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Sample records for southern coastal islands

  1. A survey of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children on western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hwan; Han, Eun-Taek; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Eun-Hee; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of Enterobius vermicularis infection among children living on western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea, children (3-10 years) in 39 kindergartens and primary schools were examined using the cello-tape anal swab method, during July and August 2000. Of 1,661 children examined, 307 (18.5%) were found to be positive for E. vermicularis eggs. The highest infection rate (59.3%) was found in a kindergarten and a branch school of Shinyang primary school on Chujado, Jeju-do (Province). Remarkable differences in egg positive rates were observed in different localities. The egg positive rate for boys (21.3%) was significantly higher than that of girls (15.4%) (P = 0.02). However, positive rates were not significantly dependent on age. The results of the present study show that E. vermicularis infection is highly prevalent among pre-school and primary school children living on the western and southern coastal islands of the Republic of Korea, and indicate the need for efforts to control this infection. PMID:16340301

  2. Estimated water use and availability in the South Coastal Drainage Basin, southern Rhode Island, 1995-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    The South Coastal Drainage Basin includes approximately 59.14 square miles in southern Rhode Island. The basin was divided into three subbasins to assess the water use and availability: the Saugatucket, Point Judith Pond, and the Southwestern Coastal Drainage subbasins. Because there is limited information on the ground-water system in this basin, the water use and availability evaluations for these subbasins were derived from delineated surface-water drainage areas. An assessment was completed to estimate water withdrawals, use, and return flow over a 5-year study period from 1995 through 1999 in the basin. During the study period, one major water supplier in the basin withdrew an average of 0.389 million gallons per day from the sand and gravel deposits. Most of the potable water is imported (about 2.152 million gallons per day) from the adjacent Pawcatuck Basin to the northwest. The estimated water withdrawals from the minor water suppliers, which are all in Charlestown, during the study period were 0.064 million gallons per day. The self-supplied domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the basin were 0.574 million gallons per day. Water use in the basin was 2.874 million gallons per day. The average return flow in the basin was 1.190 million gallons per day, which was entirely from self-disposed water users. In this basin, wastewater from service collection areas was exported (about 1.139 million gallons per day) to the Narragansett Bay Drainage Basin for treatment and discharge. During times of little to no recharge, in the form of precipitation, the surface- and ground-water system flows are from storage primarily in the stratified sand and gravel deposits, although there is flow moving through the till deposits at a slower rate. The ground water discharging to the streams, during times of little to no precipitation, is referred to as base flow. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at the

  3. Delineation and Prediction Uncertainty of Areas Contributing Recharge to Selected Well Fields in Wetland and Coastal Settings, Southern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Areas contributing recharge to four well fields in two study sites in southern Rhode Island were delineated on the basis of steady-state groundwater-flow models representing average hydrologic conditions. The wells are screened in sand and gravel deposits in wetland and coastal settings. The groundwater-flow models were calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression. Summary statistics from nonlinear regression were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well fields. In South Kingstown, two United Water Rhode Island well fields are in Mink Brook watershed and near Worden Pond and extensive wetlands. Wetland deposits of peat near the well fields generally range in thickness from 5 to 8 feet. Analysis of water-level drawdowns in a piezometer screened beneath the peat during a 20-day pumping period indicated vertical leakage and a vertical hydraulic conductivity for the peat of roughly 0.01 ft/d. The simulated area contributing recharge for average withdrawals of 2,138 gallons per minute during 2003-07 extended to groundwater divides in mostly till and morainal deposits, and it encompassed 2.30 square miles. Most of a sand and gravel mining operation between the well fields was in the simulated contributing area. For the maximum pumping capacity (5,100 gallons per minute), the simulated area contributing recharge expanded to 5.54 square miles. The well fields intercepted most of the precipitation recharge in Mink Brook watershed and in an adjacent small watershed, and simulated streams ceased to flow. The simulated contributing area to the well fields included an area beneath Worden Pond and a remote, isolated area in upland till on the opposite side of Worden Pond from the well fields. About 12 percent of the pumped water was derived from Worden Pond. In Charlestown, the Central Beach Fire District and the East Beach Water Association well fields are on a small (0.85 square mile) peninsula in a

  4. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

    2009-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

  5. Ground water input to coastal salt ponds of southern Rhode Island estimated using 226Ra as a tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M K; Moran, S B

    2001-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclide 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 years) was used as a tracer to determine ground water input to Point Judith, Potter, Green Hill and Ninigret ponds in southern Rhode Island. Measurements of 226Ra activity were made in samples collected from salt ponds, pore waters, sediments, and local ground water wells during June-August, 1997. These results were combined with a simple box model to derive ground water input fluxes of 0.1-0.3 cm3 cm-2 d-1 (2-5 x 10(7) L d-1), which are comparable to previous estimates of ground water input to these ponds.

  6. Records of Coastal Change within a Progradational, Wave-Dominated Barrier Island: Morphostratigraphic Framework of the Southern Recurved Spit of Assateague Island, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawler, J. L.; Seminack, C.; DeMarco, K. R.; Hein, C. J.; Petruny, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    Although generally retrogradational in nature, barrier islands commonly contain progradational segments which may preserve records of past coastal dynamics and environmental changes which affected their formation. In particular, recurved-spit ridges may record former shoreline positions on the surface, while in their stratigraphic architecture contain evidence of the processes influencing spit growth. This study uses topographic mapping and nearly 40 km of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) transects to investigate the pre-historic (ca. 1000-1850 C.E.) and historic elongation of Assateague Island, VA (USA) and affiliated progradation of Chincoteague Island. These data uncovered three previously unknown former tidal inlets which have no discernible surface signatures. GPR data further reveal southerly migration (up to 95 m) and closure of these tidal inlets. In addition, GPR data indicates the apparent overprinting of multiple inlets, suggesting later reoccupation of former channels. Seaward-dipping clinoforms (5-15°) indicate that, following inlet closure, the island widened and elongated through beach-ridge growth, proceeded by the development of aeolian foredune ridges. In particular, two large (5 m elevation, 150 m wide) ridges, bounded by smaller (1-3 m elevation, 20-50 m wide) ridge sets, comprise the relict recurved-spit of Assateague Island. This contrasts with the adjacent beach-ridge plain of Chincoteague Island, where surface morphology is characterized by more spatially uniform ridges (1-2 m high, 50-100 m wide). Thus, despite sharing similar internal structure as imaged in GPR, the formational processes associated with these two systems differ: the large, widely-spaced ridges of Assateague are likely indicative of punctuated progradation possibly associated with sediment pulses or complex inlet dynamics, whereas Chincoteague Island may have been built in a semi-protected environment through sediment delivered by inlet bypassing and local longshore

  7. Birth of two volcanic islands in the southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Wenbin

    2015-05-26

    Submarine eruptions that lead to the formation of new volcanic islands are rare and far from being fully understood; only a few such eruptions have been witnessed since Surtsey Island emerged to the south of Iceland in the 1960s. Here we report on two new volcanic islands that were formed in the Zubair archipelago of the southern Red Sea in 2011–2013. Using high-resolution optical satellite images, we find that the new islands grew rapidly during their initial eruptive phases and that coastal erosion significantly modified their shapes within months. Satellite radar data indicate that two north–south-oriented dykes, much longer than the small islands might suggest, fed the eruptions. These events occurred contemporaneously with several local earthquake swarms of the type that typically accompany magma intrusions. Earthquake activity has been affecting the southern Red Sea for decades, suggesting the presence of a magmatically active zone that has previously escaped notice.

  8. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  9. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available “Accommodation” e.g. raising property B “Soft engineering” /Restoration B1 Sand nourishment B2 Managed (vegetated &/ reinforced) dune B3 Managed/rehabilitated mangrove/wetland areas C “Hard engineering” & armouring C1s Seawalls (vertical / curved concrete... » ‘NO REGRET’ ADAPTATION MEASURES Coastal protection measures Adaptation measures - “Management option A1” “Accept and retreat”: repositioning infrastructure at risk; zoning/set-back lines, resettlement… Natures Valley, an excellent example...

  10. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of a Coastal Island Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case in Hatiya Island, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, S.; Mahmud, M. S.; Hossain, M. A.; Hasan, M.; Ashrafi, Z. M.

    2016-12-01

    Bangladesh is recognized for its high vulnerability to sea level rise (SLR). SLR directly and indirectly (by altering morphology of river estuary) accelerates erosion processes, washes out the loose materials of the coast and coastal islands. Hatiya, highly populated coastal island, located in Meghna river estuary is under severe threat of coastal erosion, which has not been quantified yet. The accurate mapping of the shoreline and coastal changes are very important for adopting conservation measures e.g. protection of human life, property and the natural environment. The objectives of the present study are to use remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in the shoreline and coastal land area of the Hatiya Island between the year of 1985 and 2016 from multi-temporal satellite images, i.e. assessing shifting of the shoreline position through digital shoreline analysis besides the erosion-accretion measurements. Study reveals that about 67 square kilometer areas has been lost between 1985 and 2016 which was about 17 percent of original area (1985). Erosion mainly took place in northern, north-western banks of the island. In these areas, the landward movement and rate of the shoreline were higher with a highest value of the net shoreline movement (NSM) around 6.2 km. Erosion rate is significant in exposed part of the island where tidal water pressure, shoreline configuration, loose bank materials and steep slope were observed. However, the accretion was noticed in recent years (2010-2016) in southern part of the island where slopes were gentle, perhaps due to backwash sediment deposition. As erosion process is prominent in this island, significant amounnt of usable land was lost. Therefore, local livelihood pattern has changed that has noticable effect on local economy. By quantifying the erosion-accretion rate, livelihood planning can be initiated in climatically threated vulnerable islands.

  11. Sustainable Mobility for Tourists at the Dutch Coastal Islands (Waddeneilanden)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, O.; Vogtländer, J.G.; Brezet, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The European Coastal Islands around the North sea, are joined together in a project that stimulates sustainable development. Within this 'Cradle-to-Cradle Islands' project, some islands were selected as breading grounds for potentially sustainable projects. One of these projects was the development

  12. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for coastal, estuarine, and marine invertebrate species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this...

  13. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sensitive/rare coastal plants and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) for Long Island, New York. Vector...

  14. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Long Island,...

  15. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  16. Pyrethroids in Southern California coastal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wenjian; Tiefenthaler, Liesl; Greenstein, Darrin J; Maruya, Keith A; Bay, Steven M; Ritter, Kerry; Schiff, Kenneth

    2012-07-01

    Little is known about pyrethroid fate and effects in estuarine and marine environments. In the present study, the extent and magnitude of pyrethroids in coastal embayments of the Southern California Bight (SCB), USA, were assessed. Using a stratified probabilistic design, 155 sediment samples were collected from four embayment habitats (estuaries, marinas, open bays, and ports) and analyzed for eight common-use pyrethroids. Total pyrethroid concentrations ranged from less than 0.5 to 230 µg/kg dry weight (area-weighted mean concentration=5.1 ± 3.1 µg/kg) and were detected in 35% of the total SCB embayment area. Estuaries and marinas had the greatest areal extent of detectable concentrations (up to 65%) and the greatest area-weighted mean concentrations (22.1 ± 26.5 µg/kg). Sites with the greatest pyrethroid concentrations were located near sources of runoff from urban watersheds. Bifenthrin and cyfluthrin were detected in 32 and 15% of all samples, respectively, whereas the other six pyrethroids were detected in ≤ 5% of samples. Permethrin and bifenthrin had the highest concentrations at 132 and 65 µg/kg. Toxic units estimated for the marine amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius ranged from 0 to 5.8, exceeding unity in 9 and 32% of the total and estuary habitat areas, respectively, and were not correlated with mortality, suggesting that other factors (e.g., co-occurring contaminants, reduced bioavailability) may affect the predictive capability using a single test species. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  17. Microlevel mapping of coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram island, India: A remote sensing and GIS perspective

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; Shivaprasad, A.; Karikalan, R.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.

    . The impact of natural disturbances can be reduced by protecting the coast by green shielding. The present study was carried out to understand the coastal geomorphology and coastal resources of Rameswaram Island (Tamil Nadu, India), using Indian Remote Sensing...

  18. Human impacts quantification on the coastal landforms of Gran Canaria Island (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Valero, Nicolás; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.

    2017-06-01

    The coastal areas of the Canary Islands are particularly sensitive to changes, both from a natural perspective and for their potential socio-economic implications. In this paper, the state of conservation of an insular coast is approached from a geomorphological point of view, considering recent changes induced by urban and tourism development. The analysis is applied to the coast of Gran Canaria, a small Atlantic island of volcanic origin, subject to a high degree of human pressure on its coastal areas, especially in recent decades. Currently, much of the economic activity of Gran Canaria is linked to mass tourism, associated with climatic and geomorphological features of the coast. This work is addressed through detailed mapping of coastal landforms across the island (256 km perimeter), corresponding to the period before the urban and tourism development (late 19th century for the island's capital, mid-20th century for the rest of the island) and today. The comparison between the coastal geomorphology before and after the urban and tourism development was established through four categories of human impacts, related to their conservation state: unaltered, altered, semi-destroyed and extinct. The results indicate that 43% of coastal landforms have been affected by human impacts, while 57% remain unaltered. The most affected are sedimentary landforms, namely coastal dunes, palaeo-dunes, beaches and wetlands. Geodiversity loss was also evaluated by applying two diversity indices. The coastal geodiversity loss by total or partial destruction of landforms is estimated at - 15.2%, according to Shannon index (H‧), while it increases to - 32.1% according to an index proposed in this paper. We conclude that the transformations of the coast of Gran Canaria induced by urban and tourism development have heavily affected the most singular coastal landforms (dunes, palaeo-dunes and wetlands), reducing significantly its geodiversity.

  19. Coastal geomorphology of Mahe Island, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Hashimi, N.H.

    of landforms it is surmised that the coastal features are controlled by the regional structures and erosion is more common than the progradation, especially on the west coast. 1. Introduction Geological and geophysical surveys of the exclusive economic zone... the lagoons. Such reefs have broad platforms, some of which are without coral growth and are superficially covered by unconsolidated skeletal sediments. The reef margins are well defined and they are only occasionally broken by reef passes. The east coast...

  20. Coastal groundwater exchange on a small Pacific atoll island: Roi Namur, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand K. J.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-04-01

    Atoll islands, most of which only average 1-2 meters above today's sea level, provide a tremendous natural laboratory in which to study and better understand the intensifying impacts of high rates of sea-level rise on tropical reef-lined islands globally due to their unique geologic structure and limited water supply. Groundwater resources of atolls are typically minimal due to the low elevation and small surface area of the islands and are also subject to recurring droughts, and more frequent, storm-driven seawater overwash events. Although groundwater is the principal means of freshwater storage on atoll islands and is a major factor in determining the overall sustainability of island communities, hydrological data on how an aquifer will response to changes in sea-level rise or storm-driven overwash remain limited. We here present high-resolution time series hydrogeological and geochemical data to determine the role of the atoll's carbonate geology, land use, and atmospheric and oceanographic forcing in driving coastal groundwater exchange on the island of Roi Namur on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This information can provide new estimates on the recovery and resilience of coastal groundwater resources on such islands to expected climate change-driven perturbations.

  1. Environmental sensitivity of the coastal islands of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps for Oil Spills (ESI Maps, or SAO in Portuguese constitute an essential component and source of basic information for emergency planning, response decision support and damage evaluation in case of oil spills. This study aims at the elaboration of sensitivity maps for oil spills for the islands within the Ubatuba municipality, north coast of the State of São Paulo. The adopted methodology is based on the Technical Specifications for the production of Environmental Sensitivity Maps for oil spills (SAO maps proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment. The study involved the gathering of secondary data, followed by field work carried out in the summer and winter periods of 2007; the elaboration of the cartographic base maps and, finally, the integration of the data to a GIS (Geographic Information System. As a result it was registered and mapped the physical (geology, geomorphology, oceanography and climatology, biological (fauna, flora and coastal environments and socioeconomic (anthropic influence, human use, artificial structures and impacts resources of Ubatuba coastal islands. Eleven beaches have been identified, located at six islands, with distinct topographic and geomorphologic features. The beaches were classified with sensitivity index 4, because they are sheltered from actions of waves and currents. Most of the mapped environments (44.8% were classified with sensitivity index 8, indicating high sensitivity of the islands. The oil spill impacts on coastal environments can be significantly minimized during the contingency actions when previous knowledge of the ecosystems that compose the islands environment is available, especially when it is integrated into GIS data basis, capable of displaying easy-to-use maps. The environmental sensitivity mapping is an important management instrument, especially when dealing with sensible and poorly studied areas such as the islands of Ubatuba.

  2. Haulout site selection by southern elephant seals at Marion Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from an ongoing mark–resight programme at Marion Island, we tested empirically whether southern elephant seals prefer certain terrestrial sites to others during the breeding, moulting and winter haulouts, and whether the pattern of site use is the same for different age and sex groups. Southern elephant seals ...

  3. Limnology of southern African coastal lakes — new vistas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... amphipod and fish) were present in two oligotrophic lakes, including the largest — putatively a drowned-valley lake. Significant contrasts between these Chidenguele lakes and other southern African coastal lakes are evaluated and discussed. Artisanal fisheries, targetting two indigenous freshwater cichlids and a clariid, ...

  4. Nitrogen deposition effects on coastal sage vegetation of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edith B. Allen; Pamela E. Padgett; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Richard Minnich

    1998-01-01

    The coastal sage scrub (CSS) vegetation of southern California has been declining in land area and in shrub density over the past 60 years or more, and is being replaced by Mediterranean annual grasses in many areas. Although much of this loss is attributable to agriculture, grazing, urbanization and frequent fire, even protected areas have experienced a loss in native...

  5. Comparison of groundwater flow in Southern California coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Izbicki, John A.; Reichard, Eric G.; Edwards, Brian D.; Land, Michael; Martin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Development of the coastal aquifer systems of Southern California has resulted in overdraft, changes in streamflow, seawater intrusion, land subsidence, increased vertical flow between aquifers, and a redirection of regional flow toward pumping centers. These water-management challenges can be more effectively addressed by incorporating new understanding of the geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical setting of these aquifers.

  6. Coastal erosion and mangrove progradation of Southern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.; Vermaat, J.E.; Sinsakul, S.; Panapitukkul, N.

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the southern Thai coastline used to be occupied by mangroves according to the first mangrove forest assessment in 1961. During the past three decades, these mangrove areas have been reduced to about 50% with less than 10% left on the east coast. Coastal erosion and accretion

  7. Review of coastal currents in Southern African waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, TFW

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available A review has been made of existing knowledge of the coastal currents in Southern African waters between Pretoria to Oudtshoorn on the northeast border, and the Orange River on the west coast. These waters have been divided into five sectors...

  8. A proposal for tsunami mitigation by using coastal vegetations: some findings from southern coastal area of Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djati Mardiatno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the southern coastal area of central Java Island, Indonesia. It is aimed to identify several coastal vegetation characteristics for development of guideline for planning and design of tsunami mitigation. Survey method was applied to observe common coastal vegetation in the research area. Data collected from the survey consisted of vegetation parameters and coastal morphology. All selected vegetations were analyzed for their allometry relation of each species, maximum density, correlation between breaking moment and trunk diameter of each tree species, and correlation between trunk diameter and spacing between trees for each species. For coastal morphology, it was focused on topography and elevation from sea level.The results show that trees with the hard wood will be stronger to hold the pull moment on the main trunk. Younger trees with smaller diameter tend to be more flexible, thus they will unbreakable during the test. The other trees which have flexible trunk such as Terminalia catappa and Anacardium occidentale were often pulled out their roots than broken on their trunks. To obtain more extensive characteristic, it is necessary to carry out advanced measurements, especially on the older trees which have more than 10 cm diameter.Coastal areas consist of mud and sand materials tend to have a high tsunami risk, although mitigation treatments were different for both types. At the muddy area, the recommended vegetation are Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata, meanwhile Casuarina equisetifolia and Anacardium occidentale, due to their high flexibility, will be more suitable on the sandy coast. Both types should be planted parallel to the shoreline. Casuarina is planted in the frontline followed by Anacardium behind it.

  9. Urbanization Causes Increased Cloud Base Height and Decreased Fog in Coastal Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Schwartz, Rachel E.; Iacobellis, Sam; Seager, Richard; Cook, Benjamin I.; Still, Christopher J.; Husak, Gregory; Michaelsen, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Subtropical marine stratus clouds regulate coastal and global climate, but future trends in these clouds are uncertain. In coastal Southern California (CSCA), interannual variations in summer stratus cloud occurrence are spatially coherent across 24 airfields and dictated by positive relationships with stability above the marine boundary layer (MBL) and MBL height. Trends, however, have been spatially variable since records began in the mid-1900s due to differences in nighttime warming. Among CSCA airfields, differences in nighttime warming, but not daytime warming, are strongly and positively related to fraction of nearby urban cover, consistent with an urban heat island effect. Nighttime warming raises the near-surface dew point depression, which lifts the altitude of condensation and cloud base height, thereby reducing fog frequency. Continued urban warming, rising cloud base heights, and associated effects on energy and water balance would profoundly impact ecological and human systems in highly populated and ecologically diverse CSCA.

  10. Killer whales ( Orcinus orca ) at Marion Island, Southern Ocean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) were studied using data obtained on an opportunistic basis between 1973 and 1996 at Marion Island (46°54'S, 37°45'E) in the Southern Indian Ocean. A clear seasonal pattern of occurrence with the main peak between October and December was evident. Most killer whales were observed ...

  11. Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines coastal plains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santangelo Nicoletta

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary evolution of the main coastal basins located along the southwestern margin of the Southern Apennines has been reconstructed by integrating the huge amount of existing stratigraphical and geomorphological data. The information produced in the last twenty years has shed new light on the recent (late Middle Pleistocene to Present history of the Campanian and Sele plains or basins. During the early Quaternary, the analysed coastal basins originated as half-grabens in response to opening processes active since the late Tortonian in the southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin. In some of these basins (e.g. the Campanian Plain, volcanism has also played an important role. In the inner sectors of the coastal basins, the complex interplay between block faulting, sedimentary inputs and glacioeustatic fluctuations gave rise to relative sea-level change and related coastline migrations, leading to the formation of the present-day coastal plains. In the Sele Plain basin, the construction of the present-day landscape mainly resulted from the substantial ceasing of subsidence in the final part of the Middle Pleistocene. Conversely, a strong contribution to the recent evolution of the Campanian Plain has been provided by abundant volcaniclastic aggradation, able to hinder the effect of the vertical motions that occurred in the last 100 ka.

  12. Trends in the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of china: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Wei, Wei; Zou, Safeng; Wu, Xiaomei; Zhou, Bo; Fu, Lingyu; Wang, Hailong; Shi, Jingpu

    2014-12-01

    With the economic development in recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the prevalence of hypertension in some coastal cities of China; however, the number of reports regarding the prevalence of hypertension based on a nationwide study of island and coastal areas of China is limited. We estimated the prevalence and described the trends of hypertension during the last 3 decades in these specific areas. Authoritative databases were searched for cross-sectional studies reporting the prevalence of hypertension in island and coastal areas of China published in the past 3 decades, and 37 studies that involved 760,428 individuals representing 22 different locations were identified and included in our analysis. The estimated prevalence of hypertension was 9.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3%-14.9%) in the 1980s, 18.5% (95% CI = 13.6%-24.8%) in the 1990s, and 30.0% (95% CI = 26.7%-33.6%) in the 2000s (χ(2) for trend: P = 0.00). In the 2000s, adjusted prevalence estimate of hypertension was 21.6% according to the national standard population composition in 1990, and the pooled prevalence estimate for the northern region in coastal areas of China was significantly higher than the southern region (36.2% vs. 26.2%; P = 0.002). Thus, the prevalence of hypertension in the island and coastal areas of China appears to have increased 21.5% in the last 3 decades; the increasing trend was observed in men and women. Our findings highlight the urgent need for public health strategies with more emphasis on improvement of primary health care in the island and coastal areas of China. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Quaternary subsidence of the Oahu Coastal Plain, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Huppert, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Cronin, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inter-plate hotspots continue to test our understanding of how the Earth's lithosphere deforms in response to an applied load, in part, because many current models are based on short or discontinuous observational datasets. Here we reconstruct a record of relative sea level rise spanning nearly two million years using the strontium isotope stratigraphy (SIS) of shallow water carbonates (e.g. corals, mollusks) recovered from a >300 m long drill core through the coastal plain of Oahu. We then compare it to model-predicted subsidence histories for our site that incorporate displacements at Ewa Beach, Oahu, due to the flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to loading of each volcano along the Hawaiian Ridge as well as its migration over the Hawaiian Swell. Preliminary results indicate Oahu experienced relatively rapid rates of subsidence ( 0.45 mm/yr) during the mid-Pleistocene—vertical displacements our model largely attributes to loading of West Molokai. An abrupt slowing of subsidence over the past million years may be driven by the relative eastward progression of volcanism, including construction of large shields on Maui and Hawaii. Shallowly buried, late Pleistocene aged corals, however, may suggest: (1) a more limited flexural response to this loading for southeastern Oahu than has been inferred from raised marine isotope stage (MIS) 11/13 dated, shallow-water, deposits found elsewhere on the island and/or (2) substantial dissolution of coastal plain carbonates between MIS 31 and 11.

  14. Baseline trace metals in seagrass, algae, and mollusks in a southern Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Linosa Island, Sicily).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Bocca, Beatrice; Iacobucci, Marta; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Mecozzi, Mauro; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements were analyzed in organisms collected at five sampling stations along coastal areas of Linosa Island, Sicily (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn were measured in Posidonia oceanica L. Delile tissues, the two brown algae Padina pavonica (L.) Thivy and Cystoseira sp., and the two gastropod mollusks Monodonta turbinata Born and Patella caerulea L. Seawater samples were also collected at each site to assess soluble metal concentrations and to gain relevant information on their bioaccumulation ability. Data were processed by multivariate techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors. The scoreplots obtained showed that the pollutant distribution is more significantly correlated with species than with sites. For seaweeds, P. oceanica was associated with higher Cd, Cu, and Zn levels; Padina species had higher Cr concentrations, and Cystoseira had higher Pb levels. For mollusks, Monodonta species had high concentrations of Cu and Cr and Patella species were associated with Cd. Some general metal bioaccumulation patterns are described but no one sampling site was more contaminated than the others. The hypothesis of Linosa island serving as a reference ecosystem for baseline trace metal levels in southern Tyrrhenian areas is indeed supported by the statistical comparison among other southern Tyrrhenian ecosystems performed with Kruskall Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. For P. oceanica leaves, P. pavonica, M. turbinata, and P. caerulea, this study confirms their usefulness as possible cosmopolitan biomonitors of trace metals in marine Mediterranean areas.

  15. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  16. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the Arctic and...

  17. Daily Precipitation Sums at Coastal and Island Russian Arctic Stations, 1940-1990, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains precipitation data originally recorded in log books at 65 Russian coastal and island meteorological stations, and later digitized at the...

  18. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - US Virgin Islands 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for St Croix, St. John and St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  19. Nearshore coastal bathymetry data collected in 2016 from West Ship Island to Horn Island, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Stalk, Chelsea A.; Fredericks, Jake J.; Flocks, James G.; Kelso, Kyle W.; Farmer, Andrew S.; Tuten, Thomas M.; Buster, Noreen A.

    2018-04-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, conducted bathymetric surveys of the nearshore waters surrounding Ship and Horn Islands, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Mississippi. The objective of this study was to establish base-level elevation conditions around West Ship, East Ship, and Horn Islands and their associated active littoral system prior to restoration activities. These activities include the closure of Camille Cut and the placement of sediment in the littoral zone of East Ship Island. These surveys can be compared with future surveys to monitor sediment migration patterns post-restoration and can also be measured against historic bathymetric datasets to further our understanding of island evolution.The USGS collected 667 line-kilometers (km) of single-beam bathymetry data and 844 line-km of interferometric swath bathymetry data in July 2016 under Field Activity Number 2016-347-FA. Data are provided in three datums: (1) the International Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2000 (ellipsoid height); (2) the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) CORS96 realization and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 with respect to the GEOID12B model (orthometric height); and (3) NAD83 (CORS96) and Mean Lower Low Water (tidal datum). Data products, including x,y,zpoint datasets, trackline shapefiles, digital and handwritten Field Activity Collection Systems logs, 50-meter digital elevation model, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata, are available for download.

  20. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, June 9, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On June 9, 2011, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Beechcraft BE90 King Air (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) (152 meters (m)) and approximately 1,200 ft (366 m) offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography-Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, 2010: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Nagle, David B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and submerged topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Chandeleur Islands, acquired March 3, 2010. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom

  2. Mesoscale Coastal Behavior of a Deltaic Barrier Island: Storm-Driven Evolution and Morphodynamic Feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespremeanu-Stroe, Alfred; Zăinescu, Florin; Tătui, Florin; Preoteasa, Luminişa

    2017-04-01

    Barrier islands and spits are among the most dynamic and vulnerable coastal features. Sacalin formed at the southernmost Danube mouth (Sfântu Gheorghe arm), representing the youngest downdrift island/spit of the Sfântu Gheorghe deltaic lobe, which previously formed several similar downdrift barrier islands during its cyclic pattern of long-term development (1400 BP - present). In this study, we document a 120 yr record of coastal changes that occurred since the emergence of Sacalin Island (1897), following a major flood, occasioned by its development through constant elongation (towards south) and backwards migration. The barrier island/spit is frequently breached in the central part (narrow inlets) and it experiences episodes of large elongation and retreat rates (up to 300 m/year and 60 m/year). Using successive georeferenced maps, satellite images and field measurements, we derived several morphodynamic indices which were analysed in correspondence with the storm climate. The coastal storms temporal variability shows four active intervals (1962-1972, 1975-1977, 1995-1998, 2002-2004) with highly intensive erosional and accretional processes, and three calm periods (1989-1994, 1999-2001, 2005-2015), with a decrease of 40-70 % of the shoreline migration rates. On the other hand, the successive barrier configurations show a distinct evolutionary pattern of its central sector, controlled by the (subaerial) barrier widths. Thus, following an extraordinary high storm (or storm season), the narrower barrier sectors will benefit from a new generation of breach deposition and washover fans. They will further contribute to the reconfiguration of the barrier on a backward position, where it attains significantly larger widths (250-500 m for the subaerial part) which for a while will inhibit the new large overwash formation able to expand the barrier into the lagoon. After such a "widening episode", the time intervals of barrier backline stability (i.e. unaffected by

  3. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  4. COASTAL STUDY, PROVIDENCE COUNTY,RHODE ISLAND USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  5. COASTAL STUDY, KENT COUNTY,RHODE ISLAND USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  6. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northeast Barrier Islands 2007: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Wright, C. Wayne; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northeast coastal barrier islands in New York and New Jersey, acquired April 29-30 and May 15-16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a

  7. Microcystin Prevalence throughout Lentic Waterbodies in Coastal Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith D. A. Howard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin producing cyanobacterial blooms have increased globally in recent decades in both frequency and intensity. Despite the recognition of this growing risk, the extent and magnitude of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxin prevalence is poorly characterized in the heavily populated region of southern California. Recent assessments of lentic waterbodies (depressional wetlands, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons determined the prevalence of microcystins and, in some cases, additional cyanotoxins. Microcystins were present in all waterbody types surveyed although toxin concentrations were generally low across most habitats, as only a small number of sites exceeded California’s recreational health thresholds for acute toxicity. Results from passive samplers (Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT indicated microcystins were prevalent throughout lentic waterbodies and that traditional discrete samples underestimated the presence of microcystins. Multiple cyanotoxins were detected simultaneously in some systems, indicating multiple stressors, the risk of which is uncertain since health thresholds are based on exposures to single toxins. Anatoxin-a was detected for the first time from lakes in southern California. The persistence of detectable microcystins across years and seasons indicates a low-level, chronic risk through both direct and indirect exposure. The influence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms is a more complex stressor than presently recognized and should be included in water quality monitoring programs.

  8. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  9. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  10. Cool PDO phase leads to recent rebound in coastal southern California fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witiw, Michael R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between coastal fog in southern California and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO is investigated during the last decade. Fog occurrence was examined at two locations in southern California: San Diego and Los Angeles international airports. Both locations are located near the Pacific coast with strong marine influences. The period looked at was 2001 through 2012. The cool season (October-March and warm season (April-September were examined separately because of the different types of fog that prevail in each season. Previous studies have shown a relation between fog and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO. However, a switch in polarity in the PDO in the mid-1970s (from a cool to a warm phase coupled with a sharp decrease in particulate concentrations calls into question the strong relationship shown. Further studies suggest that the decrease in dense fog seen from the 1960s through the 1990s was largely due to increasing urban heat island effects coupled with a decrease in atmospheric particulate matter. Since 1998, the PDO again changed polarity and fog frequencies began to rise. However, urban heat island and particulate effects were relatively constant making it easier to isolate any effects of the PDO on fog occurrence. Previous studies examined the occurrence of dense fog (visibility less than 400 meters, but because of the decrease in fog in this category, 800 meters was chosen this time. That also corresponds to the 0.5 mile visibility which triggers special reports at the California airports when visibility moves through this threshold. Although there was no strong relationship between fog and PDO in the most recent period, Pacific Ocean oscillations were found to show significant relationships with fog frequencies historically. Upwelling indices show a significant relationship with fog frequencies when examined by the phase of the PDO. Even stronger relationships are found when selecting La Niña and El Niño events.

  11. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, J P G L; Gago, J; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from fragmentation of larger plastic items. Due to their long chemical chains, they can remain in the environment for long periods of time. It is estimated that the vast majority (80%) of marine litter derives from land sources and that 70% will sink and remain at the bottom of the ocean. Microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic are common to be found in beaches and in the water surface. The most common microplastics are pellets, fragments and fibres. This work provides original data of the presence of microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters, reporting on microplastic concentration and polymer types. Microplastic particles were found in nearly 56% of sediment samples, accounting a total of 31 particles in 27 samples. The vast majority were microfibers (25), identified as rayon fibres, and fragments (6) identified as polypropylene, through infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR). The concentration and polymer type data is consistent with other relevant studies and reports worldwide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  14. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  15. Coastal bathymetry data collected in 2011 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Bernier, Julie C.; Buster, Noreen A.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Flocks, James G.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted nearshore geophysical surveys off the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in June of 2011. The overall objectives of the study are to better understand barrier-island geomorphic evolution, particularly storm-related depositional and erosional processes that shape the islands over annual to interannual timescales (1-5 years). Collection of geophysical data will allow us to identify relationships between the geologic history of the island and its present day morphology and sediment distribution. This mapping effort was the first in a series of three planned surveys in this area. High resolution geophysical data collected in each of three consecutive years along this rapidly changing barrier-island system will provide a unique time-series dataset that will significantly further the analyses and geomorphological interpretations of this and other coastal systems, improving our understanding of coastal response and evolution over short time scales (1-5 years).

  16. U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Rhode Island 2005 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2005. The data types...

  18. Rhode Island 2007 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2007. The data types...

  19. Rhode Island 2010 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Atlantic coast of RI in 2010. The data types...

  20. San Juan Islands, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Outlook for coastal plain forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier Klepzig; Richard Shelfer; Zanethia Choice

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Coastal Plain consists of seven sections: the Northern Atlantic, Eastern Atlantic, Peninsular Florida, Southern Gulf, Middle Gulf-East, Middle Gulf-West, and Western Gulf. It covers a large area, consists of a diverse array of habitats, and supports a diverse array of uses. This report presents forecasts from the Southern Forest Futures Project that are...

  2. FAUNA OF COLEPTERA,TENEBRIORIDAE OF ARID COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CASPIAN SEA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the given paper is to expose species structure and geographical distribution of Coleoptera, Tenebrioridae (C, T of coastal and island ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The given report is compiled of the matcrials, collected in different periods by authors (1961-2013 in the Caucasian part of the Caspian Sea, in the south of the European part of the Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, islands (the Chechen island, the Nord island. The Tuleniyisland. The Kulaly island, collective materials (ZIN; RAS, museum of Zoology of MSU, Institute NAN of Azerbaijan, National museum of Georgia and materials published (Kryzhanovsky, 1965, Medvedev, 1987, 1990; Medvedev, Nepesova, 1990; Shuster, 1934; Kaluzhnaya, 1982; Arzanov and others, 2004, Egorov, 2006.Methods. We used the traditional methods of collecting (hand picking, traps soil, soil traps light amplification light traps, processing and material definition. List of species composition discussed fauna composed by modern taxonomy using directories. Location. Coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian sea.Results. Species structure and data on general and regional distribution of C,T of coastal and island ecosystems of the Caspian Sea is represented in the paper. Faund discussed is widely represented in the fauna of arid regions of land, especially in the fauna of subtropical deserts and semideserts.Main conclusions. Results of the study will be a step in the determination of age of the islands through the biological diversity and the consequent level regime of the Caspian Sea, as well as possible changes in the population structure of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae on island ecosystems.

  3. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  4. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use data for management areas, National Park Service properties, State Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges in Long Island, New York....

  5. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: REPTILES (Reptile and Amphibian Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles, estuarine turtles, and amphibians for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  7. COASTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTH SINGKEP AREA, RIAU ISLANDS PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor C.D. Aryanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Observations of coastal characteristics, such as coastal constituent lithology, oceanographic processes and the influence of human activities along the coastal area, are the factors that affect the coastal typology. The typology of coastal area can be divided into 3 types namely: (1 Sandy beaches, dominated by medium size quartz sand, gravelly sand and silt of alluvium deposits ; (2 Rocky beaches that belong to the Tanjung Buku Granite lithologic units and Persing metamorphic complex, its beach slope between 5° and 15°, and a fault structure encountered. The steep beach slopes (45°-50° trends to offshore with the maximum depth of 28 meters below the sea level at the distance of 3.5 km from the its shore line. At the depth of 20 m, there are a foot slope of 1.5 km width interpreted as the fault plane; (3 Muddy beaches is characterized by mangroves, gentle beach slopes until flats. Those sandy and muddy beaches are alluvial deposits of Quarternary sediments.

  8. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  9. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3 arc-second St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for...

  10. Coastal debris survey in a Remote Island of the Chilean Northern Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Venegas, D; Pavés, H; Pulgar, J; Ahrendt, C; Seguel, M; Galbán-Malagón, C J

    2017-12-15

    Global marine litter pollution is increasing dramatically, and oceanic islands are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems due to their high debris accumulation rate compared to continental sites. Remote areas, such as inhabited islands, represent a perfect study case to track marine debris sources, due to the assumed low rates of local production of debris. Guafo Island is one of the largest islands of the Chilean Northern Patagonia and is considered a remote zone. The accessible coast of Guafo Island was monitored during four austral summers revealing higher levels of marine debris accumulation than continental Chile. Plastic was the most abundant type of debris constituting 50% of the total litter monitored. Our results suggest that most of the plastic identified is likely to be related to local fisheries activities. Mitigation measures including collaboration among fishing communities and scientists could contribute to reduce the coastal debris pollution in remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Cottage Lake Aeromagnetic Lineament: A Possible Onshore Extension of the Southern Whidbey Island Fault, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Richard J.; Sherrod, Brian L.; Wells, Ray E.; Weaver, Craig S.; McCormack, David H.; Troost, Kathy G.; Haugerud, Ralph A.

    2004-01-01

    The northwest-striking southern Whidbey Island fault zone (SWIF) was mapped previously using borehole data and potential-field anomalies on Whidbey Island and marine seismic surveys beneath surrounding waterways. Abrupt subsidence at a coastal marsh on south-central Whidbey Island suggests that the SWIF experienced a MW 6.5 to 7.0 earthquake about 3000 years ago. Southeast of Whidbey Island, a hypothesized southeastward projection of the SWIF would make landfall between the cities of Seattle and Everett. As part of systematic, ongoing studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, University of Washington, and other earth science organizations to evaluate potentially active faults and other earth hazards throughout the Puget Lowland, we test this hypothesis using aeromagnetic, lidar, and borehole data. Linear, northwest-striking magnetic anomalies traversing the mainland region project southeastward toward the communities of Woodinville and Maltby, Washington. All of these magnetic anomalies are low in amplitude and best illuminated in residual magnetic fields. The most prominent of the residual magnetic anomalies extends at least 16 km, lies approximately on strike with the SWIF on Whidbey Island, and passes near Crystal and Cottage Lakes, about 27 km southeast of downtown Everett. In places, this magnetic anomaly is associated with topographic lineaments, but spectral analysis indicates that the source of the anomaly extends to depths greater than 2 km and cannot be explained entirely by topographic effects. The Alderwood #1 oil exploration well located on strike with the Cottage Lake aeromagnetic lineament shows evidence of deformation over a total depth range of 3000 m; some beds within this interval exhibit intense fracturing and shearing, although deformation within the well can only be constrained as post-early Oligocene and pre-Pleistocene. Boreholes acquired as part of a wastewater tunnel project show evidence of soil disturbance at locations where some

  12. Optimization of coastal protection measures on small islands in the northfrisian part of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöffler, T.; Jensen, J.; Schüttrumpf, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low lying small islands are among the most vulnerable regions worldwide due to the consequences of climate change. The reasons for this are the concentration of infrastructure, geographical features and their small size. Worldwide special forms and adaptations of coastal protection strategies and measures can be found on small islands. In the northfrisian part of the North Sea worldwide unique strategies and measures have been developed in the last centuries due to the geographic location and the isolation during extreme events. One special feature of their coastal protection strategy is the lack of dikes. For this reason, the houses are built on artificial dwelling mounds in order to protect the inhabitants and their goods against frequently occurring inundations during storm surge seasons (up to 30 times a year). The Hallig islands themselves benefit by these inundations due to sediments, which are accumulated on the island's surfaces. This sedimentation has enabled a natural adaption to sea level rise in the past. Nevertheless, the construction methods of the coastal protection measures are mainly based on tradition and the knowledge of the inhabitants. No resilient design approaches and safety standards for these special structures like dwelling mounds and elevated revetments exist today. For this reason, neither a cost efficient construction nor a prioritization of measures is possible. Main part of this paper is the scientific investigation of the existing coastal protection measures with the objective of the development of design approaches and safety standards. The results will optimize the construction of the existing coastal protection measures and can be transferred to other small islands and low lying areas worldwide.

  13. Eogenetic karst, glacioeustatic cave pools and anchialine environments on Mallorca Island: a discussion of coastal speleogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Ginès

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coastal karst is characterized by special geomorphologic and hydrodynamic conditions as well as by peculiar sedimentary, geochemical, and biospeleological environments. Generally, the more distinctive karstic features produced near the coastline are strongly influenced by sea-level changes, which generate a broad set of interactions between littoral processes and karst development. The glacioeustatic rises and falls of sea level affected the littoral karst in different ways, namely: vertical and horizontal shifts in the shoreline position, changes in elevation of the local water table, and vertical displacements of the halocline. Most eogenetic karsts have been subjected over long time spans to repeated changes of a variety of vertically-zoned geochemical environments: vadose, phreatic meteoric-water, brackish mixing-waters and even marine water. Many coastal caves appear to be passively drowned by Holocene sea-level rise, and to contain glacioeustatic pools of varied size where the current water table intersects formerly air-filled chambers or passages. These coastal phreatic waters are controlled by sea level and fluctuate with tides. Significantly, features such as phreatic speleothems that are able to record ancient sea levels occur closely associated to the surface of the pools. The cave pools are brackish or even marine anchialine environments that contain remarkable communities of troglobitic stygofauna. All of these aspects can be studied in detail along the southern and eastern coast of Mallorca Island owing to the widespread outcrop of Upper Miocene calcarenites, in which the development of eogenetic karst features started approximately 6 Ma ago, at the end of Messinian times. Some outstanding coastal caves result and include the celebrated Coves del Drac (explored by E.A. Martel in 1896, the labyrinthine Cova des Pas de Vallgornera (more than 30 km in length and the recently explored Cova de sa Gleda (whose submerged passages exceed

  14. Bird-habitat associations in coastal rangelands of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all remnants of temperate grasslands in southeastern South America are used for livestock ranching and are subject to habitat degradation resulting from this activity. Exploring how habitat features affect the composition of grassland avifaunal communities is a first step to understand how current cattle-ranching management practices impact avian diversity. We used canonical ordination to test for relationships between five habitat variables and the composition of the bird community in coastal grasslands in southern Brazil. We sampled pastures with different heights, from overgrazed short-grass to tall herbaceous vegetation. We recorded 1,535 individuals and 27 species of birds. The first ordination axis indicated a strong contribution of mean vegetation height on the composition of the bird community, whereas the second axis revealed the influence of herbaceous vegetation patchiness and woody vegetation cover. Three groups of species were revealed by the ordination: one more diffuse associated with intermediate and tall herbaceous vegetation, another with short grass, and a third with vegetation patchiness and woody vegetation. Species restricted to tall herbaceous vegetation are negatively impacted from habitat degradation resulting from overgrazing and trampling by livestock, and mowing and burning of tall plants. Occurrence of these species in our study area is related with the presence of swales immediately behind the dune system and where remnants of tall vegetation persist. Birds of pastures with ample cover of short herbaceous plants, including one globally threatened species and six other restricted to short-grass habitat, apparently benefit from local livestock management practices. Woody vegetation possibly functions as a keystone structure, enabling the occurrence in grasslands of avian species that rely on shrubby habitat. Although livestock ranching promotes the diversity of habitats by creating distinct patches of

  15. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  16. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Channel Islands, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  17. NOAA Office for Coastal Management (OCM) Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  18. Distribution and abundance of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus and Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi on Graham, Buckingham, and southern Ellesmere islands, March 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Anderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We flew a survey of southern Ellesmere Island, Graham Island, and Buckingham Island in March 2015 to obtain estimates of abundance for muskoxen and Peary caribou. Generally, muskoxen were abundant north of the Sydkap Ice Cap along Baumann Fiord, north of Goose Fiord, west and north of Muskox Fiord, and on the coastal plains and river valleys east of Vendom Fiord. Although few, they were also present on Bjorne Peninsula and the south coast between the Sydkap Ice Cap and Jakeman Glacier. We observed a total of 1146 muskoxen. Calves (approximately 10-months old made up 22% of the observed animals. The population estimate was 3200 ± 602 SE (standard error muskoxen, the highest muskox population size ever estimated for southern Ellesmere, Graham and Buckingham islands. This could be because previous efforts typically surveyed only a portion of our area or focused elsewhere, or the results were provided only as minimum counts rather than estimates of abundance. Regardless, our results indicate that the muskox population has recovered from low levels in 2005 of 312-670 (95% confidence interval [CI] individuals. Peary caribou abundance appears to be low.  We only saw 38 Peary caribou during our 2015 survey. This confounds appraisal of possible abundance change since 2005, when 109-442 caribou (95% CI were estimated to inhabit the same surveyed area. We estimated 183 ± 128 SE Peary caribou, and suggest that their numbers are likely stable at low density on southern Ellesmere Island.

  19. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  20. Uav Application in Coastal Environment, Example of the Oleron Island for Dunes and Dikes Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, B.; Pouget, F.

    2015-08-01

    The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV's brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model), in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  1. UAV APPLICATION IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENT, EXAMPLE OF THE OLERON ISLAND FOR DUNES AND DIKES SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guillot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent evolutions in civil UAV ease of use led the University of La Rochelle to conduct an UAV program around its own potential costal application. An application program involving La Rochelle University and the District of Oleron Island began in January 2015 and lasted through July of 2015. The aims were to choose 9 study areas and survey them during the winter season. The studies concerned surveying the dikes and coastal sand dunes of Oleron Island. During each flight, an action sport camera fixed on the UAV’s brushless gimbal took a series of 150 pictures. After processing the photographs and using a 3D reconstruction plugin via Photoscan, we were able to export high-resolution ortho-imagery, DSM and 3D models. After applying GIS treatment to these images, volumetric evolutions between flights were revealed through a DDVM (Difference of Digital volumetric Model, in order to study sand movements on coastal sand dunes.

  2. Shorebird Use of Coastal Wetland and Barrier Island Habitat in the Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Withers

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf Coast contains some of the most important shorebird habitats in North America. This area encompasses a diverse mixture of estuarine and barrier island habitats with varying amounts of freshwater swamps and marshes, bottomland hardwood forests, and coastal prairie that has been largely altered for rice and crawfish production, temporary ponds, and river floodplain habitat. For the purposes of this review, discussion is confined to general patterns of shorebird abundance, distribution, and macro- and microhabitat use in natural coastal, estuarine, and barrier island habitats on the Gulf of Mexico Coast. The following geographic regions are considered: Northwestern Gulf (Rio Grande to Louisiana-Mississippi border, Northeastern Gulf (Mississippi to Florida Keys, and Mexico (Rio Grande to Cabo Catoche [Yucatan Strait].

  3. Seasonal electrical resistivity surveys of a coastal bluff, Barter Island, North Slope Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Johnson, Cordell; Lorenson, Thomas; Conaway, Christopher H.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li; Richmond, Bruce M.; Waldrop, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Select coastal regions of the North Slope of Alaska are experiencing high erosion rates that can be attributed in part to recent warming trends and associated increased storm intensity and frequency. The upper sediment column of the coastal North Slope of Alaska can be described as continuous permafrost underlying a thin (typically less than 1–2 m) active layer that responds variably to seasonal thaw cycles. Assessing the temporal and spatial variability of the active layer and underlying permafrost is essential to better constrain how heightened erosion may impact material fluxes to the atmosphere and the coastal ocean, and how enhanced thaw cycles may impact the stability of the coastal bluffs. In this study, multi-channel electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to image shallow subsurface features of a coastal bluff west of Kaktovik, on Barter Island, northeast Alaska. A comparison of a suite of paired resistivity surveys conducted in early and late summer 2014 provided detailed information on how the active layer and permafrost are impacted during the short Arctic summer. Such results are useful in the development of coastal resilience models that tie together fluvial, terrestrial, climatic, geologic, and oceanographic forcings on shoreline stability.

  4. Critical success factors (CSFs): A comparison between coastal and island chalets in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Mastura

    2011-01-01

    It is well documented in tourism literature that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the main players that support tourism growth. Reflectively, the performance of the SMEs has been explored from different aspects. In this paper, critical success factors (CSFs) is the main theoretical framework used to identify and compare the CSFs of small and medium chalets (SMCs) operating along the coastal and selected islands in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The study has used the multi-meth...

  5. Salmonella infections in Antarctic fauna and island populations of wildlife exposed to human activities in coastal areas of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveson, J B; Shellam, G R; Bradshaw, S D; Smith, D W; Mackenzie, J S; Mofflin, R G

    2009-06-01

    Salmonella infections in Antarctic wildlife were first reported in 1970 and in a search for evidence linking isolations with exposure to human activities, a comparison was made of serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region from 1982-2004 with those from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. This revealed that 10 (83%) Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from Antarctic penguins and seals were classifiable in high-frequency (HF) quotients for serovars prevalent in humans and domesticated animals. In Australia, 16 (90%) HF serovars were isolated from marine birds and mammals compared with 12 (86%) HF serovars reported from marine mammals in the Northern hemisphere. In Western Australia, HF serovars from marine species were also recorded in humans, livestock, mussels, effluents and island populations of wildlife in urban coastal areas. Low-frequency S. enterica serovars were rarely detected in humans and not detected in seagulls or marine species. The isolation of S. Enteritidis phage type 4 (PT4), PT8 and PT23 strains from Adélie penguins and a diversity of HF serovars reported from marine fauna in the Antarctic region and coastal areas of Australia, signal the possibility of transient serovars and endemic Salmonella strains recycling back to humans from southern latitudes in marine foodstuffs and feed ingredients.

  6. Vagrant birds ashore at the Prince Edward Islands, southern Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vagrant birds recorded ashore at Marion Island and Prince Edward Island from 1987 to 2009 are documented. In total, 101 observations (including multiple sightings of potentially the same individual) of 29 species were made. Palaearctic and Holarctic migrants (17 species), African species (n = 6) and pelagic species with ...

  7. Limnology of southern African coastal lakes — new vistas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen mostly small, isolated, and relatively deep coastal inundation lakes were surveyed during the cool season (August) of 1996. No thermal or chemical stratification existed, but near-bottom hypoxia was evident in several systems. Ionic conductivity varied quite widely, but was highest in isolated systems, suggesting ...

  8. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey of the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Field work began in April 1989 and was completed in September 1989. Five previous surveys, completed in 1937, 1952, 1962, 1973, and 1983, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 53 years. The primary emphasis in this report...

  9. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Tansey

    1984-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest survey in the southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Fieldwork began in November 1982 and was completed in June 1983. Four previous surveys, completed in 1938, 1952, 1962, and 1973, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 46 years. The primary emphasis in this report is on...

  10. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Tansey

    1987-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the sixth forest survey in the Southern Coastal plain of South Carolina. Fieldwork began in June 1986 and was completed in September 1986. Five previous surveys, completed in 1934, 1947, 1958, 1968, and 1978, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 53 years. The primary emphasis in this report...

  11. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond M. Sheffield; Joanne Hutchison

    1978-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fifth forest inventory of the Southern Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Fieldwork began in April 1978 and was completed in August 1978. Four previous inventories, completed in 1934, 1947, 1958, and 1968, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 44 years. The primary emphasis in this report is...

  12. Forest statistics for the Southern Coastal Plain of North Carolina 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1973-01-01

    This report highlights the principal findings of the fourth inventory of the timber resource in the Southern Coastal plain of North Carolina. The inventory was s t a r t e d in November 1972 and completed in August 1973. Three previous inventories, completed in 1937, 1952, and 1962, provide statistics for measuring changes and trends over the past 36 years. In this...

  13. Biodiversity protection and sustainable management of coastal areas: The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donati, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands, northwest coast of Sicily Island, is the largest area in the Mediterranean Sea, stretching over with its 53,992 hectares. Established in 1991, since 2001 it is managed by the Municipality of Favignana on behalf of the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea. The Egadi’s archipelago is located in the Strait of Sicily, and includes the islands of Favignana, Levanzo, Marettimo and the islets of Formica and Maraone. The institutional mission of the Marine Protected Area is the protection and enhancement of the marine environment, environmental education, awareness and information of users, research and monitoring, integrated management of the coastal zone, and the promotion of sustainable development, with particular reference to the eco-compatibility of tourism [it

  14. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Virginia, Southern

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  15. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: North Carolina, Southern 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  16. Coastal ground water at risk - Saltwater contamination at Brunswick, Georgia and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Richard E.; Clarke, John S.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionSaltwater contamination is restricting the development of ground-water supply in coastal Georgia and adjacent parts of South Carolina and Florida. The principal source of water in the coastal area is the Upper Floridan aquifer—an extremely permeable and high-yielding aquifer—which was first developed in the late 1800s. Pumping from the aquifer has resulted in substantial ground-water-level decline and subsequent saltwater intrusion of the aquifer from underlying strata containing highly saline water at Brunswick, Georgia, and with encroachment of sea-water into the aquifer at the northern end of Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The saltwater contamination at these locations has constrained further development of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the coastal area and has created competing demands for the limited supply of freshwater. The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Environmental Protection Division (GaEPD) has restricted permitted withdrawal of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer in parts of the coastal area (including the Savannah and Brunswick areas) to 1997 rates, and also has restricted additional permitted pumpage in all 24 coastal area counties to 36 million gallons per day above 1997 rates. These actions have prompted interest in alternative management of the aquifer and in the development of supplemental sources of water supply including those from the shallower surficial and upper and lower Brunswick aquifers and from the deeper Lower Floridan aquifer.

  17. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  18. Coastal bathymetry and backscatter data collected in 2012 from the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Nancy T.; Bernier, Julie C.; Pfeiffer, William R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Reynolds, B.J.; Wiese, Dana S.; Kelso, Kyle W.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Barrier Island Evolution Research Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center conducted nearshore geophysical surveys off the northern Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, in July and August of 2012. The objective of the study is to better understand barrier island geomorphic evolution, particularly storm-related depositional and erosional processes that shape the islands over annual to interannual timescales (1-5 years). Collecting geophysical data will allow us to identify relationships between the geologic history of the island and its present day morphology and sediment distribution. This mapping effort was the second in a series of three planned surveys in this area. High resolution geophysical data collected in each of 3 consecutive years along this rapidly changing barrier island system will provide a unique time-series dataset that will significantly further the analyses and geomorphological interpretations of this and other coastal systems, improving our understanding of coastal response and evolution over short time scales (1-5 years). This Data Series report includes the geophysical data that were collected during two cruises (USGS Field Activity Numbers 12BIM03 and 12BIM04) aboard the RV Survey Cat and the RV Twin Vee along the northern portion of the Chandeleur Islands, Breton National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana. Data were acquired with the following equipment: a Systems Engineering and Assessment, Ltd., SWATHplus interferometric sonar (468 kilohertz (kHz)), an EdgeTech 424 (4-24 kHz) chirp sub-bottom profiling system, and a Knudsen 320BP (210 kHz) echosounder. This report serves as an archive of processed interferometric swath and single-beam bathymetry data. Geographic information system data products include an interpolated digital elevation model, an acoustic backscatter mosaic, trackline maps, and point data files. Additional files include error analysis maps, Field Activity

  19. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  20. Cloud and fog interactions with coastal forests in the California Channel Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Baguskas, S. A.; Williams, P.; Fischer, D. T.; Carbone, M. S.; Rastogi, B.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal forests in California are frequently covered by clouds or immersed in fog in the rain-free summer. Scientists have long surmised that fog might provide critical water inputs to these forests. However, until recently, there has been little ecophysiological research to support how or why plants should prefer foggy regions; similarly, there is very little work quantifying water delivered to ecosystems by fog drip except for a few notable sites along the California coast. However, without spatial datasets of summer cloudcover and fog inundation, combined with detailed process studies, questions regarding the roles of cloud shading and fog drip in dictating plant distributions and ecosystem physiology cannot be addressed effectively. The overall objective of this project is to better understand how cloudcover and fog influence forest metabolism, growth, and distribution. Across a range of sites in California's Channel Islands National Park we measured a wide variety of ecosystem processes and properties. We then related these to cloudcover and fog immersion maps created using satellite datasets and airport and radiosonde observations. We compiled a spatially continuous dataset of summertime cloudcover frequency of the Southern California bight using satellite imagery from the NOAA geostationary GOES-11 Imager. We also created map of summertime cloudcover frequency of this area using MODIS imagery. To assess the ability of our mapping approach to predict spatial and temporal fog inundation patterns, we compared our monthly average daytime fog maps for GOES pixels corresponding to stations where fog inputs were measured with fog collectors in a Bishop pine forest. We also compared our cloudcover maps to measurements of irradiance measurements. Our results demonstrate that cloudcover and fog strongly modulate radiation, water, and carbon budgets, as well as forest distributions, in this semi-arid environment. Measurements of summertime fog drip, pine sapflow and

  1. The population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis from island and continental locations in Coastal Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Solano

    Full Text Available We undertook a population genetics analysis of the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis, a major vector of sleeping sickness in West Africa, using microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Our aims were to estimate effective population size and the degree of isolation between coastal sites on the mainland of Guinea and Loos Islands. The sampling locations encompassed Dubréka, the area with the highest Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT prevalence in West Africa, mangrove and savannah sites on the mainland, and two islands, Fotoba and Kassa, within the Loos archipelago. These data are discussed with respect to the feasibility and sustainability of control strategies in those sites currently experiencing, or at risk of, sleeping sickness.We found very low migration rates between sites except between those sampled around the Dubréka area that seems to contain a widely dispersed and panmictic population. In the Kassa island samples, various effective population size estimates all converged on surprisingly small values (10island samples in marked contrast to the large diffuse deme in Dubréka zones. We discuss how these genetic results suggest that different tsetse control strategies should be applied on the mainland and islands.

  2. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  4. Segmented Coastal Uplift Along an Erosional Subduction Margin, Northern Hikurangi Fore Arc, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J. S.; Litchfield, N. J.; Berryman, K. R.; Clark, K.; Cochran, U. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Along the southern margin, frontal accretion and pronounced forearc uplift occur inboard of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. In the north, subduction erosion and segmented uplift occur inboard of subducting seamounts along the plateau flank. Prior workers have established a robust foundation for coastal terrace studies along the northern Hikurangi margin (e.g., Berryman et al., 1989; Ota et al., 1992; Berryman, 1993; Wilson et al., 2006, 2007; Clark et al., 2010; Litchfield et al, 2007, 2010). New field observations presented here provide additional constraints on terrace uplift along this erosional subduction margin. Along Raukumara Peninsula (north of Poverty Bay), multiple Holocene to late Pleistocene marine and fluvial terraces occur at varying elevations, recording differential uplift across six coastal segments from Gisborne to East Cape (Ota et al., 1992; Wilson et al., 2007). In this study, two to three late Pleistocene terraces were observed on rocky headlands within the first segment (Gisborne to Whangara) at elevations of 80-185 m above msl. Preliminary correlation with OIS 5a-e sea level high stands (80-125 ka) indicates net uplift at 1.2-1.5 m/ky. Uplifted Holocene wavecut platforms occur in steps along the seaward edge of these terraces, consistent with coseismic uplift. At Makorori Point, an uplifted bench occurs along the modern seacliff at 2.3 m above the cliff base. A fossil gastropod shell from paleo-beach gravels on the platform inner edge yielded a calibrated radiocarbon age of 1680 ×110 ybp. At Turihaua Point, a ≥1 m thick deposit of Holocene beach sands overlies an uplifted wavecut platform at ≥1.5 m above mean sea level. Carbonate-cemented beachrock at the base of the sand deposit yields a calibrated radiocarbon age of 2990 ×70 ybp. At Mahia Peninsula (between Poverty

  5. Speciation of heavy metals in coastal water of Qeshm Island in the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Karbassi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel storage tanks are one of the main sources of water pollution as well as loss of crude oil and oil products in refineries.  In the process of utilization of these tanks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbons may find their way into the coastal water, which eventually lead to loss of valuable hydrocarbons. Oil type, climatic condition and characteristics of oil tanks are among the main variables in computing evaporative losses. The present study brings out the results of a project that was carried out to investigate the adverse effects of oil terminal on coastal waters of Qeshm Island and aims to elaborate on speciation of metals in coastal waters. For this purpose, 12 stations were sampled. Water chemistry software was used to draw Eh-pH diagrams. Along with the speciation of heavy metals, cluster analysis was carried out by MVSP software. According to the results, HSC diagrams showed that Cu and Cd were present as free ions. Lead, manganese, cobalt, zinc and nickel were respectively present as PbOH, MnOH, ZnOH, CoOH and NiOH in the Persian Gulf. Speciation of Cu and Ni was in the form of Cu2O and NiO. Vanadium was also present in combination with hydroxide. Since all the studied elements were within the water stability range, they were stable, and there were no environmental risks of contamination and toxicity. The results of cluster analysis did not show any relation between Eh and pH. This clearly showed that Eh-pH was governed by different mechanisms in coastal waters of Qeshm Island. Vanadium and Ni concentration was governed by pH, while Cu and Cd concentration was controlled by Eh.

  6. Nestedness of Southern Ocean island biotas: ecological perspectives on a biogeographical conundrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greve, M.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Gaston, K.J.; Chown, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Aim To use patterns of nestedness in the indigenous and non-indigenous biotas of the Southern Ocean islands to determine the influence of dispersal ability on biogeographical patterns, and the importance of accounting for variation in dispersal ability in their subsequent interpretation, especially

  7. Aerosol characteristics at a remote island: Minicoy in southern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minicoy in southern Arabian Sea for the period (February 2006–March 2007) are used to char- acterize their ... with the exception of soil dust, sea-salt forms one ..... level.) mass of super micron aerosols than the winter. (DJF) but, the rainfall associated with the mon- soon perhaps brings down the sea-salt aerosols by.

  8. The southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina at Gough Island ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina selected mainly the gently sloping, smooth-surfaced beaches and vegetated areas of the sheltered north-east coast. Mainly adults hauled out during the spring breeding season, with all pups being born by late October and the majority of the pups dispersing from their birthsites by ...

  9. Vagrant birds ashore at the Prince Edward Islands, southern Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palaearctic and Holarctic migrants (17 species), African species (n = 6) and pelagic species with a predominantly Southern Ocean distribution (n = 6) were observed. The number of observations peaked during the austral autumn, which corresponded to both the northward migration of Palaearctic species and maximum ...

  10. Coastal lagoon sediments and benthic foraminifera as indicator for Holocene sea-level change: Samsø, southern Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Morigi, Caterina; Pejrup, Morten

    relative sea-level to drop. Originally, two Pleistocene elevations existed as separated islands, which were high enough to reach above sea-level during the transgressions. Proceeding coastal erosion produced material that was transported longshore and that was successively accommodated in a shallow sound....... Over time, an extensive beach ridge system formed, which eventually connected the islands, giving Samsø its characteristic shape. Ephemeral shallow-water lagoons evolved in topographic depressions along the shores of the island, most of which became inactive until today. A semi-enclosed coastal lagoon...... remained in the NE part of the island, which developed around an archipelago of submerged moraine hills. In the scope of this project we will study the evolution of the coastal landscape from the mid-Holocene to present day. We use a multi-proxy approach to resolve local variations in sea...

  11. MOLLUSCA' BIODIVERSITY (GASTROPODA AND BIVALVIA AS A BIO INDICATOR OF QUALITY OF WATER IN THE COASTAL ISLAND OF TUNDA ISLAND, BANTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indria Wahyuni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on Juli 2017 in the coastal region of Tunda Island. This study aims to determine the Biodiversity of Mollusca (Gastropoda and Bivalvia As Bioindicator of Water Quality In Coastal Area of Tunda Island, Banten. Sampling consists of 2 observation stations, namely the mangrove coastal area (3 transects and the seagrass coastal area (2 transects determined by purposive sampling. The observation of each station is done by using the quadratic transect method with 100 m transect line distance, and in each transect line there are 5 observation plots measuring 1m2 x 1m2. The data analysis includes density, biodiversity, bio-indicators of water quality based on diversity index. Result of research on 5 transect found 45 type Mollusca which represent 2 class, that is Gastropoda class of 29 species Gastropoda joined in 14 Family. As for Bivalvia class found 16 species incorporated in 9 families. The total density of Mollusca is 541.2 ind / m2 which consists of 392.4 ind / m2 for Gastropoda class and 148.8 ind / m2 for Bivalvia class. Mollusca diversity was calculated using the diversity index of Shannon-Wienner (H '. The results of diversity index ranged from 3.1356 - 3.3314 with high category. Bioindicator of aquatic quality using diversity index indicates that the coastal area of Tunda Island belongs to a very mildly polluted category.

  12. Recent Atlantic Hurricanes, Pacific Super Typhoons, and Tropical Storm Awareness in Underdeveloped Island and Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plondke, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey was the first major hurricane to make landfall in the continental U.S. in 12 years. The next tropical storm in the 2017 Atlantic Hurricane Season was Hurricane Irma, a category 5 storm and the strongest storm to strike the U.S. mainland since Hurricane Wilma in 2005. These two storms were the third and fourth in a sequence of 10 consecutive storms to reach hurricane status in this season that ranks at least seventh among the most active seasons as measured by the Accumulate Cyclone Energy (ACE) index. Assessment of damage from Harvey may prove it to be the costliest storm in U.S. history, approaching $190 billion. Irma was the first category 5 hurricane to hit the Leeward Islands, devastating island environments including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Barbuda, Saint Barthelemy, and Anguilla with sustained winds reaching at times 185 mph. Together with the two super typhoons of the 2017 Pacific season, Noru and Lan, the two Atlantic hurricanes rank among the strongest, longest-lasting tropical cyclones on record. How many more billions of dollars will be expended in recovery and reconstruction efforts following future mega-disasters comparable to those of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma? Particularly on Caribbean and tropical Pacific islands with specialized and underdeveloped economies, aging and substandard infrastructure often cannot even partially mitigate against the impacts of major hurricanes. The most frequently used measurements of storm impact are insufficient to assess the economic impact. Analysis of the storm tracks and periods of greatest storm intensity of Hurricanes Harvey and Irma, and Super Typhoons Lan and Noru, in spatial relationship with island and coastal administrative regions, shows that rainfall totals, flooded area estimates, and property/infrastructure damage dollar estimates are all quantitative indicators of storm impact, but do not measure the costs that result from lack of storm preparedness and education of residents

  13. Coastal Sedimentation Associated with the Tohoku Tsunami of 11 March 2011 in South Kuril Islands, NW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razjigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Ivanova, E. D.; Kharlamov, A. A.; Kaistrenko, V. M.; Shishkin, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    Sediment deposited by the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 in the Southern Kurils (Kunashir, Shikotan, Zeleniy, Yuri, Tanfiliev islands) was radically different from sedimentation during local strong storms and from tsunamis with larger runup at the same location. Sediments from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami were surveyed in the field, immediately and 6 months after the event, and analyzed in the laboratory for sediment granulometry, benthos Foraminifa assemblages, and diatom algae. Run-up elevation and inundation distance were calculated from the wrackline (accumulations of driftwood, woody debris, grass, and seaweed) marking the distal edge of tsunami inundation. Run-up of the tsunami was 5 m at maximum, and 3-4 m on average. Maximum distance of inundation was recorded in river mouths (up to 630 m), but was generally in the range of 50-80 m. Although similar to the local strong storms in runup height, the tsunami generally did not erode the coast, nor leave a deposit. However, deposits uncharacteristic of tsunami, described as brown aleuropelitic (silty and clayey) mud rich in organic matter, were found in closed bays facing the South Kuril Strait. These closed bays were covered with sea ice at the time of tsunami. As the tsunami waves broke the ice, the ice floes enhanced the bottom erosion on shoals and destruction of low-lying coastal peatland even at modest ranges of runup. In the muddy tsunami deposits, silt comprised up to 64 % and clay up to 41.5 %. The Foraminifera assemblages displayed features characteristic of benthic microfauna in the near-shore zone. Deep-sea diatoms recovered from tsunami deposits in two closely situated bays, namely Krabovaya and Otradnaya bays, had different requirements for environmental temperature, suggesting these different diatoms were brought to the bays by the tsunami wave entraining various water masses when skirting the island from the north and from the south.

  14. The Southern Kurile Islands: Shrouded in Eternal Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    winter while the southern straits are not. Using Soviet maritime navigation atlases of water temperature and salinity and personal observation, he...legal fishing. To avoid Russian interference, many Japanese fishermen utilize high speed fishing vessels that allow them to evade Russian Border...crack down on poachers‟ high speed fishing vessels. An example of the later is the strong personal stance of Governor Valentin Federov of the Sakhalin

  15. Digital elevations and extents of regional hydrogeologic units in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jason P.; Andreasen, David C.; Mcfarland, E. Randolph; Watt, Martha K.

    2016-08-31

    Digital geospatial datasets of the extents and top elevations of the regional hydrogeologic units of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina were developed to provide an updated hydrogeologic framework to support analysis of groundwater resources. The 19 regional hydrogeologic units were delineated by elevation grids and extent polygons for 20 layers: the land and bathymetric surface at the top of the unconfined surficial aquifer, the upper surfaces of 9 confined aquifers and 9 confining units, and the bedrock surface that defines the base of all Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. The delineation of the regional hydrogeologic units relied on the interpretive work from source reports for New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina rather than from re-analysis of fundamental hydrogeologic data. This model of regional hydrogeologic unit geometries represents interpolation, extrapolation, and generalization of the earlier interpretive work. Regional units were constructed from available digital data layers from the source studies in order to extend units consistently across political boundaries and approximate units in offshore areas.Though many of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain hydrogeologic units may extend eastward as far as the edge of the Atlantic Continental Shelf, the modeled boundaries of all regional hydrogeologic units in this study were clipped to an area approximately defined by the furthest offshore extent of fresh to brackish water in any part of the aquifer system, as indicated by chloride concentrations of 10,000 milligrams per liter. Elevations and extents of units that do not exist onshore in Long Island, New York, were not included north of New Jersey. Hydrogeologic units in North Carolina were included primarily to provide continuity across the Virginia-North Carolina State boundary, which was important for defining the southern edge of

  16. Cytotoxic activity of marine sponge extracts from the sub-Antarctic Islands and the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth K. Olsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years, marine invertebrates, especially sponges, have proven to be a valuable source of new and/or bioactive natural products that have the potential to be further developed as lead compounds for pharmaceutical applications. Although marine benthic invertebrate communities occurring off the coast of South Africa have been explored for their biomedicinal potential, the natural product investigation of marine sponges from the sub-Antarctic Islands in the Southern Ocean for the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites has been relatively unexplored thus far. We report here the results for the biological screening of both aqueous and organic extracts prepared from nine specimens of eight species of marine sponges, collected from around Marion Island and the Prince Edward Islands in the Southern Ocean, for their cytotoxic activity against three cancer cell lines. The results obtained through this multidisciplinary collaborative research effort by exclusively South African institutions has provided an exciting opportunity to discover cytotoxic compounds from sub-Antarctic sponges, whilst contributing to our understanding of the biodiversity and geographic distributions of these cold-water invertebrates. Therefore, we acknowledge here the various contributions of the diverse scientific disciplines that played a pivotal role in providing the necessary platform for the future natural products chemistry investigation of these marine sponges from the sub- Antarctic Islands and the Southern Ocean.

  17. Hydrologic Effects and Biogeographic Impacts of Coastal Fog, Channel Islands, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D. T.; Still, C. J.; Williams, A. P.

    2006-12-01

    Fog has long been recognized as an important component of the hydrological cycle in many ecosystems, including coastal desert fog belts, tropical cloud forests, and montane areas worldwide. Fog drip can be a major source of water, particularly during the dry season, and there is evidence in some ecosystems of direct fogwater uptake by foliar absorption. Fog and low clouds can also increase availability of water by reducing evaporative water losses. In the California Channel Islands, fog and low stratus clouds dramatically affect the water budget of coastal vegetation, particularly during the long summer drought. This work focuses on a population of Bishop pine (Pinus muricata D. Don) on Santa Cruz Island. This is the southernmost large stand of this species, and tree growth and survival appears to be strongly limited by water availability. We have used parallel measurement and modeling approaches to quantify the importance of fogwater inputs and persistent cloud cover to Bishop pine growth. We have modeled drought stress over the last century based on local climate records, calibrated against a dense network of 12 weather stations on a 7km coastal-inland elevation gradient. Water availability is highly variable year to year, with episodic droughts that are associated with widespread tree mortality. Frequent cloud cover near the coast reduces evapotranspiration relative to the inland site (on the order of 25%), thereby delaying the onset of, and moderating the severity of the annual summer drought. Substantial summer fog drip at higher elevations provides additional water inputs that also reduce drought severity. Beyond the theoretical availability of extra water from fog drip, tree ring analysis and xylem water isotopic data suggest that significant amounts of fog water are actually taken up by these trees. Stand boundaries appear to be driven by spatial patterns of mortality related to water availability and frequency of severe drought. These results suggest that

  18. Constraining Big Hurricanes: Remotely sensing Galveston Islands' changing coastal landscape from days to millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, A. J.; Choi, J. H.; Heo, S.; Dosseto, A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change models forecast increased storm intensity, which will drive coastal erosion as sea-level rise accelerates with global warming. Over the last five years the largest hurricanes ever recorded in the Pacific (Patricia) and the Atlantic (Irma) occurred as well as the devastation of Harvey. The preceding decade was marked with Super Storm Sandy, Katrina and Ike. A century prior, the deadliest natural disaster in North America occurred as a category 4 hurricane known as `The 1900 Storm' hit Galveston Island. This research aims to contextualize the impact of storms long before infrastructure and historical/scientific accounts documented erosion. Unlike the majority of barrier islands in the US, Galveston built seaward over the Holocene. As the beach prograded it preserved a history of storms and shoreline change over millennia to the present-day. These systems (called prograded barriers) were first studied over 50 years ago using topographic profiles, sediment cores and radiocarbon dating. This research revisits some of these benchmark study sites to augment existing data utilizing state-of-the-art Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) techniques. In 2016 GPR and OSL data were collected from Galveston Island, with the aim to combine GPR, OSL and LiDAR (GOaL) to extract a high-resolution geologic record spanning 6,000 years. The resulting millennia-scale coastal evolution can be used to contextualize the impact of historic hurricanes over the past century (`The 1900 Storm'), decade (Ike in 2008) and year (now with Harvey). Preliminary results reveal a recent change in shoreline behaviour, and data from Harvey are currently being accessed within the perspective of these initial findings. This dataset will be discussed with respect to the other two benchmark prograded barriers studied in North America: Nayarit Barrier (Mexico) that Hurricane Patricia passed directly over in 2013 and

  19. Landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California, USA, as assessed through carnivore habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Richard D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Crooks, Kevin R.

    2003-01-01

    Although the fragmentation of the natural landscape of coastal southern California, USA, is accelerating, large-scale assessments of regional connectivity are lacking. Because of their large area requirements and long dispersal movements, mammalian carnivores can be effective focal species to use when evaluating landscape-level connectivity. Our goal was to make an initial assessment of the extent of landscape-level connectivity in coastal southern California using mountain lions (Felis concolor [Linnaeus]) and bobcats (Felis rufus [Shreber]) as focal species. We first characterized habitat preferences for mountain lions and bobcats from previously derived habitat relationship models for these species; the resulting maps provided a coarse view of habitat preferences for use at regional scales. We then constructed GIS models to evaluate the disturbance impact of roadways and development, major determinants of carnivore distribution and abundance in the south coast region. Finally, we combined the habitat relationship models with the disturbance impact models to characterize habitat connectivity for mountain lions and bobcats in the ecoregion. Habitat connectivity in the ecoregion appeared higher for bobcats than for mountain lions due in part to higher habitat suitability for bobcats in coastal lowland areas. Our models suggest that much of the key carnivore habitat in the coastal southern California is at risk; over 80% of high suitability habitat and over 90% of medium suitability habitat for carnivores is found in the least protected land management classes. Overall, these models allow for (1) identification of core habitat blocks for carnivores and key landscape connections between core areas, (2) evaluation of the level of protection of these areas, and (3) a regional framework within which to develop and coordinate local management and conservation plans.

  20. Multi-levelling and externalizing migration and asylum: lessons from the southern European islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Triandafyllidou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Southern European countries have come to constitute the most vulnerable external border of the European Union (EU over the last decade. Irregular migration pressures have been acutely felt on the EU’s southern sea borders, and particularly on four sets of islands: Canary Islands (Spain, Lampedusa and Linosa (Italy, Malta, and Aegean Islands (Greece. This quartet is, to a large extent, used as stepping stones by irregular migrants and asylum seekers to reach the European continent. This paper studies the role of these islands as ‘outposts’ of a framework of externalization. It starts by discussing the notion of externalization and its different facets. It considers how externalization is linked to both fencing and gate-keeping strategies of migration and asylum control. The second part of the paper focuses on the special role of the island quartet with respect to the externalization web cast by national and EU-wide migration policies. It concludes with a critical reflection on the multi-level character of externalization policies and practices that occur both within the EU and between the EU and third countries.

  1. Sand Resources, Regional Geology, and Coastal Processes of the Chandeleur Islands Coastal System: an Evaluation of the Breton National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Breton National Wildlife Refuge, the Chandeleur Islands chain in Louisiana, provides habitat and nesting areas for wildlife and is an initial barrier protecting New Orleans from storms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the University of New Orleans Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences undertook an intensive study that included (1) an analysis of island change based on historical maps and remotely sensed shoreline and topographic data; (2) a series of lidar surveys at 3- to 4-month intervals after Hurricane Katrina to determine barrier island recovery potential; (3) a discussion of sea level rise and effects on the islands; (4) an analysis of sea floor evolution and sediment dynamics in the refuge over the past 150 years; (5) an assessment of the local sediment transport and sediment resource availability based on the bathymetric and subbottom data; (6) a carefully selected core collection effort to groundtruth the geophysical data and more fully characterize the sediments composing the islands and surrounds; (7) an additional survey of the St. Bernard Shoals to assess their potential as a sand resource; and (8) a modeling study to numerically simulate the potential response of the islands to the low-intensity, intermediate, and extreme events likely to affect the refuge over the next 50 years. Results indicate that the islands have become fragmented and greatly diminished in subaerial extent over time: the southern islands retreating landward as they reorganize into subaerial features, the northern islands remaining in place. Breton Island, because maintenance of the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) outer bar channel requires dredging, is deprived of sand sufficient to sustain itself. Regional sediment transport trends indicate that large storms are extremely effective in transporting sand and controlling the shoreline development and barrier island geometry. Sand is transported north and south from a divergent zone near

  2. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  3. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: Birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carravieri, Alice, E-mail: carravieri@cebc.cnrs.fr [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France); Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Churlaud, Carine [Littoral Environnement et Sociétés (LIENSs), UMRi 7266 CNRS-Université de la Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Cherel, Yves [Centre d' Etudes Biologiques de Chizé, UPR 1934 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BP 14, 79360 Villiers-en-Bois (France)

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g{sup −1} dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ{sup 15}N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ{sup 13}C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. - Highlights: • Hg contamination was evaluated in 4 species of penguins at the Kerguelen Islands. • Adults

  4. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    , laurel wilt disease also kills other native trees that are members of the laurel family, including swamp bay (Persea palustris), silk bay (Persea borbonia var. humilis), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum), as well as the economically important cultivated avocado (Persea americana) (Fraedrich and others, 2008). This paper is concerned primarily with swamp bay, an important component of Everglades tree islands.The spread of the redbay ambrosia beetle and its fungal symbiont has been very rapid, exceeding model predictions (Koch and Smith, 2008); by 2011, laurel wilt disease was found from the southern coastal plain of North Carolina to southern peninsular Florida. The first redbay ambrosia beetle was trapped in Miami-Dade County in March 2010, and laurel wilt disease was discovered in swamp bays in February 2011 and in commercial avocado groves about a year later (Kendra and others, 2013). By 2013, laurel wilt disease was seen in swamp bays throughout the southern Everglades in Everglades National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, and Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 3A and 3B (Rodgers and others, 2014).

  5. Penguins as bioindicators of mercury contamination in the Southern Ocean: birds from the Kerguelen Islands as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carravieri, Alice; Bustamante, Paco; Churlaud, Carine; Cherel, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Seabirds have been used extensively as bioindicators of mercury (Hg) contamination in the marine environment, although information on flightless species like penguins remains limited. In order to assess the use of penguins as bioindicators of Hg contamination in subantarctic and Antarctic marine ecosystems, Hg concentrations were evaluated in the feathers of the four species that breed on the Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Compared to other seabirds, adult Kerguelen penguins had low to moderate feather Hg concentrations, with an average ranging from 1.96 ± 0.41 μgg(-1) dry weight in the southern rockhopper penguin to 5.85 ± 3.00 μg g(-1) dry weight in the gentoo penguin. The species was a major determinant of Hg contamination, with feather Hg concentrations being lower in the oceanic species (king and crested penguins) than in the coastal one (gentoo penguin). In all species however, feather Hg concentrations were higher in adults than in chicks, reflecting the different periods of Hg bioaccumulation in the internal tissues of the two age classes. The relationship between adult penguin trophic ecology and Hg burdens was investigated using stable isotopes. Feeding habits (reflected by δ(15)N values) had a greater effect on adult feather Hg concentrations when compared to foraging habitats (reflected by δ(13)C values), indicating Hg biomagnification in Kerguelen neritic and oceanic waters. Dietary preferences were crucial in explaining individual feather Hg concentrations, as highlighted by intra-specific variation in Hg levels of gentoo penguins sampled at two different breeding sites of the archipelago. Penguins appear to reflect Hg bioavailability reliably in their foraging environment and could serve as efficient bioindicators of Hg contamination in the Southern Ocean on different spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Geomorphologic regionalization of the central and southern parts of Pag Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Lončar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents an analysis of geological, climatic, geomorphologic and morphometric characteristics of the central and southern parts of Pag Island. It identifies 21 categories of relief thoroughly studied and explained by using the methods of remote sensing. The predominant geomorphological processes and forms are indicated within the chosen 243 spatial units. An acquired dataset has been used to implement a generalization which provided the land use evaluation criteria for determining the favourability of certain areas for construction.

  7. Imaging Canary Island hotspot material beneath the lithosphere of Morocco and southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan S.; O'Driscoll, Leland J.; Butcher, Amber J.; Thomas, Christine

    2015-12-01

    The westernmost Mediterranean has developed into its present day tectonic configuration as a result of complex interactions between late stage subduction of the Neo-Tethys Ocean, continental collision of Africa and Eurasia, and the Canary Island mantle plume. This study utilizes S receiver functions (SRFs) from over 360 broadband seismic stations to seismically image the lithosphere and uppermost mantle from southern Spain through Morocco and the Canary Islands. The lithospheric thickness ranges from ∼65 km beneath the Atlas Mountains and the active volcanic islands to over ∼210 km beneath the cratonic lithosphere in southern Morocco. The common conversion point (CCP) volume of the SRFs indicates that thinned lithosphere extends from beneath the Canary Islands offshore southwestern Morocco, to beneath the continental lithosphere of the Atlas Mountains, and then thickens abruptly at the West African craton. Beneath thin lithosphere between the Canary hot spot and southern Spain, including below the Atlas Mountains and the Alboran Sea, there are distinct pockets of low velocity material, as inferred from high amplitude positive, sub-lithospheric conversions in the SRFs. These regions of low seismic velocity at the base of the lithosphere extend beneath the areas of Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism, which has been linked to a Canary hotspot source via geochemical signatures. However, we find that this volume of low velocity material is discontinuous along strike and occurs only in areas of recent volcanism and where asthenospheric mantle flow is identified with shear wave splitting analyses. We propose that the low velocity structure beneath the lithosphere is material flowing sub-horizontally northeastwards beneath Morocco from the tilted Canary Island plume, and the small, localized volcanoes are the result of small-scale upwellings from this material.

  8. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind Variability From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Vandergoes, M.; Gilmer, G. J.; Nichols, J. E.; Dagg, B. J.; Wilson, G. S.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L. G.; Aebig, C.; McGlone, M.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid latitude climate and carbon dioxide exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere. Despite their importance, our understanding of past changes in the SHWW is limited by few paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum that are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S) where the ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and middle latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate results from two research cruises in 2014 and 2015 suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. In ombrotrophic peatlands, hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow reconstructions of the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation, which is related to precipitation source area and the latitudinal position of the SHWW. Using macrofossil counts paired with abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at peatland coring sites. Early results indicate an overall strengthening of the SHWW at the Auckland Islands through the Holocene. We will discuss these results within the context of complimentary records developed from New Zealand and southern South America to ultimately

  9. Geological survey of Maryland using EREP flight data. [mining, mapping, Chesapeake Bay islands, coastal water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Underflight photography has been used in the Baltimore County mined land inventory to determine areas of disturbed land where surface mining of sand and ground clay, or stone has taken place. Both active and abandoned pits and quarries were located. Aircraft data has been used to update cultural features of Calvert, Caroline, St. Mary's, Somerset, Talbot, and Wicomico Counties. Islands have been located and catalogued for comparison with older film and map data for erosion data. Strip mined areas are being mapped to obtain total area disturbed to aid in future mining and reclamation problems. Coastal estuarine and Atlantic Coast features are being studied to determine nearshore bedforms, sedimentary, and erosional patterns, and manmade influence on natural systems.

  10. Contribution to the study of deep coastal detritic bottoms: the algal communities of the continental shelf off the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JOHER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three main algal-dominated coastal detritic communities from the continental shelf off Mallorca and Menorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean are described herein: maërl beds dominated by Spongites fruticulosus and forests of Laminaria rodriguezii located in the Menorca channel, and Peyssonnelia inamoena beds found along the Southern coast of Menorca. There seems to be a gradient of disturbance from the highly disturbed Peyssonnelia beds to the almost undisturbed L. rodriguezii forests. Whether this gradient is the result of current and past anthropogenic pressure (e.g. trawling intensity or is driven by natural environmental factors needs further assessment. Finally, the location of the target communities by means of ROV dives combined with the use of a Box-Corer dredge and beam trawl proved to be a good methodology in the study of the composition and structure of these deep water detritic communities.

  11. Coastal Resilience: Using interactive decision support to address the needs of natural and human communities in Long Island Sound, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmer, B.; Whelchel, A.; Newkirk, S.; Beck, M.; Shepard, C.; Ferdana, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Resilience (www.coastalresilience.org) is an ecosystem-based, coastal and marine spatial planning framework and web mapping application that illustrates ecological, socioeconomic, and coastal hazards information in Long Island Sound (New York and Connecticut), USA. Much of Long Island Sound’s private property is only inches above sea level, placing millions of dollars in public and private funds at risk to rising sea levels and other coastal hazards. These impacts also threaten wetlands and other coastal ecosystems that provide habitat, natural buffers to storms, and other ecosystem services. Despite a growing awareness of global climate change, local decision makers still lack the tools to examine different management objectives as sea levels rise and coastal hazards increase. The Coastal Resilience project provides tools and information to better inform decision-making with a primary goal of identifying vulnerable human and natural communities, while illustrating the important role that ecosystems will play in the face of sea level rise and increased storm intensity. This study focuses on The Nature Conservancy’s use of innovative spatial analysis techniques and community engagement to identify and plan for the protection of vulnerable coastal communities and ecosystems, natural resource migration, and economic risk. This work is intended to help identify ecosystem based adaptation solutions in the face of global climate change. The Nature Conservancy, working with multiple partners such as the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and NOAA’s Coastal Services Center, deliver this information via the internet to help local decision makers keep the environment and public safety in mind.

  12. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  13. LiDAR Mapping of Earthquake Uplifted Paleo-shorelines, Southern Wairarapa Coast, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenciano, J.; Angenent, J.; Marshall, J. S.; Clark, K.; Litchfield, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Hikurangi subduction margin along the east coast of the North Island, New Zealand accommodates oblique convergence of the Pacific Plate westward beneath the Australian plate at 45 mm/yr. Pronounced forearc uplift occurs at the southern end of the margin along the Wairarapa coast, onshore of the subducting Hikurangi plateau. Along a narrow coastal lowland, a series of uplifted Holocene marine terraces and beach ridges preserve a geologic record of prehistoric coseismic uplift events. In January 2017, we participated in the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program of the NSF SHIRE Project (Subduction at Hikurangi Integrated Research Experiment). We visited multiple coastal sites for reconnaissance fieldwork to select locations for future in-depth study. For the coastline between Flat Point and Te Kaukau Point, we used airborne LiDAR data provided by Land Information New Zealand (LINZ) to create ArcGIS digital terrain models for mapping and correlating uplifted paleo-shorelines. Terrace elevations derived from the LiDAR data were calibrated through the use of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS surveying at one field site (Glenburn Station). Prior field mapping and radiocarbon dating results (Berryman et al., 2001; Litchfield and Clark, 2015) were used to guide our LiDAR mapping efforts. The resultant maps show between four and seven uplifted terraces and associated beach ridges along this coastal segment. At some sites, terrace mapping and lateral correlation are impeded by discontinuous exposures and the presence of landslide debris, alluvial fan deposits, and sand dunes. Tectonic uplift along the southern Hikurangi margin is generated by a complex interaction between deep megathrust slip and shallow upper-plate faulting. Each uplifted Holocene paleo-shoreline is interpreted to represent a single coseismic uplift event. Continued mapping, surveying, and age dating may help differentiate between very large margin-wide megathrust earthquakes (M8.0-9.0+) and

  14. Initial assessment of coastal benthic communities in the Marine Parks at Robinson Crusoe Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat C Rodríguez-Ruiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Biodiversity Strategy developed in Chile aims to protect 10% of the surface area of the most relevant marine ecosystems. The waters around the Juan Fernández Archipelago were not protected until 2014, when a Multiple Use Marine Protected Area was created in the 12 nautical miles around the archipelago, which includes five marine parks in sites of high conservation value. Three of these parks are located around Robinson Crusoe Island. This study aims to define a baseline for monitoring the impact of the marine protected area and provides ecological information to improve the understanding of coastal marine ecosystems around Robinson Crusoe Island. In addition to a characterization of bathymetry and habitats, intertidal and subtidal communities were sampled using transects and quadrats within the marine parks. We quantified species richness and abundances, which were later organized into functional groups for algae and trophic groups for mobile organisms. Although species richness did not vary between sites nor among the habitats sampled, we observed important differences in species abundance and composition as well as in functional and trophic groups both between sites and habitats. Among our results, we highlight: a the dominance of endemic algae in intertidal and subtidal (mainly corticated and corticated foliose habitats, b high abundances of macroinvertebrate herbivores in intertidal habitats and detrivores in subtidal habitats, c dominance of invertivorous fish in the subtidal, which are the primary predators of mobile benthic organisms. This characterization includes both the inter and subtidal coastal communities of the Juan Fernández Archipelago.

  15. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  16. A review of conservation threats on Gough Island: a case study for terrestrial conservation in the Southern Oceans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A.; Chown, S.L.; Ryan, P.G.; Gremmen, N.J.M.; Gaston, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Gough Island is a remote Southern Ocean Island that, despite having no permanent human population, is under substantial conservation threat as a result of human activity. A considerable proportion of the flora and fauna has been accidentally introduced, and new data are presented showing that ca.

  17. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  18. Distribution of mercury in molluscs, seawaters and coastal sediments of Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled

    2016-12-01

    In order to assess the distribution of mercury along the Tarut coast, Arabian Gulf, Thirty eight (38) sediment samples, twenty six (26) seawater samples, and forty (40) Mollusca specimens were collected from the Tarut coast. The concentrations of Mercury in the sediments of the studied area (average = 0.55 μg/g) are generally high comparing to the reported values from the Gulf of Oman, Red Sea, and the Gulf of Finland. The concentrations of Hg exceeded the wet threshold safety values (median effect concentration (MEC), and probable effect concentration (PEC) indicating possible Hg contamination. According to the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), thirty four (34) samples occur in class 4 and four (4) samples occur in class 5, which means that the sediments of the Tarut Island are largely contaminated with Hg. Enrichment factor (EF) results (average = 1.76) suggested that, the coastal sediments of the Tarut Island are considered to entirely originate from the crustal materials or natural processes. The studied sediments show lower values (Igeomolluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Hg. The suggested natural sources of Hg in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources are the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents exceeded in the study area and in Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  19. Maximizing effectiveness of adaptation action in Pacific Island communities using coastal wave attenuation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, H.; Carruthers, T.; Allison, M. A.; Weathers, D.; Moss, L.; Timmermans, H.

    2017-12-01

    Pacific Island communities are highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, specifically accelerating rates of sea level rise, changes to storm intensity and associated rainfall patterns resulting in flooding and shoreline erosion. Nature-based adaptation is being planned not only to reduce the risk from shoreline erosion, but also to support benefits of a healthy ecosystem (e.g., supporting fisheries or coral reefs). In order to assess potential effectiveness of the nature-based actions to dissipate wave energy, two-dimensional X-Beach models were developed to predict the wave attenuation effect of coastal adaptation actions at the pilot sites—the villages of Naselesele and Somosomo on Taveuni island, Fiji. Both sites are experiencing serious shoreline erosion due to sea level rise and storm wave. The water depth (single-beam bathymetry), land elevation (truck-based LiDAR), and vegetation data including stem density and height were collected in both locations in a June 2017 field experiment. Wave height and water velocity were also measured for the model setup and calibration using a series of bottom-mounted instruments deployed in the 0-15 m water depth portions of the study grid. The calibrated model will be used to evaluate a range of possible adaptation actions identified by the community members of Naselesele and Somosomo. Particularly, multiple storm scenario runs with management-relevant shoreline restoration/adaptation options will be implemented to evaluate efficiencies of each adaptation action (e.g., no action, with additional planted trees, with sand mining, with seawalls constructed with natural materials, etc.). These model results will help to better understand how proposed adaption actions may influence future shoreline change and maximize benefits to communities in island nations across the SW Pacific.

  20. A Seamless, High-Resolution, Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hoover, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A seamless, 3-meter digital elevation model (DEM) was constructed for the entire Southern California coastal zone, extending 473 km from Point Conception to the Mexican border. The goal was to integrate the most recent, high-resolution datasets available (for example, Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) topography, multibeam and single beam sonar bathymetry, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IfSAR) topography) into a continuous surface from at least the 20-m isobath to the 20-m elevation contour. This dataset was produced to provide critical boundary conditions (bathymetry and topography) for a modeling effort designed to predict the impacts of severe winter storms on the Southern California coast (Barnard and others, 2009). The hazards model, run in real-time or with prescribed scenarios, incorporates atmospheric information (wind and pressure fields) with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models (tide, surge, and wave) to enable detailed prediction of water levels, run-up, wave heights, and currents. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also included. The DEM was constructed to define the general shape of nearshore, beach and cliff surfaces as accurately as possible, with less emphasis on the detailed variations in elevation inland of the coast and on bathymetry inside harbors. As a result this DEM should not be used for navigation purposes.

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on December 4, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne

  2. EAARL coastal topography and imagery-Fire Island National Seashore, New York, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Klipp, E.S.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Fire Island National Seashore in New York, acquired on July 9 and August 3, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar

  3. Geoelectrical Surveys for Characterization of the Coastal Saltwater Intrusion in Metapontum Forest Reserve (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Satriani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was carried out in the Metapontum Forest Reserve located along the Ionian coast of the Basilicata region (Southern Italy. In this work we used the method of two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography for obtaining high-resolution electrical images in the investigated site. In particular, three electrical resistivity tomography, all orthogonal to the coastline, in the investigated area were carried out. To complete and integrate the geophysical data, soil and groundwater samplings, seventeen and five, respectively, were analyzed using chemical physical techniques. Geoelectrical survey, supported by laboratory analysis of soil and water samples have revealed the presence of a process of saltwater in coastal Forest Reserve of Metapontum, which have caused the decline of the existing pine forest with the consequent erosion and desertification problems. The results have disclosed the way to identify and discriminate large areas affected by intensive soil salinization and high resolution electrical images of the subsurface electrical resistivity plays a key role in delineating the saltwater intrusion front in coastal areas. Furthermore, our integrated study represents a contribution to the future programs for the protection, planning, and management of the terrestrial and marine resources in this coastal area.

  4. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marites B. Sanguila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We summarize all available amphibian and reptile species distribution data from the northeast Mindanao faunal region, including small islands associated with this subcenter of endemic vertebrate biodiversity. Together with all publicly available historical information from biodiversity repositories, we present new data from several major herpetological surveys, including recently conducted inventories on four major mountains of northeast Mindanao, and adjacent islands of Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, and Siargao. We present species accounts for all taxa, comment on unresolved taxonomic problems, and provide revisions to outdated IUCN conservation status assessments in cases where our new data significantly alter earlier classification status summaries. Together, our comprehensive analysis of this fauna suggests that the greater Mindanao faunal region possesses distinct subcenters of amphibian and reptile species diversity, and that until this area is revisited and its fauna and actually studied, with on-the-ground field work including targeted surveys of species distributions coupled to the study their natural history, our understanding of the diversity and conservation status of southern Philippine herpetological fauna will remain incomplete. Nevertheless, the northeast Mindanao geographical area (Caraga Region appears to have the highest herpetological species diversity (at least 126 species of any comparably-sized Philippine faunal subregion.

  5. Effects of Storms on Coastal Vulnerability Through Revisiting Sites Impacted by Super Storm Sandy Offshore Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Yong, W. Y.; Delligatti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent models indicate that due to climate change storm activity can intensify. Sea level rise as a result of climate change can lead to storm flooding and coastal damage in low-lying populated areas such as NE, USA. The New York metropolitan area experienced one of the highest storm surges in its history during Hurricane Sandy. The peak storm-tide elevation measured by USGS in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m higher than historical measurements in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation Rapid Response we surveyed from the R/V Pritchard and sampled the bays and inlets along the southern shore of Long Island after Super Storm Sandy in January 2013 and during June 2014 for assessing the impact of the storm. Short-lived radioisotopes, heavy metals and grain size variability were used to track the path of the storm. In 2013 high concentrations of metals (Pb 184 ppm) were deposited on the landward side of barrier islands and were tracked offshore for10 km. In 2014, we revisited the 2013 locations. The offshore, metal enriched mud layer was seen as small inclusions in sand and not present at the surface suggestive that natural processes are cleansing the sea-floor. Inland the cores showed three facies. From the base upwards: 1) coarse sand with low Pb 99 ppm. Interpreted as either sand transported landwards by the storm or in situ; 2) fine-grained, organic rich sediment with the high Pb 443 ppm and interpreted as seaward transport by the storm; 3) organic rich mud with lower Pb 200 ppm was found in the core tops. Most importantly the sea-floor was colonized by tubeworms suggestive that the environment is returning to normal conditions. These results coupled to other regional studies indicate that the storm was catastrophic and resulted in significant sediment transport. The surge brought sand inland modifying channel and inlet depths but most damaging was the seaward surge that brought contaminants offshore. It appears that the bays and inlets are

  6. Sources of sediment to the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.

    2009-01-01

    The sources of sediment to the Southern California Bight were investigated with new calculations and published records of sediment fluxes, both natural and anthropogenic. We find that rivers are by far the largest source of sediment, producing over 10 ?? 106 t/yr on average, or over 80% of the sediment input to the Bight. This river flux is variable, however, over both space and time. The rivers draining the Transverse Ranges produce sediment at rates approximately an order of magnitude greater than the Peninsular Ranges (600-1500 t/km2/yr versus rivers represent only 23% of the total Southern California watershed drainage area, they are responsible for over 75% of the total sediment flux. River sediment flux is ephemeral and highly pulsed due to the semiarid climate and the influence of infrequent large storms. For more than 90% of the time, negligible amounts of sediment are discharged from the region's rivers, and over half of the post-1900 sediment load has been discharged during events with recurrence intervals greater than 10 yr. These rare, yet important, events are related to the El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and the majority of sediment flux occurs during ENSO periods. Temporal trends in sediment discharge due to land-use changes and river damming are also observed. We estimate that there has been a 45% reduction in suspended-sediment flux due to the construction of dams. However, pre-dam sediment loads were likely artificially high due to the massive land-use changes of coastal California to rangeland during the nineteenth century. This increase in sediment production is observed in estuarine deposits throughout coastal California, which reveal that sedimentation rates were two to ten times higher during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries than during pre-European colonization. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  7. Quantification of sea ice production at coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulic, Lukrecia; Timmermann, Ralph; Zentek, Rolf; Heinemann, Günther

    2017-04-01

    Sea ice production and associated High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) formation in the southern Weddell Sea is an important driver for the global thermohaline ocean circulation and determines the properties of shelf water inflow that fuels ice shelf basal melting. In the southern Weddell Sea, coastal polynyas cover 1% of the area, but contribute about 10% to the total winter sea ice production. This project aims to improve estimates of the sea ice production and HSSW formation in the southern Weddell Sea coastal polynyas by a synergy of numerical simulations and remote sensing data. Sea ice-ocean simulations are performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) with a horizontal resolution close to the Rossby radius over the whole Weddell Sea to better represent eddy dynamics. In order to asses sensitivity of polynya characteristics and HSSW formation rates to the atmospheric forcing, FESOM is forced with different reanalysis data (ERA-Interim, NCEP-CFSR). Mean sea ice growth for the simulated period (1979-2012) is lower and more localized along the coastline/ice shelf front in the NCEP-CFSR run. Differences may be attributed to the colder air temperatures and stronger offshore winds in ERA-Interim forcing. FESOM will be forced with output from the regional atmospheric model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) to further investigate sensitivity with respect to different atmospheric forcing. The best and most realistic ice production and HSSW formation estimates are expected to be obtained by assimilation of thin ice thickness data derived from MODIS retrievals into FESOM. This will lead to a high resolution data set of sea ice coverage and ice thickness fields that can be used as reference data set for other sea ice models and as an input for high-resolution atmospheric models.

  8. Coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea: Variability of the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Ian A.; King, John C.; Markus, Thorsten

    2002-06-01

    The surface energy budget of coastal polynyas in the southern Weddell Sea has been evaluated for the period 1992-1998 using a combination of satellite observations, meteorological data, and simple physical models. The study focuses on polynyas that habitually form off the Ronne Ice Shelf. The coastal polynya areal data are derived from an advanced multichannel polynya detection algorithm applied to passive microwave brightness temperatures. The surface sensible and latent heat fluxes are calculated via a fetch-dependent model of the convective-thermal internal boundary layer. The radiative fluxes are calculated using well-established empirical formulae and an innovative cloud model. Standard meteorological variables that are required for the flux calculations are taken from automatic weather stations and from the National Centers for Environmental Production/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses. The 7 year surface energy budget shows an overall oceanic warming due to the presence of coastal polynyas. For most of the period the summertime oceanic warming, due to the absorption of shortwave radiation, is approximately in balance with the wintertime oceanic cooling. However, the anomalously large summertime polynya of 1997-1998 allowed a large oceanic warming of the region. Wintertime freezing seasons are characterized by episodes of high heat fluxes interspersed with more quiescent periods and controlled by coastal polynya dynamics. The high heat fluxes are primarily due to the sensible heat flux component, with smaller complementary latent and radiative flux components. The average freezing season area-integrated energy exchange is 3.48 × 1019 J, with contributions of 63, 22, and 15% from the sensible, latent, and radiative components, respectively. The average melting season area-integrated energy exchange is -5.31 × 1019 J, almost entirely due to the radiative component. There is considerable interannual variability in the surface energy budget

  9. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Trevor [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Pelletier, Steve [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States); Giovanni, Matt [Stantec Consulting Services Inc., Topsham, ME (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  10. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Long Island Sound, Jamaica Bay, and Lower Bay of NY/NJ Harbor, NY, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0089467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the coastal Long Island Sound, NY region in GIS shapefile (.shp, .dbf, .shx, and .prj...

  11. Groundwater management in coastal zones and on islands in crystalline bedrock areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Ekström, Linda Louise; Ljungkvist, Andreas; Granberg, Maria; Merisalu, Johanna; Pokorny, Sebastian; Barthel, Roland

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater problems in coastal regions are usually not associated with the sparsely populated shores of water-rich Scandinavia. However, the combination of geology and the specific conditions of water usage create challenges even there. Along the Swedish coast, much of the groundwater occurs in fractured bedrock or in relatively small, shallow, and isolated quaternary sedimentary formations. Those aquifers cannot provide water to larger permanent settlements and are thus neither useful for the public water supply nor have previously received much attention from water authorities or researchers. However, of the 450,000 private wells in Sweden, many are located in coastal areas or on islands, creating pressure on groundwater resources in summer months as periods with low or no natural groundwater recharge. In view of the increasing water demand, as well as the awareness of environmental impacts and climate change, Swedish municipalities now recognize groundwater usage in coastal areas is a major concern. Here, we present the results of an investigation on the "Koster" archipelago which forms a microcosm of coastal zone groundwater problems in Sweden. Koster's geology is dominated by fractured, crystalline bedrock with occasional shallow quaternary deposits in between. With around 300 permanent residents, and up to 6,000 summer guests in peak holiday season, the existing water supply based on 800 private wells is at its limit. Water availability forms an obstacle to future development and the current mode of operation is unsustainable. Therefore, the municipality must decide how to secure future water supply which involves complex legal problems, as well as social, cultural, economic, hydrogeological, and environmental questions. As there are no observation wells on the islands, we used approximately 220 of the 800 wells (65% dug and shallow, 35% drilled and up to 120m deep) for our monitoring. Additionally, water samples were collected by property owners on four

  12. The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS): Developing A Coastal Observation System To Enable Both Science Based Decision Making And Scientific Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, E.; John, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern California Coastal Ocean Observing System (SCCOOS) is a consortium that extends from Northern Baja CA in Mexico to Morro Bay at the southern edge of central California, and aims to streamline, coordinate, and further develop individual institutional efforts by creating an integrated, multidisciplinary coastal observatory in the Bight of Southern California for the benefit of society. By leveraging existing infrastructure, partnerships, and private, local, state, and federal resources, SCCOOS is developing a fully operational coastal observation system to address issues related to coastal water quality, marine life resources, and coastal hazards for end user communities spanning local, state, and federal interests. However, to establish a sensible observational approach to address these societal drivers, sound scientific approaches are required in both the system design and the transformation of data to useful products. Since IOOS and coastal components of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are not mutually exclusive within this framework, the SCCOOS consortium of observatory implementers have created an organizational structure that encourages dovetailing of OOI into the routine observations provided by the operational components of a regional IOOS. To begin the development, SCCOOS has grant funding from the California Coastal Conservancy as part of a $21M, statewide initiative to establish a Coastal Ocean Currents Monitoring Program, and funding from NOAA's Coastal Observing Technology System (COTS). In addition, SCCOOS is leveraging IT development that has been supported by the NSF Information Technology Research program Real-time observatories, Applications,and Data Manageemnt Network (ROADNET), and anticipates using developments which will result from the NSF Laboratory for Ocean Observatory Knowledge Integration Grid (LOOKING) program. The observational components now funded at SCCOOS include surface current mapping by HF radar; high

  13. EAARL Coastal Topography-Mississippi and Alabama Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 8, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the

  14. EAARL Coastal Topography-Eastern Louisiana Barrier Islands, Post-Hurricane Gustav, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C.W.; Sallenger, A.H.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Louisiana barrier islands, acquired post-Hurricane Gustav (September 2008 hurricane) on September 6 and 7, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using

  15. Weddellian marine/coastal vertebrates diversity from a basal horizon (Ypresian, Eocene of the Cucullaea I Allomember, La Meseta formation, Seymour (Marambio Island, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A. Reguero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The La Meseta Formation crops out in Seymour/Marambio Island, Weddell Sea, northeast of the Antarctic Peninsula and contains one of the world's most diverse assemblages of Weddellian marine/coastal verte-brates of Early Eocene (Ypresian age. The La Meseta Formation is composed of poorly consolidated, marine sandstones and siltstones which were deposited in a coastal, deltaic and/or estuarine environment. It includes marine invertebrates and vertebrates as well as terrestrial vertebrates and plants. The highly fossiliferous basal horizon (Cucullaeashell bed, Telm 4 of Sadler 1988 of the CucullaeaI Allomember is a laterally extensive shell bed with sandy matrix. The fish remains, including 35 species from 26 families, of the Ypresian Cucullaeabed represent one of the most abundant and diverse fossil vertebrate faunas yet recorded in southern latitudes. Stratigraphic distribution and phylogenetic relationships of the Weddellian sphenisciforms are consistent with a first radiation of this group in the Early Eocene. The first inquestionable archaeocete from Antarctica is recorded in this unit and is referred to a new taxon.

  16. Post late Paleozoic tectonism in the Southern Catalan Coastal Ranges (NE Spain), assessed by apatite fission tracks analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juez-Larré, J.; Andriessen, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We report the first apatite fission-track thermochronologic data for 17 samples from the southern Catalan Coastal Ranges of NE Spain. Thermal histories of Carboniferous metasediments, Late Hercynian intrusions and Lower-Triassic Buntsandstein sediments from three tectonics blocks, Miramar, Prades

  17. Community Participation Of Coastal Area On Management Of National Park, Karimunjawa Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Bambang A.; Aditomo, Aryo B.; Prihantoko, Kukuh E.

    2018-02-01

    Karimunjawa island located in Jepara Regacy, Central Java has potential marine and fishing resources. Since 1998, this area has been selected as conservation for its natural resources. National park of Karimunjawa is managed by Balai Taman Nasional Karimunjawa (Karimunjawa National Park Beuroue). Some activities involved community have been done in order to get effective management. Community participation is an important component for success in coastal area management. The level of community/people awareness anual on natural resource conservation can increate sustainable resource. However, it is necesssary to provide tools in resource utilization for the community, so that their economic life can be secured. This study observe the level of community participation in the effort of Karimunjawa National Park management. Descriptive method and purposive random sampling were used to carry out the study parameters observed in this study include community participation related to level of knowladge and obedience on the rule of area zonation, an its impact to community. The result show that community knowledge was quite high (40%) with obedience (56%) on the rule of area zonation. Impact area zonation rule was less significant to community. The level of community participation to Karimunjawa National Park management was performed will low to medium level.

  18. Biogeography of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria in coastal waters of the Big Island, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D; Kaplan, Katherine A; Modanu, Maria; Sirianni, Katherine M; Annandale, Senifa; Hewson, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are biogeochemically significant constituents of coral reef ecosystems; however, little is known about biotic and abiotic factors influencing the abundance and composition of cyanobacterial communities in fringing coral reef waters. To understand the patterns of cyanobacterial biogeography in relation to coastal environmental factors, we examined the diversity of planktonic and benthic cyanobacteria at 12 sites along the west coast of Hawaii's Big Island. We found distinct cyanobacterial communities in sediments compared to the water column. In both sediments and water, community structure was strongly related to overall biomass (chlorophyll a concentration), although both these communities corresponded to different sets of biotic/abiotic variables. To examine the influence of freshwater input on planktonic cyanobacterial communities, we conducted a mesocosm experiment where seawater was amended with freshwater from two sources representing high- and low-human population influence. Planktonic cyanobacterial abundance decreased over time in mesocosms, although chlorophyll a concentration significantly increased with time, indicating cyanobacteria were likely outcompeted by other phytoplankton in incubations. Our results show that cyanobacterial community structure may be affected by runoff from terrestrial habitats, but that the composition of cyanobacterial communities inhabiting these locations is also structured by factors not measured in this study. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Boston Weather Forecast Office (BOX WFO) - Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  20. Palynomorphs in Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon in the coastal plain of extreme southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebráilon Masetto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative palynological analysis of a 140 cm-thick section of Holocene sediments from a paleolagoon, representing the last 2600 years, taken from an outcrop at Hermenegildo Beach (33º42'S; 53º18'W, located in the municipality of Santa Vitória do Palmar, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were treated with hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and potassium hydroxide, after which they were subjected to acetolysis and mounted on glycerin-coated slides for light microscopy analysis. Among the 48 palynomorphs identified were 25 fungi, eight algae, three bryophytes, and 12 pteridophytes. Brief descriptions and illustrations of each palynomorph are presented, together with ecological data from the organism of origin when possible. Our findings will serve as reference material for paleoenvironmental studies in the coastal plain of southern Brazil.

  1. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.; Caravaca, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cadiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided.

  2. The impact of coastal urbanization on the structure of phytobenthic communities in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cintia D L; Arantes, Noele; Faveri, Caroline; Batista, Manuela B; Oliveira, Eurico C; Pagliosa, Paulo R; Fonseca, Alessandra L; Nunes, José Marcos C; Chow, Fungyi; Pereira, Sonia B; Horta, Paulo A

    2012-04-01

    The anthropogenic pressures on coastal areas represent important factors affecting local, regional, and even global patterns of distribution and abundance of benthic organisms. This report undertakes a comparative analysis of the community structure of rocky shore intertidal phytobenthos in both pristine like environments (PLE) and urbanized environments (UBE) in southern Brazil, characterizing variations on different spatial scales. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the PLE is characterized by a larger number of taxa and an increased occurrence of Rhodophyta species in relation to UBE. In contrast, UBE were dominated by opportunistic algae, such as Cladophora and Ulva spp. Significance tests further indicated higher species richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity on the PLE in relation to UBE. Here we provide data showing the magnitude of seaweed biodiversity loss and discuss direct and indirect consequences of unplanned urbanization on these communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system From Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Pope, Jason P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Monti, Jr., Jack; Nardi, Mark R.; Finkelstein, Jason S.

    2016-08-31

    Executive SummaryThe U.S. Geological Survey began a multiyear regional assessment of groundwater availability in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) aquifer system in 2010 as part of its ongoing regional assessments of groundwater availability of the principal aquifers of the Nation. The goals of this national assessment are to document effects of human activities on water levels and groundwater storage, explore climate variability effects on the regional water budget, and provide consistent and integrated information that is useful to those who use and manage the groundwater resource. As part of this nationwide assessment, the USGS evaluated available groundwater resources within the NACP aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to northeastern North Carolina.The northern Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic province depends heavily on groundwater to meet agricultural, industrial, and municipal needs. The groundwater assessment of the NACP aquifer system included an evaluation of how water use has changed over time; this evaluation primarily used groundwater budgets and development of a numerical modeling tool to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate trends.This assessment focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to examine changes in groundwater pumping, storage, and water levels. The regional scale provides a broad view of the sources and demands on the system with time. The sub-regional scale provides an evaluation of the differing response of the aquifer system across geographic areas allowing for closer examination of the interaction between different aquifers and confining units and the changes in these interactions under pumping and recharge conditions in 2013 and hydrologic stresses as much as 45 years in the future. By focusing on multiple scales, water-resource managers may utilize this study to understand system response to changes as they affect the system as a whole.The NACP aquifer system extends from

  4. Movement patterns of Brook Trout in a restored coastal stream system in southern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Erin L.; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Dubreuil, Todd L.; Zydlewski, Joseph D.; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Hurley, Stephen T.; Danylchuk, Andy J.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations are found from northern Canada to New England. The extent of anadromy generally decreases with latitude, but the ecology and movements of more southern populations are poorly understood. We conducted a 33-month acoustic telemetry study of Brook Trout in Red Brook, MA, and adjacent Buttermilk Bay (marine system) using 16 fixed acoustic receivers and surgically implanting acoustic transmitters in 84 individuals. Tagged Brook Trout used the stream, estuary (50% of individuals) and bay (10% of individuals). Movements into full sea water were brief when occurring. GAMM models revealed that transitions between habitat areas occurred most often in spring and fall. Environmental data suggest that use of the saline environment is limited by summer temperatures in the bay. Movements may also be related to moon phase. Compared to more northern coastal populations of Brook Trout, the Red Brook population appears to be less anadromous overall, yet the estuarine segment of the system may have considerable ecological importance as a food resource.

  5. Mercury concentration variability in the zooplankton of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella

    2017-12-01

    Being a toxic element, mercury is introduced to the human organism through the consumption of fish and seafood, which in turn often feed on zooplankton. The bioaccumulation of Hg by zooplankton is an important factor influencing the magnitude of the mercury load introduced with food into the predator organism. Therefore the present article attempts to identify the processes and factors influencing Hg concentration in the zooplankton of the coastal zone, an area where marine organisms - an attractive food source for humans - thrive. This is particularly important in areas where climate changes influence the species composition and quantity of plankton. The studies were carried out on three test sites in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea in the period from December 2011 to May 2013. The obtained results show that the shorting of the winter season is conducive to Hg increase in zooplankton and, consequently, in the trophic chain. High mercury concentrations were measured in genus Synchaeta and Keratella when Mesodinium rubrum were predominant in phytoplankton, while other sources of this metal in the plankton fauna were epilithon, epiphton and microbenthos. This is of particular importance when it comes to sheltered bays and estuaries with low water dynamics.

  6. A Multiproxy Reconstruction of Holocene Southern Westerlies from the Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J. E.; Moy, C. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Weiss, A.; Curtin, L. G.

    2015-12-01

    The strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Wind belt plays an important role in our understanding of the global carbon cycle and glacial-interglacial climate change. We present a paleoclimate record that is primarily influenced by the strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds from a late Holocene lake sediment core and a peat core that spans the last 13,000 years, both obtained from New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland Islands (50°S, 166°E). Several proxy indicators contribute to our reconstruction. Hydrogen isotope ratios of specific organic molecules allow us to reconstruct the hydrogen isotope ratios of precipitation. Using macrofossil counts and the abundances of leaf wax biomarkers, we are able to estimate the moisture balance at our sites. Model simulations of the Westerlies and the rate and isotope ratios of precipitation allow us to interpret our proxy data as changes in the strength and position of the Westerly Winds. In our lacustrine sediment, we found that the Westerlies have been shifting southward since the Little Ice Age, consistent with modern observations of a southward shift. In the peatland sediment, we found a multi-millennial northward shift in the Westerlies during the middle Holocene. We will present further ongoing work that strengthens the chronology of Auckland Islands environmental change and integrates these results with vegetation shifts identified in pollen and macrofossil data.

  7. Synthetic ultraviolet light filtering chemical contamination of coastal waters of Virgin Islands National Park, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Alvarez, David; Garrison, Virginia H.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of surface waters by synthetic ultraviolet light (UV) filtering chemicals is a concern for the Virgin Islands National Park (VINP). Discrete water samples were collected from VINP bays to determine UV filter chemical presence in the coastal waters. Spatial distribution and the potential for partitioning between subsurface waters and the sea surface microlayer (SML) were also examined. The UV filter chemicals 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, benzophenone-3, octinoxate, homosalate, and octocrylene were detected at concentrations up to 6073 ng/L (benzophenone-3). Concentrations for benzophenone-3 and homosalate declined exponentially (r2 = 0.86 to 0.98) with distance from the beach. Limited data indicate that some UV filter chemicals may partition to the SML relative to the subsurface waters. Contamination of VINP coastal waters by UV filter chemicals may be a significant issue, but an improved understanding of the temporal and spatial variability of their concentrations would be necessary to better understand the risk they present.

  8. Postglacial Records of Southern Hemisphere Climate and Oceanographic Change From the New Zealand Subantarctic Auckland Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, C. M.; Gilmer, G.; Nichols, J. E.; Browne, I. M.; Curtin, L.; Vandergoes, M.; Aebig, C.; Wilson, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The strength and latitudinal position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHWW) play a fundamental role in influencing mid-latitude climate and CO2 exchange between the Southern Ocean and the atmosphere along seasonal to glaicial-interglacial timescales. Despite their importance, our understanding of past SHWW change is limited by the small number of paleoclimate records from the modern wind maximum, which are often not in agreement. The New Zealand subantarctic Auckland Islands are located within the core of the modern wind belt (50°S), a key latitude where ocean-atmospheric linkages between the Antarctic and mid-latitudes are strong. In contrast to other subantarctic islands on the Campbell Plateau, the Auckland Islands have multiple protected fjord sub-basins, deep lakes, and peatlands that are advantageous for the development of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We will present ongoing work towards the establishment of multi-proxy and multi-site reconstructions of past SHWW variability from the Auckland Islands. Modern process and paleoclimate studies suggest that in lacustrine and fjord settings, the degree of water column mixing, the stable isotopic composition of n-alkanes and benthic foraminifera, and the influx of terrestrial organic matter are good indicators of wind-induced mixing of the water column or precipitation-driven erosion within catchments. During the Late Glacial and early Holocene (15 to 9 ka), elevated long-chain n-alkane δD values from ombrotrophic peatlands and an increase in the concentration of redox-sensitive elements in fjord sediment cores, signal weakening of the SHWW that appears to be coincident with periods of rapid deglacial warming of West Antarctica. Since 5.5 ka, we interpret declining n-alkane δD values to indicate enhanced westerly flow. These interpretations are in broad agreement with terrestrial paleoclimate records developed from southern South America and argue for a symmetrical response of the SHWW during

  9. Impact of wet season river flood discharge on phytoplankton absorption properties in the southern Great Barrier Reef region coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Brando, Vittorio E.; Blondeau-Patissier, David; Ford, Phillip W.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Robson, Barbara J.

    2017-09-01

    Light absorption due to particulate and dissolved material plays an important role in controlling the underwater light environment and the above water reflectance signature. Thorough understanding of absorption properties and their variability is important to estimate light propagation in the water column. However, knowledge of light absorption properties in flood impacted coastal waters is limited. To address this knowledge gap we investigated a bio-optical dataset collected during a flood (2008) in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) region coastal waters. Results presented here show strong impact of river flood discharges on water column stratification, distribution of suspended substances and light absorption properties in the study area. Bio-optical analysis showed phytoplankton absorption efficiency to reduce in response to increased coloured dissolved organic matter presence in flood impacted coastal waters. Biogeophysical property ranges, relationships and parametrisation presented here will help model realistic underwater light environment and optical signature in flood impacted coastal waters.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffal, A.; Givaudan, N.; Betoulle, S.; Terreau, A.; Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S.; Beall, E.; Roche, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49 o S, 70 o E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g -1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g -1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  11. Water use and availability in the West Narragansett Bay area, coastal Rhode Island, 1995-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; Wild, Emily C.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1999 drought in Rhode Island, belowaverage precipitation caused a drop in ground-water levels and streamflow was below long-term averages. The low water levels prompted the U. S. Geological Survey and the Rhode Island Water Resources Board to conduct a series of cooperative water-use studies. The purpose of these studies is to collect and analyze water-use and water-availability data in each drainage area in the State of Rhode Island. The West Narragansett Bay study area, which covers 118 square miles in part or all of 14 towns in coastal Rhode Island, is one of nine areas investigated as part of this effort. The study area includes the western part of Narragansett Bay and Conanicut Island, which is the town of Jamestown. The area was divided into six subbasins for the assessment of water-use data. In the calculation of hydrologic budget and water availability, the Hunt, Annaquatucket, and Pettaquamscutt River Basins were combined into one subbasin because they are hydraulically connected. Eleven major water suppliers served customers in the study area, and they supplied an average of 19.301 million gallons per day during 1995–99. The withdrawals from the only minor supplier, which was in the town of East Greenwich in the Hunt River Basin, averaged 0.002 million gallons per day. The remaining withdrawals were estimated as 1.186 million gallons per day from self-supplied domestic, commercial, industrial, and agricultural users. Return flows from self-disposed water (individual sewage-disposal systems) and permitted discharges accounted for 5.623 million gallons per day. Most publicly disposed water (13.711 million gallons per day) was collected by the Rhode Island Economic Development Corporation, and by the East Greenwich, Fields Point, Jamestown, Narragansett, and Scarborough wastewater-treatment facilities. This wastewater was disposed in Narragansett Bay outside of the study area. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application

  12. Coral reef origins of atmospheric dimethylsulfide at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B.; Jones, Graham B.; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S. M.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric dimethylsulfide (DMSa), continually derived from the world's oceans, is a feed gas for the tropospheric production of new sulfate particles, leading to cloud condensation nuclei that influence the formation and properties of marine clouds and ultimately the Earth's radiation budget. Previous studies on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, have indicated coral reefs are significant sessile sources of DMSa capable of enhancing the tropospheric DMSa burden mainly derived from phytoplankton in the surface ocean; however, specific environmental evidence of coral reef DMS emissions and their characteristics is lacking. By using on-site automated continuous analysis of DMSa and meteorological parameters at Heron Island in the southern GBR, we show that the coral reef was the source of occasional spikes of DMSa identified above the oceanic DMSa background signal. In most instances, these DMSa spikes were detected at low tide under low wind speeds, indicating they originated from the lagoonal platform reef surrounding the island, although evidence of longer-range transport of DMSa from a 70 km stretch of coral reefs in the southern GBR was also observed. The most intense DMSa spike occurred in the winter dry season at low tide when convective precipitation fell onto the aerially exposed platform reef. This co-occurrence of events appeared to biologically shock the coral resulting in a seasonally aberrant extreme DMSa spike concentration of 45.9 nmol m-3 (1122 ppt). Seasonal DMS emission fluxes for the 2012 wet season and 2013 dry season campaigns at Heron Island were 5.0 and 1.4 µmol m-2 day-1, respectively, of which the coral reef was estimated to contribute 4 % during the wet season and 14 % during the dry season to the dominant oceanic flux.

  13. Holocene environmental and climatic changes at Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in southern Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F. N.; Colombaroli, Daniele; Vescovi, Elisa; van der Knaap, W. O.; Henne, Paul D.; Pasta, Salvatore; D'Angelo, Stefania; La Mantia, Tommaso

    2009-07-01

    We used a new sedimentary record to reconstruct the Holocene vegetation and fire history of Gorgo Basso, a coastal lake in south-western Sicily (Italy). Pollen and charcoal data suggest a fire-prone open grassland near the site until ca 10,000 cal yr BP (8050 cal BC), when Pistacia shrubland expanded and fire activity declined, probably in response to increased moisture availability. Evergreen Olea europaea woods expanded ca 8400 to decline abruptly at 8200 cal yr BP, when climatic conditions became drier at other sites in the Mediterranean region. Around 7000 cal yr BP evergreen broadleaved forests ( Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and O. europaea) expanded at the cost of open communities. The expansion of evergreen broadleaved forests was associated with a decline of fire and of local Neolithic ( Ficus carica-Cerealia based) agriculture that had initiated ca 500 years earlier. Vegetational, fire and land-use changes ca 7000 cal yr BP were probably caused by increased precipitation that resulted from (insolation-forced) weakening of the monsoon and Hadley circulation ca 8000-6000 cal yr BP. Low fire activity and dense coastal evergreen forests persisted until renewed human activity (probably Greek, respectively Roman colonists) disrupted the forest ca 2700 cal yr BP (750 BC) and 2100 cal yr BP (150 BC) to gain open land for agriculture. The intense use of fire for this purpose induced the expansion of open maquis, garrigue, and grassland-prairie environments (with an increasing abundance of the native palm Chamaerops humilis). Prehistoric land-use phases after the Bronze Age seem synchronous with those at other sites in southern and central Europe, possibly as a result of climatic forcing. Considering the response of vegetation to Holocene climatic variability as well as human impact we conclude that under (semi-)natural conditions evergreen broadleaved Q. ilex- O. europaea (s.l.) forests would still dominate near Gorgo Basso. However, forecasted climate change and

  14. Groundwater flow in a volcanic-sedimentary coastal aquifer: Telde area, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M. C.; Custodio, E.

    Groundwater conditions in a 75- km2 coastal area around the town of Telde in eastern Gran Canaria island have been studied. Pliocene to Recent volcanic materials are found, with an intercalated detrital formation (LPDF), which is a characteristic of the area. Groundwater development has become intensive since the 1950s, mostly for intensive agricultural irrigation and municipal water supply. The LPDF is one order of magnitude more transmissive and permeable than the underlying Phonolitic Formation when median values are compared (150 and 15 m2 day-1 5 and 0.5 m day-1, respectively). These two formations are highly heterogeneous and the ranges of expected well productivities partly overlap. The overlying recent basalts constituted a good aquifer several decades ago but now are mostly drained, except in the southern areas. Average values of drainable porosity (specific yield) seem to be about 0.03 to 0.04, or higher. Groundwater development has produced a conspicuous strip where the watertable has been drawn down as much as 40 m in 20 years, although the inland watertable elevation is much less affected. Groundwater reserve depletion contributes only about 5% of ed water, and more than 60% of this is transmitted from inland areas. Groundwater discharge into the sea may still be significant, perhaps 30% of total inflow to the area is discharged to the sea although this value is very uncertain. Les conditions de gisement de l'eau souterraine d'une région de 75 km2 de la côte Est de l'île de la Grande Canarie (archipel des Canaries), dans le secteur de Telde, ont été étudiées, en utilisant seulement les données fournies par les puits d'exploitation existants. Les matériaux volcaniques, d'âge Pliocène à sub-actuel, sont séparés par une formation détritique (FDLP), qui constitue la principale singularité de cette région. L'exploitation de l'eau souterraine est devenue intensive à partir de 1950, principalement pour des besoins d'irrigation (agriculture

  15. Evidence for coseismic subsidence events in a southern California coastal saltmarsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Robert; Rhodes, Brady P.; Kirby, Matthew E.; Scharer, Katherine M.; Carlin, Joseph A.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Avnaim-Katav, Simona; MacDonald, Glen M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Aranda, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Paleoenvironmental records from a southern California coastal saltmarsh reveal evidence for repeated late Holocene coseismic subsidence events. Field analysis of sediment gouge cores established discrete lithostratigraphic units extend across the wetland. Detailed sediment analyses reveal abrupt changes in lithology, percent total organic matter, grain size, and magnetic susceptibility. Microfossil analyses indicate that predominantly freshwater deposits bury relic intertidal deposits at three distinct depths. Radiocarbon dating indicates that the three burial events occurred in the last 2000 calendar years. Two of the three events are contemporaneous with large-magnitude paleoearthquakes along the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault system. From these data, we infer that during large magnitude earthquakes a step-over along the fault zone results in the vertical displacement of an approximately 5-km2 area that is consistent with the footprint of an estuary identified in pre-development maps. These findings provide insight on the evolution of the saltmarsh, coseismic deformation and earthquake recurrence in a wide area of southern California, and sensitive habitat already threatened by eustatic sea level rise.

  16. Southern California coastal response to CMIP5 projected 21st century wave conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, C.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P.; Adams, P. N.

    2016-02-01

    Recent projections of 21st century Eastern North Pacific deep-water wave conditions under climate change scenarios predict slightly decreased significant wave heights, increased peak wave periods, and more southerly wave directions offshore of Southern California relative to historical conditions. Combined dynamical and statistical efforts were employed to project wave climate-driven changes in local erosion and accretion patterns along the Southern California coast based on these deep-water wave projections. The numerical wave model SWAN was forced with USACE WIS hindcast bulk wave parameters and reanalysis near-surface winds to generate nearshore wave conditions at the 5 m contour from 1980-2010. A nontraditional lookup table was created to establish the functional relationship between deep-water wave conditions defined by the ERA-Interim wave reanalysis and nearshore wave conditions simulated with SWAN. Historical and future deep-water wave time series were translated to the nearshore via the lookup table. Refraction across the continental shelf reduces the difference between projected and historical nearshore wave angles. Never the less, changes in gradients in longshore transport, resulting from long-term changes in wave angle, create new hot spots for erosion and accretion. This work identifies potentially vulnerable areas on which to focus protection and mitigation efforts and provides an approach for assessing how the future evolution of the wave climate due to climate change may affect coastal processes and hazards.

  17. Regional Assessment of Human Fecal Contamination in Southern California Coastal Drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiping; Raith, Meredith R.; Smith, Paul D.; Griffith, John F.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Schriewer, Alexander; Sheldon, Andrew; Crompton, Chris; Gregory, Jason; Guzman, Joe; Othman, Laila; Manasjan, Mayela; Choi, Samuel; Rapoport, Shana; Steele, Syreeta; Nguyen, Tommy; Yu, Xueyuan

    2017-01-01

    Host-associated genetic markers that allow for fecal source identification have been used extensively as a diagnostic tool to determine fecal sources within watersheds, but have not been used in routine monitoring to prioritize remediation actions among watersheds. Here, we present a regional assessment of human marker prevalence among drainages that discharge to the U.S. southern California coast. Approximately 50 samples were analyzed for the HF183 human marker from each of 22 southern California coastal drainages under summer dry weather conditions, and another 50 samples were targeted from each of 23 drainages during wet weather. The HF183 marker was ubiquitous, detected in all but two sites in dry weather and at all sites during wet weather. However, there was considerable difference in the extent of human fecal contamination among sites. Similar site ranking was produced regardless of whether the assessment was based on frequency of HF183 detection or site average HF183 concentration. However, site ranking differed greatly between dry and wet weather. Site ranking also differed greatly when based on enterococci, which do not distinguish between pollution sources, vs. HF183, which distinguishes higher risk human fecal sources from other sources, indicating the additional value of the human-associated marker as a routine monitoring tool. PMID:28777324

  18. Controls on groundwater dynamics and root zone aeration of a coastal fluvial delta island, Wax Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; Hardison, A. K.; Moffett, K. B.

    2013-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands are thought to function as buffers, filtering nutrient-rich terrestrial runoff as it travels to the Gulf of Mexico. While surface water filtration by these wetlands is a large and active area of research, flow through subsurface portions of the wetlands and possible nutrient cycling in the root zone has been largely overlooked. Specifically for Louisiana's coastal deltas, the physics and chemistry of island groundwater systems is unknown.To characterize these subsurface hydraulic dynamics at Pintail Island in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, we collected sediment core samples and penetrometer measurements, monitored surface water and groundwater levels and chemistry, and analyzed meteorological, tidal, and river discharge data. As a first step, we focused on identifying wetland sediment properties and the relative influence of the major hydrologic controls, tides, delta outlet discharge, rainfall, and evapotranspiration, on water table dynamics. Pintail Island is a two-layer system with fine sediments and organic matter overlying sandy deltaic deposits. The sediment layer interface occurs approximately 60 cm below ground surface, around the mean surface water level. The vegetation root zone is concentrated in the surficial layer, although willow roots can extend into the deeper, higher-permeability sandy layer. Groundwater data from the upper portion of this sandy layer (~1m deep) is most strongly influenced by tides but also responds to long-term changes in discharge. While the tides are damped as they propagate into the island sediments, they also flood interior island lagoons, setting up groundwater gradients to potentially drive fluid and nutrient fluxes through the islands. Although the tidally oscillating water table causes significant temporal variation in root zone fluid potentials, evapotranspiration dynamics do not appear to strongly influence groundwater dynamics at depth, consistent with the shallow concentration of roots

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Naval Live Oaks Area, Gulf Islands National Seashore, Florida, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, David B.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Segura, Martha

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, first-surface (FS) topography, and canopy-height (CH) datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Gulf Coast Network, Lafayette, LA; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Naval Live Oaks Area in Florida's Gulf Islands National Seashore, acquired June 30, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral CIR camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: Bare Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  1. EAARL Coastal Topography-Assateague Island National Seashore, 2008: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Klipp, Emily S.

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired March 24-25, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the

  2. Impact of marine tourism on the recreational water quality of Muk Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat Tanyaros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the water consisting of several parameters in the surrounding area of Muk Island were examined. Reference surface water was also concurrently sampled at stations located outside the recreational area stations. Relative modifications (RM in the recreational area stations water quality were assessed as the difference between the magnitude of a specific parameter recorded at the recreational area stations and the concurrently recorded value of the parameter at the reference station, relative to the mean value at the reference station. In this study, the specific parameters of dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, total suspended solids (TSS, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN = NO-2 + NO-23 + NH+3 and orthophosphate(PO-34 were shown to be significantly modified in December and April, but non-significantly modified inSeptember. The total coliform bacteria (TC and fecal coliform (FC in seawater at the recreational area stations were found to be higher than the coastal water quality standard. With a water quality criteria based coastal water quality standard fortourism, a significant but not dangerous level of pollution was observed in this area. TC and FC were the most significant pollutants in the recreational area stations.

  3. Demography and ecology of southern right whales Eubalaena australis wintering at sub-Antarctic Campbell Island, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Leigh; Rayment, Will; Olavarria, Carlos; Thompson, David; Graham, Brittany; Baker, C. Scott; Patenaude, Nathalie; Bury, Sarah Jane; Boren, Laura; Parker, Graham; Carroll, Emma Louise

    2017-01-01

    Since the decimation of the southern right whale Eubalaena australis population in New Zealand by whaling, research on its recovery has focused on the wintering ground at the Auckland Islands, neglecting potentially important wintering habitat at Campbell Island. For the first time in 20 years we conducted an expedition to sub-Antarctic Campbell Island to document and describe E. australis occupying this wintering habitat. We used a variety of methods including photo-identification, genetic a...

  4. Dense shelf water spreading from Antarctic coastal polynyas to the deep Southern Ocean: A regional circumpolar model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusahara, Kazuya; Williams, Guy D.; Tamura, Takeshi; Massom, Robert; Hasumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    The spreading of dense shelf water (DSW) from Antarctic coastal margins to lower latitudes plays a vital role in the ocean thermohaline circulation and the global climate system. Through enhanced localized sea ice production in Antarctic coastal polynyas, cold and saline DSW is formed over the continental shelf regions as a precursor to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). However, the detailed fate of coastal DSW over the Southern Ocean is still unclear. Here we conduct extensive passive tracer experiments using a circumpolar ocean-sea ice-ice shelf model to investigate pathways of the regional polynya-based DSW from the Antarctic margins to the deep Southern Ocean basins. In the numerical experiments, the Antarctic coastal margin is divided into nine regions, and a passive tracer is released from each region at the same rate as the local sea ice production. The modeled spatial distribution of the total concentration of the nine tracers is consistent with the observed AABW distribution and clearly demonstrates nine routes of the DSW over the Southern Ocean along its bottom topography. Furthermore, the model shows that while ˜50% of the total tracer is distributed northward from the continental shelf to the deep ocean, ˜7% is transported poleward beneath ice shelf cavities. The comprehensive tracer experiments allow us to estimate the contribution of local DSW to the total concentration along each of the pathways.

  5. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

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    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  7. Inputs of humic fluorescent dissolved organic matter via submarine groundwater discharge to coastal waters off a volcanic island (Jeju, Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Guebuem

    2017-08-11

    The abundance of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the surface ocean plays a critical role in the growth of marine microorganisms and corals by affecting the optical properties (i.e., the penetration of UV radiation) of seawater. In general, it is known that rivers are the main source of FDOM to surface ocean waters. Here, however, we show that the concentrations of FDOM in coastal seawater off a volcanic island, Jeju, Korea, are dependent primarily on submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Based on a significant correlation between 222 Rn and salinity in seawater, fresh groundwater was found to be the main source of groundwater as well as fresh water in the bay. The addition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and protein-like FDOM to the bay via SGD was generally negligible or negative. However, SGD enhanced the inventory of humic-like FDOM (FDOM H ) in seawater by 2-3 times over all seasons, with conservative behavior of FDOM H in bay seawater. These results suggest that SGD-driven fluxes of FDOM regulate its inventory in seawater and consequently play a significant role in determining the optical properties of coastal waters off islands and associated coastal ecosystems (i.e., corals).

  8. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2017-09-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  9. Multimedia screening of contaminants of emerging concern (CECS) in coastal urban watersheds in southern California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Sengupta, Ashmita; Smith, Deborah J; Lyons, J Michael; Heil, Ann T; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the occurrence and fate of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) and inform future monitoring of CECs in coastal urban waterways, water, sediment, and fish tissue samples were collected and analyzed for a broad suite of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), commercial and/or household chemicals, current use pesticides, and hormones in an effluent-dominated river and multiple embayments in southern California (USA). In the Santa Clara River, which receives treated wastewater from several facilities, aqueous phase CECs were detectable at stations nearest discharges from municipal wastewater treatment plants but were attenuated downstream. Sucralose and the chlorinated phosphate flame retardants tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) were most abundant in water, with maximum concentrations of 35 μg/L, 3.3 μg/L, 1.4 μg/L, and 0.81 μg/L, respectively. Triclocarban, an antimicrobial agent in use for decades, was more prevalent in water than triclosan or nonylphenol. Maximum concentrations of bifenthrin, permethrin, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and degradates of fipronil exceeded CEC-specific monitoring trigger levels recently established for freshwater and estuarine sediments by factors of 10 to 1000, respectively. Maximum fish tissue concentrations of PBDEs varied widely (370 ng/g and 7.0 ng/g for the Santa Clara River and coastal embayments, respectively), with most species exhibiting concentrations at the lower end of this range. These results suggest that continued monitoring of pyrethroids, PBDEs, and degradates of fipronil in sediment is warranted in these systems. In contrast, aqueous pharmaceutical concentrations in the Santa Clara River were not close to exceeding current monitoring trigger levels, suggesting a lower priority for targeted monitoring in this medium. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1986-1994. © 2016 SETAC

  10. Key role of organic complexation of iron in sustaining phytoplankton blooms in the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas (Southern Ocean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuroczy, Charles-Edouard; Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Laan, Patrick; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Mills, Matthew M.; Van Dijken, Gert L.; De Baar, Hein J. W.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2012-01-01

    Primary productivity in the Amundsen Sea (Southern Ocean) is among the highest in Antarctica. The summer phytoplankton bloom in 2009 lasted for > 70 days in both the Pine Island and Amundsen Polynyas. Such productive blooms require a large supply of nutrients, including the trace metal iron (Fe).

  11. The Forests of Southern New England, 2007: A report on the forest resources of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Charles J. Barnett; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale Gormanson; William N. Hill; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya Lister; Christopher Martin; Patrick D. Miles; Randall Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Barbara O' Connell; Bruce Payton; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the fifth forest inventory of the forests of Southern New England, defined as Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and analysis program. Information on forest attributes, ownership, land use change, carbon, timber products, forest health, and statistics and quality...

  12. Fire history and moisture influences on historical forest age structure in the sky islands of southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose M. Iniguez; Thomas W. Swetnam; Christopher H. Baisan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of moisture and fire on historical ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) age structure patterns. Location: We used a natural experiment created over time by the unique desert island geography of southern Arizona. Methods: We sampled tree establishment dates in two sites on Rincon Peak and...

  13. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Navarre Beach, Florida, to Breton Island, Louisiana, September 18–19, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On September 18–19, 2015, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Navarre Beach, Florida, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Maule MT57 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September 2014. The data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.

  14. Assessment of arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Tarut Island, Arabian Gulf, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Al-Otaiby, Naif

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess arsenic on the Tarut coast, Saudi Arabian Gulf, 38 sediment samples, 26 seawater samples and 40 gastropod and bivalve specimens were collected for analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that coastal sediments of Tarut Island are severely enriched, strongly polluted and very highly contaminated with arsenic as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with arsenic in coastal sediments, seawaters and molluscs in the Red Sea, the Arabian Gulf and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of As. The suggested natural sources of arsenic in the study area are the weathering and decomposition of neighboring deserts. The anthropogenic sources include the land reclamation, petrochemical industries, boat exhaust emissions, oil leakage, desalination plants and sewage effluents. These anthropogenic sources are the dominant sources of As in the study area and mostly came from Al Jubail industrial city to the north.

  15. Coastal bathymetry data collected in May 2015 from Fire Island, New York—Wilderness breach and shoreface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy R.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Brenner, Owen T.; Henderson, Rachel E.; Reynolds, Billy J.; Wilson, Kathleen E.

    2017-05-12

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in St. Petersburg, Florida, conducted a bathymetric survey of Fire Island from May 6-20, 2015. The USGS is involved in a post-Hurricane Sandy effort to map and monitor the morphologic evolution of the wilderness breach as a part of the Hurricane Sandy Supplemental Project GS2-2B. During this study, bathymetry data were collected with single-beam echo sounders and Global Positioning Systems, which were mounted to personal watercraft, along the Fire Island shoreface and within the wilderness breach. Additional bathymetry and elevation data were collected using backpack Global Positioning Systems on flood shoals and in shallow channels within the wilderness breach.

  16. Distribution and invasiveness of a colonial ascidian, Didemnum psammathodes, along the southern Indian coastal water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abdul Jaffar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are well known worldwide for their rapid invasions and also for the presence of potential biomedical molecules. Members of the family Didemnidae are widely distributed in tropical waters and they are reported to be among the families possessing rich bioactive compounds. Didemnum psammathodes has a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical waters. The growing evidence of multifarious potential and ever increasing invasion of this species accentuated the need for additional research into its diversity and distribution for sustainable utilization and conservation. The present study was intended to focus on distribution and invasiveness of colonial ascidian, D. psammathodes, along the southern Indian peninsular waters. The present data are based on our own observations made during 2012–2014 period and also on the published and unpublished records of the last 20 years. Out of 45 stations surveyed, D. psammathodes was encountered at a maximum of 41 stations and was found to be more abundant in Hare Island (n = 42, North Break Water (n = 38 and Vizhinjam bay (n = 32. This species was absent at four different stations. Catch per unit effort was higher (19.6 in Hare Island followed by NBW (16.0 and Vizhinjam bay (6.8. The highest number of colonies (136 was observed in calcareous stones, followed by embedded rocks (54 and molluscan shells (33. Hydrographical parameters showed no significant differences between the stations (p < 0.005. It is concluded that D. psammathodes has the potential to invade most of the stations and its distribution was not influenced by hydrographical parameters rather than substrates.

  17. Climate and Non-Climate Drivers of Dengue Epidemics in Southern Coastal Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Lowe, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    We report a statistical mixed model for assessing the importance of climate and non-climate drivers of interannual variability in dengue fever in southern coastal Ecuador. Local climate data and Pacific sea surface temperatures (Oceanic Niño Index [ONI]) were used to predict dengue standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs; 1995–2010). Unobserved confounding factors were accounted for using non-structured yearly random effects. We found that ONI, rainfall, and minimum temperature were positively associated with dengue, with more cases of dengue during El Niño events. We assessed the influence of non-climatic factors on dengue SMR using a subset of data (2001–2010) and found that the percent of households with Aedes aegypti immatures was also a significant predictor. Our results indicate that monitoring the climate and non-climate drivers identified in this study could provide some predictive lead for forecasting dengue epidemics, showing the potential to develop a dengue early-warning system in this region. PMID:23478584

  18. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periáñez, R; Caravaca, F

    2010-09-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cádiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alborán Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alborán Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cádiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid coastal spread of First Americans: Novel insights from South America's Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Martin; Perego, Ugo A.; Huber, Gabriela; Fendt, Liane; Röck, Alexander W.; Zimmermann, Bettina; Olivieri, Anna; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Lancioni, Hovirag; Angerhofer, Norman; Bobillo, Maria Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Woodward, Scott R.; Salas, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Parson, Walther

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely agreed that the Native American founders originated from a Beringian source population ∼15–18 thousand years ago (kya) and rapidly populated all of the New World, probably mainly following the Pacific coastal route. However, details about the migration into the Americas and the routes pursued on the continent still remain unresolved, despite numerous genetic, archaeological, and linguistic investigations. To examine the pioneering peopling phase of the South American continent, we screened literature and mtDNA databases and identified two novel mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clades, here named D1g and D1j, within the pan-American haplogroup D1. They both show overall rare occurrences but local high frequencies, and are essentially restricted to populations from the Southern Cone of South America (Chile and Argentina). We selected and completely sequenced 43 D1g and D1j mtDNA genomes applying highest quality standards. Molecular and phylogeographic analyses revealed extensive variation within each of the two clades and possibly distinct dispersal patterns. Their age estimates agree with the dating of the earliest archaeological sites in South America and indicate that the Paleo-Indian spread along the entire longitude of the American double continent might have taken even South America. PMID:22333566

  20. Wave-induced bedload transport – a study of the southern Baltic coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudkowska Aleksandra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The wave-induced bedload transport and spatial distribution of its magnitude in the southern Baltic coastal zone of Poland are estimated. The vicinity of Lubiatowo was selected as a representative part of the Polish coast. It was assumed that transport is a function of shear stress; alternative approaches, based on force balances and discharge relationships, were not considered in the present study. Four models were studied and compared over a wide range of bottom shear stress and wind-wave conditions. The set of models comprises classic theories that assume a simplified influence of turbulence on sediment transport (e.g., advocated by authors such as Du Boys, Meyer-Peter and Müller, Ribberink, Engelund and Hansen. It is shown that these models allow to estimate transport comparable to measured values under similar environmental conditions. A united general model for bedload transport is proposed, and a set of maps of wave bedload transport for various wind conditions in the study area is presented.

  1. SICS: the Southern Inland and Coastal System interdisciplinary project of the USGS South Florida Ecosystem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2011-01-01

    State and Federal agencies are working jointly on structural modifications and improved water-delivery strategies to reestablish more natural surface-water flows through the Everglades wetlands and into Florida Bay. Changes in the magnitude, duration, timing, and distribution of inflows from the headwaters of the Taylor Slough and canal C-111 drainage basins have shifted the seasonal distribution and extent of wetland inundation, and also contributed to the development of hypersaline conditions in nearshore embayments of Florida Bay. Such changes are altering biological and vegetative communities in the wetlands and creating stresses on aquatic habitat. Affected biotic resources include federally listed species such as the Cape Sable seaside sparrow, American crocodile, wood stork, and roseate spoonbill. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is synthesizing scientific findings from hydrologic process studies, collecting data to characterize the ecosystem properties and functions, and integrating the results of these efforts into a research tool and management model for this Southern Inland and Coastal System(SICS). Scientists from all four disciplinary divisions of the USGS, Biological Resources, Geology, National Mapping, and Water Resources are contributing to this interdisciplinary project.

  2. Coastal Hazard Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of Erosion and Flooding on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosavljevic, B.; Lantuit, H.; Overduin, P. P.; Fritz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal infrastructure, cultural, and archeological sites are increasingly vulnerable to erosion and flooding along permafrost coasts. Amplified warming of the Arctic, sea level rise, lengthening of the open water period, and a predicted increase in frequency of major storms compound these threats. Mitigation necessitates decision-making tools at an appropriate scale. We present a study of coastal erosion combining it with a flooding risk assessment for the culturally important historic settlement on Herschel Island, a UNESCO World Heritage candidate site. The resulting map may help local stakeholders devise management strategies to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. We analyzed shoreline movement using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) after digitizing shorelines from 1952, 1970, and 2011. Using these data, forecasts of shoreline positions were made for 20 and 50 years into the future. Flooding risk was assessed using a cost-distance map based on a high-resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset and current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change sea level estimates. Widespread erosion characterizes the study area. The rate of shoreline movement for different periods of the study ranges from -5.5 to 2.7 m·a-1 (mean -0.6 m·a-1). Mean coastal retreat decreased from -0.6 m·a-1 to -0.5 m·a-1, for 1952-1970 and 1970-2000, respectively, and increased to -1.3 m·a-1 in the period 2000-2011. Ice-rich coastal sections, and coastal sections most exposed to wave attack exhibited the highest rates of coastal retreat. The geohazard map resulting from shoreline projections and flood risk analysis indicates that most of the area occupied by the historic settlement is at extreme or very high risk of flooding, and some buildings are vulnerable to coastal erosion. The results of this study indicate a greater threat by coastal flooding than erosion. Our assessment may be applied in other locations where limited data are available.

  3. [Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shou-Yu

    2011-05-01

    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas, and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance, fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control. alpha and beta species diversity indices, index of relative importance (IRI), relative catch rate, and dominance curve for abundance and biomass (ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition, diversity, and community pattern between the two habitats, and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to 11 orders, 38 families, and 56 genera were collected, of which, 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom, the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness, and the abundance catch rate (ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months, the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However, the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat, because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish (Paraplagusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat, and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the large

  4. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  5. Biogeography in Cellana (Patellogastropoda, Nacellidae with Special Emphasis on the Relationships of Southern Hemisphere Oceanic Island Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A González-Wevar

    Full Text Available Oceanic islands lacking connections to other land are extremely isolated from sources of potential colonists and have acquired their biota mainly through dispersal from geographically distant areas. Hence, isolated island biota constitutes interesting models to infer biogeographical mechanisms of dispersal, colonization, differentiation, and speciation. Limpets of the genus Cellana (Nacellidae: Patellogastropoda show limited dispersal capacity but are broadly distributed across the Indo-Pacific including many endemic species in isolated oceanic islands. Here, we examined main distributional patterns and geographic boundaries among Cellana lineages with special emphasis in the relationships of Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands species. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on mtDNA (COI recognized three main clades in Cellana including taxa from different provinces of the Indo-Pacific. Clear genetic discontinuities characterize the biogeography of Cellana and several lineages are associated to particular areas of the Indo-Pacific supporting the low dispersal capacity of the genus across recognized biogeographical barriers in the region. However, evolutionary relationships within Cellana suggest that long-distance dispersal processes have been common in the history of the genus and probably associated to the origin of the species in Hawaii and Juan Fernández Archipelago. Therefore, the presence of Cellana species in geographically distant Southern Hemisphere oceanic islands, such as the Juan Fernández Archipelago, suggests that long-distance dispersal mediated by rafting may have played an important role in the biogeography of the genus.

  6. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2017-04-01

    their evolution compared to the promptness of surface effects. The study area is the Salento coastal karstic aquifer (Apulia region, Southern Italy), where the groundwater flows according to a regional flow system. It has been subject to successive meteorological droughts between 1960 and 2010. The groundwater monitoring performed during this period, even with some gaps, allows identifying time lags between superficial effects and underground system response, potential tipping points, and emerging signals of the cascading disasters.

  7. Vulnerability Assessment of a Coastal Dune System at São Francisco do Sul Island, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquini, Fernanda; Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Ferreira de Melo Júnior, João Carlos; Voos Vieira, Celso

    2016-10-01

    In this paper a Coastal Dune Vulnerability Index (CDVI) has been applied on a beach located in the eastern side of Sao Francisco do Sul Island (Brazil). The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of a coastal dune system and to identify the areas that result most sensitive to environmental changes. The CDVI has been applied along six transects traced out on two sectors that have been selected based on dune characteristics: Zone A is characterized by well developed parabolic dunes, whereas Zone B is characterized by transverse dunes. The analysis involved 51 quantitative and qualitative variables, divided into five groups: geomorphological dune system condition, marine influence, Aeolian effect, vegetation condition and human effect. The total CDVI was computed as the unweighted average of the partial vulnerability indices. In summary, the total vulnerability can be classified as medium: the geomorphological factor must be monitored at Grande beach, in particular the blowouts in Zone A and the frontal dune retreat in Zone B. The results of the study confirm that the management of coastal areas might be improved using a tool such as the CDVI, which can be easily applied on a regular basis to take under control the factors that mostly affect the evolution of the site.

  8. Introducing mixotrophy into a biogeochemical model describing an eutrophied coastal ecosystem: The Southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghyoot, Caroline; Lancelot, Christiane; Flynn, Kevin J.; Mitra, Aditee; Gypens, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    Most biogeochemical/ecological models divide planktonic protists between phototrophs (phytoplankton) and heterotrophs (zooplankton). However, a large number of planktonic protists are able to combine several mechanisms of carbon and nutrient acquisition. Not representing these multiple mechanisms in biogeochemical/ecological models describing eutrophied coastal ecosystems can potentially lead to different conclusions regarding ecosystem functioning, especially regarding the success of harmful algae, which are often reported as mixotrophic. This modelling study investigates the implications for trophic dynamics of including 3 contrasting forms of mixotrophy, namely osmotrophy (using alkaline phosphatase activity, APA), non-constitutive mixotrophy (acquired phototrophy by microzooplankton) and also constitutive mixotrophy. The application is in the Southern North Sea, an ecosystem that faced, between 1985 and 2005, a significant increase in the nutrient supply N:P ratio (from 31 to 81 mol N:P). The comparison with a traditional model shows that, when the winter N:P ratio in the Southern North Sea is above 22 molN molP-1 (as occurred from mid-1990s), APA allows a 3-32% increase of annual gross primary production (GPP). In result of the higher GPP, the annual sedimentation increases as well as the bacterial production. By contrast, APA does not affect the export of matter to higher trophic levels because the increased GPP is mainly due to Phaeocystis colonies, which are not grazed by copepods. Under high irradiance, non-constitutive mixotrophy appreciably increases annual GPP, transfer to higher trophic levels, sedimentation, and nutrient remineralisation. In this ecosystem, non-constitutive mixotrophy is also observed to have an indirect stimulating effect on diatoms. Constitutive mixotrophy in nanoflagellates appears to have little influence on this ecosystem functioning. An important conclusion from this work is that contrasting forms of mixotrophy have different

  9. Little Dauphin Island, AL 2004 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2004. The data...

  10. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Wake Island 1/3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. South Padre Island, Texas 1/3 Arc-second NAVD 88 Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Examining the assumptions of integrated coastal management: Stakeholder agendas and elite cooption in Babuyan Islands, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, R.K.; Acebes, J.M.; Belen, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the Philippines, Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) represents the dominant response to narratives of ecosystem decline. However, there are persistent challenges to implementation, manifested in continued resource degradation, questioning of the exercise of stakeholder involvement and rising

  15. Wake Island 3 Arc-second MHW Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Coastal landforms and the Holocene evolution of the Island of Samso, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Pejrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The geomorphology of a coastal landscape may reveal an indication of past shoreline configurations. The spatial arrangement of the preserved morphologies may further contain indications on the importance of the different key parameters influencing shoreline evolution over millennial timescales...

  17. St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 3 arc-second Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Project WA1002: PUDGET SOUND - WHIDBEY ISLAND, WA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) is to improve the coordination among federal, state and local government, non-governmental and private...

  20. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for Coastal Resource Service Area (CRSA) boundaries, mineral sites, airports, boat ramps, marinas, and Coast Guard...

  1. Effects of 50-years unmanaged water resource in Southern Tuscany coastal plains (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, R.; Debolini, M.; Galli, M. A.; Bonari, E.

    2012-04-01

    Southern Tuscany coastal plains show favorable conditions from the agro-pedoclimatic point of view and are characterized by a relevant touristic flux, being one of the most popular seaside resort. In such conditions, water resource is one of the main assets: disregarded water management may then lead to severe consequences for the development and growth of the socio-economic system and agro-ecosystem maintenance. During the 1960 decade, ante-II World War projects for hydropower production (i.e. the Farma-Merse scheme) were rearranged in favor of irrigation and the enhancement of crop production. Storage of about 110 Mm3 was thought to provide water for about 35000 Ha. At the end of the 70's, mass tourism began to take place in coastal areas giving rise to water access conflicts between agriculture and the touristic infrastructure. Being none of these projects realized, the increasing demand for drinking water was satisfied by tapping the Mount Amiata aquifer for 70% of the annual demand, and the remaining 30% coming from local aquifers. Due to the absence of rainfall and then of surface water flow in streams at the end of the spring and during the summer period, irrigation requirements were also satisfied by means of groundwater withdrawals. As a consequence of overdraft, aquifer salinisation started in most of the coastal areas (Regione Toscana, 1995; Bianchi et al., 2011; Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, 2011). All this happened in the completely absence of controls on groundwater abstractions. In the early 90's, the Commissione Leon (Regione Toscana, 1991) re-analyzed the largest dam projects and presented as feasible a conjunctive use of surface water stored in artificial basins (to be built) and by planned and controlled local aquifers. Anyway, political issues and environmental concerns halted any kind of realization, so that today the largest basin in the area is private, it dates back to 1930, and it shows a reduced capacity of about 1.8 Mm3, instead than the

  2. Urban Heat Island and Park Cool Island Intensities in the Coastal City of Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Anjos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an evaluation of the Urban Heat Island (UHI and Park Cool Island (PCI intensities in Aracaju, North-Eastern Brazil, was performed. The basis of our evaluation is a 2-year dataset from the urban climatological network installed with the principles and concepts defined for urban areas related to climatic scales, sitting and exposure, urban morphology, and metadata. The current findings update UHI intensities in Aracaju refuting the trend registered in previous studies. On average, the UHI was more intense in the cool season (1.3 °C than in hot season (0.5 °C, which was caused by wind speed decrease. In relation to the PCI, mitigation of high air temperatures of 1.5–2 °C on average was registered in the city. However, the urban park is not always cooler than the surrounding built environment. Consistent long-term monitoring in the cities is very important to provide more accurate climatic information about the UHI and PCI to be applied in urban planning properly, e.g., to provide pleasant thermal comfort in urban spaces.

  3. Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.

    2012-12-01

    Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

  4. Invasive Ponto-Caspian hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia (hydrozoa: Cnidaria) in southern Baltic coastal lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obolewski, Krystian; Jarosiewicz, Anna; Ożgo, Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Cordylophora caspia Pall. is a highly invasive Ponto-Caspian colonial hydroid with a worldwide distribution. It is a biofouling organism colonizing industrial water installations and causing serious economic problems. Here, we give the first report of its occurrence in southern Baltic coastal lakes, and analyze its distribution in relation to environmental factors and likely colonization routes. Samples were collected from the stalks of Phragmites australis at the total of 102 sites in 15 lakes and lagoons. The species was most numerous in lagoons, i.e. ß-oligohaline water bodies with a surface hydrological connection with the sea, where it reached mean densities of 1200-4800 hydranths m-2. In regression tree analysis, chloride concentration, followed by pH, were the strongest explanatory variables for its occurrence, with highest densities observed at chloride concentration above 1.18 g Cl L-1 and pH 8.05-9.26. At pH 5.77-8.04 higher densities were observed at temperatures above 20.3 °C. Generally, within the range of parameters observed in our study, high densities of C. caspia were associated with high chloride concentration, pH, temperature and electrical conductivity values. The species was also present in freshwater lakes; these colonies may have the highest capacity for future invasions of such habitats. Within lakes, high densities were observed at canals connecting these water bodies with the sea, and at sites close to the inflow of rivers. This distribution pattern can facilitate its further spread into inland waters.

  5. Atmospheric trace elements in aerosols observed over the Southern Ocean and coastal East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected over the Southern Ocean (SO and coastal East Antarctica (CEA during the austral summer of 2010/11. Samples were analysed for trace elements, including Na, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Se, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean atmospheric concentrations over the SO were 1100 ng m−3 for Na, 190 ng m−3 for Mg, 150 ng m−3 for Al, 14 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.46 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.25 ng m−3 for Se. Over CEA, the mean concentrations were 990 ng m−3 for Na, 180 ng m−3 for Mg, 190 ng m−3 for Al, 26 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.70 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.29 ng m−3 for Se. Particle size distributions, enrichment factors (EFs and correlation analysis indicate that Na, Mg and K mainly came from the marine source, while Al, Fe and Mn were mainly from the crustal source, which also contributed to Mg and K over CEA. High EFs were associated with Ni, Cd and Se, suggesting likely contributions from mixed sources from the Antarctic continent, long-range transport, marine biogenic emissions and anthropogenic emissions. Sea-salt elements (Na, Mg, K were mainly accumulated in the coarse mode, and crustal elements (Al, Fe, Mn presented a bimodal size distribution pattern. Bioactive elements (Fe, Ni, Cd were enriched in the fine mode, especially with samples collected over the SO, possibly affecting biogeochemical cycles in this oceanic region.

  6. Demographic factors and land-use planning in the small islands of Southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliani, Lamberto; Rossi, Orazio

    1992-09-01

    Since the end of the 1970s, the southern European countries have shown an exceptional reduction in fertility rate. From the highest levels among the developed nations, these countries dropped beneath the substitution rate level: in Greece there is an average of about 1.5 children per woman, and Italy (starting three to four years ago), with 1.3 children per woman, is now the country with the lowest fecundity rate in the world. Land-use planning in southern European small islands therefore requires substantial revision. In the areas where western civilization began, which are highly populated and have a long history, cultural and ethnic aspects of tradition are fundamental to environmental management and to the defense of historical heritage. They also place a strong value on sustaining tourism, the most relevant economic activity, that allows them to survive and maintain a high welfare level. For some decades they have had populations with a marked presence of young people and high emigration rates, but now they are fast becoming dominated by the elderly and must prepare for a period of fast reduction in youth of the workforce, while the peripheral areas of Asia and Africa are entering a sudden demographic growth phase. The demographic structure has also been deeply altered both by previous migrations and by random variations, as usually happens in all small communities. Social services for younger and older people have had to be adapted rapidly, reorganizing high-school management, hospital and health-care structures, in-house assistance, and so on. There is a need to rethink the job market and favor the immigration of highly specialized workers, which is a necessity for technical evolution. Sustainable development is constrained nowadays not only by the scarcity of natural resources, but also by the quality and quantity of human resources. Proper policies for population and land-use planning are highly correlated factors; they have to be considered with respect

  7. Relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal system, Maspalomas, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cordero, Antonio I.; Hernández-Calvento, Luis; Espino, Emma Pérez-Chacón

    2015-06-01

    This paper explores the relationship between vegetation dynamics and dune mobility in an arid transgressive coastal dune system, specifically the dune field of Maspalomas (Gran Canaria, Canary Islands). The aim is to understand the strategies of colonization and survival that plant communities have developed in slacks that face dune advance. The relationship between plant colonization and dune migration was performed by following Tamarix canariensis and Traganum moquinii plants for several years. Morphological data about each individual as well as the distance of each plant to the dune were measured. A study of the colonization patterns developed by T. moquinii, T. canariensis, Cyperus laevigatus and Launaea arborescens communities was performed by analyzing the evolution of consolidated plant patches and adult plants in relation to the dune advance. This was achieved using digital orthophotos and spatial analysis from geographic information systems. Initiation of plant colonization over transgressive dunes occurs on both wet and dry slacks. The results show that both plant colonization and development of adult plants are largely related to dune mobility. Thus, survival of T. moquinii and T. canariensis plants under dune migration conditions is related to both distance to the dune front and plant height at the moment of burial. Distance from the dune front and plant height increases chance of survival. The dynamics of adult plants is also related to dune displacement rates. Thus, each community has different thresholds of resistance to mobility rates. The T. canariensis community withstands average rates higher than 3 m/year. Its arboreal structure allows this species to grow high enough to resist the advance of the dunes and burial. For the T. moquinii community, the population decreases gradually to eventually disappear when dune mobility rates exceed 4 m/year. The C. laevigatus community develops at dune mobility rates lower than 3 m/year, decreasing its surface

  8. Geologic constraints and speleogenesis of Cova des Pas de Vallgornera, a complex coastal cave from Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Ginés

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The flat areas of eastern and southern Mallorca host a remarkable coastal karst, where Cova des Pas de Vallgornera stands out due to its length (more than 74 km and its special morphological suite. The pattern of the cave is quite heterogeneous showing sharp differences produced by the architecture of the Upper Miocene reef: spongework mazes and collapse chambers dominate in the reef front facies, whereas joint-guided conduits are the rule in the back reef carbonates. Regarding the speleogenesis of the system, a complex situation is envisaged involving three main agents: coastal mixing dissolution, drainage of meteoric diffuse recharge, and hypogene basal recharge related to local geothermal phenomena. The cave system is disposed in two main tiers of passages, of which geomorphologic interpretations are derived from their elevation data. The evolutionary trends as well as the chronology of the different cave sections are difficult to establish owing to the frequent shifting of the coastal base level during the Plio-Quaternary. In this respect, the genesis and evolution of the cave were fully controlled by sea-level fluctuations in the Western Mediterranean basin, with the main phases of cave formation, based on vertebrate paleontological data, going back to mid-Pliocene times.

  9. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for northern river otter, mink, muskrat, and beaver for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data...

  10. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and...

  11. Paleoindian seafaring, maritime technologies, and coastal foraging on California's Channel Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Jon M; Rick, Torben C; Braje, Todd J; Casperson, Molly; Culleton, Brendan; Fulfrost, Brian; Garcia, Tracy; Guthrie, Daniel A; Jew, Nicholas; Kennett, Douglas J; Moss, Madonna L; Reeder, Leslie; Skinner, Craig; Watts, Jack; Willis, Lauren

    2011-03-04

    Three archaeological sites on California's Channel Islands show that Paleoindians relied heavily on marine resources. The Paleocoastal sites, dated between ~12,200 and 11,200 years ago, contain numerous stemmed projectile points and crescents associated with a variety of marine and aquatic faunal remains. At site CA-SRI-512 on Santa Rosa Island, Paleocoastal peoples used such tools to capture geese, cormorants, and other birds, along with marine mammals and finfish. At Cardwell Bluffs on San Miguel Island, Paleocoastal peoples collected local chert cobbles, worked them into bifaces and projectile points, and discarded thousands of marine shells. With bifacial technologies similar to those seen in Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition assemblages of western North America, the sites provide evidence for seafaring and island colonization by Paleoindians with a diversified maritime economy.

  12. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, and porpoises for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Aleutian Islands Coastal Resources Inventory and Environmental Sensitivity Maps: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Wildlife Refuges in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent management...

  14. Section 206, Flood Plain Management Services; Study of Coastal Flooding Charlestown, Rhode Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The New England Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (NED) conducted this study for the Town of Charlestown, Rhode Island under the authority provided by the Corps of Engineers' Section 206 Flood Plain Management Services (FPMS) program...

  15. Assessment of contaminant exposure, diet, and population metrics of river otters (Lontra canadensis) along the coast of southern Vancouver Island

    OpenAIRE

    Guertin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) are useful indicators of aquatic ecosystem health, but obtaining information on populations is difficult and expensive. By combining non-invasive faecal sampling with DNA genotyping techniques, I investigated: (i) environmental contaminant exposure, (ii) diet, and (iii) population metrics of river otters along the urban coast of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. In Victoria Harbour, mean faecal concentrations of polychlorinate...

  16. HYDROACOUSTIC OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK EARTHQUAKES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF THE SOUTHERN KURIL ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Borisov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of hydroacoustic observations of signals from weak earthquakes in natural conditions in the region of the Southern Kuril Islands are presented. Some earthquakes were registered by the the Yuzhno-Kurilsk Seismic Station, other were only recorded by hydrophone stations. The observations were specific as seismic signals were recorded in shallow waters, i.e. in high noise level conditions. Hydrophones were installed in Lake Lagunnoe (Kunashir and Khromovaya Bay (Shikotan. Our analysis of hydroacoustic records received from the hydrophone stations revealed no evident precursory response of the geological medium to weak distant events. This means that neither before the period of earthquake preparation nor during the earthquake preparation period, any geoacoustic emission was not detected. It is shown that despite the unfavourable noise level conditions, even distant weak earthquakes can be confidently registered by hydrophone stations, and pending application of proper signal processing techniques, it can be possible to determine arrival times of seismic waves and to measure parameters of seismic waves. It is also established that the frequency spectrum of acoustic signals from the weak earthquakes recordable by the hydrophone stations is continuous and of noise type in the frequency range up to 90–100 Hz. It is revealed that in some cases, weak earthquakes and microearthquakes may be forerun by low frequency signals.

  17. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-09-09

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  18. Tidal notches, coastal landforms and relative sea-level changes during the Late Quaternary at Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlani, Stefano; Antonioli, Fabrizio; Cavallaro, Danilo; Chirco, Pietro; Caldareri, Francesco; Martin, Franco Foresta; Morticelli, Maurizio Gasparo; Monaco, Carmelo; Sulli, Attilio; Quarta, Gianluca; Biolchi, Sara; Sannino, Gianmaria; de Vita, Sandro; Calcagnile, Lucio; Agate, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present and discuss data concerning the morphostructural evolution at Ustica Island (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) during Late Quaternary. New insights on the relative sea-level changes of Ustica are coming from data collected during a geomorphological field survey around the island, together with the bathymetric analysis of the surrounding seabed and 14C datings on samples of speleothems, flowstones and marine shells found inside three selected sea caves. The survey was mainly accomplished on June 2015 through the first complete snorkel investigation off the about 18 km-long volcanic coast of the island, which allowed to precisely define location, relationship and morphometric features of coastal landforms associated with modern sea level. This study highlights the occurrence, for the first time in the Mediterranean, of tidal notches in correspondence of carbonate inclusions in volcanic rocks. The elevation of the modern tidal notch suggests that no significant vertical deformations occurred in the southeastern and eastern sectors of Ustica in the last 100 years. However, the presence of pillow lavas along the coast demonstrates that Ustica was affected by a regional uplift since the Late Quaternary, as also confirmed by MIS5.5 deposits located at about 30 m a.s.l., which suggests an average uplift rate of 0.23 mm/y. Radiocarbon dating of fossil barnacles collected inside the Grotta Segreta cave indicate an age of 1823 ± 104 cal. BP. The difference in height with respect to living barnacles in the same site suggests that their present elevation could be related to stick-slip coseismic deformations caused by the four earthquake sequences (two of which with Mw = 4.63 ± 0.46) that strongly struck the island between 1906 and 1924.

  19. ORIBATID MITES FAUNA (ACARIFORMES, ORIBATIDA OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS AND ISLANDS OF NORTH-WEST PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA AND THEIR LIFE FORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of oribatid mites of coastal ecosystems and of islands of the north-west part of the Caspian Sea: species composition, distribution data and analysis of life forms of oribatid mites.

  20. Dissolved trace metals (Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, Al, and Mn) around the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Statham, Peter J.; Fones, Gary R.; Planquette, Hélène; Idrus, Farah; Roberts, Keiron

    2013-10-01

    A phytoplankton bloom shown to be naturally iron (Fe) induced occurs north of the Crozet Islands (Southern Ocean) every year, providing an ideal opportunity to study dissolved trace metal distributions within an island system located in a high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) region. We present water column profiles of dissolved nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) obtained as part of the NERC CROZEX program during austral summer (2004-2005). Two stations (M3 and M1) were sampled downstream (north) of Crozet in the bloom area and near the islands, along with a control station (M2) in the HNLC zone upstream (south) of the islands. The general range found was for Ni, 4.64-6.31 nM; Zn, 1.59-7.75 nM; Co, 24-49 pM; Cd, 135-673 pM; Pb, 6-22 pM; Al, 0.13-2.15 nM; and Mn, 0.07-0.64 nM. Vertical profiles indicate little island influence to the south with values in the range of other trace metal deprived regions of the Southern Ocean. Significant removal of Ni and Cd was observed in the bloom and Zn was moderately correlated with reactive silicate (Si) indicating diatom control over the internal cycling of this metal. Higher concentrations of Zn and Cd were observed near the islands. Pb, Al, and Mn distributions also suggest small but significant atmospheric dust supply particularly in the northern region.

  1. 3-D imaging of two episodes of Hikurangi Plateau subduction in the southern South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart-Phillips, D. M.; Reyners, M.; Upton, P.; Gubbins, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Hikurangi Plateau (originally part of the Ontong Java large igneous province) has been subducted beneath New Zealand twice - firstly at ca. 108-105 Ma during north-south convergence with Gondwana, and currently during east-west convergence between the Pacific and Australian plates. We have investigated the southern limit of this subducted plateau by supplementing the sparse GeoNet permanent seismograph network in the southeastern South Island with a forty-station broadband portable seismograph network. We have then used local earthquake tomography to determine detailed 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs structure in the southern South Island. We track a region of Vp 8.5 km/s (which has previously been associated with an eclogite layer at the base of the Hikurangi Plateau from studies in the North Island) across most of the southwestern South Island. Its southeastern edge runs diagonally from near Christchurch to northern Fiordland. It dips both to the northwest and the southwest, and impacts the subducted Australian plate in northern Fiordland, where it currently bends the subducted Australian slab to vertical. The plateau and its leading oceanic crust are distinguished by low Vp/Vs, consistent with extensive dehydration of the thick (ca. 35 km), buoyant plateau during ca. 500 km of flat subduction at the Gondwana margin. The plateau is also revealed by dipping zones of relocated earthquakes. The backstop of Gondwana subduction appears to be the ophiolitic Maitai terrane, which extends through the crust and forms the trenchward boundary of the ca. 60-65 km-thick Median Batholith. We image the low Vp crustal root associated with orogeny at the Gondwana margin in the southeastern South Island, as well as the crustal root resulting from the current convergent episode in the western South Island. The shapes of both crustal roots are controlled by the Hikurangi Plateau.

  2. Historical analysis (2000-2005) of the coastal water quality in San Andrés Island, SeaFlower Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavio, Brigitte; Palmer-Cantillo, Shelly; Mancera, J Ernesto

    2010-07-01

    To understand the coastal water quality of San Andrès Island, and provide tools for the management of its marine resources, we present the historical analysis of the island monitoring, which includes ammonia, nitrites, nitrate, phosphates, fecal and total coliforms. The anthropogenic pressure on the coastal system is heavy, with water nutrification, posing at risk seagrass and coral ecosystems. During dry season, biologically available nitrogen is 3-9 times higher than the maximum recommended for coral reefs, while during wet season values are 2-6.4 times the maximum. Biologically available phosphorous is also high, 1-8 times the maximum during dry season, 2-13 times during wet season. In some sites the concentration of pathogenic bacteria is above the limits set by law for primary and secondary contact. It is urgent to improve the management of sewage discharge, the main polluting source of San Andres coastal waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Winter 2016, Part A—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, February 18–19, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On February 18–19, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from the South Carolina/North Carolina border to Assateague Island, Virginia, aboard a Cessna 182 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  4. Winter 2016, Part B—Coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Assateague Island, Virginia, to Montauk Point, New York, March 8–9, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.

    2017-02-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in the vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On March 8–9, 2016, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Assateague Island, Virginia, to Montauk Point, New York, aboard a Cessna 182 aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,200 feet offshore. This mission was conducted to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  5. Post-Hurricane Katrina coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, August 31, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; DeWitt, Nancy T.

    2017-04-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Storm-Induced Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On August 31, 2005, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Panama City, Florida, to Lakeshore, Mississippi, and the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, aboard a Piper Navajo Chieftain aircraft at an altitude of 500 feet and approximately 1,000 feet offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Katrina data, which can be used to assess incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area and can be used to assess future coastal change.The photographs in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey.

  6. Investigating the distributional limits of the coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) near its southern range terminus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Douglas; David W. Ulrich; Christopher A. Morris; Matthew O. Goldsworthy

    2017-01-01

    Documenting species distribution patterns and habitat associations is a necessary prerequisite for developing conservation measures, prioritizing areas for habitat restoration, and establishing baseline conditions for long-term monitoring programs. The coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) ranges from coastal British Columbia to...

  7. Host utilization by the anuran acanthocephalan Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis (Echinorhynchidae) on two subtropical islands, southern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasawa, Kazuya; Yoshida, Ryuta

    2017-01-01

    Both Iriomote-jima Island and Ishigaki-jima Island belong to the Ryukyu Islands and are located in the subtropical region of Japan. The echinorhynchid acanthocephalan Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis (Shipley, 1903) was found to parasitize two species of frogs, Fejervarya sakishimensis Matsui, Toda & Ota, 2007 (Dicroglossidae) and Buergeria japonica (Hallowell, 1861) (Rhacophoridae), on Iriomote-jima Island, and one species of toad, Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Bufonidae), on Ishigaki-jima ...

  8. Geochemical characterization and heavy metal migration in a coastal polluted aquifer incorporating tidal effects: field investigation in Chongming Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Bo; Dai, Chaomeng; Lou, Sha; Tao, An; Zhong, Guihui

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence and migration of heavy metal in coastal aquifer incorporating tidal effects were investigated in detail by the field geological survey and observation. The continuous groundwater sampling, field observation (for groundwater potentiometric surface elevation, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and salinity), and laboratory analysis (for Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentration) were conducted through eight monitoring wells located around the landfill in the northern part of Chongming Island, China. The results showed that the unconfined aquifer medium was estuary-littoral facies deposit of Holocene, mainly gray clayey silt and grey sandy silt, and the groundwater flow was mainly controlled by topography condition of the aquifer formation strike. The background values of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Chongming Island were 3.10 ± 3.09, 0.81 ± 0.25, 1.48 ± 1.09, 43.32 ± 33.06, 0.08 ± 0.16, and 0.88 ± 1.74 μg/L, respectively. Compared with the groundwater samples around the study area, the drinking water was qualified and was free from the seawater intrusion/estuarine facies contaminant encroachment. Pollutant discharge was reflected in water quality parameters, the Cr and Cu concentrations elevated to the peak of 50.07 and 46.00 μg/L, respectively, and meanwhile specific migration regularity was embodied in observation time series as well as other elements. This migration regularity was not fully identical according to correlations between these analyzed elements. Ambient watery environment, anthropogenic disturbance, regional hydrogeological condition, and biogeochemical reactivity on heavy metals reduced/altered the significance of elements correlation in the migration pathway in coastal aquifer.

  9. Biotelemetery data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, February 2016–February 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-05-12

    Because of a lack of clarity about the status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California, the USGS, in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies, began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in September 2014. During trapping efforts from September 29, 2014, to February 23, 2016, 27 golden eagles were captured. During trapping efforts from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017, an additional 10 golden eagles (7 females and 3 males) were captured in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. Biotelemetry data for 26 of the 37 golden eagles that were transmitting data from February 24, 2016, to February 23, 2017 are presented. These eagles ranged as far north as northern Nevada and southern Wyoming, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  10. EAARL-B coastal topography: Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Klipp, Emily S.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2015-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  11. Assemblage characteristics and diet of fish in the shallow coastal waters of James Ross Island, Antarctica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Pavel; Roche, Kevin Francis; Sedláček, I.; Všetičková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2016), s. 2299-2309 ISSN 0722-4060 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Antarctic Peninsula * Fish assemblage structure * Notothenioidei * Shallow coastal waters * Ice pack * Czech Antarctic Station Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.949, year: 2016

  12. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, P. J.; Weiss, R.; Renteria, W.

    2011-12-01

    On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Local Time, Galapagos), the magnitude 9.0 Mw Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan. The purpose of this presentation is to provide the results of a tsunami field survey in the Galapagos Islands performed by an International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) with great assistance from INOCAR, the oceanographic service of the Ecuadorian Navy, and the Galapagos National Park. The Galapagos Islands are a volcanic chain composed of many islands of various sizes. The four largest islands are the focus of this survey, and are, from west to east, Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Aside from approximately 10 sandy beaches that are open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are strictly off limits to anyone without a research permit. All access to the shoreline is coordinated through the Galapagos National Park, and any landing requires a chaperone, a Park Ranger. While a few of the visited areas in this survey were tourist sites, the vast majority were not. Due to time constraints and a generally inaccessibility of the coastline, the survey locations were strongly guided by numerical computations performed previous to the surveys. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum flow elevations were generally in the range of 3-4 meters, while Isabela experienced the largest flow elevation of 6 m in a small pocket beach. The largest harbor in the Islands, Puerto Ayora, experienced moderate damage, with significant flooding and some structural damage. Currents in the Baltra Channel, a small waterway between Santa Cruz and Baltra, were strong enough to transport navigation buoys distances greater than 800 m. Extreme dune erosion, and the associated destruction of sea turtle nesting habit, was widespread and noted on all of the islands visited.

  13. New insights into impacts of anthropogenic nutrients on urban ecosystem processes on the Southern California coastal shelf: Introduction and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Meredith D. A.; Kudela, Raphael M.; McLaughlin, Karen

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient inputs are one of the most important factors contributing to eutrophication of coastal waters. Coastal upwelling regions are naturally highly variable, exhibiting faster flushing and lower retention times than estuarine systems. As such, these regions are considered more resilient to anthropogenic influences than other coastal waters. Recent studies have shown our perception of the sustainability of these systems may be flawed and that anthropogenic nutrients can have an impact at local and regional spatial scales within these larger upwelling ecosystems. Maintenance of an outfall pipe discharging wastewater effluent to the Southern California Bight (SCB) provided an opportunity to study effects of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on a near-shore coastal ecosystem. The diversion of wastewater effluent from a primary, offshore outfall to a secondary, near-shore outfall set up a large-scale, in situ experiment allowing researchers to track the fate of wastewater plumes as they were "turned off" in one area and "turned on" in another. In this introduction to a special issue, we synthesize results of one such wastewater diversion conducted by the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD) during fall 2012. Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) from point-source discharges altered biogeochemical cycling and the community composition of bacteria and phytoplankton. Nitrification of ammonium to nitrate in wastewater effluent close to outfalls constituted a significant source of N utilized by the biological community that should be considered in quantifying "new" production. The microbial-loop component of the plankton community played a significant role, exemplified by a large response of heterotrophic bacteria to wastewater effluent that resulted in nutrient immobilization within the bacterial food web. This response, combined with the photosynthetic inhibition of phytoplankton due to disinfection byproducts, suppressed phytoplankton responses. Our findings have

  14. Large temporal changes in contributions of groundwater-borne nutrients to coastal waters off a volcanic island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Mi; Kim, Guebuem

    2017-09-01

    We examined the contribution of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to nutrient budgets in Hwasun Bay, Jeju Island, Korea in August 2009, October 2014, and May 2015. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) in fresh groundwater were in the range of 285-716 μM and 2.3-3.2 μM, respectively, which were each 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those in the bay seawater. The outer-bay seawater flowing into the bay was oligotrophic (2.9 ± 1.9 μM for DIN and 0.2 ± 0.3 μM for DIP). Nutrient budget calculations were performed for each season by accounting for submarine fresh groundwater discharge (SFGD) and water residence times. In August 2009 (DIN = 1.8 μM and DIN:DIP ratio = 4.6 for the outerbay water), DIN inputs from SFGD accounted for approximately 40% of the DIN inventory in the bay seawater. In October 2014 (DIN = 1.1 μM and DIP DIN and DIP in the bay seawater were 8.6 ± 12 μM and 0.11 ± 0.04 μM, respectively, with conservative behaviors in the bay seawater in association with excessive groundwater inputs. These results imply that SGD plays a critical but different role in nutrient budgets and stoichiometry in coastal waters off a volcanic island depending on open-ocean nutrient conditions.

  15. Use of pharmaceuticals and pesticides to constrain nutrient sources in coastal groundwater of northwestern Long Island, New York, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Zhang, P.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.; Bratton, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    In developed, non-agricultural, unsewered areas, septic systems and fertilizer application to lawns and gardens represent two major sources of nitrogen to coastal groundwater, in addition to atmospheric input. This study was designed to distinguish between these two possible nitrogen sources by analyzing groundwater samples for pharmaceutical residuals, because fertilizers do not contain any of these pharmaceuticals, but domestic wastewater commonly does. In addition, several herbicides and insecticides used in lawn treatment were analyzed as indicators of nitrogen delivery to groundwater from fertilizers. Groundwater samples were taken through piezometres at shoreline sites in unsewered areas surrounding Northport Harbor and in sewered areas adjacent to Manhasset Bay (hereafter referred to as "Northport" and "Manhasset", respectively), both in northwestern Long Island, USA. Excessive nitrogen loading has led to reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations in Long Island Sound, and the groundwater contribution to the nitrogen budget is poorly constrained. The frequent detection of the anticonvulsant compound carbamazepine in groundwater samples of the Northport Harbor area (unsewered), together with the fact that few pesticides associated with lawn applications were detected, suggests that wastewater input and atmospheric input are the likely sources of nitrogen in the Northport groundwater. High concentrations of nitrogen were also detected in the Manhasset (sewered) groundwater. The low detection frequency and concentration of carbamazepine, however, suggest that the sewer system effectively intercepts nitrogen from wastewater there. The likely sources of nitrogen in the Manhasset groundwater are atmospheric deposition and lawn fertilizers, as this area is densely populated.

  16. Shallow gas seismic structures: forms and distribution on Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henrique da Fontoura Klein

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the spatial distribution of shallow gas structures and classifies them on the basis of two different data sets of CHIRP seismic records, one from the Conceição Lagoon (CL and the other from North Bay (NB, both on Santa Catarina Island, Southern Brazil. Side scan sonar data from the CL were used to facilitate the understanding. The sub bottom (SB seismic data were processed and interpreted by means of the SeisPrho software, the side scan sonar (SSS data by SonarWiz5 software and the spatial extension being measured with the help of GIS. The shallow gas structures were defined in accordance with their shapes in the seismic recordings (echo-character. At the CL, shallow gas accumulations were found in the form of seepages and features presenting shallow gas structures between the surface and 8.20 ms (around 12.3 m. Accumulations of gas were found in the form of Acoustic Blanking with Acoustic Plume, and also Black Shadows. Pockmarks were found on the lagoon floor and associated with gas seepages (average size diameter 0.97 ± 0.19 m and density from 54 to 242 units per 50 m2. In the NB three types of shallow gas features were found in the seismic profile, namely Acoustic Blanking, Turbidity Pinnacles and Intra-sedimentary plumes. The depth varied from the surface to 12.10 ms (around 18.15 m. In both environments, the gas is escaping from the sediment into the water column. The Pockmarks in the CL and the Acoustic Plume features and sediment rich in total sulfur in the NB validate these findings.

  17. A new karyotype for the genus Cavia from a southern island of Brazil (Rodentia - Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gava

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific karyotype variation in mammal species is very common and often caused by centromeric fusion of acrocentric chromosomes. We describe here a new karyotype 2n = 62 (FN = 112 for the genus Cavia from the Moleques do Sul Islands, of the southern coast of Brazil. We analyzed two male and four female karyotypes that had twenty-four biarmed pairs and six pairs of acrocentric chromosomes. The sexual pair consisted of a metacentric X-chromosome and a large acrocentric Y. C-bands were found in the centromeric and pericentromeric regions of almost all chromosomes, except for some small biarmed and acrocentric ones. Nucleolus organizer regions appeared in two biarmed chromosomes, and G-banding patterns were also seen.RESUMO A variação cariotípica nas espécies de mamíferos é bastante comum e geralmente causada pela fusão de cromossomos acrocêntricos. Foi descrito neste trabalho um novo cariótipo, com 2n = 62 e FN = 112, para o gênero Cavia proveniente das ilhas Moleques do Sul, da costa sul do Brasil. Foram analisados os cariótipos de dois machos e quatro fêmeas que possuiam 24 pares de cromossomos com dois braços e seis pares de acrocêntricos. O par sexual era constituído por um cromossomo X metacêntrico grande e um Y acrocêntrico. As bandas C estavam localizadas nas regiões centroméricas e pericentroméricas da maioria dos cromossomos, com exceção de alguns acrocêntricos e os cromossomos de dois braços menores. As regiões organizadoras de nucléolo ocorreram em dois cromossomos com dois braços e o padrão de bandamento G foi também apresentado.

  18. Total relative sea level rise at several coastal areas and island sites since the mid-20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Palanisamy, H.; Peng, D.; Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.

    2012-12-01

    When addressing the issue of coastal impacts of recent past and future sea level rise, what really does matter is the total relative sea level rise, i.e., the sum of the global mean rise plus the regional variability plus the local vertical land motion. Here we present results of the total sea level rise suffered by a number of continental coastlines and island sites since 1950. These are based on the use of an ensemble of 2-D past sea level reconstructions, long tide gauge records and GPS data where available. Our investigation concerns islands of the western and central tropical Pacific, the Carribean region and Indian Ocean, as well as continental coasts of south China, India and eastern Africa. We find that at some of the studied sites, the total relative sea level rise since 1950 has been significantly larger than the global mean rise (of 1.8 mm/yr over 1950-2010). This is the case of the Tuvalu and Tahiti islands in the tropical Pacific. At Tuvalu for example, where the rate of rise reached 5 mm/yr, the total relative sea level elevation amounts 30 cm since 1950. On the other hand, in the Carribean region (in particular the Lesser Antilles) the total sea level rise does not differ from the global mean rise. This is unlike the continental coastline of south China (south China Sea), a shallow shelf area, where the rate of total sea level rise is found about 40% higher than the global mean rise. In the Indian ocean we also report a rather wide range of total sea level rates depending on the region considered. The main factor causing the observed variations in total sea level rates is the low frequency regional variability that superimposes to the uniform global mean rise. As a result, at some sites the amplification can be quite significant, making these sites potentially more vulnerable to negative impacts of sea level rise.

  19. Tsunami Hazard in La Réunion Island (SW Indian Ocean): Scenario-Based Numerical Modelling on Vulnerable Coastal Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeyer, S.; Quentel, É.; Hébert, H.; Gailler, A.; Loevenbruck, A.

    2017-08-01

    Several major tsunamis have affected the southwest Indian Ocean area since the 2004 Sumatra event, and some of them (2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010) have hit La Réunion Island in the southwest Indian Ocean. However, tsunami hazard is not well defined for La Réunion Island where vulnerable coastlines can be exposed. This study offers a first tsunami hazard assesment for La Réunion Island. We first review the historical tsunami observations made on the coastlines, where high tsunami waves (2-3 m) have been reported on the western coast, especially during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Numerical models of historical scenarios yield results consistent with available observations on the coastal sites (the harbours of La Pointe des Galets and Saint-Paul). The 1833 Pagai earthquake and tsunami can be considered as the worst-case historical scenario for this area. In a second step, we assess the tsunami exposure by covering the major subduction zones with syntethic events of constant magnitude (8.7, 9.0 and 9.3). The aggregation of magnitude 8.7 scenarios all generate strong currents in the harbours (3-7 m s^{-1}) and about 2 m of tsunami maximum height without significant inundation. The analysis of the magnitude 9.0 events confirms that the main commercial harbour (Port Est) is more vulnerable than Port Ouest and that flooding in Saint-Paul is limited to the beach area and the river mouth. Finally, the magnitude 9.3 scenarios show limited inundations close to the beach and in the riverbed in Saint-Paul. More generally, the results confirm that for La Runion, the Sumatra subduction zone is the most threatening non-local source area for tsunami generation. This study also shows that far-field coastal sites should be prepared for tsunami hazard and that further work is needed to improve operational warning procedures. Forecast methods should be developed to provide tools to enable the authorities to anticipate the local effects of tsunamis and to evacuate the harbours in

  20. Classification and dynamics of a Southern African subtropical coastal lowland forest

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, GF

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and dynamics of Dukuduku coastal lowland forest were investigated by means of ordination techniques. Size-class distributions on data from 200 plots were analysed and we also interpreted aerial photographs. An initial classification...

  1. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  2. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  3. Potential impacts of sea level rise on native plant communities and associated cultural sites in coastal areas of the main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, James D.; Warshauer, Frederick R.

    2017-01-01

    Hawaiian coastal vegetation is comprised of plant species that are adapted to growing in extremely harsh conditions (salt spray, wave wash, wind, and substrates with limited nutrients) found in this habitat zone. Prior to human colonization of Hawai‘i coastal vegetation extended as a continuous ring around each of the islands, broken only by stretches of recent lava flows or unstable cliff faces. However, since humans arrived in Hawai‘i many areas that originally supported native coastal plant communities have been highly altered or the native vegetation totally removed for agriculture, housing, or resort development, destroyed by fire, displaced by invasive plants, eaten by introduced mammals, or damaged by recreational use. This study was focused on identifying sites that still retain relatively intact and highly diverse native coastal plant communities throughout the main Hawaiian Islands that may be further impacted by projected sea level rise. Approximately 40 percent of Hawai‘i’s coastlines were found to still contain high quality native coastal plant communities. Most of these sites were located in areas where the coastal vegetation can still migrate inshore in response to rising sea level and associated inundation by waves. However, six sites with high-quality native coastal vegetation were found on low-lying offshore islets that will be totally inundated with a one meter increase in sea level and thirty sites were found to have some type of fixed barrier, such as a paved road or structure, which would restrict the plants from colonizing the adjacent inland areas. Many of these sites also have other cultural resources that are fixed in place and will definitely be impacted by rising sea level. The results of this study can help refine our understanding of Hawai‘i’s remaining native coastal vegetation and aid with the development of management and restoration strategies to ensure the long-term survival of these unique plant communities.

  4. Seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community in the Gandia coastal area, southern Gulf of Valencia

    OpenAIRE

    Gadea, I.; Rodilla, M.; Sospedra, J.; Falco, S.; Morata, T.

    2013-01-01

    [EN] Seasonal variability in the phytoplankton community of the coastal area of Gandia in the south of the Gulf of Valencia (Western Mediterranean Sea) was examined in relation to physical and chemical surface water variables (i.e. salinity, nutrients, dissolved oxygen and temperature). This small area presents most of the point and non-point nutrients inputs that affect coastal areas as wastewater discharges through submarine outfall, river discharges and groundwater discharges from a detrit...

  5. Modeling Studies of the Coastal/Littoral Current System off Southern Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Henry A

    2006-01-01

    Both theoretical and numerical modeling studies of the current system off western and southern Australia are conducted to characterize the features of the current system, their temporal variability...

  6. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihu; Zhu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone. PMID:28286690

  7. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Lihu; Zhu, Wenjia

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO 2 , and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone.

  8. A Carbon Cycle Model for the Social-Ecological Process in Coastal Wetland: A Case Study on Gouqi Island, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands offer many important ecosystem services both in natural and in social systems. How to simultaneously decrease the destructive effects flowing from human activities and maintaining the sustainability of regional wetland ecosystems are an important issue for coastal wetlands zones. We use carbon credits as the basis for regional sustainable developing policy-making. With the case of Gouqi Island, a typical coastal wetlands zone that locates in the East China Sea, a carbon cycle model was developed to illustrate the complex social-ecological processes. Carbon-related processes in natural ecosystem, primary industry, secondary industry, tertiary industry, and residents on the island were identified in the model. The model showed that 36780 tons of carbon is released to atmosphere with the form of CO2, and 51240 tons of carbon is captured by the ecosystem in 2014 and the three major resources of carbon emission are transportation and tourism development and seawater desalination. Based on the carbon-related processes and carbon balance, we proposed suggestions on the sustainable development strategy of Gouqi Island as coastal wetlands zone.

  9. Coastal Impacts of the March 11th Tohoku, Japan Tsunami in the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynett, Patrick; Weiss, Robert; Renteria, Willington; De La Torre Morales, Giorgio; Son, Sangyoung; Arcos, Maria Elizabeth Martin; MacInnes, Breanyn Tiel

    2013-06-01

    On March 11, 2011 at 5:46:23 UTC (March 10 11:46:23 PM Galapagos Local Time), the Mw 9.0 Great East Japan Earthquake occurred near the Tohoku region off the east coast of Japan, spawning a Pacific-wide tsunami. Approximately 12,000 km away, the Galapagos Islands experienced moderate tsunami impacts, including flooding, structural damage, and strong currents. In this paper, we present observations and measurements of the tsunami effects in the Galapagos, focusing on the four largest islands in the archipelago; (from west to east) Isabela, Santiagio, Santa Cruz, and San Cristobal. Access to the tsunami affected areas was one of the largest challenges of the field survey. Aside from approximately ten sandy beaches open to tourists, all other shoreline locations are restricted to anyone without a research permit; open cooperation with the Galapagos National Park provided the survey team complete access to the Islands coastlines. Survey locations were guided by numerical simulations of the tsunami performed prior to the field work. This numerical guidance accurately predicted the regions of highest impact, as well as regions of relatively low impact. Tide-corrected maximum tsunami heights were generally in the range of 3-4 m with the highest runup of 6 m measured in a small pocket beach on Isla Isabela. Puerto Ayora, on Santa Cruz Island, the largest harbor in the Galapagos experienced significant flooding and damage to structures located at the shoreline. A current meter moored inside the harbor recorded relatively weak tsunami currents of less than 0.3 m/s (0.6 knot) during the event. Comparisons with detailed numerical simulations suggest that these low current speed observations are most likely the result of data averaging at 20-min intervals and that maximum instantaneous current speeds were considerably larger. Currents in the Canal de Itabaca, a natural waterway between Santa Cruz Island and a smaller island offshore, were strong enough to displace multiple 5

  10. EAARL Coastal Topography and Imagery-Assateague Island National Seashore, Maryland and Virginia, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, J.C.; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Klipp, E.S.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Fredericks, Xan; Stevens, Sara

    2010-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced color-infrared (CIR) imagery and elevation measurements of lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) and first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the Assateague Island National Seashore in Maryland and Virginia, acquired post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter) on November 28 and 30, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar(EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and

  11. Akit’s house: identification of vernacular coastal architecture in Meranti Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, G.; Amanati, R.

    2018-03-01

    Akit people can be found on Meranti islands near east coast Sumatra. Their houses made mainly by wood construction as stilt type house. The roof of the house was made by leaves, and bark of the tree was used on house wall. Nowadays, some changes have occurred on this vernacular house. The changes are not only as responding to the environment, environment but also are affecting by way of their life. In turn, this changing becomes an interesting phenomenon, particular comparing to the house on other islands. This research has conducted in qualitative research approach to identify how the changes of the house. Field data gathered by a range of methods such as observation, story-telling, and documentation. The data are analyzed and interpreted within an iterative process to expand understanding of the house’s changing. This research offers an architectural insight into how the vernacular houses are changing.

  12. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  13. Coastal lagoon sediments as a recorder of Holocene landscape evolution and sea-level development: Samsø, southern Kattegat Sea, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Johannessen, Peter N.

    Confined shallow-water environments are encountered many places along the coast of the inner Danish waters. Most of these water bodies are spatially constrained within the moraine topography left by the last glaciation of Scandinavia. Despite their common occurrence, coastal lagoons have rarely...... been studied as sedimentary archives. In this study we set out to trace back changes in relative sea-level and associated geomorphological responses of the coastal environment in sediment cores retrieved from lagoon systems on the island of Samsø. Samsø first became an island in the mid-Atlantic period......, when the post-glacial sea-level rise resulted in the inundation of the paraglacial landscapes of central Denmark. Waves, currents and tides began to erode the unconsolidated Pleistocene deposits, which initiated (amongst other processes) the formation of coastal barriers and marine lagoonal...

  14. Fine-scale population genetic structure of a wildlife disease vector: the southern house mosquito on the island of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyghobadi, Nusha; Lapointe, Dennis; Fleischer, Robert C; Fonseca, Dina M

    2006-11-01

    The southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is a widespread tropical and subtropical disease vector. In the Hawaiian Islands, where it was introduced accidentally almost two centuries ago, it is considered the primary vector of avian malaria and pox. Avian malaria in particular has contributed to the extinction and endangerment of Hawaii's native avifauna, and has altered the altitudinal distribution of native bird populations. We examined the population genetic structure of Cx. quinquefasciatus on the island of Hawaii at a smaller spatial scale than has previously been attempted, with particular emphasis on the effects of elevation on population genetic structure. We found significant genetic differentiation among populations and patterns of isolation by distance within the island. Elevation per se did not have a limiting effect on gene flow; however, there was significantly lower genetic diversity among populations at mid elevations compared to those at low elevations. A recent sample taken from just above the predicted upper altitudinal distribution of Cx. quinquefasciatus on the island of Hawaii was confirmed as being a temporary summer population and appeared to consist of individuals from more than one source population. Our results indicate effects of elevation gradients on genetic structure that are consistent with known effects of elevation on population dynamics of this disease vector.

  15. Desalination Brine Discharge Impacts on Coastal Biology and Water Chemistry - A Case Study from Carlsbad Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, K. L.; Heck, N.; Potts, D. C.; Paytan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh water demand is increasing world-wide due to on-going droughts, climate change and increasing human population and associated demand for food and water. Desalination of seawater is a reliable source of potable water; however the effects of byproduct brine discharge from desalination plants on coastal areas have not been thoroughly assessed. Here we report results from in-situmeasurements of the effects of brine discharge on water chemistry and coastal biology from a desalination plant in Carlsbad, Southern California. We compared select parameters in the coastal zone around the discharge site before and after operation began and conducted additional controlled laboratory incubations with key coastal species and brine effluent. Our in-situ data shows differences in salinity and temperature between the discharge area and a control site both before and after the desalination plant started operation. The discharge water is warmer by 3-5 Co than the ambient seawater and a temperature gradient is seen around the discharge channel. This is likely a result of mixing of the desalination brine with power plant cooling water for dilution prior to discharge and the higher temperatures are not directly attributed to the desalination. Our post-discharge results show a decipherable salinity plume at the bottom of the water column ( 6 m depth) reaching up to 600 m offshore from the discharge site. This indicates inefficient mixing of the brine in the coastal discharge zone. No significant differences are found in nutrient levels, organic carbon or chlorophyll a concentrations around the discharge. The benthic biology assemblage post-discharge is significantly different from the pre-discharge organisms' assemblage. However, the role of seasonal changes in temperature may also have impacted the data as the sampling was conducted during different seasons. Controlled incubation experiments of brittle stars (Ophiothrix spiculata) shows no significant difference in growth or

  16. Morphostructure at the junction between the Beata ridge and the Greater Antilles island arc (offshore Hispaniola southern slope)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja Bruña, J. L.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, U. S.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Pazos, A.

    2014-03-01

    Oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate's interior and the inactive Greater Antilles island arc has resulted in the collision and impingement of the thickened crust of the Beata ridge into southern Hispaniola Island. Deformation resulting from this convergence changes from a low-angle southward-verging thrust south of eastern Hispaniola, to collision and uplift in south-central Hispaniola, and to left-lateral transpression along the Southern peninsula of Haiti in western Hispaniola. Using new swath bathymetry and a dense seismic reflection grid, we mapped the morphological, structural and sedimentological elements of offshore southern Hispaniola. We have identified four morphotectonic provinces: the Dominican sub-basin, the Muertos margin, the Beata ridge and the Haiti sub-basin. The lower slope of the Muertos margin is occupied by the active Muertos thrust belt, which includes several active out-of-sequence thrust faults that, were they to rupture along their entire length, could generate large-magnitude earthquakes. The interaction of the thrust belt with the Beata ridge yields a huge recess and the imbricate system disappears. The upper slope of the Muertos margin shows thick slope deposits where the extensional tectonics and slumping processes predominate. The northern Beata ridge consists of an asymmetrically uplifted and faulted block of oceanic crust. Our results suggest that the shallower structure and morphology of the northern Beata ridge can be mainly explained by a mechanism of extensional unloading from the Upper Cretaceous onward that is still active residually along the summit of the ridge. The tectonic models for the northern Beata ridge involving active reverse strike-slip faults and transpression caused by the oblique convergence between the Beata ridge and the island arc are not supported by the structural interpretation. The eastern Bahoruco slope an old normal fault that acts as a passive tear fault accommodating the sharp along

  17. Body size of commom opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied 1826 (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae on southern brazilian islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. Salvador

    Full Text Available The body size of vertebrates isolated on islands can undergo changes due to ecological features of these environments. This study aimed to compare the body size of the common opossum, Didelphis aurita, from different insular populations within the same archipelago in southern Brazil. The opossum populations showed corporal variation and different hypotheses were raised to understand the results. This study constitutes the most detailed body size comparison of a marsupial within different insular populations in the Neotropical zone and the data gathered represents an initial contribution for regional fauna biometric knowledge.

  18. Combining sound science, legal action and stakeholder involvement to protect a vulnerable coastal aquifer on the island of St. Kitts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahely, H.; Nettles, S.; Burrowes, R.; Haas, G.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources in small island developing states (SIDS), especially those in the Caribbean are among the most vulnerable systems to human activities and climate change. This vulnerability is exacerbated by a fragmented approach to water resources management. The unconfined coastal aquifer underlying the Basseterre Valley is a significant asset for the people of St. Kitts-Nevis. The potable water extracted from this aquifer represents over 40% of the total water supply for St. Kitts. The area is subject to urban encroachment, inappropriate land use and threats from pollution. A project was implemented using an integrated approach to help government and communities take practical actions to protect this vulnerable aquifer by demonstrating proper management on three fronts: mitigation of threats from contaminants, protection of the aquifer and improved water resources management. The project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) as part of the Integrating Watershed and Coastal Areas Management (IWCAM) project for Caribbean Small Island States. A comprehensive hydrogeologic evaluation of the aquifer was undertaken in order to aid in the development of a water resources management strategy for the Basseterre Valley Aquifer. Multi-electrode electrical resistivity (MER), a novel surface geophysical technique, was used to delineate the thickness and distribution of sediments throughout the aquifer, zones of increased porosity, zones of possible contamination and the fresh/salt water interface. Together with slowly declining static water levels and elevated dissolved solids levels, the early stages of salt water intrusion have been documented. Groundwater modelling suggests that adjusting the pumping regime, redeveloping some of the existing wells and relocating other wells is a viable option for increasing efficiency and preventing long term dewatering. Overall, the study has provided a wealth of new information about the aquifer for a reasonable cost. A

  19. Hydrothermal venting on the flanks of Heard and McDonald islands, southern Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, J. E.; Arculus, R. J.; Coffin, M.; Bradney, A.; Baumberger, T.; Wilkinson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Heard Island and the nearby McDonald Islands are two sites of active volcanism associated with the so-called Kerguelen mantle plume or hot spot. In fact, it has been proposed that the Kerguelen hot spot is currently located beneath Heard Island. During its maiden maximum endurance voyage (IN2016_V01), the recently commissioned Australian R/V Investigator conducted a detailed bathymetric and water column survey of the waters around Heard Island and the McDonald Islands as well as other sites on the Kerguelen Plateau. Some 50 hydrographic profiles were completed using the CTD/rosette system equipped with trace metal sampling and a nephelometer for suspended particle concentrations. In addition to the hydrographic profiles, 244 bubble plumes were detected in the vicinity of the Heard and McDonald Islands using the ship's multibeam system. It is thought that the bubble plumes observed on sea knolls and other seafloor surrounding the McDonald Islands are likely hydrothermal in origin, while plumes northeast of Heard Island may be biogenic methane from cold seeps. At 29 of the hydrographic stations water samples for helium isotope measurements were drawn from the CTD rosette and hermetically sealed into copper tubing for subsequent shorebased mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph analysis. In this paper we report results for 3He/4He ratios and CO2 and CH4 concentrations in water samples collected with the CTD/rosette, and discuss how these results are correlated with suspended particle concentrations and temperature anomalies.

  20. Magnitudes and Moment-Duration Scaling of Low-Frequency Earthquakes Beneath Southern Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.; Thomas, A.; Rubin, A. M.; Savard, G.; Chuang, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We employ 130 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing tremor sources on the plate boundary below southern Vancouver Island to examine LFE magnitudes. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing over 300,000 independent detections from major episodic-tremor-and- slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. Template displacement waveforms for direct P- and S-waves at near epicentral distances are remarkably simple at many stations, approaching the zero-phase, single pulse expected for a point dislocation source in a homogeneous medium. High spatio-temporal precision of template match-filtered detections facilitates precise alignment of individual LFE detections and analysis of waveforms. Upon correction for 1-D geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve a large, sparse linear system for 3-D path corrections and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a single ETS template. The spatio-temporal distribution of magnitudes indicates that typically half the total moment release occurs within the first 12-24 hours of LFE activity during an ETS episode when tidal sensitity is low. The remainder is released in bursts over several days, particularly as spatially extensive RTRs, during which tidal sensitivity is high. RTR's are characterized by large magnitude LFEs, and are most strongly expressed in the updip portions of the ETS transition zone and less organized at downdip levels. LFE magnitude-frequency relations are better described by power-law than exponential distributions although they exhibit very high b-values ≥ 6. We examine LFE moment-duration scaling by generating templates using detections for limiting magnitude ranges MW<1.5, MW≥ 2.0. LFE duration displays a weaker dependence upon moment than expected for self-similarity, suggesting that LFE asperities are limited in dimension and that moment variation is dominated by slip. This behaviour implies

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, A. Keith; Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Estes, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Σ) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (ΣDDTs, Σchlordane cyclodienes, Σother cyclodienes, and Σchlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by ΣDDTs and Σchlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldi-chloroethylene (p,p′DDE) composed 52 to 66% of ΣDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but ΣPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with δ15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of ΣPCBs and p,p′DDE among species and locations.

  2. The monitoring of atmospheric mercury species in the Southern Indian Ocean at Amsterdam Island (38°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barret M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of oceans in the global cycle of mercury is still poorly characterized, mainly because of a lack a long-term data on atmospheric mercury concentrations in the remote Southern Ocean. In the frame of GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System, we present here the first results from a new monitoring station at Amsterdam Island in the Southern Indian Ocean. For the period January to April 2012, we recorded mean concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, reactive gaseous mercury (RGM and particulate-bounded mercury (PHg of 1.03 ng m−3, 0.37 and 0.34 pg m−3 respectively. While GEM concentrations showed little variations, RGM and PHg exhibited fast variations with alternation of value below the instrumental detection limit and maximum values up to 4 pg m−3.

  3. Distribution of anti fouling biocides in coastal seawater of Egadi Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massanisso, Paolo; Ubaldi, Carla; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Pezza, Massimo; Cannarsa, Sigfrido; Bordone, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The pollution level due to anti fouling biocides in the Marine Protected Area of Egadi Islands (MPA) has been evaluated by both grab and passive sampling. Analyses of tributyltin (TBT), diuron, irgarol, chlorothalonil and dichlofluanid have been carried out on seawater and sediments. The results indicate a good condition of the coastline, but further studies with passive sampling for TBT are required to help the MPA administrators to control the status of the seawater with a methodology suitable to reach the Environmental Quality Standard values established by the Water Framework Directive [it

  4. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  5. Coastal processes at the southern tip of India during summer monsoon 2005

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smitha, B.R.; VimalKumar, K.G.; Sanjeevan, V.N.

    In situ temperature and wind data, during summer monsoon 2005, bring out some interesting features like, the existence of a purely wind driven upweiling system at the southern tip (ST), very adjacent to another remotely forced upweiling system...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for threatened/endandered/rare and/or anadromous fish species in Southern California. Vector lines in this...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting and roosting gulls, terns, seabirds, shorebirds, and T/E species in Southern California. Vector...

  8. The geographical conditions of intensity of salty waters intrusions to coastal lakes on Polish Southern Baltic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslinski, R.

    2009-04-01

    Lakes situated on the coast of the southern Baltic function in different conditions than those in which typically inland reservoirs occur. They are situated in the contact zone of two environments: land and sea. These reservoirs together with their direct catchments form specific hydrographic arrangement, in which the course of physical, chemical and biological processes depends on the fact which of these two environments exerts a stronger influence at a given moment. This is important as the lakes situated in the shore zone of the southern Baltic are not exposed to phenomena caused by constant tides, as it is the case in open seas (Ataie-Ashtiani et al., 1999), but only to extreme hydrometeorological conditions, which lead to the formation of the phenomenon of intrusions of sea waters and of damming the free outflow of potamic waters (Demirel, 2004; Cieśliński, Drwal, 2005). What should also be remembered are the local hydrographic, hydrological and morphometric conditions. As a result of intrusions, in the waters of coastal lakes, apart from inland waters there are also waters of sea origin. The proportions of these genetically distinct waters are variable and differ in individual lakes (Grassi, Netti, 2000; Drwal, Cieśliński, 2007). Despite the difference in the causal factor triggering the phenomenon of salt water intrusions, the effect is usually the same as that observed, for instance, in lakes and lagoons of seas with tides (Ishitobi et al., 1999; De Louw, Oude Essink, 2001) and poorly flushed lagoon (Hsing-Juh et al., 2006) or estuaries (Uncles et al., 2002), though the scale of qualitative changes is greater in the case of open seas than in half-closed and closed seas. The status of the research carried out so far enables proposing a hypothesis that chlorides concentrations, as the best indicators for establishing the occurrence of the phenomenon of intrusions, depend not only on the meteorological factor but in some of the lakes on various

  9. Coastal inundation risk assessment due to subsidence and sea level rise in a Mediterranean alluvial plain (Volturno coastal plain - southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro Aucelli, Pietro Patrizio; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Incontri, Pietro; Rizzo, Angela; Vilardo, Giuseppe; Benassai, Guido; Buonocore, Berardino; Pappone, Gerardo

    2017-11-01

    Interdisciplinary studies of the last years highlight that the Italian coasts are significantly subject to retreat and to inundation by sea ingression due to natural and anthropic causes. In this study, the effects of future relative sea level have been evaluated for the Volturno River Plain, one of the widest coastal plain in southern Italy. The plain is characterized by high economical and ecological value, for the presence of farm activities, tourist structures and wetland protected zones. The study area is potentially prone to coastal flooding due to its very low topography and because it is affected by a severe subsidence, which emphasize the local effect of sea level rise due to the ongoing climate changes. In accordance with the guidelines of the MEDFLOOD project, the areas prone to inundation in the years 2065 and 2100 have been evaluated by comparing the future topographical information and expected relative sea level scenarios. The local Vertical Ground Displacements have been derived by PS-InSAR processing data whilst the mean values of the scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 provided by the IPCC (2014) have been used as future sea level projections in 2065 and 2100. The PS-InSar data elaboration shows that the area affected by subsidence corresponds to 35% of the Volturno plain and that the annual rate of the phenomenon ranges between -1 and -25 mm/yr. The inundation analysis, based on the classification of the areas in four hazard classes, indicates that in 2065 the zones located below the sea level will increase approximately of 50% respect to the present conditions, while between 2065 and 2100 the increase can be at least of 60% (IPCC, RCP 8.5 scenarios). Considering the socio-economical and ecological exposure, evaluated following the EUROSION project guidelines, the coastal flooding risk maps have been produced. Almost 8.2 km2 and 14.4 km2 of the investigated area has to be considered subject to very high marine inundation risk in 2065 and 2100

  10. Patterns of alien plant invasion across coastal bay areas in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai Ren; Qinfeng Guo; Hong Liu; Jing Li; Qianmei Zhang; Hualin Xu; Fanghong Xu

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the ways in which levels of invasions by alien species are correlated with environmental factors is helpful to manage the negative impacts of these invasive species. Two tropical coastal areas in South China, Shenzhen Bay and Leizhou Bay, are national nature reserves, but they are threatened by invasive plants. Here, we investigated the level of...

  11. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Hydraulic Data Inventory. Southern California Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    1967 10/30 Goodson Mtn :San Diequito R : 30200 1969 :8/22 : Gavilan Mtn Santa Margarita R: 19200 1969 :8/22 :San Onofre Cyn :Santa Margarita R: 14800...pp. 1-18. Howe, S., (1978), "Wave Damage along the California Coast, 1977-78", California Coastal Commission, San Francisco , 60 pp. Hurd, E.H., (1929

  12. KERENTANAN PENYUSUPAN AIR LAUT DI PESISIR UTARA PULAU TERNATE (Vulnerability of Sea Water Intrusion in Northern Coastal of Ternate Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Achmad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan di wilayah pesisir bagian utara Pulau Ternate, dengan tujuan mengetahui kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dan menganalisis akuifer serta cara pengambilan airtanah sehingga tidak terjadi penyusupan air laut ke dalam tubuh airtanah. Sampel air sumur diukur untuk mengetahui kadar salinitas dan daya hantar listrik (DHL. Kedalaman batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut dukur dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik. Hasil pengukuran DHL dan salinitas airtanah di wilayah pesisir utara menunjukkan, terdapat penyusupan air laut di Desa Tobolo dan Sulamadaha, dengan rentang nilai masing-masing antara 0,5-3,3 mS/cm dan 0,2-1,7 ppt. Hasil pengukuran geolistrik menunjukkan batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut rata-rata antara 12-15 m dari permukaan. Nilai resistivitas air laut berkisar antara 0,01-20 Ωm. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan peringatan untuk tidak melakukan pengeboran sumur di wilayah pesisir. Sebagai contoh kasus, pengeboran sumur hingga 80 m dengan jarak sekitar 250 m dari garis pantai di Desa Takome, di mana batas kontak airtanah dengan air laut pada kedalaman 15 m. Pengukuran nilai DHL dan salinatas air dari sumur ini menunjukkan masing-masing 6,1 mS/cm dan 3,3 ppt. Nilai ini menunjukkan kedalaman sumur bor telah melewati zona pencampuran antara airtanah dengan air laut (interface.   ABSTRACT This research was conducted in the coastal areas of northern part of Ternate island, in order to know the depth of interface and to analyze the aquifers and to avoid seawater intrusion caused of groundwater extraction. Well water samples were measured to determine levels of salinity and DHL. The depth of interface was measured using geoelectric method. The results of electrical conductivity (EC and salinity of groundwater measurement in the northern coastal area showed that, there is infiltration of sea water in Tobolo and Sulamadaha. The EC and salinity values ranging between 0.5-3.3 mS/cm and 0.2-1.7 ppt

  13. Effects of tornado damage, prescribed fire, and salvage logging on natural oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration in a xeric southern USA Coastal Plain oak/pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; J. Stephen Brewer

    2013-01-01

    Due in large part to fire exclusion, many oak-dominated (Quercus spp.) forests, woodlands, and savannas throughout eastern North America are being replaced by less diverse forest ecosystems. In the interior coastal plain of the southern United States, these forests are dominated in the mid- and understory by mesophytic species such as Acer...

  14. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  15. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  16. Localised human impacts on the Harataonga coastal landscape, Great Barrier Island, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, M.; Nichol, S.; Cockrem, J.; Shane, P.

    2008-01-01

    Here we present results of analyses of sediment profiles and cores, and coprolites, from Harataonga Bay, Great Barrier Island. Using a range of analyses (sedimentological, plant microfossils, parasitological, microbial, and steroids and myoglobin) we concentrate on human impact and reconstruction of the geomorphology and vegetation of the near-shore environments. Two different sub--environments are represented: dunes and alluvial plain. Dune instability coincides with a major increase in disturbance-related plants (especially ground ferns) as a result of forest clearance. The present form of much of the Harataonga dunes and the swamp at the eastern end of the bay is directly a result of human impact, no earlier than 737 ± 178 14 C yr BP. In the record from the alluvial plain of the main Harataonga watercourse, at the western end of the bay, it is difficult to clearly resolve sedimentary inputs that directly relate to human presence in this former tidal inlet that was open to storm surge and stream floods. The only exception is the slopewash materials forming the terrace surface, sediments of which bear pollen consistent with vegetation disturbance. The landforms are natural but the rate at which the tidal inlet was infilled to form a terrace was accelerated by human activity. The nature and timing of the localised human impacts at Harataonga are consistent with those observed elsewhere on Great Barrier Island and mainland New Zealand. Some of our techniques (e.g. bacteria, steroids) are newly applied to coprolites in New Zealand but none provided any useful information because of poor preservation. (author). 34 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Water quality comparison of secondary effluent and reclaimed water to ambient river water of southern Okinawa Island via biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Tomokazu; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Suzuki, Yutaka; Park, Chang-Beom; Yasui, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Kentarou; Tanaka, Yuji; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Minamiyama, Mizuhiko

    2017-08-08

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the biological effect of the secondary effluent (SE) of a wastewater treatment plant and reclaimed water treated via ultrafiltration (UF) followed by either reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration or nanofiltration (NF) to be used for environmental use by comparing the results of algal growth inhibition tests of concentrated samples of the SE and permeates of RO and NF with those of six rivers in southern Okinawa Island. Although the SE water had no adverse effects on the growth of the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, it could lead to water quality degradation of rivers in terms of its toxic unit value, whereas the use of RO and NF permeates would not lead to such degradation. The recharge of rivers, into which domestic wastewater and livestock effluents might be discharged in southern Okinawa Island, with reclaimed water subjected to advanced treatment could dilute the concentrations of chemicals that cause biological effects and improve the water quality of the rivers, based on the results of the bioassay using P. subcapitata. Comparing the results of bioassays of reclaimed water with those of the ambient water at a site might be effective in assessing the water quality of reclaimed water for environmental use at the site.

  18. Long-term coastal-polynya dynamics in the southern Weddell Sea from MODIS thermal-infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S.; Willmes, S.; Heinemann, G.

    2015-11-01

    Based upon thermal-infrared satellite imagery in combination with ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis data, we derive long-term polynya characteristics such as polynya area, thin-ice thickness distribution, and ice-production rates for a 13-year investigation period (2002-2014) for the austral winter (1 April to 30 September) in the Antarctic southern Weddell Sea. All polynya parameters are derived from daily cloud-cover corrected thin-ice thickness composites. The focus lies on coastal polynyas which are important hot spots for new-ice formation, bottom-water formation, and heat/moisture release into the atmosphere. MODIS has the capability to resolve even very narrow coastal polynyas. Its major disadvantage is the sensor limitation due to cloud cover. We make use of a newly developed and adapted spatial feature reconstruction scheme to account for cloud-covered areas. We find the sea-ice areas in front of the Ronne and Brunt ice shelves to be the most active with an annual average polynya area of 3018 ± 1298 and 3516 ± 1420 km2 as well as an accumulated volume ice production of 31 ± 13 and 31 ± 12 km3, respectively. For the remaining four regions, estimates amount to 421 ± 294 km2 and 4 ± 3 km3 (Antarctic Peninsula), 1148 ± 432 km2 and 12 ± 5 km3 (iceberg A23A), 901 ± 703 km2 and 10 ± 8 km3 (Filchner Ice Shelf), as well as 499 ± 277 km2 and 5 ± 2 km3 (Coats Land). Our findings are discussed in comparison to recent studies based on coupled sea-ice/ocean models and passive-microwave satellite imagery, each investigating different parts of the southern Weddell Sea.

  19. A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

  20. Distribution, density, and biomass of introduced small mammals in the southern mariana islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, A.S.; Adams, A.A.Y.; Rodda, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that introduced small mammals have detrimental effects on island ecology, our understanding of these effects is frequently limited by incomplete knowledge of small mammal distribution, density, and biomass. Such information is especially critical in the Mariana Islands, where small mammal density is inversely related to effectiveness of Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) control tools, such as mouse-attractant traps. We used mark-recapture sampling to determine introduced small mammal distribution, density, and biomass in the major habitats of Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian, including grassland, Leucaena forest, and native limestone forest. Of the five species captured, Rattus diardii (sensu Robins et al. 2007) was most common across habitats and islands. In contrast, Mus musculus was rarely captured at forested sites, Suncus murinus was not captured on Rota, and R. exulans and R. norvegicus captures were uncommon. Modeling indicated that neophobia, island, sex, reproductive status, and rain amount influenced R. diardii capture probability, whereas time, island, and capture heterogeneity influenced S. murinus and M. musculus capture probability. Density and biomass were much greater on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam, most likely a result of Brown Tree Snake predation pressure on the latter island. Rattus diardii and M. musculus density and biomass were greatest in grassland, whereas S. murinus density and biomass were greatest in Leucaena forest. The high densities documented during this research suggest that introduced small mammals (especially R. diardii) are impacting abundance and diversity of the native fauna and flora of the Mariana Islands. Further, Brown Tree Snake control and management tools that rely on mouse attractants will be less effective on Rota, Saipan, and Tinian than on Guam. If the Brown Tree Snake becomes established on these islands, high-density introduced small mammal populations will likely

  1. The integrated impacts of natural processes and human activities on groundwater salinization in the coastal aquifers of Beihai, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghua; Zhang, Yanpeng; Chen, Wen; Yu, Shaowen

    2018-03-01

    Salinization in coastal aquifers is usually related to both seawater intrusion and water-rock interaction. The results of chemical and isotopic methods were combined to identify the origin and processes of groundwater salinization in Daguansha area of Beihai, southern China. The concentrations of the major ions that dominate in seawater (Cl-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO4 2- ), as well as the isotopic content and ratios (2H, 18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 13C), suggest that the salinization occurring in the aquifer of the coastal plain is related to seawater and that the prevailing hydrochemical processes are evaporation, mixing, dissolution and ion exchange. For the unconfined aquifer, groundwater salinization has occurred in an area that is significantly influenced by land-based sea farming. The integrated impacts of seawater intrusion from the Beibuwan Gulf and infiltration of seawater from the culture ponds are identified in the shallowest confined aquifer (I) in the middle of the area (site BBW2). Leakage from this polluted confined aquifer causes the salinization of groundwater in the underlying confined aquifer (II). At the coastal monitoring site (BBW3), confined aquifer I and lower confined aquifer II are heavily contaminated by seawater intrusion. The weak connectivity between the upper aquifers, and the seaward movement of freshwater, prevents saltwater from encroaching the deepest confined aquifer (III). A conceptual model is presented. Above all, understanding of the origin and processes of groundwater salinization will provide essential information for the planning and sustainable management of groundwater resources in this region.

  2. Variability of coastal water hydrodynamics in the southern Baltic - hindcast modelling of an upwelling event along the Polish coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jankowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an attempt to reproduce, with theaid of a numerical circulation model, the hydrological conditions observedin the coastal area of the southern Baltic in September 1989.A large fall in surface layer seawater temperature was recordedin September 1989 at two coastal stations in the vicinity ofKolobrzeg and Wladyslawowo. This upwelling-like phenomenon was assumed tobe related to the specific anemobaric situation in September 1989,however typical of this phenomenon to occur along the Polish Baltic coast(Malicki & Mietus 1994. A three-dimensional (3-D sigma-coordinatebaroclinic model of the Baltic Sea, with a horizontal resolution of~5 km and 24 sigma-levels in the vertical, was applied to investigatewater circulation and thermohaline variability. Hindcastnumerical simulation showed that the model provided a good reproductionof the temporal history of the surface seawater temperature and theduration of the upwelling-like fall, but that the model results wereunderestimated. The maxima of this large fall in the surface layertemperature at both coastal stations are closely related to the phase ofchange of the upwelling-favourable wind direction to the opposite one.The results of simulation runs showed details of upwelling developmentdue to wind field fluctuations in time and differences in shaping thetemperature and current patterns in conjunction with the variations intopography and coastline features in some areas along the Polish coast.Two different hydrodynamic regimes of water movements along the coastresulting from topographical features (the Slupsk Bank can be distinguished.From the model simulation the specific conditions for the occurrence anddevelopment of upwelling at the eastern end of the Polish coast(in the vicinity of Wladyslawowo can be deduced.

  3. Competition Between Barrier Island Migration and Marsh-Upland Migration Could Determine the Fate of Coastal Lagoons Under Sea Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Vinent, O.; Kirwan, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Although marshes can modulate their vertical growth to adjust to sea level rise, wave-induced marsh edge erosion seems to be unstoppable, eating away large chunks of marshes around coastal lagoons in low-sediment environments. Because lagoon size is ultimately constrained by barrier islands, a positive feedback ensues by which barrier migration decreases lagoon size and wind fetch, which in turn reduces marsh edge erosion. Under sea level rise, back-barrier marshes and bay sediments are eventually exposed at the seashore where they are eroded away by waves, thereby increasing barrier island migration rate and further mitigating fetch-driven marsh erosion. We study this feedback using a simple model that couples barrier, lagoon, marsh, and upland components of the coastal landscape. We find that the final state of the ecosystem is controlled by the relation between barrier migration rate, marsh edge erosion rate and marsh upland propagation rate. Our results suggest there are two stable, extreme long-term scenarios, which are a function of the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability: (i) a growing lagoon devoid of marshes, for slowly migrating barrier islands and limited upland marsh transgression; and (ii) a marsh filled lagoon, for fast migrating barrier islands, and unconstrained upland marsh transgression.

  4. Eighteen years of GPS surveys in the Aeolian Islands (southern Italy: open data archive and velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Esposito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1970s, geodetic networks became a most important tool to monitor the present day deformations of the volcanic arc of the Aeolian Islands. The first benchmarks were installed in this region at Lipari and Vulcano Islands and the number of GPS benchmarks increased in time since the early ’90s. These networks were periodically surveyed in the frame of national and international geodynamic projects and for Civil Protection programs devoted to the mitigation of the volcanic hazard. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV played a fundamental role in the realization and periodical reoccupation of these networks, with the goal to investigate the tectonic and volcanic processes, still active in this crucial area of the central Mediterranean. An updated GPS velocity map for this region, both for the horizontal and vertical component of land motion, with details for Lipari, Vulcano and Panarea Islands, is provided in this paper. The presented GPS velocity field also includes a set of additional discrete stations located in northern Sicily and Calabria together with data from the available CGPS networks active in southern Italy. Here we show the results from eighteen years of repeated GPS surveys performed in this region in the time span 1995-2013 and the open access AINET-GPS data archive, now freely available for the scientific community. Data will support scientific research and hopefully improve the assessment of volcanic and seismic hazard in this region.

  5. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wei Lim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  6. Ecological effects of experimental drought and prescribed fire in a southern California coastal grassland

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, D.L.; Suding, K.N.; Winston, G.C.; Rocha, A.V.; Goulden, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    How drought and fire disturbance influence different levels of biological organization is poorly understood but essential for robust predictions of the effects of environmental change. During a year of severe drought, we conducted a prescribed fire in a Mediterranean-type coastal grassland near Irvine, California. In the weeks following the fire we experimentally manipulated rainfall in burned and unburned portions of the grassland to determine how fire and drought interact to influence leaf ...

  7. Source correlation of biomarkers in a mangrove ecosystem on Santa Catarina Island in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative distribution of several compounds identified in four samples of recently deposited sediments of the Itacorubi Mangrove located on the Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil, was compared with similar data on compounds extracted from fresh leaves of three mangrove species (Avicennia schaueriana, the dominant species in the area, Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa and the Gramineae Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenols, previously identified in mangrove species in northern Brazil, were also found. A. schaueriana mainly contains β-amyrin (90.6 μg g-1 of extractable organic matter; low amounts of friedelin, betulin and germanicol were detected only in the leaf extract of this species. R. mangle also contained a significant amount of β-amyrin and it was the only species where taraxerol was detected. In contrast to the leaves, sediment extracts were dominated by germanicol, α-amyrin and campesterol. Despite its chemical lability, betulin was also detected. Two homologous series of α and ω-hydroxy fatty acids were detected in the acid-alkaline fraction. In spite of being reported in the literature as components of terrigenous plants, saturated ω-hydroxy acids were not identified. Our results indicate that although triterpenols may be used as biomarkers for mangrove-derived organic matter, their relative distribution can change according to the region.A distribuição relativa de vários compostos identificados em quatro amostras de sedimentos recentemente depositados no manguezal do Itacorubi, localizado na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no sul do Brasil, foi comparada a dos diversos compostos extraídos de folhas frescas de três espécies de mangues: Avicennia schaueriana, espécie dominante na região, Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa, e a gramínea Spartinna alterniflora. Terpenóis identificados previamente em espécies de mangues no norte do Brasil também foram encontrados. A espécie A. schaueriana cont

  8. Diet of the lizard Liolaemus occipitalis in the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil (Squamata-Liolaemidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Verrastro

    Full Text Available Knowledge of a species’ diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard’s diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, “sit-and-wait” or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.

  9. Coastal Barrier Resource Areas, Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined by RI CRMC were identified on quad maps and manually digitized from tablets, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Coastal Barrier Resource Areas dataset current as of 1989. Barrier Islands and Spits; s44gbb89; Barrier Beaches as defined by RI CRMC were barrier beaches as defined...

  10. Magnetotelluric imaging of the resurgent caldera on the island of Ischia (southern Italy): inferences for its structure and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troiano, A.; Carlino, S.

    2017-12-01

    The island of Ischia (located in the Bay of Naples, Italy) represents a peculiar case of a well-exposed caldera that has experienced a large (>800 m) and rapid resurgence, accompanied by volcanic activity. What drives the resurgence of calderas is a crucial issue to investigate, because this process is associated with potential eruptions and high risk to people living within and around such large active volcanic systems. To improve the knowledge of volcano-tectonic processes affecting the caldera of Ischia, electromagnetic imaging of the structures associated with its resurgence was performed and integrated with available geological information. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey of the island was carried out along two main profiles through the central-western sector, providing an electrical resistivity map to a depth of 3 km. These resistivity cross sections allowed us to identify the presence of a very shallow magmatic intrusion, possibly a laccolith, at a depth of about 1 km, which was responsible for both the resurgence and the volcanic activity. Furthermore, the tectonic structures bordering the resurgent area and the occurrence of a large thermal anomaly in the western sector of the caldera also provided a signature in the resistivity cross sections, with the magma intrusion producing advection of hot fluids with high geothermal gradients (>150 °C km-1) in the southern and western sectors. All of these data are fundamental for the assessment of the island's volcano-tectonic dynamics and their associated hazards. The structure and activity of the island have been controlled by the process of resurgence associated with the arrival of new magma and the progressive intrusion of a laccolith at a shallow depth. The reactivation of such a shallow system may imply imminent eruption which would pose a major volcanic hazard.

  11. Mechanisms causing size differences of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus among eco-islands in Southern Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsuan Hsu

    Full Text Available Numerous environmental factors can influence body size. Comparing populations in different ecological contexts is one potential approach to elucidating the most critical of such factors. In the current study, we found that the body size of the land hermit crab Coenobita rugosus was significantly larger on Dongsha Island in the South China Sea than on other eco-islands around Southern Taiwan. We hypothesized that this could be due to differences in (1 shell resources, (2 parasite impact, (3 competition, (4 predation, and (5 food. We found no supporting evidence for the first three hypotheses; the shells used by the hermit crabs on Dongsha were in poorer condition than were those used elsewhere, extremely few individuals in the region had ectoparasites, and the density of hermit crabs varied considerably among localities within each island. However, significantly higher percentages of C. rugosus reached age 3 years on Dongsha than at Siziwan bay in Taiwan. Two growth rate indices inferred from size structures suggested faster growth on Dongsha than at Siziwan. The condition index (i.e., the body mass/shield length ratio of C. rugosus was also greater on Dongsha than at Siziwan. Therefore, Dongsha hermit crabs seem to have superior diet and growth performance. Seagrass debris accumulation at the shore of Dongsha was considerable, whereas none was observed at Siziwan or on the other islands, where dicot leaves were the dominant food item for the vegetarian hermit crabs. We then experimentally evaluated the possible role of seagrass as food for C. rugosus. The crabs on Dongsha preferred seagrass to dicot leaves, and their growth increment was faster when they fed on seagrass than when they fed on dicot leaves; no such differences were found in the Siziwan hermit crabs. The aforementioned results are compatible with the food hypothesis explaining the size differences among the islands. The predator hypothesis could explain the greater life span but

  12. Metal diagenesis and transport in coastal sediments around Penang Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood; Zaharudin Ahmad; Noor Azhar Md Shazili; Rosnan Yaakob; Carpenter, R.

    2004-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of several metals and isotopes in sediment cores from around Penang Island, an area with economically important biological resources off the northwest coast of peninsular Malaysia, are reported. Because of a typical, monazite rich mineralogy in surrounding drainage basins, sedimentary metal enrichment factors relative to global average materials, enrichment factors (EFs) of >1.0 do not always indicate significant anthropogenic metal inputs. Because of extensive metal solubilization in the hot, organic carbon rich area, EFs of < 1.0 may be observed for several metals despite significant anthropogenic contributions. Comparison of metal-Al relationships in Penang area surface sediments with those in nearby and presumed uncontaminated Strait of Malacca sediments more accurately correct for atypical regional solubilization and mineralogical effects than comparison to global average materials. Such comparisons show concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, As, Sb, Zn and V have changed by less than a factor of two by anthropogenic discharges. Sedimentary concentration profiles of Pb, Zn and Cu, ratioed to Sc to normalize for variations in grain size and mineralogy, have subsurface maxima suggestive of modest and recently reduced anthropogenic inputs. Mn, U, As and Sb have Sc-normalized concentration profiles clearly affected by digenetic processes. Sc-normalized profiles of Cr, Th, Ce and Sm show only small changes with depth, confirming insignificant anthropogenic inputs and undetectable post depositional digenetic mobility. Excess 210-Pb activities and fluxes in Penang area sediments are limited by supply of this radionuclide, in contrast to sediments of both the northwestern USA. and Amazon continental shelves, where they are limited by particle scavenging reactions. 210-Pb activities in sediments of the shallow, dynamic Penang area often show erratic or unconvincing changes with depth that cannot be reliably modeled by

  13. Strange bedfellows - A deep-water hermatypic coral reef superimposed on a drowned barrier island; Southern Pulley Ridge, SW Florida platform margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, B.D.; Hine, A.C.; Halley, R.B.; Naar, D.F.; Locker, S.D.; Neumann, A.C.; Twichell, D.; Hu, C.; Donahue, B.T.; Jaap, W.C.; Palandro, D.; Ciembronowicz, K.

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern component of a subtle ridge feature extending over 200 km along the western ramped margin of the south Florida platform, known as Pulley Ridge, is composed largely of a non-reefal, coastal marine deposit. Modern biostromal reef growth caps southern Pulley Ridge (SPR), making it the deepest hermatypic reef known in American waters. Subsurface ridge strata are layered, lithified, and display a barrier island geomorphology. The deep-water reef community is dominated by platy scleractinian corals, leafy green algae, and coralline algae. Up to 60% live coral cover is observed in 60-75 m of water, although only 1-2% of surface light is available to the reef community. Vertical reef accumulation is thin and did not accompany initial ridge submergence during the most recent sea-level rise. The delayed onset of reef growth likely resulted from several factors influencing Gulf waters during early stages of the last deglaciation (???14 kyr B.P.) including; cold, low-salinity waters derived from discrete meltwater pulses, high-frequency sea-level fluctuations, and the absence of modern oceanic circulation patterns. Currently, reef growth is supported by the Loop Current, the prevailing western boundary current that impinges upon the southwest Florida platform, providing warm, clear, low-nutrient waters to SPR. The rare discovery of a preserved non-reefal lowstand shoreline capped by rich hermatypic deep-reef growth on a tectonically stable continental shelf is significant for both accurate identification of late Quaternary sea-level position and in better constraining controls on the depth limits of hermatypic reefs and their capacity for adaptation to extremely low light levels. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alien species of fish parasites in the coastal lakes and lagoons of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Morozińska-Gogol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Alien species are now found all over the world. New fish parasites have been unintentionally introduced with infected alien fish imported for aquaculture or have sometimes spread with their intermediate invertebrate hosts transported in the ballast waters of ships. Four alien fish parasites have been recorded in Polish coastal lakes and lagoons, all parasitising eels. Three were introduced with the final host - the Japanese eel - introduced for aquaculture (Anguillicola crassus, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae and Pseudodactylogyrus bini and one (Paratenuisentis ambiguus with its sole intermediate host (Gammarus tigrinus.

  15. Spatial and temporal variations in lagoon and coastal processes of the southern Brazilian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Herz, R.

    1980-01-01

    From a collection of information gathered during a long period, through the orbital platforms SKYLAB and LANDSAT, it was possible to establish a method for the systematic study of the dynamical regime of lagoon and marine surface waters, on coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul. The series of multispectral images analyzed by visual and automatic techniques put in evidence spatial and temporal variations reflected in the optical properties of waters, which carry different loads of materials in suspension. The identified patterns offer a synoptic picture of phenomena of great amplitude, from which trends of circulation can be inferred, correlating the atmospheric and hydrologic variables simultaneously to the overflight of orbital vehicles.

  16. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability using sig tools. Comparison between "La Barra town, Buenaventura, (Pacific Ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina islands (Colombian Caribbean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Morales-Giraldo, David; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of hazards and vulnerability associated to coastal erosion along coastlines is a first issue in order to establish plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas. La Barra Town, Buenaventura (Pacific ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina Islands (Colombian Caribbean) were selected to develop a detailed analysis of coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability from different perspectives: i) physical (hazard) , ii) social , iii) conservation approach and iv) cultural heritage (Raizal). The analysis was made by a semi quantitative approximation method, applying variables associated with the intrinsic coastal zone properties (i.e. type of beach, exposure of the coast to waves, etc.). Coastal erosion data and associated variables as well land use; conservation and heritage data were used to carry out a further detailed analysis of the human - structural vulnerability and exposure to hazards. The data shows erosion rates close to -17 m yr-1 in La Barra Town (highlighting their critical condition and urgent relocation process), while in some sectors of Providence Island, such as Old Town, erosion rate was -5 m yr-1. The observed erosion process affects directly the land use and the local and regional economy. The differences between indexes and the structural and physical vulnerability as well the use of methodological variables are presented in the context of each region. In this work, all the information was worked using a GIS environment since this allows editing and updating the information continuously. The application of this methodology generates useful information in order to promote risk management as well prevention, mitigation and reduction plans. In both areas the adaptation must be a priority strategy to be considered, including relocation alternatives and sustainable protection with the support of studies of uses and future outlooks in the coast. The methodology is framed into the use of GIS tools and it highlights their benefits

  17. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Processes Data Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    southern California coastline and is now in the Gulf of California. The Gulf of California spreading center is joined to the Gorda spreading center (off...the influence of a semi-permanent high pressure ridge, the Sierra High (Douglas and Fritz, 1972). The ridge remained strong and overdeveloped for more...previous 800 years. Each of these droughts has been flanked by flood periods when the Sierra High was broken down allowing sub-tropical disturbances to

  18. [The bacterial pollution of coastal waters of the southern suburbs of Tunis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capapé, C; Chadli, A

    1987-01-01

    The authors present in this paper a study of the bacterian pollution of inshored waters of southern suburbs of Tunis, on the basis of 180 samples collected in 15 different stations, 15 monthly (one for each station). Two districts have been considered: Ez-Zahra and Hammam-Lif. The two districts are submitted to an important bacterian pollution, mainly due to human factor but also to geographical and geomorphological data, to physico-chemical parameters and to some biological characters.

  19. Summer survey of fur seals at Prince Edward Island, southern Indian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The onshore distributions and the abundances of Antarctic fur sealsArctocephalus gazella and Subantarctic fur seals A. tropicalis were determined at Prince Edward Island during 16–20 December 2008. This repeats a survey conducted in December 2001 and extends the area surveyed to include the entire south-west ...

  20. Assimilation of coastal acoustic tomography data using an unstructured triangular grid ocean model for water with complex coastlines and islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ze-Nan; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Guo, Xinyu; Fan, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Chuanzheng

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, we present the application of an unstructured triangular grid to the Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model using the ensemble Kalman filter scheme, to assimilate coastal acoustic tomography (CAT) data. The fine horizontal and vertical current field structures around the island inside the observation region were both reproduced well. The assimilated depth-averaged velocities had better agreement with the independent acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data than the velocities obtained by inversion and simulation. The root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between depth-averaged current velocities obtained by data assimilation and those obtained by ADCPs was 0.07 m s-1, which was less than the corresponding difference obtained by inversion and simulation (0.12 and 0.17 m s-1, respectively). The assimilated vertical layer velocities also exhibited better agreement with ADCP than the velocities obtained by simulation. RMSDs between assimilated and ADCP data in vertical layers ranged from 0.02 to 0.14 m s-1, while RMSDs between simulation and ADCP data ranged from 0.08 to 0.27 m s-1. These results indicate that assimilation had the highest accuracy. Sensitivity experiments involving the elimination of sound transmission lines showed that missing data had less impact on assimilation than on inversion. Sensitivity experiments involving the elimination of CAT stations showed that the assimilation with four CAT stations was the relatively economical and reasonable procedure in this experiment. These results indicate that, compared with inversion and simulation, data assimilation of CAT data with an unstructured triangular grid is more effective in reconstructing the current field.

  1. Effects of disturbance on vegetation by sand accretion and erosion across coastal dune habitats on a barrier island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas E

    2015-01-12

    Coastal geomorphology and vegetation are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate change, because of disturbances caused by sea-level rise and increased storm frequency. Dunes have critical reciprocal interactions with vegetation; dunes create habitats for plants, while plants help to build dunes and promote geomorphological stability. These interactions are also greatly affected by disturbances associated with sand movement, either in accretion (dune building) or in erosion. The magnitude and intensity of disturbances are expected to vary with habitat, from the more exposed and less stable foredunes, to low-lying and flood-prone interdunes, to the protected and older backdunes. Permanent plots were established at three different spatial scales on St George Island, FL, USA, where the vegetation and dune elevation were quantified annually from 2011 to 2013. Change in elevation, either through accretion or erosion, was used as a measure of year-to-year disturbance over the 2 years of the study. At the scale of different dune habitats, foredunes were found to have the greatest disturbance, while interdunes had the least. Elevation and habitat (i.e. foredune, interdune, backdune) were significantly correlated with plant community composition. Generalized linear models conducted within each habitat show that the change in elevation (disturbance) is also significantly correlated with the plant community, but only within foredunes and interdunes. The importance of disturbance in exposed foredunes was expected and was found to be related to an increasing abundance of a dominant species (Uniola paniculata) in eroding areas. The significant effect of disturbance in the relatively stable interdunes was surprising, and may be due to the importance of flooding associated with small changes in elevation in these low-lying areas. Overall, this study documents changes in the plant community associated with elevation, and demonstrates that the foredune and interdune

  2. Quaternary sea-level history and the origin of the northernmost coastal aeolianites in the Americas: Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel; Pigati, Jeff; Schumann, R. Randall; Skipp, Gary; Porat, Naomi; DeVogel, Stephen B.

    2018-01-01

    Along most of the Pacific Coast of North America, sand dunes are dominantly silicate-rich. On the California Channel Islands, however, dunes are carbonate-rich, due to high productivity offshore and a lack of dilution by silicate minerals. Older sands on the Channel Islands contain enough carbonate to be cemented into aeolianite. Several generations of carbonate aeolianites are present on the California Channel Islands and represent the northernmost Quaternary coastal aeolianites on the Pacific Coast of North America. The oldest aeolianites on the islands may date to the early Pleistocene and thus far have only been found on Santa Cruz Island. Aeolianites with well-developed soils are found on both San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island and likely date to the middle Pleistocene. The youngest and best-dated aeolianites are located on San Miguel Island and Santa Rosa Island. These sediments were deposited during the late Pleistocene following the emergence of marine terraces that date to the last interglacial complex (~ 120,000 yr to ~ 80,000 yr). Based on radiocarbon and luminescence dating, the ages of these units correspond in time with marine isotope stages [MIS] 4, 3, and 2. Sea level was significantly lower than present during all three time periods. Reconstruction of insular paleogeography indicates that large areas to the north and northwest of the islands would have been exposed at these times, providing a ready source of carbonate-rich skeletal sands. These findings differ from a previously held concept that carbonate aeolianites are dominantly an interglacial phenomenon forming during high stands of sea. In contrast, our results are consistent with the findings of other investigators of the past decade who have reported evidence of glacial-age and interstadial-age aeolianites on coastlines of Australia and South Africa. They are also consistent with observations made by Darwin regarding the origin of aeolianites on the island of St. Helena, in the

  3. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine J.H. van Oppen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative

  4. A population genetic assessment of coral recovery on highly disturbed reefs of the Keppel Island archipelago in the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Berkelmans, Ray; Peplow, Lesa M; Jones, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs surrounding the islands lying close to the coast are unique to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in that they are frequently exposed to disturbance events including floods caused by cyclonic rainfall, strong winds and occasional periods of prolonged above-average temperatures during summer. In one such group of islands in the southern GBR, the Keppel Island archipelago, climate-driven disturbances frequently result in major coral mortality. Whilst these island reefs have clearly survived such dramatic disturbances in the past, the consequences of extreme mortality events may include the loss of genetic diversity, and hence adaptive potential, and a reduction in fitness due to inbreeding, especially if new recruitment from external sources is limited. Here we examined the level of isolation of the Keppel Island group as well as patterns of gene flow within the Keppel Islands using 10 microsatellite markers in nine populations of the coral, Acropora millepora. Bayesian cluster analysis and assignment tests indicated gene flow is restricted, but not absent, between the outer and inner Keppel Island groups, and that extensive gene flow exists within each of these island groups. Comparison of the Keppel Island data with results from a previous GBR-wide study that included a single Keppel Island population, confirmed that A. millepora in the Keppel Islands is genetically distinct from populations elsewhere on the GBR, with exception of the nearby inshore High Peak Reef just north of the Keppel Islands. We compared patterns of genetic diversity in the Keppel Island populations with those from other GBR populations and found them to be slightly, but significantly lower, consistent with the archipelago being geographically isolated, but there was no evidence for recent bottlenecks or deviation from mutation-drift equilibrium. A high incidence of private alleles in the Keppel Islands, particularly in the outer islands, supports their relative isolation and contributes

  5. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², p<0.05 test growth was significantly greater for females than for males. Based on the Chen test, von Bertalanffy growth curves were different among the study sites (RSS, p<0.05. Based on the observed differences in growth parameters among sampling sites (coastal and riverine environments future research need to be conducted on migration and population genetics, in order to delineate the stock structure of this population and support management programs.

  6. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  7. Seasonal features of atmospheric surface-layer characteristics over a tropical coastal station in Southern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Prasad, K.B.R.R.; Srinivas, C.V.; Baskaran, R.; Venkatraman, B.

    2016-01-01

    Dispersion of air-borne effluents occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where turbulence is the main physical processes. In the surface layer of ABL, the mechanical (shear) generation of turbulence exceeds the buoyant generation or consumption of turbulence. In this layer, under steady state and horizontally homogeneous conditions various forces in the governing equation can be neglected and one can apply Monin-Obukhov Similarity Theory (MOST) to estimate the turbulent fluxes and other surface layer variables. Understanding the turbulent characteristics of the surface layer is vital for modeling of turbulent diffusion in regional numerical weather and pollution dispersion models. The objective of this study is to verify the validity of the MOST at the coastal site Kalpakkam under various atmospheric stability conditions with respect to different seasons for modeling atmospheric dispersion of radioactive effluents

  8. Rainfall drives atmospheric ice-nucleating particles in the coastal climate of southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice-nucleating particles (INPs active at modest supercooling (e.g. −8 °C; INP−8 can transform clouds from liquid to mixed phase, even at very small number concentrations (< 10 m−3. Over the course of 15 months, we found very similar patterns in weekly concentrations of INP−8 in PM10 (median  =  1.7 m−3, maximum  =  10.1 m−3 and weekly amounts of rainfall (median  =  28 mm, maximum  =  153 mm at Birkenes, southern Norway. Most INP−8 were probably aerosolised locally by the impact of raindrops on plant, litter and soil surfaces. Major snowfall and heavy rain onto snow-covered ground were not mirrored by enhanced numbers of INP−8. Further, transport model calculations for large (> 4 m−3 and small (< 4 m−3 numbers of INP−8 revealed that potential source regions likely to provide precipitation to southern Norway were associated with large numbers of INP−8. The proportion of land cover and land use type in potential source regions was similar for large and small numbers of INP−8. In PM2. 5 we found consistently about half as many INP−8 as in PM10. From mid-May to mid-September, INP−8 correlated positively with the fungal spore markers arabitol and mannitol, suggesting that some fraction of INP−8 during that period may consist of fungal spores. In the future, warmer winters with more rain instead of snow may enhance airborne concentrations of INP−8 during the cold season in southern Norway and in other regions with a similar climate.

  9. Meteorological Data Inventory, Southern California, Coastal Zone, Ragged Point (San Luis Obispo County) to Mexican Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Heavy continuous rain, severe floods Feb. 1884 All Continuous rain, severe floods Jan. 9, 1907 Santa Ynez River 4 day storm, 11.8" rain at San Marcos ...Ventura Mar. 2, 1938 All 4 day storm, heavy floods Jan. 15, 1952 All 4 day storm, 15" at San Marcos Pass Nov. 20, 1967 Santa Barbara, Ventura 4 day local...Forest and Range Experiment Station, Berkeley. Ritter, J.K., (1972), "Cyclic Sedimentation in Agua Hedionda Lagoon, Southern 109 California", Proc: ACSE

  10. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Seattle (WA) WFO - Whatcom, San Juan, Skagit, Island, Snohomish, and King Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital elevation model (DEM) is a part of a series of DEMs produced for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's Sea...

  11. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: Guam Weather Forecast Office (GUM WFO) - Saipan, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  12. Historical Earthquakes and Expected Seismic Damage at Ischia Island, Resurgent Caldera (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.

    2005-05-01

    Information on the seismicity of the Ischia island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. The most recent earthquake of 1883 caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island, specially at Casamicciola town. This event (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed. After the 1883 earthquake there was a period of seismic quiescence except for some isolated events felt at beginning of the last century and the very occasional micro-earthquakes recorded in the last 20 years in the northern part of the island. The epicenter of all known earthquakes are on the northern slope of Mt. Epomeo (787 m a. s.l.) resurgent block, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. The Mt. Epomeo is a resurgent structure in the central sector of the island, whose uplift is correlated to the caldera resurgence process, for the increase of pressure of shallow magma reservoir. The caldera was formed after a large explosive eruption that deposited the Mt. Epomeo Green Tuff, about 55 ka B.P. The uplift, which started about 30 ka B.P., was of about 900 meters. The resurgent structure is bordered by a system of faults and fractures, with NW-SE, NE-SW and N-S strike and along these faults, in the northern sector, the seismicity has been localized. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such

  13. Islands and the offshoring possibilities and strategies of contemporary states: insights on/for the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands have transitioned from being conceived as prototypes of idealised polities to being deliberately engineered as offshore enclaves where the rules of the parent state need not fully apply. With their manageable size, separation and distance from the mainland, small islands are rendered as convenient laboratories for entrepreneurial political engineering, and equally handy sites for research on the same. Island migration policies manifest this contemporary flexibility and creative governance of states. As we approach the 500th anniversary of Thomas More’s Utopia (1516, this paper explores these ideas in relation to the migration phenomenon on Europe’s southern flank. Using an island studies approach, it discusses the problematique of island spaces caught in this dynamic but which cannot be ‘offshore’ because, as unitary island states (Cyprus and Malta and unlike larger states with small outlying and peripheral island components (Italy and Australia, they must somehow be ‘both inside and outside’. The paper goes on to critique such facile binarisms, arguing for a more nuanced appreciation of islands as well as a recognition that what may be, at face value, an expression of a state’s authority is as much a manifestation of its limitations.

  14. Massive salp outbreaks in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (Southern Chile: possible causes and ecological consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Giesecke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 several massive salp outbreaks of the Subantarctic species Ihlea magalhanica were recorded in the inner sea of Chiloé Island (ISCh, Southern Chile, affecting both phytoplankton abundance and salmon farmers by causing high fish mortality. First outbreaks were recorded during February 2010 when Ihlea magalhanica reached up to 654,000 ind m-3 close to the net pens in Maillen Island and consecutive outbreaks could be followed during March and from October to November 2010. One month prior to the first recorded salp outbreak, the adjacent oceanic region and ISCh showed a sharp decline of ca. 1.0°C in sea surface temperature and an atypical pattern of oceanic sea surface currents, changing from a predominantly meridional (northward to a zonal (eastward direction, probably causing a massive Subantarctic Water parcel to enter the ISCh. During the outbreaks, surface chlorophyll concentration decreased from an historical mean of 13.8 to less than 4 mg Chl-a m-3, and did not return to normal conditions throughout the entire year, and similar results were also observed in phytoplankton abundance. The abundance of salp aggregations were highest close to the salmon net pens, which acted as physical barriers, and may have favored the successful reproduction and persistence of the outbreaks during 2010. The possible impact of these outbreaks on phytoplankton quality and quantity, as well as potential scenarios for the development of further outbreaks is discussed.

  15. Assessment of Damage and Adaptation Strategies for Structures and Infrastructure from Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise for a Coastal Community in Rhode Island, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Small

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of inundation, erosion, and wave damage for a coastal community in Rhode Island, USA. A methodology called the Coastal Environmental Risk Index (CERI was used that incorporates levels of inundation including sea level rise, wave heights using STWAVE, and detailed information about individual structures from an E911 database. This information was input into damage functions developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers following Hurricane Sandy. Damage from erosion was evaluated separately from local published erosion rates. Using CERI, two different adaptation strategies were evaluated that included a combination of dune restoration, protective berms, and a tide gate. A total of 151 out of 708 structures were estimated to be protected from inundation and wave action by the combined measures. More importantly, the use of CERI allowed for the assessment of the impact of different adaptation strategies on both individual structures and an entire community in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS environment. This tool shows promise for use by coastal managers to assess damage and mitigate risk to coastal communities.

  16. PBO Borehole Strainmeters: 2017 Episodic Tremor and Slip Event for Southern Vancouver Island, BC, Canada through Olympia, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boskirk, E. J.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Henderson, D. B.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory's (PBO) borehole strainmeters along the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) record the development and migration of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS). Along the southern Vancouver Island to Olympia, WA portion of the CSZ ETS events seem to repeat every 14 months. ETS events are non-volcanic tremor swarms that occur over periods of weeks, often migrating along segments of the subduction zone and can release the energy equivalent to a M7 or greater earthquake. Each ETS event is different; initial propagation location, ETS movement, duration, and direction all vary. Constraints provided by strainmeter observations of ETS events illuminate strain release patterns along the subducting slab interface and may help resolve questions regarding the location of the locked zone of the slab and what role ETS events play in the CSZ earthquake cycle. The 2017 CSZ ETS began in early February continuing through early April. Beginning in the northern Olympic Peninsula, near Port Angeles, it migrated south towards Olympia over the course of a week. After a two week pause it resumed under the Straits of Juan de Fuca and propagated northwest under Vancouver Island. There are 15 PBO borehole strainmeters along this segment, and ETS strain observations correlate with seismic and GPS measurements. The PBO borehole strainmeters are sensitive even over great distances from the ETS epicenters, and observe compression or extension relative to the ETS migration. Openly available PBO borehole strainmeter data used by the community has made significant contributions to understanding the ETS process, including the determination that ETS slip is tidally modulated. Data are publically available through UNAVCO and IRIS, which provide links to online tutorials and scripts. There are 32 strainmeters covering the CSZ from southern Vancouver Island, Canada to northern California, USA, and data spans back to 2005. Each site has a Gladwin tensor borehole strainmeter, a Malin three

  17. Unravelling the Formation and Exhumation of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and Basement in the Southern Aegean, Sikinos Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulaki, E. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Flansburg, M. E.; Soukis, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Cycladic Islands of Greece expose an assemblage of HP/LT metamorphic rocks that record both processes related to subduction and backarc metamorphic core complex formation in the wake of the Hellenic subduction zone retreat. Sikinos Island is located in the southern Cyclades and exposes both the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) - greenschist-facies marbles and schists with preserved blueschist-facies - and the tectonically underlying Cycladic Basement(CB) - felsic plutonic rocks and metasedimentary country rocks known as the Carapace. Both units experienced Eocene subduction under eclogite/blueschist facies conditions and Miocene large-magnitude back-arc extension under greenschist facies conditions. The contact between the two units has been described as an extensional shear zone or a subduction-related thrust that was reactivated as an extensional top-to-the-N detachment. This study presents new (1) zircon U-Pb data to determine detrital provenance and maximum depositional ages (MDAs) of the CBU intervals on Sikinos, constrain protolith ages for the CB and Carapace, and quantify the timing of HP-LT metamorphism, (2) zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages to elucidate the cooling and exhumation history of the CBU and CB in Sikinos and the nature of the contact between the two units. Results from zircon U-Pb analysis from the CBU show a spread of detrital zircon U-Pb ages dominated by Triassic, Permian Variscan, Pan-African and Proterozoic modes and MDAs from Early Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. This is in contrast to ubiquitous Triassic CBU on other Cycladic islands. LA-SS-ICP depth-profile analysis allows for simultaneous trace element analysis and for the identification of metamorphic zircon rims with ages of 26, 50 and 70 Ma. Notably, metamorphic rims of 26 Ma have not been reported in the CBU of the southern Cyclades prior to this study. These rims appear to be restricted a zone along the CBU-Basement contact, suggesting fluid flow as a possible explanation

  18. The impact of antecedent fire area on burned area in southern California coastal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Owen F.; Bradstock, Ross A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent wildfire disasters in southern California highlight the need for risk reduction strategies for the region, of which fuel reduction via prescribed burning is one option. However, there is no consensus about the effectiveness of prescribed fire in reducing the area of wildfire. Here, we use 29 years of historical fire mapping to quantify the relationship between annual wildfire area and antecedent fire area in predominantly shrub and grassland fuels in seven southern California counties, controlling for annual variation in weather patterns. This method has been used elsewhere to measure leverage: the reduction in wildfire area resulting from one unit of prescribed fire treatment. We found little evidence for a leverage effect (leverage = zero). Specifically our results showed no evidence that wildfire area was negatively influenced by previous fires, and only weak relationships with weather variables rainfall and Santa Ana wind occurrences, which were variables included to control for inter-annual variation. We conclude that this is because only 2% of the vegetation burns each year and so wildfires rarely encounter burned patches and chaparral shrublands can carry a fire within 1 or 2 years after previous fire. Prescribed burning is unlikely to have much influence on fire regimes in this area, though targeted treatment at the urban interface may be effective at providing defensible space for protecting assets. These results fit an emerging global model of fire leverage which position California at the bottom end of a continuum, with tropical savannas at the top (leverage = 1: direct replacement of wildfire by prescribed fire) and Australian eucalypt forests in the middle (leverage ∼ 0.25).

  19. The Influence of Land Subsidence, Quarrying, Drainage, Irrigation and Forest Fire on Groundwater Resources and Biodiversity Along the Southern Po Plain Coastal Zone (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, M. A.; Mollema, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal zone of the southern Po plain is characterized by low lying land, which is reclaimed to permit settlements and agriculture. The history, tourism resorts and peculiar coastal environments make this territory attractive and valuable. Natural and fluid-extraction-induced land subsidence along with coastal erosion are major problems. Touristic development has strongly modified the landscape; coastal dunes have been in part removed to make room for hotels and quarrying has caused the formation of gravel pit lakes close to the shoreline. Protected natural areas include a belt of coastal dunes, wetlands, and the internal historical forests of San Vitale and Classe. The dunes have largely lost their original vegetation ecosystem, because years ago they have been colonized with pine trees to protect the adjacent farmland from sea spray. These pine forests are currently a fire hazard. Land reclamation drainage keeps the water table artificially low. Results of these anthropogenic disturbances on the hydrology include a decrease in infiltration rates, loss of freshwater surface bodies, encroachment of saltwater inland from the river estuaries, salinization of the aquifer, wetlands and soil with a loss in plant and aquatic species biodiversity. Feedback mechanisms are complex: as land subsidence continues, drainage increases at the same pace promoting sea-water intrusion. The salinity of the groundwater does not allow for plant species richness nor for the survival of large pine trees. Farmland irrigation and fires in the pine forests, on the other hand, allow for increased infiltration and freshening of the aquifer and at the same time promote plant species diversity. Our work shows that the characteristics of the southern Po coastal zone require integrated management of economic activities, natural areas, and resources. This approach is different from the ad hoc measures taken so far, because it requires long term planning and setting a priority of objectives.

  20. A comparison of neustonic plastic and zooplankton abundance in southern California's coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C J; Moore, S L; Weisberg, S B; Lattin, G L; Zellers, A F

    2002-10-01

    The density of neustonic plastic particles was compared to that of zooplankton in the coastal ocean near Long Beach, California. Two trawl surveys were conducted, one after an extended dry period when there was little land-based runoff, the second shortly after a storm when runoff was extensive. On each survey, neuston samples were collected at five sites along a transect parallel to shore using a manta trawl lined with 333 micro mesh. Average plastic density during the study was 8 pieces per cubic meter, though density after the storm was seven times that prior to the storm. The mass of plastics was also higher after the storm, though the storm effect on mass was less than it was for density, reflecting a smaller average size of plastic particles after the storm. The average mass of plastic was two and a half times greater than that of plankton, and even greater after the storm. The spatial pattern of the ratio also differed before and after a storm. Before the storm, greatest plastic to plankton ratios were observed at two stations closest to shore, whereas after the storm these had the lowest ratios.

  1. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-10-01

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  2. Lagrangian studies of phytoplankton growth and grazing relationships in a coastal upwelling ecosystem off Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michael R.; Ohman, Mark D.; Goericke, Ralf; Stukel, Michael R.; Tsyrklevich, Kate

    2009-12-01

    Experimental studies of phytoplankton growth and grazing processes were conducted in the coastal upwelling system off Point Conception, California to test the hypothesis that phytoplankton growth and grazing losses determine, to first order, the local dynamics of phytoplankton in the upwelling circulation. Eight experiments of 3-5 days each were conducted over the course of two cruises in May-June 2006 and April 2007 following the trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters. Rates of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were determined by daily in situ dilution incubations at 8 depths spanning the euphotic zone. Mesozooplankton grazing was assessed by gut fluorescence analysis of animals collected from net tows through the euphotic zone. We compared directly the net rates of change observed for the ambient phytoplankton community to the net growth rates predicted from experimental determinations of each process rate. The resulting relationship accounted for 91% of the variability observed, providing strong support for the growth-grazing hypothesis. In addition, grazing by mesozooplankton was unexpectedly high and variable, driving a substantial positive to negative shift in phytoplankton net rate of change between years despite comparable environmental conditions and similar high growth rates and suggesting strong top-down control potential. The demonstrated agreement between net ambient and experimental community changes is an important point of validation for using field data to parameterize models. Data sets of this type may provide an important source of new information and rate constraints for developing better coupled biological-physical models of upwelling system dynamics.

  3. Population genetic structure of the round stingray Urobatis halleri (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes) in southern California and the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, S M; Lowe, C G; Feldheim, K A; Wilson, R R; Brusslan, J A

    2010-08-01

    The round stingray, Urobatis halleri, is a viviparous elasmobranch that inhabits inshore, benthic habitats ranging from the western U.S.A. to Panama. The population genetic structure of this species was inferred with seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in samples collected at three sites in coastal southern California, one near Santa Catalina Island, California and one in the eastern Gulf of California. Urobatis halleri is relatively common, but little is known of its movement patterns or population structure. Small F(ST) values (-0.0017 to 0.0005) suggested little structure among coastal populations of southern and Baja California. The population sampled at Santa Catalina Island, which is separated by a deep-water channel from the coastal sites, however, was significantly divergent (large F(ST), 0.0251) from the other populations, suggesting low connectivity with coastal populations. The Santa Catalina Island population also had the lowest allele richness and lowest average heterozygosity, suggesting recent population bottlenecks in size.

  4. El Niño Variability in the Coastal Desert of Southern Peru during the Mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontugne, Michel; Usselmann, Pierre; Lavallée, Danièle; Julien, Michèle; Hatté, Christine

    1999-09-01

    Fourteen organic-rich sedimentary layers in the deposits at Quebrada de los Burros, in coastal southern Peru (Tacna department), lie between two debris-flow units, interpreted to result from El Niño events, at 8980 cal yr B.P. and after 3380 cal yr B.P., respectively. The accumulation of the fine-grained and low-energy sediments of this deposit during the mid-Holocene is incompatible with the occurrence of El Niño events in this region, as these would produce catastrophic flood deposits. The occurrence of organic-rich sediments and evidence of an enhancement of upwelling strength at this time imply the existence of a permanent water supply resulting from an increased condensation of fog at mid-altitudes. These results suggest a lower intensity and, perhaps, a lower frequency of occurrence of the El Niño phenomenon during the mid-Holocene. It is precisely during this period that the most important human settlements are found at this site, probably indicating the presence of reliable supply of fresh water. The chronologies for wetlands in the central south altiplano are out of phase with those indicating increased soil moisture episodes on the coast, implying a long-term difference in climate between these two regions.

  5. Effect of seed mass on germination and growth in three dominant species in southern Brazilian coastal dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. CORDAZZO

    Full Text Available The effect of seed mass on germination and growth was tested in fresh-seeds of Blutaparon portulacoides, Panicum racemosum, and Spartina ciliata, selected at random in southern Brazilian populations. The seed mass varied within a population of the three species. Both B. portulacoides and P. racemosum showed normal frequency distribution of seed mass, while S. ciliata did not. Significant differences were observed in seed germination between large and small seeds of all species. In all species the capacity of seedling elongation was greater in seedlings of large seeds than those of small ones. Relative growth rate of seedlings of P. racemosum and S. ciliata decreased with time in all seed mass size-classes. On the other hand, the relative growth rate of B. portulacoides seedlings increased during the first 40 days. Seed mass is an important biological factor, affecting seed germination, seedling elongation, and growth of these species, and favoring large seeds, specially in areas of active sand accretion like coastal dunes.

  6. Effect of seed mass on germination and growth in three dominant species in southern Brazilian coastal dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORDAZZO C. V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of seed mass on germination and growth was tested in fresh-seeds of Blutaparon portulacoides, Panicum racemosum, and Spartina ciliata, selected at random in southern Brazilian populations. The seed mass varied within a population of the three species. Both B. portulacoides and P. racemosum showed normal frequency distribution of seed mass, while S. ciliata did not. Significant differences were observed in seed germination between large and small seeds of all species. In all species the capacity of seedling elongation was greater in seedlings of large seeds than those of small ones. Relative growth rate of seedlings of P. racemosum and S. ciliata decreased with time in all seed mass size-classes. On the other hand, the relative growth rate of B. portulacoides seedlings increased during the first 40 days. Seed mass is an important biological factor, affecting seed germination, seedling elongation, and growth of these species, and favoring large seeds, specially in areas of active sand accretion like coastal dunes.

  7. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in marine organic matters of the coastal ecosystem in Ubatuba, southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Y.; Wada, E.

    1994-01-01

    The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of the biota, sediment and land soil were surveyed in a coastal ecosystem near Ubatuba, southern Brazil. The phytoplankton and microzooplankton, fecal pellets of salpas, and zooplankton showed similar carbon isotope ratios (ca-21.0%), indicating that they thrive on similar carbon sources. The benthic animals showed a slightly higher carbon isotope ratio which can be attributed both to a trophic level enrichment effect and the result of a mixed food source which includes seaweeds. Three leaves found on the sea bottom showed the lowest carbon isotope ratio, i.e. the typical C3 plant value (-26.0%). Since all marine biota collected in this region showed higher carbon isotope rations than the leaves, those leaves carried into the sea are, apparently, not a significant carbon source for direct consumption and enter in the food web after decomposition. The nitrogen isotope rations of zooplankton and benthic animals had a slightly higher value than those of fecal pallets of salpas, indicating trophic level enrichment. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  8. The impact of hydrological conditions on salinisation and nitrate concentration in the coastal Velez River aquifer (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentini, Azzurra; Kohfahl, Claus; Benavente, Jose; García-Aróstegui, José Luis; Vadillo, Inaki; Meyer, Hanno; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2009-10-01

    This study reports the impact of hydrological conditions on salinisation and nitrate concentrations of a coastal aquifer located at the Mediterranean Sea, southern Spain. Eighty-two samples of ground- and surface water taken during two extreme hydrological events between 1994 and 1996 at 25 different wells were evaluated with regard to hydrochemistry, focusing on nitrate concentrations and salinisation, which constitute the main hazard of this aquifer. Furthermore, hydrochemical data were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). Additionally, in 2007 13 ground- and surface water samples taken at 12 different locations were analysed for stable isotopes of D/18O, and one sample was analysed for 15N. Since 1993 until present saltwater intrusion was observed only during dry hydrological conditions in 1994; it showed an irregular salinisation pattern probably related to locally elevated hydraulic conductivities. Nitrate concentrations increase significantly during wet hydrologic conditions owing to uptake of nitrate by rising groundwater. Stable isotopes of groundwater reveal an Atlantic origin of the precipitation that recharges the aquifer and a minor amount of groundwater recharge by the water coming from the La Viñuela reservoir, which is used for irrigation over the aquifer. 15N isotopes point to a considerable input of nitrates derived from organic fertilisers.

  9. Decadal changes in the land use/land cover and shoreline along the coastal districts of southern Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, A; Balaji, R

    2015-07-01

    The coastal zone along the districts of Surat, Navsari, and Valsad in southern Gujarat, India, is reported to be facing serious environmental challenges in the form of shoreline erosion, wetland loss, and man-made encroachments. This study assesses the decadal land use/ land cover (LULC) changes in these three districts for the years 1990, 2001, and 2014 using satellite datasets of Landsat TM, ETM, and OLI. The LULC changes are identified by using band ratios as a pre-classification step, followed by implementation of hybrid classification (a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification). An accuracy assessment is carried out for each dataset, and the overall accuracy ranges from 90 to 95%. It is observed that the spatial extents of aquaculture, urban built-up, and barren classes have appreciated over time, whereas the coverage of mudflats has depreciated due to rapid urbanization. The changes in the shoreline of these districts have also been analyzed for the same years, and significant changes are found in the form of shoreline erosion. The LULC maps prepared as well as the shoreline change analysis done for this study area will enable the local decision makers to adopt better land-use planning and shoreline protection measures, which will further aid in sustainable future developments in this region.

  10. Assessing the Risk of Aquifer Salinization in a Large-Scale Coastal Irrigation Scheme in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Daniele; Passarella, Giuseppe; D'Agostino, Daniela; Giordano, Raffaele; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; Maggi, Sabino; Bruno, Delia; Foglia, Laura

    2017-04-01

    A research study was conducted on a coastal irrigated agricultural area of southern Italy to assess the risks of aquifer degradation likely resulting from the intensive groundwater pumping from individual farm wells and reduced aquifer recharge. Information were collected both from farmers and delivery system's operators during a survey conducted in 2012 revealing that farmers depend mainly on groundwater with the aim to achieve flexible irrigation management as opposed to the rigid rotational delivery service of surface water supply provided by the local water management agency. The study area is intensively farmed by small land-holding growers with high-value micro-irrigated horticultural crops. Our team appraised the soil and aquifer degradation hazards using a simplified procedure for environmental risk assessment that allowed identifying the risk-generating processes, evaluating the magnitude of impacts, and estimating the overall risks significance. We also collected the stakeholders' perceptions on agricultural water management and use through field interviews, whereas parallel investigations revealed significant aquifer salinity increase during the recent years. As a final step, some preliminary risk mitigation options were appraised by exploring the growers' response to possible changes of irrigation deliveries by the water management agency. The present study integrated multi-annual observations, data interpretation, and modelling efforts, which jointly enabled the analysis of complex water management scenarios and the development of informed decisions. Keywords: Environmental risk assessment, Fuzzy cognitive maps, Groundwater degradation, Seawater intrusion

  11. Biotelemetry data for golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) captured in coastal southern California, November 2014–February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Madden, Melanie C.; Sebes, Jeremy B.; Bloom, Peter H.; Katzner, Todd E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-04-21

    The status of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in coastal southern California is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with local, State, and other Federal agencies began a multi-year survey and tracking program of golden eagles to address questions regarding habitat use, movement behavior, nest occupancy, genetic population structure, and human impacts on eagles. Golden eagle trapping and tracking efforts began in October 2014 and continued until early March 2015. During the first trapping season that focused on San Diego County, we captured 13 golden eagles (8 females and 5 males). During the second trapping season that began in November 2015, we focused on trapping sites in San Diego, Orange, and western Riverside Counties. By February 23, 2016, we captured an additional 14 golden eagles (7 females and 7 males). In this report, biotelemetry data were collected between November 22, 2014, and February 23, 2016. The location data for eagles ranged as far north as San Luis Obispo, California, and as far south as La Paz, Baja California, Mexico.

  12. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  13. Post-Hurricane Isaac coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands, September 2–3, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Karen A. Westphal,

    2016-04-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 2-3, 2012, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands aboard a Cessna 172 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,000 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Isaac data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September 2008 (central Louisiana barrier islands) and June 2011 (Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana), and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on

  14. Coastal Development of Daugavgrîva Island, Located Near the Gulf of Riga / Rîgas Lîèa Piekrastes Krasta Attîstîba Daugavgrîvas Salâ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bçrtiòa Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural as well as anthropogenic processes impact greatly sensitive coastal areas all over the world. The spectrum of natural processes involved can be classified as meteorological, geological, marine, and lithodynamic. The Baltic Sea with its Gulf of Riga is an area in which combined sea erosion and accumulation processes, as well as alluvial processes, play significant roles in the coastal development. Major anthropogenic processes include impacts from ports and coastal protection structures, such as Riga Port hydraulic structures, fairway channels and coastal defence items. During summer also additional pressure of recreational activities has increased the effect on the coastal beach. Levelling data, historical cartographical material and beach sedimentary material granulometric analysis were used to describe natural and anthropogenic effects on development of the coastal beach of Daugavgrîva Island.

  15. Development of a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  16. Development of a Climate-Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of Coastal Marsh Systems in Southern New England USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea level rise is accelerating throughout the U.S. Northeast causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat ...

  17. Emerging extra-intestinal infections with Aeromonas hydrophila in coastal region of southern Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. They have been occasionally reported as a cause of extra-intestinal infections such as cellulitis, cholangitis, necrotizing fascitis, meningitis, bacteremia, or peritonitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients . Aim: To determine the role and possible pathogenesis of Aeromonas in extra-intestinal infections.Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis carried out at Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka in the months of January and February 2007. Materials and Methods: Clinical manifestations and management of eight cases of extra-intestinal infections caused by A. hydrophila , from the south Karnataka coastal region were reviewed. The isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests using standard guidelines.Results: All patients acquired Aeromonas infections in the community. Five (62.5% had underlying illnesses, such as liver disease, diabetes mellitus or malignancy. Five (62.5% had polymicrobial infections, and three (37.5% were complicated with bacteremia. These included three patients with ulcers or abscess over the lower leg, two with cellulitis due to snake bite and one each with pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia. A. hydrophila was found to be a causative agent of pelvic inflammatory disease or cellulitis following sea snake bite, and such a clinical scenario has not been previously described. Seven patients survived the illness. Conclusions: Isolation of A. hydrophila from extra-intestinal specimens demands utmost clinical and microbiological vigilance in diagnosis, since the organism can cause serious infections among immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.

  18. Decadal-scale coastal cliff retreat in southern and central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Adam P.

    2018-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR data collected in 1998 and 2009-2010 were used to measure coastal cliff erosion and retreat between the Mexico/California border and Bodega Head, California. Cliff erosion was detected along 44% of the 595 km of shoreline evaluated, while the remaining cliffs were relatively stable. The mean cliff top retreat rate was 0.12 m/yr, while mean retreat averaged over the entire cliff face was 0.04 m/yr. The maximum cliff top and face retreat rates were 4.2 and 3.8 m/yr, respectively. Historical ( 1930s to 1998) and recent retreat rates were significantly inversely correlated for areas with large historical or recent cliff retreat, such that locations with elevated historical retreat had low levels of recent retreat and locations with elevated recent retreat were preceded by low rates of historical retreat. The strength of this inverse correlation increased with cliff change magnitudes up to r2 of 0.91 for cliff top retreat rates > 2.9 m/yr. Mean recent retreat rates were 52-83% lower than mean historical retreat rates. Although beaches can protect cliffs against wave-driven erosion, cliffs fronted by beaches retreated 49% more than cliffs without beaches. On average, unarmored cliff faces retreated 0.05 m/yr between 1998 and 2009-2010, about three times faster than artificially armored cliffs. Alongshore metrics of wave-cliff impact, precipitation, and cliff hardness were generally not well correlated with recent cliff changes. A cliff hazard metric is used to detect cliff steepening and areas prone to future cliff top failures.

  19. Baseline trace metals in Patella caerulea in a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mele, Giustino; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we tested the aptitude of the gastropod mollusk Patella caerulea as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured in 120 individuals collected in six strategic locations in two sampling campaigns during 2011 and 2012. Samples of surrounding seawater were also collected in the same sites and tested for the same metals in order to obtain the respective concentration factors (CFs). Then, we analyzed the evolution of contamination in the selected sites and compared our results with the baseline levels (control charts) previously established for Tyrrhenian seas (Conti et al. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:3640-3651,2015). With this purpose, we defined six new variables (one for each metal) and then we applied multivariate statistics, i.e., cluster analysis and discriminant analysis on the principal component analysis factors in order to obtain more reliable results. Patella resulted to be a strong bioaccumulator of Cd (CFs = 8990) and a good accumulator of Cr, Pb, and Zn. The levels of the majority of metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Patella decreased in the range from -13.06% of Zn to -42.51% of Ni in Fiumicino harbor, Anzio beach, and Ponza Harbor from 2011 to 2012. In general, the metal levels in these marine areas are low and within the previously established baseline ranges for Tyrrhenian Sea (control charts). Here, we found a not univocal trend of metal bioaccumulation patterns between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) in the selected sites. No one site resulted to be clearly more contaminated than another (i.e., harbor sites as expected). For instance, for Cd, we detected a relevant increase of its levels (+118%) in the harbors and Anzio beach sites from 2011 to 2012; however, they remained at lower levels of the lower limit (Q 2.5 ) of the control chart. Higher Pb levels with

  20. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K.; Guruge, K.S.; Thomas, N.J.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products, mono- (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT), were determined in liver, kidney, and brain tissues of adult southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along the coast of California during 1992a??1996. Hepatic concentrations of butyltin compounds (BTs = MBT + DBT + TBT) ranged from 40 to 9200 ng/g wet wt, which varied depending on the sampling location and gender. Concentrations of BTs in sea otters were comparable to those reported in stranded bottlenose dolphins from the U.S. Atlantic Coast during 1989a??1994. Greater accumulation of butyltins in sea otters was explained by their bottom-feeding habit and the diet that consists exclusively of invertebrates such as mollusks and gastropods. Livers of female sea otters contained approximately 2-fold greater concentrations of BTs than did those of males. The composition of butyltin compounds in sea otter tissues was predominated by TBT in most cases and suggestive of recent exposure. Large harbors such as Monterey Harbor that handle ships legally painted with TBT-containing antifouling paints continued to experience ecotoxicologically significant butyltin contamination. Sea otters, which were affected by infectious diseases, contained greater concentrations of BTs in their tissues than those that died from trauma and other unknown causes.

  1. Acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium vivax in a population of southern coastal Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, J M; Salinas, E; Rodríguez, M H

    1996-05-01

    Naturally acquired transmission-blocking immunity to Plasmodium vivax was studied in three groups of patients from the southern coast of Mexico: primary cases (Group A, 61% of the study population), secondary cases with the prior infection seven or more months earlier (Group B, 23%), and secondary cases with the previous malaria experience within six months of the present study (Group C, 16%). Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes were fed with patients' infected blood cells in the presence of autologous or control serum, with or without heat-inactivation. Patients from all three groups had transmission-blocking immunity, although the quality and quantity of this blocking activity was significantly higher in the two secondary patient groups (B and C). Only primary malaria cases produced transmission-enhancing activity (23% of the cases), which was dependent on heat-labile serum components. The levels of patient group transmission-blocking immunity and mosquito infectivity were used to calculate the probabilities of a mosquito becoming infective after taking a blood meal from a P. vivax-infected patient from any one of the three groups. This probability was 0.025, with Group A patients providing the major source of these infections (92% risk from Group A and 4% risk for Groups B and C).

  2. Effects of future climate conditions on streamflow dynamics in coastal southern California watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, D.; Zhao, Y.; Raoufi, R.; Beighley, E.; Melack, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Santa Barbara Coastal - Long Term Ecological Research Project is focused on investigating the relative importance of land and ocean processes in structuring giant kelp forest ecosystems. Understanding how current and future climate conditions influence terrestrial export of water is a central theme for the project. In this study, the Hillslope River Routing (HRR) model is forced with past measurement-based (1950 to 2005) and future model-based (2006 to 2100) precipitation and temperature to estimate daily streamflow dynamics. The study region is roughly 800 km2 with 179 watersheds ranging from 0.1 to 123 km2. The model-based forcings are downscaled to a spatial resolution of 6 km by 6 km. The Priestley and Taylor method is used to estimate potential evapotranspiration based on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations limited climate data approximations and land surface conditions (albedo, leaf area index, land cover) measured from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra and Aqua satellites. The HRR model is calibrated for the period 1984 to 2013 using USGS streamflow. Median changes in downscaled precipitation projections from 10 models and two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) combined with significance testing, suggest that the distribution of precipitation throughout the rainy season will change: decrease at the beginning of the rainy season (Oct-Dec), increase during peak season (Jan-Mar) and decrease at the end (Apr-Jun). Annually, results suggest a slight increase in precipitation. The decrease of rainfall in spring and fall and increase in winter will lead to a shorter (10-15 days, 8-14%), more intense wet season. Both the magnitude and frequency of large storms (>36 mm/day) are likely to increase. Following the precipitation patterns, streamflow in spring and fall is likely to decrease while winter streamflow and annual peak flows are likely to increase due to increased winter precipitation and

  3. Trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna on coastal muddy bottoms of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-02-01

    Philocheras bispinosus). Seasonal changes in isotopic composition occurred for the dominant suprabenthic species. This may result from diet shifts associated with changes in the availability of different food sources and/or from change in the primary sources of organic matter that are particularly variable in coastal environments.

  4. Determination of Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Southern California Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R.; Futa, K.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive geologic, hydrologic and geochemical investigation of groundwater resources in the San Diego coastal area. The regional assessment includes five drainage basins, in order to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the areally extensive San Diego Formation. An integral part of the investigation is the installation of 10 multiple-well monitoring sites to collect groundwater samples from discrete intervals and to extract pore-water fluids from selected sections of drill core. The analytical protocol includes major dissolved ions, trace metals, stable isotopes, and strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr). Strontium isotopes have proven to be especially useful in detecting mixing among groundwaters of different sources and histories, as well as in characterizing the effects of water-rock interaction. This paper will present groundwater and pore-water data collected from two, east-west pairs of monitoring-well sites located in the Sweetwater River and the Otay River drainage basins, as well as a monitoring-well site located on a plateau between the two drainage basins. These data indicate the hydrogeology of the San Diego area can be characterized as alternating layers of marine and non-marine sediment lacking large-scale lateral uniformity. The dissolved strontium concentrations from these groundwater samples and pore-water fluids ranged from as low as 100 μg/L to more than 18,000 μg/L, and the 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranged from about 0.7060 to 0.7090. One potential source of groundwater in the San Diego Formation is modern seawater, which has a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of about 0.7092; another is recharge from the topographically higher elevations east of the study area that have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between about 0.7050 and 0.7060. Finally, the similarities in 87Sr/86Sr ratios between groundwater samples and pore-water fluids provide insight into the relative hydraulic conductivity among these discontinuous aquifers.

  5. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de

    2010-01-01

    fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of 228 Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of 228 Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of 228 Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate qualitatively the differences in behavior of both long-lived Ra isotopes, the

  6. Numerical modelling in the coastal aquifer between Burlamacca Canal and Bufalina Ditch, southern Versilia (Tuscany, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioia Bravini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater numerical models are necessary instruments for management of water resources and for their protection, both in terms of quantity and quality. In this paper we present a study on an area located along the southern coastline of Versilia (Viareggio,LU affected by marine intrusion. The main purpose of this work was to create a mathematical flow model based on a conceptual hydrogeological model defined by a multidisciplinary approach. For the realization of the numerical model the ModFlow code and the graphic interface Visual ModFlow was used. The procedure for defining the mathematical model involves a series of steps such as horizontal and vertical discretization of the space, the definition of the initial and boundary conditions, the assignment of the hydraulic properties of the cells and, finally, the definitions of external perturbations to the system (recharge, evapotranspiration, drainage and pumping wells. Implementation, development and calibration of the numerical flow model was performed both in steady and transient state. Both models were calibrated using the manual “trial and error adjustment” method using heads measurements. Moreover the model results gathered in transient state simulation were compared with the data continuously recorded by a piezometer of the monitoring network of the Regional Hydrological Service. There is a good correlation between the measured data and those calculated by the model which then turns out to be sufficiently representative and provides a solid basis for the development of a transport model that could be useful to control and manage the phenomenon of the salt water intrusion.

  7. Ultraviolet radiation modelling from ground-based and satellite measurements on Reunion Island, southern tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface ultraviolet radiation (SUR is not an increasing concern after the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and the recovery of the ozone layer Morgenstern et al.(2008. However, large uncertainties remain in the prediction of future changes of SUR Bais et al.(2015. Several studies pointed out that UV-B impacts the biosphere Erickson et al.(2015, especially the aquatic system, which plays a central part in the biogeochemical cycle Hader et al.(2007. It can affect phytoplankton productivity Smith and Cullen(1995. This influence can result in either positive or negative feedback on climate (Zepp et al., 2007. Global circulation model simulations predict an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation over the next century (Butchart, 2014, which would lead to a decrease in ozone levels in the tropics and an enhancement at higher latitudes (Hegglin and Shepherd, 2009. Reunion Island is located in the tropics (21° S, 55° E, in a part of the world where the amount of ozone in the ozone column is naturally low. In addition, this island is mountainous and the marine atmosphere is often clean with low aerosol concentrations. Thus, measurements show much higher SUR than at other sites at the same latitude or at midlatitudes. Ground-based measurements of SUR have been taken on Reunion Island by a Bentham DTMc300 spectroradiometer since 2009. This instrument is affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. In order to quantify the future evolution of SUR in the tropics, it is necessary to validate a model against present observations. This study is designed to be a preliminary parametric and sensitivity study of SUR modelling in the tropics. We developed a local parameterisation using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Model (TUV; Madronich, 1993 and compared the output of TUV to multiple years of Bentham spectral measurements. This comparison started in early 2009 and continued until 2016

  8. Ultraviolet radiation modelling from ground-based and satellite measurements on Reunion Island, southern tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Kévin; Portafaix, Thierry; Brogniez, Colette; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Bencherif, Hassan; Morel, Béatrice; Pazmino, Andrea; Metzger, Jean Marc; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Duflot, Valentin; Goloub, Philippe; Long, Charles N.

    2018-01-01

    Surface ultraviolet radiation (SUR) is not an increasing concern after the implementation of the Montreal Protocol and the recovery of the ozone layer (Morgenstern et al., 2008). However, large uncertainties remain in the prediction of future changes of SUR (Bais et al., 2015). Several studies pointed out that UV-B impacts the biosphere (Erickson et al., 2015), especially the aquatic system, which plays a central part in the biogeochemical cycle (Hader et al., 2007). It can affect phytoplankton productivity (Smith and Cullen, 1995). This influence can result in either positive or negative feedback on climate (Zepp et al., 2007). Global circulation model simulations predict an acceleration of the Brewer-Dobson circulation over the next century (Butchart, 2014), which would lead to a decrease in ozone levels in the tropics and an enhancement at higher latitudes (Hegglin and Shepherd, 2009). Reunion Island is located in the tropics (21° S, 55° E), in a part of the world where the amount of ozone in the ozone column is naturally low. In addition, this island is mountainous and the marine atmosphere is often clean with low aerosol concentrations. Thus, measurements show much higher SUR than at other sites at the same latitude or at midlatitudes. Ground-based measurements of SUR have been taken on Reunion Island by a Bentham DTMc300 spectroradiometer since 2009. This instrument is affiliated with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). In order to quantify the future evolution of SUR in the tropics, it is necessary to validate a model against present observations. This study is designed to be a preliminary parametric and sensitivity study of SUR modelling in the tropics. We developed a local parameterisation using the Tropospheric Ultraviolet and Visible Model (TUV; Madronich, 1993) and compared the output of TUV to multiple years of Bentham spectral measurements. This comparison started in early 2009 and continued until 2016. Only

  9. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  10. Effects of climate variability on saltwater intrusions in coastal aquifers in Southern Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rena; Sonnenborg, Torben; Engesgaard, Peter; Høyer, Anne-Sophie; Jørgensen, Flemming; Hisnby, Klaus; Hansen, Birgitte; Jensen, Jørn Bo; Piotrowski, Jan A.

    2016-04-01

    As in many other regions of the world fresh water supply in Denmark is based on groundwater resources. Aquifers in the low-lying areas in the south-west of Jutland are particularly vulnerable to saltwater intrusions which are likely to intensify due to relative sea level rise. To understand the dynamics and development of this complex flow system, the initial hydrodynamic conditions imposed by the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) must be taken into account. The whole region has undergone changes in climatic and hydraulic conditions within the last 15000 years that may show influence on the present flow conditions. It is likely that the groundwater-flow dynamics, driven by the postglacial hydraulic head drop and the relative sea level rise are not yet equilibrated. Enhanced by the potential future sea level rise due to climate change, contamination of fresh-water aquifers will continue. The 2800-km2 - large coast-to-coast study area located in the southern part of Jutland was partly overridden by the Weichselian ice sheet. Geophysical and geological mapping shows salt water intrusions up to 20 km inland from the present coast. Based on a geological voxel model spanning Miocene through Quaternary deposits a large-scale 3D numerical groundwater flow and salt water transport model has been developed. It includes density-driven flow and simulates the distribution of the current saltwater intrusions and their evolution during the last 15000 years. Particle tracking and direct age simulations are performed to identify recharge areas and constrain groundwater ages. The simulated ages are compared to ages derived from isotope analysis of groundwater samples both from Miocene and Quaternary aquifers. The origin of the groundwater is determined based on isotopic and chemical composition. Additionally, heavy noble gas analysis is carried out to estimate recharge temperatures and mechanisms at locations where groundwater recharge during the last glaciation is indicated. This

  11. Cephalopoda as prey of juvenile Southern elephant seals at Isla 25 de Mayo/King George, South Shetland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Burdman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to enhance the knowledge of the feeding habits of the juvenile component of the population of Southern elephant seals [Mirounga leonina (Linnaeus, 1758] from Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands, age class whose diet information is scarce. A total of 60 individuals were stomach lavaged in the spring - summer seasons of three consecutive years (2003, 2004 and 2005 of which 53.3 % (n = 32 presented food remnants. The Antarctic glacial squid Psychroteuthis glacialis Thiele, 1921 was the dominant prey taxon in terms of frequency of occurrence (68.7%, numerical abundance (60.1% and biomass (51.5%, contributing 84.1% to the total relative importance index. Other squid prey species of importance were Slosarczykovia circumantartica Lipinski, 2001 in terms of occurrence (37.5% and numerical abundance (14% and Moroteuthis knipovitchi Filippova, 1972 in terms of biomass (16%. All identified cephalopod prey taxa are distributed south of the Antarctic Polar Front, except for the squid Martialia hyadesi Rochebrune & Mabille, 1889 which has a circumpolar distribution associated to the Polar Frontal Zone. No significant differences in the sizes of P. glacialis preyed upon by elephant seals were found between sexes and years. However, significant interannual differences were found in the taxonomical composition of their diet. This would be associated with temporal changes in food availability at the foraging areas of seals, which in turn may have been influenced by changes in oceanographic conditions as a result of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomenon that occurred during part of the study period. Furthermore, a differential response of males and females to this temporal variation was observed, with the former being also associated to a predation on octopods. This would suggest a sexual segregation in foraging habits of this species from the early stages of its life cycle.

  12. Geochemical and geo-statistical assessment of heavy metal concentration in the sediments of different coastal ecosystems of Andaman Islands, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, E. P.; Dilipan, E.; Thangaradjou, T.; Sivakumar, K.; Kannan, L.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial distribution of metal concentrations in the surface sediment samples collected from 16 marine locations covering different coastal ecosystems such as mangroves, seagrasses, dead coral and sandy beaches of the Andaman islands, India was studied. pH, EC, sediment grain size and heavy metal (Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) concentrations were determined and contamination factor (CF) and geo-accumulation index (I geo) were calculated to understand the pollution status of the study area based on the background values. CF of different heavy metals has revealed that different metals have different levels of accumulation viz. Al: 0.01-0.22, Mg: 0.38-1.85, Fe: 0.06-0.74, Mn: 0.04-1.18, Cu: 0.18-2.93, Cr: 0.52-12.6, Zn: 0.3-1.39, Ni: 0.06-0.89, Pb: BDL-0.74, Co: 0.1-0.35 and Cd: 2.3-12.9. In general the metal concentration was less in these ecosystems when compared to similar ecosystems of mainland of India. Concentration of some metals like Cr and Cd was comparatively higher than the background values which is an important issue of concern to the coastal managers of the region. Spatial data on heavy metals, collected now, would help the coastal zone managers to identify the vulnerable sites and take remedial actions.

  13. Modification of growth medium of mixed-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern java coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae as production organisms. Microalgae contain lipids (oil, proteins and carbohydrates (sugars, and, especially marine algae have been used as food and feed for centuries. Recently, production cost reduction related to the supply of growth nutrients is necessary to make it profitable. Therefore, utilization of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, as the natural carbon, macronutrients, and micronutrients sources can be helpful. The analysis showed that the content of sucrose, glucose, fructose, potassium, zinc, and magnesium was 68.4% w/w, 18.5% w/w, and 13.1% w/w, 5.5% w/w, 3.91 ppm, and 1,370 ppm respectively. This work aimed to determine the effect of molasses addition to the physio-chemical properties of multi-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern Java coastal region in Indonesia grown under mixotrophic culture. The cultivation in this work used medium which was self-formulated by the authors consisting of NaNO3 (5 mL/L, H3BO3 (1 mL/L, EDTA (1 mL/L, N2H2PO4 (5 mL/L, FeSO4 (1 mL/L, MgSO4 (1 mL/L, NaCl (1 mL/L, micronutrients (1 mL/L, vitamin B1 (1 mL/L, and vitamin B12 (1 mL/L in 500 mL of water. The medium will be treated to have molasses concentration of 0.05% v/v, 0.15% v/v, 0.25% v/v, 0.35% v/v, and 0.45% v/v.

  14. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations. Indonesian Coastal Marine Areas. Volume 1. Area 1 - Southeast Sumatra. Area 2 - Christmas Island. Area 3 - Sunda Strait. Area 4 - Northwest Java Sea. Area 5 - Bangka Island Northwest. Area 6 - Natuna Island. Area 7 - Sarawak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    CHRISTMAS ISLAND. AREA 3 - SUNDA STRAIT. AREA 4 - NORTHWEST JAVA SEA. AREA 5 - BANGKA ISLAND NORTHWEST. AREA 6 - NATUNA ISLAND. AREA 7 - SARAWAK Naval...1.4. 2.3 .0 . .7 1.0 6.8 Z-,7 ,0 .. ) ’Co.: 22CE .2 JANUARY PERIO0I (PPIMAPY$ 1914-1973 AREA 0005 BANGKA ISLAND NORTHWEST (OVER-ALL) 1$55-1?73 TASLE 10...0005 BANGKA ISLAND NORTHWE)T (CVER-ALL) 1858-1973 TAILF 4 s79 105.OE PERCENTAGE FRLOUENCY F WINDO SPEFD BY HOUR CGOT) WIND SPEED IKNOTS) PCT TOTAL HJUR

  15. EAARL-B coastal topography: Fire Island, New York, pre-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: seamless (bare earth and submerged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, C. Wayne; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Masessa, Melanie L.; Nagle, David B.

    2014-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived seamless (bare-earth and submerged) topography datasets were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida.

  16. A comparative study on mesozooplankton abundance and diversity between a protected and an unprotected coastal area of Andaman Islands.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pillai, H.U.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Biju, A.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, V.R.; Revichandran, C.; Menon, N.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    The study was carried out to understand the variability in phytoplankton production (Chlorophyll a) and mesozooplankton diversity from two different shallow coastal regions of south Andaman viz. Port Blair Bay (PBB), the only real urban area among...

  17. Pattern of shell utilization by the hermit crab Paguristes tortugae (Diogenidae from Anchieta Island, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L.M. Mantelatto

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the pattern of shell utilization by Paguristes tortugae, from infralittoral areas of Anchieta Island (Ubatuba, São Paulo State, Brazil using the percentage of the different shell types occupied and the morphometric relationship between hermit crabs and occupied shells. Specimens were collected monthly (January to December 1998 by SCUBA diving. The animals and the shells were measured and weighed. A total of 2,429 hermit crabs were captured occupying 21 species of gastropod shells. The shells more occupied were Pisania auritula (35.49%, Cerithium atratum (27.83%, Morula nodulosa (12.70% and Leucozonia nassa (6.83%, respectively. There was differential shell occupation between sexes: males and ovigerous females occupied in higher percentage P. auritula shells while the non-ovigerous females occupied C. atratum. Regression analysis showed best correlation between the size of the crabs (shield length and shell dry weight. This study showed that shell occupation by P. tortugae involves inter- and intraspecific competition as well as shell type availability in the field.

  18. Coastal lagoons and beach ridges as complementary sedimentary archives for the reconstruction of Holocene relative sea-level changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Fruergaard, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    Coastal lagoons and beach ridges are genetically independent, though non-continuous, sedimentary archives. We here combine the results from two recently published studies in order to produce an 8000-year-long record of Holocene relative sea-level changes on the island of Samsø, southern Kattegat,...... proximate occurrence of coastal lagoons and beach ridges allows us to produce seamless time series of relative sea-level changes from field sites in SW Scandinavia and in similar coastal environments.......Coastal lagoons and beach ridges are genetically independent, though non-continuous, sedimentary archives. We here combine the results from two recently published studies in order to produce an 8000-year-long record of Holocene relative sea-level changes on the island of Samsø, southern Kattegat...

  19. The relative abundance of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) among other zwitterions in branching coral at Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Hilton B; Deschaseaux, Elisabeth S M; Jones, Graham B; Eyre, Bradley D

    2017-07-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and eleven other target zwitterions were quantified in the branch tips of six Acropora species and Stylophora pistillata hard coral growing on the reef flat surrounding Heron Island in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) was used for sample analysis with isotope dilution MS applied to quantify DMSP. The concentration of DMSP was ten times greater in A. aspera than A. valida, with this difference being maintained throughout the spring, summer and winter seasons. In contrast, glycine betaine was present in significantly higher concentrations in these species during the summer than the winter. Exposure of branch tips of A. aspera to air and hypo-saline seawater for up to 1 h did not alter the concentrations of DMSP present in the coral when compared with control samples. DMSP was the most abundant target zwitterion in the six Acropora species examined, ranging from 44-78% of all target zwitterions in A. millepora and A. aspera, respectively. In contrast, DMSP only accounted for 7% in S. pistillata, with glycine betaine and stachydrine collectively accounting for 88% of all target zwitterions in this species. The abundance of DMSP in the six Acropora species examined points to Acropora coral being an important source for the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur throughout the GBR, since this reef-building branching coral dominates the coral cover of the GBR. Graphical Abstract HILIC-MS extracted ion chromatogram showing zwitterionic metabolites from the branching coral Acropora isopora.

  20. Low-Frequency Earthquakes of the Southern Alps, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, C. J.; Shelly, D. R.; Townend, J.; Stern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic tremor has a key role to play in our understanding of deep tectonic stresses and the transferal of these stresses to the shallow seismogenic crust. Documentation of tremor on the San Andreas Fault and the Alpine Fault provides new insight into the vertical extent of brittle behavior and ambient stress conditions near continental transform faults. Here we extend the previous analysis of tremor on the Alpine Fault, a ~600 km-long, dextral-reverse, transform fault forming the western boundary of the Southern Alps of New Zealand by documenting and locating low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs). We have initially focused on recognized periods of Alpine Fault tremor reported by Wech et al. (2012), using data from the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA; Boese et al., 2012) and the national seismic network, GeoNet. To identify LFEs, we use data from all stations at which tremor has been detected and require a minimum of five stations to show an LFE for it to be considered a reliable detection. In the first stage of the analysis, we identify LFE template events visually and locate these template events; we then apply a cross-correlation routine similar to that used for LFE detection in Japan and California (Shelly et al., 2009) in order to detect additional events and construct a homogeneous catalog. Due to the relatively large source-receiver and inter-station spacings (c. 20-100 km), we assume a LFE hypocenter near that of the corresponding template event and compute station delay factors. Using these delays, we then apply a finer cross-correlation routine to individual LFEs and locate these relative to the template event. The station distribution provided by SAMBA and GeoNet is not optimal for LFE detection, as all stations are situated north of the previously reported tremor locations. Nevertheless, our ability to identify LFEs on multiple, distant stations (>50 km epicentral distances) is promising for future investigations incorporating data from

  1. Molluscs as evidence for a late Pleistocene and early Holocene humid period in the southern coastal desert of Peru (14.5°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mächtle, Bertil; Unkel, Ingmar; Eitel, Bernhard; Kromer, Bernd; Schiegl, Solveig

    2010-01-01

    The southern Peruvian coastal desert around Palpa, southern Peru (14.5°S) is currently characterized by hyper-arid conditions. However, the presence of two species of molluscs ( Scutalus, Pupoides) and desert-loess deposits indicates the past development of semi-desert and grassland ecosystems caused by a displacement of the eastern desert margin due to hydrological changes. Radiocarbon dating shows that the transition to a semi-arid climate in the southern Peruvian coastal desert took place during the Greenland interstadial 1, ˜ 13.5 cal ka BP. At the beginning of the Holocene, the mollusc fauna vanished due to increasing humidity and the development of grasslands. Dust particles were fixed by the grasses, as indicated by abundant Poaceae phytoliths, and desert loess was formed. The humid period we observe here is out of phase with the palaeoenvironmental records from the Titicaca region, which indicates dry conditions at that time. This paper offers a new idea for this contradiction: an orbitally driven meridional shift of the Bolivian high might have altered the moisture supply across the Andes.

  2. Cordão Formation: loess deposits in the southern coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENATO P. LOPES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa. Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.

  3. Use of LANDSAT for Managing Nonpoint Source Pollution in Coastal Ecosystems of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data results show for the first time Landsat-based land use maps of both the terrestrial and benthic habitats of the U. S. Virgin Islands, spanning a period of...

  4. Analysis of potential coastal zone climate change impacts and possible response options in the southern African region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, AK

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to consider physical coastal zone impacts due to expected climate change in the Namibia, South Africa and Mozambique coastal region, and to provide some mitigating response options. The primary effects of climate change...

  5. Atlantic coastal experiment 5: R/V advance II cruise (MESEX I) 27 April--2 May 1979, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Bock, K. (ed.)

    1983-03-01

    68 hydrographic stations were arranged as boundary transects, and a proximate calibration matrix, to an array of current meters and fluorometers moored within the coastal boundary layer near southern Long Island. Assessments were made of water-mass characterization, nutrient distribution, chlorophyll variability and phytoplankton composition. Supplemental thermal structure was obtained from expendable bathythermographs.

  6. Variations in Seismic Anisotropy with time on Volcanoes in Kyushu Island, Southern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. K.; Ohkura, T.; Umakoshi, K.; Shimizu, H.; Kohno, Y.; Iguchi, M.; Wessel, A.; Mori, J.

    2008-12-01

    Using a newly developed automatic processing technique, we have calculated shear wave splitting on and near three active volcanoes in Kyushu, southern Japan (Aso, Unzen and Sakurajima). Shear wave splitting is considered to be caused by aligned cracks and microcracks. The polarisation of the first arriving phase, φ, gives a measure of the crack orientation, which is expected to align with the maximum principal stress. The delay time dt between the two phases depends upon the crack density and the path length. High quality measurements include the following: a) over 1700 from local events recorded and located near Aso Volcano between 2001 and 2008; b) over 2000 from local events recorded and located near Unzen volcano between 1988 and 1997 (spanning the most active period of seismic activity related to the large eruption in 1991); c) over 600 from regional events originating in the subducting Phillipine Sea plate recorded near Sakurajima volcano between 2003 and 2005, (during which time numerous small eruptions have occcurred, and GPS measurements have been modeled as caused by inflation of a Mogi source and a near-vertical crack). Most of the stations were located in boreholes or tunnels, providing excellent signals. Common features at all three volcanoes are that stations closest to the craters yield the fewest good measurements, and even those tend to give varying results at closely spaced stations. Scattering from the volcanic edifice may be making the S waves difficult to pick, and the local stresses may be varied. Stations on the volcanic flanks give many good measurements. Some stations yield variations in φ and dt that depend upon the earthquake location. But at each volcano, some stations show changes that are better explained by variations in time than in space. Where GPS measurements are available, the variations sometimes but not always correlate with previously-modeled inflation or deflation events. The temporal variations in φ are large, ranging

  7. CBPR-Informed Recruitment and Retention Adaptations in a Randomized Study of Pap Testing Among Pacific Islanders in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Weiss, Jie W; Santos, Lola; Flores, Peter; Flores, Preciosa; Lacsamana, Jasmine DeGuzman; Paige, Ciara; Mouttapa, Michele; Quitugua, Lourdes; Taito, Peniamina; May, Vanessa Tui; Tupua, Marina; Vaikona, Elenoa; Vaivao, Dorothy; Vunileva, Isileli

    2015-01-01

    Pacific Islanders (PIs) experience high cervical cancer rates in the United States. Stage of diagnosis is also later for PIs than non-Hispanic Whites. The Pap test is severely underutilized among PIs: only 71% of Asian American and Pacific Islander women age 25 years or older received a Pap test within the last 3 years (U.S. average, 82%). Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly seen as an essential approach in designing and conducting culturally relevant and appropriate studies that reduce cancer incidence and other health disparities among minority and other medically underserved populations. The purpose of this article is to describe the lessons learned thus far regarding the identification, recruitment, and retention of PI community organizations and members into a CBPR-informed, randomized, community trial promoting Pap testing. This 5-year study used CBPR to develop and test the efficacy of a social support intervention for Chamorro, Samoan, and Tongan women to increase Pap testing in southern California. Eligible women were between the ages of 21 and 65, and married or in a long-term relationship with a man for at least 5 years. Women and their husbands or significant others received a 2-hour, culturally tailored workshop that include a group activity, information on Pap testing, a video, and corresponding materials. Comparison participants received a brochure about Pap testing. Three waves of data are collected from all participants: pretest (before workshop or brochure), posttest 1 (immediately after workshop or brochure), and posttest 2 (6 months follow-up). Of the 76 organizations approached to participate in the study, 67 (88.2%) eventually agreed to participate. Thus far, 473 women and 419 men completed the study pretest, post-test, education, and 6-month follow-up. Only 242 women and 204 men of the eligible participants have completed the follow-up survey (63.5% of women and 60.5% of men retained after 6 months). The main

  8. Community structure and carbonate production of a temperate rhodolith bank from Arvoredo Island, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas F. M. Gherardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A small (100,000 m² rhodolith bank located at the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (Santa Catarina, Brazil has been surveyed to determine the main bank components, the community structure, and carbonate production rates. Data from five photographic transects perpendicular to Arvoredo Island shore were complemented with sediment samples and shallow cores, all collected by scuba diving. The main bank component is the unattached, nongeniculate, coralline red algae Lithophyllum sp., used as substrate by the zoanthid Zoanthus sp. Percentage cover of living and dead coralline algae, zoanthids and sediment patches account for nearly 98% of the investigated area. Classification and ordination of samples showed that differences in the proportion of live and dead thalli of Lithophyllum sp. determine the relative abundances of zoanthids. Results also indicate that similarity of samples is high and community gradients are subtle. Significant differences in percentage cover along transects are concentrated in the central portion of the bank. Low carbonate content of sediments from deeper samples suggests low rates of recruitment and dispersal of coralline algae via fragmentation. However, carbonate production of Lithophyllum sp ranging from 55-136.3 g m-2 yr-1 agrees with production rates reported for other temperate settings. In the long run, rhodolith density at Arvoredo Is. is likely to be dependent upon random dispersal of spores and/or fragments from other source areas.Investigou-se um pequeno (100,000 m² banco de rodolitos localizado na Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo (Santa Catarina, Brasil para se determinar os pricipais componentes do banco, a estrutura da comunidade e a produção de carbonato de cálcio. Dados de cobertura relativa foram obtidos ao longo de cinco transectos fotográficos perpendiculares à ilha do Arvoredo, e complementados com amostras de sedimento superficial e testemunhos rasos. O principal componente do banco é a

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L; Kutil, Nicholas J; Malek, Anna J; Collie, Jeremy S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ∼ winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis (mean δ(15)N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted δ(15)N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (δ(15)N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to δ(15)N and carbon (δ(13)C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and <2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely

  10. Maps showing the change in modern sediment thickness on the Inner Continental Shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, between 1996-97 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, William C.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Denny, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey mapped approximately 336 square kilometers of the lower shoreface and inner continental shelf offshore of Fire Island, New York, in 1996 and 1997, using high-resolution sidescan-sonar and seismic-reflection systems, and again in 2011, using interferometric sonar and high-resolution chirp seismic-reflection systems. This report presents a comparison of sediment thickness and distribution as mapped during these two investigations. These spatial data support research on the Quaternary evolution of the Fire Island coastal system and provide baseline information for research on coastal processes along southern Long Island.

  11. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. Ancient geographical gaps and paleo-climate shape the phylogeography of an endemic bird in the sky islands of southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Robin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sky islands, formed by the highest reaches of mountain tracts physically isolated from one another, represent one of the biodiversity-rich regions of the world. Comparative studies of geographically isolated populations on such islands can provide valuable insights into the biogeography and evolution of species on these islands. The Western Ghats mountains of southern India form a sky island system, where the relationship between the island structure and the evolution of its species remains virtually unknown despite a few population genetic studies.We investigated how ancient geographic gaps and glacial cycles have partitioned genetic variation in modern populations of a threatened endemic bird, the White-bellied Shortwing Brachypteryx major, across the montane Shola forests on these islands and also inferred its evolutionary history. We used bayesian and maximum likelihood-based phylogenetic and population-genetic analyses on data from three mitochondrial markers and one nuclear marker (totally 2594 bp obtained from 33 White-bellied Shortwing individuals across five islands. Genetic differentiation between populations of the species correlated with the locations of deep valleys in the Western Ghats but not with geographical distance between these populations. All populations revealed demographic histories consistent with population founding and expansion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Given the level of genetic differentiation north and south of the Palghat Gap, we suggest that these populations be considered two different taxonomic species.Our results show that the physiography and paleo-climate of this region historically resulted in multiple glacial refugia that may have subsequently driven the evolutionary history and current population structure of this bird. The first avian genetic study from this biodiversity hotspot, our results provide insights into processes that may have impacted the speciation and evolution of the endemic fauna of

  13. A multi-method approach for groundwater resource assessment in coastal carbonate (karst) aquifers: the case study of Sierra Almijara (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreo, B.; Barberá, J. A.; Mudarra, M.; Marín, A. I.; García-Orellana, J.; Rodellas, V.; Pérez, I.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the transference of water resources within hydrogeological systems, particularly in coastal aquifers, in which groundwater discharge may occur through multiple pathways (through springs, into rivers and streams, towards the sea, etc.), is crucial for sustainable groundwater use. This research aims to demonstrate the usefulness of the application of conventional recharge assessment methods coupled to isotopic techniques for accurately quantifying the hydrogeological balance and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) from coastal carbonate aquifers. Sierra Almijara (Southern Spain), a carbonate aquifer formed of Triassic marbles, is considered as representative of Mediterranean coastal karst formations. The use of a multi-method approach has permitted the computation of a wide range of groundwater infiltration rates (17-60%) by means of direct application of hydrometeorological methods (Thornthwaite and Kessler) and spatially distributed information (modified APLIS method). A spatially weighted recharge rate of 42% results from the most coherent information on physiographic and hydrogeological characteristics of the studied system. Natural aquifer discharge and groundwater abstraction have been volumetrically quantified, based on flow and water-level data, while the relevance of SGD was estimated from the spatial analysis of salinity, 222Rn and the short-lived radium isotope 224Ra in coastal seawater. The total mean aquifer discharge (44.9-45.9 hm3 year-1) is in agreement with the average recharged groundwater (44.7 hm3 year-1), given that the system is volumetrically equilibrated during the study period. Besides the groundwater resources assessment, the methodological aspects of this research may be interesting for groundwater management and protection strategies in coastal areas, particularly karst environments.

  14. Stomach contents from invasive American bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Jancowski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien American bullfrog populations are commonly identified as a pernicious influence on the survival of native species due to their adaptability, proliferation and consequent ecological impacts through competition and predation. However, it has been difficult to determine conclusively their destructive influence due to the fragmentary and geographically dispersed nature of the historical database. An expanding meta-population of invasive American bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana (= Lithobates catesbeianus, became established on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada in the mid- to late 1980s. An on-going bullfrog control program begun in 2006 offered a unique opportunity to examine the stomach contents removed from 5,075 adult and juvenile bullfrogs collected from 60 sites throughout the active season (April to October. Of 15 classes of organisms identified in the diet, insects were numerically dominant, particularly social wasps and odonates (damselflies and dragonflies. Seasonality and site-specific habitat characteristics influenced prey occurrence and abundance. Native vertebrates in the diet included fish, frogs, salamanders, snakes, lizards, turtles, birds, and mammals, including some of conservation concern. Certain predators of bullfrog tadpoles and juveniles are commonly preyed upon by adult bullfrogs, thereby suppressing their effectiveness as biological checks to bullfrog population growth. Prey species with anti-predator defences, such as wasps and sticklebacks, were sometimes eaten in abundance. Many prey species have some type of anti-predator defence, such as wasp stingers or stickleback spines, but there was no indication of conditioned avoidance to any of these. Results from this study reinforce the conclusion that, as an invasive alien, the American bullfrog is an opportunistic and seemingly unspecialized predator that has a uniquely large and complex ecological footprint both above and below the water surface.

  15. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How fast do amphibians disperse? Introductions, distribution and dispersal of the common frog Rana temporaria and the common toad Bufo bufo on a coastal island in Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Dolmen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The common frog (Rana temporaria and the common toad (Bufo bufo were introduced successfully to the coastal island of Frøya in Central Norway several times during 1960–2012. There is still a very high degree of conformity between sites where they were introduced and the present distribution of the two species. However, in western Frøya, a release of frogs about 1996 was followed by a quick expansion of their distribution area; in 2012 and 2013, breeding was registered close to 7 km westwards and eastwards, respectively, i.e. a population dispersal speed of approximately 0.4 km/yr. On eastern Frøya and some small islands in the archipelago, area expansions at another four frog localities have been prevented by ecological barriers like unfavourable limnetic or terrestrial habitats or salty water. Two local common toad populations on eastern Frøya do not show any expansion either. However, an apparently isolated record of the species on western Frøya in 2011 can possibly be explained by the expansion westwards of a population in northern central Frøya, where toads were introduced around 1995. This stretch is about 9.9 km, i.e. an average population dispersal speed of 0.6 km/yr.

  17. Comparing the role of absolute sea-level rise and vertical tectonic motions in coastal flooding, Torres Islands (Vanuatu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballu, Valérie; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Siméoni, Patricia; Crawford, Wayne C; Calmant, Stephane; Boré, Jean-Michel; Kanas, Tony; Pelletier, Bernard

    2011-08-09

    Since the late 1990s, rising sea levels around the Torres Islands (north Vanuatu, southwest Pacific) have caused strong local and international concern. In 2002-2004, a village was displaced due to increasing sea incursions, and in 2005 a United Nations Environment Programme press release referred to the displaced village as perhaps the world's first climate change "refugees." We show here that vertical motions of the Torres Islands themselves dominate the apparent sea-level rise observed on the islands. From 1997 to 2009, the absolute sea level rose by 150 + /-20 mm. But GPS data reveal that the islands subsided by 117 + /-30 mm over the same time period, almost doubling the apparent gradual sea-level rise. Moreover, large earthquakes that occurred just before and after this period caused several hundreds of mm of sudden vertical motion, generating larger apparent sea-level changes than those observed during the entire intervening period. Our results show that vertical ground motions must be accounted for when evaluating sea-level change hazards in active tectonic regions. These data are needed to help communities and governments understand environmental changes and make the best decisions for their future.

  18. The fault pattern in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel and its hydrogeological implications for groundwater flow in the Judea Group aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, G.; Rosenthal, E.

    1994-03-01

    On the basis of a broadly expanding data base, the hydrogeological properties of the Judea Group sequence in the northern Negev and southern Coastal Plain of Israel have been reassessed. The updated subsurface model is based on data derived from water- and oil-wells and on recent large-scale geophysical investigations. A new regional pattern of the reassessed geological through the subsurface of the study area has been revealed. In view of the reassessed geological and hydrological subsurface setting, it appears that the Judea Group aquifer should not be regarded as one continuous and undisturbed hydrological unit; owing to the occurrence of regional faults, its subaquifers are locally interconnected. These subaquifers, which contain mainly high-quality water, are juxtaposed, as a result of faulting, against Kurnub Group sandstones containing brackish paleowater. The latter Group is faulted against late Jurassic formations containing highly saline groundwater. In the Beer Sheva area, the Judea Group aquifer is vertically displaced against the Senonian and Eocene Mt. Scopus and Avdat Groups, which also contain brackish and saline water. In the southern Coastal Plain, major faults locally dissect also the Pleistocene Kurkar Group, facilitating inflow of Mg-rich groundwater deriving from Judea Group dolomites. The new geological evidence and its hydrogeological implications provide new solutions for previously unexplained salinization phenomena.

  19. Mercury concentration in the sediments as a function of changing climate in coastal zone of Southern Baltic Sea – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bełdowska M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury, despite of its many uses in industry, is also highly toxic. It is highly neurotoxic, and because of the ability of mercury to penetrate placental barrier, in some countries ban on predatory fish consumption (the main route of mercury into human organism by pregnant women was introduced. There are very little publications describing the consequences of weather anomalies on contaminants cycles. No research was published concerning the reemission of Hg due to climate change in the Southern Baltic Sea. The study area was situated in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Gdansk - the Southern Baltic. Samples of different species of macrophytobenthos were collected once a month during 2006-2012. Samples of Potamogeton pectinatus, sediments and pore waters were collected once a month from February 2011 to January 2012. The climate changes in the moderate latitudes: extension of the fall season, has contributed to stabilization of high concentrations of mercury in pore waters. Lack of ice cover in the coastal zone and simultaneous occurrence of storms had an impact on supply of the organic matter to the sediments and the increased concentration of Hg. More intense burning of fossil fuels in this season favored the increased metal concentration in the atmosphere and consequently an increase of the atmospheric deposition of metals to the sediments. This led to a fourfold increase of the mercury concentration in sediments as compared to fall season.

  20. Post-Hurricane Ike coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, September 14-15, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Karen L. M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Guy, Kristy K.

    2016-04-28

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms (Morgan, 2009). On September 14-15, 2008, the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, aboard a Beechcraft Super King Air 200 (aircraft) at an altitude of 500 feet (ft) and approximately 1,200 ft offshore. This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ike data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown on September 9-10, 2008, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change.The photographs provided in this report are Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) images. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System (GPS) latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist (photographer), caption, copyright, and contact information. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images (see the Navigation Data page). These photographs document the state of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time. These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. Photographs can be opened directly with any JPEG-compatible image viewer by clicking on a thumbnail on the contact sheet.In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language (KML) file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on either the thumbnail or the link above the thumbnail

  1. Tsunami hazard mitigation in tourism in the tropical and subtropical coastal areas: a case study in the Ryukyu Islands, southwest of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2006-12-01

    Life and economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) are highly relying on the sea. The sea has both "gentle" side to give people healing and "dangerous" side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know all of the sea, including the both sides of the sea: especially the nature of tsunamis. And also we islanders should issue accurate information about the sea towards outsiders, especially tourists visiting the island. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. However, measures against the tsunami disaster by marine tourism industry are still inadequate in these areas. The goal of tsunami hazard mitigation for those engaged in tourism industry in tropical and subtropical coastal areas should be as follows. (1) Preparedness against tsunamis: "Be aware of the characteristics of tsunamis." "Prepare tsunamis when you feel an earthquake." "Prepare tsunamis when an earthquake takes place somewhere in the world." (2) Maintenance of an exact tsunami hazard map under quantitative analyses of the characteristics of tsunamis: "Flooding areas by tsunami attacks are dependent not only on altitude but also on amplification and inundation due to the seafloor topography near the coast and the onland topographic relief." "Tsunami damage happens repeatedly." (3) Maintenance of a tsunami disaster prevention manual and training after the manual: "Who should do what in case of tsunamis?" "How should the resort hotel employees lead the guests to the safe place?" Such a policy for disaster prevention is discussed in the class of the general education of "Ocean Sciences" in University of the Ryukyus (UR) and summer school for high school students. The students (most of them are from Okinawa Prefecture) consider, discuss and make reports about what to do in case of tsunamis as an islander

  2. Influence of intense scavenging on Pa-Th fractionation in the wake of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Venchiarutti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved and particulate excess 230Th and 231Pa concentrations (noted 230Thxs and 231Paxs respectively and 231Paxs/230Thxs activity ratios were investigated on and out of the Kerguelen plateau (Southern Ocean in the framework of the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau compared Study project in order to better understand the influence of particle flux and particle chemistry and advection on the scavenging of 231Pa.

    In the wake of Kerguelen, particulate 231Paxs is relatively abundant compared to its content in the dissolved phase. This, together with the low fractionation observed between 230Th and 231Pa (FTh/Pa ranging from 0.06 ± 0.01 to 1.6 ± 0.2 reflects the domination of the biogenic silica in the particle pool.

    Along the eastern escarpment of the Kerguelen plateau, the strong 231Paxs horizontal gradient in the deep waters highlights the intense removal of 231Pa at depth, as already observed for 230Thxs. This local boundary scavenging was attributed to re-suspension of opal-rich particles by nepheloid layers, resulting in fractionation factors FTh/Pa ≤ 1 along the Kerguelen plateau slope. Therefore, both the composition (biogenic opal and the flux (intense along the margin of particles control the scavenging of the two radionuclides in the Kerguelen wake.

    The modelling of 231Pa distribution with an advection-scavenging model demonstrates that lateral advection of open ocean water on the Kerguelen plateau could supply most of the 231Pa, which is then efficiently scavenged on the highly productive plateau, as previously proposed for 230Thxs. It stresses that lateral advection can play a significant role in the overall

  3. Enneophyllus ecarina, a new species of scaphopod shell dwelling hermit crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) from deep-sea off the Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2017-05-24

    A second species of the pagurid genus Enneophyllus McLaughlin, 1997, E. ecarina n. sp., is described and illustrated on the basis of two specimens collected from the upper bathyal depths off Amami-ohshima Island, Ryukyu Islands, southern Japan. The new species is immediately distinguished from the sole known congener, E. spinirostris McLaughlin, 1997, from the Banda Sea, Indonesia, by the non-operculiform right chela and fewer ventral spiniform setae of the ambulatory dactyli. The type species of Enneophillus, E. spinirostris, was represented only by the male holotype, and examination of the female paratype of this new species enables documentation of female characteristics in the generic diagnosis. Like E. spinirostris, the new species inhabits scaphopod shells.

  4. Quantifying the risk that marine debris poses to cetaceans in coastal waters of the 4-island region of Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jens J; Stack, Stephanie H; McCordic, Jessica A; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2017-08-15

    Marine debris poses considerable threat to biodiversity and ecosystems and has been identified as a stressor for a variety of marine life. Here we present results from the first study quantifying the amount and type of debris accumulation in Maui leeward waters and relate this to cetacean distribution to identify areas where marine debris may present a higher threat. Transect surveys were conducted within the 4-island region of Maui, Hawai'i from April 1, 2013 to April 15, 2016. Debris was found in all areas of the study region with higher concentrations observed where the Au'au, Kealaikahiki, and Alalakeiki channels converge. The degree of overlap between debris and cetaceans varied among species but was largest for humpback whales, which account for the largest portion of reported entanglements in the 4-island region of Maui. Identifying areas of high debris-cetacean density overlap can facilitate species management and debris removal efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative age and growth of common snook Centropomus undecimalis (Pisces: Centropomidae from coastal and riverine areas in Southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha A. Perera-Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common snook Centropomus unidecimalis is an important commercial and fishery species in Southern Mexico, however the high exploitation rates have resulted in a strong reduction of its abundances. Since, the information about its population structure is scarce, the objective of the present research was to determine and compare the age structure in four important fishery sites. For this, age and growth of common snook were determined from specimens collected monthly, from July 2006 to March 2008, from two coastal (Barra Bosque and Barra San Pedro and two riverine (San Pedro and Tres Brazos commercial fishery sites in Tabasco, Mexico. Age was determined using sectioned saggitae otoliths and data analyzed by von Bertalanffy and Levenberg-Marquardt among others. Estimated ages ranged from 2 to 17 years. Monthly patterns of marginal increment formation and the percentage of otoliths with opaque rings on the outer edge demonstrated that a single annulus was formed each year. The von Bertalanffy parameters were calculated for males and females using linear adjustment and the non-linear method of Levenberg-Marquardt. The von Bertalanffy growth equations were FLt=109.21(1-e-0.21(t+0.57 for Barra Bosque, FLt=94.56(1-e-0.27(t+0.48 for Barra San Pedro, FLt=97.15(1-e-0.17(t+1.32 for San Pedro and FLt=83.77(1-e-0.26(t+0.49 for Tres Brazos. According to (Hotelling’s T², pEl robalo blanco Centropomus undecimalis representa un ingreso monetario significativo y un recurso alimentario para todas las comunidades rurales cercanas a su distribución. Se determinó la edad y crecimiento de esta especie. Los organismos se recolectaron mensualmente en los desembarcos de la pesca artesanal de las cooperativas de mayor contribución en la zona costera (Barra Bosque y San Pedro y ribereña (San Pedro y Tres Brazos entre julio 2006 y marzo 2008. La edad se determinó mediante otolitos seccionados. La edad estimada fue de 2 a 17 años. Mensualmente se estableció la

  6. Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920 isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix in Santa Catarina island, Santa Catarina state: first report of this trypanosome in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steindel

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available A trypanosome strain isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix from Santa Catarina Island (Santa Catarina State, Brazil was characterized by the following methods: experimental transmission and development in invertebrate hosts, morphometry, cross protection, complement sensitivity, lectin agglutination and isoenzyme profiles. Comparasions were made with standard Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli strains. All methods except isoenzyne analysis led to the identification of the isolate as T. rangeli. The isoenzyme differences found could be explained on the basis of polymorphism. Therefore this is the first report of T. rangeli in southern Brazil, increasing the geographical distribution of this parasite.

  7. Analysis of Rainfall induced landslides susceptibility along 50-110k section of the Southern Cross Island Highway in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Chia; Chan, Hsun-Chuan; Hong, Yu-Jou

    2014-05-01

    Landslide located at the Southern Cross Island Highway, Taiwan damaged the natural environment and caused economic losses, damaged basic facilities, and resulted in human casualties in recent years. In order to reduce the reconstruction cost of broken roads, the study areas were chosen from mileage ranging from 50 to 110 kilometers and buffer range of 1,400 meters of the highway. The landslide susceptibilities along the highway were established. Two steps, the selection procedure and the model development procedure, have been used to establish landslide susceptibility model. The landslide inventories of the study area triggered by typhoon Mindulle, Morakot, and 0719 rainfall event, produced by the Central Geological Survey, were used for analyzing and modeling. In the selection procedure, the potential environmental factors, including the elevation, slope, slope aspect, slope high, lithology, terrain roughness, slope roughness, plan curvature, profile curvature, total curvature, distance of road, and distance of river, were selected as landslide causative factors. In order to select the factors efficiently, each factor was normalized from 0 to 1 to reduce the difference between the range of various factors. In the model development procedure, the Logistic regression method was used to establish the landslide susceptibility model. The classification error matrix and ROC-curve were used to evaluate the accuracy of landslide predicted by the developed model. The rainfall intensities of different rainfall durations were used as a landslide triggering factor in different rainfall events. The present model could predict landslide effectively. The overall accuracy of the three rainfall events was up to 70% or above. However, the predictions of Mindulle and 0719 rainfall event did not improve obviously by using landslide triggering factors, while the overall accuracy of Morakot event increased from 66.82% to 71.34%. The result suggests that if the rainfall event is long

  8. Indexes of spatio-temporal change to reconstruct the historical evolution of a coastal region: case study: São Sebastião Island - SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia S. Bertolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The coastal regions of Brazil have lost most of their distinct characteristics due to an intense, diverse, and long history of land use. The current scenario is the result of successive changes which have taken place since the colonization of Brazil. These changes should be taken into account in environmental planning since the decisions about the future depend on the understanding of past changes. In this regard, the aim of this study was to identify and quantify the spatio-temporal changes in land use in a coastal region, using principles of landscape ecology and scenario construction. The case study was the São Sebastião Island, divided into 61 watersheds, off the northern coast of São Paulo State (Brazil. The study involved the development and application of a methodology to interpret the historical dynamics of the island. The driving forces were identified and indexes of change were calculated to define the phases of occupation of the island. Five phases of occupation of the coastal landscape were mapped: preservation, conservation, regeneration, exploitation and urbanization. These phases represent a pattern of internal heterogeneity, sometimes positive (environmental conservation, and sometimes negative (environmental degradation.As regiões costeiras brasileiras encontram-se altamente descaracterizadas devido ao intenso, diversificado e prolongado uso da terra ao longo de sua história. O cenário hoje observado é produto do acúmulo de interferências que vem ocorrendo desde a colonização. Os planejamentos ambientais devem considerar essa questão, uma vez que as decisões sobre o futuro dependem da compreensão dessas mudanças do passado. Neste caminho, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar, quantificar e indicar as variações espaços-temporais de uso da terra numa paisagem costeira a partir dos princípios da ecologia de paisagem e da modelagem para construção de cenários. O estudo de caso foi a Ilha de São Sebasti

  9. Regional chloride distribution in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system from Long Island, New York, to North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Emmanuel

    2016-08-31

    The aquifers of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain are the principal source of water supply for the region’s nearly 20 million residents. Water quality and water levels in the aquifers, and maintenance of streamflow, are of concern because of the use of this natural resource for water supply and because of the possible effects of climate change and changes in land use on groundwater. The long-term sustainability of this natural resource is a concern at the local community scale, as well as at a regional scale, across state boundaries. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a regional assessment of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifers. An important part of this assessment is a regional interpretation of the extent of saltwater and the proximity of saltwater to fresh-groundwater resources and includes samples and published interpretations of chloride concentrations newly available since the last regional chloride assessment in 1989. This updated assessment also includes consideration of chloride samples and refined interpretations that stem from the 1994 discovery of the buried 35 million year old Chesapeake Bay impact structure that has substantially altered the understanding of the hydrogeologic framework and saltwater distribution in eastern Virginia.

  10. CHARACTERISTIC OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT IN SEDIMENT AT COASTAL AND OFFSHORE AREA OF KUNDUR ISLAND, RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Setiady

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at coastal and offshore Kundur and Adjacent Area, geographically located at coordinates of 0º 39'00 "0º 50'00" N and 103º 10'00 "103º 25 '00" S. Rare earth elements are found in seven seafloor surfacial sediment and 3 core samples are Cerium (15.41 to 16.88 ppm, Lanthanum (5.40 to 6.80 ppm, Ytrium (5.18 to 5, 58 ppm, Zirconium (5.05 to 5.95 ppm and Neodymium 20.25 to 20.95 ppm. The minerals that containing of rare earth elements at the study area are apatite, zircon, monazite, and pyrochlore and xenotime. Seafloor surfacial sediment at Kundur are composed by silt (Z, sandy silt (sZ, sandy gravel, mud and sand. Silt unit covering nearly 55% of the study area and followed by sandy gravel, sand, silt and sandy silt. Seafloor morphology varies those are flat morphology with gradually depth changes and a regularly shaped identation curves and holes likely a result of sand mining. Coastal characteristics consists of: sandy and muddy beach. Sandy beach has medium relief (5° - 8°, composed by medium to coarse sand, brownish yellow. The muddy beach has low relief (1° - 5° where the edges of the beach is mangroves planted by the local peoples.

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, sea lions, whales, dolphins, porpoises, and sea otters in Southern California. Vector polygons...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Southern California: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for rare and threatened/endangered terrestrial mammals in Southern California. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  14. Feeding of two sympatric species of Characidium, C. lanei and C. pterostictum (Characidiinae in a coastal stream of Atlantic Forest (Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranha José Marcelo R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The feeding strategy of Characidium lanei and C. pterostictum was studied in the "Cabral" stream, a coastal stream of the Atlantic Forest, in southern Brazil. The samples were taken using electric fishing between March/95 and February/96. We studied about 15 stomach contents for each species in each season of the year. The stomach contents of the studied species were composed of 39 different food items, 28 in C. lanei and 24 in C. pterostictum. Chironomidae larvae and Ephemeroptera nymph were the most important items for C. lanei, except in the summer when Acarina and not identified Arthropoda were the most important items. Chironomidae and Simulidae larvae were the most important items in C. pterostictum. These results indicated an insectivorous habits and opportunist feeding strategy to C. lanei and C. pterostictum with several items rare or not very frequent.

  15. Remote sensing and GIS applied in the definition and zonification of the protected coastal areas in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomeli, D.Z.; Aponte, A.G.; Yanez-Arancibia, A. [Univ. of Campeche (Mexico)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The state of Campeche, Mexico is located in the southern part of the Gulf of Mexico. At present Campeche state has two protected areas in its coastal zone: the Terminos Lagoon Area which was declared as a Protected of Flora and Fauna Zone and the Petenes Region which was declared as Special Protected Zone of Flora and Fauna. Considering ecological, socioeconomic and normative criteria along with Landsat-TM satellite images and aerial photographs analyses, overlays of thematic cartography and land surveys, it was defined the borders and ecological zonification of the two protected areas. The ecological zonification includes two zones: Nucleus Zone (restricted protected area) and Buffer Zone (conservation and multiple use area).

  16. The initial investigation of Fatu-ma-Futi : an ancient coastal village site, Tutuila Island, Territory of American Samoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, D.J.; Walter, G.; Morrison, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results of inital excavations at Fatu-ma-Futi Village are reported. Stratigraphy in two test pits was similar, with compacted surface layers of a car-parking lot underlain by a layer of clayey sand, fire-affected rock and ancient pebble-gravel paving, which slowly graded into the original beach surface. Post-moulds, shell midden, and basalt flakes were found in both units and human remains in one. Near-basal radiocarbon dates on charcoal suggest initial occupation of a newly formed littoral environment in the period of about 1600 to 1300 cal BP. Permanent habitation came later, with evidence of large-scale basalt tool manufacture towards the end of the sequence. This site is important for understanding current topics in Samoan prehistory, including settlement pattern and coastal geomorphology, marine exploitation and reef health, human lifestyle, health and burial practices, domestic architectural morphology; and the Tutuila basal export industry. (author). 37 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  18. Attaining provenance proxies from OSL and TL sensitivities: Coupling with grain size and heavy minerals data from southern Brazilian coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zular, André; Sawakuchi, André O.; Guedes, Carlos C.F.; Giannini, Paulo C.F.

    2015-01-01

    In the São Francisco do Sul (SFS) barrier in southern Brazil, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivities of coastal sands vary according to geomorphological units. Sands from older beach ridges (ages older than 2000 years ago) show higher OSL and TL sensitivities than younger units (ages younger than 2000 years). Geomorphological units in the SFS attest to changes in provenance as a result of a coastal climate shift evidenced through grain size and heavy mineral analysis. We argue that in the SFS barrier sands, OSL and TL sensitivity signals provide an additional proxy to climate events and can be used as an alternative method to assess changes in provenance and tracking source-to-sink systems to monitor past and future environmental changes. - Highlights: • OSL and TL sensitivities are confronted with grain size and heavy minerals data. • We report OSL and 110 °C TL sensitivities as provenance proxies. • 110 °C TL sensitivity outlines environmental changes better than OSL sensitivity data.

  19. Variation in the life-history traits of a Schilbid catfish, Clupisoma garua (Hamilton, 1822) in the coastal waters of southern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddik, Muhammad Abu Bakar; Chaklader, Md Reaz; Hanif, Md Abu; Nahar, Ashfaqun; Ilham, Ilham; Cole, Anthony; Fotedar, Ravi

    2017-09-01

    For the first time, the present study reports the life-history traits, comprising length-frequency distribution (LFD), sex ratio (SR), length-weight relationships (LWRs), condition factors (CFs), and relative growth ( W R), of Clupisoma garua in the coastal waters of Bangladesh. A total of 150 specimens ranging from 8.60 to 25.20 cm total length (TL) and 4.26 to 128.80 g body weight (BW) were collected using traditional fishing gear from August 2013 to July 2014. The overall sex ratio of males to females in the study did not differ significantly from the expected value of 1:1 (χ2 =0.96, P males, females and combined sexes, respectively, and there was negative allometric growth in all cases ( b tool for fishery specialists to evaluate the relative condition of fish and to initiate early management strategies and regulations for the sustainable management of the remaining stocks of this species in the entire coastal region of southern Bangladesh.

  20. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  1. Exploratory drilling for natural gas in the North Sea coastal area and on the Dutch island Ameland: Starting memorandum Environmental Effect Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-09-01

    For specific large-scale projects in the Netherlands a so-called Environmental Effect Report (MER, abbreviated in Dutch) procedure is required to assess the environmental impacts of such a project. The MER procedure that starts with this memorandum aims at the organizational aspects of the title area and island. This starting memorandum is the uniform basis for the MER procedure for six exploratory or test drillings in five areas and two research areas in the North Sea coastal area and on Ameland in the concessions Noord-Friesland (NAM/MOBIL) and Groningen (NAM). In chapter two attention is paid to the area of tension in which decisions, concerning the exploratory drillings, have been or should be taken. In chapter three the targets of the exploratory drillings are formulated. In chapter four more details are given of government decisions that are under consideration and where the MER can play a direct role in the weighing process. The most efficient and effective method to execute the MER process is described in chapter five. The planned activities are listed in chapter six. Also in this chapter an overview is given of alternatives, regarding the site, the application of drilling installations and the period in which the drillings can take place. In chapter seven the possible significant environmental impacts of the test drillings are indicated. In the chapters eight and nine the procedures and the time schedule are presented as well as a list of terms and abbreviations. 8 figs., 5 tabs., 7 appendices, 6 refs

  2. Comprehensive and comparative ecotoxicological and human risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in reef surface sediments and coastal seawaters of Iranian Coral Islands, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiari, Alireza; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein

    2017-11-01

    The concentration and spatial distribution along with ecotoxicological risk of 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated in the reef surface sediments (RSSs) and coastal seawater (CSW) of ten coral Islands from the Persian Gulf, Iran, in January 2015. For all sampling sites, assessment of ecological risk was undertaken using several approaches. Mean concentration of ∑30PAHs varied between 70 and 884ngL -l with an overall mean value of 464ngL -l in the CSW, while the RSS ranged from 274 to 1098ngg -1 dw with a total average of 619ngg -1 dw. The results showed a gradient in PAH concentration and toxicity estimates from the northern Hormoz site increasing to the eastern Kharg site. Most of the toxicity estimates were in the moderate range or less than risk values for damage to the marine environment. The calculated Dermal Hazard Quotient (HQs), the sum of HQs (HI) and other cancer risk values of most compounds were less than safety values at most sites. It means that the possibility of negative effects of PAHs via dermal absorption from sediments for children and adults is low. Some sampling sites studied have already been impacted with hazardous pollutants for an extended period of time and evidence from this investigation demonstrates that mixtures of PAHs may be carcinogenic to humans, especially in the western part of the Gulf. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of thermo-rheological properties of the crust beneath Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the modulation of the ground deformation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, R.; Gola, G.; Santilano, A.; De Novellis, V.; Pepe, S.; Manzo, M.; Manzella, A.; Tizzani, P.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we develop a model of the ground deformation behaviour occurred at Ischia Island (Southern Italy) in the 1992-2010 time period. The model is employed to investigate the forces and physical parameters of the crust controlling the subsidence of the Island. To this aim, we integrate and homogenize in a Finite Element (FE) environment a large amount of data derived from several and different observation techniques (i.e., geological, geophysical and remote sensing). In detail, the main steps of the multiphysics model are: (i) the generation of a 3D geological model of the crust beneath the Island by merging the available geological and geophysical information; (ii) the optimization of a 3D thermal model by exploiting the thermal measurements available in literature; (iii) the definition of the 3D Brittle/Ductile transition by using the temperature distribution of the crust and the physical information of the rocks; (iv) the optimization of the ground deformation velocity model (that takes into account the rheological stratification) by considering the spatial and temporal information detected via satellite multi-orbit C-Band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements acquired during the 1992-2010 time period. The achieved results allow investigating the physical process responsible for the observed ground deformation pattern. In particular, they reveal how the rheology modulates the spatial and temporal evolution of the long-term subsidence phenomenon, highlighting a coupling effect of the viscosities of the rocks and the gravitational loading of the volcano edifice. Moreover, the achieved results provide a very detailed and realistic velocity field image of the subsurface crust of the Ischia Island Volcano.

  4. Water exchange estimates derived from forcing for the hydraulically coupled basins surrounding Aespoe island and adjacent coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engqvist, A.

    1997-08-01

    A numerical model study based on representative physical forcing data (statistically averaged from approximately 10 years) has been performed of the Aespoe area, subdivided into five separate basins, interconnected by four straits and connected to the Baltic coast through three straits. The water exchange of the shallow Borholmsfjaerden, with comparatively small section areas of its straits, is dominated by the sea level variations while the baroclinic exchange components (estuarine and intermediary circulation) also contribute. The average transit retention time (averaged over the basin volume for a full year cycle) is found to be a little over 40 days for exogenous water (i.e. coastal water and freshwater combined); this measure of the water exchange is comparable to the combined average of an ensemble consisting of 157 similarly analyzed basins distributed along the Swedish east and west coasts. The exchange mechanisms and model assumptions are discussed. The consequences for the retention times by short- and long-term variations of the forcing is also analyzed. The standard deviation (SD) of the retention time during an average year (intra-annual variation) is greater than the SD between years (interannual variation) for all basins except Borholmsfjaerden for which these two measures are in parity. The range of the retention times that results from an extreme combination of forcing factor variation between years is found to be greater the farther a particular basin is located from the coast, measured as the minimal number of separating straits. The results of an earlier investigation are also reviewed

  5. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, L.I.; van der Meulen, M.D.; Maes, T.; Bekaert, K.; Paul-Pont, I.; Frère, L.; Robbens, J.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North

  6. Dynamics of oxygen depletion in the nearshore of a coastal embayment of the southern Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pitcher, GC

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of high resolution time series of water column and bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations inform the dynamics of oxygen depletion in St Helena Bay in the southern Benguela upwelling system at several scales of variability. The bay...

  7. Chaparral in southern and central coastal California in the mid-1990s: area, ownership, condition, and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy S. Fried; Charles L. Bolsinger; Debby. Beardsley

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes an inventory of chaparral-dominated lands in southern California conducted during the mid-1990s and provides a review of contemporary literature on the ecological dynamics of chaparral vegetation with emphases on stand development, species composition, and the role of fire. Detailed tables provide estimates of chaparral area by owner, type, size...

  8. Evidence of human-induced morphodynamic changes along the Campania coastal areas (southern Italy) since the 3rd-4th cent. AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo Ermolli, Elda; Romano, Paola; Liuzza, Viviana; Amato, Vincenzo; Ruello, Maria Rosaria; Di Donato, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    Campania has always offered suitable climatic and physiographic conditions for human settlements since prehistoric times. In particular, many Graeco-Roman towns developed along its coasts starting from the 7th-6th cent. BC. In the last decade, geoarchaelogical surveys have been carried out in the archaeological excavations of Neapolis, Paestum and Elea-Velia allowing the main steps of the landscape evolution around these towns to be defined in detail. The greek town of Neapolis rose in the late 6th cent. BC [1] on a terrace overlooking a low-relief rocky coast surrounded by volcanic hills. Port activities developed in a protected bay facing the town from the 4th-2nd cent. BC up to the 4th cent. AD, as testified by the discovery of structures and shipwrecks [2, 3, 4]. Starting from the 3rd cent. AD a spit bar formed at the bay entrance causing the progressive establishment of a lagoon which was gradually filled up by alluvial inputs and completely closed in the 5th cent. AD. During the same period, episodes of increased alluvial inputs were also recorded further west along the coast, where a narrow sandy beach formed at the cliff toe. The greek town of Poseidonia, renamed Paestum by the Romans, was founded in the 540 BC on a travertine terrace facing the sandy littoral of a prograding coastal plain [5]. In front of the main town door, a coastal lagoon developed thanks to the growth of a dune ridge and was probably used for harbor activities [5]. After this period the shoreline shifted seawards, another dune ridge formed and the back-ridge depression was filled with fluvial-marshy deposits, slowly drying up. Phases of travertine deposition, which characterized the SE sector of the plain all along the Holocene, were recorded in the northern and southern quarters of the town in historical times and were connected to the abandonment of the town in the early Medieval times. The greek colony of Elea-Velia was located on top of a siliciclastic promontory where the ruins of

  9. Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns on a north Atlantic coastal island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert A.; O'Connell, A.F.; Harrison, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Mortality and survival of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus fawns (n=29) were studied from birth to 1 year of age during 1991-95 on Mount Desert Island (MDI), Maine where deer hunting is prohibited, coyotes Canis latrans have become recently established, and protected U. S. National Park lands are interspersed with private property. Rate of predator-caused mortality was 0.52, with coyote predation (n=8) accounting for at least 47% of mortalities from all causes (n=17). Mortality rate from drowning was 0.24 (n=3), and from vehicles was 0.14 (n=3). Of fawns radio-collared as neonates, 10 of 14 mortalities occurred during the first 2 months of life. Annual rate of fawn survival was 0.26. Survival rate from 6 months to 1 year was 0.65 and 4 mortalities (2 predation, 2 drowning) were observed during this interval. A subgroup of fawns (n = 11) captured near a residential area and along the edge of a coyote territory had a higher (P = 0.002) rate of survival to 1 year of age (S = 0.67) than did fawns from all other areas (n = 18, S = 0.00). Recruitment to 1 year of age was lower than has been observed in other deer populations in the northeastern United States. Low recruitment associated with coyote predation and mortality sources influenced by humans appears to be limiting white-tailed deer populations in this insular landscape.

  10. Volcanic Eruptions in the Southern Red Sea During 2007–2013

    KAUST Repository

    Jonsson, Sigurjon

    2015-04-03

    The first volcanic eruption known to occur in the southern Red Sea in over a century started on Jebel at Tair Island in September 2007. The early phase of the eruption was energetic, with lava reaching the shore of the small island within hours, destroying a Yemeni military outpost and causing a few casualties. The eruption lasted several months, producing a new summit cone and lava covering an area of 5.9 km2, which is about half the area of the island. The Jebel at Tair activity was followed by two more eruptions within the Zubair archipelago, about 50 km to the southeast, in 2011–2012 and 2013, both of which started on the seafloor and resulted in the formation of new islands. The first of these eruptions started in December 2011 in the northern part of the archipelago and lasted for about one month, generating a small (0.25 km2) oval-shaped island. Coastal erosion during the first two years following the end of the eruption has reduced the size of the island to 0.19 km2. The second event occurred in the central part of the Zubair Islands and lasted roughly two months (September–November, 2013), forming a larger (0.68 km2) island. The recent volcanic eruptions in the southern Red Sea are a part of increased activity seen in the entire southern Red Sea region following the onset of a rifting episode in Afar (Ethiopia) in 2005.

  11. Epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain of southern Brazil: latitudinal effects on the plant community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia S. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Community structure and spatial distribution of epiphytic ferns in swamp forest remnants along the coastal plain of the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. A total of 440 trees were sampled in fifty-seven 10 x 10 m plots. Each phorophyte was divided into five ecological zones (strata, where all species of epiphytic ferns were recorded. A total of 34 species representing 18 genera in six families were recorded. Polypodiaceae was the most represented family with 17 species, and Microgramma vacciniifolia had the highest epiphytic importance value. Characteristic holoepiphyte was the predominant ecological category, representing 70 % of the species. Ordination analysis showed a gradual change in floristic composition between ecological zones with richness differing significantly between strata. We observed that with increasing latitude there was a decrease in mean temperature and total rainfall, but an increase in frosts. These climatic and phytogeography changes result in a reduction in species richness and a change in the structure of epiphytic fern communities in a north-to-south direction. The importance of swamp forest remnants of the coastal plain to the diversity of epiphytic ferns is discussed.

  12. Soft engineering vs. a dynamic approach in coastal dune management: a case study on the North Sea barrier island of Ameland, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de B.; Keijsers, J.G.S.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.; Krol, J.; Slim, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Dunes act as flood defences in coastal zones, protecting low-lying interior lands from flooding. To ensure coastal safety, insight is needed on how dunes develop under different types of management. The current study focuses on two types of coastal dune management: (1) a “soft engineering” approach,

  13. Reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuwied (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia in the periurban environment of Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel dos Santos Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.

  14. Crust and upper-mantle structure of Wanganui Basin and southern Hikurangi margin, North Island, New Zealand as revealed by active source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, B.; Stern, T. A.; Lamb, S. L.; Henrys, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Wide-angle reflection and refraction data recorded during the Seismic Array HiKurangi Experiment (SAHKE) are used to constrain the crustal P-wave velocity (Vp) structure along two profiles spanning the length and width of Wanganui Basin, located landwards of the southern Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. These models provide high-resolution constraints on the structure and crustal thickness of the overlying Australian and subducted Pacific plates and plate interface geometry. Wide-angle reflections are modelled to show that the subducted oceanic Pacific plate crust is anomalously thick (∼10 km) below southern North Island and is overlain by a ∼1.5-4.0 km thick, low Vp (4.8-5.4 km s-1) layer, interpreted as a channel of sedimentary material, that persists landwards at least as far as Kapiti Island. Distinct near vertical reflections from onshore shots identify a ∼4 km high mound of low-velocity sedimentary material that appears to underplate the overlying Australian plate crust and is likely to contribute to local rock uplift along the Axial ranges. The overriding Australian plate Moho beneath Wanganui Basin is imaged as deepening southwards and reaches a depth of at least 36.4 km. The Moho shape approximately mirrors the thickening of the basin sediments, suggestive of crustal downwarping. However, the observed crustal thickness variation is insufficient to explain the large negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (-160 mGal) centred over the basin. Partial serpentinization within the upper mantle with a concomitant density decrease is one possible way of reconciling this anomaly.

  15. Iron Availability Influences Silicon Isotope Fractionation in Two Southern Ocean Diatoms (Proboscia inermis and Eucampia antarctica and a Coastal Diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Meyerink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The fractionation of silicon (Si isotopes was measured in two Southern Ocean diatoms (Proboscia inermis and Eucampia Antarctica and a coastal diatom (Thalassiosira pseudonana that were grown under varying iron (Fe concentrations. Varying Fe concentrations had no effect on the Si isotope enrichment factor (ε in T. pseudonana, whilst E. Antarctica and P. inermis exhibited significant variations in the value of ε between Fe-replete and Fe-limited conditions. Mean ε values in P. inermis and E. Antarctica decreased from (± 1SD −1.11 ± 0.15‰ and −1.42 ± 0.41 ‰ (respectively under Fe-replete conditions, to −1.38 ± 0.27 ‰ and −1.57 ± 0.5 ‰ (respectively under Fe-limiting conditions. These variations likely arise from adaptations in diatoms arising from the nutrient status of their environment. T. pseudonana is a coastal clone typically accustomed to low Si but high Fe conditions whereas E. Antarctica and P. inermis are typically accustomed to High Si, High nitrate low Fe conditions. Growth induced variations in silicic acid (Si(OH4 uptake arising from Fe-limitation is the likely mechanism leading to Si-isotope variability in E. Antarctica and P. inermis. The multiplicative effects of species diversity and resource limitation (e.g., Fe on Si-isotope fractionation in diatoms can potentially alter the Si-isotope composition of diatom opal in diatamaceous sediments and sea surface Si(OH4. This work highlights the need for further in vitro studies into intracellular mechanisms involved in Si(OH4 uptake, and the associated pathways for Si-isotope fractionation in diatoms.

  16. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  17. Submarine groundwater discharge in a subsiding coastal lowland: A {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn investigation in the Southern Venice lagoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gattacceca, Julie C., E-mail: jcg54@esc.cam.ac.uk [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Mayer, Adriano [IDPA-CNR, Via Mario Bianco 9, 20131 Milano (Italy); Cucco, Andrea [Coastal Oceanography, CNR-IAMC, Oristano Unit, Loc. Sa MArdini, 09072 Oristano (Italy); Claude, Christelle; Radakovitch, Olivier; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno [CEREGE, Aix-Marseille Universite, UMR 6635 CNRS-IRD-CDF, Europole Mediterraneen de l' Arbois, BP80, 13545 Aix en Provence (France)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Occurence/magnitude of submarine groundwater discharge investigated in Venice lagoon (Italy) using {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn isotopic tracers. > Single box mass balance compared with multi boxes mass balance coupled with hydrodynamic model. > Groundwater flux accounts for 1% of lagoon hydrological balance (1-3 times surface runoff) and 30-50% of tracers inputs. > Necessary to assess this flux impact on nutrient budget in lagoon. - Abstract: Several recent studies have suggested that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) occurs in the Venice lagoon with discharge rates on the same order or larger than the surface runoff, as demonstrated previously in several other coastal zones around the world. Here, the first set of {sup 222}Rn data, along with new {sup 226}Ra data are reported, in order to investigate the occurrence and magnitude of SGD specifically in the southern basin of the lagoon. The independent connection with the Adriatic Sea (at the Chioggia inlet), in addition to the relative isolation of the water body from the main lagoon, make this area an interesting case study. There is probably only minimal fresh groundwater flux to the lagoon because the surrounding aquifer is subsiding and mainly has a lower hydraulic head than seawater. The data show that the Ra and Rn activities are in slight excess in the lagoon compared to the open sea, with values on the same order as those observed in the northern and central basins. Taking into account the water exchange rate between the lagoon and adjacent seawater provided by previous hydrodynamic numerical modelling, it is shown that this excess cannot be supported at steady state by only riverine input and by diffusive release from the sediment interstitial water. High activities observed in groundwater samples collected from 16 piezometers tapping into the shallow aquifer over the coastal lowland substantiate that the excess radioactivity in the lagoon may indeed be due to the advection of groundwater

  18. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Controls of multi-modal wave conditions in a complex coastal setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegermiller, Christie; Rueda, Ana C.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Antolinez, J.A.A.; Mendez, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal hazards emerge from the combined effect of wave conditions and sea level anomalies associated with storms or low-frequency atmosphere-ocean oscillations. Rigorous characterization of wave climate is limited by the availability of spectral wave observations, the computational cost of dynamical simulations, and the ability to link wave-generating atmospheric patterns with coastal conditions. We present a hybrid statistical-dynamical approach to simulating nearshore wave climate in complex coastal settings, demonstrated in the Southern California Bight, where waves arriving from distant, disparate locations are refracted over complex bathymetry and shadowed by offshore islands. Contributions of wave families and large-scale atmospheric drivers to nearshore wave energy flux are analyzed. Results highlight the variability of influences controlling wave conditions along neighboring coastlines. The universal method demonstrated here can be applied to complex coastal settings worldwide, facilitating analysis of the effects of climate change on nearshore wave climate.

  20. Heavy metal pollution assessment in relation to sediment properties in the coastal sediments of the southern Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Soltani, Farzaneh; Haghparast, Sarah; Akbari, Atefeh

    2015-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate major elements and heavy metal concentrations of Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Vanadium (V), Nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) in surface sediments of the southern Caspian Sea. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order of: V>Cr>Zn>Ni>Co>Cu>Pb>As. Correlations between elements showed that sediment TOM, grain size and chemical composition are the main factors that influence the distribution of heavy metals. According to the pollution load index (PLI), sediments from some sampling sites were polluted. Concentrations of Ni, As, Cr and Cu were higher than sediment quality guidelines at some sampling sites, implying potential adverse impacts of these metals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic and morphologic analyses of a coastal fish reveals a marine biogeographic break of terrestrial origin in the southern Caribbean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Betancur-R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine allopatric speciation involves interplay between intrinsic organismal properties and extrinsic factors. However, the relative contribution of each depends on the taxon under study and its geographic context. Utilizing sea catfishes in the Cathorops mapale species group, this study tests the hypothesis that both reproductive strategies conferring limited dispersal opportunities and an apparent geomorphologic barrier in the Southern Caribbean have promoted speciation in this group from a little studied area of the world.Mitochondrial gene sequences were obtained from representatives of the Cathorops mapale species group across its distributional range from Colombia to Venezuela. Morphometric and meristic analyses were also done to assess morphologic variation. Along a approximately 2000 km transect, two major lineages, Cathorops sp. and C. mapale, were identified by levels of genetic differentiation, phylogenetic reconstructions, and morphological analyses. The lineages are separated by approximately 150 km at the Santa Marta Massif (SMM in Colombia. The northward displacement of the SMM into the Caribbean in the early Pleistocene altered the geomorphology of the continental margin, ultimately disrupting the natural habitat of C. mapale. The estimated approximately 0.86 my divergence of the lineages from a common ancestor coincides with the timing of the SMM displacement at approximately 0.78 my.Results presented here support the hypothesis that organismal properties as well as extrinsic factors lead to diversification of the Cathorops mapale group along the northern coast of South America. While a lack of pelagic larval stages and ecological specialization are forces impacting this process, the identification of the SMM as contributing to allopatric speciation in marine organisms adds to the list of recognized barriers in the Caribbean. Comparative examination of additional Southern Caribbean taxa, particularly those with varying life

  2. Vulnerability assessment of southern coastal areas of Iran to sea level rise: evaluation of climate change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Goharnejad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent investigations have demonstrated global sea level rise as being due to climate change impact. Probable changes in sea level rise need to be evaluated so that appropriate adaptive strategies can be implemented. This study evaluates the impact of climate change on sea level rise along the Iranian south coast. Climatic data simulated by a GCM (General Circulation Model named CGCM3 under two-climate change scenarios A1b and A2 are used to investigate the impact of climate change. Among the different variables simulated by this model, those of maximum correlation with sea level changes in the study region and least redundancy among themselves are selected for predicting sea level rise by using stepwise regression. Two Discrete Wavelet artificial Neural Network (DWNN models and a Discrete Wavelet Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference system (DWANFIS are developed to explore the relationship between selected climatic variables and sea level changes. In these models, wavelets are used to disaggregate the time series of input and output data into different components. ANFIS/ANN are then used to relate the disaggregated components of predictors and predictand (sea level to each other. The results show a significant rise in sea level in the study region under climate change impact, which should be incorporated into coastal area management.

  3. Anthropogenic disruptions of the sedimentary record in coastal marshes: Examples from the southern Bay of Biscay (N. Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leorri, Eduardo; Cearreta, Alejandro; Jesús Irabien, María; García-artola, Ane; Corbett, D. Reide; Horsman, Eric; Blake, William H.; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2014-09-01

    Understanding sedimentological discontinuities is essential to accurately reconstruct former climatic and sea-level changes from coastal sediments. Four short cores (land reclamation horizons and apply an established environmental template to interpret a new core record from a previously unsampled estuary. Cores were analyzed using a multidisciplinary approach that includes sedimentology, micropaleontology, geochemistry, and bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS). Results suggest that areas used for agricultural purposes are characterized in the sediment record by the absence of foraminifera that, after abandonment, are rapidly colonized by salt marsh plants in response to rapid vertical accretion. The initial colonization is marked by the presence of low foraminiferal numbers and a sharp increase in magnetic susceptibility, which proved helpful to improve the timing of the sedimentological boundaries when combined with other proxies. Our results indicate that anthropogenic disruptions to the sedimentary record are common over the recent past (100 years) and likely extend over the historic period in this part of southwestern Europe. These disruptions reflect historic land use changes. In the case of land clearance, proximal sites reflect sudden grain size changes, foraminiferal data and BMS. Distal sites affected by land clearance and the transition from agricultural soils to salt marsh occur in the mud fraction and require a multidisciplinary approach to pin them down. BMS has proven to be very useful when combined with other proxies. This study demonstrates the need for multiple proxies when reconstructing an environmental history through sedimentary strata in order to identify correctly event layers, their source and time of emplacement.

  4. Morphology, toxin composition and pigment content of Prorocentrum lima strains isolated from a coastal lagoon in southern UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Silvia M; Purdie, Duncan A; Morris, Steven

    2005-04-01

    Prorocentrum lima was isolated from the coastal Fleet lagoon, Dorset, UK in 2000 and a number of clonal cultures established. These were analyzed for okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), DTX-2, DTX-4 and diol esters by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. OA concentrations varied from 0.4 to 17.1pg OAcell(-1) and DTX-1 from 0.4 to 11.3pg DTX-1cell(-1); DTX-2 was not detected in these isolates. OA and DTX-1 were detected in the culture media, as a result of toxin excretion. DTX-4 and a selection of DTX-4 diol esters were identified using selected ion monitoring, although not all strains produced these compounds. Cell size and number of marginal and valve pores of each strain were observed using scanning electron microscopy. OA and DTX-1 concentrations, pigment content and changes in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the culture media were followed during growth of one strain of P. lima in batch culture. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins have been previously detected in shellfish cultivated in the Fleet lagoon, but in the absence of any Dinophysis sp. cells. The identification of toxic P. lima strains from the Fleet suggests that this dinoflagellate is the most probable source of occasional DSP detected in the lagoon.

  5. Archive of post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial photographs collected during U.S. Geological Survey field activity 04CCH01 from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, Florida, August 15, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subino, Janice A.; Morgan, Karen L.M.; Krohn, M. Dennis; Miller, Gregory K.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Forde, Arnell S.

    2012-01-01

    On August 15, 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey off the southwest coast of Florida, from Marco Island to Fort DeSoto, aboard a Navajo Chieftain airplane, tail number N2KK, at an altitude of 500 ft and approximately 1000 ft offshore. These photographs were used to document coastal changes such as beach erosion and overwash caused by Hurricane Charley. They will also be used as baseline data for future coastal change. The oblique photography also served as qualitative ground truthing for the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) coastal topography and bathymetry data collected on August 16, 2004 (Bonisteel and others, 2009). This report serves as an archive of photographs collected during the August 15, 2004, post-Hurricane Charley coastal oblique aerial survey along with associated flight path maps, KML files, navigation files, digital Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of all acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  6. Clonal Expansion of Biofilm-Forming Salmonella Typhimurium ST34 with Multidrug-Resistance Phenotype in the Southern Coastal Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To disclose the antibiotics susceptibility and wide adaptability of commonly occurring genotypes of Salmonella Typhimurium, the antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of different multi-locus sequence typing (MLST types of a collection of 240 S. Typhimurium isolates (33 food and 207 clinical ones during 2010–2014 in Shenzhen were analyzed. Among these strains, 167 was ST34 (69.58%, and 57 was ST19 (23.75%, respectively. A total of 159 (95.21% ST34 strains displayed the multidrug resistant phenotype (≥ three classes of antibiotic, whereas only 23 (40.35% ST19 ones did (P < 0.01. Moreover, a relative high proportion (72.46% of ST34 isolates was classified as moderate to strong biofilm-producers, while only 15.79% of ST19 (P < 0.01 was. Among the food isolates, more than half (51.52% were from livestock products, among which 41.18% classified as moderate to strong biofilm-producers. In summary, this study highlights the expansion of S. Typhimurium ST34 of strong biofilm-forming ability and multidrug resistance in the southern coastal region of China. Therefore, monitoring the occurrence of ST34 S. Typhimurium in food sources, especially in livestock products, and taking appropriate measures to control Salmonella spp. infections via decreasing biofilm formation should be addressed.

  7. The importance of Leptospira interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola in coastal zone and in southern fields of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe J. Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the occurrence of Leptospira interrogans serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola, in coastal zone and in southern grasslands of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each one of the four analyzed farms blood samples were collected from free-living wild animals, domestic animals and humans to perform serological testing for leptospirosis. The presence of antibodies was verified by microscopic agglutination test (MAT. The criterion adopted to consider a serum as agglutination reactant was at least 50% of leptospira for a microscopic field of 100x. From 17 blood samples collected at Chuí, five (29.41% were positive, three (60.00% for serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and two (40.00% for Canicola. From 21 samples collected in the County of Santana da Boa Vista, six (28.57% were positive, four (66.67% for serovar Canicola and two (33.33% for serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae. From 32 samples collected at Alegrete, 10 (31.25% were positive, seven (70.00% for serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and three (30.00% foro serovar Canicola. From 17 blood samples collected in Cruz Alta, three (17.64% were positive, two (66.67% for serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and one (33.33% for Canicola. It is necessary to improve sanitary practices on farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in order to achieve success in leptospirosis control programs.

  8. Fine-scale movements of rural free-ranging dogs in conservation areas in the temperate rainforest of the coastal range of southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Maximiliano; Pelican, Katherine; Cross, Paul C.; Eguren, Antonieta; Singer, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic dogs can play a variety of important roles for farmers. However, when in proximity to conservation areas, the presence of rural free-ranging dogs can be problematic due to the potential for predation of, competition with, or transmission of infectious disease to local threatened fauna. We used a frequent location radio tracking technology to study rural free-ranging dog movements and habitat use into sensitive conservation habitats. To achieve a better understanding of foray behaviors in dogs we monitored dogs (n = 14) in rural households located in an isolated area between the Valdivian Coastal Reserve and the Alerce Costero National Park in southern Chile. Dogs were mostly located near households (Dogs spent, on average, 5.3% of their time in forays with average per dog foray distances from the house ranging 0.5–1.9 km (maximum distance detected 4.3 km). Foraying behavior was positively associated with pasture habitat compared to forest habitat including protected lands. Foraying dogs rarely used forest habitat and, when entered, trails and/or roads were selected for movement. Our study provides important information about how dogs interact in a fine-scale with wildlife habitat, and, in particular, protected lands, providing insight into how dog behavior might drive wildlife interactions, and, in turn, how an understanding of dog behavior can be used to manage these interactions.

  9. Effects of different boundary conditions on the simulation of groundwater flow in a multi-layered coastal aquifer system (Taranto Gulf, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Foglia, Laura; Giudici, Mauro; Mehl, Steffen; Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio L.

    2017-11-01

    The evaluation of the accuracy or reasonableness of numerical models of groundwater flow is a complex task, due to the uncertainties in hydrodynamic properties and boundary conditions and the scarcity of good-quality field data. To assess model reliability, different calibration techniques are joined to evaluate the effects of different kinds of boundary conditions on the groundwater flow in a coastal multi-layered aquifer in southern Italy. In particular, both direct and indirect approaches for inverse modeling were joined through the calibration of one of the most uncertain parameters, namely the hydraulic conductivity of the karst deep hydrostratigraphic unit. The methodology proposed here, and applied to a real case study, confirmed that the selection of boundary conditions is among the most critical and difficult aspects of the characterization of a groundwater system for conceptual analysis or numerical simulation. The practical tests conducted in this study show that incorrect specification of boundary conditions prevents an acceptable match between the model response to the hydraulic stresses and the behavior of the natural system. Such effects have a negative impact on the applicability of numerical modeling to simulate groundwater dynamics in complex hydrogeological situations. This is particularly important for management of the aquifer system investigated in this work, which represents the only available freshwater resource of the study area, and is threatened by overexploitation and saltwater intrusion.

  10. The new data on the seasonal distribution of diatoms in the Southern Baltic coastal lakes as a basis for diatom-based transfer functions to reconstruct past environmental changes in the Baltic coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Woszczyk, Michał; Suchińska, Anita; Burchardt, Lubomira; Messyasz, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Lakes ecosystems are very sensitive to climate and environment changes. In lake sediments there are preserved remains of plant and animals that lived in the lake and its surroundings in the past. The species composition of past assemblages is a basis for quantitative and qualitative reconstruction of the past environmental changes (climate changes). One of the most commonly used bio-proxy for the reconstruction of lake development are subfossil diatoms which are sensitive to lake water pH, nutrient status, salinity and temperature. In this poster we present the new data from the coastal lakes on the Southern Baltic coast. The main goal of this research was to quantify the relationships between modern diatom assemblages and present-day environmental conditions. These relationships will be used to develop diatom-based transfer functions that will be applied to future studies of environmental change on the Polish Baltic coast. Water samples for diatom and chemical analyses were collected a few times per year between 2012 and 2014 from 12 coastal lakes located along the Polish Baltic coast as well as from the Baltic Sea. We analysed the whole phytoplankton composition. However the special focus was put on diatoms. At each site, a suite of important water quality parameters was collected, including chemical (e.g., chlorides, phosphorous and sulphur) and physical (e.g., Secchi depth) variables. Diatom assemblages from each site were counted and identified to the most specific taxonomic level possible. Diatom data were compiled for comparison to corresponding environmental data and development of indicator models. The results of the analysis show seasonal changes in diatom distribution as well as the chemical and physical water propertieswhich are mainly related to saltwater ingressions to the lakes. Lake Koprowo, Lake Resko Przymorskie, Lake Bukowo and Lake Łebsko are under the constant of seawater influence, which makes them similar to lagoons. In Lake Gardno seawater

  11. Inventory of Selected Freshwater-Ecology Studies From the New England Coastal Basins (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island), 1937-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tessler, Steven; Coles, James F; Beaulieu, Karen M

    1999-01-01

    An inventory of published studies that address freshwater ecology within the New England Coastal Basins was created through computerized bibliographic literature searches and consultation with environmental agencies...

  12. Range of Variability in Southern Coastal Plain Forests: Its Historical, Contemporary, and Future Role in Sustaining Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Mitchell

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical range of variation (HRV has been used as a conceptual tool to determine appropriate management actions to sustain or restore diversity of ecological systems. This concept has come into question for both biological and social considerations, and the southeastern United States is a good model system to test its utility. Southeastern Coastal Plain upland pine savannas and woodlands and their associated wetlands are among the most diverse communities in temperate North America, having both high levels of species richness and large numbers of endemic flora and fauna. However, this diversity is intimately linked with disturbance regimes. Maintaining frequent fire, varied in season based on changing management objectives through time, is the most important management tool for sustaining biodiversity. Moreover, the landscape has been molded by a long history of intense land use that has altered both the biological and the social landscape in which management occurs, and threatens the native diversity. Management must anticipate likely trends and adopt strategies that provide flexibility for managers to deal with the future, both socially and ecologically. In the Southeast, the most dominant trend is associated with urbanization and forest fragmentation, which results from urban sprawl. This issue joins others - fire and smoke, logging, access, in-holdings, and the uncertainty of scientific models, for example - as matters of major concern to the public. Ultimately, it is the public that eventually grants or withholds social permission to manage. We explore, here, the potential and the limitations for how history can inform future management. Rather than being used as a specific management tool, we find that one purpose for which HRV may be well suited is serving as a broad communication framework to help diverse publics understand the concept of landscape dynamics. This approach would provide the fundamental background material for

  13. Hurricane impacts on coastal wetlands: A half-century record of storm-generated features from Southern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, R.A.; Barras, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Temporally and spatially repeated patterns of wetland erosion, deformation, and deposition are observed on remotely sensed images and in the field after hurricanes cross the coast of Louisiana. The diagnostic morphological wetland features are products of the coupling of high-velocity wind and storm-surge water and their interaction with the underlying, variably resistant, wetland vegetation and soils. Erosional signatures include construction of orthogonal-elongate ponds and amorphous ponds, pond expansion, plucked marsh, marsh denudation, and shoreline erosion. Post-storm gravity reflux of floodwater draining from the wetlands forms dendritic incisions around the pond margins and locally integrates drainage pathways forming braided channels. Depositional signatures include emplacement of broad zones of organic wrack on topographic highs and inorganic deposits of variable thicknesses and lateral extents in the form of shore-parallel sandy washover terraces and interior-marsh mud blankets. Deformational signatures primarily involve laterally compressed marsh and displaced marsh mats and balls. Prolonged water impoundment and marsh salinization also are common impacts associated with wetland flooding by extreme storms. Many of the wetland features become legacies that record prior storm impacts and locally influence subsequent storm-induced morphological changes. Wetland losses caused by hurricane impacts depend directly on impact duration, which is controlled by the diameter of hurricane-force winds, forward speed of the storm, and wetland distance over which the storm passes. Distinguishing between wetland losses caused by storm impacts and losses associated with long-term delta-plain processes is critical for accurate modeling and prediction of future conversion of land to open water. ?? Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2011.

  14. Periodic isolation of the southern coastal plain of South Africa and the evolution of modern humans over late Quaternary glacial to interglacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, J. S.

    2012-04-01

    Humans evolved in Africa, but where in Africa and by what mechanisms remain unclear. The evolution of modern humans over the last million years is associated with the onset of major global climate fluctuations, glacial to interglacial cycles, related to the build up and melting of large ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere. During interglacial periods, such as today, warm and wet climates favored human expansion but during cold and dry glacial periods conditions were harsh and habitats fragmented. These large climate fluctuations periodically expanded and contracted African ecosystems and led to human migrations to more hospitable glacial refugia. Periodic isolation of relatively small numbers of humans may have allowed for their rapid evolutionary divergence from the rest of Africa. During climate transitions these divergent groups may have then dispersed and interbred with other groups (hybridization). Two areas at the opposite ends of Africa stand out as regions that were periodically isolated from the rest of Africa: North Africa (the Maghreb) and the southern coastal plain (SCP) of South Africa. The Maghreb is isolated by the Sahara Desert which periodically greens and is reconnected to the rest of Africa during the transition from glacial to interglacial periods. The SCP of South Africa is isolated from the rest of Africa by the rugged mountains of the Cape Fold Belt associated with inedible vegetation and dry climates to the north. The SCP is periodically opened when sea level falls by up to 130 m during glacial maxima to expose the present day submerged inner continental shelf. A five-fold expansion of the SCP receiving more rainfall in glacial periods may have served as a refuge to humans and large migratory herds. The expansive glacial SCP habitat abruptly contracts, by as much as one-third in 300 yr, during the rapid rise in sea level associated with glacial terminations. Rapid flooding may have increased population density and competition on the SCP to

  15. Preliminary results on biological aspects of the grass snake, Natrix natrix in the southern coastal area of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraham Ahmadzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natrix natrix is, together with N. tessellata, the only representative of water snakes found in Iran. The lack of ecological studies on this species in Iran stimulated the current preliminary research on some basic biological traits. From April to July 2008, a total of fifty five snakes were collected from two stations in the southern part of the Caspian Sea coast, Iran: Gomishan Wetland and Sari. Basic morphometrics were compared between sexes and stations and gonadal development was compared between stations and seasons. At the two stations, adult sex ratio was not different from 1:1 and juveniles composed a predominant portion of the sample. Both sexes had unimodal length class size with a peak at 40-45 cm snout-vent length (SVL. Body sizes were unusually small for the species and no SVL sexual dimorphism was detected although males were relatively heavier than females for the same SVL. Snakes of both sexes attained larger size with better body condition at Sari than in Gomishan. Males and females carried more mature gonads in summer. However, in Sari males developed relatively larger testes earlier in the season and both sexes displayed less synchronic reproduction at this station. These results are best explained by local variations in habitat, trophic availability and degree of environmental disturbance.

  16. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the coastal plain of Southern Brazil: palynological data from a Holocene core in Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIDIA A. KUHN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction from palynological analyses of a sedimentary core of Holocene age, drilled at municipality of Garopaba (Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. A total of 46 samples was collected for palynological analyses in the 450 cm-long core PCSC-3, as also three samples for radiocarbon dating and granulometric analyses. The palynological content includes 84 taxa related to pollen grains of angiosperms (38 and gimnosperm (3, spores of pteridophyta (16 and bryophyta (2, spores of fungi (8, algae (3, acritarchs (3, dinoflagellate cysts (2 and microforaminiferal linings (1. Three specimens of acritarchs are described and illustrated in detail. Three palynological phases were defined based on changes in assemblages: Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. The Phase I is characterized as a lagoonal paleoenvironment with marine influence from the beginning of the sedimentation (5390 cal yr BP, based on occurrences of acritarchs, dinoflagellate cysts and microforaminiferal linings. The Phase II (3032 yr BP until 858 cal yr BP also is characterized by a lagoonal paleoenvironment, however, presented decrease in percentage of marine elements and increase in freshwater algae record, suggesting less marine influence in the lagoonal body. In Phase III (last 856 years, underwater sedimentation prevailed, under swamp-like conditions.

  17. Monitoring of the radioecological situation in marine and coastal environment of Georgia-Southern Caucasian New Independent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avtandilashvili, M.; Baratashvili, D.; Mazmanidi, N.; Pagava, S.; Robakidze, Z.; Rusetski, V.; Togonidze, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: At the same time is marked that during the independence period Georgian officials did not yet restore properly the national monitoring infrastructure for radiation in environment. The mentioned can be explained partially by taking notice of western politologists' opinion that 'Georgia as other Southern Caucasian New Independent States (Azerbaijan, Armenia) belongs to small countries category which at the present stage of development are unable to regulate and eliminate the consequences of ecological disasters without active assistance and support of more developed countries. 'Therefore, National Research and Educational Collaboration for Radioecology, successfully acting in Georgia since 2001, as independent expert institution, initiated the corresponding movement by support of 'Open Society - Georgia'Foundation. Analyses of results were obtained by Collaboration during 2001-2002 show: tendency towards 'purification'of soils polluted by anthropogenic radionuclides during Chernobyl Accident was not observed for the region of studies (Georgian area of the Black Sea coast); minimal and maximal committed annual individual effective doze due to external exposure for population in the region of studies come to 0.15 mSv and 0.35 mSv; maintenance of Cs 137 in agricultural products sometimes exceeds the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force. Maintenance of Pb 210 is also significant; maintenance of Cs 137 in various fish and shellfish is significantly lower than the values defined by Radiation Safety Regulations in force

  18. Characterization of Coastal Drift-Cell Sediment Processes Effecting the Restoration of the Southern Lake Michigan Shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Argyilan, Erin P

    2016-12-01

    Hard structures along the southern shore of Lake Michigan restrict natural longshore sediment transport, destabilizing the shoreline, and dissecting the coast into localized shoreline reaches. A geometric design was used to sample (n = 590 nodes) at nine shoreline reaches near the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore to characterize existing sediment in the offshore and onshore zones. Cluster Analysis grouped shoreline sites into two clusters. Factor Analysis showed that 35 % of the sand fractionation's cumulative variance across all sites was explained by an increased loading on medium sand (0.250 mm) with a corresponding decrease loading on small pebbles (4.750 mm), and an additional 30 % of the cumulative variance was explained by a negative loading on very fine sand (0.075 mm). Individual clusters showed that 43 % of the cumulative variance within cluster one could be explained by increased loadings on fine and medium sand (0.149-0.250 mm) with a corresponding negative loading on small pebbles (4.75 mm). An additional 22 % of the cumulative variance was explained by the positive loading on coarse sand (0.850 mm). Cluster two was explained by a single factor (62 % cumulative variance) highlighting an increased loading on small pebbles and coarse sand, and decreased loadings on medium to very fine sand. Principal component analysis showed that sediment characterization of the swash zone provided the best explanation of between site variance.

  19. InSAR Time Series Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Coastal Plain Subsidence: The Case of Sibari (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cianflone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We applied the Small Baseline Subset multi-temporal InSAR technique (SBAS to two SAR datasets acquired from 2003 up to 2013 by Envisat (ESA, European Space Agency and COSMO-SkyMed (ASI, Italian Space Agency satellites to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of land subsidence in the Sibari Plain (Southern Italy. Subsidence processes (up to ~20 mm/yr were investigated comparing geological, hydrogeological, and land use information with interferometric results. We suppose a correlation between subsidence and thickness of the Plio-Quaternary succession suggesting an active role of the isostatic compensation. Furthermore, the active back thrusting in the Corigliano Gulf could trigger a flexural subsidence mechanism even if fault activity and earthquakes do not seem play a role in the present subsidence. In this context, the compaction of Holocene deposits contributes to ground deformation. Despite the rapid urbanization of the area in the last 50 years, we do not consider the intensive groundwater pumping and related water table drop as the main triggering cause of subsidence phenomena, in disagreement with some previous publications. Our interpretation for the deformation fields related to natural and anthropogenic factors would be a comprehensive and exhaustive justification to the complexity of subsidence processes in the Sibari Plain.

  20. Paleoenvironmental evolution of the coastal plain of Southern Brazil: palynological data from a Holocene core in Santa Catarina State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Lidia A; Souza, Paulo A; Cancelli, Rodrigo R; Silva, Wagner G; Macedo, Renato B

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction from palynological analyses of a sedimentary core of Holocene age, drilled at municipality of Garopaba (Santa Catarina), Southern Brazil. A total of 46 samples was collected for palynological analyses in the 450 cm-long core PCSC-3, as also three samples for radiocarbon dating and granulometric analyses. The palynological content includes 84 taxa related to pollen grains of angiosperms (38) and gimnosperm (3), spores of pteridophyta (16) and bryophyta (2), spores of fungi (8), algae (3), acritarchs (3), dinoflagellate cysts (2) and microforaminiferal linings (1). Three specimens of acritarchs are described and illustrated in detail. Three palynological phases were defined based on changes in assemblages: Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. The Phase I is characterized as a lagoonal paleoenvironment with marine influence from the beginning of the sedimentation (5390 cal yr BP), based on occurrences of acritarchs, dinoflagellate cysts and microforaminiferal linings. The Phase II (3032 yr BP until 858 cal yr BP) also is characterized by a lagoonal paleoenvironment, however, presented decrease in percentage of marine elements and increase in freshwater algae record, suggesting less marine influence in the lagoonal body. In Phase III (last 856 years), underwater sedimentation prevailed, under swamp-like conditions.

  1. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids from the Danish island of Bornholm, southern Fennoscandia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Åke; Waight, Tod Earle; Andersen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    into an intermediate and a felsic part. These dominantly metaluminous rocks are strongly ferroan and potassic, and with highly elevated concentrations of many trace elements, traits that are typical for A-type granitoids. The presence of magnetite and titanite indicates relatively oxidized compositions, and Nb...... characteristics between the orthogneisses and the less deformed granitoids, suggesting similar origins for both rock types, and no systematic changes in isotopic composition with SiO2 concentration. Trace element compositions indicate a within-plate setting, similar to other 1.45 Ga granites in southwest......Granitoids and gneisses from the Danish island of Bornholm have been investigated using whole rock geochemistry, Sr and Nd isotope geochemistry and Hf isotopes in zircon. Recent U–Pb dating shows that the rocks were formed during a short time interval at 1.45 to 1.46 Ga, penecontemporaneous...

  2. Stratospheric ozone climatology and variability over a southern subtropical site: Reunion Island (21° S; 55° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Godin-Beekmann

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the climatological characteristics of stratospheric ozone observed over Reunion Island using in-situ (ozonesonde and SAOZ and satellite (UARS-HALOE, SAGE-II and TOMS measurements. It uses co-localised ozonesondes (from September 1992 to February 2005 and SAOZ measurements (from January 1993 to December 2004, SAGE-II data from October 1984 to February 1999 (~15 years, HALOE data from January 1991 to February 2005 (~15 years, and NIMBUS/TOMS data from January 1978 to December 2004 (27 years. The satellite measurements correspond to overpasses located nearby Reunion Island (21° S; 55° E. The height profiles of ozone concentration obtained from ozonesonde (0.5–29.5 km show less bias in comparison with the HALOE and SAGE-II measurements. Though, the satellite (HALOE and SAGE-II measurements underestimate the tropospheric ozone, they are in good agreement for the heights above 15 km. The bias between the measurements and the normalized ozone profile constructed from the ozonesonde and SAGE-II satellite measurement shows that the SAGE-II measurements are more accurate than the HALOE measurements in the lower stratosphere. The monthly variation of ozone concentration derived from ozonesonde and HALOE shows a nearly annual cycle with a maximum concentration during winter/spring and minimum concentration during summer/autumn months. The time evolution of total column ozone obtained from TOMS, SAOZ and the one computed from ozonesonde and SAGE-II, exhibits similar behaviour with analogous trends as above. The TOMS variation displays a higher value of total column ozone of about 3–5 DU (10% in comparison with the SAOZ and the integrated ozone from ozonesonde and SAGE-II.

  3. The Analysis of Phytoplankton Abundance Using Weibull Distribution (A Case Study in the Coastal Area of East Yapen in the Regency of Yapen Islands, Papua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrayani, Ervina; Dimara, Lisiard; Paiki, Kalvin; Reba, Felix

    2018-01-01

    The coastal waters of East Yapen is one of the spawning sites and areas of care for marine biota in Papua. Because of its very open location, it is widely used by human activities such as fishing, residential, industrial and cruise lines. This indirectly affects the balance of coastal waters condition of East Yapen that impact on the existence of…

  4. Estimating the cumulative effects of the nature-based tourism in a coastal dolphin population from southern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jorge, Sergi; Louzao, Maite; Oro, Daniel; Pereira, Thalia; Corne, Chloe; Wijtten, Zeno; Gomes, Inês; Wambua, John; Christiansen, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Due to the growth of nature-based tourism worldwide, behavioural studies are needed to assess the impact of this industry on wildlife populations and understand their short-term effect. Tourism impact on dolphin populations remain poorly documented in developing countries. This study investigates the effects of nature-based tourism on the behaviour of the Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We used Markov chain models to estimate transition probabilities between behavioural states in the presence and absence of tourist boats, and assess the overall behavioural budgets. Based on these data and the tourism intensity in the area, we quantified the potential tourist boat disturbance over the period 2006-2013. Our results demonstrated that tourist boat interactions affected dolphins' behavioural budgets, with a significant decrease in the overall amount of time travelling and an increase in diving. The average duration of travelling and resting decreased significantly in the presence of boats. Although the cumulative tourism exposure was not significant for the dolphin population at their current levels, these impacts should be taken into consideration with the potential tourism growth in the area. This is particularly important if tourism reaches periods of high intensity, as we have shown that these periods could have a significant impact for the species, particularly where home-range and core areas are highly overlap by this activity. Understanding the effect of human disturbance variations from previous years may help to predict the consequences on dolphin populations, towards achieving a more ecological and economic sustainability of the activity.

  5. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav

    2018-02-01

    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  6. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  7. Lutetian arc-type magmatism along the southern Eurasian margin: New U-Pb LA-ICPMS and whole-rock geochemical data from Marmara Island, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaömer, P. Ayda; Ustaömer, Timur; Collins, Alan S.; Reischpeitsch, Jörg

    2009-07-01

    The rocks of Turkey, Greece and Syria preserve evidence for the destruction of Tethys, the construction of much of the continental crust of the region and the formation of the Tauride orogenic belt. These events occurred between the Late Cretaceous and Miocene, but the detailed evolution of the southern Eurasian margin during this period of progressive continental accretion is largely unknown. Marmara Island is a basement high lying at a key location in the Cenozoic Turkish tectonic collage, with a Palaeogene suture zone to the south and a deep Eocene sedimentary basin to the north. North-dipping metamorphic thrust sheets make up the island and are interlayered with a major metagranitoid intrusion. We have dated the intrusion by Laser Ablation ICP-MS analysis of U and Pb isotopes on zircon separates to 47.6 ± 2 Ma. We also performed major- and trace-elemental geochemical analysis of 16 samples of the intrusion that revealed that the intrusion is a calc-alkaline, metaluminous granitoid, marked by Nb depletion relative to LREE and LIL-element enrichment when compared to ocean ridge granite (ORG). We interpret the metagranitoid sill as a member of a mid-Eocene magmatic arc, forming a 30 km wide and more than 200 km long arcuate belt in NW Turkey that post-dates suturing along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture zone. The arc magmatism was emplaced at the early stages of mountain building, related to collision of Eurasia with the Menderes-Taurus Platform in early Eocene times. Orogenesis and magmatism loaded the crust to the north creating coeval upward-deepening marine basins partially filled by volcanoclastic sediments.

  8. Ambient Aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere on Ascension Island during the LASIC Campaign: Biomass Burning Season versus Near Pristine Background Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A. C.; Springston, S. R.; Watson, T. B.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Zuidema, P.; Adebiyi, A. A.; Uin, J.; Kuang, C.; Flynn, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ascension Island is located 8 degrees South of the Equator and 15 degrees West Longitude in the middle of the South Atlantic Ocean, at least 1000 miles from any major shoreline and closest to the continent of Africa. While low Southern Hemisphere background aerosol and trace gas measurements are observed most of the year, that picture changes during the South African Biomass Burning (BB) season. BB emissions are a large source of carbon to the atmosphere via particles and gas phase species and with a potential rise in drought and extreme events in the future, these numbers are expected to increase. From approximately June-October every year, the plume of South African BB emissions, the largest BB source in the world, are advected West and are known to impact both the boundary layer and free troposphere at Ascension Island (Zuidema et al., 2016). During the U.S. DOE ARM field campaign, Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds (LASIC), aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected continuously from June 2016 through October 2017 over a 1.5 year period. Two BB seasons are contrasted with the near pristine background conditions during the campaign from the ARM Aerosol Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1) and Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS). Numerous direct in situ aerosol and trace gas measurements are presented, e.g. black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), PM1 and PM10 aerosol absorption and scattering, submicron non-refractory chemical composition (Organics, Sulfate, Nitrate, Ammonium, Chloride), etc. Aerosol and trace gas signatures are investigated along with backtrajectories to identify sources. Carbonaceous aerosols emitted with gas-phase CO are used to determine particulate emission ratios along with intrinsic and extrinsic aerosol properties. BC mass concentrations reach 1 µg m-3 during multiday plumes and exceed 25% of the total aerosol submicron mass concentration. Organic Aerosol (OA) to BC Ratios of 2.4 in the plume are much higher than previously

  9. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  10. Organic nitrogen and carbon in atmospheric dry and wet depositions in the southern East China Sea: its implication for new production in coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Yeh, J. X.; Lin, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    We collected 11 sets of size-segregated particulate aerosol (include coarse and fine particles) and 53 rain samples from January to December 2014 at a coastal city (Keelung) on the southern East China Sea. Here we present measurements of water-soluble inorganic/organic nitrogen and carbon (WSIN/WSON and WSIC/WSOC, respectively) in aerosol samples and dissolved inorganic/organic nitrogen and carbon (DIN/DON and DIC/DOC, respectively) in rain samples. In addition, 4-d back trajectories of air masses arriving daily at the sampling site were calculated to determine the potential aerosol source regions. The concentrations of water-soluble species in particulate aerosols were relatively high in March (WSON: 223±48 nmol m-3; WSOC: 203±51 nmol m-3) and dissolved species in rain samples were high in December (DON: 157±69 μM; DOC: 294±168 μM), which occur frequently during the spring and winter. The monsoon system of East Asia play a key role on the atmospheric composition of nitrogen and carbon, with higher loadings in northerly (winter to spring) than southerly (summer to autumn) monsoon periods, owing to strong emissions from the East Asian continent. Our results indicate that biomass burning and dust events yielded the largest concentrations of ON and OC not only on particulate aerosols but also in precipitations. For aerosols, the amounts of WSON and WSOC accounted for 42±8% and 80±7% of the water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and carbon (WSTC), respectively. Additionally, the concentrations of DON and DOC accounted for 40±5% and 75±3% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and carbon (TDC), respectively, for precipitations. By using dry and wet deposition flux estimations, we estimated that the fluxes of WSTN/TDN and WSTC/TDC were 47.1±24.4 / 266±20 mmol m-2 yr-1 and 23±9 / 153±3 mmol m-2 yr-1, respectively. These results suggest that atmospheric deposition contributed approximately 25-34% of the annual biological new production in the southern East China Sea.

  11. Hurricane impact and recovery shoreline change analysis of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, USA: 1855 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Sarah Mary; Miner, Michael D.; Kulp, Mark; Bohling, Carl; Penland, Shea

    2009-12-01

    Results from historical (1855-2005) shoreline change analysis conducted along the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana demonstrate that tropical cyclone frequency dominates the long-term evolution of this barrier island chain. Island area decreased at a rate of -0.16 km2/year for the relatively quiescent time period up until 1996, when an increase in tropical cyclone frequency accelerated this island area reduction to a rate of -1.01 km2/year. More frequent hurricanes also affected shoreline retreat rates, which increased from -11.4 m/year between 1922 and 1996 to -41.9 m/year between 1982 and 2005. The erosional impact caused by the passage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 was unprecedented. Between 2004 and 2005, the shoreline of the northern islands retreated -201.5 m/year, compared with an average retreat rate of -38.4 m/year between 1922 and 2004. A linear regression analysis of shoreline change predicts that, as early as 2013, the backbarrier marsh that serves to stabilize the barrier island chain will be completely destroyed if storm frequency observed during the past decade persists. If storm frequency decreases to pre-1996 recurrence intervals, the backbarrier marsh is predicted to remain until 2037. Southern portions of the barrier island chain where backbarrier marsh is now absent behave as ephemeral islands that are destroyed after storm impacts and reemerge during extended periods of calm weather, a coastal behavior that will eventually characterize the entire island chain.

  12. Influence of effluents from a Wastewater Treatment Plant on nutrient distribution in a coastal creek from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rodrigues Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that effluents treated through activated sludge process cause changes in nutrient biogeochemistry of receiving water bodies was investigated in Vieira creek, southern Brazil. Dissolved oxygen, suspended matter, and pH did not vary among the sampling stations. Nutrient, biochemical oxygen demand, and conductivity values were significantly higher downstream from the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP effluents. Further downstream, nitrate concentrations were higher due to ammonium nitrification, organic matter remineralization and/or the occurrence of unidentified sources. Per capita nutrient emission factors were estimated to be 0.16 kg P.yr-1 and 4.14 kg N.yr-1. Under pristine conditions, low N:P ratios were observed, which were significantly increased downstream due to the high ammonium input. The mixing zone of the nitrogen-rich waters from Vieira creek with the phosphorus-enriched waters from Patos lagoon estuary was considered under high risk of eutrophication. The results could be useful for planning and management of WWTP-effluent receiving waters in temperate regions from developing countries.A hipótese de que efluentes urbanos tratados através de um sistema de lodo ativado causam alterações na qualidade de água de ambientes aquáticos foi investigada no Arroio Vieira, Rio Grande, RS. Amostras de água foram coletadas a montante e a jusante dos emissários de uma estação de tratamento de esgoto (ETE. Oxigênio, material em suspensão e pH não variaram espacialmente. Já os valores para os nutrientes e para a demanda bioquímica do oxigênio foram significativamente maiores a jusante dos efluentes. Mais a jusante, as concentrações de nitrato aumentam devido à nitrificação do nitrogênio amoniacal, remineralização da matéria orgânica e/ou ocorrência de outros aportes não-identificados. A emissão de nutrientes per capita após o tratamento dos efluentes domésticos (0.16 kg P ano-1 e 4.14 kg N ano-1

  13. Ground-penetrating radar and differential global positioning system data collected from Long Beach Island, New Jersey, April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, Nicholas J.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Bishop, James M.; Smith, Christopher G.

    2016-08-04

    Scientists from the United States Geological Survey, St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center, and students from the University of Hawaii at Manoa collected sediment cores, sediment surface grab samples, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) data from within the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge–Holgate Unit located on the southern end of Long Beach Island, New Jersey, in April 2015 (FAN 2015-611-FA). The study’s objective was to identify washover deposits in the stratigraphic record to aid in understanding barrier island evolution. This report is an archive of GPR and DGPS data collected from Long Beach Island in 2015. Data products, including raw GPR and processed DGPS data, elevation corrected GPR profiles, and accompanying Federal Geographic Data Committee metadata can be downloaded from the Data Downloads page.

  14. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasgerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran.

  15. ASTROCHRONOLOGICAL CALIBRATION OF THE UPPER SERRAVALLIAN/LOWER TORTONIAN SEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE AT TREMITI ISLANDS(ADRIATIC SEA, SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO LIRER

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution cyclostratigraphic study was carried out on a cyclicaly bedded succession of late Middle Miocene deep marine deposits from the Tremiti Islands, Adriatic sea (Italy. Astronomical calibration of the sedimentary cycles provides absolute ages for different calcareous plankton bioevents, widely used for intra Mediterranean correlation, in the interval between 11.12 and 12.60 Ma. The sedimentary record of the S. nicola composite section consists of an alternation of indurated, withish coloured, CaCo3 rich and grey less indurated, CaCo3 poor marly beds, at times replaced by red coloured CaCo3 poor marls. Results of direct correlation between the La 90 (1,1 solution of the insolation curve and the cyclic lithologic patterns occurring in the studied sections, combined with results of spectral methodologies applied on the climate sensitive data (CaCo3 and Globigerinoides showed that the classic Milankovitch periodicity can be represented through the modulation forcing of the studied sedimentary records. 

  16. Occurrences of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata in relation with environmental factors in Kerkennah Island (Southern coast of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Ben brahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the seasonal and monthly variability of the toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata (O. ovata in relation to environmental parameters in Kerkennah Island. Methods: Three water samples replicate of one-litter were taken daily for ten consecutive days on 12 months. All sampling water was kept in the dark at ambient temperature until their microscopic observation. Environmental variables such as salinity and temperature were measured in the field concomitantly as phytoplankton sampling. Nutrients (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were analysed in laboratory with Auto-analyser Luebbe type. Cell identification and enumeration in water samples were performed with an inverted microscope after the sedimentation. Results: The highest abundance of O. ovata was recorded in summer. Analysis of variance showed significant difference of abundance between seasons, whereas no significant difference for month was detected. Factorial analysis ordination showed a positive correlation of Ostreopsis mainly with temperature and low correlation with nitrite and nitrate whereas the second axis (with 26.30% of variance showed that Ostreopsis was correlated with temperature and salinity. Conclusions: The maximum abundance of Ostreopsis was reached in summer when temperature was high and a low relationship between O. ovata and nutrient was detected.

  17. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba . In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran.

  18. Evolution of the Rømø barrier island in the Wadden Sea: Impacts of sea-level change on coastal morphodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Lars B; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter

    Sandy coastal barriers are abundant along most continents, and they are often intensively engineered to prevent erosion. Therefore, it is important to develop projections of the evolution of this coastal type in periods with changing climate and sea-level. We have used a multidisciplinary approach......, and falling sea-level, whereas wash-over sedimentation was promoted during periods of rapid sea-level rise when shoreface, beach and coastal dune deposits were reworked. In contrast, lagoonal sedimentation has been relatively continuous and kept pace with the long-term Holocene sea-level rise. Our findings...

  19. Delineation of Salt Water Intrusion through Use of Electromagnetic-Induction Logging: A Case Study in Southern Manhattan Island, New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Stumm

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater with chloride concentrations up to 15,000 mg/L has intruded the freshwater aquifer underlying southern Manhattan Island, New York. Historical (1940–1950 chloride concentration data of glacial aquifer wells in the study area indicate the presence of four wedges of saltwater intrusion that may have been caused by industrial pumpage. The limited recharge capability of the aquifer, due to impervious surfaces and the 22.7 million liters per day (mld of reported industrial pumpage early in the 20th Century was probably the cause for the saltwater intrusion and the persistence of the historical saltwater intrusion wedges over time. Recent drilling of wells provided new information on the hydrogeology and extent of saltwater intrusion of the glacial aquifer overlying bedrock. The new observation wells provided ground-water level, chloride concentration, hydraulic conductivity, and borehole geophysical data of the glacial aquifer. The glacial sediments range in thickness from less than 0.3 m to more than 76.2 m within the study area. A linear relation between Electromagnetic-induction (EM conductivity log response and measured chloride concentration was determined. Using this relation, chloride concentration was estimated in parts of the glacial aquifer where sampling was not possible. EM logging is an effective tool to monitor changes in saltwater intrusion wedges.

  20. Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindy L. Esterhuizen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B, many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as or betasatellites (DNA-βs. Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world.

  1. Modelaje de la interacción entre la laguna costera tropical las Marites (Isla de Margarita, Venezuela y el mar caribe adyacente | Interaction model between the coastal tropical lagoon las Marites (Margarita Island, Venezuela and the adjacent caribbean sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola López Monroy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological balance and the flow of materials in the coastal lagoons are strongly dependent on the exchange with other bodies of water. The evaluation of these exchanges is an important tool for the management of these ecosystems. This study aimed to estimate the interaction between a tropical coastal lagoon, Las Marites, located in Margarita Island, Venezuela and the adjacent Caribbean Sea. The Land Ocean Interactions in Coastal Zone (LOICZ method was used to establish budgets of water, salt, nutrients and calculate their respective flows. The results indicated that Las Marites is a permanent source of fertilizers to adjacent sea. This process intensifies during the dry season. In its interaction with the adjacent sea, the lagoon also exchanges more water in this season. The western side of the lagoon ecosystem is heterotrophic and denitrification process dominates, while the east side is autotrophic and N2 fixation is favored. Temporarily, dry years favor the residual flow of water, salt and nitrogen from the ocean to the lagoon. In wet years, the residual phosphorus flow increases from the outside. The hydraulic residence time was 31 d during dry season and 38 d in the rainy season, and this can be increased by about 50 additional days in the years of greatest rainfall.

  2. Geo-Thermochronometric Insights on the Cycladic Basement and Cycladic Blueschist Unit Contact in the Southern Cyclades, Ios Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flansburg, M. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Poulaki, E. M.; Soukis, K. I.

    2017-12-01

    The North Cycladic Detachment System, the West Cycladic Detachment System, and the Naxos-Paros Detachment accommodated large-scale Oligo-Miocene exhumation in the backarc of the retreating Hellenic subduction zone. While bivergent detachment faults in the northern and western Cyclades are either contained within the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) or at the CBU-Upper Unit interface, the sheared contact between the CBU and the underlying Cycladic Basement in the southern Cyclades (Ios) has been debated for over 30 years, largely due to the ambiguous coexistence of both top-to-the-N and top-to-the-S shear sense indicators and a lack of robust timing information. Reliable chronostratigraphic and thermal history constraints allow us to test whether the contact is a low-angle normal fault-possibly part of a larger detachment system-or the South Cycladic Thrust by placing absolute ages on deformation, determining older over younger relationships or vice versa, and quantifying possible differential exhumation during Cenozoic extension. Zircon U-Pb dating for the granitic Basement core of Ios gave Carboniferous-Permian age and shows that surrounding Basement metasedimentary units can be divided into two groups based on detrital zircon signatures. An older group of metasedimentary rocks have maximum depositional ages (MDAs) ranging from 450 Ma to 354 Ma and predate the intrusions, and late Permian Basement paragneisses are younger than the intrusions and likely originally deposited unconformably on the older units. Samples from the CBU in northern Ios yielded MDAs ranging from Mid-Jurassic to Late Cretaceous and appear to be repeated due to either thrusting or subduction accretion and exhibit older over younger relationships. MDA data from mapped CBU at the southern end of Ios yielded Ordovician to Permian ages, calling into question their assignment as CBU, while also revealing older over younger relationships. Zircon (U-Th)/He ages for the Basement and the CBU on Ios are 9

  3. Sea Surface Temperatures Mediated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation Affect Birds Breeding in Temperate Coastal Rain Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the timing of breeding and juvenile/adult ratios among songbirds in temperate rain forests over four years on the Haida Gwaii (Queen Charlotte Islands archipelago, British Columbia. In May 1998, air temperatures in Haida Gwaii were above average, whereas in 1999 they were the lowest in 20 yr: temperatures in the other two years were closer to normal, although 2001 was almost as cold as 1999. Temperatures closely followed the patterns of sea surface temperatures created by the 1997-1998 El Niño, i.e., warm, event and the subsequent strong La Niña, i.e., cool, event. Timing of breeding, as measured by the first capture of juveniles or by direct observations of hatching, varied by approximately 19 d between the earliest (1998 and latest (1999 years. In 1998, the proportion of juveniles among birds trapped increased steeply as soon as young birds began to appear. In other years, the rate of increase was slower. In 1999, the peak proportions of hatching-year individuals among the foliage-gleaning insectivores, i.e., the Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermivora celata, Townsend's Warbler (Dendroica townsendi, and the Golden-crowned Kinglet (Regulus satrapa, were lower than in other years, with almost no young Orange-crowned Warblers captured at all. The pattern of variation in the timing of breeding and in the proportion of hatching-year individuals trapped fitted the temperature data well, although rainfall may also have contributed. We concluded that changes mediated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO in sea surface temperatures off northern British Columbia, through their effects on air temperatures, had a strong effect on the breeding of forest birds, to the point of causing nearly complete reproductive failure for one species in 1999. An intensification of the ENSO cycle could lead to more erratic reproduction for some species.

  4. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic image tiles, Merrimack River and Plum Island Sound, Massachusetts, June 2011 (NODC Accession 0103944)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains both true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping...

  5. 2011 NOAA Ortho-rectified Mosaic of Christiansted of St. Johns, U.S. Virgin Islands: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (NODC Accession 0086076)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains ortho-rectified mosaic tiles, created as a product from the NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) initiative. The source imagery...