalize for variations in grain size and mineralogy, have subsurface maxima suggestive of modest and recently reduced anthropogenic inputs. Mn, U, As and Sb have Sc-normalized concentration profiles clearly affected by digenetic processes. Sc-normalized profiles of Cr, Th, Ce and Sm show only small changes with depth, confirming insignificant anthropogenic inputs and undetectable post depositional digenetic mobility. Excess 210-Pb activities and fluxes in Penang area sediments are limited by supply of this radionuclide, in contrast to sediments of both the northwestern USA. and Amazon continental shelves, where they are limited by particle scavenging reactions. 210-Pb activities in sediments of the shallow, dynamic Penang area often show erratic or unconvincing changes with depth that cannot be reliably modeled by

  6. Biodiversity of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in the Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Stabili

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of culturable heterotrophic bacteria in water samples from the Southern Adriatic Sea of Italy was examined. Water samples were collected monthly, for a year, at 16 stations along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca. The results obtained described the heterotrophic bacterial community over an annual cycle. Mean values of bacterial densities were 5.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Brindisi, 5.8 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. Cataldo, 4.3 x 104 CFUml-1 in Otranto and 6.7 x 104 CFUml-1 in S. M. di Leuca. The differences in bacterial densities between the sites considered were estimated. The hydrodynamic circulation, the trophism and the geographical position of the examined sites contribute to justify the different bacterial density trends. The bacterial community consisted mainly of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae represented a considerable fraction of the bacterial community in the Southern Adriatic Sea. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram positive bacteria. The enzymatic versatility of the observed genera suggest their importance in organic matter turnover of this oligotrophic ecosystem.

  7. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability using sig tools. Comparison between "La Barra town, Buenaventura, (Pacific Ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina islands (Colombian Caribbean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Morales-Giraldo, David; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of hazards and vulnerability associated to coastal erosion along coastlines is a first issue in order to establish plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas. La Barra Town, Buenaventura (Pacific ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina Islands (Colombian Caribbean) were selected to develop a detailed analysis of coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability from different perspectives: i) physical (hazard) , ii) social , iii) conservation approach and iv) cultural heritage (Raizal). The analysis was made by a semi quantitative approximation method, applying variables associated with the intrinsic coastal zone properties (i.e. type of beach, exposure of the coast to waves, etc.). Coastal erosion data and associated variables as well land use; conservation and heritage data were used to carry out a further detailed analysis of the human - structural vulnerability and exposure to hazards. The data shows erosion rates close to -17 m yr-1 in La Barra Town (highlighting their critical condition and urgent relocation process), while in some sectors of Providence Island, such as Old Town, erosion rate was -5 m yr-1. The observed erosion process affects directly the land use and the local and regional economy. The differences between indexes and the structural and physical vulnerability as well the use of methodological variables are presented in the context of each region. In this work, all the information was worked using a GIS environment since this allows editing and updating the information continuously. The application of this methodology generates useful information in order to promote risk management as well prevention, mitigation and reduction plans. In both areas the adaptation must be a priority strategy to be considered, including relocation alternatives and sustainable protection with the support of studies of uses and future outlooks in the coast. The methodology is framed into the use of GIS tools and it highlights their benefits

  8. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine J.H. van Oppen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative

  9. Geochemical Investigations In Soils And Waters Of Ischia Island (southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avino, R.; Capaldi, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Pece, R.

    The island of Ischia is localized in the Gulf of Naples and is a volcanic field belonging to the volcanic district of the Phlegraean Fields. It covers an area of about 42 Km2 and is characterized by a complex system of faults and fractures of tectonic and volcano- tectonic origin. The highest peak of the island is Mt Epomeo (787 m), situated in the central part of Ischia. The last eruption on this island took place in 1302 (Arso) and from that time the volcanic activity has reduced only to hydrothermal manifestations (fumaroles and thermal springs) localized especially along the faults that border Mt Epomeo. So the area around the Epomeo is an area of great interest for geochemical investigations, and in fact in this place high concentration of mercury, carbon dioxide and radon have been measured. In this work are presented the data of a study on the concentration of CO2 and mercury and of the activity of radon in the soils and in the waters of the island of Ischia. For these investigations 184 samples of soils have been collected and analyzed in laboratory to calculate the concentration of mercury using the Jerome 511 Mercury Vapor Analyzer. In the same sampling sites measurements of CO2 and of the activity of radon-222 in the soils have also been made using the Track- etch@ method. As regards the waters, a sampling of 50 wells localized all around the coast of the island has been carried out. In these waters measures of mercury and of the activity of some radioactive elements have been done. The measures of radioactivity has been carried out by gamma spectrometry with a HPE Ge detector. All the investigations (in soils and in waters) allow to have preliminary information about the concentrations of these investigated elements and will be a starting-point for a more detailed sampling in those place where anomalies have been found. This set of data can also help to better understand the degassing process of these elements through the principal structures of the

  10. The Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo batholith of southern coastal Peru: geology, geochronology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekhout, Flora; Sempere, Thierry; Spikings, Richard; Schaltegger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The Ilo batholith (17°00 - 18°30 S) crops out in an area of about 20 by 100 km, along the coast of southern Peru. This batholith is emplaced into the ‘Chocolate‘ Formation of late Permian to middle Jurassic age, which consists of more than 1000 m of basaltic and andesitic lavas, with interbedded volcanic agglomerates and breccias. The Ilo Batholith is considered to be a rarely exposed fragment of the Jurassic arc in Peru. Our aim is to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of this batholith, and place it within the context of long-lasting magma genesis along the active Andean margin since the Paleozoic. Sampling for dating and geochemical analyses was carried out along several cross sections through the batholith that were exposed by post-intrusion eastward tilting of 20-30°. Sparse previous work postulates early to middle Jurassic and partially early Cretaceous emplacement, on the basis of conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating methods in the Ilo area. Twenty new U-Pb zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS) accompanied by geochemical data suggests the Ilo batholith formed via the amalgamation of middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous, subduction-related plutons. Preliminary Hf isotope studies reveal a primitive mantle source for middle Jurassic intrusions. Additional Sr, Nd and Hf isotope analyses are planned to further resolve the source regions of different pulses of plutonic activity. We strongly suggest that batholith emplacement was at least partly coeval with the emplacement of the late Permian to middle Jurassic Chocolate Formation, which was deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Our age results and geochemical signature fit into the scheme of episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related magmatism that is observed throughout the whole Andean event, particularly during the middle Jurassic onset of the first Andean cycle (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). Although the exact geodynamic setting remains to be precisely

  11. The effects of natural disturbances, reef state, and herbivorous fish densities on ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga, southern Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongo, Teina; van Woesik, Robert

    2013-03-15

    Ciguatera poisoning is a critical public-health issue among Pacific island nations. Accurately predicting ciguatera outbreaks has become a priority, particularly in Rarotonga in the southern Cook Islands, which has reported the highest incidence of ciguatera poisoning globally. Since 2006, however, cases of ciguatera poisoning have declined, and in 2011 ciguatera cases were the lowest in nearly 20 years. Here we examined the relationships between cases of ciguatera poisoning, from 1994 to 2011, and: (i) coral cover, used as a proxy of reef state, (ii) the densities of herbivorous fishes, and (iii) reef disturbances. We found that coral cover was not a good predictor of cases of ciguatera poisoning, but high densities of the herbivorous fish Ctenochaetus striatus and reef disturbances were both strong predictors of ciguatera poisoning. Yet these two predictors were correlated, because the densities of C. striatus increased only after major cyclones had disturbed the reefs. Since 2006, the number of cyclones has decreased considerably in Rarotonga, because of the climatic shift toward the negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We suggest that fewer cyclones have led to decreases in both the densities of C. striatus and of the number of reported cases of ciguatera poisoning in Rarotonga. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Massive salp outbreaks in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (Southern Chile: possible causes and ecological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Giesecke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 several massive salp outbreaks of the Subantarctic species Ihlea magalhanica were recorded in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (ISCh, Southern Chile, affecting both phytoplankton abundance and salmon farmers by causing high fish mortality. First outbreaks were recorded during February 2010 when Ihlea magalhanica reached up to 654,000 ind m-3 close to the net pens in Maillen Island and consecutive outbreaks could be followed during March and from October to November 2010. One month prior to the first recorded salp outbreak, the adjacent oceanic region and ISCh showed a sharp decline of ca. 1.0°C in sea surface temperature and an atypical pattern of oceanic sea surface currents, changing from a predominantly meridional (northward to a zonal (eastward direction, probably causing a massive Subantarctic Water parcel to enter the ISCh. During the outbreaks, surface chlorophyll concentration decreased from an historical mean of 13.8 to less than 4 mg Chl-a m-3, and did not return to normal conditions throughout the entire year, and similar results were also observed in phytoplankton abundance. The abundance of salp aggregations were highest close to the salmon net pens, which acted as physical barriers, and may have favored the successful reproduction and persistence of the outbreaks during 2010. The possible impact of these outbreaks on phytoplankton quality and quantity, as well as potential scenarios for the development of further outbreaks is discussed.

  13. Assimilation of coastal acoustic tomography data using an unstructured triangular grid ocean model for water with complex coastlines and islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Xinyu; Fan, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chuanzheng

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, we present the application of an unstructured triangular grid to the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model using the ensemble Kalman filter scheme, to assimilate coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) data. The fine horizontal and vertical current field structures around the island inside the observation region were both reproduced well. The assimilated depth-averaged velocities had better agreement with the independent acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data than the velocities obtained by inversion and simulation. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between depth-averaged current velocities obtained by data assimilation and those obtained by ADCPs was 0.07 m s-1, which was less than the corresponding difference obtained by inversion and simulation (0.12 and 0.17 m s-1, respectively). The assimilated vertical layer velocities also exhibited better agreement with ADCP than the velocities obtained by simulation. RMSDs between assimilated and ADCP data in vertical layers ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 m s-1, while RMSDs between simulation and ADCP data ranged from 0.08 to 0.27 m s-1. These results indicate that assimilation had the highest accuracy. Sensitivity experiments involving the elimination of sound transmission lines showed that missing data had less impact on assimilation than on inversion. Sensitivity experiments involving the elimination of CAT stations showed that the assimilation with four CAT stations was the relatively economical and reasonable procedure in this experiment. These results indicate that, compared with inversion and simulation, data assimilation of CAT data with an unstructured triangular grid is more effective in reconstructing the current field.

  14. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-12

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  15. Quaternary sea-level history and the origin of the northernmost coastal aeolianites in the Americas: Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Schumann, R. Randall; Skipp, Gary L.; Porat, Naomi; DeVogel, Stephen B.

    2018-01-01

    Along most of the Pacific Coast of North America, sand dunes are dominantly silicate-rich. On the California Channel Islands, however, dunes are carbonate-rich, due to high productivity offshore and a lack of dilution by silicate minerals. Older sands on the Channel Islands contain enough carbonate to be cemented into aeolianite. Several generations of carbonate aeolianites are present on the California Channel Islands and represent the northernmost Quaternary coastal aeolianites on the Pacific Coast of North America. The oldest aeolianites on the islands may date to the early Pleistocene and thus far have only been found on Santa Cruz Island. Aeolianites with well-developed soils are found on both San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island and likely date to the middle Pleistocene. The youngest and best-dated aeolianites are located on San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island. These sediments were deposited during the late Pleistocene following the emergence of marine terraces that date to the last interglacial complex (~ 120,000 yr to ~ 80,000 yr). Based on radiocarbon and luminescence dating, the ages of these units correspond in time with marine isotope stages [MIS] 4, 3, and 2. Sea level was significantly lower than present during all three time periods. Reconstruction of insular paleogeography indicates that large areas to the north and northwest of the islands would have been exposed at these times, providing a ready source of carbonate-rich skeletal sands. These findings differ from a previously held concept that carbonate aeolianites are dominantly an interglacial phenomenon forming during high stands of sea. In contrast, our results are consistent with the findings of other investigators of the past decade who have reported evidence of glacial-age and interstadial-age aeolianites on coastlines of Australia and South Africa. They are also consistent with observations made by Darwin regarding the origin of aeolianites on the island of St. Helena, in the

  16. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia.

  17. The Use of Aquatic Macrophyte Ecotoxicological Assays in Monitoring Coastal Effluent Discharges in Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burridge, T.R.; Karistianos, M.; Bidwell, J.

    1999-01-01

    Germination inhibition of zoospores of the aquatic, brown algal macrophyte Ecklonia radiata was employed to assess the toxicity of sewage effluents under short to long term exposure and under modified salinity conditions. The rate of germination inhibition was determined for exposure times between 2 and 48 h in salinity modified and unmodified regimes and under reduced salinity conditions alone. The results indicated that rate of germination inhibition increased with duration of exposure to sewage effluents and to salinity reduction alone, and that response to the effluents may be enhanced under conditions of reduced salinity. Whilst the effect of primary treated effluent was primarily that of toxicity, secondary treated effluent effects appeared to be primarily that of reduced salinity although at a greater rate than would be expected for salinity reduction alone. The assay is suggested to provide a mechanism for monitoring sewage effluent quality and to monitor potential impacts of sewage effluent discharge on kelp communities in southern Australia

  18. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  19. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  20. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-10-01

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  1. Effects of future climate conditions on terrestrial export from coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Zhao, Y.; Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Melack, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Santa Barbara Coastal - Long Term Ecological Research Project (SBC-LTER) is focused on investigating the relative importance of land and ocean processes in structuring giant kelp forest ecosystems. Understanding how current and future climate conditions influence terrestrial export is a central theme for the project. Here we combine the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model and daily precipitation and temperature downscaled using statistical downscaling based on localized constructed Analogs (LOCA) to estimate recent streamflow dynamics (2000 to 2014) and future conditions (2015 to 2100). The HRR model covers the SBC-LTER watersheds from just west of the Ventura River to Point Conception; a land area of roughly 800 km2 with 179 watersheds ranging from 0.1 to 123 km2. The downscaled climate conditions have a spatial resolution of 6 km by 6 km. Here, we use the Penman-Monteith method with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) limited climate data approximations and land surface conditions (albedo, leaf area index, land cover) measured from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites to estimate potential evapotranspiration (PET). The HRR model is calibrated for the period 2000 to 2014 using USGS and LTER streamflow. An automated calibration technique is used. For future climate scenarios, we use mean 8-day land cover conditions. Future streamflow, ET and soil moisture statistics are presented and based on downscaled P and T from ten climate model projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5).

  2. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  3. El Niño Variability in the Coastal Desert of Southern Peru during the Mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontugne, Michel; Usselmann, Pierre; Lavallée, Danièle; Julien, Michèle; Hatté, Christine

    1999-09-01

    Fourteen organic-rich sedimentary layers in the deposits at Quebrada de los Burros, in coastal southern Peru (Tacna department), lie between two debris-flow units, interpreted to result from El Niño events, at 8980 cal yr B.P. and after 3380 cal yr B.P., respectively. The accumulation of the fine-grained and low-energy sediments of this deposit during the mid-Holocene is incompatible with the occurrence of El Niño events in this region, as these would produce catastrophic flood deposits. The occurrence of organic-rich sediments and evidence of an enhancement of upwelling strength at this time imply the existence of a permanent water supply resulting from an increased condensation of fog at mid-altitudes. These results suggest a lower intensity and, perhaps, a lower frequency of occurrence of the El Niño phenomenon during the mid-Holocene. It is precisely during this period that the most important human settlements are found at this site, probably indicating the presence of reliable supply of fresh water. The chronologies for wetlands in the central south altiplano are out of phase with those indicating increased soil moisture episodes on the coast, implying a long-term difference in climate between these two regions.

  4. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  5. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  6. Projected poleward shift of king penguins' (Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging range at the Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péron, Clara; Weimerskirch, Henri; Bost, Charles-André

    2012-07-07

    Seabird populations of the Southern Ocean have been responding to climate change for the last three decades and demographic models suggest that projected warming will cause dramatic population changes over the next century. Shift in species distribution is likely to be one of the major possible adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Habitat models based on a unique long-term tracking dataset of king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding on the Crozet Islands (southern Indian Ocean) revealed that despite a significant influence of primary productivity and mesoscale activity, sea surface temperature consistently drove penguins' foraging distribution. According to climate models of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the projected warming of surface waters would lead to a gradual southward shift of the more profitable foraging zones, ranging from 25 km per decade for the B1 IPCC scenario to 40 km per decade for the A1B and A2 scenarios. As a consequence, distances travelled by incubating and brooding birds to reach optimal foraging zones associated with the polar front would double by 2100. Such a shift is far beyond the usual foraging range of king penguins breeding and would negatively affect the Crozet population on the long term, unless penguins develop alternative foraging strategies.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Didelphis marsupialis in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1993 the prevalence of the Trypanosoma cruzi infection in opossums (Didelphis marsupialis was studied in Santa Catarina and Arvoredo Islands, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The association of the triatomine bug Panstrongylus megistus with opossums nests and the infection rate of these triatomines by T. cruzi was also studied. Thirteen different locations were studied in Santa Catarina Island (SCI, in which 137 D. marsupialis were collected. Sixty two opossums were collected at the Arvoredo Island (AI, located 12 miles north from SCI. All captured animals were submitted to parasitological examinations that revealed the presence of T. cruzi in 21.9% of the opossums captured in SCI and 45.2% among opossums captured in the AI. The presence of P. megistus was detected in most of the D. marsupialis nests collected in the SCI, however, in the non-inhabited AI only eight triatomines were collected during the whole study. The presence of T. cruzi-infected D. marsupialis associated with P. megistus in human dwellings in the SCI, and the high infection rate of D. marsupilais by T. cruzi in the absence of a high vector density are discussed.

  8. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Guam Weather Forecast Office (GUM WFO) - Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  9. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Seattle (WA) WFO - Whatcom, San Juan, Skagit, Island, Snohomish, and King Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  10. PBO Borehole Strainmeters: 2017 Episodic Tremor and Slip Event for Southern Vancouver Island, BC, Canada through Olympia, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boskirk, E. J.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Henderson, D. B.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory's (PBO) borehole strainmeters along the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) record the development and migration of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS). Along the southern Vancouver Island to Olympia, WA portion of the CSZ ETS events seem to repeat every 14 months. ETS events are non-volcanic tremor swarms that occur over periods of weeks, often migrating along segments of the subduction zone and can release the energy equivalent to a M7 or greater earthquake. Each ETS event is different; initial propagation location, ETS movement, duration, and direction all vary. Constraints provided by strainmeter observations of ETS events illuminate strain release patterns along the subducting slab interface and may help resolve questions regarding the location of the locked zone of the slab and what role ETS events play in the CSZ earthquake cycle. The 2017 CSZ ETS began in early February continuing through early April. Beginning in the northern Olympic Peninsula, near Port Angeles, it migrated south towards Olympia over the course of a week. After a two week pause it resumed under the Straits of Juan de Fuca and propagated northwest under Vancouver Island. There are 15 PBO borehole strainmeters along this segment, and ETS strain observations correlate with seismic and GPS measurements. The PBO borehole strainmeters are sensitive even over great distances from the ETS epicenters, and observe compression or extension relative to the ETS migration. Openly available PBO borehole strainmeter data used by the community has made significant contributions to understanding the ETS process, including the determination that ETS slip is tidally modulated. Data are publically available through UNAVCO and IRIS, which provide links to online tutorials and scripts. There are 32 strainmeters covering the CSZ from southern Vancouver Island, Canada to northern California, USA, and data spans back to 2005. Each site has a Gladwin tensor borehole strainmeter, a Malin three

  11. Decadal-scale coastal cliff retreat in southern and central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR data collected in 1998 and 2009-2010 were used to measure coastal cliff erosion and retreat between the Mexico/California border and Bodega Head, California. Cliff erosion was detected along 44% of the 595 km of shoreline evaluated, while the remaining cliffs were relatively stable. The mean cliff top retreat rate was 0.12 m/yr, while mean retreat averaged over the entire cliff face was 0.04 m/yr. The maximum cliff top and face retreat rates were 4.2 and 3.8 m/yr, respectively. Historical ( 1930s to 1998) and recent retreat rates were significantly inversely correlated for areas with large historical or recent cliff retreat, such that locations with elevated historical retreat had low levels of recent retreat and locations with elevated recent retreat were preceded by low rates of historical retreat. The strength of this inverse correlation increased with cliff change magnitudes up to r2 of 0.91 for cliff top retreat rates > 2.9 m/yr. Mean recent retreat rates were 52-83% lower than mean historical retreat rates. Although beaches can protect cliffs against wave-driven erosion, cliffs fronted by beaches retreated 49% more than cliffs without beaches. On average, unarmored cliff faces retreated 0.05 m/yr between 1998 and 2009-2010, about three times faster than artificially armored cliffs. Alongshore metrics of wave-cliff impact, precipitation, and cliff hardness were generally not well correlated with recent cliff changes. A cliff hazard metric is used to detect cliff steepening and areas prone to future cliff top failures.

  12. Development of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  13. Development of a Climate-Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  14. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K.; Guruge, K.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products, mono- (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), were determined in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along the coast of California during 1992a??1996. Hepatic concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs = MBT + DBT + TBT) ranged from 40 to 9200 ng/g wet wt, which varied depending on the sampling location and gender. Concentrations of BTs in sea otters were comparable to those reported in stranded bottlenose dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic Coast during 1989a??1994. Greater accumulation of butyltins in sea otters was explained by their bottom-feeding habit and the diet that consists exclusively of invertebrates such as mollusks and gastropods. Livers of female sea otters contained approximately 2-fold greater concentrations of BTs than did those of males. The composition of butyltin compounds in sea otter tissues was predominated by TBT in most cases and suggestive of recent exposure. Large harbors such as Monterey Harbor that handle ships legally painted with TBT-containing antifouling paints continued to experience ecotoxicologically significant butyltin contamination. Sea otters, which were affected by infectious diseases, contained greater concentrations of BTs in their tissues than those that died from trauma and other unknown causes.

  15. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  16. Challenges in groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers of East Africa: Investigations and lessons learnt in the Comoros Islands, Kenya and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Comte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Study region: Coastal areas of Kenya (Kilifi County, Tanzania (Kilwa district and Comoros (Ngazidja island, East Africa. Study focus: Research aimed to understand the physical and societal drivers of groundwater accessibility and identify critical aspects of groundwater access and knowledge gaps that require further monitoring and research. Interdisciplinary societal, environmental and hydrogeological investigations were consistently undertaken in the three areas considered as exemplars of the diversity of the coastal fringes of the wider region. This paper focuses on the hydrogeological outcomes of the research, framed within the principal socio-environmental issues identified. New hydrological insights: Results confirm the fundamental importance of coastal groundwater resources for the development of the region and the urgent need to match groundwater development with demographic and economic growth. Hydrogeological knowledge is fragmented, groundwater lacks a long-term monitoring infrastructure and information transfer from stakeholders to users is limited. Current trends in demography, climate, sea-level and land-use are further threatening freshwater availability. Despite possessing high-productivity aquifers, water quality from wells and boreholes is generally impacted by saltwater intrusion. Shallow large-diameter wells, following the traditional model of these areas, consistently prove to be less saline and more durable than deeper small-diameter boreholes. However, promoting the use of large numbers of shallow wells poses a significant challenge for governance, requiring coherent management of the resource at local and national scales and the engagement of local communities. Keywords: Groundwater, Coastal aquifer, Eastern Africa, Environmental change, Governance, Community engagement

  17. Effects of future climate conditions on streamflow dynamics in coastal southern California watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Zhao, Y.; Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Melack, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Santa Barbara Coastal - Long Term Ecological Research Project is focused on investigating the relative importance of land and ocean processes in structuring giant kelp forest ecosystems. Understanding how current and future climate conditions influence terrestrial export of water is a central theme for the project. In this study, the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is forced with past measurement-based (1950 to 2005) and future model-based (2006 to 2100) precipitation and temperature to estimate daily streamflow dynamics. The study region is roughly 800 km2 with 179 watersheds ranging from 0.1 to 123 km2. The model-based forcings are downscaled to a spatial resolution of 6 km by 6 km. The Priestley and Taylor method is used to estimate potential evapotranspiration based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations limited climate data approximations and land surface conditions (albedo, leaf area index, land cover) measured from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The HRR model is calibrated for the period 1984 to 2013 using USGS streamflow. Median changes in downscaled precipitation projections from 10 models and two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) combined with significance testing, suggest that the distribution of precipitation throughout the rainy season will change: decrease at the beginning of the rainy season (Oct-Dec), increase during peak season (Jan-Mar) and decrease at the end (Apr-Jun). Annually, results suggest a slight increase in precipitation. The decrease of rainfall in spring and fall and increase in winter will lead to a shorter (10-15 days, 8-14%), more intense wet season. Both the magnitude and frequency of large storms (>36 mm/day) are likely to increase. Following the precipitation patterns, streamflow in spring and fall is likely to decrease while winter streamflow and annual peak flows are likely to increase due to increased winter precipitation and

  18. Trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna on coastal muddy bottoms of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-02-01

    Philocheras bispinosus). Seasonal changes in isotopic composition occurred for the dominant suprabenthic species. This may result from diet shifts associated with changes in the availability of different food sources and/or from change in the primary sources of organic matter that are particularly variable in coastal environments.

  19. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon storage in forest ecosystems on Hainan island, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hai; Li, Linjun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Xu; Li, Yide; Hui, Dafeng; Jian, Shuguang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huai; Lu, Hongfang; Zhou, Guoyi; Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993-2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices.

  1. Coastal Development of Daugavgrîva Island, Located Near the Gulf of Riga / Rîgas Lîèa Piekrastes Krasta Attîstîba Daugavgrîvas Salâ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bçrtiòa Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural as well as anthropogenic processes impact greatly sensitive coastal areas all over the world. The spectrum of natural processes involved can be classified as meteorological, geological, marine, and lithodynamic. The Baltic Sea with its Gulf of Riga is an area in which combined sea erosion and accumulation processes, as well as alluvial processes, play significant roles in the coastal development. Major anthropogenic processes include impacts from ports and coastal protection structures, such as Riga Port hydraulic structures, fairway channels and coastal defence items. During summer also additional pressure of recreational activities has increased the effect on the coastal beach. Levelling data, historical cartographical material and beach sedimentary material granulometric analysis were used to describe natural and anthropogenic effects on development of the coastal beach of Daugavgrîva Island.

  2. Post-Hurricane Isaac coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands, September 2–3, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal,

    2016-04-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 2-3, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands aboard a Cessna 172 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Isaac data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September 2008 (central Louisiana barrier islands) and June 2011 (Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana), and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on

  3. Effects of climate variability on saltwater intrusions in coastal aquifers in Southern Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rena; Sonnenborg, Torben; Engesgaard, Peter; Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Jørgensen, Flemming; Hisnby, Klaus; Hansen, Birgitte; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2016-04-01

    As in many other regions of the world fresh water supply in Denmark is based on groundwater resources. Aquifers in the low-lying areas in the south-west of Jutland are particularly vulnerable to saltwater intrusions which are likely to intensify due to relative sea level rise. To understand the dynamics and development of this complex flow system, the initial hydrodynamic conditions imposed by the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) must be taken into account. The whole region has undergone changes in climatic and hydraulic conditions within the last 15000 years that may show influence on the present flow conditions. It is likely that the groundwater-flow dynamics, driven by the postglacial hydraulic head drop and the relative sea level rise are not yet equilibrated. Enhanced by the potential future sea level rise due to climate change, contamination of fresh-water aquifers will continue. The 2800-km2 - large coast-to-coast study area located in the southern part of Jutland was partly overridden by the Weichselian ice sheet. Geophysical and geological mapping shows salt water intrusions up to 20 km inland from the present coast. Based on a geological voxel model spanning Miocene through Quaternary deposits a large-scale 3D numerical groundwater flow and salt water transport model has been developed. It includes density-driven flow and simulates the distribution of the current saltwater intrusions and their evolution during the last 15000 years. Particle tracking and direct age simulations are performed to identify recharge areas and constrain groundwater ages. The simulated ages are compared to ages derived from isotope analysis of groundwater samples both from Miocene and Quaternary aquifers. The origin of the groundwater is determined based on isotopic and chemical composition. Additionally, heavy noble gas analysis is carried out to estimate recharge temperatures and mechanisms at locations where groundwater recharge during the last glaciation is indicated. This

  4. Ultraviolet radiation modelling from ground-based and satellite measurements on Reunion Island, southern tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface ultraviolet radiation (SUR is not an increasing concern after the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and the recovery of the ozone layer Morgenstern et al.(2008. However, large uncertainties remain in the prediction of future changes of SUR Bais et al.(2015. Several studies pointed out that UV-B impacts the biosphere Erickson et al.(2015, especially the aquatic system, which plays a central part in the biogeochemical cycle Hader et al.(2007. It can affect phytoplankton productivity Smith and Cullen(1995. This influence can result in either positive or negative feedback on climate (Zepp et al., 2007. Global circulation model simulations predict an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation over the next century (Butchart, 2014, which would lead to a decrease in ozone levels in the tropics and an enhancement at higher latitudes (Hegglin and Shepherd, 2009. Reunion Island is located in the tropics (21° S, 55° E, in a part of the world where the amount of ozone in the ozone column is naturally low. In addition, this island is mountainous and the marine atmosphere is often clean with low aerosol concentrations. Thus, measurements show much higher SUR than at other sites at the same latitude or at midlatitudes. Ground-based measurements of SUR have been taken on Reunion Island by a Bentham DTMc300 spectroradiometer since 2009. This instrument is affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. In order to quantify the future evolution of SUR in the tropics, it is necessary to validate a model against present observations. This study is designed to be a preliminary parametric and sensitivity study of SUR modelling in the tropics. We developed a local parameterisation using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Model (TUV; Madronich, 1993 and compared the output of TUV to multiple years of Bentham spectral measurements. This comparison started in early 2009 and continued until 2016

  5. Ultraviolet radiation modelling from ground-based and satellite measurements on Reunion Island, southern tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Kévin; Portafaix, Thierry; Brogniez, Colette; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Bencherif, Hassan; Morel, Béatrice; Pazmino, Andrea; Metzger, Jean Marc; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Duflot, Valentin; Goloub, Philippe; Long, Charles N.

    2018-01-01

    Surface ultraviolet radiation (SUR) is not an increasing concern after the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and the recovery of the ozone layer (Morgenstern et al., 2008). However, large uncertainties remain in the prediction of future changes of SUR (Bais et al., 2015). Several studies pointed out that UV-B impacts the biosphere (Erickson et al., 2015), especially the aquatic system, which plays a central part in the biogeochemical cycle (Hader et al., 2007). It can affect phytoplankton productivity (Smith and Cullen, 1995). This influence can result in either positive or negative feedback on climate (Zepp et al., 2007). Global circulation model simulations predict an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation over the next century (Butchart, 2014), which would lead to a decrease in ozone levels in the tropics and an enhancement at higher latitudes (Hegglin and Shepherd, 2009). Reunion Island is located in the tropics (21° S, 55° E), in a part of the world where the amount of ozone in the ozone column is naturally low. In addition, this island is mountainous and the marine atmosphere is often clean with low aerosol concentrations. Thus, measurements show much higher SUR than at other sites at the same latitude or at midlatitudes. Ground-based measurements of SUR have been taken on Reunion Island by a Bentham DTMc300 spectroradiometer since 2009. This instrument is affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). In order to quantify the future evolution of SUR in the tropics, it is necessary to validate a model against present observations. This study is designed to be a preliminary parametric and sensitivity study of SUR modelling in the tropics. We developed a local parameterisation using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Model (TUV; Madronich, 1993) and compared the output of TUV to multiple years of Bentham spectral measurements. This comparison started in early 2009 and continued until 2016. Only

  6. Modification of growth medium of mixed-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern java coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae as production organisms. Microalgae contain lipids (oil, proteins and carbohydrates (sugars, and, especially marine algae have been used as food and feed for centuries. Recently, production cost reduction related to the supply of growth nutrients is necessary to make it profitable. Therefore, utilization of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, as the natural carbon, macronutrients, and micronutrients sources can be helpful. The analysis showed that the content of sucrose, glucose, fructose, potassium, zinc, and magnesium was 68.4% w/w, 18.5% w/w, and 13.1% w/w, 5.5% w/w, 3.91 ppm, and 1,370 ppm respectively. This work aimed to determine the effect of molasses addition to the physio-chemical properties of multi-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern Java coastal region in Indonesia grown under mixotrophic culture. The cultivation in this work used medium which was self-formulated by the authors consisting of NaNO3 (5 mL/L, H3BO3 (1 mL/L, EDTA (1 mL/L, N2H2PO4 (5 mL/L, FeSO4 (1 mL/L, MgSO4 (1 mL/L, NaCl (1 mL/L, micronutrients (1 mL/L, vitamin B1 (1 mL/L, and vitamin B12 (1 mL/L in 500 mL of water. The medium will be treated to have molasses concentration of 0.05% v/v, 0.15% v/v, 0.25% v/v, 0.35% v/v, and 0.45% v/v.

  7. Seawater intrusion in karstic, coastal aquifers: Current challenges and future scenarios in the Taranto area (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Foglia, Laura; Giudici, Mauro; Mehl, Steffen; Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio Luigi

    2016-12-15

    Mediterranean areas are characterized by complex hydrogeological systems, where management of freshwater resources, mostly stored in karstic, coastal aquifers, is necessary and requires the application of numerical tools to detect and prevent deterioration of groundwater, mostly caused by overexploitation. In the Taranto area (southern Italy), the deep, karstic aquifer is the only source of freshwater and satisfies the main human activities. Preserving quantity and quality of this system through management policies is so necessary and such task can be addressed through modeling tools which take into account human impacts and the effects of climate changes. A variable-density flow model was developed with SEAWAT to depict the "current" status of the saltwater intrusion, namely the status simulated over an average hydrogeological year. Considering the goals of this analysis and the scale at which the model was built, the equivalent porous medium approach was adopted to represent the deep aquifer. The effects that different flow boundary conditions along the coast have on the transport model were assessed. Furthermore, salinity stratification occurs within a strip spreading between 4km and 7km from the coast in the deep aquifer. The model predicts a similar phenomenon for some submarine freshwater springs and modeling outcomes were positively compared with measurements found in the literature. Two scenarios were simulated to assess the effects of decreased rainfall and increased pumping on saline intrusion. Major differences in the concentration field with respect to the "current" status were found where the hydraulic conductivity of the deep aquifer is higher and such differences are higher when Dirichlet flow boundary conditions are assigned. Furthermore, the Dirichlet boundary condition along the coast for transport modeling influences the concentration field in different scenarios at shallow depths; as such, concentration values simulated under stressed conditions

  8. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  9. Natural regeneration in a quaternary coastal plain in southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Ibraim Salimon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Composition, structure and dynamics of an eight year old secondary forest was studied at Reserva Volta Velha (26°04'S; 48°38'W, southern Brazil. A 0.72ha plot was divided into 36 subplots of 20X10m, where all trees/shrubs greater than 1m tall were identified, measured (height/diameter and evaluated (successional status. The results were: (1 95 species collected within 68 genera and 44 families; the most species rich families were Myrtaceae and Asteraceae with 8 species each; (2 the most important species (considering biomass and density were Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella and Ternstroemia brasiliensis; (3 the most similar area was a fallow abandoned 35 years ago; (4 the higher species diversity were found in border subplots, indicating that most of the species do not tolerate extreme conditions in the center of the opening, and are colonizing the area through the borders.A maior parte das áreas florestais no domínio da Floresta Atlântica se encontra degradada devido a diferentes pressões antrópicas. No intuito de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre relictos de florestas nativas intactas, e também de áreas abandonadas para se obter dados sobre os processos naturais de regeneração, foi realizado um estudo da composição florística, estrutura e dinâmica de uma comunidade vegetal em estágio seral inicial de 8 anos. em Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas, na Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoa-SC, Brasil. Foram utilizados os métodos usuais de coleta, herborização e identificação das espécies encontradas, e a análise estrutural foi feita utilizando-se 36 parcelas retangulares de 20 X 10m, sendo incluídas todas as plantas arbustivo/arbóreas com no mínimo 1 metro de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram os seguintes: 1- Foram encontradas 96 espécies, dentro de 68 gêneros e 44 famílias; as famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae e Asteraceae com 8 espécies cada, e o gênero mais

  10. Vegetation composition and structure of southern coastal plain pine forests: An ecological comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, C.W.; Grace, S.L.; King, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    , non-benchmark plots contained fewer species characteristic of relic longleaf pine/wiregrass communities and more ruderal species common to highly disturbed sites. The benchmark group included 12 naturally regenerated longleaf plots and 22 loblolly, slash, and longleaf pine plantation plots encompassing a broad range of silvicultural disturbances. Non-benchmark plots included eight afforested old-field plantation plots and seven cutover plantation plots. Regardless of overstory species, all afforested old fields were low either in native species richness or in abundance. Varying degrees of this groundcover condition were also found in some cutover plantation plots that were classified as non-benchmark. Environmental variables strongly influencing vegetation patterns included agricultural history and fire frequency. Results suggest that land-use history, particularly related to agriculture, has a greater influence on groundcover composition and structure in southern pine forests than more recent forest management activities or pine cover type. Additional research is needed to identify the potential for afforested old fields to recover native herbaceous species. In the interim, high-yield plantation management should initially target old-field sites which already support reduced numbers of groundcover species. Sites which have not been farmed in the past 50-60 years should be considered for longleaf pine restoration and multiple-use objectives, since they have the greatest potential for supporting diverse native vegetation. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Ecological Studies in the Coastal Waters of Kalpakkam, Southeast Coast of India, in the Vicinity of a Nuclear Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K. K.; Mohanty, A. K.; Sahu, Gouri; Prasad, M. V.R.; Bramha, S. N. [Environmetal Safety Division, Radiological and Environmental Safety Group, REG, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Tamil Nadu (India); Smita Achary, M.; Samantara, M. K.; Biswas, S.; Selvanayagam, M. [Loyola Institute of Frontier Energy, Loyola College, Chennai (India)

    2013-07-15

    Ecological monitoring of the coastal waters at Kalpakkam, which presently harbour various nuclear facilities, has been in progress for the last four years to create a benchmark dataset on water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fisheries, sedentary organisms and molluscan species diversity. Results indicated a significant impact of monsoonal rain and backwaters on the coastal water quality. About 325 phytoplankton, 140 zooplankton, 350 fish, 130 molluscs and 100 species of sedentary organisms have been catalogued. Two fish species, which are native to Indonesia, were recorded for the first time in Indian coastal water. The study indicated that the coastal water is rich in biodiversity. Similarly, results of studies on costal sediment characteristics indicated the influence of monsoonal rain and backwater discharge. Overall, the study indicated little impact of nuclear activity on coastal water biodiversity and water quality. (author)

  12. Satellite remote sensing of the island mass effect on the Sub-Antarctic Kerguelen Plateau, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Babula

    2016-09-01

    The presence of the Kerguelen Plateau and surrounding bathymetric features has a strong influence on the persistently eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), resulting in enhancement of surface chlorophyll-a (Chl- a) in the downstream section of the plateau along the polar front (PF). The phenomenon is reported in this paper as the island mass effect (IME). Analysis of climatological Chl- a datasets from Aqua- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Aqua- MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows distinct bloomy plumes (Chl- a>0.5 mg/m3) during austral spring-summer spreading as far as ~1800 km offshore up to 98°E along the downstream of the north Kerguelen Plateau (NKP). Similar IME phenomena is apparent over the south Kerguelen Plateau (SKP) with the phytoplankton bloom extending up to 96.7°E, along the southern boundary of ACC. The IME phenomena are pronounced only during austral spring-summer period with the availability of light and sedimentary source of iron from shallow plateau to sea surface that fertilizes the mixed layer. The NKP bloom peaks with a maximum areal extent of 1.315 million km2 during December, and the SKP bloom peaks during January with a time lag of one month. The blooms exist for at least 4 months of a year and are significant both as the base of regional food web and for regulating the biogeochemical cycle in the Southern Ocean. Even though the surface water above the Kerguelen Plateau is rich in Chl- a, an exception of an oligotrophic condition dominated between NKP and SKP due to apparent intrusion of iron limited low phytoplankton regime waters from the Enderby basin through the northeastward Fawn Trough Current.

  13. Molluscs as evidence for a late Pleistocene and early Holocene humid period in the southern coastal desert of Peru (14.5°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, Bertil; Unkel, Ingmar; Eitel, Bernhard; Kromer, Bernd; Schiegl, Solveig

    2010-01-01

    The southern Peruvian coastal desert around Palpa, southern Peru (14.5°S) is currently characterized by hyper-arid conditions. However, the presence of two species of molluscs ( Scutalus, Pupoides) and desert-loess deposits indicates the past development of semi-desert and grassland ecosystems caused by a displacement of the eastern desert margin due to hydrological changes. Radiocarbon dating shows that the transition to a semi-arid climate in the southern Peruvian coastal desert took place during the Greenland interstadial 1, ˜ 13.5 cal ka BP. At the beginning of the Holocene, the mollusc fauna vanished due to increasing humidity and the development of grasslands. Dust particles were fixed by the grasses, as indicated by abundant Poaceae phytoliths, and desert loess was formed. The humid period we observe here is out of phase with the palaeoenvironmental records from the Titicaca region, which indicates dry conditions at that time. This paper offers a new idea for this contradiction: an orbitally driven meridional shift of the Bolivian high might have altered the moisture supply across the Andes.

  14. Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa. Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.

  15. Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marske, J.P.; Pietruszka, A.J.; Trusdell, F.A.; Garcia, M.O.

    2011-01-01

    New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and

  16. The relative abundance of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) among other zwitterions in branching coral at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S M; Jones, Graham B; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-07-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surrounding Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for sample analysis with isotope dilution MS applied to quantify DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was ten times greater in A. aspera than A. valida, with this difference being maintained throughout the spring, summer and winter seasons. In contrast, glycine betaine was present in significantly higher concentrations in these species during the summer than the winter. Exposure of branch tips of A. aspera to air and hypo-saline seawater for up to 1 h did not alter the concentrations of DMSP present in the coral when compared with control samples. DMSP was the most abundant target zwitterion in the six Acropora species examined, ranging from 44-78% of all target zwitterions in A. millepora and A. aspera, respectively. In contrast, DMSP only accounted for 7% in S. pistillata, with glycine betaine and stachydrine collectively accounting for 88% of all target zwitterions in this species. The abundance of DMSP in the six Acropora species examined points to Acropora coral being an important source for the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur throughout the GBR, since this reef-building branching coral dominates the coral cover of the GBR. Graphical Abstract HILIC-MS extracted ion chromatogram showing zwitterionic metabolites from the branching coral Acropora isopora.

  17. Lithogenic and biogenic particle deposition in an Antarctic coastal environment (Marian Cove, King George Island): Seasonal patterns from a sediment trap study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, B. K.; Shim, J.; Yoon, H. I.; Kang, Y. C.; Jang, Y. H.

    2007-06-01

    Particulate suspended material was recovered over a 23-month period using two sediment traps deployed in shallow water (˜30 m deep) off the King Sejong Station located in Marian Cove of King George Island, West Antarctica. Variability in seasonal flux and geochemical characteristics of the sediment particles highlights seasonal patterns of sedimentation of both lithogenic (terrigenous) and biogenic particles in the coastal glaciomarine environment. All components including total mass flux, lithogenic particle flux and biogenic particle flux show distinct seasonal variation, with high recovery rates during the summer and low rates under winter fast ice. The major contributor to total mass flux is the lithogenic component, comprising from 88% during the summer months (about 21 g m -2 d -1) up to 97% during the winter season (about 2 g m -2 d -1). The lithogenic particle flux depends mainly on the amount of snow-melt (snow accumulation) delivered into the coastal region as well as on the resuspension of sedimentary materials. These fine-grained lithogenic particles are silt-to-clay sized, composed mostly of clay minerals weathered on King George Island. Biogenic particle flux is also seasonal. Winter flux is ˜0.2 g m -2 d -1, whereas the summer contribution increases more than tenfold, up to 2.6 g m -2 d -1. Different biogenic flux between the two summers indicates inter-annual variability to the spring-summer phytoplankton bloom. The maximum of lithogenic particle flux occurs over a short period of time, and follows the peak of biogenic particle flux, which lasts longer. The seasonal warming and sea-ice retreat result in change in seawater nutrient status and subsequent ice-edge phytoplankton production. Meanwhile, the meltwater input to Marian Cove from the coastal drainage in January to February plays a major role in transporting lithogenic particles into the shallow water environment, although the tidal currents may be the main agents of resuspension in this

  18. Variation in the life-history traits of a Schilbid catfish, Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) in the coastal waters of southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddik, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Chaklader, Md Reaz; Hanif, Md Abu; Nahar, Ashfaqun; Ilham, Ilham; Cole, Anthony; Fotedar, Ravi

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, the present study reports the life-history traits, comprising length-frequency distribution (LFD), sex ratio (SR), length-weight relationships (LWRs), condition factors (CFs), and relative growth ( W R), of Clupisoma garua in the coastal waters of Bangladesh. A total of 150 specimens ranging from 8.60 to 25.20 cm total length (TL) and 4.26 to 128.80 g body weight (BW) were collected using traditional fishing gear from August 2013 to July 2014. The overall sex ratio of males to females in the study did not differ significantly from the expected value of 1:1 (χ2 =0.96, P K A , K F , K R ) and relative growth ( W R ) also did not differ significantly ( P strategies and regulations for the sustainable management of the remaining stocks of this species in the entire coastal region of southern Bangladesh.

  19. Green turtles (Chelonia mydas foraging at Arvoredo Island in Southern Brazil: genetic characterization and mixed stock analysis through mtDNA control region haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Carneiro Proietti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed mtDNA control region sequences of green turtles (Chelonia mydas from Arvoredo Island, a foraging ground in southern Brazil, and identified eight haplotypes. Of these, CM-A8 (64% and CM-A5 (22% were dominant, the remainder presenting low frequencies ( 0.05. Mixed Stock Analysis, incorporating eleven Atlantic and one Mediterranean rookery as possible sources of individuals, indicated Ascension and Aves islands as the main contributing stocks to the Arvoredo aggregation (68.01% and 22.96%, respectively. These results demonstrate the extensive relationships between Arvoredo Island and other Atlantic foraging and breeding areas. Such an understanding provides a framework for establishing adequate management and conservation strategies for this endangered species.

  20. EAARL-B coastal topography: Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  1. Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: Contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L.; Kutil, Nicholas J.; Malek, Anna J.; Collie, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (L. ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ~ winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis (mean δ15N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted δ15N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (δ15N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to δ15N and carbon (δ13C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and < 2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely affect human health, whereas skates present minimal risk. PMID

  2. Coastal lagoons and beach ridges as complementary sedimentary archives for the reconstruction of Holocene relative sea-level changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Coastal lagoons and beach ridges are genetically independent, though non-continuous, sedimentary archives. We here combine the results from two recently published studies in order to produce an 8000-year-long record of Holocene relative sea-level changes on the island of Samsø, southern Kattegat,...

  3. Atlantic coastal experiment 5: R/V advance II cruise (MESEX I) 27 April--2 May 1979, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Bock, K. (ed.)

    1983-03-01

    68 hydrographic stations were arranged as boundary transects, and a proximate calibration matrix, to an array of current meters and fluorometers moored within the coastal boundary layer near southern Long Island. Assessments were made of water-mass characterization, nutrient distribution, chlorophyll variability and phytoplankton composition. Supplemental thermal structure was obtained from expendable bathythermographs.

  4. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  5. Influence of intense scavenging on Pa-Th fractionation in the wake of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venchiarutti, C.; Roy-Barman, M.; Freydier, R.; Van Beek, P.; Souhaut, M.; Jeandel, C.

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved and particulate excess 230 Th and 231 Pa concentrations (noted 230 Th xs and 231 Pa xs respectively) and 231 Pa xs / 230 Th xs activity ratios were investigated on and out of the Kerguelen plateau (Southern Ocean) in the framework of the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study project in order to better understand the influence of particle flux and particle chemistry and advection on the scavenging of 231 Pa. In the wake of Kerguelen, particulate 231 Pa xs is relatively abundant compared to its content in the dissolved phase. This, together with the low fractionation observed between 230 Th and 231 Pa (F Th/Pa ranging from 0.06 ± 0.01 to 1.6 ± 0.2) reflects the domination of the biogenic silica in the particle pool. Along the eastern escarpment of the Kerguelen plateau, the strong 231 Pa xs horizontal gradient in the deep waters highlights the intense removal of 231 Pa at depth, as already observed for 230 Th xs . This local boundary scavenging was attributed to re-suspension of opal-rich particles by nepheloid layers, resulting in fractionation factors F Th/Pa ≤ 1 along the Kerguelen plateau slope. Therefore, both the composition (biogenic opal) and the flux (intense along the margin) of particles control the scavenging of the two radionuclides in the Kerguelen wake. The modelling of 231 Pa distribution with an advection-scavenging model demonstrates that lateral advection of open ocean water on the Kerguelen plateau could supply most of the 231 Pa, which is then efficiently scavenged on the highly productive plateau, as previously proposed for 230 Th xs . It stresses that lateral advection can play a significant role in the overall budget of particle reactive trace elements in a coastal-open ocean system. (authors)

  6. Use of LANDSAT for Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Ecosystems of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data results show for the first time Landsat-based land use maps of both the terrestrial and benthic habitats of the U. S. Virgin Islands, spanning a period of...

  7. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  8. Coastal flood implications of 1.5°C, 2°C and 2.5°C global mean temperature stabilization targets for small island nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D.; Buchanan, M. K.; Kopp, R. E.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level rise (SLR) is magnifying the frequency and severity of flooding in coastal regions. The rate and amount of global-mean SLR is a function of the trajectory of the global mean surface temperature (GMST). Therefore, temperature stabilization targets (e.g., 1.5°C or 2°C, as from the Paris Agreement) have important implications for regulating coastal flood risk. Quantifying the differences in the impact from SLR between these and other GMST stabilization targets is necessary for assessing the benefits and harms of mitigation goals. Low-lying small island nations are particularly vulnerable to inundation and coastal flooding from SLR because building protective and resilient infrastructure may not be physically or economically feasible. For small island nations, keeping GMST below a specified threshold may be the only option for maintaining habitability. Here, we assess differences in the return levels of coastal floods for small island nations between 1.5°C, 2.0°C, and 2.5°C GMST stabilization. We employ probabilistic, localized SLR projections and long-term hourly tide gauge records to construct estimates of local flood risk. We then estimate the number of small island nations' inhabitants at risk for permanent inundation under different GMST stabilization targets.

  9. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, V V; Sinha, Anindya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2010-10-13

    Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies. We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp) obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species. Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of this region.

  10. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Robin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies.We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species.Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of

  11. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  12. Mercury concentration in the sediments as a function of changing climate in coastal zone of Southern Baltic Sea – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bełdowska M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, despite of its many uses in industry, is also highly toxic. It is highly neurotoxic, and because of the ability of mercury to penetrate placental barrier, in some countries ban on predatory fish consumption (the main route of mercury into human organism by pregnant women was introduced. There are very little publications describing the consequences of weather anomalies on contaminants cycles. No research was published concerning the reemission of Hg due to climate change in the Southern Baltic Sea. The study area was situated in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk - the Southern Baltic. Samples of different species of macrophytobenthos were collected once a month during 2006-2012. Samples of Potamogeton pectinatus, sediments and pore waters were collected once a month from February 2011 to January 2012. The climate changes in the moderate latitudes: extension of the fall season, has contributed to stabilization of high concentrations of mercury in pore waters. Lack of ice cover in the coastal zone and simultaneous occurrence of storms had an impact on supply of the organic matter to the sediments and the increased concentration of Hg. More intense burning of fossil fuels in this season favored the increased metal concentration in the atmosphere and consequently an increase of the atmospheric deposition of metals to the sediments. This led to a fourfold increase of the mercury concentration in sediments as compared to fall season.

  13. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.

  14. Scientific information in support of water resource management of the Big River area, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Masterson, John P.; Robinson, Keith W.; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) is concerned that the demand for water may exceed the available public water supply in central and southern Rhode Island. Although water is often assumed to be plentiful in Rhode Island because of abundant rainfall, an adequate supply of water is not always available everywhere in the state during dry periods. Concerns that water demand may exceed supply are greatest during the summer, when lower water levels and increased drought potential combine with seasonal increases in peak water demand (Rhode Island Water Resources Board, 2012). High summer water demands are due to increases in outdoor water use, such as lawn watering and agricultural irrigation, and to increased summer population in coastal areas. Water-supply concerns are particularly acute in central and southern Rhode Island, where groundwater is the primary source of drinking water.

  15. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  16. Recharge beneath low-impact design rain gardens and the influence of El Niño Southern Oscillation on urban, coastal groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater resources in urban, coastal environments are highly vulnerable to increased human pressures and climate variability. Impervious surfaces, such as buildings, roads, and parking lots prevent infiltration, reduce recharge to underlying aquifers, and increase contaminants in surface runoff that often overflow sewage systems. To mitigate these effects, cities worldwide are adopting low impact design (LID) approaches that direct runoff into natural vegetated systems, such as rain gardens that reduce, filter, and slow stormwater runoff, and are hypothesized to increase infiltration and recharge rates to aquifers. The effects of LID on recharge rates and quality is unknown, particularly during intense precipitation events for cities along the Pacific coast in response to interannual variability of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Using vadose zone monitoring sensors and instruments, I collected and monitored soil, hydraulic, and geochemical data to quantify the rates and quality of infiltration and recharge to the California Coastal aquifer system beneath a LID rain garden and traditional turf-lawn setting in San Francisco, CA. The data were used to calibrate a HYDRUS-3D model to simulate recharge rates under historical and future variability of ENSO. Understanding these processes has important implications for managing groundwater resources in urban, coastal environments.

  17. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², pEl robalo blanco Centropomus undecimalis representa un ingreso monetario significativo y un recurso alimentario para todas las comunidades rurales cercanas a su distribución. Se determinó la edad y crecimiento de esta especie. Los organismos se recolectaron mensualmente en los desembarcos de la pesca artesanal de las cooperativas de mayor contribución en la zona costera (Barra Bosque y San Pedro y ribereña (San Pedro y Tres Brazos entre julio 2006 y marzo 2008. La edad se determinó mediante otolitos seccionados. La edad estimada fue de 2 a 17 años. Mensualmente se estableció la

  19. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  20. Coastal Sediment Distribution Patterns Following Category 5 Hurricanes (Irma and Maria): Pre and Post Hurricane High Resolution Multibeam Surveys of Eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, T. N.; Sawyer, D. E.; Russell, P.

    2017-12-01

    In August of 2017 we collected high resolution multibeam data of the seafloor in a large embayment in eastern St. John, US Virgin Islands (USVI). One month later, the eyewall of Category 5 Hurricane Irma directly hit St. John as one of the largest hurricanes on record in the Atlantic Ocean. A week later, Category 5 Hurricane Maria passed over St. John. While the full extent of the impacts are still being assessed, the island experienced a severe loss of vegetation, infrastructure, buildings, roads, and boats. We mobilized less than two months afterward to conduct a repeat survey of the same area on St. John. We then compared these data to document and quantify the sediment influx and movement that occurred in coastal embayments as a result of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. The preliminary result of the intense rain, wind, and storm surge likely yields an event deposit that can be mapped and volumetrically quantified in the bays of eastern St. John. The results of this study allow for a detailed understanding of the post-hurricane pulse of sediment that enters the marine environment, the sediment flux seaward, and the morphological changes to the bay floor.

  1. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of intense scavenging on Pa-Th fractionation in the wake of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Venchiarutti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved and particulate excess 230Th and 231Pa concentrations (noted 230Thxs and 231Paxs respectively and 231Paxs/230Thxs activity ratios were investigated on and out of the Kerguelen plateau (Southern Ocean in the framework of the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study project in order to better understand the influence of particle flux and particle chemistry and advection on the scavenging of 231Pa.

    In the wake of Kerguelen, particulate 231Paxs is relatively abundant compared to its content in the dissolved phase. This, together with the low fractionation observed between 230Th and 231Pa (FTh/Pa ranging from 0.06 ± 0.01 to 1.6 ± 0.2 reflects the domination of the biogenic silica in the particle pool.

    Along the eastern escarpment of the Kerguelen plateau, the strong 231Paxs horizontal gradient in the deep waters highlights the intense removal of 231Pa at depth, as already observed for 230Thxs. This local boundary scavenging was attributed to re-suspension of opal-rich particles by nepheloid layers, resulting in fractionation factors FTh/Pa ≤ 1 along the Kerguelen plateau slope. Therefore, both the composition (biogenic opal and the flux (intense along the margin of particles control the scavenging of the two radionuclides in the Kerguelen wake.

    The modelling of 231Pa distribution with an advection-scavenging model demonstrates that lateral advection of open ocean water on the Kerguelen plateau could supply most of the 231Pa, which is then efficiently scavenged on the highly productive plateau, as previously proposed for 230Thxs. It stresses that lateral advection can play a significant role in the overall

  3. Ankaramite: A New Type of High-Magnesium and High-Calcium Primitive Melt in the Magnitogorsk Island-Arc Zone (Southern Urals)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, E. V.; Ryazancev, A. V.; Gottman, I. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kamenetsky, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    This work describes the geological position, mineral and chemical composition of high-Mg effusive ankaramites occurring as dykes and lava flows. They were found in the mélange zone of the western margin of the Magnitogorsk island arc zone in the Southern Urals. Data on the liquidus association of phenocrysts and on the composition of the matrix of effusives are given. According to the data obtained, the conclusion was drawn that the ankaramites studied can be attributed to the primary island arc melts, which were not subject to essential differentiation. This type of effusives has not been distinguished previously among island arc volcanogenic formations of the Urals. It is shown that ankaramites can be considered to be primary melts parental for dunite-clinopyroxenites-gabbro complexes of Ural-Alaskan type. The occurrence of ankaramites in the Paleozoic island arc formations of the Urals indicates the wehrlite composition of the mantle as the reason for the extremely wide development of wehrlites and clinopyroxenites in different mafic-ultramafic complexes of the Urals.

  4. Post-Hurricane Ike coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, September 14-15, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Guy, Kristy K.

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 14-15, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, aboard a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ike data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown on September 9-10, 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail

  5. A Numerical Study of the Urban Heat Island in the Coastal Tropical City of San Juan, Puerto Rico: Model Validation and Impacts of LCLU Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comarazamy, Daniel E.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Luvall, Jeff; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2007-01-01

    Urban sprawls in tropical locations are rapidly accelerating and it is more evident in islands where a large percentage of the population resides along the coasts. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impacts of land use and land cover for urbanization in the tropical coastal city of San Juan, in the tropical island of Puerto Rico. A mesoscale numerical model, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), is used to study specific characteristics and patterns of the urban heat island in the San Juan Metropolitan Area (SJMA), the most noticeable urban core of the Caribbean. The research present in this paper makes use of the observations obtained during the airborne San Juan Atlas Mission in two ways. First, surface and rawinsonde data are used to validate the atmospheric model yielding satisfactory results. Second, airborne remote sensing information is used to update the model's surface characteristics to obtain a detailed configuration of the SJMA in order to perform the LCLU changes impact analysis. This analysis showed that the presence of San Juan has an impact reflected in higher air temperatures over the area occupied by the city, with positive values of up to 2.5 C, for the simulations that have specified urban LCLU indexes in the bottom boundary. One interesting result of the impact analysis was the finding of a precipitation disturbance shown as a difference in total accumulated rainfall between simulation with the city and with a potential natural vegetation induced by the presence of the urban area. Model results indicate that the urban-induced cloud formation and precipitation development occur mainly downwind of the city, including the accumulated precipitation. This spatial pattern can be explained by the presence of a-larger urbanized area in the southwest sector of the city, and of the approaching northeasterly trade winds.

  6. Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2006-12-01

    Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander

  7. Hydrogeology and hydrologic conditions of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer System from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Monti, Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.; McCoy, Kurt J.

    2013-11-14

    The seaward-dipping sedimentary wedge that underlies the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain forms a complex groundwater system. This major source of water provides for public and domestic supply and serves as a vital source of freshwater for industrial and agricultural uses throughout the region. Population increases and land-use and climate changes, however, have led to competing demands for water. The regional response of the aquifer system to these stresses poses regional challenges for water-resources management at the State level because hydrologic effects often extend beyond State boundaries. In response to these challenges, the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program began a regional assessment of the groundwater availability of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system in 2010.

  8. Vertical landscape structure of the southern part of Vis Island, Croatia = Vertikalna pokrajinska struktura južnega dela otoka Vis, Hrvaška

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lozić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some basic features of vertical landscape structure of the southern partof Vis Island, Croatia. Its aim is the determination of geocomplex types with a certain degreeof stability and resistance to external influences, and confirmation or rejection of hypothesisthat with the application of appropriate methods, the spatial relation between geocomplextypes as well as the identification of specific dominant/stable and vulnerable/labile geocomplextypes can be precisely determined. The results should serve as the basis for estimationof current status and future trends in the development of geocomplex types as well as theenvironmental changes.

  9. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. Where compared with the elevation map, in fact, the electrical conductivity data (a proxy for salinity) seem to be strongly controlled by topography (even small variations). In the study area, the topographic reliefs consist of several rows of dunes, the topographic lows are artificial ditches and ponds or dune slacks. The farmland is about at the same level of the sea. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as dunes were eroded (down to 1.5 m above m.s.l.) and a series of saltwater ponds (about 1 m below m.s.l.) are present right behind the active dunes. The central part of the study area is characterised by the presence of a 3 m high active dune and of a large pond in the innermost side of the backshore. In this case, there is a narrow fresh groundwater lens in the active dunes area, whereas inland the aquifer is completely salty up to the agricultural fields. The southern area has the best preserved and tallest dunes (more than 4 m) and do not contain any pond. Here, the fresh groundwater lens is wider than everywhere else and the aquifer becomes salty only where the drainage ditches are causing upconing of deeper salty groundwater. Our study has recognized the importance of coastal dunes in counteracting saltwater intrusion in the phreatic aquifer. Therefore, it is important to consider measures and interventions in order to preserve the integrity of the dunes not only for the purposes of avoiding shoreline erosion and coastal ecosystem destruction but also for freshwater resources protection. On the other hand, in low lying coastal areas, drainage and the construction of ponds may enhance seawater upconing.

  10. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare and threatened/endangered terrestrial mammals in Southern California. Vector polygons in this data...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, sea lions, whales, dolphins, porpoises, and sea otters in Southern California. Vector polygons...

  12. Dynamics of oxygen depletion in the nearshore of a coastal embayment of the southern Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pitcher, GC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available is characterized by seasonally recurrent hypoxia (<1.42 ml l(sup-1)) associated with a deep pool of oxygen-depleted water and episodic anoxia (<0.02 ml l(sup-1)) driven by the nearshore (<20 m isobath) decay of red tide. Coastal wind forcing influences DO...

  13. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for oceanographic observations near Fire Island, New York, February through May 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Voulgaris, George

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during February through May 2014 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics along the western part of Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected, including meteorological observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  14. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for observations near Fire Island, New York, January to April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Voulgaris, George; Traykovski, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during January through April 2012 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics near Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deploymed. The data collected and supporting meteorological observations are presented as time series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual, links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  15. Parasitism in Pterois volitans (Scorpaenidae) from coastal waters of Puerto Rico, the Cayman Islands, and the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ascherl, Zullaylee; Williams, Ernest H; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Tuttle, Lillian J; Sikkel, Paul C; Hixon, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    Recently, Pterois volitans, a Pacific species of lionfish, invaded the Atlantic Ocean, likely via the aquarium trade. We examined for internal and external parasites 188 individuals from 8 municipalities of Puerto Rico collected during 2009-2012, 91 individuals from Little Cayman, Cayman Islands, collected during the summers of 2010 and 2011, and 47 individuals from Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, collected during the summer of 2009. In total, 27 parasite taxa were found, including 3 previously reported species from lionfish, the digenean Lecithochirium floridense, the leech Trachelobdella lubrica, and an Excorallana sp. isopod. We also report another 24 previously unreported parasite taxa from lionfish, including digeneans, monogeneans, cestodes, nematodes, isopods, a copepod, and an acanthocephalan. Among these parasites, several were previously unreported at their respective geographic origins: We report 5 new locality records from Puerto Rico, 9 from Cayman Islands, 5 from the Bahamas, 5 from the Caribbean, and 3 from the subtropical western Atlantic region. Three parasites are reported to associate with a fish host for the first time. The parasite faunas of P. volitans among our 3 study sites were quite different; most of the species infecting lionfish were generalists and/or species that infect carnivorous fishes. Although our study did not assess the impact of parasites on the fitness of invasive lionfish, it provides an important early step. Our results provide valuable comparative data for future studies at these and other sites throughout the lionfish's invaded range.

  16. Monitoring and Management of Karstic Coastal Groundwater in a Changing Environment (Southern Italy: A Review of a Regional Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The population concentration in coastal areas and the increase of groundwater discharge in combination with the peculiarities of karstic coastal aquifers constitute a huge worldwide problem, which is particularly relevant for coastal aquifers of the Mediterranean basin. This paper offers a review of scientific activities realized to pursue the optimal utilization of Apulian coastal groundwater. Apulia, with a coastline extending for over 800 km, is the Italian region with the largest coastal karst aquifers. Apulian aquifers have suffered both in terms of water quality and quantity. Some regional regulations were implemented from the 1970s with the purpose of controlling the number of wells, well locations, and well discharge. The practical effects of these management criteria, the temporal and spatial trend of recharge, groundwater quality, and seawater intrusion effects are discussed based on long-term monitoring. The efficacy of existing management tools and the development of predictive scenarios to identify the best way to reconcile irrigation and demands for high-quality drinking water have been pursued in a selected area. The Salento peninsula was selected as the Apulian aquifer portion exposed to the highest risk of quality degradation due to seawater intrusion. The capability of large-scale numerical models in groundwater management was tested, particularly for achieving forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. The results show qualitative and quantitative groundwater trends from 1930 to 2060 and emphasize the substantial decrease of the piezometric level and a serious worsening of groundwater salinization due to seawater intrusion.

  17. Pollen-based evidence of extreme drought during the last Glacial (32.6-9.0 ka) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda E.; Kirby, Matthew E.; Nichols, Jonathan E.

    2015-10-01

    High resolution pollen analyses of sediment core LEDC10-1 from Lake Elsinore yield the first well-dated, terrestrial record of sub-centennial-scale ecologic change in coastal southern California between ˜32 and 9 ka. In the Lake Elsinore watershed, the initial, mesic montane conifer forests dominated by Pinus, and Cupressaceae with trace amounts of Abies and Picea were replaced by a sequence of multiple, extended severe mega-droughts between ˜27.5 and ˜25.5 ka, in which halophytic and xerophytic herbs and shrubs occupied an ephemeral lake. This prolonged and extended dry interval, which corresponds with warm waters offshore, imply strengthening of the North Pacific High and persistent below-average winter precipitation. The subsequent, contrasting monotonic occurrence of montane conifers reflects little variation in cold, mesic climate until ˜15 ka. Postglacial development of Quercus woodland and chaparral mark the return to more xeric, warmer conditions at this time. A brief reversal at ˜13.1-˜12.1 ka, as reflected by an expansion of Pinus, is correlative with the Younger Dryas and interrupts development of warm, postglacial climate. Subsequent gradual expansion of xeric vegetation post - Younger Dryas denotes the establishment of a winter hydroclimate regime in coastal southern California that is more similar to modern conditions. Pollen-based reconstructions of temperature and precipitation at Lake Elsinore are generally correlative with pollen-based paleoclimatic reconstructions and foraminifera-based sea surface temperatures from Santa Barbara Basin in marine core ODP 893. The conspicuous absence of the ˜27.5-˜25.5 ka glacial "mega-drought" in the Santa Barbara Basin pollen record highlights the sensitivity of Lake Elsinore to hydroclimate change, and thus, the importance of this new record that indicates that mega-drought can occur during the full glacial when climatic boundary conditions and forcings differed substantially from the present.

  18. Attaining provenance proxies from OSL and TL sensitivities: Coupling with grain size and heavy minerals data from southern Brazilian coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zular, André; Sawakuchi, André O.; Guedes, Carlos C.F.; Giannini, Paulo C.F.

    2015-01-01

    In the São Francisco do Sul (SFS) barrier in southern Brazil, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivities of coastal sands vary according to geomorphological units. Sands from older beach ridges (ages older than 2000 years ago) show higher OSL and TL sensitivities than younger units (ages younger than 2000 years). Geomorphological units in the SFS attest to changes in provenance as a result of a coastal climate shift evidenced through grain size and heavy mineral analysis. We argue that in the SFS barrier sands, OSL and TL sensitivity signals provide an additional proxy to climate events and can be used as an alternative method to assess changes in provenance and tracking source-to-sink systems to monitor past and future environmental changes. - Highlights: • OSL and TL sensitivities are confronted with grain size and heavy minerals data. • We report OSL and 110 °C TL sensitivities as provenance proxies. • 110 °C TL sensitivity outlines environmental changes better than OSL sensitivity data.

  19. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 from a southern coastal city of China: applications of modeling and chemical tracers in demonstration of regional transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiamao; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Zhuzi; Zhao, Shuyu; Zhu, Chongshu; Wang, Qiyuan; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Zhao, Youzhi; Wang, Ping; Tie, Xuexi

    2018-05-11

    An intensive sampling campaign of airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) was conducted at Sanya, a coastal city in Southern China, from January to February 2012. Chemical analyses and mass reconstruction were used identify potential pollution sources and investigate atmospheric reaction mechanisms. A thermodynamic model indicated that low ammonia and high relative humidity caused the aerosols be acidic and that drove heterogeneous reactions which led to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosol. Relationships among neutralization ratios, free acidity, and air-mass trajectories suggest that the atmosphere at Sanya was impacted by both local and regional emissions. Three major transport pathways were identified, and flow from the northeast (from South China) typically brought the most polluted air to Sanya. A case study confirmed strong impact from South China (e.g., Pearl River Delta region) (contributed 76.8% to EC, and then this result can be extended to primary pollutants) when the northeast winds were dominant. The Weather Research Forecasting Black carbon model and trace organic markers were used to apportion local pollution versus regional contributions. Results of the study offer new insights into the atmospheric conditions and air pollution at this coastal city.

  20. Early to Middle Holocene sea level fluctuation, coastal progradation and the Neolithic occupation in the Yaojiang Valley of southern Hangzhou Bay, Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Qianli; Fan, Daidu; Dai, Bin; Ma, Fuwei; Xu, Lichen; Chen, Jing; Chen, Zhongyuan

    2018-06-01

    The Yaojiang Valley (YJV) of southern Hangzhou Bay was the birthplace of the well-known Hemudu Culture (HC), one of the representatives of Neolithic civilization in eastern China. To explore the magnitude of natural environmental effects on the HC trajectory, the palaeo-embayment setting of the YJV was studied in detail for the first time in terms of 3D Holocene strata supported by a series of new radiocarbon-dated cores. The results indicated that the local relative sea level rose rapidly during the Early Holocene in the YJV, reached its maximum flooding surface ca. 7900 cal yr BP, and then remained stable ca. 7900-7600 cal yr BP. Thereupon, an estuary stretching inland was first formed by marine transgression, and then, it was transformed to an alluvial-coastal plain by regressive progradation. The alluvial plain was initiated in the foothills and then spread towards the valley centre after sea level stabilization ca. 7600 cal yr BP. Accompanying these natural environmental changes, the earliest arrivals of foragers in the valley occurred no later than ca. 7000 cal yr BP. They engaged in rice farming and fostered the HC for approximately two millennia from ca. 7000-5000 cal yr BP as more lands developed from coastal progradation. The rise and development of the HC are closely associated with the sea level-induced landscape changes in the YJV in the Early-Middle Holocene, but the enigmatic exodus of the HC people after ca. 5000 cal yr BP is still contentious and possibly linked with the rapid waterlogging and deterioration of this setting in such a low-lying coastal plain as well as with associated social reasons.

  1. A New Method to Infer Advancement of Saline Front in Coastal Groundwater Systems by 3D: The Case of Bari (Southern Italy Fractured Aquifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Masciopinto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new method to study 3D saline front advancement in coastal fractured aquifers has been presented. Field groundwater salinity was measured in boreholes of the Bari (Southern Italy coastal aquifer with depth below water table. Then, the Ghyben-Herzberg freshwater/saltwater (50% sharp interface and saline front position were determined by model simulations of the freshwater flow in groundwater. Afterward, the best-fit procedure between groundwater salinity measurements, at assigned water depth of 1.0 m in boreholes, and distances of each borehole from the modelled freshwater/saltwater saline front was used to convert each position (x, y in groundwater to the water salinity concentration at depth of 1.0 m. Moreover, a second best-fit procedure was applied to the salinity measurements in boreholes with depth z. These results provided a grid file (x, y, z, salinity suitable for plotting the actual Bari aquifer salinity by 3D maps. Subsequently, in order to assess effects of pumping on the saltwater-freshwater transition zone in the coastal aquifer, the Navier-Stokes (N-S equations were applied to study transient density-driven flow and salt mass transport into freshwater of a single fracture. The rate of seawater/freshwater interface advancement given by the N-S solution was used to define the progression of saline front in Bari groundwater, starting from the actual salinity 3D map. The impact of pumping of 335 L·s−1 during the transition period of 112.8 days was easily highlighted on 3D salinity maps of Bari aquifer.

  2. Spatial structure of the zooplankton community in the coastal upwelling system off central-southern Chile in spring 2004 as assessed by automated image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manríquez, Karen; Escribano, Ruben; Riquelme-Bugueño, Ramiro

    2012-01-01

    Size spectra of the mesozooplankton community was studied under the influence of coastal upwelling during austral spring 2004 in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile. Size spectra were derived from the ZooImage analysis of digitalized zooplankton samples obtained from the upper 200 m during a survey carried out under active upwelling (November 2004). An upwelling filament extended up to 180 km offshore, and the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (1 mL O 2 L -1) varied between 20 m (nearshore) and 300 m depth (oceanic). The community descriptors (slope of the size spectra, size class index, abundance of size classes) were derived from the size spectra. Stepwise multiple regression analysis found significant correlations between these descriptors and oceanographic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, OMZ depth). These data suggest an upwelling-dependent zooplankton distribution characterized by aggregations in a mid-shelf zone, where the log-normalized size spectra become flatter due to an increased abundance of larger size classes (>3 mm). In contrast, the inshore and offshore zones were dominated by small (zone coincided with moderate levels of chlorophyll-a (ca. 1 μg L -1) and the OMZ depth near 200 m. These spatial patterns and slopes of the size spectra however, were subjected to a significant day vs. night effect mostly explained by the diel vertical migration of the euphausiid Euphausia mucronata. This migration can descend below 200 m during the daylight, causing the larger size classes to disappear from the size spectrum and resulting in a steeper slope. Time-dependent effects must, therefore, be considered when examining the spatial patterns of zooplankton in coastal upwelling zones.

  3. Indexes of spatio-temporal change to reconstruct the historical evolution of a coastal region: case study: São Sebastião Island - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia S. Bertolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal regions of Brazil have lost most of their distinct characteristics due to an intense, diverse, and long history of land use. The current scenario is the result of successive changes which have taken place since the colonization of Brazil. These changes should be taken into account in environmental planning since the decisions about the future depend on the understanding of past changes. In this regard, the aim of this study was to identify and quantify the spatio-temporal changes in land use in a coastal region, using principles of landscape ecology and scenario construction. The case study was the São Sebastião Island, divided into 61 watersheds, off the northern coast of São Paulo State (Brazil. The study involved the development and application of a methodology to interpret the historical dynamics of the island. The driving forces were identified and indexes of change were calculated to define the phases of occupation of the island. Five phases of occupation of the coastal landscape were mapped: preservation, conservation, regeneration, exploitation and urbanization. These phases represent a pattern of internal heterogeneity, sometimes positive (environmental conservation, and sometimes negative (environmental degradation.As regiões costeiras brasileiras encontram-se altamente descaracterizadas devido ao intenso, diversificado e prolongado uso da terra ao longo de sua história. O cenário hoje observado é produto do acúmulo de interferências que vem ocorrendo desde a colonização. Os planejamentos ambientais devem considerar essa questão, uma vez que as decisões sobre o futuro dependem da compreensão dessas mudanças do passado. Neste caminho, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, quantificar e indicar as variações espaços-temporais de uso da terra numa paisagem costeira a partir dos princípios da ecologia de paisagem e da modelagem para construção de cenários. O estudo de caso foi a Ilha de São Sebasti

  4. A comparative study on mesozooplankton abundance and diversity between a protected and an unprotected coastal area of Andaman Islands.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pillai, H.U.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Biju, A.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, V.R.; Revichandran, C.; Menon, N.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    (station 3), North Bay (station 4), Haddo jetty (station 5) and Viper Island (station 6). The MPA which is situated on the western side of the south Andaman is a very popular tourist spot, mainly because of its rich coral reef resources and scenic beauty... by the Centre for Marine Living Resource & Ecology, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India. This is a NIO contribution. References Achuthankutty, C. T, Madhupratap, M., Nair, V. R., Nair, S. R. S. & Rao, T. S. S. (1980), Zooplankton biomass...

  5. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  6. Investigating the March 28th 1875 and the September 20th 1920 earthquakes/tsunamis of the Southern Vanuatu arc, offshore Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioualalen, Mansour; Pelletier, Bernard; Solis Gordillo, Gabriela

    2017-07-01

    New Caledonia's Loyalty Islands are located in the southwest region of the Pacific ocean in the highly seismogenic southern Vanuatu subduction zone and therefore may be subject to devastating local tsunamis. Over the past 150 years, two large tsunamis were triggered by major earthquakes on March 28th 1875 and September 20th 1920. In this study, we use historical observations of these tsunamis (mostly in the form of testimonials), earthquake scenarios, and tsunami modeling to derive the magnitudes of these earthquakes, as well as tsunami runup and inundation maps. Assuming that these earthquakes were located on the interplate megathrust zone, the 1875 earthquake's magnitude was Mw8.1-8.2 and the 1920 event's magnitude was Mw7.5-7.8. The tsunami damage inflicted on the Lifou and Maré islands was approximately proportional to these magnitudes, with Maré being less impacted due to favorable wave directivity. Damage at Ouvéa island may have varied irregularly with the magnitude due to the effects of resonance. This study demonstrates that the quantitative characteristics of historical tsunamigenic earthquakes may be derived from qualitative estimates of tsunami runup.

  7. Holocene sea-level changes in King George Island, West Antarctica, by virtue of geomorphological coastal evidences and diatom assemblages of sediment sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleshchuk, Ksenia; Verkulich, Sergey; Pushina, Zina; Jozhikov, Ilya

    2015-04-01

    A new curve of relative sea-level change is presented for the Fildes peninsula, King George Island, West Antarctic. This work is based on renewed paleogeography data, including coastal geomorphological evidence, diatom assemblages of lakes bottom sediments and radiocarbon datings of organics. The new data were obtained in several sections of quaternary sediments and groups of terraces, and allows us to expand and improve relevant conception about relative sea level changes in the King George Island region. The new radiocarbon datings of organics (mosses and shells) allows reconstructing Holocene conditions that maintain and cause the sea-level changes. Sea diatom assemblages of Dlinnoye lake bottom sediment core (that complies period about 8000 years B.P.) mark altitude of marine water penetrated into the lake. The altitudes of shell remains, which have certain life habits and expect specific salinity and depth conditions, coupled with their absolute datings, indicate the probable elevation of the past sea level. The Mid-Holocene marine transgression reached its maximum level of 18-20 m by 5760 years B.P. The transgression influenced the deglaciation of the Fildes peninsula and environment conditions integrally. The ratio of glacio-isostatic adjustment velocity and Holocene transgression leaded to the decrease of relative sea level during the Late Holocene excluding the short period of rising between 2000 and 1300 years B.P. Comparing this data with the curve for Bunger oasis, East Antarctica, introduced earlier gives an interesting result. Despite the maximum altitudes of relative sea-level rise in King George region were higher and occurred later than in Bunger oasis region, the short-term period of Late Holocene sea-level rising contemporizes. Besides that, this work allow to realize a correlation between regions of Antarctica and adjacent territory. That, in turn, lets answer the question of tectonic and eustatic factors ratio and their contribution to the

  8. A comparison of the watershed hydrology of coastal forested wetlands and the mountainous uplands in the Southern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sun; S.G. McNulty; D.M. Amatya; R.W. Skaggs; L.W. Swift; J.P. Shepard; H. Riekerk

    2002-01-01

    Hydrology plays a critical roie in wetland development and ecosystem structure and functions. Hydrologic responses to forest management and climate change are diverse in the Southern United States due to topographic and climatic differences. This paper presents a comparison study on long-term hydrologic characteristics (long-term seasonal runoff patterns, water...

  9. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, L.I.; van der Meulen, M.D.; Maes, T.; Bekaert, K.; Paul-Pont, I.; Frère, L.; Robbens, J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North

  10. Chaparral in southern and central coastal California in the mid-1990s: area, ownership, condition, and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Charles L. Bolsinger; Debby Beardsley

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of chaparral-dominated lands in southern California conducted during the mid-1990s and provides a review of contemporary literature on the ecological dynamics of chaparral vegetation with emphases on stand development, species composition, and the role of fire. Detailed tables provide estimates of chaparral area by owner, type, size...

  11. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  12. The initial investigation of Fatu-ma-Futi : an ancient coastal village site, Tutuila Island, Territory of American Samoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, D.J.; Walter, G.; Morrison, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results of inital excavations at Fatu-ma-Futi Village are reported. Stratigraphy in two test pits was similar, with compacted surface layers of a car-parking lot underlain by a layer of clayey sand, fire-affected rock and ancient pebble-gravel paving, which slowly graded into the original beach surface. Post-moulds, shell midden, and basalt flakes were found in both units and human remains in one. Near-basal radiocarbon dates on charcoal suggest initial occupation of a newly formed littoral environment in the period of about 1600 to 1300 cal BP. Permanent habitation came later, with evidence of large-scale basalt tool manufacture towards the end of the sequence. This site is important for understanding current topics in Samoan prehistory, including settlement pattern and coastal geomorphology, marine exploitation and reef health, human lifestyle, health and burial practices, domestic architectural morphology; and the Tutuila basal export industry. (author). 37 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  14. The role of thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the modulation of the ground deformation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, R.; Gola, G.; Santilano, A.; De Novellis, V.; Pepe, S.; Manzo, M.; Manzella, A.; Tizzani, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop a model of the ground deformation behaviour occurred at Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the 1992-2010 time period. The model is employed to investigate the forces and physical parameters of the crust controlling the subsidence of the Island. To this aim, we integrate and homogenize in a Finite Element (FE) environment a large amount of data derived from several and different observation techniques (i.e., geological, geophysical and remote sensing). In detail, the main steps of the multiphysics model are: (i) the generation of a 3D geological model of the crust beneath the Island by merging the available geological and geophysical information; (ii) the optimization of a 3D thermal model by exploiting the thermal measurements available in literature; (iii) the definition of the 3D Brittle/Ductile transition by using the temperature distribution of the crust and the physical information of the rocks; (iv) the optimization of the ground deformation velocity model (that takes into account the rheological stratification) by considering the spatial and temporal information detected via satellite multi-orbit C-Band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements acquired during the 1992-2010 time period. The achieved results allow investigating the physical process responsible for the observed ground deformation pattern. In particular, they reveal how the rheology modulates the spatial and temporal evolution of the long-term subsidence phenomenon, highlighting a coupling effect of the viscosities of the rocks and the gravitational loading of the volcano edifice. Moreover, the achieved results provide a very detailed and realistic velocity field image of the subsurface crust of the Ischia Island Volcano.

  15. Late summer distribution and stoichiometry of dissolved N, Si and P in the Southern Ocean near Heard and McDonald Islands on the Kerguelen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Z.; Bowie, A. R.; Blain, S.; Holmes, T.; Rayner, M.; Sherrin, K.; Tonnard, M.; Trull, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Kerguelen plateau in the Southern Indian Ocean is a naturally iron-fertilised region surrounded by iron-limited, High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll waters. The Heard Earth Ocean Biosphere Interaction (HEOBI) project sampled waters south of the Polar Front in the vicinity of Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) in January and February 2016. Fe fertilised waters over the plateau generally exhibited high phytoplankton biomass and photosynthetic competency (as in previous studies and satellite observations), but interestingly, phytoplankton biomass was low near HIMI, though photosynthetic competency was high. In plateau waters away from HIMI, silicic acid (Si) concentrations were strongly depleted in surface waters, averaging 3 μM, while nitrate concentrations were close to 25 μM. Relative to the remnant winter water, this represents an average seasonal drawdown of 32 μM Si and only 8 μM nitrate. Though absolute drawdown was lower at an HNLC reference site south of Heard Island, the drawdown ratio was similarly high (ΔSi: ΔN 4-5). The average N:P drawdown ratio was 12, typical for a diatom-dominated system (Weber and Deutsch 2010). N:P drawdown was positively correlated with Si drawdown, perhaps indicative of an impact of Fe on both seasonal Si drawdown and diatom N:P uptake (Price 2005). In the well-mixed, shallow waters (McDonald Islands, despite the apparent lack of nutrient drawdown or biomass accumulation. Mixed layers deeper than the euphotic zone are one mechanism that retains these remineralization signatures and near the islands, tidal mixing also contributes.

  16. Volcanic Eruptions in the Southern Red Sea During 2007–2013

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-04-03

    The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.

  17. Volcanic Eruptions in the Southern Red Sea During 2007–2013

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon; Xu, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.

  18. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  19. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  20. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  1. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  2. Water exchange estimates derived from forcing for the hydraulically coupled basins surrounding Aespoe island and adjacent coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, A.

    1997-08-01

    A numerical model study based on representative physical forcing data (statistically averaged from approximately 10 years) has been performed of the Aespoe area, subdivided into five separate basins, interconnected by four straits and connected to the Baltic coast through three straits. The water exchange of the shallow Borholmsfjaerden, with comparatively small section areas of its straits, is dominated by the sea level variations while the baroclinic exchange components (estuarine and intermediary circulation) also contribute. The average transit retention time (averaged over the basin volume for a full year cycle) is found to be a little over 40 days for exogenous water (i.e. coastal water and freshwater combined); this measure of the water exchange is comparable to the combined average of an ensemble consisting of 157 similarly analyzed basins distributed along the Swedish east and west coasts. The exchange mechanisms and model assumptions are discussed. The consequences for the retention times by short- and long-term variations of the forcing is also analyzed. The standard deviation (SD) of the retention time during an average year (intra-annual variation) is greater than the SD between years (interannual variation) for all basins except Borholmsfjaerden for which these two measures are in parity. The range of the retention times that results from an extreme combination of forcing factor variation between years is found to be greater the farther a particular basin is located from the coast, measured as the minimal number of separating straits. The results of an earlier investigation are also reviewed

  3. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm, southern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Åke; Waight, Tod Earle; Andersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Granitoids and gneisses from the Danish island of Bornholm have been investigated using whole rock geochemistry, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and Hf isotopes in zircon. Recent U–Pb dating shows that the rocks were formed during a short time interval at 1.45 to 1.46 Ga, penecontemporaneous...

  4. Distribution of naturally occurring radioactivity and 137Cs in the marine sediment of Farasan island, southern red sea, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zahrany, A. A.; Farouk, M. A.; Al-yousef, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is a part of a project dedicated to measure the marine radioactivity near the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea and Arabian Gulf for establishing a marine radioactivity database, which includes necessary information on the background levels of both naturally occurring and man-made radionuclides in the marine environment. Farasan Islands is a group of 84 islands (archipelago), under the administration of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in the Red Sea with its main island of Farasan, which is 50 km off the coast of Jazan City. The levels of natural radioactivity of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Thand 40 K and man-made radionuclides such as 137 Cs in the grab sediment and water samples around Farasan Island have been measured using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The average activity concentrations of 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137C s in the sediment samples were found to be 35.46, 1.75, 3.31, 0.92, 34.34 and 0.14 Bq kg -1 , respectively. (authors)

  5. Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; O'Connell, A.F.; Harrison, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

  6. Iron Availability Influences Silicon Isotope Fractionation in Two Southern Ocean Diatoms (Proboscia inermis and Eucampia antarctica and a Coastal Diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Meyerink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fractionation of silicon (Si isotopes was measured in two Southern Ocean diatoms (Proboscia inermis and Eucampia Antarctica and a coastal diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana that were grown under varying iron (Fe concentrations. Varying Fe concentrations had no effect on the Si isotope enrichment factor (ε in T. pseudonana, whilst E. Antarctica and P. inermis exhibited significant variations in the value of ε between Fe-replete and Fe-limited conditions. Mean ε values in P. inermis and E. Antarctica decreased from (± 1SD −1.11 ± 0.15‰ and −1.42 ± 0.41 ‰ (respectively under Fe-replete conditions, to −1.38 ± 0.27 ‰ and −1.57 ± 0.5 ‰ (respectively under Fe-limiting conditions. These variations likely arise from adaptations in diatoms arising from the nutrient status of their environment. T. pseudonana is a coastal clone typically accustomed to low Si but high Fe conditions whereas E. Antarctica and P. inermis are typically accustomed to High Si, High nitrate low Fe conditions. Growth induced variations in silicic acid (Si(OH4 uptake arising from Fe-limitation is the likely mechanism leading to Si-isotope variability in E. Antarctica and P. inermis. The multiplicative effects of species diversity and resource limitation (e.g., Fe on Si-isotope fractionation in diatoms can potentially alter the Si-isotope composition of diatom opal in diatamaceous sediments and sea surface Si(OH4. This work highlights the need for further in vitro studies into intracellular mechanisms involved in Si(OH4 uptake, and the associated pathways for Si-isotope fractionation in diatoms.

  7. Reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia in the periurban environment of Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel dos Santos Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) from an isolated coastal mountain range in southern Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, E; Markow, T A

    2008-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data from the control region and 12S rRNA in leopard frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje of southern Sonora, Mexico, together with GenBank sequences, were used to infer taxonomic identity and provide phylogenetic hypotheses for relationships with other members of the Rana pipiens complex. We show that frogs from the Sierra El Aguaje belong to the Rana berlandieri subgroup, or Scurrilirana clade, of the R. pipiens group, and are most closely related to Rana magnaocularis from Nayarit, Mexico. We also provide further evidence that Rana magnaocularis and R. yavapaiensis are close relatives.

  9. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  10. Crust and upper-mantle structure of Wanganui Basin and southern Hikurangi margin, North Island, New Zealand as revealed by active source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. L.; Henrys, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded during the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) are used to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity (Vp) structure along two profiles spanning the length and width of Wanganui Basin, located landwards of the southern Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. These models provide high-resolution constraints on the structure and crustal thickness of the overlying Australian and subducted Pacific plates and plate interface geometry. Wide-angle reflections are modelled to show that the subducted oceanic Pacific plate crust is anomalously thick (∼10 km) below southern North Island and is overlain by a ∼1.5-4.0 km thick, low Vp (4.8-5.4 km s-1) layer, interpreted as a channel of sedimentary material, that persists landwards at least as far as Kapiti Island. Distinct near vertical reflections from onshore shots identify a ∼4 km high mound of low-velocity sedimentary material that appears to underplate the overlying Australian plate crust and is likely to contribute to local rock uplift along the Axial ranges. The overriding Australian plate Moho beneath Wanganui Basin is imaged as deepening southwards and reaches a depth of at least 36.4 km. The Moho shape approximately mirrors the thickening of the basin sediments, suggestive of crustal downwarping. However, the observed crustal thickness variation is insufficient to explain the large negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (-160 mGal) centred over the basin. Partial serpentinization within the upper mantle with a concomitant density decrease is one possible way of reconciling this anomaly.

  11. Submarine groundwater discharge in a subsiding coastal lowland: A {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn investigation in the Southern Venice lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattacceca, Julie C., E-mail: jcg54@esc.cam.ac.uk [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Mayer, Adriano [IDPA-CNR, Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131 Milano (Italy); Cucco, Andrea [Coastal Oceanography, CNR-IAMC, Oristano Unit, Loc. Sa MArdini, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Claude, Christelle; Radakovitch, Olivier; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Occurence/magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge investigated in Venice lagoon (Italy) using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopic tracers. > Single box mass balance compared with multi boxes mass balance coupled with hydrodynamic model. > Groundwater flux accounts for 1% of lagoon hydrological balance (1-3 times surface runoff) and 30-50% of tracers inputs. > Necessary to assess this flux impact on nutrient budget in lagoon. - Abstract: Several recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs in the Venice lagoon with discharge rates on the same order or larger than the surface runoff, as demonstrated previously in several other coastal zones around the world. Here, the first set of {sup 222}Rn data, along with new {sup 226}Ra data are reported, in order to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of SGD specifically in the southern basin of the lagoon. The independent connection with the Adriatic Sea (at the Chioggia inlet), in addition to the relative isolation of the water body from the main lagoon, make this area an interesting case study. There is probably only minimal fresh groundwater flux to the lagoon because the surrounding aquifer is subsiding and mainly has a lower hydraulic head than seawater. The data show that the Ra and Rn activities are in slight excess in the lagoon compared to the open sea, with values on the same order as those observed in the northern and central basins. Taking into account the water exchange rate between the lagoon and adjacent seawater provided by previous hydrodynamic numerical modelling, it is shown that this excess cannot be supported at steady state by only riverine input and by diffusive release from the sediment interstitial water. High activities observed in groundwater samples collected from 16 piezometers tapping into the shallow aquifer over the coastal lowland substantiate that the excess radioactivity in the lagoon may indeed be due to the advection of groundwater

  12. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The seasonal evolution of shelf water masses around Bouvetøya, a sub-Antarctic island in the mid-Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean, determined from an instrumented southern elephant seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Lowther

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study makes use of a fortuitous oceanographic data set collected around the remote sub-Antarctic island of Bouvetøya by a conductivity–temperature–depth recorder (CTD integrated with a satellite-relayed data logger deployed on an adult female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina to describe the seasonal evolution of the western shelf waters. The instrumented seal remained in waters over the shelf for 259 days, collecting an average of 2.6 (±0.06 CTD profiles per day, providing hydrographic data encompassing the late austral summer and the entire winter. These data document the thermal stratification of the upper water layer due to summer surface heating of the previous year's Antarctic Surface Water, giving way to a cold subsurface layer at about 100 m as the austral winter progressed, with a concomitant increase in salinity of the upper layer. Upper Circumpolar Deep Water was detected at a depth of approximately 200 m along the western shelf of Bouvetøya throughout the year. These oceanographic data represent the only seasonal time series for this region and the second such animal–instrument oceanographic time series in the sub-Antarctic domain of the Southern Ocean.

  14. Building capacity for HIV/AIDS prevention among Asian Pacific Islander organizations: the experience of a culturally appropriate capacity-building program in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Lois M; Candelario, Jury; Young, Tim; Mediano, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This article has two goals: (1) to outline a conceptual model for culturally appropriate HIV prevention capacity building; (2) to present the experiences from a 3-year program provided by Asian Pacific AIDS Intervention Team to Asian Pacific Islander (API) organizations in southern California. The participating organizations were of two types: lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) social organizations and social service agencies not targeting LGBTQ. These organizations were selected for participation because of their commitment to HIV/AIDS issues in API communities. An organizational survey and staff observations were used to explore changes in capacity. The organizations were mostly small, targeted diverse populations, served a large geographic area (southern California as a region), and were knowledgeable about HIV. Organizations became more viable (more capacity in human resources, financial, external relations, and strategic management), but also more unstable (large growth in paid staff and board members), and showed more capacity in HIV knowledge environments (especially less stigma and more sensitivity to diverse populations). The results suggest that capacity can expand over a short period of time, but as capacity increases, organizational viability/stability and HIV knowledge environments change, meaning that different types of technical assistance would be needed for sustainability.

  15. Water in melt inclusions from phenocrysts of dacite pumice of the Vetrovoy Isthmus (Iturup Island, Southern Kuriles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, A. A.; Smirnov, S. Z.; Maksimovich, I. A.; Plechov, P. Yu; Chertkova, N. V.; Befus, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of one of the largest caldera eruptions of the Kurile-Kamchatka island-arc system that occurred on the island of Iturup. The object of investigation of this work are phenocrysts of quartz and plagioclase from dacite pumice of the Isthmus of the Isthmus, which is located on the island of Iturup. The purpose of this work is to determine the water content in the melts that participated in the caldera eruption of the Vetrovoy Isthmus and the patterns of their changes during the crystallization of magma. In the course of the work, the following were carried out: 1) adaptation and calibration of the Raman spectroscopy method for determining water in rhyolite melt’s inclusions glasses in quartz and plagioclase from pumice stone; 2) determination of composition and estimation of water content in melt inclusions in quartz and plagioclase according to x-ray spectral analysis; 3) establishment of the regularities of the change in the water content during the evolution of the magmatic melt; 4) evaluation of fluid pressure by comparison with experimental data

  16. K-Ar age and tectonic setting of brannerite-mineralized Futagojima granodiorite, Koshiki Islands, Southern Kyushu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Shunso; Shibata, Ken; Terashima, Shigeru

    1984-01-01

    Futagojima granodiorite, which was previously thought to be a part of Cretaceous Ryoke granitoids, is turned out to be upper Miocene granitoids (7.5 Ma). The granodiorite contains magnetite and is depleted in lithophile components. This is characteristics of magnetite-series granitoids in the Green Tuff terrains. All the Miocene granitoids in Koshiki Islands are relatively mafic consisting of hornblende-bearing facies such as quartz diorite, tonalite and granodiorite; thus belonging to I-type magnetite series. These rocks are considered to have generated at depth and formed along a rift zone during Miocene time (13 - 7 Ma). Thus, Koshiki Islands may represent an aborted rift at margin of the Danjo basin. Miocene granitoids of Koshiki Islands are small stocks but magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits are only seen in Futagojima. This localization of mineralization is explained by a high degree of magmatic fractionation, which is only observed in Futagojima and by a low rate of erosion to preserve the mineralized horizons. Mineralization here is unique having brannerite-magnetite and chalcopyrite-molybdenite-quartz assemblages. No gold and silver were detected from the vein-type deposit. (author)

  17. Chemical characterization of PM2.5 collected from a rural coastal island of the Bay of Bengal (Bhola, Bangladesh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohel, Mohammad; Kistler, Magdalena; Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Reid, Jeffrey S; Salam, Abdus

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the chemical characterization of fine aerosol particles (PM 2.5 ) collected from a rural remote island of the Bay of Bengal (Bhola, Bangladesh) from April to August, 2013. PM 2.5 particle-loaded filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions, and selected saccharides (levoglucosan, mannosan, galactosan, arabitol, and mannitol). The average PM 2.5 mass was 15.0 ± 6.9 μg m -3 . Organic carbon and elemental carbon comprised roughly half of the analyzed components. Organic carbon was the predominant contributor to total carbon (TC) and accounting for about 28% of PM 2.5 mass. Secondary organic carbon (SOC) was inferred to be ~ 26% of OC. The sum of ions comprised ~ 27% of PM 2.5 mass. The contribution of sea salt aerosol was smaller than expected for a sea-near site (17%), and very high chloride depletion was observed (78%). NssSO 4 2- was a dominant ionic component with an average concentration of 2.0 μg m -3 followed by Na + , NH 4 + , and nssCa 2+ . The average concentration of arabitol and mannitol was 0.11 and 0.14 μg m -3 , respectively, while levoglucosan and its stereoisomers (mannosan and galactosan) were bellow detection limit. NH 4 + /SO 4 2- equivalent ratio was 0.30 ± 0.13 indicating that secondary inorganic aerosol is not the main source of SO 4 2- . Enrichment factor (EF) analysis showed that SO 4 2- and NO 3 - were enriched in atmospheric particles compared to sea aerosol and soil indicating their anthropogenic origin. Higher OC/EC ratio (3.70 ± 0.88) was a good indicator of the secondary organic compounds formation. Other ratios (OC/EC, K + /EC, nssSO 4 2- /EC) and correlation analysis suggested mixed sources for carbonaceous components. Arabitol and mannitol both showed strong correlation with EC having R 2 value 0.89 and 0.95, respectively. Air mass trajectories analysis showed that concentrations of soil and anthropogenic species were lower for air masses

  18. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world.Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my.Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with varying life

  19. Fish assemblages in a coastal bay adjacent to a network of marine protected areas in southern Brazil

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    André Pereira Cattani

    Full Text Available Abstract Baía Norte (North Bay in Santa Catarina State is considered a typical coastal bay and is surrounded by a network of Marine Protected Areas. The objectives of this study were to describe the composition of the demersal fish assemblage, identify seasonal and spatial structures on a fine scale and evaluate the role of habitat descriptors and abiotic variables affecting the fish assemblage structure. Seasonal samplings were conducted in 2005, using bottom trawls in six pre-established areas in Baía Norte in summer, fall, winter and spring. Simultaneously with each trawl, environmental data were collected with a multiparameter probe. Temporal and spatial differences in fish abundance were tested by a PERMANOVA. To illustratethe differences detected graphically we ran a canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP. The influence of environmental variables on the fish fauna was evaluated using a Distant Based Linear Model (DistLM with Akaike's information criterion (AIC. A total of 9,888 specimens, distributed in 27 families and 62 species, were collected. Citharichthys spilopterus was the most abundant species. PERMANOVA detected differences for abundance between seasons, areas and interaction among all the factors. The DISTLM selected temperature and pH. The results highlight seasonality as an important factor in the structuring of fish fauna of the study place.

  20. Testing alternative conceptual models of seawater intrusion in a coastal aquifer using computer simulation, southern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Two alternative conceptual models of the physical processes controlling seawater intrusion in a coastal basin in California, USA, were tested to identify a likely principal pathway for seawater intrusion. The conceptual models were tested by using a two-dimensional, finite-element groundwater flow and transport model. This pathway was identified by the conceptual model that best replicated the historical data. The numerical model was applied in cross section to a submarine canyon that is a main avenue for seawater to enter the aquifer system underlying the stud