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Sample records for southeast pacific stratocumulus

  1. Evaluation of Forecasted Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus in the NCAR, GFDL and ECMWF Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannay, C; Williamson, D L; Hack, J J; Kiehl, J T; Olson, J G; Klein, S A; Bretherton, C S; K?hler, M

    2008-01-24

    We examine forecasts of Southeast Pacific stratocumulus at 20S and 85W during the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) cruise of October 2001 with the ECMWF model, the Atmospheric Model (AM) from GFDL, the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) from NCAR, and the CAM with a revised atmospheric boundary layer formulation from the University of Washington (CAM-UW). The forecasts are initialized from ECMWF analyses and each model is run for 3 days to determine the differences with the EPIC field data. Observations during the EPIC cruise show a stable and well-mixed boundary layer under a sharp inversion. The inversion height and the cloud layer have a strong and regular diurnal cycle. A key problem common to the four models is that the forecasted planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is too low when compared to EPIC observations. All the models produce a strong diurnal cycle in the Liquid Water Path (LWP) but there are large differences in the amplitude and the phase compared to the EPIC observations. This, in turn, affects the radiative fluxes at the surface. There is a large spread in the surface energy budget terms amongst the models and large discrepancies with observational estimates. Single Column Model (SCM) experiments with the CAM show that the vertical pressure velocity has a large impact on the PBL height and LWP. Both the amplitude of the vertical pressure velocity field and its vertical structure play a significant role in the collapse or the maintenance of the PBL.

  2. Modelling microphysical and meteorological controls on precipitation and cloud cellular structures in Southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microphysical and meteorological controls on the formation of open and closed cellular structures in the Southeast Pacific are explored using model simulations based on aircraft observations during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. The effectiveness of factors such as boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations, surface heat and moisture fluxes, large-scale vertical motion and solar heating in promoting drizzle and open cell formation for prescribed aerosol number concentrations is explored. For the case considered, drizzle and subsequent open cell formation over a broad region are more sensitive to the observed boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations (+0.9 g kg−1; −1 K than to a five-fold decrease in aerosol number concentration (150 vs. 30 mg−1. When embedding the perturbations in closed cells, local drizzle and pockets of open cell (POC formation respond faster to the aerosol reduction than to the moisture increase, but the latter generates stronger and more persistent drizzle. A local negative perturbation in temperature drives a mesoscale circulation that prevents local drizzle formation but promotes it in a remote area where lower-level horizontal transport of moisture is blocked and converges to enhance liquid water path. This represents a potential mechanism for POC formation in the Southeast Pacific stratocumulus region whereby the circulation is triggered by strong precipitation in adjacent broad regions of open cells. A simulation that attempts to mimic the influence of a coastally induced upsidence wave results in an increase in cloud water but this alone is insufficient to initiate drizzle. An increase of surface sensible heat flux is also effective in triggering local drizzle and POC formation.

    Both open and closed cells simulated with observed initial conditions exhibit distinct diurnal variations in cloud properties. A

  3. Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C

    2008-03-03

    This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.

  4. Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP, droplet concentration (Nd in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN from the lower free troposphere (FT. The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33–35° S emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF

  5. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Twohy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI, and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics, including their significance, from eight flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number that influence droplet concentration. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were smaller in regions of enhanced particles near shore. However, physically thinner clouds, and not just higher droplet number concentrations from pollution, both contributed to the smaller droplets. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500–1000 km offshore, and actually slightly lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower

  6. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    OpenAIRE

    X. Zheng; B. Albrecht; H. H. Jonsson; D. Khelif; G. Feingold; P. Minnis; K. Ayers; P. Chuang; S. Donaher; D. Rossiter; V. Ghate; J. Ruiz-Plancarte; S. Sun-Mack

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-t...

  7. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H.; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-05-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL on days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) varied between 15 g m-2 and 160 g m-2. From 29 October to 4 November, when a synoptic system affected conditions at Point Alpha, the cloud LWP was higher than on the other days by around 40 g m-2. On 1 and 2 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha. The total-water specific humidity above the inversion was larger than that within the BL during these days. Entrainment rates (average of 1.5 ± 0.6 mm s-1) calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence (vertical velocity variance) in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm-3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm-3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm-3, which was consistent with the satellite-derived values. The relationship of cloud droplet number concentration and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation from 18 flights is Nd =4.6 × CCN0.71. While the mean LWP

  8. Observational and Numerical Studies of the Boundary Layer, Cloud, and Aerosol Variability in the Southeast Pacific Coastal Marine Stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Malinowski , J.-L., Brenguier and F. Burnet, 2005: Holes and entrainment in stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 443-459. Ghate, V. P., B. A...Tennessee. Haman, K. E., S. P. Malinowski , M. J. Kurowski, H. Gerber, and J.-L. Brenguier, 2007: Small scale mixing processes at the top of a marine

  9. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H.; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-09-01

    Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. On days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences, the BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL. Entrainment rates calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) varied between 15 g m-2 and 160 g m-2. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was generally well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. On days when a synoptic system and related mesoscale costal circulations affected conditions at Point Alpha (29 October-4 November), a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha, and the total-water mixing ratio above the inversion was larger than that within the BL. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm-3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm-3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm-3. While the mean LWP retrieved from GOES was in good agreement with the in situ measurements, the GOES-derived cloud droplet effective radius tended to be larger than that from the aircraft in situ observations near cloud top. The aerosol and cloud LWP

  10. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx, combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. On days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences, the BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL. Entrainment rates calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The cloud liquid water path (LWP varied between 15 g m−2 and 160 g m−2. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was generally well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. On days when a synoptic system and related mesoscale costal circulations affected conditions at Point Alpha (29 October–4 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha, and the total-water mixing ratio above the inversion was larger than that within the BL. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm−3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm−3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm−3. While the mean LWP retrieved from GOES was in good agreement with the in situ measurements, the GOES-derived cloud droplet effective radius tended to be larger than that from the

  11. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X.; Albrecht, B.; Jonsson, H. H; Khelif, D.; Feingold, G.; Minnis, P.; Ayers, K.; Chuang, P.; Donaher, S.; Rossiter, D.; Ghate, V.; Ruiz-Plancarte, J.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-9943-2011 Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha) from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study- Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL) ...

  12. Low cloud precipitation climatology in the southeastern Pacific marine stratocumulus region using CloudSat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, Anita D; Lebsock, Matthew; L’Ecuyer, Tristan

    2013-01-01

    A climatology of low cloud surface precipitation occurrence and intensity from the new CloudSat 2C-RAIN-PROFILE algorithm is presented from June 2006 through December 2010 for the southeastern Pacific region of marine stratocumulus. Results show that over 70% of low cloud precipitation falls as drizzle. Application of an empirical evaporation model suggests that 50–80% of the precipitation evaporates before it reaches the surface. Segregation of the CloudSat ascending and descending overpasses shows that the majority of precipitation occurs at night. Examination of the seasonal cycle shows that the precipitation is most frequent during the austral winter and spring; however there is considerable regional variability. Conditional rain rates increase from east to west with a maximum occurring in the region influenced by the South Pacific Convergence Zone. Area average rain rates are highest in the region where precipitation rates are moderate, but most frequent. The area average surface rain rate for low cloud precipitation for this region is ∼0.22 mm d −1 , in good agreement with in situ estimates, and is greatly improved over earlier CloudSat precipitation products. These results provide a much-needed quantification of surface precipitation in a region that is currently underestimated in existing satellite-based precipitation climatologies. (letter)

  13. Simulation of low clouds in the Southeast Pacific by the NCEP GFS: sensitivity to vertical mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R.; Moorthi, S.; Xiao, H.; Mechoso, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    The NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) model has an important systematic error shared by many other models: stratocumuli are missed over the subtropical eastern oceans. It is shown that this error can be alleviated in the GFS by introducing a consideration of the low-level inversion and making two modifications in the model's representation of vertical mixing. The modifications consist of (a) the elimination of background vertical diffusion above the inversion and (b) the incorporation of a stability parameter based on the cloud-top entrainment instability (CTEI) criterion, which limits the strength of shallow convective mixing across the inversion. A control simulation and three experiments are performed in order to examine both the individual and combined effects of modifications on the generation of the stratocumulus clouds. Individually, both modifications result in enhanced cloudiness in the Southeast Pacific (SEP) region, although the cloudiness is still low compared to the ISCCP climatology. If the modifications are applied together, however, the total cloudiness produced in the southeast Pacific has realistic values. This nonlinearity arises as the effects of both modifications reinforce each other in reducing the leakage of moisture across the inversion. Increased moisture trapped below the inversion than in the control run without modifications leads to an increase in cloud amount and cloud-top radiative cooling. Then a positive feedback due to enhanced turbulent mixing in the planetary boundary layer by cloud-top radiative cooling leads to and maintains the stratocumulus cover. Although the amount of total cloudiness obtained with both modifications has realistic values, the relative contributions of low, middle, and high layers tend to differ from the observations. These results demonstrate that it is possible to simulate realistic marine boundary clouds in large-scale models by implementing direct and physically based improvements in the model

  14. Skill of ship-following large-eddy simulations in reproducing MAGIC observations across the northeast Pacific stratocumulus to cumulus transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGibbon, J.; Bretherton, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    During the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) in October 2011 to September 2012, a container ship making periodic cruises between Los Angeles, CA, and Honolulu, HI, was instrumented with surface meteorological, aerosol and radiation instruments, a cloud radar and ceilometer, and radiosondes. Here large-eddy simulation (LES) is performed in a ship-following frame of reference for 13 four day transects from the MAGIC field campaign. The goal is to assess if LES can skillfully simulate the broad range of observed cloud characteristics and boundary layer structure across the subtropical stratocumulus to cumulus transition region sampled during different seasons and meteorological conditions. Results from Leg 15A, which sampled a particularly well-defined stratocumulus to cumulus transition, demonstrate the approach. The LES reproduces the observed timing of decoupling and transition from stratocumulus to cumulus and matches the observed evolution of boundary layer structure, cloud fraction, liquid water path, and precipitation statistics remarkably well. Considering the simulations of all 13 cruises, the LES skillfully simulates the mean diurnal variation of key measured quantities, including liquid water path (LWP), cloud fraction, measures of decoupling, and cloud radar-derived precipitation. The daily mean quantities are well represented, and daily mean LWP and cloud fraction show the expected correlation with estimated inversion strength. There is a -0.6 K low bias in LES near-surface air temperature that results in a high bias of 5.6 W m-2 in sensible heat flux (SHF). Overall, these results build confidence in the ability of LES to represent the northeast Pacific stratocumulus to trade cumulus transition region.Plain Language SummaryDuring the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign in October 2011 to September 2012, a cargo container ship making regular cruises between Los Angeles, CA, and Honolulu, HI, was fitted with tools to

  15. Regional security in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Amba

    2002-01-01

    Ever since the weapons of mass destruction have become an international currency of power, the efforts for their control and elimination have also developed simultaneously, as an important stream in international politics. Countries all over the globe have strived to evolve various devices to ensure security against these weapons at international, regional as well as national levels. One such regional effort for nuclear arms control is the creation of nuclear-free zone. The nuclear free zones present a potentially effective option to supplement the global nuclear disarmament regime. This is an endeavour towards crisis management, reducing the threat perception, common security and confidence building. In addition, they help in creating a regional security order by developing a code of conduct which binds external actors as well as the regional countries. They are meant to reduce if not eliminate the likelihood of a region getting involved into the war of mass destruction. It is in this context the cases of Southeast Asia and the South Pacific nuclear-free zones have been discussed in this book

  16. Nutrient limitation of primary prodductivity in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonnet, S.; Guieu, C.; Bruyant, F.; Prášil, Ondřej; Van Wambeke, F.; Raimbault, P.; Moutin, T.; Grob, C.; Gorbunov, M. Y.; Zehr, J. P.; Masquelier, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2008), s. 215-225 ISSN 1726-4170 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : southeast pacific * phytoplankton * iron Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.445, year: 2008

  17. Air-Sea Interaction Processes in Low and High-Resolution Coupled Climate Model Simulations for the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto da Silveira, I.; Zuidema, P.; Kirtman, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    The rugged topography of the Andes Cordillera along with strong coastal upwelling, strong sea surface temperatures (SST) gradients and extensive but geometrically-thin stratocumulus decks turns the Southeast Pacific (SEP) into a challenge for numerical modeling. In this study, hindcast simulations using the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) at two resolutions were analyzed to examine the importance of resolution alone, with the parameterizations otherwise left unchanged. The hindcasts were initialized on January 1 with the real-time oceanic and atmospheric reanalysis (CFSR) from 1982 to 2003, forming a 10-member ensemble. The two resolutions are (0.1o oceanic and 0.5o atmospheric) and (1.125o oceanic and 0.9o atmospheric). The SST error growth in the first six days of integration (fast errors) and those resulted from model drift (saturated errors) are assessed and compared towards evaluating the model processes responsible for the SST error growth. For the high-resolution simulation, SST fast errors are positive (+0.3oC) near the continental borders and negative offshore (-0.1oC). Both are associated with a decrease in cloud cover, a weakening of the prevailing southwesterly winds and a reduction of latent heat flux. The saturated errors possess a similar spatial pattern, but are larger and are more spatially concentrated. This suggests that the processes driving the errors already become established within the first week, in contrast to the low-resolution simulations. These, instead, manifest too-warm SSTs related to too-weak upwelling, driven by too-strong winds and Ekman pumping. Nevertheless, the ocean surface tends to be cooler in the low-resolution simulation than the high-resolution due to a higher cloud cover. Throughout the integration, saturated SST errors become positive and could reach values up to +4oC. These are accompanied by upwelling dumping and a decrease in cloud cover. High and low resolution models presented notable differences in how SST

  18. On the relationship between low cloud variability and lower tropospheric stability in the Southeast Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine marine low cloud cover variability in the Southeast Pacific and its association with lower-tropospheric stability (LTS across a spectrum of timescales. On both daily and interannual timescales, LTS and low cloud amount are very well correlated in austral summer (DJF. Meanwhile in winter (JJA, when ambient LTS increases, the LTS–low cloud relationship substantially weakens. The DJF LTS–low cloud relationship also weakens in years with unusually large ambient LTS values. These are generally strong El Niño years, in which DJF LTS values are comparable to those typically found in JJA. Thus the LTS–low cloud relationship is strongly modulated by the seasonal cycle and the ENSO phenomenon. We also investigate the origin of LTS anomalies closely associated with low cloud variability during austral summer. We find that the ocean and atmosphere are independently involved in generating anomalies in LTS and hence variability in the Southeast Pacific low cloud deck. This highlights the importance of the physical (as opposed to chemical component of the climate system in generating internal variability in low cloud cover. It also illustrates the coupled nature of the climate system in this region, and raises the possibility of cloud feedbacks related to LTS. We conclude by addressing the implications of the LTS–low cloud relationship in the Southeast Pacific for low cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change.

  19. Assessing regional scale predictions of aerosols, marine stratocumulus, and their interactions during VOCALS-REx using WRF-Chem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Yang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the ability of the recent chemistry version (v3.3 of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model to simulate boundary layer structure, aerosols, stratocumulus clouds, and energy fluxes over the Southeast Pacific Ocean. Measurements from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx and satellite retrievals (i.e., products from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES, and GOES-10 are used for this assessment. The Morrison double-moment microphysics scheme is newly coupled with interactive aerosols in the model. The 31-day (15 October–16 November 2008 WRF-Chem simulation with aerosol-cloud interactions (AERO hereafter is also compared to a simulation (MET hereafter with fixed cloud droplet number concentrations in the microphysics scheme and simplified cloud and aerosol treatments in the radiation scheme. The well-simulated aerosol quantities (aerosol number, mass composition and optical properties, and the inclusion of full aerosol-cloud couplings lead to significant improvements in many features of the simulated stratocumulus clouds: cloud optical properties and microphysical properties such as cloud top effective radius, cloud water path, and cloud optical thickness. In addition to accounting for the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects, these improvements feed back to the simulation of boundary-layer characteristics and energy budgets. Particularly, inclusion of interactive aerosols in AERO strengthens the temperature and humidity gradients within the capping inversion layer and lowers the marine boundary layer (MBL depth by 130 m from that of the MET simulation. These differences are associated with weaker entrainment and stronger mean subsidence at the top of the MBL in AERO. Mean top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave fluxes, surface latent heat, and surface downwelling longwave fluxes are in better agreement with

  20. Evaluation of stratocumulus cloud prediction in the Met Office forecast model during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Abel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations in the subtropical southeast Pacific obtained during the VOCALS-REx field experiment are used to evaluate the representation of stratocumulus cloud in the Met Office forecast model and to identify key areas where model biases exist. Marked variations in the large scale structure of the cloud field were observed during the experiment on both day-to-day and on diurnal timescales. In the remote maritime region the model is shown to have a good representation of synoptically induced variability in both cloud cover and marine boundary layer depth. Satellite observations show a strong diurnal cycle in cloud fraction and liquid water path in the stratocumulus with enhanced clearances of the cloud deck along the Chilean and Peruvian coasts on certain days. The model accurately simulates the phase of the diurnal cycle but is unable to capture the coastal clearing of cloud. Observations along the 20° S latitude line show a gradual increase in the depth of the boundary layer away from the coast. This trend is well captured by the model (typical low bias of 200 m although significant errors exist at the coast where the model marine boundary layer is too shallow and moist. Drizzle in the model responds to changes in liquid water path in a manner that is consistent with previous ship-borne observations in the region although the intensity of this drizzle is likely to be too high, particularly in the more polluted coastal region where higher cloud droplet number concentrations are typical. Another mode of variability in the cloud field that the model is unable to capture are regions of pockets of open cellular convection embedded in the overcast stratocumulus deck and an example of such a feature that was sampled during VOCALS-REx is shown.

  1. Drizzle production in stratocumulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, G.; Frisch, A.S.; Stevens, B.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Although stratocumulus clouds are not prodigious producers of precipitation, the small amounts of drizzle they do produce have an important impact on both cloud macrophysical properties (e.g., spatial coverage, depth and liquid water content) and microphysical properties (e.g., droplet size distributions, effective radii). The radiative effects of stratocumulus are intimately connected to both these macro- and microphysical properties, and it is thus essential that we understand the mechanisms of droplet growth which generate precipitation sized droplets. Drizzle production is closely related to cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) number and size, as well as to cloud dynamics and the ability of clouds to support droplets within their bounds and allow for repeated collision-coalesence cycles. In order to address both the microphysical and dynamical aspects of drizzle formation (and their close coupling), we have adapted a large eddy simulation (LES) model to include explicit (size-resolving) microphysical treatment of the CCN and droplet spectra. By directly calculating processes such as droplet growth by condensation and stochastic collection, evaporation, and sedimentation in the LES framework, we are in a position to elucidate the drizzle formation process.

  2. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Gulagi; Dmitrii Bogdanov; Christian Breyer

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63...

  3. Identifying role of subtropical southeast Pacific SST anomalies on precipitation dynamics in Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, D.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile (CC, western South America coasts, 28°S- 38°S) is the heartland of Chile with the highest population and important economic activities. The region is characterized by semiarid Mediterranean climate with a marked precipitation gradient along the coast from north to south, mostly due to the positioning of the South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone and the midlatitude westerlies belt. Although there are several diagnostic studies that focus on the impact of tropical Pacific SST on CC precipitation variability via atmospheric teleconnections, less attention has been placed on impacts of subtropical southeast (SE) Pacific SST on precipitation. The later region is immediately adjacent to CC and it interferes with the overpassing atmospheric systems. In particular we want to assess the impact of a consistent cooling over the SE Pacific during the last 30 years. This study is being tackled by a combination of observational and reanalysis datasets together with numerical simulations. Observational dataset includes gridded dataset of CRU, TRMM and GPCP. Moreover, Reynolds SST data V2 based on AVHRR infrared satellite SST data is used for analyzing spatial and temporal changes in SST. Current modelling experiment includes a control simulation, used as reference, and sensitivity simulation that involves perturbations to SST over subtropical SE Pacific for a normal year austral winter (2001) season. A number of simulations with different initial conditions have been carried out by employing ICTP-RegCM4. The domain for simulations was centered at 82oW and 32oW with 288x288 grid cells on 20 km spatial resolution. Preliminary results indicate that the response of precipitation in CC to SST anomalies in the subtropical SE Pacific exhibits more or less linear behavior. In the colder SST experiments, drier conditions dominate over CC, which is possibly related with the intensification of South Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone (SPSA) or a reduction in the available

  4. Nutrient limitation of primary productivity in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise

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    S. Bonnet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient involved in a variety of biological processes in the ocean, including photosynthesis, respiration and dinitrogen fixation. Atmospheric deposition of aerosols is recognized as the main source of iron for the surface ocean. In high nutrient, low chlorophyll areas, it is now clearly established that iron limits phytoplankton productivity but its biogeochemical role in low nutrient, low chlorophyll environments has been poorly studied. We investigated this question in the unexplored southeast Pacific, arguably the most oligotrophic area of the global ocean. Situated far from any continental aerosol source, the atmospheric iron flux to this province is amongst the lowest of the world ocean. Here we report that, despite low dissolved iron concentrations (~0.1 nmol l−1 across the whole gyre (3 stations located in the center and at the western and the eastern edges, primary productivity are only limited by iron availability at the border of the gyre, but not in the center. The seasonal stability of the gyre has apparently allowed for the development of populations acclimated to these extreme oligotrophic conditions. Moreover, despite clear evidence of nitrogen limitation in the central gyre, we were unable to measure dinitrogen fixation in our experiments, even after iron and/or phosphate additions, and cyanobacterial nif H gene abundances were extremely low compared to the North Pacific Gyre. The South Pacific gyre is therefore unique with respect to the physiological status of its phytoplankton populations.

  5. A Cost Optimized Fully Sustainable Power System for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim

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    Ashish Gulagi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cost optimal 100% renewable energy based system is obtained for Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim region for the year 2030 on an hourly resolution for the whole year. For the optimization, the region was divided into 15 sub-regions and three different scenarios were set up based on the level of high voltage direct current grid connections. The results obtained for a total system levelized cost of electricity showed a decrease from 66.7 €/MWh in a decentralized scenario to 63.5 €/MWh for a centralized grid connected scenario. An integrated scenario was simulated to show the benefit of integrating additional demand of industrial gas and desalinated water which provided the system the required flexibility and increased the efficiency of the usage of storage technologies. This was reflected in the decrease of system cost by 9.5% and the total electricity generation by 5.1%. According to the results, grid integration on a larger scale decreases the total system cost and levelized cost of electricity by reducing the need for storage technologies due to seasonal variations in weather and demand profiles. The intermittency of renewable technologies can be effectively stabilized to satisfy hourly demand at a low cost level. A 100% renewable energy based system could be a reality economically and technically in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim with the cost assumptions used in this research and it may be more cost competitive than the nuclear and fossil carbon capture and storage (CCS alternatives.

  6. Rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopes in the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, C.; Delattre, H.; Grenier, M.; Pradoux, C.; Lacan, F.

    2013-02-01

    vertical profiles of rare earth element concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions have been measured in the remote southeast Pacific Ocean. The three stations represent contrasting environments: the oligotrophic center of the gyre (station GYR), the "transition zone" east of the South Tropical Front (station EGY), and the Peru-Chile upwelling marked by a pronounced oxygen minimum (station UPX). Rare earth concentrations display nutrient like vertical profiles except at UPX where surface waters are enriched. At this station Nd isotopic compositions are clearly more radiogenic than in the open ocean, suggesting that boundary exchange process is releasing lithogenic rare earth element from the volcanic Andes. Unexpected radiogenic values (ɛNd reaching -3.7) are also observed at 2000 m at station GYR in the Upper Circumpolar Deep Water that commonly have ɛNd values around -6. Exchange processes related to hydrothermal activity are suspected to produce this increase in ɛNd in the vicinity of the East Pacific Rise. These results provide some guidance for higher resolution studies planned in this region by the international GEOTRACES program.

  7. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

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    Colin S Shanley

    Full Text Available Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1 and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2 projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation

  8. A comparative study of the response of modeled non-drizzling stratocumulus to meteorological and aerosol perturbations

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    J. L. Petters

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of changes in aerosol and cloud droplet concentration (Na and Nd on the radiative forcing of stratocumulus-topped boundary layers (STBLs has been widely studied. How these impacts compare to those due to variations in meteorological context has not been investigated in a systematic fashion for non-drizzling overcast stratocumulus. In this study we examine the impact of observed variations in meteorological context and aerosol state on daytime, non-drizzling overcast stratiform evolution, and determine how resulting changes in cloud properties compare. Using large-eddy simulation (LES we create a model base case of daytime southeast Pacific coastal stratocumulus, spanning a portion of the diurnal cycle (early morning to near noon and constrained by observations taken during the VOCALS (VAMOS Ocean-Atmosphere-Land Study field campaign. We perturb aerosol and meteorological properties around this base case to investigate the stratocumulus response. We determine perturbations in the cloud top jumps in potential temperature θ and total water mixing ratio qt from ECMWF Re-analysis Interim data, and use a set of Nd values spanning the observable range. To determine the cloud response to these meteorological and aerosol perturbations, we compute changes in liquid water path (LWP, bulk optical depth (τ and cloud radiative forcing (CRF. We find that realistic variations in the thermodynamic jump properties can elicit a response in the cloud properties of τ and shortwave (SW CRF that are on the same order of magnitude as the response found due to realistic changes in aerosol state (i.e Nd. In response to increases in Nd, the cloud layer in the base case thinned due to increases in evaporative cooling and entrainment rate. This cloud thinning somewhat mitigates the increase in τ resulting from increases in Nd. On the other hand, variations in θ and qt jumps did not substantially modify Nd. The cloud layer thickens in response to an increase

  9. Coupling spectral-bin cloud microphysics with the MOSAIC aerosol model in WRF-Chem: Methodology and results for marine stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Fan, Jiwen; Easter, R. C.; Yang, Qing; Zhao, Chun; Ghan, Steven J.

    2016-09-01

    Aerosol-cloud interaction processes can be represented more physically with bin cloud microphysics relative to bulk microphysical parameterizations. However, due to computational power limitations in the past, bin cloud microphysics was often run with very simple aerosol treatments. The purpose of this study is to represent better aerosol-cloud interaction processes in the Chemistry version of Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF-Chem) at convection-permitting scales by coupling spectral-bin cloud microphysics (SBM) with the MOSAIC sectional aerosol model. A flexible interface is built that exchanges cloud and aerosol information between them. The interface contains a new bin aerosol activation approach, which replaces the treatments in the original SBM. It also includes the modified aerosol resuspension and in-cloud wet removal processes with the droplet loss tendencies and precipitation fluxes from SBM. The newly coupled system is evaluated for two marine stratocumulus cases over the Southeast Pacific Ocean with either a simplified aerosol setup or full-chemistry. We compare the aerosol activation process in the newly coupled SBM-MOSAIC against the SBM simulation without chemistry using a simplified aerosol setup, and the results show consistent activation rates. A longer time simulation reinforces that aerosol resuspension through cloud drop evaporation plays an important role in replenishing aerosols and impacts cloud and precipitation in marine stratocumulus clouds. Evaluation of the coupled SBM-MOSAIC with full-chemistry using aircraft measurements suggests that the new model works realistically for the marine stratocumulus clouds, and improves the simulation of cloud microphysical properties compared to a simulation using MOSAIC coupled with the Morrison two-moment microphysics.

  10. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali in the southeast Pacific Ocean

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    Carlos Bustamante

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera were caught at depths of 100–500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  11. Temporal variations of potential fecundity of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis australis) in the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrés; Wiff, Rodrigo; Díaz, Eduardo; Carvajal, Bernardita

    2017-08-01

    Fecundity is a key aspect of fish species reproductive biology because it relates directly to total egg production. Yet, despite such importance, fecundity estimates are lacking or scarce for several fish species. The gravimetric method is the most-used one to estimate fecundity by essentially scaling up the oocyte density to the ovary weight. It is a relatively simple and precise technique, but also time consuming because it requires counting all oocytes in an ovary subsample. The auto-diametric method, on the other hand, is relatively new for estimating fecundity, representing a rapid alternative, because it requires only an estimation of mean oocyte density from mean oocyte diameter. Using the extensive database available from commercial fishery and design surveys for southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis australis in the Southeast Pacific, we compared estimates of fecundity using both gravimetric and auto-diametric methods. Temporal variations in potential fecundity from the auto-diametric method were evaluated using generalised linear models considering predictors from maternal characteristics such as female size, condition factor, oocyte size, and gonadosomatic index. A global and time-invariant auto-diametric equation was evaluated using a simulation procedure based on non-parametric bootstrap. Results indicated there were not significant differences regarding fecundity estimates between the gravimetric and auto-diametric method (p > 0.05). Simulation showed the application of a global equation is unbiased and sufficiently precise to estimate time-invariant fecundity of this species. Temporal variations on fecundity were explained by maternal characteristic, revealing signals of fecundity down-regulation. We discuss how oocyte size and nutritional condition (measured as condition factor) are one of the important factors determining fecundity. We highlighted also the relevance of choosing the appropriate sampling period to conduct maturity studies

  12. Environmental biogeography of near-surface phytoplankton in the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, John; Hanneman, Andrew; Behrenfeldt, Michael; Horner, Rita

    1996-10-01

    Biogeographic interpretation of large-scale phytoplankton distribution patterns in relation to surface hydrography is essential to understanding pelagic food web dynamics and biogeochemical processes influencing global climate. We examined the abundance and biomass of phytoplankton in relation to physical and chemical parameters in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Samples were collected along longitude 110°W, between 10°N and 60°S during late austral summer. Patterns of taxa abundance and hydrographic variables were interpreted by principal components analysis. Five distinct phytohydrographic regions were identified: (i) a north equatorial region of moderate productivity dominated by small flagellates, low nitrate and low-to-moderate pCO 2; (ii) a south equatorial region characterized by high primary productivity dominated by diatoms, high nutrient levels, and relatively high pCO 2; (iii) a central gyre region characterized by low productivity dominated by small flagellates, low nitrate, and high pCO 2; (iv) a sub-Antarctic region with moderate productivity dominated by coccolithophores, moderate nitrate concentrations, and low pCO 2; and (v) an Antarctic region with high productivity dominated by diatoms, very high nitrate, and low pCO 2. Productivity and average phytoplankton cell size were positively correlated with nitrate concentration. Total phytoplankton abundance was negatively correlated with pCO 2, photosynthetically active radiation, and ultraviolet-B radiation. The interaction between phytoplankton carbon assimilation, atmospheric CO2, and the inhibitory effect of ultraviolet radiation could have implications for the global climate. These data suggest that the effects would be greatest at southern mid-latitudes (40-50°S) where present phytoplankton production and predicted future increases in UV-B are both relatively high.

  13. First record of hybridization between green Chelonia mydas and hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata sea turtles in the Southeast Pacific

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    Shaleyla Kelez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybridization among sea turtle species has been widely reported in the Atlantic Ocean, but their detection in the Pacific Ocean is limited to just two individual hybrid turtles, in the northern hemisphere. Herein, we report, for the first time in the southeast Pacific, the presence of a sea turtle hybrid between the green turtle Chelonia mydas and the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys imbricata. This juvenile sea turtle was captured in northern Peru (4°13′S; 81°10′W on the 5th of January, 2014. The individual exhibited morphological characteristics of C. mydas such as dark green coloration, single pair of pre-frontal scales, four post-orbital scales, and mandibular median ridge, while the presence of two claws in each frontal flipper, and elongated snout resembled the features of E. imbricata. In addition to morphological evidence, we confirmed the hybrid status of this animal using genetic analysis of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, which revealed that the hybrid individual resulted from the cross between a female E. imbricata and a male C. mydas. Our report extends the geographical range of occurrence of hybrid sea turtles in the Pacific Ocean, and is a significant observation of interspecific breeding between one of the world’s most critically endangered populations of sea turtles, the east Pacific E. imbricata, and a relatively healthy population, the east Pacific C. mydas.

  14. Anthropogenic Contribution to the Southeast Pacific Precipitation Decline and Recent (2010-2015) Mega-Drought in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisier, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Within the large uncertainties in the precipitation response to the anthropogenic climate forcing, the projections towards dryer conditions in the southeast Pacific sector and west bound of southern South America represent a particularly robust signature in climate model simulations. A rainfall decline of consistent direction but of larger amplitude than those simulated has been observed in Chile during the last decades, but the causes of this trend have never been formally attributed. With this purpose, we analyze local rain-gauge data and contrast them to a large ensemble both of fully-coupled and sea surface temperature-forced simulations. In concomitance with large-scale circulation changes, we show that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation explains about 50% of the rainfall trend observed since 1979 in central Chile. Our results also indicate that the remaining fraction of the observed drying is unlikely (p Chile since 2010, emerges as a realistic scenario for this region under the current socio-economic pathway.

  15. Picoplankton diversity in the South-East Pacific Ocean from cultures

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    F. Le Gall

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off the Marquesas Islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we undertook a vigorous effort to isolate novel photosynthetic picoplanktonic eukaryotes. Two strategies were attempted on board: enrichment of filtered samples with culture medium and sorting of specific populations by flow cytometry based on size and chlorophyll fluorescence. Over 1900 pre-cultures were started and then further purified by flow cytometry, serial dilution or pipette isolation to yield a total of 212 strains. These strains were characterized morphologically and for more than 50% of them, genetically, through partial sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene.

    Among the characterized strains, the largest number belongs to stramenopiles (Heterokontophyta with a record of 38 strains belonging to the species Pelagomonas calceolata (Pelagophyceae. Strains from the recently described genera Bolidomonas and Florenciella have been re-isolated for the first time since their description. Two other abundant groups are the Chlorophyta, especially Prasinophyceae, and the Haptophyta, especially the genera Phaeocystis and Emiliania. A limited number of heterotrophic flagellates have also been isolated, all of them belonging to groups containing known species. Finally, over a dozen of unicellular cyanobacterial Synechococcus strains have been obtained, some forming unusual short chains.

    Overall our strategy was quite successful since it allowed us to isolate a large number of picoplankton strains. Still it failed in two respects. First, apparently very few novel taxa have been obtained. One set of strains is related to Prasinoderma coloniale (Prasinococcales

  16. How thermodynamic environments control stratocumulus microphysics and interactions with aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Hendrik; Cermak, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol–cloud interactions are central to climate system changes and depend on meteorological conditions. This study identifies distinct thermodynamic regimes and proposes a conceptual framework for interpreting aerosol effects. In the analysis, ten years (2003–2012) of daily satellite-derived aerosol and cloud products are combined with reanalysis data to identify factors controlling Southeast Atlantic stratocumulus microphysics. Considering the seasonal influence of aerosol input from biomass burning, thermodynamic environments that feature contrasting microphysical cloud properties and aerosol–cloud relations are classified. While aerosol impact is stronger in unstable environments, it is mostly confined to situations with low aerosol loading (aerosol index AI ≲ 0.15), implying a saturation of aerosol effects. Situations with high aerosol loading are associated with weaker, seasonally contrasting aerosol-droplet size relationships, likely caused by thermodynamically induced processes and aerosol swelling. (letter)

  17. Composition, oxygen isotope geochemistry, and origin of smectite in the metalliferous sediments of the Bauer Deep, southeast Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, T G [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Geology Dept.

    1985-01-01

    The sediments of the Bauer Deep, an open ocean basin situated on the northwest Nazca Plate in the southeast Pacific, constitute a regional metalliferous deposit dominated by authigenic smectite. Two 2-metre long cores from the Bauer Deep were examined to investigate the nature and origin of the smectite. Infra-red and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis (LiBO/sub 2/ fusion) of isolated smectite, indicate the mineral is a Mg-rich, Al-rich nontronite. Oxygen isotopic compositions for isolated smectite are uniform and translate to a non-hydrothermal temperature of formation of about 3 deg C. SEM observations show an abundance of well-preserved biogenic opal in surface and near surface sediment but postburial dissolution and transformation of this phase to smectite is evident at depth. Smectite formation is the result of interaction between iron oxyhydroxide, ponded in the Bauer Deep following a hydrothermal origin at the adjacent East Pacific Rise, and biogenic opal. A reaction mechanism is proposed. Regional factors control smectite formation. In particular, formation is inhibited in areas of CaCO/sub 3/ accumulation (topographic elevations) but favoured in areas of oxyhydroxide and opal ponding (topographic depressions.)

  18. Composition, oxygen isotope geochemistry, and origin of smectite in the metalliferous sediments of the Bauer Deep, southeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, T.G.

    1985-01-01

    The sediments of the Bauer Deep, an open ocean basin situated on the northwest Nazca Plate in the southeast Pacific, constitute a regional metalliferous deposit dominated by authigenic smectite. Two 2-metre long cores from the Bauer Deep were examined to investigate the nature and origin of the smectite. Infra-red and Mossbauer spectroscopy, and wet chemical analysis (LiBO 2 fusion) of isolated smectite, indicate the mineral is a Mg-rich, Al-rich nontronite. Oxygen isotopic compositions for isolated smectite are uniform and translate to a non-hydrothermal temperature of formation of about 3 deg C. SEM observations show an abundance of well-preserved biogenic opal in surface and near surface sediment but postburial dissolution and transformation of this phase to smectite is evident at depth. Smectite formation is the result of interaction between iron oxyhydroxide, ponded in the Bauer Deep following a hydrothermal origin at the adjacent East Pacific Rise, and biogenic opal. A reaction mechanism is proposed. Regional factors control smectite formation. In particular, formation is inhibited in areas of CaCO 3 accumulation (topographic elevations) but favoured in areas of oxyhydroxide and opal ponding (topographic depressions.) (author)

  19. Aerosol Indirect effect on Stratocumulus Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Heus, T.; Kollias, P.

    2015-12-01

    Large-eddy simulations are used to investigate the role of aerosol loading on organized Stratocumulus. We prescribed the cloud droplet number concentration (Nc) and considered it as the proxy for different aerosol loading. While the presence of drizzle amplifies the mesoscale variability as is in Savic-Jovcic and Stevens (JAS, 2008), two noticeable findings are discussed here: First, the scale of marine boundary layer circulation appears to be independent of aerosol loading, suggesting a major role of the turbulence. The precise role of the turbulence in stratocumulus organization is studied by modifying the large scale fluctuations from the LES domain. Second, while it is commonly thought that the whole circulation needs to be represented for robust cloud development, we find that stratocumulus dynamics, including variables like w'w' and w'w'w', are remarkably robust even if large scales are ignored by simply reducing the domain sizes. The only variable that is sensitive to the change of the scale is the amount of cloudiness. Despite their smaller cloud thickness and inhomogeneous macroscopic structure for low Nc, individual drizzling clouds have sizes that are commensurate with circulation scale. We observe an Nc threshold below which stratocumulus is thin enough so that a little decrease of Nc would lead to great change of cloud fraction. The simulated cloud albedo is more sensitive to in-cloud liquid water content than to the amount of cloudiness since the former decreases at least three times faster than the latter due to drizzle. The main impact of drizzle evaporation is observed to keep the sub-cloud layer moist and as a result to extend the lifetime of stratocumulus by a couple of hours.

  20. Stress Drops of Earthquakes on the Subducting Pacific Plate in the South-East off Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Yamada, T.

    2013-12-01

    Large earthquakes have been occurring repeatedly in the South-East of Hokkaido, Japan, where the Pacific Plate subducts beneath the Okhotsk Plate in the north-west direction. For example, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake (Mw8.3 determined by USGS) took place in the region on September 26, 2003. Yamanaka and Kikuchi (2003) analyzed the slip distribution of the earthquake and concluded that the 2003 earthquake had ruptured the deeper half of the fault plane of the 1952 Tokachi-oki earthquake. Miyazaki et al. (2004) reported that a notable afterslip was observed at adjacent areas to the coseismic rupture zone of the 2003 earthquake, which suggests that there would be significant heterogeneities of strength, stress and frictional properties on the surface of the Pacific Plate in the region. In addition, some previous studies suggest that the region with a large slip in large earthquakes permanently have large difference of strength and the dynamic frictional stress level and that it would be able to predict the spatial pattern of slip in the next large earthquake by analyzing the stress drop of small earthquakes (e.g. Allmann and Shearer, 2007 and Yamada et al., 2010). We estimated stress drops of 150 earthquakes (4.2 ≤ M ≤ 5.0), using S-coda waves, or the waveforms from 4.00 to 9.11 seconds after the S wave arrivals, of Hi-net data. The 150 earthquakes were the ones that occurred from June, 2002 to December, 2010 in south-east of Hokkaido, Japan, from 40.5N to 43.5N and from 141.0E to 146.5E. First we selected waveforms of the closest earthquakes with magnitudes between 3.0 and 3.2 to individual 150 earthquakes as empirical Green's functions. We then calculated source spectral ratios of the 150 pairs of interested earthquakes and EGFs by deconvolving the individual S-coda waves. We finally estimated corner frequencies of earthquakes from the spectral ratios by assuming the omega-squared model of Boatwright (1978) and calculated stress drops of the earthquakes by

  1. Geographical variation of shell thickness in the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus along the southeast Pacific coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Fernández, Miriam; Guiñez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    At broad geographical scales, the variation in bivalve shell thickness can be modulated by environmental factors that vary with latitude, such as sea surface temperature (SST), seawater pH, or calcium carbonate availability. Mussels usually form multilayered beds, and shell thickness is also expected to be affected by density and layering due to intraspecific competition. In this work, we explored the geographical variation of shell thickness in the intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus between 18° and 42°S along the southeastern Pacific coast. We tested the hypothesis that there was a positive relationship between shell thickness and SST, and then we explored other variables that could have an effect on thickness, such as density, number of layers, and others environmental variables (pH and calcite concentration). The expected positive linear relationship between shell thickness and sea surface temperature was not found, but when the other population variables were included in the analysis, an unexpected inverse SST-thickness relationships appeared as significant, probably because this species could be adapted to colder and more acid seawater as are those of the tips of South America. Thickness was also negatively affected by density, which was expected for a gregarious species showing high intraspecific competition. Finally, our results highlight the importance of including density and crowding effects when macroscale patterns are explored, particularly in gregarious species, since these patterns could also be modulated by density-dependent processes, which might then override latitudinal trends of shell thickness when they are not included in the analyses. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  2. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pestana, Adriana; Kouri J., Carlos; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark ( Prionace glauca), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), smooth hammerhead ( Sphyrna zygaena), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus), smooth-hound ( Mustelus whitneyi) and angel shark ( Squatina californica). Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight) are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done. PMID:27635216

  3. Stratocumulus to Cumulus Transition by Drizzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takanobu; Feingold, Graham; Kazil, Jan

    2017-10-01

    The stratocumulus to cumulus transition (SCT) is typically considered to be a slow, multiday process, caused primarily by dry air entrainment associated with overshooting cumulus, with minor influence of drizzle. This study revisits the role of drizzle in the SCT with large eddy simulations coupled with a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme that includes a budget on aerosol (Na) and cloud droplet number concentrations (Nc). We show a strong precipitation-induced modulation of the SCT by drizzle initiated in penetrative cumulus under stratocumulus. Lagrangian SCT simulations are initiated with various, moderate Na (100-250 cm-3), which produce little to no drizzle from the stratocumulus. As expected, drizzle formation in cumuli is regulated by cloud depth and Nc, with stronger dependence on cloud depth, so that, for the current case, drizzle is generated in all simulations once cumulus clouds become sufficiently deep. The drizzle generated in the cumuli washes out stratocumulus cloud water and much of the aerosol, and a cumulus state appears for approximately 10 h. With additional simulations with a fixed Nc (100 cm-3), we show that prediction of Nc is necessary for this fast SCT since it is a result of a positive feedback of collision-coalescence-induced aerosol depletion that enhances drizzle formation. A fixed Nc does not permit this feedback, and thus results in weak influence of drizzle on the SCT. Simulations with fixed droplet concentrations that bracket the time varying aerosol/drop concentrations are therefore not representative of the role of drizzle in the SCT.

  4. Typhoid Fever surveillance and vaccine use - South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa D; Fox, Kimberley K; Abeysinghe, Nihal; Mintz, Eric D; Khan, M Imran; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-10-03

    Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.

  5. A treatment for the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition in GCMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Heng; Mechoso, C.R. [University of California, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wu, Chien-Ming [National Taiwan University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Taipei (China); Ma, Hsi-Yen [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Numerical models of climate have great difficulties with the simulation of marine low clouds in the subtropical Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. It has been especially difficult to reproduce the observed geographical distributions of the different cloud regimes in those regions. The present study discusses mechanisms proposed in previous works for changing one regime into another. One criterion is based on the theory of stratocumulus destruction through cloud top entrainment instability due to buoyancy reversal - situations in which the mixture of two air parcels becomes denser than either of the original parcels due to evaporation of cloud water. Another criterion is based on the existence of decoupling in the boundary layer. When decoupled, the stratocumulus regime changes to another in which these clouds can still exist together with cumulus. In a LES study, the authors have suggested that a combination of those two criteria can be used to diagnose whether, at a location, the cloud regime corresponds to a well-mixed stratocumulus regime, a shallow cumulus regime, or to a transitional regime where the boundary layer is decoupled. The concept is tested in the framework of an atmospheric general circulation model (GCM). It is found that several outstanding features of disagreement between simulation and observation can be interpreted as misrepresentations of the cloud regimes by the GCM. A novel criterion for switching among regimes is proposed to alleviate the effects of these misrepresentations. (orig.)

  6. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Rahn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this work we study the day-to-day variability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MBL over the subtropical southeast Pacific using primarily results from a numerical simulation that covered the whole VOCALS-REx period (October–November 2008. In situ and satellite-derived observations of the MBL height in the offshore region indicate rapid, significant variations (from 500 m to 1700 m a.s.l. over a few days during October. These MBL changes are connected with the passage of midlatitude troughs that altered the large-scale environment over the VOCALS-REx region. In contrast, the synoptic forcing and MBL changes were less prominent during November. Modelled and observed MBL depth at Point Omega (20° S, 85° W compare quite well during October (but the simulation is on average 200 m lower while in November the simulation does not perform as well.

    In the prognostic local MBL height equation the height change, the horizontal MBL height advection, and the large scale vertical velocity at MBL top are calculated explicitly from the simulation. The entrainment velocity is calculated as the residual of the other terms in the equation. While the vertical velocity and residual terms are opposing and generally have the largest magnitude on average, it is the variability in the advection that explains most of the large changes in the MBL depth. Examination of several cases during VOCALS-REx suggests that the advective term is in turn largely controlled by changes in wind direction, driven by midlatitude activity, acting on a MBL that generally slopes down toward the coast. In one phase, the subtropical anticyclone is reinforced and extends toward the Chilean coast, leading to easterly wind that advects low MBL heights from the coast as far as Point Omega. The opposite phase occurs after the passage of an extratropical cyclone over southern Chile, leading to southwesterly wind that advects a deeper MBL towards subtropical

  7. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  8. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  9. Cloud-Top Entrainment in Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Cloud entrainment, the mixing between cloudy and clear air at the boundary of clouds, constitutes one paradigm for the relevance of small scales in the Earth system: By regulating cloud lifetimes, meter- and submeter-scale processes at cloud boundaries can influence planetary-scale properties. Understanding cloud entrainment is difficult given the complexity and diversity of the associated phenomena, which include turbulence entrainment within a stratified medium, convective instabilities driven by radiative and evaporative cooling, shear instabilities, and cloud microphysics. Obtaining accurate data at the required small scales is also challenging, for both simulations and measurements. During the past few decades, however, high-resolution simulations and measurements have greatly advanced our understanding of the main mechanisms controlling cloud entrainment. This article reviews some of these advances, focusing on stratocumulus clouds, and indicates remaining challenges.

  10. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  11. Evolution of ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in Southeast Asia region and its relationship with atmosphere-ocean variations in Indo-Pacific sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneng, Liew; Tangang, Fredolin T. [Technology National University of Malaysia, Marine Science Program, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2005-09-01

    The Southeast Asia rainfall (SEAR) anomalies depend strongly on phases of El Nino (La Nina). Using an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis, it is shown that the dominant EEOF mode of SEAR anomalies evolves northeastward throughout a period from the summer when El Nino develops to spring the following year when the event weakens. This evolution is consistent with northeastward migration of the ENSO-related anomalous out going radiation field. During boreal summer (winter), the strong ENSO-related anomaly tends to reside in regions south (north) of the equator. The evolution of dominant mode of SEAR anomalies is in tandem with the evolution of ENSO-related sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. The strengthening and weakening of ''boomerang-shaped'' SST in western Pacific, the changing sign of anomalous SST in Java Sea and the warming in Indian Ocean and South China Sea are all part of ENSO-related changes and all are linked to SEAR anomaly. The anomalous low-level circulation associated with ENSO-related SEAR anomaly indicates the strengthening and weakening of two off-equatorial anticyclones, one over the Southern Indian Ocean and the other over the western North Pacific. Together with patterns of El Nino minus La Nina composites of various fields, it is proposed that the northeastward evolution of SEAR anomaly is basically part of the large-scale eastward evolution of ENSO-related signal in the Indo-Pacific sector. The atmosphere-ocean interaction plays an important role in this evolution. (orig.)

  12. Network approach to patterns in stratocumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, Franziska; Feingold, Graham

    2017-10-01

    Stratocumulus clouds (Sc) have a significant impact on the amount of sunlight reflected back to space, with important implications for Earth’s climate. Representing Sc and their radiative impact is one of the largest challenges for global climate models. Sc fields self-organize into cellular patterns and thus lend themselves to analysis and quantification in terms of natural cellular networks. Based on large-eddy simulations of Sc fields, we present a first analysis of the geometric structure and self-organization of Sc patterns from this network perspective. Our network analysis shows that the Sc pattern is scale-invariant as a consequence of entropy maximization that is known as Lewis’s Law (scaling parameter: 0.16) and is largely independent of the Sc regime (cloud-free vs. cloudy cell centers). Cells are, on average, hexagonal with a neighbor number variance of about 2, and larger cells tend to be surrounded by smaller cells, as described by an Aboav-Weaire parameter of 0.9. The network structure is neither completely random nor characteristic of natural convection. Instead, it emerges from Sc-specific versions of cell division and cell merging that are shaped by cell expansion. This is shown with a heuristic model of network dynamics that incorporates our physical understanding of cloud processes.

  13. The GASS/EUCLIPSE model intercomparison of the stratocumulus transition as observed during ASTEX : LES results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Dussen, J.J.; De Roode, S.R.; Ackerman, A.S.; Blossey, P.N.; Bretherton, C.S.; Kurowski, M.J.; Lock, A.P.; Neggers, R.A.J.; Sandu, I.; Siebesma, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations of a Lagrangian transition from a vertically well-mixed stratocumulus-topped boundary layer to a situation in which shallow cumuli penetrate an overlying layer of thin and broken stratocumulus are compared with aircraft observations collected during the Atlantic Stratocumulus

  14. How large-scale subsidence affects stratocumulus transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. van der Dussen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some climate modeling results suggest that the Hadley circulation might weaken in a future climate, causing a subsequent reduction in the large-scale subsidence velocity in the subtropics. In this study we analyze the cloud liquid water path (LWP budget from large-eddy simulation (LES results of three idealized stratocumulus transition cases, each with a different subsidence rate. As shown in previous studies a reduced subsidence is found to lead to a deeper stratocumulus-topped boundary layer, an enhanced cloud-top entrainment rate and a delay in the transition of stratocumulus clouds into shallow cumulus clouds during its equatorwards advection by the prevailing trade winds. The effect of a reduction of the subsidence rate can be summarized as follows. The initial deepening of the stratocumulus layer is partly counteracted by an enhanced absorption of solar radiation. After some hours the deepening of the boundary layer is accelerated by an enhancement of the entrainment rate. Because this is accompanied by a change in the cloud-base turbulent fluxes of moisture and heat, the net change in the LWP due to changes in the turbulent flux profiles is negligibly small.

  15. Twomey effect in subtropical stratocumulus clouds from UV depolarization lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, M.; Brown, Jessica; Donovan, D.P.; Nicolae, D.; Makoto, A.; Vassilis, A.; Balis, D.; Behrendt, A.; Comeron, A.; Gibert, F.; Landulfo, E.; McCormick, M.P.; Senff, C.; Veselovskii, I.; Wandinger, U.

    2018-01-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds are important climate regulators, reflecting sunlight over a dark ocean background. A UV-depolarization lidar on Ascension, a small remote island in the south Atlantic, measured cloud droplet sizes and number concentration using an inversion method based on Monte Carlo

  16. Towards sustainable fishery management for skates in South America: The genetic population structure of Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma (Chondrichthyes, Rajiformes in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Vargas-Caro

    Full Text Available The longnose skates (Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma are the main component of the elasmobranch fisheries in the south-east Pacific Ocean. Both species are considered to be a single stock by the fishery management in Chile however, little is known about the level of demographic connectivity within the fishery. In this study, we used a genetic variation (560 bp of the control region of the mitochondrial genome and ten microsatellite loci to explore population connectivity at five locations along the Chilean coast. Analysis of Z. chilensis populations revealed significant genetic structure among off-shore locations (San Antonio, Valdivia, two locations in the Chiloé Interior Sea (Puerto Montt and Aysén and Punta Arenas in southern Chile. For example, mtDNA haplotype diversity was similar across off-shore locations and Punta Arenas (h = 0.46-0.50, it was significantly different to those in the Chiloé Interior Sea (h = 0.08. These results raise concerns about the long-term survival of the species within the interior sea, as population resilience will rely almost exclusively on self-recruitment. In contrast, little evidence of genetic structure was found for D. trachyderma. Our results provide evidence for three management units for Z. chilensis, and we recommend that separate management arrangements are required for each of these units. However, there is no evidence to discriminate the extant population of Dipturus trachyderma as separate management units. The lack of genetic population subdivision for D. trachyderma appears to correspond with their higher dispersal ability and more offshore habitat preference.

  17. Indonesia's Transformation and the Stability of Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabasa, Angel

    2001-01-01

    ... and straits, Indonesia is the key to Southeast Asian security. Therefore, Indonesia's choices and its evolution will frame the future of Southeast Asia and influence the balance of power in the broader Asia-Pacific region...

  18. Stratocumulus Cloud Top Radiative Cooling and Cloud Base Updraft Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Balsells, J.; Klinger, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud top radiative cooling is a primary driver of turbulence in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speeds may therefore exist. A correlation of cloud top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds has been recently identified empirically, providing a basis for satellite retrieval of cloud base updraft speeds. Such retrievals may enable analysis of aerosol-cloud interactions using satellite observations: Updraft speeds at cloud base co-determine supersaturation and therefore the activation of cloud condensation nuclei, which in turn co-determine cloud properties and precipitation formation. We use large eddy simulation and an off-line radiative transfer model to explore the relationship between cloud-top radiative cooling and cloud base updraft speeds in a marine stratocumulus cloud over the course of the diurnal cycle. We find that during daytime, at low cloud water path (CWP correlated, in agreement with the reported empirical relationship. During the night, in the absence of short-wave heating, CWP builds up (CWP > 50 g m-2) and long-wave emissions from cloud top saturate, while cloud base heating increases. In combination, cloud top cooling and cloud base updrafts become weakly anti-correlated. A functional relationship between cloud top cooling and cloud base updraft speed can hence be expected for stratocumulus clouds with a sufficiently low CWP and sub-saturated long-wave emissions, in particular during daytime. At higher CWPs, in particular at night, the relationship breaks down due to saturation of long-wave emissions from cloud top.

  19. Enhancing US Operational Reach in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitchcock, David

    2003-01-01

    .... While this treat continues to exist, the US Pacific Command (PACOM) must also pursue a neat term methodology to expand its operational reach and ability to respond to contingencies throughout the East Asian littoral, especially within Southeast Asia...

  20. Evaluating aerosol indirect effect through marine stratocumulus clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, Z.N.; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the last decade much attention has been focused on anthropogenic aerosols and their radiative influence on the global climate. Charlson et al. and Penner et al. have demonstrated that tropospheric aerosols and particularly anthropogenic sulfate aerosols may significantly contribute to the radiative forcing exerting a cooling influence on climate (-1 to -2 W/m{sup 2}) which is comparable in magnitude to greenhouse forcing, but opposite in sign. Aerosol particles affect the earth`s radiative budget either directly by scattering and absorption of solar radiation by themselves or indirectly by altering the cloud radiative properties through changes in cloud microstructure. Marine stratocumulus cloud layers and their possible cooling influence on the atmosphere as a result of pollution are of special interest because of their high reflectivity, durability, and large global cover. We present an estimate of thet aerosol indirect effect, or, forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols.

  1. Sedimentary structure and tectonic setting of the abyssal basins adjoining the southeast part of the Ontong Java Plateau, western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, S.; Masato, N.; Miura, S.; Suetsugu, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ontong Java Plateau(OJP) in the western Pacific Ocean is one of the largest oceanic plateau in the world. Radioactive ages of drilling samples indicate that the most part of the OJP was emplaced about 122 Ma (Mahoney et al., 1993). Taylor (2006) proposed that the OJP formed as a single large volcanic province together with the Manihiki and Hikurangi plateaus. OJP is surrounding by East Mariana, Pigafetta, Nauru, Ellice, Stewart, and Lyra basins. The East Mariana and Pigafetta basins were formed at the Pacific-Izanagi ridge and the Nauru basin was formed at Pacific-Phoenix ridges (Nakanishi et al., 1992). The tectonic history of the Ellice, Stewart, and Lyra basins is still unknown because of lack of magnetic anomaly lineations. Tectonic setting during the OJP formation is thus a matter of controversy. To expose the tectonic setting of the Ellice, Stewart, and Lyra basins, we conducted the Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) survey in the basins during the research cruise by R/V Mirai of JAMSTEC in 2014. We present our preliminary results of the MCS survey in the Stewart basin(SB) and Ellice Basin(EB). After the regular data processing, we compared the seismic facies of MCS profile with DSDP Site 288 and ODP Site 1184 to assign ages to seismic reflectors. Our processing exposed several remarkable structures in the basins. The graben structures deformed only the igneous basement in the northwestern and northeastern and southwestern margins of the SB. This suggests the graben structures were formed before sedimentary layer deposited. Taylor (2006) proposed that the basin was formed by the NW-SE rifting during the separation of OJP and Manihiki Plateau around 120 Ma. Neal (1997) proposed that the NE-SW rifting formed the basin around 80 Ma. Our study supports the rifting model proposed by Neal et al. (1997) because the displacement of graben in northeastern and southwestern margins of the SB is larger than that in northwestern of the SB. We found several igneous diapirs in the

  2. New pathway of stratocumulus to cumulus transition via aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Feingold, G.; Kazil, J.

    2017-12-01

    The stratocumulus to cumulus transition (SCT) is typically considered to be a slow, multi-day process, caused primarily by dry air entrainment associated with overshooting cumulus rising under stratocumulus, with minor influence of precipitation. In this presentation, we show rapid SCT induced by a strong precipitation-induced modulation with Lagrangian SCT large eddy simulations. A large eddy model is coupled with a two-moment bulk microphysics scheme that predicts aerosol and droplet number concentrations. Moderate aerosol concentrations (100-250 cm-3) produce little to no drizzle from the stratocumulus deck. Large amounts of rain eventually form and wash out stratocumulus and much of the aerosol, and a cumulus state appears for approximately 10 hours. Initiation of strong rain formation is identified in penetrative cumulus clouds which are much deeper than stratocumulus, and they are able to condense large amounts of water. We show that prediction of cloud droplet number is necessary for this fast SCT since it is a result of a positive feedback of collision-coalescence induced aerosol depletion enhancing drizzle formation. Simulations with fixed droplet concentrations that bracket the time varying aerosol/drop concentrations are therefore not representative of the role of drizzle in the SCT.

  3. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4: Stratocumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (more than 900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  4. Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4. Stratocumulus cloud fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.

    1994-07-01

    To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (>900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.

  5. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  6. Reproduction and community structure of fish from winter catch sites from industrial shrimp bycatch from the northeast and southeast Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Jesus Tirado-Ibarra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp fishery is one of the most important fisheries in the world, although the low selectivity from trawling nets has led to the capture of a large number of non-target species. Shrimp-bycatch species include a large number of fish and invertebrate species, of which fish species are the most abundant. The present study aims to determine the community structure as well as the average sizes at first maturity of the fish species from shrimp-bycatch caught from industrial fisheries in the Mexican Pacific from Sinaloa to Guerrero, from January to March 2015. The shrimp-bycatch fish diversity value was found to be 2.22. A total of 37 species of finfish were found, of which five were considered rare. The fish species with the highest Importance Value Index (IVI levels were Pseudupeneus grandisquamis, Paralichthys woolmani, Lutjanus peru and Diapterus peruvianus. The average size at first maturity was calculated for all species. Of the analysed organisms, 90% were in the juvenile stage, including species with riverine and artisanal fisheries. The present study demonstrates the risk within marine populations to different non-target species due to the poor selectivity of shrimp trawls.

  7. Large-scale and synoptic meteorology in the south-east Pacific during the observations campaign VOCALS-REx in austral Spring 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Toniazzo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a descriptive overview of the meteorology in the south eastern subtropical Pacific (SEP during the VOCALS-REx intensive observations campaign which was carried out between October and November 2008. Mainly based on data from operational analyses, forecasts, reanalysis, and satellite observations, we focus on spatio-temporal scales from synoptic to planetary. A climatological context is given within which the specific conditions observed during the campaign are placed, with particular reference to the relationships between the large-scale and the regional circulations. The mean circulations associated with the diurnal breeze systems are also discussed. We then provide a summary of the day-to-day synoptic-scale circulation, air-parcel trajectories, and cloud cover in the SEP during VOCALS-REx. Three meteorologically distinct periods of time are identified and the large-scale causes for their different character are discussed. The first period was characterised by significant variability associated with synoptic-scale systems interesting the SEP; while the two subsequent phases were affected by planetary-scale disturbances with a slower evolution. The changes between initial and later periods can be partly explained from the regular march of the annual cycle, but contributions from subseasonal variability and its teleconnections were important. Across the whole of the two months under consideration we find a significant correlation between the depth of the inversion-capped marine boundary layer (MBL and the amount of low cloud in the area of study. We discuss this correlation and argue that at least as a crude approximation a typical scaling may be applied relating MBL and cloud properties with the large-scale parameters of SSTs and tropospheric temperatures. These results are consistent with previously found empirical relationships involving lower-tropospheric stability.

  8. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gonzalez-Pestana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark (Prionace glauca, shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus, smooth hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena, common thresher (Alopias vulpinus, smooth-hound (Mustelus whitneyi and angel shark (Squatina californica. Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done.

  9. A Mixed-Layer Model perspective on stratocumulus steady-states in a perturbed climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal Gesso, S.; Siebesma, A.P.; de Roode, S.R.; van Wessem, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Equilibrium states of stratocumulus are evaluated for a range of free tropospheric conditions in a Mixed-Layer Model framework using a number of different entrainment formulations. The equilibrium states show that a reduced lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and a dryer free troposphere support a

  10. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-05

    by China. Even in 1994, the then-Malaysian Defense Minister Najib was careful to play down the security role of ASEAN as he still saw it as being... Razak Baginda. "Southeast Asia and Pacific Regional Security: Towards Multilateralism Amid Uncertainty?" Military Technology (April 1994): 10- 16

  11. Biomass smoke from southern Africa can significantly enhance the brightness of stratocumulus over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhibo; Zhao, Chun; Meyer, Kerry; Rajapakshe, Chamara; Wu, Chenglai; Yang, Zhifeng; Penner, Joyce E.

    2018-03-01

    Marine stratocumulus clouds cover nearly one-quarter of the ocean surface and thus play an extremely important role in determining the global radiative balance. The semipermanent marine stratocumulus deck over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean is of particular interest, because of its interactions with seasonal biomass burning aerosols that are emitted in southern Africa. Understanding the impacts of biomass burning aerosols on stratocumulus clouds and the implications for regional and global radiative balance is still very limited. Previous studies have focused on assessing the magnitude of the warming caused by solar scattering and absorption by biomass burning aerosols over stratocumulus (the direct radiative effect) or cloud adjustments to the direct radiative effect (the semidirect effect). Here, using a nested modeling approach in conjunction with observations from multiple satellites, we demonstrate that cloud condensation nuclei activated from biomass burning aerosols entrained into the stratocumulus (the microphysical effect) can play a dominant role in determining the total radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere, compared with their direct and semidirect radiative effects. Biomass burning aerosols over the region and period with heavy loadings can cause a substantial cooling (daily mean ‑8.05 W m‑2), primarily as a result of clouds brightening by reducing the cloud droplet size (the Twomey effect) and secondarily through modulating the diurnal cycle of cloud liquid water path and coverage (the cloud lifetime effect). Our results highlight the importance of realistically representing the interactions of stratocumulus with biomass burning aerosols in global climate models in this region.

  12. Oil refining and product marketing developments in southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Views on the future are based on supplies from a relatively stable Middle East and continued economic growth in the southeast Asian and Pacific countries. Under these circumstances the oil market for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) will expand considerably during the decade of the 90's. Pacific country demand, 5.92 MMB/D, in 1990 is likely to grow to 7.06 MMB/D in 2000. Regional production could supply about 40% of this. The Asia-Pacific shortage of refining capacity could lead to high regional refined product prices and health refining profit margins. (author)

  13. Microphysical structure of simulated marine stratocumulus: Effects of physical and numerical approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, B.; Cotton, W.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Feingold, G. [Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmospheric (CIRA), Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Over the past decade or so the evolution and equilibria of persistent decks of stratocumulus climatologically clinging to the edge of summertime subtropical highs have been an issue of increased scientific inquiry. The particular interest in the microphysical structure of these clouds stems from a variety of hypotheses which suggest that anthropogenic influences or biogenic feedbacks may alter the structure of these clouds in a climatically significant manner. Most of these hypotheses are quite tentative, based as they are on simple formulations of boundary layer structures and interactions between drops and aerosols. This work is concerned with an assessment of the microphysical structure of marine stratocumulus as simulated by an LES-EM model.

  14. The radiation budget of stratocumulus clouds measured by tethered balloon instrumentation: Variability of flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Stephens, Graeme L.; Cox, Stephen K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of longwave and shortwave radiation were made using an instrument package on the NASA tethered balloon during the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus experiment. Radiation data from two pairs of pyranometers were used to obtain vertical profiles of the near-infrared and total solar fluxes through the boundary layer, while a pair of pyrgeometers supplied measurements of the longwave fluxes in the cloud layer. The radiation observations were analyzed to determine heating rates and to measure the radiative energy budget inside the stratocumulus clouds during several tethered balloon flights. The radiation fields in the cloud layer were also simulated by a two-stream radiative transfer model, which used cloud optical properties derived from microphysical measurements and Mie scattering theory.

  15. Scaling analysis of cloud and rain water in marine stratocumulus and implications for scale-aware microphysical parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, M.; Morrison, H.; Jensen, J. B.; Bansemer, A.; Gettelman, A.

    2017-12-01

    The spatial covariance of cloud and rain water (or in simpler terms, small and large drops, respectively) is an important quantity for accurate prediction of the accretion rate in bulk microphysical parameterizations that account for subgrid variability using assumed probability density functions (pdfs). Past diagnoses of this covariance from remote sensing, in situ measurements and large eddy simulation output have implicitly assumed that the magnitude of the covariance is insensitive to grain size (i.e. horizontal resolution) and averaging length, but this is not the case because both cloud and rain water exhibit scale invariance across a wide range of scales - from tens of centimeters to tens of kilometers in the case of cloud water, a range that we will show is primarily limited by instrumentation and sampling issues. Since the individual variances systematically vary as a function of spatial scale, it should be expected that the covariance follows a similar relationship. In this study, we quantify the scaling properties of cloud and rain water content and their covariability from high frequency in situ aircraft measurements of marine stratocumulus taken over the southeastern Pacific Ocean aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 during the VOCALS-REx field experiment of October-November 2008. First we confirm that cloud and rain water scale in distinct manners, indicating that there is a statistically and potentially physically significant difference in the spatial structure of the two fields. Next, we demonstrate that the covariance is a strong function of spatial scale, which implies important caveats regarding the ability of limited-area models with domains smaller than a few tens of kilometers across to accurately reproduce the spatial organization of precipitation. Finally, we present preliminary work on the development of a scale-aware parameterization of cloud-rain water subgrid covariability based in multifractal analysis intended for application in large-scale model

  16. Slow Manifolds and Multiple Equilibria in Stratocumulus-Capped Boundary Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Uchida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In marine stratocumulus-capped boundary layers under strong inversions, the timescale for thermodynamic adjustment is roughly a day, much shorter than the multiday timescale for inversion height adjustment. Slow-manifold analysis is introduced to exploit this timescale separation when boundary layer air columns experience only slow changes in their boundary conditions. Its essence is that the thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer remains approximately slaved to its inversion height and the instantaneous boundary conditions; this slaved structure determines the entrainment rate and hence the slow evolution of the inversion height. Slow-manifold analysis is shown to apply to mixed-layer model and large-eddy simulations of an idealized nocturnal stratocumulus- capped boundary layer; simulations with different initial inversion heights collapse onto single relationships of cloud properties with inversion height. Depending on the initial inversion height, the simulations evolve toward a shallow thin-cloud boundary layer or a deep, well-mixed thick cloud boundary layer. In the large-eddy simulations, these evolutions occur on two separate slow manifolds (one of which becomes unstable if cloud droplet concentration is reduced. Applications to analysis of stratocumulus observations and to pockets of open cells and ship tracks are proposed.

  17. Analytic Closed-Form Solution of a Mixed Layer Model for Stratocumulus Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Bengu Ozge

    Stratocumulus clouds play an important role in climate cooling and are hard to predict using global climate and weather forecast models. Thus, previous studies in the literature use observations and numerical simulation tools, such as large-eddy simulation (LES), to solve the governing equations for the evolution of stratocumulus clouds. In contrast to the previous works, this work provides an analytic closed-form solution to the cloud thickness evolution of stratocumulus clouds in a mixed-layer model framework. With a focus on application over coastal lands, the diurnal cycle of cloud thickness and whether or not clouds dissipate are of particular interest. An analytic solution enables the sensitivity analysis of implicitly interdependent variables and extrema analysis of cloud variables that are hard to achieve using numerical solutions. In this work, the sensitivity of inversion height, cloud-base height, and cloud thickness with respect to initial and boundary conditions, such as Bowen ratio, subsidence, surface temperature, and initial inversion height, are studied. A critical initial cloud thickness value that can be dissipated pre- and post-sunrise is provided. Furthermore, an extrema analysis is provided to obtain the minima and maxima of the inversion height and cloud thickness within 24 h. The proposed solution is validated against LES results under the same initial and boundary conditions. Then, the proposed analytic framework is extended to incorporate multiple vertical columns that are coupled by advection through wind flow. This enables a bridge between the micro-scale and the mesoscale relations. The effect of advection on cloud evolution is studied and a sensitivity analysis is provided.

  18. Impacts of solar-absorbing aerosol layers on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an initially overlying layer of solar-absorbing aerosol on the transition of stratocumulus to trade cumulus clouds are examined using large-eddy simulations. For lightly drizzling cloud the transition is generally hastened, resulting mainly from increased cloud droplet number concentration (Nc induced by entrained aerosol. The increased Nc slows sedimentation of cloud droplets and shortens their relaxation time for diffusional growth, both of which accelerate entrainment of overlying air and thereby stratocumulus breakup. However, the decrease in albedo from cloud breakup is more than offset by redistributing cloud water over a greater number of droplets, such that the diurnal-average shortwave forcing at the top of the atmosphere is negative. The negative radiative forcing is enhanced by sizable longwave contributions, which result from the greater cloud breakup and a reduced boundary layer height associated with aerosol heating. A perturbation of moisture instead of aerosol aloft leads to a greater liquid water path and a more gradual transition. Adding absorbing aerosol to that atmosphere results in substantial reductions in liquid water path (LWP and cloud cover that lead to positive shortwave and negative longwave forcings on average canceling each other. Only for heavily drizzling clouds is the breakup delayed, as inhibition of precipitation overcomes cloud water loss from enhanced entrainment. Considering these simulations as an imperfect proxy for biomass burning plumes influencing Namibian stratocumulus, we expect regional indirect plus semi-direct forcings to be substantially negative to negligible at the top of the atmosphere, with its magnitude sensitive to background and perturbation properties.

  19. Modified ultrafast thermometer UFT-M and temperature measurements during Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kumala

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A modified UFT-M version of the ultrafast airborne thermometer UFT, aimed at in-cloud temperature measurements, was designed for the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST field campaign. Improvements in its construction resulted in the sensor's increased reliability, which provided valuable measurements in 15 of the 17 flights. Oversampling the data allowed for the effective correction of the artefacts resulting from the interference with electromagnetic transmissions from on-board avionic systems and the thermal noise resulting from the sensor construction. The UFT-M records, when averaged to the 1.4 and 55 m resolutions, compared to the similar records of a thermometer in a Rosemount housing, indicate that the housing distorts even low-resolution airborne temperature measurements. Data collected with the UFT-M during the course of POST characterise the thermal structure of stratocumulus and capping inversion with the maximum resolution of ~1 cm. In this paper, examples of UFT-M records are presented and discussed.

  20. A mixed-layer model study of the stratocumulus response to changes in large-scale conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Roode, S.R.; Siebesma, A.P.; Dal Gesso, S.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Schalkwijk, J.; Sival, J.

    2014-01-01

    A mixed-layer model is used to study the response of stratocumulus equilibrium state solutions to perturbations of cloud controlling factors which include the sea surface temperature, the specific humidity and temperature in the free troposphere, as well as the large-scale divergence and horizontal

  1. A single-column model intercomparison on the stratocumulus representation in present-day and future climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dal Gesso, S.; Van der Dussen, J.J.; Siebesma, A.P.; De Roode, S.R.; Boutle, I.A.; Kamae, Y.; Roehrig, R.; Vial, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six Single-Column Model (SCM) versions of climate models are evaluated on the basis of their representation of the dependence of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer regime on the free tropospheric thermodynamic conditions. The study includes two idealized experiments corresponding to the

  2. Southeast Asia Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    Partial Contents: Southeast Asia, Exchange Dealer, Budget Review, Declared Nonactive, Candidacy, Finance Minister, Economic Policy, Exchange Rate, Farm, Defense Ministers, Labor Party,Local Car Manufacturer...

  3. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2011. 540pp. (DS35.2 .M65 2011) Myers, Stephen C. Military Cooperation Frameworks: Effective Models to Address... Undesirable Multilateral Security Order?" Pacific Review 24, no. 2 (May 2011): 137-158. Taylor & Francis "The Quality of Democracy in Asia Pacific...2009): 205-219. Sage Turner, Mark, Sonam Chuki, and Jit Tshering. "Democratization by Decree: The Case of Bhutan." Democratization 18, no. 1 (February

  4. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Sloat; Gordon H. Reeves; Kelly R. Christiansen

    2016-01-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural...

  5. Marine Stratocumulus Properties from the FPDR - PDI as a Function of Aerosol during ORACLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small Griswold, J. D.; Heikkila, A.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions in the southeastern Atlantic (SEA) region were investigated during year 1 of the ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field project in Aug-Sept 2016. This region is of interest due to seasonally persistent marine stratocumulus cloud decks that are an important component of the climate system due to their radiative and hydrologic impacts. The SEA deck is unique due to the interactions between these clouds and transported biomass burning aerosol during the July-October fire season. These biomass burning aerosol play multiple roles in modifying the cloud deck through interactions with radiation as absorbing aerosol and through modifications to cloud microphysical properties as cloud condensation nuclei. This work uses in situcloud data obtained with a Flight Probe Dual Range - Phase Doppler Interferometer (FPDR - PDI), standard aerosol instrumentation on board the NASA P-3, and reanalysis data to investigate Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (ACI). The FPDR - PDI provides unique cloud microphysical observations of individual cloud drop arrivals allowing for the computation of a variety of microphysical cloud properties including individual drop size, cloud drop number concentration, cloud drop size distributions, liquid water content, and cloud thickness. The FPDR - PDI measurement technique also provides droplet spacing and drop velocity information which is used to investigate turbulence and entrainment mixing processes. We use aerosol information such as average background aerosol amount (low, mid, high) and location relative to cloud (above or mixing) to sort FPDR - PDI cloud properties. To control for meteorological co-variances we further sort the data within aerosol categories by lower tropospheric stability, vertical velocity, and surface wind direction. We then determine general marine stratocumulus cloud characteristics under each of the various aerosol categories to investigate ACI in the SEA.

  6. Pacific Telecommunications Council Annual Conference Proceedings (22nd, Honolulu, Hawaii, January 31-February 2, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacific Telecommunications Council, Honolulu, HI.

    This proceedings of the 2000 conference of the Pacific Telecommunications Council contains papers and summaries of sessions in the following areas: (1) socio/economic, including regional studies of China, the South Pacific, Southeast Asian, Latin America, Oceania, Korea, India, and the Asia-Pacific telecommunications market; (2) applications,…

  7. Mid-late Holocene changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation and Hadley Cell intensity; their effect on sea-surface conditions in the mid-latitude southeast Pacific Ocean (41°S)

    OpenAIRE

    Verleye, T.

    2010-01-01

    The study focuses on the observed effects of changes in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Hadley Cell intensity on sea-surface water conditions in the SE Pacific (41°S; Site ODP1233) during the last 8.000 years. Recent studies suggest that periods characterised by a negative Southern Oscillation Index (SOI; El Niño) cause positive precipitation anomalies during austral winter (and annually) in Mid-South Chile, while austral summer periods are rather drier. This because El Niño weake...

  8. Effects of stratocumulus, cumulus, and cirrus clouds on the UV-B diffuse to global ratio: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López, María Laura; Palancar, Gustavo G.; Toselli, Beatriz M.

    2012-01-01

    Broadband measurements of global and diffuse UV-B irradiance (280-315 nm) together with modeled and measured diffuse to global ratios (DGR) have been used to characterize the influence of different types of clouds on irradiance at the surface. Measurements were carried out during 2000-2001 in Córdoba City, Argentina. The Tropospheric Ultraviolet Visible (TUV) model was used to analyze the behavior of the modeled DGRs for different cloud optical depths and at different altitudes and solar zenith angles (SZA). Different cloud altitudes were also tested, although only the results for a cloud placed at 1.5-2.5 km of altitude are shown. A total of 16 day with stratocumulus, 12 with cumulus, and 16 with cirrus have been studied and compared among them and also against 21 clear sky days. Different behaviors were clearly detected and also differentiated through the analysis of the averages and the standard deviations of the DGRs: 1.02±0.06 for stratocumulus, 0.74±0.18 for cumulus, 0.63±0.12 for cirrus, and 0.60±0.13 for the clear sky days, respectively. Stratocumulus clouds showed a low variability in the DGR values, which were concentrated close to one at all SZAs. DGR values for cumulus clouds presented a large variability at all SZAs, mostly associated with the different optical depths. Finally, the closeness between the DGR values for cirrus clouds and the DGR values for clear days showed that these clouds generally do not strongly affect the UV-B irradiance at the surface at any SZA. In the opposite side, stratocumulus clouds were identified as those with the largest effects, at all SZAs, on the UV-B irradiance at the surface.

  9. Southeast Asia activity on the rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khin, J.A.; Johnston, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region has gained favor in the increasingly competitive global market for drilling funds and technology. The level of activity in the region contrasts to the U.S., where political, fiscal, and geological conditions have caused an industry-wide depression. Consolidation and restructuring of the oil industry have also affected the Asia-Pacific area, but not as adversely as North America. The shifting focus of most U.S. oil companies to the international sector has increased attention on Southeast Asia. The number of production-sharing contracts and exploration licenses in the region has increased to almost 800, covering an area of 7 million sq km

  10. Phytomass in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert R. Mead

    1998-01-01

    Phytomass tables are presented for the southeast Alaska archipelago. Average phytomass for each sampled species of tree, shrub, grass, forb, lichen, and moss in 10 forest and 4 nonforest vegetation types is shown.

  11. On the relevance of droplet sedimentation in stratocumulus-top mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, Juan Pedro; de Lozar, Alberto

    2017-11-01

    The interaction between droplet sedimentation, turbulent mixing, evaporative cooling, and radiative cooling at the top of stratocumulus clouds has been studied using direct numerical simulations. This interaction is important to determine the mixing rate of the cloud and dry air above it, which eventually determines the cloud lifetime. By investigating the entrainment-rate equation, which is an analytical relationship between the contributions to cloud-top entrainment from the phenomena indicated above, we have found that the reduction of entrainment velocity by droplet sedimentation can be 2 to 3 times larger than previously conjectured. The reason is twofold. First, the reduction of evaporative cooling as droplets fall out of the inversion is stronger than previously observed in large-eddy simulations, where excessive mixing by turbulence models and numerical artifacts may have partially masked this effect of sedimentation on entrainment. Second, there is a non-negligible direct contribution from mass loading, as falling droplets leave behind more buoyant air in the inversion. This contribution is proportional to the fifth moment of the droplet-size distribution, which provides further evidence for the need to better understand the evolution of the droplet-size distribution.

  12. Characteristics of vertical velocity in marine stratocumulus: comparison of large eddy simulations with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huan; Liu Yangang; Daum, Peter H; Senum, Gunnar I; Tao, W-K

    2008-01-01

    We simulated a marine stratus deck sampled during the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) with a three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) model at different model resolutions. Various characteristics of the vertical velocity from the model simulations were evaluated against those derived from the corresponding aircraft in situ observations, focusing on standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, probability density function (PDF), power spectrum, and structure function. Our results show that although the LES model captures reasonably well the lower-order moments (e.g., horizontal averages and standard deviations), it fails to simulate many aspects of the higher-order moments, such as kurtosis, especially near cloud base and cloud top. Further investigations of the PDFs, power spectra, and structure functions reveal that compared to the observations, the model generally underestimates relatively strong variations on small scales. The results also suggest that increasing the model resolutions improves the agreements between the model results and the observations in virtually all of the properties that we examined. Furthermore, the results indicate that a vertical grid size <10 m is necessary for accurately simulating even the standard-deviation profile, posing new challenges to computer resources.

  13. Ozone budgets from the Dynamics and Chemistry of Marine Stratocumulus experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Pearson, R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements from the Dynamics and Chemistry of marine Stratocumulus experiment have been used to study components of the regional ozone budget. The surface destruction rate is determined by eddy correlation of ozone and vertical velocity measured by a low-flying aircraft. Significant variability is found in the measured surface resistance; it is partially correlated with friction velocity but appears to have other controlling influences as well. The mean resistance is 4190 s/m which is higher (slower destruction) than most previous estimates for seawater. Flux and mean measurements throughout the marine boundary layer are used to estimate the net rate of in situ photochemical production/destruction of ozone. Averaged over the flights, ozone concentration is found to be near steady state, and a net of photochemical destruction of 0.02-0.07 ng/cu m per sec is diagnosed. This is an important confirmation of photochemical model results for the remote marine boundary layer. Ozone vertical distributions above the boundary layer show a strongly layered structure with very sharp gradients. These distributions are possibly related to the stratospheric ozone source.

  14. Oil refining and product marketing developments in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    It is estimated that the high growth rate in oil demand in the Asia-Pacific region (excluding Japan) will slow down slightly but still outperform the rest of the world during 1990-2000. This is expected to be true for southeast Asia as well, or more specifically the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The region's dependence on oil imports from the Middle East will continue for the foreseeable future. Asia-Pacific crude oil production is expected to grow to 6.8 million bbl/d by 1995 and to 7.3 million bbl/d by 2000, meaning that the region will import nearly 50% of its crude oil requirements at both 1995 and 2000. The participation of ASEAN in the production of indigenous crudes in the Asia-Pacific region will increase from 31% in the mid-1980s to 41% by 2000. The Asia-Pacific imbalance between refinery output or supplies and demand patterns will be accentuated during the decade, providing significant opportunities for investments and/or product trading. The region will require upgrading facilities to generate an additional 3.7 million bbl/d of light products in 1995. In the ASEAN countries, surpluses in refined products are expected for 1995. Environmental concerns are following similar trends in the Asia-Pacific region as in the rest of the world, and the proportion of high aromatics gasolines produced will increase as the proportion of leaded gasoline decreases. 6 tabs

  15. Securing Sub-Saharan Africa’s Maritime Environment: Lessons Learned from the Caribbean and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Worst of Times: Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific eds. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara Raymond (Singapore: Institute of Defense and Strategic Studies...Security Outlook for Southeast Asia,” in The Best of Times, the Worst of Times: Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific eds. Joshua Ho and Catherine Zara

  16. Teaching Modern Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Williamson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching about Southeast Asia to undergraduates at an American liberal arts college presents several challenges. At my institution, it is the only course on the region in the curriculum; thus no preparation, and no follow-up. I have therefore struggled with the approach that I should take–pulled between a wish for students to gain an empirical understanding of Southeast Asian life, and a desire to have them learn the concepts and theories of critical inquiry. Obviously I am still learning how to successfully accomplish such an ambitious undertaking.

  17. Southeast Atlantic Cloud Properties in a Multivariate Statistical Model - How Relevant is Air Mass History for Local Cloud Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at untangling the impacts of external dynamics and local conditions on cloud properties in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) by combining satellite and reanalysis data using multivariate statistics. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget, and thus prominent in climate-system research. In this study, SEA stratocumulus cloud properties are observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as affected by external dynamics and spatial origins of air masses entering the study area. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a multivariate approach is conducted using satellite observations of aerosol and cloud properties (MODIS, SEVIRI), information on aerosol species composition (MACC) and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis). To account for the often-neglected but important role of air mass origin, information on air mass history based on HYSPLIT modeling is included in the statistical model. This multivariate approach is intended to lead to a better understanding of the physical processes behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA.

  18. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasmy Bin Agam

    1992-01-01

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  19. Effect of biomass burning on marine stratocumulus clouds off the California coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-Y. Hsie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol-cloud interactions are considered to be one of the most important and least known forcings in the climate system. Biomass burning aerosols are of special interest due to their radiative impact (direct and indirect effect and their potential to increase in the future due to climate change. Combining data from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS with passive tracers from the FLEXPART Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model, the impact of biomass burning aerosols on marine stratocumulus clouds has been examined in June and July of 2006–2008 off the California coast. Using a continental tracer, the indirect effect of biomass burning aerosols has been isolated by comparing the average cloud fraction and cloud albedo for different meteorological situations, and for clean versus polluted (in terms of biomass burning continental air masses at 14:00 local time. Within a 500 km-wide band along the coast of California, biomass burning aerosols, which tend to reside above the marine boundary layer, increased the cloud fraction by 0.143, and the cloud albedo by 0.038. Absorbing aerosols located above the marine boundary layer lead to an increase of the lower tropospheric stability and a reduction in the vertical entrainment of dry air from above, leading to increased cloud formation. The combined effect was an indirect radiative forcing of −7.5% ±1.7% (cooling effect of the outgoing radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere on average, with a bias due to meteorology of +0.9%. Further away from the coast, the biomass burning aerosols, which were located within the boundary layer, reduced the cloud fraction by 0.023 and the cloud albedo by 0.006, resulting in an indirect radiative forcing of +1.3% ±0.3% (warming effect with a bias of +0.5%. These results underscore the dual role that absorbing aerosols play in cloud radiative forcing.

  20. Performance Theory: Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Michael, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the contemporary theatre in Southeast Asia, this journal issue sheds light on the intercultural relationships that exist between that part of the world and the Western world. In addition to a transcript of a Balinese "topeng" (storytelling) performance, the journal contains eight articles that provide information on the…

  1. Why the South Pacific Convergence Zone is diagonal

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Wiel, Karin; Matthews, Adrian; Joshi, Manoj; Stevens, David

    2016-01-01

    During austral summer, the majority of precipitation over the Pacific Ocean is concentrated in the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The surface boundary conditions required to support the diagonally (northwest-southeast) oriented SPCZ are determined through a series of experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model. Continental configuration and orography do not have a significant influence on SPCZ orientation and strength. The key necessary boundary condition is the zonally ...

  2. An LES model study of the influence of the free tropospheric thermodynamic conditions on the stratocumulus response to a climate perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Dussen, J.J.; De Roode, S.R.; Dal Gesso, S.; Siebesma, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-five large-eddy simulations are performed to study how free tropospheric thermodynamic conditions control equilibrium state solutions of stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layers. In particular, we systematically vary the lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and a similar measure for the bulk

  3. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-14

    apparently to save ammunition, according to the BPP report . The attacks came after a battalion of Burmese troops had arrived at the border areas to...Manuel Pangilinan says. 17 It will be divided into five " strategic business units" (or SBU’s): commercial banking, which will include Hibernia and...065082 JPRS-SEA-84-173 14 December 1 984 Southeast Asia Report Reproduced From Best Available Copy 20000107 100 IIXTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 9

  4. Relating large-scale subsidence to convection development in Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gillian; Connolly, Paul J.; Dearden, Christopher; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale subsidence, associated with high-pressure systems, is often imposed in large-eddy simulation (LES) models to maintain the height of boundary layer (BL) clouds. Previous studies have considered the influence of subsidence on warm liquid clouds in subtropical regions; however, the relationship between subsidence and mixed-phase cloud microphysics has not specifically been studied. For the first time, we investigate how widespread subsidence associated with synoptic-scale meteorological features can affect the microphysics of Arctic mixed-phase marine stratocumulus (Sc) clouds. Modelled with LES, four idealised scenarios - a stable Sc, varied droplet (Ndrop) or ice (Nice) number concentrations, and a warming surface (representing motion southwards) - were subjected to different levels of subsidence to investigate the cloud microphysical response. We find strong sensitivities to large-scale subsidence, indicating that high-pressure systems in the ocean-exposed Arctic regions have the potential to generate turbulence and changes in cloud microphysics in any resident BL mixed-phase clouds.Increased cloud convection is modelled with increased subsidence, driven by longwave radiative cooling at cloud top and rain evaporative cooling and latent heating from snow growth below cloud. Subsidence strengthens the BL temperature inversion, thus reducing entrainment and allowing the liquid- and ice-water paths (LWPs, IWPs) to increase. Through increased cloud-top radiative cooling and subsequent convective overturning, precipitation production is enhanced: rain particle number concentrations (Nrain), in-cloud rain mass production rates, and below-cloud evaporation rates increase with increased subsidence.Ice number concentrations (Nice) play an important role, as greater concentrations suppress the liquid phase; therefore, Nice acts to mediate the strength of turbulent overturning promoted by increased subsidence. With a warming surface, a lack of - or low - subsidence

  5. Army Aviation Operations in the Pacific Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    security globally, we will of necessity rebalance toward the Asia-Pacific region. Our relationships with Asian allies and key partners are critical...Freedom was embarking upon an eight-month deployment to that Southeast Asian nation and making good on then-Secretary Gates’ commitment from 2011...number of armed vehicles, displaying the flexibility of helicopter operations in this particular theatre .36 A total of 22 Apache missions (49 combat

  6. On the Influence of Air Mass Origin on Low-Cloud Properties in the Southeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Julia; Cermak, Jan; Andersen, Hendrik; Hollmann, Rainer; Schwarz, Katharina

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the impact of air mass origin and dynamics on cloud property changes in the Southeast Atlantic (SEA) during the biomass burning season. The understanding of clouds and their determinants at different scales is important for constraining the Earth's radiative budget and thus prominent in climate system research. In this study, the thermodynamically stable SEA stratocumulus cover is observed not only as the result of local environmental conditions but also as connected to large-scale meteorology by the often neglected but important role of spatial origins of air masses entering this region. In order to assess to what extent cloud properties are impacted by aerosol concentration, air mass history, and meteorology, a Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory cluster analysis is conducted linking satellite observations of cloud properties (Spinning-Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager), information on aerosol species (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate), and meteorological context (ERA-Interim reanalysis) to air mass clusters. It is found that a characteristic pattern of air mass origins connected to distinct synoptical conditions leads to marked cloud property changes in the southern part of the study area. Long-distance air masses are related to midlatitude weather disturbances that affect the cloud microphysics, especially in the southwestern subdomain of the study area. Changes in cloud effective radius are consistent with a boundary layer deepening and changes in lower tropospheric stability (LTS). In the southeastern subdomain cloud cover is controlled by a generally higher LTS, while air mass origin plays a minor role. This study leads to a better understanding of the dynamical drivers behind observed stratocumulus cloud properties in the SEA and frames potentially interesting conditions for aerosol-cloud interactions.

  7. What causes southeast Australia's worst droughts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; England, Matthew H.; McIntosh, Peter C.; Meyers, Gary A.; Pook, Michael J.; Risbey, James S.; Gupta, Alexander Sen; Taschetto, Andréa S.

    2009-02-01

    Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called ``Big Dry''. The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show here that the ``Big Dry'' and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of Indian Ocean temperature conditions conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the ``Big Dry'', its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent higher temperatures.

  8. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Contrasting coastal and shelf nursery habitats of Pacific cod in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study examining the use of demersal and pelagic habitats in the southeast Bering Sea by age-0 Pacific cod, based on 4 years of demersal trawl...

  9. Tropical South-East Atlantic response to ENSO as an ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cases were selected based on indices of Pacific sea surface temperature and South-East African rainfall. ... an El Niño event, and higher sardine Sardinops sagax catches tend to follow a La Niña event, through the northward and southward shift respectively of the South Atlantic anticyclone and attendant coastal upwelling.

  10. LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD--INDO-PACIFIC FASCICLE EIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VOEGELIN, C. F.; VOEGELIN, FLORENCE M.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES SOME OF THE LANGUAGES AND LANGUAGE FAMILIES OF THE SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA REGIONS OF THE INDO-PACIFIC AREA. THE LANGUAGE FAMILIES DISCUSSED WERE JAKUM, SAKAI, SEMANG, PALAUNG-WA (SALWEEN), MUNDA, AND DRAVIDIAN. OTHER LANGUAGES DISCUSSED WERE ANDAMANESE, NICOBARESE, KHASI, NAHALI, AND BURUSHASKI. (THE REPORT IS PART OF A…

  11. Southeast Asia Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-04

    Farmers Shun Coop Movement"] [Text] Manila--(DEPTHnews)—The cooperative movement being pushed by the government in the agricultural sector is... cooperative movement in the agricultural sector of North Luzon. An expert detailed with the Mountain State Agricultural College based in La Trinidad, Benguet...efforts to equip the agricultural sector with an effective and efficient cooperative movement started as early as after the Pacific War in the middle

  12. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, A.S. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B. [NOAA Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States); Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  13. Validation of Satellite Derived Cloud Properties Over the Southeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, J.; Minnis, P.; Zuidema, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Palikonda, R.; Nguyen, L.; Fairall, C.

    2005-12-01

    Satellite measurements of cloud properties and the radiation budget are essential for understanding meso- and large-scale processes that determine the variability in climate over the southeastern Pacific. Of particular interest in this region is the prevalent stratocumulus cloud deck. The stratocumulus albedos are directly related to cloud microphysical properties that need to be accurately characterized in Global Climate Models (GCMs) to properly estimate the Earth's radiation budget. Meteorological observations in this region are sparse causing large uncertainties in initialized model fields. Remote sensing from satellites can provide a wealth of information about the clouds in this region, but it is vital to validate the remotely sensed parameters and to understand their relationship to other parameters that are not directly observed by the satellites. The variety of measurements from the R/V Roger Revelle during the 2003 STRATUS cruise and from the R/V Ron Brown during EPIC 2001 and the 2004 STRATUS cruises are suitable for validating and improving the interpretation of the satellite derived cloud properties. In this study, satellite-derived cloud properties including coverage, height, optical depth, and liquid water path are compared with in situ measurements taken during the EPIC and STRATUS cruises. The remotely sensed values are derived from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellites, and from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The products from this study will include regional monthly cloud climatologies derived from the GOES data for the 2003 and 2004 cruises as well as micro and macro physical cloud property retrievals centered over the ship tracks from MODIS and VIRS.

  14. Southeast Asia and U.S. Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byers, Michael; Clark, Jr., R. W; Sporn, James

    1996-01-01

    The Southeast Asia region consists of the following countries Brunei, Burma Cambodia Indonesia Laos, Malaysia Philippines, Singapore Thailand and Vietnam For the purpose of this paper, Southeast Asia...

  15. A nuclear free southeast Asia - the China factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that the principal nuclear threat to Southeast Asia comes from nuclear weapons stored by the two superpowers in their respective bases and their targeting of each other's bases. Calls for the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in Southeast Asia (SEANFZ) poses a number of problems to China because of the perceived negative impact of such zones on Chinese security interests, force deployment and strategic doctrine. Hence, it is argued that China is unlikely to support a nuclear free zone treaty which only embraces the Asean states because it would lead to unilateral disarmament on the part of pro-western countries while leaving Indochinese states and the Soviet Union. However, if the proposed SEANFZ treaty resembles the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone treaty, which allow the transit of nuclear-armed vessels, China could be expected to support it. ills

  16. Simulation of Optical Properties and Direct and Indirect Radiative Effects of Smoke Aerosols Over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds During Summer 2008 in California With the Regional Climate Model RegCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Solmon, F.; Roblou, L.; Peers, F.; Turquety, S.; Waquet, F.; Jethva, H.; Torres, O.

    2017-10-01

    The regional climate model RegCM has been modified to better account for the climatic effects of biomass-burning particles. Smoke aerosols are represented by new tracers with consistent radiative and hygroscopic properties to simulate the direct radiative forcing (DRF), and a new parameterization has been integrated for relating the droplet number concentration to the aerosol concentration for marine stratocumulus clouds (Sc). RegCM has been tested during the summer of 2008 over California, when extreme concentration of smoke, together with the presence of Sc, is observed. This work indicates that significant aerosol optical depth (AOD) ( 1-2 at 550 nm) is related to the intense 2008 fires. Compared to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, the regional pattern of RegCM AOD is well represented although the magnitude is lower than satellite observations. Comparisons with Polarization and Directionality of Earth Reflectances (POLDER) above-clouds aerosol optical depth (ACAOD) show the ability of RegCM to simulate realistic ACAOD during the transport of smoke above the Pacific Ocean. The simulated single scattering albedo is 0.90 (at 550 nm) near biomass-burning sources, consistent with OMI and POLDER, and smoke leads to shortwave heating rates 1.5-2°K d-1. RegCM is not able to correctly resolve the daily patterns in cloud properties notably due to its coarse horizontal resolutions. However, the changes in the sign of the DRF at top of atmosphere (TOA) (negative to positive) from clear-sky to all-sky conditions is well simulated. Finally, the "aerosol-cloud" parameterization allows simulating an increase of the cloud optical depth for significant concentrations, leading to large perturbations of radiative fluxes at TOA.

  17. Mexico's commercial relations with asiatic southeast: agreements and social agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Carlos Zottele Allende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican state built a complex and thorough system of agreements with the countries that integrate the Pacific Basin. Despite this effort, there is an important and increasing deficit in commercial exchange with the Asian Southeast Nations. The global balance trade compensates this inequity with the sur-plus set up with the United States of America. There are a lot of aspects that contribute to the explanation of these phenomena, but here it will be take into consideration just the important matters, in order to explain why the Mexican exports have the "natural" tendency to satisfy some UsA demands, which is still the mayor world importer.

  18. Optical and Microphysical Retrievals of Marine Stratocumulus Clouds off the Coast of Namibia from Satellite and Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Though the emphasis of the Southern Africa Regional Science Initiative 2000 (SAFARI-2000) dry season campaign was largely on emission sources and transport, the assemblage of aircraft (including the high altitude NASA ER-2 remote sensing platform and the University of Washington CV-580, UK MRF C-130, and South African Weather Bureau JRA in situ aircrafts) provided a unique opportunity for cloud studies. Therefore, as part of the SAFARI initiative, investigations were undertaken to assess regional aerosol-cloud interactions and cloud remote sensing algorithms. In particular, the latter part of the experiment concentrated on marine boundary layer stratocumulus clouds off the southwest coast of Africa. Associated with cold water upwelling along the Benguela current, the Namibian stratocumulus regime has received limited attention but appears to be unique for several reasons. During the dry season, outflow of continental fires and industrial pollution over this area can be extreme. From below, upwelling provides a rich nutrient source for phytoplankton (a source of atmospheric sulfur through DMS production as well as from decay processes). The impact of these natural and anthropogenic sources on the microphysical and optical properties of the stratocumulus is unknown. Continental and Indian Ocean cloud systems of opportunity were also studied during the campaign. SAFARI 2000 aircraft flights off the coast of Namibia were coordinated with NASA Terra Satellite overpasses for synergy with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and other Terra instruments. MODIS was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 (and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002). Among the remote sensing algorithms developed and applied to this sensor are cloud optical and microphysical properties that include cloud thermodynamic phase, optical thickness, and effective particle radius of both liquid water and ice clouds. The archived products from

  19. Asia-Pacific lube oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the Asia-Pacific (AP) lubricating oils market, its special characteristics, and its role in the global economy are presented. In the 'boom and bust' years of 1997-1999, the Asia-Pacific market was even bigger then the US market. For the short-term, the scenario is surplus capacity and poor margins, but in the long term there is enormous potential for growth. How fuel demand and quality is related to engine type is discussed. The three basic grades of baseoils are described, and the Asia-Pacific lube demand and the Asia-Pacific lube oil supply are discussed. There are 15 diagrams giving data on: (i) finished lubes in world markets as a percentage of total; (ii) how lube demand follows GDP per capita in Asia; (iii) AP baseoil capacity relationships; (iv) AP baseoil disposition by end use; (v) AP changing shares of baseoil demand; (vi) AP finished lube demand by subregion; (vii) AP finished lube demand growth, indexed; (viii) AP baseoil capacity by region; Singapore baseoil vs. Dubai crude prices, 1992-99; (ix) Singapore baseoil vs. crude prices, 1992-99; (x) AP baseoil deficit moved to surplus; (xi) AP baseoil production; (xii) East Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999. (xiii) Southeast Asia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999; (xiv) South East Asia and Australia net percentage change in lube sales, 1997-1999 and (xv) Asia-Pacific major lube marketers

  20. Moisture and dynamical interactions maintaining decoupled Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in the presence of a humidity inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Solomon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations suggest that processes maintaining subtropical and Arctic stratocumulus differ, due to the different environments in which they occur. For example, specific humidity inversions (specific humidity increasing with height are frequently observed to occur near cloud top coincident with temperature inversions in the Arctic, while they do not occur in the subtropics. In this study we use nested LES simulations of decoupled Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus (AMPS clouds observed during the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Indirect and SemiDirect Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC to analyze budgets of water components, potential temperature, and turbulent kinetic energy. These analyses quantify the processes that maintain decoupled AMPS, including the role of humidity inversions. Key structural features include a shallow upper entrainment zone at cloud top that is located within the temperature and humidity inversions, a mixed layer driven by cloud-top cooling that extends from the base of the upper entrainment zone to below cloud base, and a lower entrainment zone at the base of the mixed layer. The surface layer below the lower entrainment zone is decoupled from the cloud mixed-layer system. Budget results show that cloud liquid water is maintained in the upper entrainment zone near cloud top (within a temperature and humidity inversion due to a down gradient transport of water vapor by turbulent fluxes into the cloud layer from above and direct condensation forced by radiative cooling. Liquid water is generated in the updraft portions of the mixed-layer eddies below cloud top by buoyant destabilization. These processes cause at least 20% of the cloud liquid water to extend into the inversion. The redistribution of water vapor from the top of the humidity inversion to its base maintains the cloud layer, while the mixed layer-entrainment zone system is continually losing total water. In this decoupled system, the humidity inversion is

  1. A multi-year data set on aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology interactions for marine stratocumulus clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorooshian, Armin; MacDonald, Alexander B; Dadashazar, Hossein; Bates, Kelvin H; Coggon, Matthew M; Craven, Jill S; Crosbie, Ewan; Hersey, Scott P; Hodas, Natasha; Lin, Jack J; Negrón Marty, Arnaldo; Maudlin, Lindsay C; Metcalf, Andrew R; Murphy, Shane M; Padró, Luz T; Prabhakar, Gouri; Rissman, Tracey A; Shingler, Taylor; Varutbangkul, Varuntida; Wang, Zhen; Woods, Roy K; Chuang, Patrick Y; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2018-02-27

    Airborne measurements of meteorological, aerosol, and stratocumulus cloud properties have been harmonized from six field campaigns during July-August months between 2005 and 2016 off the California coast. A consistent set of core instruments was deployed on the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies Twin Otter for 113 flight days, amounting to 514 flight hours. A unique aspect of the compiled data set is detailed measurements of aerosol microphysical properties (size distribution, composition, bioaerosol detection, hygroscopicity, optical), cloud water composition, and different sampling inlets to distinguish between clear air aerosol, interstitial in-cloud aerosol, and droplet residual particles in cloud. Measurements and data analysis follow documented methods for quality assurance. The data set is suitable for studies associated with aerosol-cloud-precipitation-meteorology-radiation interactions, especially owing to sharp aerosol perturbations from ship traffic and biomass burning. The data set can be used for model initialization and synergistic application with meteorological models and remote sensing data to improve understanding of the very interactions that comprise the largest uncertainty in the effect of anthropogenic emissions on radiative forcing.

  2. Interactions between biomass-burning aerosols and clouds over Southeast Asia: current status, challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Neng-Huei; Sayer, Andrew M; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Loftus, Adrian M; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Sheu, Guey-Rong; Hsu, N Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Chantara, Somporn

    2014-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols, clouds, and precipitation remain among the largest sources of uncertainty in the Earth's energy budget. Biomass-burning aerosols are a key feature of the global aerosol system, with significant annually-repeating fires in several parts of the world, including Southeast Asia (SEA). SEA in particular provides a "natural laboratory" for these studies, as smoke travels from source regions downwind in which it is coupled to persistent stratocumulus decks. However, SEA has been under-exploited for these studies. This review summarizes previous related field campaigns in SEA, with a focus on the ongoing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) and results from the most recent BASELInE deployment. Progress from remote sensing and modeling studies, along with the challenges faced for these studies, are also discussed. We suggest that improvements to our knowledge of these aerosol/cloud effects require the synergistic use of field measurements with remote sensing and modeling tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the Elevated Water Vapor Signal Associated with Biomass Burning Aerosol over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Redemann, Jens; Wood, Rob; Zuidema, Paquita; Flynn, Connor; LeBlanc, Samuel; Noone, David; Podolske, James; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shinozuka, Yohei; hide

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of radiative forcing due to the cumulative effects of aerosols, both directly and on cloud properties, remains the biggest source of uncertainty in our understanding of the physical climate. How the magnitude of these effects may be modified by meteorological conditions is an important aspect of this question. The Southeast Atlantic Ocean (SEA), with seasonal biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes overlying a persistent stratocumulus cloud deck, offers a perfect natural observatory in which to study the complexities of aerosol-cloud interactions. The NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign consists of three field deployments over three years (2016-2018) with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the complex processes (direct and indirect) by which BB aerosols affect clouds. We present results from the first ORACLES field deployment, which took place in September 2016 out of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Two NASA aircraft were flown with a suite of aerosol, cloud, radiation, and meteorological instruments for remote-sensing and in-situ observations. A strong correlation was observed between the aircraft-measured pollution indicators (carbon monoxide and aerosol properties) and atmospheric water vapor content, at all altitudes. Atmospheric reanalysis indicates that convective dynamics over the continent, near likely contribute to this elevated signal. Understanding the mechanisms by which water vapor covaries with plume strength is important to quantifying the magnitude of the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects in the region.

  4. Alternatives to clearcutting in the old-growth forests of southeast Alaska: study plan and establishment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H. McClellan; Douglas N. Swanston; Paul E. Hennon; Robert L. Deal; Toni L. de Santo; Mark S. Wipfli

    2000-01-01

    Much is known about the ecological effects, economics, and social impacts of clearcutting, but little documented experience with other silvicultural systems exists in southeast Alaska. The Pacific Northwest Research Station and the Alaska Region of the USDA Forest Service have cooperatively established an interdisciplinary study of ecosystem and social responses to...

  5. The Impact of Social Capital on the Access, Adjustment, and Success of Southeast Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.

    2015-01-01

    Given that Southeast Asian American (SEAA) students are severely underrepresented in higher education and less likely to persistence to graduation compared to other ethnic groups in the Asian American Pacific Islander (AAPI) community, this study explored critical factors to their college success. Indeed, several themes emerged from this national…

  6. China's Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf......Review of: China’s Economic Engagement with Southeast Asia: Indonesia / by John Lee. Trends in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2013. Pp. 40. Paperback: $9.90/S$12.90. PDF available: http://www.iseas.edu.sg/documents/publication/Trends_2013-3.pdf...

  7. 78 FR 41033 - Fisheries of the Northeast Region, Southeast Region, North Pacific Region, Pacific Region...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of a determination of overfishing or an overfished condition. SUMMARY: This... that the following stocks are subject to overfishing or are in an overfished state: Georges Bank (GB) yellowtail flounder is subject to overfishing and continues to be in an overfished condition; Bering Sea and...

  8. Population characteristics and health care needs of Asian Pacific Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin-Fu, J S

    1988-01-01

    Asian Pacific Americans are one of the smallest but fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Between 1970 and 1980, this population increased 142 percent, from 1.5 million to 3.7 million. This dramatic growth is due largely to a change in U.S. immigration policies in the mid-1960s and the continuous influx of refugees from Southeast Asia since 1975. Despite such sharp increase, Asian Pacific Americans remain one of the most poorly understood minorities, and their health care need...

  9. NCDC Southeast Federal Records Center Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — East Point, Georgia is the former location of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Southeast regional Federal Records Center (FRC). The southeast...

  10. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Catch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Region Headboat Survey (SRHS), administered by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Southeast Fisheries Science Center (SEFSC) personnel based at...

  11. Anchoring Singapore Philanthropy in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Already a number of other emerging Southeast Asian middle-income economies ... Management University, to investigate philanthropy in four Southeast Asian ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  12. Tropical and Subtropical Cloud Transitions in Weather and Climate Prediction Models: The GCSS/WGNE Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, J.; Cardoso, S.; Bonazzola, M.; Cole, J.; DeGenio, A.; DeMott, C.; Franklin, C.; Hannay, C.; Jakob, C.; Jiao, Y.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A model evaluation approach is proposed in which weather and climate prediction models are analyzed along a Pacific Ocean cross section, from the stratocumulus regions off the coast of California, across the shallow convection dominated trade winds, to the deep convection regions of the ITCZ the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud System Study/Working Group on Numerical Experimentation (GCSS/ WGNE) Pacific Cross-Section Intercomparison (GPCI). The main goal of GPCI is to evaluate and help understand and improve the representation of tropical and subtropical cloud processes in weather and climate prediction models. In this paper, a detailed analysis of cloud regime transitions along the cross section from the subtropics to the tropics for the season June July August of 1998 is presented. This GPCI study confirms many of the typical weather and climate prediction model problems in the representation of clouds: underestimation of clouds in the stratocumulus regime by most models with the corresponding consequences in terms of shortwave radiation biases; overestimation of clouds by the 40-yr ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-40) in the deep tropics (in particular) with the corresponding impact in the outgoing longwave radiation; large spread between the different models in terms of cloud cover, liquid water path and shortwave radiation; significant differences between the models in terms of vertical cross sections of cloud properties (in particular), vertical velocity, and relative humidity. An alternative analysis of cloud cover mean statistics is proposed where sharp gradients in cloud cover along the GPCI transect are taken into account. This analysis shows that the negative cloud bias of some models and ERA-40 in the stratocumulus regions [as compared to the first International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP)] is associated not only with lower values of cloud cover in these regimes, but also with a stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition that occurs too

  13. Human trafficking in Southeast Asia and U.S. national security

    OpenAIRE

    Snoke, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States government finds human trafficking to be an important subject and is placing increasing focus on the issue. The Southeast Asian portion of the Western Pacific encompasses a substantial portion of global trafficking, much of which has a final destination in the United States. This thesis asks the following question: How does trafficking in persons (TIP) affect U.S. national security interests and regional stability in ...

  14. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  15. Culture in Southeast Asian Language Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    A view of the status of Southeast Asian language programs in American schools leads the author to comment on five interrelated issues. They include: (1) the importance of Southeast Asian language and culture teaching and learning, (2) integrating culture in Southeast Asian language classes, (3) teaching techniques, (4) staffing, and (5)…

  16. Going coastal: shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron V Weckworth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest.By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves.We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species.

  17. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  18. Southeast Asian Languages Proficiency Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean; And Others

    The design, administration, revision, and validation of the Southeast Asian Summer Studies Institute proficiency examinations are reported. The examinations were created as parallel language proficiency tests in each of five languages: Indonesian, Khmer, Tagalog, Thai, and Vietnamese. Four tests were developed in each language: multiple-choice…

  19. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  20. Combined observational and modeling efforts of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Adrian; Tsay, Si-Chee; Nguyen, Xuan Anh

    2016-04-01

    Low-level stratocumulus (Sc) clouds cover more of the Earth's surface than any other cloud type rendering them critical for Earth's energy balance, primarily via reflection of solar radiation, as well as their role in the global hydrological cycle. Stratocumuli are particularly sensitive to changes in aerosol loading on both microphysical and macrophysical scales, yet the complex feedbacks involved in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions remain poorly understood. Moreover, research on these clouds has largely been confined to marine environments, with far fewer studies over land where major sources of anthropogenic aerosols exist. The aerosol burden over Southeast Asia (SEA) in boreal spring, attributed to biomass burning (BB), exhibits highly consistent spatiotemporal distribution patterns, with major variability due to changes in aerosol loading mediated by processes ranging from large-scale climate factors to diurnal meteorological events. Downwind from source regions, the transported BB aerosols often overlap with low-level Sc cloud decks associated with the development of the region's pre-monsoon system, providing a unique, natural laboratory for further exploring their complex micro- and macro-scale relationships. Compared to other locations worldwide, studies of springtime biomass-burning aerosols and the predominately Sc cloud systems over SEA and their ensuing interactions are underrepresented in scientific literature. Measurements of aerosol and cloud properties, whether ground-based or from satellites, generally lack information on microphysical processes; thus cloud-resolving models are often employed to simulate the underlying physical processes in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model has recently been enhanced with a triple-moment (3M) bulk microphysics scheme as well as the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) version 6 aerosol module. Because the aerosol burden not only affects cloud

  1. Characteristics of regional aerosols: Southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Gouri

    Atmospheric aerosols impact the quality of our life in many direct and indirect ways. Inhalation of aerosols can have harmful effects on human health. Aerosols also have climatic impacts by absorbing or scattering solar radiation, or more indirectly through their interactions with clouds. Despite a better understanding of several relevant aerosol properties and processes in the past years, they remain the largest uncertainty in the estimate of global radiative forcing. The uncertainties arise because although aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere they are highly variable in space, time and their physicochemical properties. This makes in-situ measurements of aerosols vital in our effort towards reducing uncertainties in the estimate of global radiative forcing due to aerosols. This study is an effort to characterize atmospheric aerosols at a regional scale, in southern Arizona and eastern Pacific Ocean, based on ground and airborne observations of aerosols. Metals and metalloids in particles with aerodynamic diameter (Dp) smaller than 2.5 μm are found to be ubiquitous in southern Arizona. The major sources of the elements considered in the study are identified to be crustal dust, smelting/mining activities and fuel combustion. The spatial and temporal variability in the mass concentrations of these elements depend both on the source strength and meteorological conditions. Aircraft measurements of aerosol and cloud properties collected during various field campaigns over the eastern Pacific Ocean are used to study the sources of nitrate in stratocumulus cloud water and the relevant processes. The major sources of nitrate in cloud water in the region are emissions from ships and wildfires. Different pathways for nitrate to enter cloud water and the role of meteorology in these processes are examined. Observations of microphysical properties of ambient aerosols in ship plumes are examined. The study shows that there is an enhancement in the number

  2. Southeast Asia: A Climatological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    settlements and line grown here, and a small amount of rubber is still highways and railroads. Cogon grass is commonly produced from rubber trees...Gam, Cau, Black Da, Ky Cung, and Ba Brushwood, bamboo, weeds, and tall grasses invade Che-generally flow northwest-southeast and either clear cut forest...Tonkin is the northwest dunes with eucalyptus and small, thorny deciduous arm of the South China Sea. trees and flowering plants. Colon grass is

  3. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  4. Report on an analytical survey on the Pacific energy information; Taiheiyo energy joho bunseki chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the purpose of collecting and arranging energy information in the Asia and Pacific region, this survey has been conducted for many fiscal years. The Asia and Pacific region is classified into the Chinese area, the Southeast Asia area including Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippine, Singapore and Thailand, the East Asia area including Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong, the North America area including the U.S. and Canada, and the Oceania area including Australia and New Zealand. As to the primary energy supplied from 1980 to 1993, China largely increased its share by 3.1%. The Southeast Asia also increased its share by 2.1%, and the East Asia by 2.5%. To the contrary, the North America area largely declined its share by 7.8%, but still has approximately 60% in the Asia and Pacific area. By kind of energy, coal increased the share while oil decreased. 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Stopover habitats of spring migrating surf scoters in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Pacific Equatorial Transect

    OpenAIRE

    Pälike, Heiko; Nishi, Hiroshi; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Klaus, Adam; Gamage, Kusali

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 320/321, "Pacific Equatorial Age Transect" (Sites U1331–U1338), was designed to recover a continuous Cenozoic record of the paleoequatorial Pacific by coring above the paleoposition of the Equator at successive crustal ages on the Pacific plate. These sediments record the evolution of the paleoequatorial climate system throughout the Cenozoic. As we gained more information about the past movement of plates and when in Earth's history "critical" cli...

  7. Governance in Southeast Asia: Issues and Options

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo T.; Mendoza, Magdalena L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyze governance systems in Southeast Asia and proposes some policy suggestions that can improve governance practices in the region. It also discusses the links between governance and official development assistance and the role of the Japan Bank for International Cooperation. To put the discussion on governance systems in a proper context, the paper discusses the governance and growth nexus in Southeast Asia; describes the operating governance systems in Southeast As...

  8. Effects of biomass smoke from southern Africa on stratocumulus over southeastern Atlantic Ocean based on satellite observations and WRF-Chem model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z.; Liu, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Meyer, K.; Rajapakshe, C.; Wu, C.; Yang, Z.; Penner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, large amount of biomass burning (BB) aerosols are emitted over southern Africa, and transported by the predominant circulation to the southeastern Atlantic Ocean (SEA), where they overly and potentially interact with the semi-permanent stratocumulus deck in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Many previous studies suggested that the aerosol plumes are well separated from the MBL clouds, and only focused on the radiative effects of BB aerosols (direct + semi-direct radiative effects); however, as shown in several recent satellite observational studies, BB aerosols are able to be frequently entrained into the underlying clouds, function as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and potentially cause microphysical effects. Based on satellite observations from CATS, we found that the mixing frequencies between above-cloud aerosols and MBL clouds are very high ( 50%) over both coastal and remote regions, suggesting that BB aerosols may likely contact MBL cloud top and function as CCN quickly after they are transported over SEA. Despite the potential importance of the microphysical effect of BB aerosols over SEA, its magnitude is not fully assessed by modeling studies. In this study, we employ WRF-Chem model to study the impacts of BB aerosols on MBL stratocumulus clouds over SEA during the fire season of 2014. By designing three cases, we are able to quantitatively determine the relative importance of microphysical and radiative effects of BB aerosols. Our modeling results show that, by serving as CCN, BB aerosols are able to alter cloud properties of stratocumulus (e.g. higher cloud droplet number concentration [CDNC], higher cloud liquid water path [LWP], and larger cloud fraction [CF] before noon) and exert significant cooling effect at TOA (-8.05 Wm-2) over SEA. The cooling is primarily caused by higher CDNC (the Twomey effect), and secondarily by the changes in LWP and CF (the cloud lifetime effect). The semi-direct effect estimated in this study is smaller in

  9. Southeast Asian Studies in Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chou, Cynthia Gek Hua; Platt, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    from this approach, this article calls for an examination of one important concept in innovative education, that is, context sensitive education. The case study of an annual joint Singapore-Denmark-America summer school programme to teach and study Southeast Asia in Context is discussed here.......As pressures mount to adopt new or alternative instructional delivery methods to achieve innovative education, there has been a strong orientation towards emphasising the need to integrate the latest technological applications to achieve the best in teaching and learning experiences. Moving away...

  10. Overview of 2010-2013 spring campaigns of Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) in the northern Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, N. C.; Holben, B. N.; Anh, N.; Reid, J. S.; Sheu, G.; Chi, K.; Wang, S.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Wang, J.; Chen, W.; Welton, E. J.; Liang, S.; Sopajaree, K.; Maring, H. B.; Janjai, S.; Chantara, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) is a grass-root program and seeks to perform interdisciplinary research in the field of aerosol-meteorology and climate interaction in the Southeast Asian region, particularly for the impact of biomass burning on cloud, atmospheric radiation, hydrological cycle, and regional climate. Participating countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Vietnam, and USA. A series of field experiments have been conducted during springtime biomass burning seasons in northern Southeast Asia, i.e., Dongsha Experiment in 2010, Son La Campaigns in 2011 and 2012, and BASELInE (Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) in 2013, respectively. Given an example, during 2010 Dongsha Experiment, a monitoring network for ground-based measurements was established, including five stations from northern Thailand and central Vietnam to Taiwan, with a supersite at the Dongsha Island (i.e. Pratas Island) in South China Sea (or East Sea). Aerosol chemistry sampling was performed for each station for characterizing the compositions of PM2.5/PM10 (some for TSP) including water-soluble ions, metal elements, BC/OC, Hg and dioxins. This experiment provides a relatively complete and first dataset of aerosol chemistry and physical observations conducted in the source/sink region for below marine boundary layer and lower free troposphere of biomass burning/air pollutants in the northern SE Asia. This presentation will give an overview of these 7-SEAS activities and their results, particularly for the characterization of biomass-burning aerosol at source regions in northern Thailand and northern Vietnam, and receptor stations in Taiwan, which is rarely studied.

  11. Asia Pacific energy derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Asia Pacific Energy Derivatives, from FT Energy, is the first report of its kind to examine the growth of energy derivatives within Asia Pacific and their increasing importance within this region. It provides a comprehensive overview of the subject, including analysis of: deregulation as a market driver; the impact of privatisation; the future for energy risk management tools; the unique characteristics of the Asia Pacific energy market; the role of futures exchanges in Asia; existing indexes and their performance; the differences between the Asia Pacific markets and their more mature counterparts in London and New York; non-oil derivatives, project finance and cross commodity arbitrage; the thriving Pacific Rim Over the Counter (OTC) markets. (author)

  12. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  13. China's Soft Power Diplomacy in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyses the new geo-political and geo-economic strategic relationship between China and Southeast Asia. Is Chinese soft power encroachment into Southeast Asia creating greater stability, does it jeopardize US interests and what is the impact on the regime-types, economic restructuring...

  14. Southeast Asia’s changing palaeogeography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.

    2009-01-01

    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate. Southeast Asia grew incrementally by the addition of continental fragments, mainly rifted from

  15. Tectonic map of the Circum-Pacific region, Pacific basin sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibner, E.; Moore, G.W.; Drummond, K.J.; Dalziel, Corvalan Q.J.; Moritani, T.; Teraoka, Y.; Sato, T.; Craddock, C.

    2013-01-01

    Circum-Pacific Map Project: The Circum-Pacific Map Project was a cooperative international effort designed to show the relationship of known energy and mineral resources to the major geologic features of the Pacific basin and surrounding continental areas. Available geologic, mineral, and energy-resource data are being complemented by new, project-developed data sets such as magnetic lineations, seafloor mineral deposits, and seafloor sediment. Earth scientists representing some 180 organizations from more than 40 Pacific-region countries are involved in this work. Six overlapping equal-area regional maps at a scale of 1:10,000,000 form the cartographic base for the project: the four Circum-Pacific Quadrants (Northwest, Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast), and the Antarctic and Arctic Sheets. There is also a Pacific Basin Sheet at a scale of 1:17,000,000. The Base Map Series and the Geographic Series (published from 1977 to 1990), the Plate-Tectonic Series (published in 1981 and 1982), the Geodynamic Series (published in 1984 and 1985), and the Geologic Series (published from 1984 to 1989) all include six map sheets. Other thematic map series in preparation include Mineral-Resources, Energy-Resources and Tectonic Maps. Altogether, more than 50 map sheets are planned. The maps were prepared cooperatively by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey and are available from the Branch of Distribution, U. S. Geological Survey, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver, Colorado 80225, U.S.A. The Circum-Pacific Map Project is organized under six panels of geoscientists representing national earth-science organizations, universities, and natural-resource companies. The six panels correspond to the basic map areas. Current panel chairmen are Tomoyuki Moritani (Northwest Quadrant), R. Wally Johnson (Southwest Quadrant), Ian W.D. Dalziel (Antarctic Region), vacant. (Southeast Quadrant), Kenneth J. Drummond (Northeast Quadrant), and

  16. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Knowledge Gaps, Planned Observations to Address Them, and Implications for Global Climate Change Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles, yet the fate of these particles and their influence on regional and global climate is poorly understood. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical Stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The stratocumulus "climate radiators" are critical to the regional and global climate system. They interact with dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and are mixed into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. As emphasized in the latest IPCC report, the global representation of these aerosol-cloud interaction processes in climate models is one of the largest uncertainty in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling, and describe planned field campaigns in the region. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the following four synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: 1) ORACLES (Observations of Aerosols above Clouds and their interactions), a five-year investigation between 2015 and 2019 with three Intensive Observation Periods (IOP), recently funded by the NASA Earth-Venture Suborbital Program, 2) CLARIFY-2016 (Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Interactions and Forcing: Year 2016), a comprehensive observational and modeling programme funded by the UK's Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), and supported by the UK Met Office. 3) LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds), a funded

  17. Integrating Buddhism and HIV prevention in U.S. southeast Asian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loue, S; Lane, S D; Lloyd, L S; Loh, L

    1999-02-01

    Asian Pacific Islander communities in the United States have experienced an alarming increase in HIV infection over the past few years, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and the relative absence of appropriate educational interventions. The authors propose a new approach to the development of HIV prevention programs in U.S. southeast Asian communities. This article reviews the cultural and economic factors that may facilitate HIV transmission within these communities. Relying on the basic precepts of Buddhism, the dominant religion of many southeast Asian populations in the United States, the health belief model is utilized to demonstrate how recognizable, acceptable religious constructs can be integrated into the content of HIV prevention messages. This integration of religious concepts with HIV prevention messages may increase the likelihood that the message audience will accept the prevention messages as relevant. This nuanced approach to HIV prevention must be validated and refined through field research.

  18. Understanding the Southeast Asian haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Karthik K. R.; Baikie, T.; T, Mohan Dass E.; Huang, Y. Z.; Guet, C.

    2017-08-01

    The Southeast Asian region had been subjected to a drastic reduction in air quality from the biomass burnings that occurred in 2013 and 2015. The smoke from the biomass burnings covered the entire region including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, with haze particulate matter (PM) reducing the air quality to hazardous levels. Here we report a comprehensive size-composition-morphology characterization of the PM collected from an urban site in Singapore during the two haze events. The two haze events were a result of biomass burning and occurred in two different geographical source regions. We show the similarities and variations of particle size distribution during hazy and clear days during the two haze events. Sub-micron particles (method is used to determine the fractal dimensions of the PM, and the dimensionality varied for every classification from 1.79 to 1.88. We also report the complexities of particles and inconsistencies in the existing approaches to understand them.

  19. Cloud cover over the equatorial eastern Pacific derived from July 1983 International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data using a hybrid bispectral threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    A set of visible and IR data obtained with GOES from July 17-31, 1983 is analyzed using a modified version of the hybrid bispectral threshold method developed by Minnis and Harrison (1984). This methodology can be divided into a set of procedures or optional techniques to determine the proper contaminate clear-sky temperature or IR threshold. The various optional techniques are described; the options are: standard, low-temperature limit, high-reflectance limit, low-reflectance limit, coldest pixel and thermal adjustment limit, IR-only low-cloud temperature limit, IR clear-sky limit, and IR overcast limit. Variations in the cloud parameters and the characteristics and diurnal cycles of trade cumulus and stratocumulus clouds over the eastern equatorial Pacific are examined. It is noted that the new method produces substantial changes in about one third of the cloud amount retrieval; and low cloud retrievals are affected most by the new constraints.

  20. Push from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2018-05-01

    Enhanced upwelling and CO2 degassing from the subpolar North Pacific during a warm event 14,000 years ago may have helped keep atmospheric CO2 levels high enough to propel the Earth out of the last ice age.

  1. Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenic evidence suggests that the strain of Zika virus causing an unprecedented outbreak of disease in the Americas had its origin in Southeast Asia, where reports of isolated cases of Zika virus infection have occurred since 2010. Why there has been no large outbreak of Zika infection in Southeast Asia remains unclear and whether such an outbreak will occur in the future is a question of significant concern. This review looks at Zika virus from a Southeast Asian perspective and highlights some of the possible scenarios with regards to Zika virus in this part of the world as well as highlighting some of the research questions that need to be urgently addressed.

  2. Southeast Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, aquaculture sites, boat ramps, marinas, heliports, and log storage areas in Southeast Alaska. Vector...

  3. Southeast Asia: Of Tigers and Turmoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kline, Jeff; Morris, James; Syrett, Ann; Szeles, Erno

    1997-01-01

    .... Economic growth has been phenomenal for most Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries, while Cambodia and Vietnam are struggling to provide a basic economic foundation to feed their people...

  4. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  5. Southeast Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for waterfowl in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of foraging and rafting...

  6. Southeast Alaska ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains management area data for National Parks, Wildlife Refuges, and areas designated as Critical Habitat in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in...

  7. 2010 ARRA Lidar: 4 Southeast Counties (MI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Southeast Michigan LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Monroe, St. Clair, Macomb, and Livingston Counties SEMCOG CONTRACT:...

  8. Southeast Economic Add-on 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Southeast...

  9. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for anadromous fish streams in Southeast Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of fish streams....

  10. Southeast Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for alcids, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, pelagic birds, gulls, and terns in Southeast Alaska. Points in this...

  11. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  12. Sidewalk Survey Implementation for the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    With funding from GDOT and STRIDE, the team deployed the Online Sidewalk Assessment Survey to gather input on local sidewalk repair and maintenance preferences across a variety of community types in the southeast. The team targeted four major cities ...

  13. Observation of baroclinic eddies southeast of Okinawa Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK; Jae-Hun

    2008-01-01

    In the region southeast of Okinawa, during May to July 2001, a cyclonic and an anticyclonic eddy were observed from combined measurements of hydrocasts, an upward-looking moored acoustic Doppler current profiler (MADCP), pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs), satellite altimetry, and a coastal tide gauge. The hydrographic data showed that the lowest/highest temperature (T) and salinity (S) anomalies from a 13-year mean for the same season were respectively -3.0/+2.5℃ and -0.20/+0.15 psu at 380/500 dbar for the cyclonic/anticyclonic eddies. From the PIES data, using a gravest empirical mode method, we estimated time-varying surface dynamic height (D) anomaly referred to 2000 dbar changing from -20 to 30 cm, and time-varying T and S anomalies at 500 dbar ranging through about ±2 ℃ and ±0.2 psu, respectively. The passage of the eddies caused variations of both satellite-measured sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and tide-gauge-measured sea level anomaly to change from about –20 to 30 cm, consistent with the D anomaly from the PIESs. Bottom pressure sensors measured no variation related to these eddy activities, which indicated that the two eddies were dominated by baro-clinicity. Time series of SSHA map confirmed that the two eddies, originating from the North Pacific Subtropical Countercurrent region near 20°―30°N and 150°―160°E, traveled about 3000 km for about 18 months with mean westward propagation speed of about 6 cm/s, before arriving at the region southeast of Okinawa Island.

  14. A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin-Molina, C. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain)]. E-mail: cazorin@ceam.es; Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. [Grupo de Climatologia, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Cataluna (Spain); Calbo, J. [Grupo de Fisica Ambiental, Universidad de Girona, Campus Montilivi, Cataluna (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Sea breezes blow under anticyclonic weather types, weak surface pressure gradients, intense solar radiation and relatively cloud-free skies. Generally, total cloud cover must be less than 4/8 in order to cause a thermal and pressure difference between land and sea air which allows the development of this local wind circulation. However, many numerical and observational studies have analyzed the ability of sea breezes to generate clouds in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on cloud types in the convective internal boundary layer and in the sea breeze convergence zone. The study area is located in the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (province of Alicante, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 6-yr study period (2000-2005). This climatological study is mainly based on surface cloud observations at the Alicante-Ciudad Jardin station (central coastal plain) and on an extensive cloud observation field campaign at the Villena-Ciudad station (Prebetic mountain ranges) over a 3-yr study period (2003-2005). The results confirm the hypothesis that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. Sea breezes trigger the formation of thunderstorm clouds (Cumulonimbus) at the sea breeze convergence zone, which also have a secondary impact on high-level (Cirrus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus), medium-level (Altostratus, Altocumulus) and low-level clouds (Stratus, Stratocumulus, Nimbostratus) associated with the Cumulonimbus clouds (e.g., Cumulonimbus anvil). [Spanish] Las brisas marinas soplan bajo tipos de tiempo anticiclonicos, debiles gradientes de presion atmosferica, radiacion solar intensa y cielos practicamente despejados. Por lo general, la cobertura nubosa total debe ser inferior a 4/8 para que se genere un diferencial termico y de presion entre el aire sobre las

  15. Drug problem in southeast and southwest Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsudjarit, Kongpetch

    2004-10-01

    In 2002, the drug problem in Southeast and Southwest Asia was serious, particularly in the production of opium and heroin in Afghanistan, Myanmar, and Laos, the three largest producers of illicit opium in the world. The increasing illicit manufacture of ATS, particularly methamphetamine, in Southeast Asia, mainly in China and Myanmar, was also a major concern. Some reports indicated that ephedrine, used for illicitly producing methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, is diverted and smuggled out of China and India, whereas caffeine, the adulterant used for producing methamphetamine tablets, is mainly smuggled into Myanmar through its border with Thailand. Seizure data showed a dramatic increase in trafficking in MDMA through Southeast Asia. In terms of the drug epidemic, in 2002, cannabis remained overall the main drug of abuse in all of the countries of Southeast and Southwest Asia. Opiates, mainly opium and heroin, were also the drugs of choice except in Thailand, where opiate abuse declined, but ATS was the main drug of abuse due to its low cost and availability. A significant increase in ATS abuse, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and MDMA among the youth who smoked, sniffed, and inhaled them was reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, and Thailand. Injecting drug use among opiate abusers has been identified as the prime cause of the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS in Southeast and Southwest Asia.

  16. SOUTHEAST ASIA: HISTORY, MODERNITY, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanto Al Qurtuby

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia, with more than six hundred million populations, is home to millions of Buddhists, Muslims, Confucians, Protestants, Catholics, and now Pentecostals, as well as many followers of local religions and spiritual beliefs. Notwithstanding its great historical, political, cultural legacies, however, the region has long been neglected as a site for religious studies in the Western academia. Aiming at filling the gap in Asian and religious studies as well as exploring the richness of Southeast Asian cultures, this article discusses the dynamics, diversity, and complexity of Southeast Asian societies in their response to the region’s richly political, cultural, and religious traditions spanning from pre-modern era to modern one. The article also examines the “integrative revolutions” that shaped and reshaped warfare, state organization and economics of Southeast Asia, particularly in the pre-European colonial era. In addition, the work discusses the wave of Islamization, particularly since the nineteenth century, as well as the upsurge of religious resurgence that shift the nature of religiosity and the formation of religious groupings in the area. The advent of Islam, with some interventions of political regimes, had been an important cause for the decline of Hindu-Buddhist traditions in some areas of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, the coming of Pentecostalism has challenged the well-established mainstream Protestantism and Catholicism, especially in Indonesia and the Philippines. Keywords: history, modernity, religious change, Southeast Asia

  17. Impact of the intraseasonal variability of large-scale circulation over the Western North Pacific on the characteristics of tropical cyclone track

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, T. C.; Wang, Shih-Yu (Simon); Yen, M. C.; Clark, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The life cycle of the Southeast Asian–western North Pacific monsoon circulation is established by the northward migrations of the monsoon trough and the western Pacific subtropical anticyclone, and is reflected by the intraseasonal variations of mo nsoon westerlies and trad e easterlies in the form of an east–west seesaw oscillation. In this paper, an effort is made to disclose the influence of this monsoon circulation on tropical cyclone tracks during its different ph ases using composite ch...

  18. Tropical Indian Ocean Variability Driving Southeast Australian Droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummenhofer, C. C.; England, M. H.; McIntosh, P. C.; Meyers, G. A.; Pook, M. J.; Risbey, J. S.; Sen Gupta, A.; Taschetto, A. S.

    2009-04-01

    Variability in the tropical Indian Ocean has widespread effects on rainfall in surrounding countries, including East Africa, India and Indonesia. The leading mode of tropical Indian Ocean variability, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), is a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode characterized by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of opposite sign in the east and west of the basin with an associated large-scale atmospheric re-organisation. Earlier work has often focused on the positive phase of the IOD. However, we show here that the negative IOD phase is an important driver of regional rainfall variability and multi-year droughts. For southeastern Australia, we show that it is actually a lack of the negative IOD phase, rather than the positive IOD phase or Pacific variability, that provides the most robust explanation for recent drought conditions. Since 1995, a large region of Australia has been gripped by the most severe drought in living memory, the so-called "Big Dry". The ramifications for affected regions are dire, with acute water shortages for rural and metropolitan areas, record agricultural losses, the drying-out of two of Australia's major river systems and far-reaching ecosystem damage. Yet the drought's origins have remained elusive. For Southeast Australia, we show that the "Big Dry" and other iconic 20th Century droughts, including the Federation Drought (1895-1902) and World War II drought (1937-1945), are driven by tropical Indian Ocean variability, not Pacific Ocean conditions as traditionally assumed. Specifically, a conspicuous absence of characteristic Indian Ocean temperature conditions that are conducive to enhanced tropical moisture transport has deprived southeastern Australia of its normal rainfall quota. In the case of the "Big Dry", its unprecedented intensity is also related to recent above-average temperatures. Implications of recent non-uniform warming trends in the Indian Ocean and how that might affect ocean characteristics and climate in

  19. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  20. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  1. The use of algorithms to predict surface seawater dimethyl sulphide concentrations in the SE Pacific, a region of steep gradients in primary productivity, biomass and mixed layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Hind

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulphide (DMS is an important precursor of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN, particularly in the remote marine atmosphere. The SE Pacific is consistently covered with a persistent stratocumulus layer that increases the albedo over this large area. It is not certain whether the source of CCN to these clouds is natural and oceanic or anthropogenic and terrestrial. This unknown currently limits our ability to reliably model either the cloud behaviour or the oceanic heat budget of the region. In order to better constrain the marine source of CCN, it is necessary to have an improved understanding of the sea-air flux of DMS. Of the factors that govern the magnitude of this flux, the greatest unknown is the surface seawater DMS concentration. In the study area, there is a paucity of such data, although previous measurements suggest that the concentration can be substantially variable. In order to overcome such data scarcity, a number of climatologies and algorithms have been devised in the last decade to predict seawater DMS. Here we test some of these in the SE Pacific by comparing predictions with measurements of surface seawater made during the Vamos Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx in October and November of 2008. We conclude that none of the existing algorithms reproduce local variability in seawater DMS in this region very well. From these findings, we recommend the best algorithm choice for the SE Pacific and suggest lines of investigation for future work.

  2. Isotopic evidence for climatic conditions in Southeast Asia at the last glacial maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Gibson, J.J.; Kulkarni, K.M.; Froehlich, K.

    2002-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of dated groundwater archives from the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand and Bangladesh trace changes in monsoon conditions, primarily rainout processes between the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and present day in southeast Asia. Today, isotope-climate relations are well established by the IAEA/WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation survey which reveals more depleted δ 18 O and δ 2 H for the Pacific Ocean monsoon regime than for the Indian Ocean monsoon regime, primarily due to proximal ocean sources and subdued continental moisture recycling for the latter region. Groundwater archives, reflecting past isotopic composition of precipitation, strongly suggest that this distinction was preserved or slightly enhanced at the time of the LGM, despite an apparent weakening of the summer monsoon and associated rainout processes. Overall, precipitation and moisture recycling, and enhanced continental effects are inferred to be the primary controls on δ 18 O signals in groundwater in southeast Asia. Comparison of groundwater isotope signatures and an ECHAM4 model simulation of the isotopic distribution in precipitation at 21ka reveal similar patterns, but the impacts of increased air mass contributions from high latitudes and reduced Eurasian moisture recycling at the LGM are shown to be potentially greater for the Pacific region than predicted by the model. (author)

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  4. Enteric fever in the Pacific: a regional retrospective study from Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R J; Holland, D; McBride, S; Perera, S; Zeng, I; Wilson, M; Read, K; Jelleyman, T; Ingram, R J H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited clinical data on enteric fever in the Pacific and New Zealand (NZ) compared with the Indian subcontinent (ISC) and South-East Asia (SEA). Our objective was to describe enteric fever in Auckland - a large Pacific city, focusing on disease acquired in these regions. We reviewed enteric fever cases hospitalised in Auckland from January 2005 to December 2010. Microbiologically confirmed EF was identified in 162 patients. Travel regions: Pacific, 40 cases (25%) (Samoa, 38; Fiji, two), ISC, 72 (44%), SEA, seven (4%), other, three (2%), no travel, 40 (25%). Enteric fever rates for Auckland resident travellers were: India 50.3/100 000; Samoa 19.7/100 000.All Pacific cases were Salmonella Typhi. Of local isolates (without travel history), 38 were S. Typhi (36 fully susceptible, one multi-drug resistant (MDR) + nalidixic acid resistant (NAR), one unknown) and two S. Paratyphi (both NAR). Of non-Pacific travel, 56/82 (69%) isolates were S. Typhi, the remainder S. Paratyphi (15 isolates were fully susceptible, only 1% were MDR). Significant associations of serotype and antibiotic resistance with different travel regions and similarity of phage types (local and Pacific) were observed. Headache, vomiting and acute kidney injuries were more frequent with Pacific travel, while abdominal distension and cholecystitis with local disease. Shorter duration of treatment in the Pacific group was seen despite length of stay in hospital not being reduced. Local cases were associated with longer hospital admissions. One half of cases in Auckland are acquired either from Pacific or locally. Similarities mean that disease acquired locally is likely of Pacific origin. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Fiji in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosalind; Semaan, Leslie

    This text introduces Fiji and other island nations located in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean. Cut off from the world by vast expanses of water, these people developed a unique culture. Contents include: Teacher Overview, Geography of the South Pacific Islands, History of the South Pacific, Fiji, Traditional Village Life, Yaquna Ceremony,…

  6. Biogeographic patterns and diversification dynamics of the genus Cardiodactylus Saussure (Orthoptera, Grylloidea, Eneopterinae) in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiajia; Kergoat, Gael J; Vicente, Natállia; Rahmadi, Cahyo; Xu, Shengquan; Robillard, Tony

    2018-06-07

    Southeast Asia harbors an extraordinary species richness and endemism. While only covering 4% of the Earth's landmass, this region includes four of the planet's 34 biodiversity hotspots. Its complex geological history generated a megadiverse and highly endemic biota, attracting a lot of attention, especially in the field of island biogeography. Here we used the cricket genus Cardiodactylus as a model system to study biogeographic patterns in Southeast Asia. We carried out molecular analyses to: (1) infer phylogenetic relationships based on five mitochondrial and four nuclear markers, (2) estimate divergence times and infer biogeographical ancestral areas, (3) depict colonization routes, and summarize emigration and immigration events, as well as in situ diversification, and (4) determine whether shifts in species diversification occurred during the course of Cardiodactylus evolution. Our results support the monophyly of the genus and of one of its species groups. Dating and biogeographical analyses suggest that Cardiodactylus originated in the Southwest Pacific during the Middle Eocene. Our reconstructions indicate that Southeast Asia was independently colonized twice during the Early Miocene (ca. 19-16 Million years ago), and once during the Middle Miocene (ca. 13 Million years ago), with New Guinea acting as a corridor allowing westward dispersal through four different passageways: Sulawesi, the Philippines, Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. Sulawesi also served as a diversification hub for Cardiodactylus through a combination of high immigration and in situ diversification events, which can be accounted for by the complex geological history of the Wallacea region. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Indo-Pacific echinoids in the tropical eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessios, H. A.; Kessing, B. D.; Wellington, G. M.; Graybeal, A.

    1996-06-01

    The existing literature reports that only one species of Indo-Pacific echinoid ( Echinometra oblonga), occurs in the eastern Pacific. In this study we confirm the presence of this species at Islas Revillagigedo and also report the presence of two species of Echinothrix (a genus hitherto unknown outside the Indo-Pacific) at Isla del Coco and at Clipperton Island. We also present evidence from isozymes and from mitochondrial DNA sequences indicating that at least one individual of Diadema at Clipperton may belong to a maternal lineage characteristic of the west Pacific species D. savignyi. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the observed populations of Indo-Pacific echinoid species are recent arrivals to the eastern Pacific, as opposed to the view that they are relicts of Tethyan pan-tropical distributions. Echinothrix diadema, in particular, may have arrived at Isla del Coco during the 1982-1983 El Nifio. In addition to Indo-Pacific species, Clipperton, Isla del Coco and the Revillagigedos contain a complement of eastern Pacific echinoids. The echinoid faunas of these islands should, therefore, be regarded as mixtures of two biogeographic provinces. Though none of the Indo-Pacific species are known to have reached the coast of the American mainland, their presence at the offshore islands of the eastern Pacific suggests that, for some echinoids, the East Pacific Barrier is not as formidable an obstacle to migration as was previously thought.

  8. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  9. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  10. Radiative response of biomass-burning aerosols over an urban atmosphere in northern peninsular Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Shantanu Kumar; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chantara, Somporn; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Khamkaew, Chanakarn; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Janjai, Serm

    2018-08-15

    A large concentration of finer particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), the primary air-quality concern in northern peninsular Southeast Asia (PSEA), is believed to be closely related to large amounts of biomass burning (BB) particularly in the dry season. In order to quantitatively estimate the contributions of BB to aerosol radiative effects, we thoroughly investigated the physical, chemical, and optical properties of BB aerosols through the integration of ground-based measurements, satellite retrievals, and modelling tools during the Seven South East Asian Studies/Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles & Interactions Experiment (7-SEAS/BASELInE) campaign in 2014. Clusters were made on the basis of measured BB tracers (Levoglucosan, nss-K + , and NO 3 - ) to classify the degree of influence from BB over an urban atmosphere, viz., Chiang Mai (18.795°N, 98.957°E, 354m.s.l.), Thailand in northern PSEA. Cluster-wise contributions of BB to PM 2.5 , organic carbon, and elemental carbon were found to be 54-79%, 42-79%, and 39-77%, respectively. Moreover, the cluster-wise aerosol optical index (aerosol optical depth at 500nm≈0.98-2.45), absorption (single scattering albedo ≈0.87-0.85; absorption aerosol optical depth ≈0.15-0.38 at 440nm; absorption Ångström exponent ≈1.43-1.57), and radiative impacts (atmospheric heating rate ≈1.4-3.6Kd -1 ) displayed consistency with the degree of BB. PM 2.5 during Extreme BB (EBB) was ≈4 times higher than during Low BB (LBB), whereas this factor was ≈2.5 for the magnitude of radiative effects. Severe haze (visibility≈4km) due to substantial BB loadings (BB to PM 2.5 ≈79%) with favorable meteorology can significantly impact the local-to-regional air quality and the, daily life of local inhabitants as well as become a respiratory health threat. Additionally, such enhancements in atmospheric heating could potentially influence the regional hydrological cycle and crop productivity over Chiang Mai in

  11. Aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions in the South-East Atlantic: first results from the ORACLES-2016 deployment and plans for future activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; Abel, S.

    2016-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for regional and global climate change predictions. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is severely limited. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We describe first results from various synergistic, international research activities aimed at studying aerosol-cloud interactions in the region: NASA's airborne ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols Above Clouds and Their IntEractionS) deployment in August/September of 2016, the DoE's LASIC (Layered Atlantic Smoke Interactions with Clouds) deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility to Ascension Island (June 2016 - October 2017), the ground-based components of CNRS' AEROCLO-sA (Aerosols Clouds and Fog over the west coast of southern Africa), and ongoing regional-scale integrative, process-oriented science efforts as part of SEALS-sA (Sea Earth Atmosphere Linkages Study in southern Africa). We expect to describe experimental

  12. Benthic fauna of southwest and southeast coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Sheba, P.; Balasubramanian; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Benthos, sediments characteristics and organic matter content were studied along southwest and southeast coasts of India. Number of groups/species varied with the stations and also with the depths. Population density was very low in southeast coast...

  13. 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award Winners in the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016 FGC award winners in the Southeast are: the Department of Human Services’ U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Southeast Regional Office and Department of Energy’s East Tennessee Technology Park.

  14. Tectonostratigraphic terranes of the frontier circum-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.G.; Jones, D.L.; Schermer, E.R.

    1983-03-01

    Many major exploration frontiers around the Pacific are in regions where complex geologic relations reflect plate-tectonic processes, crustal mobility, and accretion of exotic terranes. The destruction of the proto-Pacific ocean (Panthalassa) involved accretion of terranes to cratonal regions such as Gondwana and Laurasia. Terranes in southwestern New Zealand and eastern Antarctica were also probably accreted during the Paleozoic. The southern margin of Siberia, extending into China, underwent a protracted period of accretion from the late Precambrian through the early Mesozoic. Mid-Paleozoic accretion is reflected in the Innuitian foldbelt of the Arctic Ocean, the Black Clastic unit of the northern Rocky Mountains, and the Antler orogeny of the western US cordillera. The Mesozoic breakup of Pangaea and the acceleration of subduction aided in the rifting and dispersal of terranes from equatorial paleolatitudes. Fragments of these terranes now compose much of the continental margins of the Pacific basin, including New Zealand, Indochina, southern China, southeast Siberia, the North American cordillera, and South America. Some terranes are presently being further fragmented by post-accretionary dispersion processes such as strike-slip faulting in western North America and Japan. Although the character and distribution of terranes in the western US are fairly well documented, details are needed for other terranes around the Pacific basin. Interpretation of structure and stratigraphy at depth will be aided by more data on the timing of accretion and the nature of deformation associated with accretion and dispersion. Such data are needed for further define specific exploration targets in the circum-Pacific region.

  15. Cymothoa indica (Isopoda; Cymothoidae and Alitropus typus (Isopoda; Aegidae on freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica (Cichlidae in Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rameshkumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to establish the extent of double parasitation of two species of isopods Cymothoa indica and Alitropus typus on Tilapia mossambica. Cymothoa indica, a typical Indo-Pacific genus, and A. typus, a common crustacean parasite of fish in Southeast Asia, which feeds by sucking blood species, are reported by the first time in the freshwater fish Tilapia from Vellar estuary.

  16. Relationship of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillation intensity over the tropical western North Pacific to tropical Indo-Pacific SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renguang; Cao, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The present study contrasts interannual variations in the intensity of boreal summer 10-20-day and 30-60-day intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs) over the tropical western North Pacific and their factors. A pronounced difference is found in the relationship of the two ISOs to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The 10-20-day ISO intensity is enhanced during El Niño developing summer, whereas the 30-60-day ISO intensity is enhanced during La Niña decaying summer. The above different relationship is interpreted as follows. The equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies modify vertical wind shear, lower-level moisture, and vertical motion in a southeast-northwest oriented band from the equatorial western Pacific to the tropical western North Pacific where the 10-20-day ISOs originate and propagate. These background field changes modulate the amplitude of 10-20-day ISOs. Preceding equatorial central and eastern Pacific SST anomalies induce SST anomalies in the North Indian Ocean in summer, which in turn modify vertical wind shear and vertical motion over the tropical western North Pacific. The modified background fields influence the amplitude of the 30-60-day ISOs when they reach the tropical western North Pacific from the equatorial region. A feedback of ISO intensity on local SST change is identified in the tropical western North Pacific likely due to a net effect of ISOs on surface heat flux anomalies. This feedback is more prominent from the 10-20-day than the 30-60-day ISO intensity change.

  17. Trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections pose a correlated risk to global agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W. B.; Seager, R.; Cane, M. A.; Baethgen, W.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of interannual climate variability, particularly in the Pacific Basin. ENSO life-cycles tend to evolve over multiple years, as do the associated trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections. This analysis, however, represents the first attempt to characterize the structure of the risk posed by ENSO to wheat, maize and soybean production across the Pacific Basin. Our results indicate that most ENSO teleconnections relevant for crop flowering seasons are the result of a single trans-Pacific circulation anomaly that develops in boreal summer and persists through the spring. During the late summer and early fall of a developing ENSO event, the tropical Pacific forces an atmospheric anomaly in the midlatitudes that spans the Pacific Basin. This teleconnection directly links the soybean and maize growing seasons of the US, Mexico and China. It also connects the wheat growing seasons of Argentina, southern Brazil and Australia. The ENSO event peaks in boreal winter, when the atmospheric circulation anomalies intensify and affect maize and soybeans in southeast South America. As the event decays, the ENSO-induced circulation anomalies persist through the wheat flowering seasons in China and the US. While the prospect of ENSO forcing simultaneous droughts in major food producing regions seems disastrous, there may be a silver lining from the perspective of global food security: trans-Pacific ENSO teleconnections to yields are often offsetting between major producing regions in the eastern and western portions of the Pacific Basin. El Niños tend to create good maize and soybean growing conditions in the US and southeast South America, but poor growing conditions in China, Mexico and northeast Brazil. The opposite is true during La Niña. Wheat growing conditions in southeast South America generally have the opposite sign of those in Australia. Finally, we investigate how trade networks interact with this structure of ENSO

  18. An intercomparison of methods for solving the stochastic collection equation with a focus on cloud radar Doppler spectra in drizzling stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kollias, P.

    2017-12-01

    Cloud radar Doppler spectra provide rich information for evaluating the fidelity of particle size distributions from cloud models. The intrinsic simplifications of bulk microphysics schemes generally preclude the generation of plausible Doppler spectra, unlike bin microphysics schemes, which develop particle size distributions more organically at substantial computational expense. However, bin microphysics schemes face the difficulty of numerical diffusion leading to overly rapid large drop formation, particularly while solving the stochastic collection equation (SCE). Because such numerical diffusion can cause an even greater overestimation of radar reflectivity, an accurate method for solving the SCE is essential for bin microphysics schemes to accurately simulate Doppler spectra. While several methods have been proposed to solve the SCE, here we examine those of Berry and Reinhardt (1974, BR74), Jacobson et al. (1994, J94), and Bott (2000, B00). Using a simple box model to simulate drop size distribution evolution during precipitation formation with a realistic kernel, it is shown that each method yields a converged solution as the resolution of the drop size grid increases. However, the BR74 and B00 methods yield nearly identical size distributions in time, whereas the J94 method produces consistently larger drops throughout the simulation. In contrast to an earlier study, the performance of the B00 method is found to be satisfactory; it converges at relatively low resolution and long time steps, and its computational efficiency is the best among the three methods considered here. Finally, a series of idealized stratocumulus large-eddy simulations are performed using the J94 and B00 methods. The reflectivity size distributions and Doppler spectra obtained from the different SCE solution methods are presented and compared with observations.

  19. Popular Music in Southeast Asia : Banal Beats, Muted Histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, Bart; Keppy, Peter; Schulte Nordholt, Henk

    2017-01-01

    'Popular Music in Southeast Asia: Banal Beats, Muted Histories' offers a cultural history of modern Southeast Asia from the original vantage point of popular music since the 1920s up to the present. By creatively connecting indigenous musical styles with foreign musical genres, Southeast Asians

  20. Participation in Southeast Asian pollution control policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Peter; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Huitema, Dave; O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1998-01-01

    Although public awareness of environmental issues in Southeast Asian countries has increased dramatically during the nineties, there has not been a corresponding rise in the level of participation in environmental decision-making. Public participation often takes places at the end of a

  1. South-East Asia's Trembling Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, John

    1991-01-01

    This discussion focuses on potential solutions to the degradation of rainforests in Southeast Asia caused by indiscriminate logging, inappropriate road-construction techniques, forest fires, and the encroachment upon watersheds by both agricultural concerns and peasant farmers. Vignettes illustrate the impact of this degradation upon the animals,…

  2. Institutions and regional development in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriesse, E.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The study of relationships between regional performance and varieties of capitalism within developing countries is an interesting and challenging topic. Although it is evident that capitalist institutions have made further inroads in Southeast Asia, it is far from certain how particular

  3. Forest statistics for Southeast Texas counties - 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Daniel F. Bertelson

    1986-01-01

    These tables were derived from data obtained during a 1986 inventory of 22 counties comprising the Southeast Unit of Texas (fig. 1). Grimes, Leon, Madison, and Waller counties have been added to the Southeastern Unit since the previous inventory if 1975. All comparisons of the 1975 and 1986 forest statistics made in this Bulletin account for this change. The data on...

  4. Globalization and its discontents in Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.; Owen, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    Something was missing from the Asian Studies conference I attended in Gothenburg, Sweden, in 2009: a panel on globalization. Instead, there was one on the impact of climate change in Southeast Asia, and one on the coming "East Asian community." For the rest, as they had done for years, nations in

  5. School Physics Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Chin Pin; Tee, Tan Boon

    1978-01-01

    Traces physics curriculum innovation in Southeast Asia since the 1950s. The unique features of such innovation in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand are highlighted. Forecasts for the future of physics education in part of the world are also discussed. (Author/HM)

  6. Changes in Financial Practices: Southeast Asian Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phyllis J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents research on changes over a two-year period in the use of new, Western financial practices by Southeast Asian refugees and in variables affecting those changes. Significant interaction effects showed that increased use of new practices was affected by age, education, work experience, and changes in English ability. (JOW)

  7. Answer Markup Algorithms for Southeast Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, George M.

    1991-01-01

    Typical markup methods for providing feedback to foreign language learners are not applicable to languages not written in a strictly linear fashion. A modification of Hart's edit markup software is described, along with a second variation based on a simple edit distance algorithm adapted to a general Southeast Asian font system. (10 references)…

  8. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  9. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  10. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  11. Walking backwards into the future: the need for a holistic evolutionary approach in Pacific health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Gosling, Anna L

    2018-05-01

    The Pacific region has had a complex human history. It has been subject to multiple major human dispersal and colonisation events, including some of the earliest Out-of-Africa migrations, the so-called Austronesian expansion of people out of Island Southeast Asia, and the more recent arrival of Europeans. Despite models of island isolation, evidence suggests significant levels of interconnectedness that vary in direction and frequency over time. The Pacific Ocean covers a vast area and its islands provide an array of different physical environments with variable pathogen loads and subsistence opportunities. These diverse environments likely caused Pacific peoples to adapt (both genetically and culturally) in unique ways. Differences in genetic background, in combination with adaptation, likely affect their susceptibility to non-communicable diseases. Here we provide an overview of some of the key issues in the natural and human history of the Pacific region which are likely to impact human health. We argue that understanding the evolutionary and cultural history of Pacific peoples is essential for the generation of testable hypotheses surrounding potential causes of elevated disease susceptibility among Pacific peoples.

  12. The enhanced drying effect of Central-Pacific El Niño on US winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinyi; Zou Yuhao

    2013-01-01

    In what is arguably one of the most dramatic phenomena possibly associated with climate change or natural climate variability, the location of El Niño has shifted more to the central Pacific in recent decades. In this study, we use statistical analyses, numerical model experiments and case studies to show that the Central-Pacific El Niño enhances the drying effect, but weakens the wetting effect, typically produced by traditional Eastern-Pacific El Niño events on the US winter precipitation. As a result, the emerging Central-Pacific El Niño produces an overall drying effect on the US winter, particularly over the Ohio–Mississippi Valley, Pacific Northwest and Southeast. The enhanced drying effect is related to a more southward displacement of tropospheric jet streams that control the movements of winter storms. The results of this study imply that the emergence of the Central-Pacific El Niño in recent decades may be one factor contributing to the recent prevalence of extended droughts in the US. (letter)

  13. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Timothy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Ball, Kia [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Fournier, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  14. Asia-Pacific region's oil demand growth strains refining capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly industrializing Asia-Pacific region has become a stand-alone economic force and the world's growth market for oil. Japan remains the region's premier economic powerhouse but no longer its only one. And Asia-Pacific economic fortunes have decoupled from the more-mature economies of Europe and the U.S. The East-West Center, Honolulu, in January projected Asia-Pacific average oil demand growth of 3.6%/year through 1999, nearly double what most economists expect for oil demand growth worldwide. Demand reached 14.5 million b/d in 1992, up 862,000 b/d from 1991. East-West Center analysts project demand of 16.4 million b/d in 1995 and 19.1 million b/d by 2000. Not all analysts expect such rapid growth for the region. Edward N. Krapels, president of Energy Security Analysis Inc., Washington, D.C., told a seminar in Houston during March that demand in Southeast Asia will grow at an average of 500,000 b/d/year. The paper discusses economic strength; regional demand; the pressure on refining; the shortfall seen; an opposing view from the Energy Security Analysis; and construction activity

  15. Genogeography and Immune Epitope Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Reveals Two Distinct Types: Asian and Papua-Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meta Dewi Thedja

    Full Text Available Distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes/subgenotypes is geographically and ethnologically specific. In the Indonesian archipelago, HBV genotype C (HBV/C is prevalent with high genome variability, reflected by the presence of 13 of currently existing 16 subgenotypes. We investigated the association between HBV/C molecular characteristics with host ethnicity and geographical distribution by examining various subgenotypes of HBV/C isolates from the Asia and Pacific region, with further analysis on the immune epitope characteristics of the core and surface proteins. Phylogenetic tree was constructed based on complete HBV/C genome sequences from Asia and Pacific region, and genetic distance between isolates was also examined. HBV/C surface and core immune epitopes were analyzed and grouped by comparing the amino acid residue characteristics and geographical origins. Based on phylogenetic tree and geographical origins of isolates, two major groups of HBV/C isolates--East-Southeast Asia and Papua-Pacific--were identified. Analysis of core and surface immune epitopes supported these findings with several amino acid substitutions distinguishing the East-Southeast Asia isolates from the Papua-Pacific isolates. A west-to-east gradient of HBsAg subtype distribution was observed with adrq+ prominent in the East and Southeast Asia and adrq- in the Pacific, with several adrq-indeterminate subtypes observed in Papua and Papua New Guinea (PNG. This study indicates that HBV/C isolates can be classified into two types, the Asian and the Papua-Pacific, based on the virus genome diversity, immune epitope characteristics, and geographical distribution, with Papua and PNG as the molecular evolutionary admixture region in the switching from adrq+ to adrq-.

  16. The Pacific RANET Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postawko, S.; Ah Poe, A.; Morrissey, M.

    2004-12-01

    There are few places in the world more vulnerable to the effects of climate variability and change than the island nations of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The region also faces great challenges in communicating the issues related to climate to the general population. Lack of communications infrastructure, multiple languages, and knowledgeable personnel to deliver information, are all challenges for these countries. However, a recently developed international consortium is taking the first steps to addressing these challenges. The RANET (RAdio and interNET communications) project was originally developed for the countries of Africa, with initial funding from NOAA, to make weather, climate, and other environmental information more accessible to remote and resource-poor communities. The program is now expanding into Asia and the Pacific. RANET works to build telecommunication bridges between scientific-based products and remote communities that could benefit from such information.?The RANET project in the Pacific is a consortium of partners from the Pacific Island nations, the U.S., New Zealand, Australia, and others. Coordination of the project is loosely overseen by a Steering Committee, made up of representatives from the various interested partners. For regions where the appropriate technology exists (which includes the capital cities of nearly all of the island states of the Pacific), information is downloaded via a digital satellite receiver. This can then be broadcast within a country by many means, including Community FM Radio stations. The information distributed includes technical information needed by meteorological and related services to improve their own products and services, as well as a second level of information designed to serve communities, including weather forecasts, bulletins, warnings, etc. The primary challenge at this time is developing content that is both relevant and understandable to these remote communities. While some information will

  17. United Nations regional disarmament workshop for Asia and the Pacific. Disarmament fellowship, training and advisory services programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of the Workshop have been to promote a better understanding and awareness of the current disarmament negotiations and issues, particularly those of common concern to the region, and to facilitate conflict resolution, strengthen disarmament efforts and enhance regional security. 19 papers were presented. The Workshop (a) considered the concepts of peace and security in the Asia-Pacific context; (b) assessed the global efforts to achieve a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons and to strengthen the non-proliferation regimes of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction; (c) reviewed regional disarmament efforts in general and examined in detail efforts and proposals from the South Asian, South-East Asian and Pacific perspectives; and (d) discussed, through various case studies, conflict resolution in the Asia-Pacific region. The discussions which followed the presentations could be grouped under the following headings: Perception of the role to be played by the major Powers in Asia and the Pacific; approach to peace and security; NPT; PTBT; the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga) and the proposal to establish a nuclear-weapon-free zone in South-East Asia (SEANWFZ)

  18. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of China and the United States in the Southeast Asia Region under the Obama Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s rapid rise and the implementation of the Obama Administration’s ”Return to the Asia Pacific” strategy, both China and the United States have significantly changed their relations with Southeast Asia in recent years. Also, the influence of China and the United States in this region has changed too. Both China and the United States have strengthened relations with the Southeast Asia region in terms of political, economic, military, cultural and other aspects, and their influence has also risen in varying degrees. In comparison, China has a greater impact on the economy of Southeast Asia, while the US has more influence on its military and security. China vigorously implements the neighborhood diplomacy featuring amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. The United States actively promotes the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy. The Southeast Asian countries continue to choose the balance of power strategy, relying on China regarding the economy, relying on the United States regarding the security. This has resulted in the continuous game between China and the United States in the Southeast Asian region.

  20. Power in the pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the fourth Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference are presented, with the emphasis on opportunities for Canadian nuclear exports to the region. Japan and Korea are pressing ahead with nuclear generating programs to reduce their dependence on imported oil. Korea aims to increase the Korean content of its nuclear industry, and to participate in international ventures. China plans several nuclear power stations. In Canada and the U.S.A., no recent domestic orders have been received. Mexico is financially constrained to delay its nuclear program for about ten years. Indonesia is starting with a research reactor

  1. Arsenic geochemistry of groundwater in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Chanpiwat, Penradee; Hanh, Hoang Thi; Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2011-12-01

    The occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic in the groundwater of the Southeast Asia region has received much attention in the past decade. This study presents an overview of the arsenic contamination problems in Vietnam, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic and Thailand. Most groundwater used as a source of drinking water in rural areas has been found to be contaminated with arsenic exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg·L(-1). With the exception of Thailand, groundwater was found to be contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic in the region. Interestingly, high arsenic concentrations (> 10 μg·L(-1)) were generally found in the floodplain areas located along the Mekong River. The source of elevated arsenic concentrations in groundwater is thought to be the release of arsenic from river sediments under highly reducing conditions. In Thailand, arsenic has never been found naturally in groundwater, but originates from tin mining activities. More than 10 million residents in Southeast Asia are estimated to be at risk from consuming arsenic-contaminated groundwater. In Southeast Asia, groundwater has been found to be a significant source of daily inorganic arsenic intake in humans. A positive correlation between groundwater arsenic concentration and arsenic concentration in human hair has been observed in Cambodia and Vietnam. A substantial knowledge gap exists between the epidemiology of arsenicosis and its impact on human health. More collaborative studies particularly on the scope of public health and its epidemiology are needed to conduct to fulfill the knowledge gaps of As as well as to enhance the operational responses to As issue in Southeast Asian countries.

  2. Challenges of Green Logistics in Southeast Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Beškovnik, Bojan; Jakomin, Livio

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the trends towards green logistics in global aspect and challenges of adopting green logistics in the region of Southeast Europe. Modern logistics with supply chain management is experiencing a period of important evolution. From reversible logistics, we came to green logistics, which is a wider concept of environmentally friendly thinking. Reverse logistics includes processes of movements and transportation of waste from users to recycling plants; meanwhile, green logist...

  3. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  4. The Culicoides of Southeast Asia (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Type.-Holotype male, Chiang Mai Prov., Thailand, 1933, O.R. Causey (on slide, Type in USNM). Southeast Asia Records.-- INDONESIA: Sulawesi (North...Kapit Dist., Nanga Pelagus (Traub). SINGAPORE: Kg. Chantek Bahru (Colless); Nee Soon (Colless). THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Causey); Chiang Rai (Causey...THAILAND: Chiang Mai (Notonanda, Scanlon). Cholburi, Bangphra,(Scanlon). Khon Kaen Prov., Ban Phai and Chum Phae (Manop R.). Loei Prov., Dan Sal, Ban

  5. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  6. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Pacific madrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is one of the most widely distributed tree species native to the Pacific coast. Named for its discoverer, Archibald Menzies, a 19th century Scottish physician and naturalist, the species is called arbutus in Canada, and madrone, madroña, or madroño in the United States. The latter name is...

  7. Comparing Diverse Southeast Asian Reactions to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    the time to produce its own domestic inputs.123 This then buys Vinatex, a state-owned garment and textile enterprise, some time to reform itself...non- lethal defense in April 2007, gave US$18 million for Vietnam to buy patrol vessels, and fully lifted its embargo on lethal weapons sales to...provision that allows foreign companies to extend their patent duration, which would negatively affect the affordability of generic medicine and drugs

  8. Global climate change and potential effects on pacific salmonids in freshwater ecosystems of southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Bryant

    2009-01-01

    General circulation models predict increases in air temperatures from 1◦C to 5◦C as atmospheric CO2 continues to rise during the next 100 years. Thermal regimes in freshwater ecosystems will change as air temperatures increase regionally. As air temperatures increase, the distribution and intensity of precipitation will change which will in turn...

  9. Genetic diversity of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreike, N.; Eck, van H.J.; Lebot, V.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 255 taro (Colocasia esculenta) accessions from Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu was studied using AFLPs. Three AFLP primer combinations generated a total of 465 scorable amplification products. The 255 accessions were

  10. Rise and fall of political complexity in island South-East Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Greenhill, Simon J; Gray, Russell D; Hasegawa, Toshikazu; Mace, Ruth

    2010-10-14

    There is disagreement about whether human political evolution has proceeded through a sequence of incremental increases in complexity, or whether larger, non-sequential increases have occurred. The extent to which societies have decreased in complexity is also unclear. These debates have continued largely in the absence of rigorous, quantitative tests. We evaluated six competing models of political evolution in Austronesian-speaking societies using phylogenetic methods. Here we show that in the best-fitting model political complexity rises and falls in a sequence of small steps. This is closely followed by another model in which increases are sequential but decreases can be either sequential or in bigger drops. The results indicate that large, non-sequential jumps in political complexity have not occurred during the evolutionary history of these societies. This suggests that, despite the numerous contingent pathways of human history, there are regularities in cultural evolution that can be detected using computational phylogenetic methods.

  11. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  12. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Niña) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  13. Stream network geomorphology mediates predicted vulnerability of anadromous fish habitat to hydrologic change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Matthew R; Reeves, Gordon H; Christiansen, Kelly R

    2017-02-01

    In rivers supporting Pacific salmon in southeast Alaska, USA, regional trends toward a warmer, wetter climate are predicted to increase mid- and late-21st-century mean annual flood size by 17% and 28%, respectively. Increased flood size could alter stream habitats used by Pacific salmon for reproduction, with negative consequences for the substantial economic, cultural, and ecosystem services these fish provide. We combined field measurements and model simulations to estimate the potential influence of future flood disturbance on geomorphic processes controlling the quality and extent of coho, chum, and pink salmon spawning habitat in over 800 southeast Alaska watersheds. Spawning habitat responses varied widely across watersheds and among salmon species. Little variation among watersheds in potential spawning habitat change was explained by predicted increases in mean annual flood size. Watershed response diversity was mediated primarily by topographic controls on stream channel confinement, reach-scale geomorphic associations with spawning habitat preferences, and complexity in the pace and mode of geomorphic channel responses to altered flood size. Potential spawning habitat loss was highest for coho salmon, which spawn over a wide range of geomorphic settings, including steeper, confined stream reaches that are more susceptible to streambed scour during high flows. We estimated that 9-10% and 13-16% of the spawning habitat for coho salmon could be lost by the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with losses occurring primarily in confined, higher-gradient streams that provide only moderate-quality habitat. Estimated effects were lower for pink and chum salmon, which primarily spawn in unconfined floodplain streams. Our results illustrate the importance of accounting for valley and reach-scale geomorphic features in watershed assessments of climate vulnerability, especially in topographically complex regions. Failure to consider the geomorphic context of stream

  14. Subtropical Low Cloud Responses to Central and Eastern Pacific El Nino Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, A. D.; Bennartz, R.; Jiang, J. H.; Kato, S.; Olson, W. S.; Pinker, R. T.; Su, H.; Taylor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern Pacific El Niño event in 2006-2007 and the central Pacific El Niño event during 2009-2010 exhibit opposite responses in the top of atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative effects. These responses are driven by differences in large-scale circulation that result in significant low cloud anomalies in the subtropical southeastern Pacific. Both the vertical profile of cloud fraction and cloud water content are reduced during the eastern Pacific El Niño; however, the shift in the distribution of cloud characteristics and the physical processes underlying these changes need further analysis. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Clouds and Radiation Working Group will use a synthesis of NEWS data products, A-Train satellite measurements, reanalysis, and modeling approaches to further explore the differences in the low cloud response to changes in the large-scale forcing, as well as try to understand the physical mechanism driving the observed changes in the low clouds for the 2006/07 and 2009/10 distinct El Niño events. The distributions of cloud macrophysical, microphysical, and radiative properties over the southeast Pacific will first be compared for these two events using a combination of MODIS, CloudSat/CALIPSO, and CERES data. Satellite and reanalysis estimates of changes in the vertical temperature and moisture profiles, lower tropospheric stability, winds, and surface heat fluxes are then used to identify the drivers for observed differences in the clouds and TOA radiative effects.

  15. Women's roundtable discussion on the economic, social and political impacts of the Southeast Asian financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, G

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes the main issues revealed at a women's roundtable discussion on the Economic, Social, and Political Impacts of the Southeast Asian Financial Crisis. The discussion was organized by the Development Alternatives of Women for the New Era (DAWN) and was held during April 12-14, 1998, in Manila, the Philippines. The aim was to explore the effects of the financial crisis and its management by states and multilateral agencies on women's political, economic, cultural, and social status; and to reach regional understanding of new issues for the women's movement in Asia and to identify areas of advocacy. Participants included women scholars and activists from Southeast, East, and South Asia; Africa; the Caribbean; Latin America; and the Pacific. Participants came from a wide variety of backgrounds. Nine issues were emphasized. For example, some predicted the currency devaluation before July 1997. The financial crisis is linked with globalization. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the primary institution for addressing the financial crisis. IMF conditions on inflation rates and budget surpluses are recessionary and government budget oriented. The crisis has exposed cronyism and corruption within capitalism. Patriarchal values have reemerged as Asian values. Women have lost jobs and income, while the cost of living continues to increase. Prostitution has become more acceptable as legitimate work. Women's human rights are not legally protected. State ideology assumes domestic and sex roles. Issues in each region are identified. 14 key issues pertain to all regions.

  16. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Iqra Anugrah; Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University

    2014-01-01

    "Three recent works provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies." (author's abstract). Review of: 1. Ford, Michele (ed.): Social Activism in Southeast Asia. Series: Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-63059-7. 2. Petras, James...

  17. Cultural barriers to health care for southeast Asian refugees.

    OpenAIRE

    Uba, L

    1992-01-01

    Many Southeast Asians now living in the United States experience severe health problems, attributable to physical trauma and inadequate health care in Asia, and low socioeconomic status in this country. Evidence indicates that despite their health problems, Southeast Asian refugees underuse the American health care system. Cultural reasons for this underuse are examined. Southeast Asian cultural attitudes toward suffering, such as beliefs that suffering is inevitable or that one's life span i...

  18. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  19. 76 FR 33641 - Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; The Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns, Fireworks Display, Pacific Grove, CA AGENCY... support of the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display. This safety zone is established to... Purpose Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns will sponsor the Pacific Grove Feast of Lanterns Fireworks Display...

  20. Sea otters in the northern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.; Estes, James A.; LaRoe, Edward T.; Farris, Gaye S.; Puckett, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.; Mac, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    About 250 years ago sea otters (Enhydra lutris) were distributed continuously from central Baja California, north and west along the Pacific Rim to Machatka Peninsula in Russia, and south along the Kuril Island to northern Japan (Kenyon 1969; Fig. 1a). Several hundred thousand sea otters may have occurred in the north Pacific region when commercial hunting began in the 18th century (Riedman and Estes 1990).At least two attributes of the sea otter have influenced humans, likely for as long as they have resided together along the coast of the north Pacific Ocean. First, sea otters rely on a dense fur, among the finest in the world, for insulation in the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. The demand for sea otter fur led to their near extinction in the 19th century. The fur harvest, begun about 1740 and halted by international treaty in 1911, left surviving colonies, each likely numbering less than a few hundred animals, in California, south-central Alaska, and the Aleutian, Medney, and Kuril Islands (Fig. 1a). These individuals provided the nucleus for the recovery of the species. Today more than 100,000 sea otters occur throughout about 75% of their original range (fig. 1b). Immigration has resulted in near-complete occupation of the Aleutian and Kuril archipelagos and the Alaska peninsula. Successful translocations have resulted in viable populations in southeast Alaska, Washington, and British Columbia. Large amounts of unoccupied habitat remain along the coasts of Russia, Canada, the United States, and Mexico.The second potential source of conflict between sea otters and humans is that sea otters prey on and often limit some benthic invertebrate populations. Because some of these invertebrates are aso used by humans (Estes and VanBlaricom 1985), human perceptions about the effects of sea otter foraging on invertebrates sometimes differ. By limiting populations of herbivorous invertebrates (e.g., sea urchins [Echinoidea]) otters help maintain the integrity of kelp

  1. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy

    The 27th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, held September 25 and 26, 1980, was hosted by the Pacific Geoscience Centre at the Institute of Ocean Sciences, near Victoria, British Columbia. A total of 79 papers was presented to the 150 registrants in six general sessions: seismology; electromagnetic induction; general geophysics; volcanology; hydrology; and oceanography, and in three special symposia: ‘The Queen Charlotte-Fairweather fault system and other active faults of the Pacific Northwest’ ‘Coastal circulation in the northeast Pacific’ and ‘Studies of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.’

  2. A South-East Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, S E; Jeyaratnam, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to discuss the subject of occupational medicine in the next century, changes in the present demographic profile and work activity must be considered first. Only then can the challenges be identified, and appropriate strategies be formulated to respond to them. In the diverse countries of South-East Asia, improved health and work conditions, the advent of new technology, a redistribution of work activity, and an ageing workforce can be expected. Two other factors that have specific impact in the region are the recent financial crisis and the occurrence of an international environmental haze from forest fires. The various countries in South-East Asia, which are in different stages of development, and have different problems and priorities, will respond differently to the demands for occupational health. It is likely that there will be a shift in the focus of current health care activities towards specific work sectors, the recognition of new hazards at work, the identification of newly emerging work related diseases, and an increase in health promotion in the workplace. Hopefully, there will be improved training of health professionals to ensure that there are adequate numbers and that they are well prepared to face these changes. Responsive, appropriate and well enforced labour legislation to protect the health of all workers, and international cooperation in occupational and environmental health are also required. As global and regional economic conditions continue to remain unstable and the impact of the crisis further takes its course, the final effect on occupational health in South-East Asia remains to be seen.

  3. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-Ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-06-23

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions.

  4. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D. [FACTS, Inc., Honolulu, Hawaii (United States)

    1999-09-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade.

  5. Southeast Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the Southeast Asian oil markets and refining is presented concentrating on Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand refiners. Key statistics of the refiners in this region are tabulated. The demand and the quality of Indonesian, Malaysian, Philippine, Singapore and Thai petroleum products are analysed. Crude distillation unit capacity trends in the Southeastern Asian refining industry are discussed along with cracking to distillation ratios, refining in these countries, and the impact of changes in demand and refining on the product trade

  6. Ruminant feeding systems in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaludin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Ruminant production in Southeast Asia is not a very large industry but has the potential for expansion because there is an adequate feed supply of conventional and non-conventional types. Grazing ruminants on permanent pasture and wasteland is the most common method of animal management practised by small scale farmers. Programmes to improve pasture in the grazing resources should be implemented. Introducing ruminants into plantations is a viable proposition. Further increases in ruminant productivity can be attained if the technology on utilizing crop residues and by-products can be transferred to farmers and applied more widely. (author). 39 refs, 11 tabs

  7. Aerosol and cloud properties derived from hyperspectral transmitted light in the southeast Atlantic sampled during field campaign deployments in 2016 and 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, S. E.; Redemann, J.; Flynn, C. J.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Shinozuka, Y.; Pistone, K.; Karol, Y.; Schmidt, S.; Cochrane, S.; Chen, H.; Meyer, K.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    We present aerosol and cloud properties collected from airborne remote-sensing measurements in the southeast Atlantic during the recent NASA ObseRvations of CLouds above Aerosols and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign. During the biomass burning seasons of September 2016 and August 2017, we sampled aerosol layers which overlaid marine stratocumulus clouds off the southwestern coast of Africa. We sampled these aerosol layers and the underlying clouds from the NASA P3 airborne platform with the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR). Aerosol optical depth (AOD), along with trace gas content in the atmospheric column (water vapor, NO2, and O3), is obtained from the attenuation in the sun's direct beam, measured at the altitude of the airborne platform. Using hyperspectral transmitted light measurements from 4STAR, in conjunction with hyperspectral hemispheric irradiance measurements from the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR), we also obtained aerosol intensive properties (asymmetry parameter, single scattering albedo), aerosol size distributions, cloud optical depth (COD), cloud particle effective radius, and cloud thermodynamic phase. Aerosol intensive properties are retrieved from measurements of angularly resolved skylight and flight level spectral albedo using the inversion used with measurements from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) that has been modified for airborne use. The cloud properties are obtained from 4STAR measurements of scattered light below clouds. We show a favorable initial comparison of the above-cloud AOD measured by 4STAR to this same product retrieved from measurements by the MODIS instrument on board the TERRA and AQUA satellites. The layer AOD observed above clouds will also be compared to integrated aerosol extinction profile measurements from the High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 (HSRL-2).

  8. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Results from the ORACLES-2016 Deployment and a First Look at ORACLES-2017 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal biomass burning (BB) in Southern Africa during the Southern hemisphere spring produces almost a third of the Earth's BB aerosol particles. These particles are lofted into the mid-troposphere and transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, where they interact with one of the three semi-permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects. The representation of these interactions in climate models remains highly uncertain, because of the scarcity of observational constraints on both, the aerosol and cloud properties, and the governing physical processes. The first deployment of the NASA P-3 and ER-2 aircraft in the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols Above Clouds and Their IntEractionS) project in August/September of 2016 has started to fill this observational gap by providing an unprecedented look at the SE Atlantic cloud-aerosol system. We provide an overview of the first deployment, highlighting aerosol absorptive and cloud-nucleating properties, their vertical distribution relative to clouds, the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, cloud changes in response to such mixing, and cloud top stability relationships to the aerosol. We also expect to describe preliminary results of the second ORACLES deployment from Sao Tome and Pri­ncipe in August 2017. We will make an initial assessment of the differences and similarities of the BB plume and cloud properties as observed from a deployment site near the plume's northern edge. We will conclude with an outlook for the third ORACLES deployment in October 2018.

  9. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  10. Wave energy: a Pacific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Robert; Ruehl, Kelley; Hovland, Justin; Meicke, Stephen

    2012-01-28

    This paper illustrates the status of wave energy development in Pacific rim countries by characterizing the available resource and introducing the region's current and potential future leaders in wave energy converter development. It also describes the existing licensing and permitting process as well as potential environmental concerns. Capabilities of Pacific Ocean testing facilities are described in addition to the region's vision of the future of wave energy.

  11. Reducing Maori and Pacific Inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    The Treasury

    2001-01-01

    Over the last fifty years the Maori and non-Maori populations have slowly and unevenly become more similar on a range of key demographic, social and economic outcomes. This has principally been driven by increased geographic and social proximity between the two groups. There is evidence that similar processes may be operating for migrant peoples from the Pacific. Many Maori and Pacific people do better than the population median. Conversely, on most outcomes, a much greater number of people o...

  12. Demand management implementation in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaboriboon, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The need to apply transportation system management, to developing countries is urgent. Attempts to alleviate severe traffic congestion in their metropolises have so far failed to provide adequate solutions. The countries are faced with many difficulties because of the lack of sufficient financial resources together with their complex internal administrative and political problems. They are incapable of providing sufficient road space to cope with the escalating demand in private automobiles. This has led to excessive delays in urban traveling, environmental pollution problems, decline of road-based public transit services and deterioration of the quality of life in these metropolises. Demand management, in use for decades in the Western world, has also been recognized in Singapore`s famous area licensing scheme (ALS) making other Southeast Asian Metropolises aware of its advantages as an alternative in solving their chaotic traffic problems. However, realization is far different from implementation and still many metropolises are not able to apply the technique. Singapore and Thailand, two leaders among many other Southeast Asian regions in economics, tourism, trade and industry handle their problems far differently, especially the traffic congestion problem. While a number of demand management schemes have been implemented successfully in Singapore since 1975, Bangkok is still struggling to implement such measures to alleviate severe traffic congestion problems. This article intends to high light the successful practices and unsuccessful attempts of demand management techniques applied in Singapore and Bangkok.

  13. The presence of hydrocarbons in southeast Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanken, Niels Martin; Hansen, Malene Dolberg; Kresten Nielsen, Jesper

    Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses and amph......Hydrocarbons, mostly found as solid pyrobitumen, are known from more than 30 localities in southeast Norway. They occur as inclusions in a wide range of "reservoir rocks" spanning from Permo-Carboniferous breccias to veins (vein quartz and calcite veins) in Precambrian granites, gneisses......, indicating that Alum Shale was the most important source rock. Petrographic investigations combined with stable isotope analyses (d13C and d18O) of the cement containing pyrobitumen indicate two phases of hydrocarbon migration. The first phase probably took place in Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian time......, when the Alum Shale entered the oil window. These hydrocarbons are mostly found as pyrobitumen in primary voids and calcite cemented veins in Cambro-Silurian sedimentary deposits. The second phase is probably of Late Carboniferous/Permian age and was due to the increased heat flow during the formation...

  14. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  15. Asian-Pacific leadership: Implications for foreign economic policy of Japan and the US

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemenz, Ulrich

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, the Western Pacific hemisphere ranging from Japan and the PR China to Australia and New Zealand has remained the growth pole of the world economy. Real per capita incomes of East and Southeast Asian developing economies grew even faster in this decade than in the 1970s [World Bank, 1990: Table 1.3] despite major disturbances in their global environment such as the world-wide recession in the early 1980s, increasing protectionism in the EC and the US, large exchange rate fluctuat...

  16. Distance on FDI and Trade: The Roles of China and Mexico in the Pacific Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Yushi Yoshida; Hiro Ito

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the dynamics of the trilateral trade relationship among the U.S., Japan and an emerging economy in the Pacific Basin. Our particular attention is paid to two emerging countries; China and Mexico. In what we call the “triangular trade approach,” we explore how Japanese trade with and foreign direct investment to an emerging economy affect its exports to the US market. We apply the trilateral trade approach to eight Southeast Asian countries, four American continen...

  17. Biology, ecology, control and management of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish: An updated integrated assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Jr., James A.; Whitfield, Paula E.

    2009-01-01

    Venomous Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois miles and P. volitans) are now established along the Southeast U.S.A. and parts of the Caribbean and pose a serious threat to reef fish communities of these regions. Lionfish are likely to invade the Gulf of Mexico and potentially South America in the near future. Introductions of lionfish were noted since the 1980s along south Florida and by 2000 lionfish were established off the coast of North Carolina. Lionfish are now one of the more numerous predat...

  18. 76 FR 6402 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Essential Fish Habitat Review Committee... review of Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) descriptions for Pacific Coast groundfish species. Major topics of...

  19. 7 CFR 1007.2 - Southeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Southeast marketing area. 1007.2 Section 1007.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  20. Corporate governance and corruption : A comparative study of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijayati, Nureni; Hermes, Niels; Holzhacker, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The weak corporate governance framework in Indonesia, as in other countries in Southeast Asia, was deemed a crucial factor in deepening the financial and economic crisis in the late 1990s. Over a decade after the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Indonesia and other Southeast Asian countries have made

  1. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  2. India China Rivalry and Competition in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine the implications of these gradual and in some cases opposing shifts in foreign policy of China and India in Southeast Asia. Both countries are increasingly struggling for a hegemonic position in the developing countries and especially in Southeast As...... Asian titans in Myanmar and finally the conclusion wraps...

  3. Doctor-Patient Communication in Southeast Asia: A Different Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative…

  4. Parental Contributions to Southeast Asian American Adolescents' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung

    2008-01-01

    Informed by acculturation, ecological, and social capital theories, the study examined the contribution of parental acculturation, parental involvement, and intergenerational relationship to well-being in Southeast Asian American adolescents. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study, 491 Southeast Asian American adolescents…

  5. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia. Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly ...

  6. Prevalence of HIV infection among premarital couples in southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Catholic Church in Nigeria offers premarital HIV screening to couples, yet instances of voluntary screening are rare in southeast Nigeria. This study examines the contribution of such tests to HIV detection, and evaluates the prevalence of HIV infection in southeast Nigeria among couples who are planning to marry.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in prehistoric Pacific islanders determined by analysis of ancient bone DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelberg, E; Clegg, J B

    1993-05-22

    A previously characterized Asian-specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) length mutation has been detected in DNA isolated from prehistoric human bones from Polynesia, including Hawaii, Chatham Islands and Society Islands. In contrast, the Asian mutation was absent in skeletal samples from the Melanesian archipelagos of New Britain and Vanuatu and in the oldest samples from Fiji, Tonga and Samoa in the central Pacific (2700-1600 years BP) although it was present in a more recent prehistoric sample from Tonga. These results, augmented by informative DNA sequence data from the hypervariable region of mtDNA, fail to support current views that the central Pacific was settled directly by voyagers from island Southeast Asia, the putative ancestors of modern Polynesians. An earlier occupation by peoples from the neighbouring Melanesian archipelagos seems more likely.

  8. Pacific Studies: Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Holden Rønning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Looking back to the past this paper discusses why Pacific studies and in particular Australasian studies became an area of interest in tertiary education in Europe. What subject areas initiated these studies, and how do past legacies shape the present? With cutbacks in higher education over the past two decades the future of interdisciplinary studies and the humanities looks bleak. At the same time due to global business and increased political communication across borders there is a vibrant interest in and need for such studies among businesses and students. For most Europeans the literature of settler countries, with their European legacy, makes access to ways of thought and culture easier than studies of countries with other mythological backgrounds. In today’s multicultural environment such studies can provide knowledge for an understanding of other cultures and increase tolerance of the ‘other’. Area studies have relevance to our situation in Europe with increased migrancy, not least as a result of Schengen and EU regulations.

  9. Developments in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Reaz

    1992-01-01

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  10. Developments in South-East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Reaz [Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    1993-12-31

    Interpretation of the Confidence-building and Confidence-building measures (CBMs) concerned with collective security, disarmament and arms control are treated for a specific case of Myanmar and Bangladesh. Political settings for confidence-building and constraints in Asia-Pacific region are defined including geopolitical imperatives, immediate strategic and internal imperatives as well as prospects for achievement of confidence-building. There is a growing agreement that CBMs should be modest, incremental and viewed as a process of cumulative accretion. On the global front, the continuing spread of unconventional weapons technologies, especially nuclear, chemical and biological, and advanced missile systems, remains a fundamental concern

  11. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, H.

    2002-07-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were recognized early on to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. Different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, throughout the region represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are not found in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in large numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  12. Permian of Southeast Asia: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Henri

    2002-08-01

    Permian rocks are widely distributed throughout Southeast Asia. Because of the tropical-equatorial climate the rocks are commonly deeply weathered and covered by dense vegetation over much of the region. Elsewhere, Permian rocks are well exposed and easy to access, particularly where limestone outcrops have weathered to form spectacular, castellated, tower karst. Many limestone outcrops, containing abundant fusulinaceans, were early recognized to be of Permian age, but many outcrops without fusulinaceans, erroneously assigned to the Permian, were found subsequently to be of Triassic age, and more careful studies have established the Permian age of rocks of other lithologies. It is now recognized that different depositional environments are represented by the Permian deposits in various parts of the region. Massive limestones, widespread throughout the region, represent extensive carbonate platforms; local occurrences of thick bedded cherts indicate deposition in deep marine environments, coal, bauxite and clastic sediments with vertebrate remains in North Vietnam and Laos indicate deposition in a continental environment, and pebbly mudstones in Myanmar, Peninsular Thailand, northwest Malaysia and Sumatra, are considered to have been formed in a glacial environment. Volcanic rocks are absent in northwest Peninsular Malaysia and Peninsular Thailand, but are extensively developed in North Vietnam, Sumatra, the eastern Malay Peninsula and Timor. Fossils, representing many fossil groups, are often prolific in Permian sediments, with fusulinaceans, for example, occurring in astronomical numbers in many limestone outcrops. Age-diagnostic fossils demonstrate that the whole of the Permian is represented in different areas of Southeast Asia. Fossil faunal and floral assemblages have been used to establish climatic conditions and environments of deposition, to define distinct crustal blocks and to provide the basis for reconstructing the palaeogeography during Permian times.

  13. Buildings energy efficiency in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, energy service providers from around the Southeastern United States gathered at the Shenandoah Environment and Education Center of Georgia Power Company, to discuss issues related to energy efficiency buildings in the region. The meeting was organized by an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the Atlanta Support Office of the DOE. The objectives of the Workshop were to provide a forum for regional energy service providers to discuss matters of mutual concern and to identify issues of particular relevance to the Southeast. What characterizes energy use in the Southeast Most lists would include rapid population growth, high temperatures and humidity, a large air conditioning load on utilities, a relatively clean environment, and regulatory processes that seek to keep energy prices low. There was less unanimity on what are the priority issues. No definitive list of priorities emerged from the workshop. Participants did identify several areas where work should be initiated: networking, training/certification/education, performance of technical measures, and studies of market forces/incentives/barriers. The most frequently mentioned context for these work areas was that of utility programs. Presentations given during the first morning provided attendees an overview of energy use in the region and of building energy conservation programs being implemented both by state agencies and by utilities. These were the base for breakout and plenary sessions in which attendees expressed their views on specific topics. The regional need mentioned most often at the workshop was for networking among energy service providers in the region. In this context, this report itself is a follow up action. Participants also requested a regional directory of energy program resources. DOE agreed to assemble a preliminary directory based upon input from workshop attendees. Because the response was quick and positive, a directory is part of this document.

  14. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders National data for ... very limited. While all of the causes of asthma remain unclear, children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke ...

  15. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  16. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  17. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  18. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The full text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty with its Annexes endorsed on 6 August 1985 by the South Pacific Forum (a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific, namely Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Nive, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa) is presented

  19. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [es

  20. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [ru

  1. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  2. PRACTICAL BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF THYROID CANCER GUIDELINES IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samantha Peiling; Ying, Lee Suat; Saw, Stephanie; Tuttle, R Michael; Venkataraman, Kavita; Su-Ynn, Chia

    2015-11-01

    Numerous published guidelines have described the optimal management of thyroid cancer. However, these rely on the clinical availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. We hypothesized that the availability of medical resources and economic circumstances vary in Asia-Pacific countries, making it difficult to implement guideline recommendations into clinical practice. We surveyed participants at the 2009 and 2013 Congresses of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Federation of Endocrine Societies by distributing questionnaires to attendees at registration. Responses were obtained from 268 respondents in 2009 and 163 respondents in 2013. Similar to the high prevalence of low-risk thyroid cancer observed in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, across the Asia-Pacific countries surveyed in 2009 and 2013, 50 to 100% of the respondents from the Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, China, Taiwan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Korea, and Sri Lanka reported that more than 50% of the patients had low-risk thyroid cancer on follow-up. Importantly, there was much variation with regards to the perceived availability of investigation and treatment modalities. We found a wide variation in clinicians' perception of availability of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the face of a rise in thyroid cancer incidence and thyroid cancer management guidelines that emphasized their importance. The lack of availability of management tools and treatments will prove to be a major barrier to the implementation of thyroid cancer management guidelines in Southeast Asia, and likely in other parts of the world as well.

  3. A novel approach to Lagrangian sampling of marine boundary layer cloud and aerosol in the northeast Pacific: case studies from CSET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, J.; Albrecht, B. A.; Bretherton, C. S.; Ghate, V. P.; Zuidema, P.; Wood, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud System Evolution in the Trades (CSET) field campaign took place during July/August 2015 with the purpose of characterizing the cloud, aerosol and thermodynamic properties of the northeast Pacific marine boundary layer. One major science goal of the campaign was to observe a Lagrangian transition from thin stratocumulus (Sc) upwind near California to trade cumulus (Cu) nearer to Hawaii. Cloud properties were observed from the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research plane (GV) using the HIAPER Cloud Radar (HCR) and the HIAPER Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), among other instrumentation. Aircraft observations were complemented by a suite of satellite-derived products. To observe a the evolution of airmasses over the course of two days, upwind regions were sampled on an outbound flight to from Sacramento, CA, to Kona, HI. The sampled airmasses were then tracked using HYSPLIT trajectories based on GFS model forecasts, and the return flight to California was planned to intercept those airmasses, using satellite observation to track cloud evolution in the interim. This approach required that trajectories were reasonably stable up to 3 days prior to final sampling, and also that forecast trajectories were in agreement with post-flight analysis and visual cloud feature tracking. The extent to which this was realised, and hence the validity of this new approach to Lagrangian airmass observation, is assessed here. We also present results showing that a Sc-Cu airmass transition was consistently observed during the CSET study using measurements from research flights and satellite.

  4. Attribution of the variability of typhoon landfalls in China coasts to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Chen, S.; Wang, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The typhoon (TY) landfall activity along China coasts during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variations during 1965-2010. Three typical episodes for TY landfall activities in JAS along the China coasts during 1965-2010 can be identified, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (period I) and 1998-2010 (period III), and less during 1982-1995 (period II). We found that the interdcadal variations might be related to the combined effects of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase change and the sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific (IO-WP). During negative PDO phase of periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP) inducing easterly flow at its north, favoring TY landfall along eastern China coast. Due to Gill-pattern responses, warm SST anomalies over tropical IO-WP induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP, with southeasterly wind dominating in the northern SCS and WNP (10o-20o N), which favors TY reaching along southern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TY landfall during period III than that of period I, which shows SST cooling in tropical IO-WP.

  5. Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... It is transmitted to humans and animals when they consume raw or undercooked fish. ... environment when contaminated feces enter local water sources. ... Emerging Disease Research Initiative (Eco EID) in Southeast Asia.

  6. Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecohealth Field-building Leadership Initiative in Southeast Asia ... This grant will allow a consortium of research centres in China, Indonesia, Thailand ... Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences as represented by Sun Hang.

  7. AFSC/ABL: Southeast Coastal Monitoring Project - CTD database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Alaska Coastal Monitoring (SECM) project in Alaska was initiated in 1997 by the Auke Bay Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, to study the...

  8. An Education in Entertainment – Possible Trends in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The term Entertainment Industry has been used interchangeably with the term Creative Industries and also has been suggested to be part of the creative industries. The creative industries seeks to provide commercially viable artistic and creative products, known as intellectual property, and in the process of such provision, contributes to the nation’s creative economy. From an education perspective in Southeast Asia, two observations can be made. Firstly, the focus of education in relation to the entertainment industry has always been technical. Secondly, the introduction of the concepts of the creative industries in Southeast Asia has spurred new trends in the education of the entertainment industry. Outside of Southeast Asia, there have been a growing number of academic programs in the field of Entertainment. From within Southeast Asia, Malaysia has taken the lead to introduce two new trends in the entertainment education – entertainment management and entertainment arts.

  9. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1603, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA ship Pisces departed Morehead city on 3 July 2016 for a Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) research cruise in continental shelf and shelf-break...

  10. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1402, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  11. AFSC/NMML: Southeast Alaska Cetacean Vessel Surveys, 1991 - 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1991, NMML initiated cetacean studies with vessel coverage throughout inland waters of Southeast Alaska. Between 1991 and 1993, line-transect methodology was used...

  12. Southeast Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for brown bears in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of bear concentrations....

  13. Southeast Region Level A Marine Mammal Stranding Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  14. Southeast Alaska ESI: M_MAMPT (Marine Mammal Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for seals and sea lions in Southeast Alaska. Points in this data set represent locations of haulout and rookery...

  15. AFSC/ABL: Ocean Acidification in Southeast Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information from one primary project a Southeast Alaska (SEAK) environmental monitoring study. It also includes support analyses for Kodiak...

  16. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1304, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  17. Devolution of the Economy and Environment Program for Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    EEPSEA). EEPSEA is the only program in Southeast Asia dedicated to helping economists and environmental researchers gain expertise in environmental economics research. Since its inception, the program has been managed by IDRC from its ...

  18. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia) ... for evaluating both the process and outcome of capacity development efforts in CBNRM. ... Cluster Case Studies Planning Workshop, Beijing, September 21-23, 2006; ...

  19. The frequency of explosive volcanic eruptions in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, Patrick L; Newhall, Christopher G; Bradley, Kyle E

    There are ~750 active and potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia. Ash from eruptions of volcanic explosivity index 3 (VEI 3) and smaller pose mostly local hazards while eruptions of VEI ≥ 4 could disrupt trade, travel, and daily life in large parts of the region. We classify Southeast Asian volcanoes into five groups, using their morphology and, where known, their eruptive history and degassing style. Because the eruptive histories of most volcanoes in Southeast Asia are poorly constrained, we assume that volcanoes with similar morphologies have had similar eruption histories. Eruption histories of well-studied examples of each morphologic class serve as proxy histories for understudied volcanoes in the class. From known and proxy eruptive histories, we estimate that decadal probabilities of VEI 4-8 eruptions in Southeast Asia are nearly 1.0, ~0.6, ~0.15, ~0.012, and ~0.001, respectively.

  20. Bringing It All Together: The Southeast Alaska Music Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Brad

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Southeast Alaska Music Festival discussing topics such as the role of the host school, the communities and schools within the region, and scoring procedures at the Festival. Includes a festival schedule. (CMK)

  1. DoD Workshop on Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berke, Philip; Brown, Robert; Elliott, Michael; Friday, Paul; Holst, Robert; Weiss, Jonathan; Wilkens, R. N

    2007-01-01

    These proceedings encompass outcomes from the DoD Southeast Regional Planning and Sustainability Workshop, which took place in April 2007, and reflect the opinions and views of workshop participants...

  2. Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (PC1204, ME70)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fishery-Independent Survey (SEFIS) was created by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2010 and operates out of the NOAA Beaufort Laboratory. The...

  3. NASA's East and Southeast Asia Initiatives: BASE-ASIA and EAST-AIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, S.; Maring, H.

    2005-01-01

    Airborne dust from northern China influences air quality and regional climate in Asia during springtime. However, with the economic growth in China, increased emission of particulate air pollutants from industrial and vehicular sources will not only impact the earth's radiation balance, but also adversely affect human health year round. In addition, both of dust and aerosol pollutants can be transported swiftly across the Pacific affecting North America within a few days. Asian dust and pollutant aerosols can be detected by their colored appearance using current Earth observing satellites (e.g., MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS, etc.) and by sunphotometers deployed on the surface of the earth. Biomass burning has been a regular practice for land clearing and conversion in many countries, especially those in Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. However, the climatology of Southeast Asia is very different than that of Africa and South America, such that large-scale biomass burning causes smoke to interact extensively with clouds during the peak-burning season of March to April. Globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (eg., CO2, CH4), chemically active gases (e.g., NO, CO, HC, CH3Br), and atmospheric aerosols are produced by biomass burning. These gases influence the Earth-atmosphere system, impacting both global climate and tropospheric chemistry. Some aerosols can serve as cloud condensation nuclei, which play a role in determining cloud lifetime and precipitation, altering the earth's radiation and water budgets. Biomass burning also affects the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and carbon compounds; the hydrological cycle; land surface reflectivity and emissivity; and ecosystem biodiversity and stability. Two NASA initiatives, EAST-AIRE (East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment) and BASE-ASIA (Biomass-burning Aerosols in South East-Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment) will be presented. The objectives of these initiatives is to

  4. Trade in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollar, David

    1988-01-01

    States that international trade is a prime factor linking the Pacific Rim nations. Discusses the differences in each nation's productive factors (land, labor, capital) and examines the emerging technological competition. Concludes that if U.S. firms cannot meet the challenge of foreign competition, then protectionism might limit further economic…

  5. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  6. Energy in Southeast Asia: from Networks to Markets Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the world's most dynamic regions and experiences strong economic and energy demand growth rates. In this context, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is seeking to interconnect the electric grids and gas networks of the countries through two initiatives, the Asean Power Grid and the Trans-Asean Gas Pipeline, in order to pool resources and optimize energy markets integration in the region

  7. Competitive Advantage in Tourism of Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Akarapong Untong

    2013-01-01

    The competitive advantage in tourism of the countries in Southeast Asia was assessed by using coverage ratio and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Static and dynamic analyses were applied to the data of tourism services export during 2002-2010. The results show that Cambodia, Laos PDR, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam had competitive advantages, i.e. these countries gain the surpluses more than that of the region’s. Thailand had the highest specialization in Southeast Asia but declining. M...

  8. Land rights of indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Xanthaki, A

    2003-01-01

    Very little has been written on indigenous rights in South-East Asia. This article attempts to address issues concerning indigenous land rights in the region, arguing that there is a clear gap between the existing situation and the relevant standards of the international human rights system. After a short overview of the international human rights framework currently binding South-East Asian states, the article analyses issues of indigenous land ownership and control by indigenous peoples ove...

  9. Doctor?patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    OpenAIRE

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D. F.; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Studies of doctor?patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in in...

  10. The democratizing potential of the Internet in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kevin J

    1997-01-01

    This thesis argues that the Internet is likely to he a strong, positive facilitating factor for the transition to and consolidation of democracy for states in Southeast Asia. U.S. policy makers intent on promoting democracy in Southeast Asia should consider the Internet's potential as a tool for promoting democratization. A review of the existing democratization literature, coupled with quantitative analysis of the societal impact of computer networking technologies, suggests that the level o...

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  13. Lessons Learned from Southeast Asian Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, R.; Tanaka, S.

    2009-04-01

    At certain scales, flood has always been the lifeline of many people from Southeast Asian countries. People are traditionally accustomed to living with such floods and their livelihood is adjusted accordingly to optimize the benefits from the floods. However, large scale flood occasionally turns into the disaster and causes massive destruction not only in terms of human causalities but also damage to economic, ecological and social harmonies in the region. Although economic growth is prevailing in a relative term, the capacity of people to cope with such extreme events is weakening therefore the flood disaster risk is increasing in time. Recent examples of flood disaster in the region clearly show the increasing severity of disaster impact. This study reveals that there are many factors, which directly or indirectly influence the change. This paper considers the most prominent natural and socio-economic factors and analyzes their trend with respect to flood disasters in each country's context. A regional scale comparative analysis further helps to exchange the know how and to determine what kind of strategy and policy are lacking to manage the floods in a long run. It is also helpful in identifying the critical sectors that should be addressed first to mitigate the potential damage from the floods.

  14. A mitochondrial stratigraphy for island southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine; Soares, Pedro; Mormina, Maru; Macaulay, Vincent; Clarke, Dougie; Blumbach, Petya B; Vizuete-Forster, Matthieu; Forster, Peter; Bulbeck, David; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Richards, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) was first colonized by modern humans at least 45,000 years ago, but the extent to which the modern inhabitants trace their ancestry to the first settlers is a matter of debate. It is widely held, in both archaeology and linguistics, that they are largely descended from a second wave of dispersal, proto-Austronesian-speaking agriculturalists who originated in China and spread to Taiwan approximately 5,500 years ago. From there, they are thought to have dispersed into ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago, assimilating the indigenous populations. Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA diversity in the region is extremely high and includes a large number of indigenous clades. Only a fraction of these date back to the time of first settlement, and the majority appear to mark dispersals in the late-Pleistocene or early-Holocene epoch most likely triggered by postglacial flooding. There are much closer genetic links to Taiwan than to the mainland, but most of these probably predated the mid-Holocene "Out of Taiwan" event as traditionally envisioned. Only approximately 20% at most of modern mitochondrial DNAs in ISEA could be linked to such an event, suggesting that, if an agriculturalist migration did take place, it was demographically minor, at least with regard to the involvement of women.

  15. Multi-layered population structure in Island Southeast Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörseburg, Alexander; Pagani, Luca; Ricaut, Francois-Xavier; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Harney, Eadaoin; Castillo, Cristina; Hoogervorst, Tom; Antao, Tiago; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Brucato, Nicolas; Cardona, Alexia; Pierron, Denis; Letellier, Thierry; Wee, Joseph; Abdullah, Syafiq; Metspalu, Mait; Kivisild, Toomas

    2016-01-01

    The history of human settlement in Southeast Asia has been complex and involved several distinct dispersal events. Here, we report the analyses of 1825 individuals from Southeast Asia including new genome-wide genotype data for 146 individuals from three Mainland Southeast Asian (Burmese, Malay and Vietnamese) and four Island Southeast Asian (Dusun, Filipino, Kankanaey and Murut) populations. While confirming the presence of previously recognised major ancestry components in the Southeast Asian population structure, we highlight the Kankanaey Igorots from the highlands of the Philippine Mountain Province as likely the closest living representatives of the source population that may have given rise to the Austronesian expansion. This conclusion rests on independent evidence from various analyses of autosomal data and uniparental markers. Given the extensive presence of trade goods, cultural and linguistic evidence of Indian influence in Southeast Asia starting from 2.5 kya, we also detect traces of a South Asian signature in different populations in the region dating to the last couple of thousand years. PMID:27302840

  16. Sex Distribution of Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera in the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johany Peñailillo

    Full Text Available Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera (L. L'Hér. ex Vent is a dioecious tree native to East Asia and mainland Southeast-Asia, introduced prehistorically to Polynesia as a source of bark fiber by Austronesian-speaking voyagers. In Oceania, trees are coppiced and harvested for production of bark-cloth, so flowering is generally unknown. A survey of botanical records of paper mulberry revealed a distributional disjunction: the tree is apparently absent in Borneo and the Philippines. A subsequent study of chloroplast haplotypes linked paper mulberry of Remote Oceania directly to a population in southern Taiwan, distinct from known populations in mainland Southeast-Asia.We describe the optimization and use of a DNA marker designed to identify sex in paper mulberry. We used this marker to determine the sex distribution in selected localities across Asia, Near and Remote Oceania. We also characterized all samples using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence (ITS in order to relate results to a previous survey of ITS diversity.In Near and Remote Oceania, contemporary paper mulberry plants are all female with the exception of Hawaii, where plants of both sexes are found. In its natural range in Asia, male and female plants are found, as expected. Male plants in Hawaii display an East Asian ITS genotype, consistent with modern introduction, while females in Remote Oceania share a distinctive variant.Most paper mulberry plants now present in the Pacific appear to be descended from female clones introduced prehistorically. In Hawaii, the presence of male and female plants is thought to reflect a dual origin, one a prehistoric female introduction and the other a modern male introduction by Japanese/Chinese immigrants. If only female clones were dispersed from a source-region in Taiwan, this may explain the absence of botanical records and breeding populations in the Philippines and Borneo, and Remote Oceania.

  17. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-11-13

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east-west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific's could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries.

  18. Geographical Distribution and Sources of Nutrients in Atmospheric Aerosol Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Ocean, the world's largest (occupying about 30% of the Earth's total surface area) has several distinguishing biogeochemical features. In the western Pacific, dust particles originating from arid and semi-arid regions in Asia and Australia are transported to the north and south, respectively. Biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia are exported to the tropical Pacific, and anthropogenic substances flowing out of Asia and Eurasia spread both regionally and globally. Over high primary productive areas such as the subarctic North Pacific, the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, biogenic gasses are released to the atmosphere and transported to other areas. These processes may affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and the radiative balance of downwind regions. The deposition of atmospheric aerosols containing iron and other essential nutrients is important for biogeochemical cycles in the oceans because this source of nutrients helps sustain primary production and affects food-web structure; these effects in turn influence the chemical properties of marine atmosphere. From an atmospheric chemistry standpoint, sea-salt aerosols produced by strong winds and marine biogenic gases emitted from highly productive waters affect the physicochemical characteristics of marine aerosols. As phytoplankton populations are patchy and atmospheric processes sporadic, the interactions between atmospheric chemical constituents and marine biota vary for different regions as well as seasonally and over longer timescales. To address these and other emerging issues, and more generally to better understand the important biogeochemical processes and interactions occurring over the open oceans, more long-term recurrent research cruises with standardized atmospheric shipboard measurements will be needed in the future.

  19. United States Pacific Command, Asia-Pacific Economic Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    export process more efficient and effective by reducing export barriers and expanding markets abroad. The strategy coordinates the U.S. Government’s...investment from Western companies, such as Boeing and Mercedes - Benz , since China opened to the outside world the late 1970s.12 North Korea’s arms... markets for American trade and investment. Expanding wealth and opportunity in many Asia-Pacific countries have facilitated a transition to greater

  20. Dependence of stratocumulus-topped boundary-layer entrainment on cloud-water sedimentation: Impact on global aerosol indirect effect in GISS ModelE3 single column model and global simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Kelley, M.; Cheng, Y.; Fridlind, A. M.; Del Genio, A. D.; Bauer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Reduction in cloud-water sedimentation induced by increasing droplet concentrations has been shown in large-eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to enhance boundary-layer entrainment, thereby reducing cloud liquid water path and offsetting the Twomey effect when the overlying air is sufficiently dry, which is typical. Among recent upgrades to ModelE3, the latest version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), are a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics treatment with prognostic precipitation and a moist turbulence scheme that includes an option in its entrainment closure of a simple parameterization for the effect of cloud-water sedimentation. Single column model (SCM) simulations are compared to LES results for a stratocumulus case study and show that invoking the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization option indeed reduces the dependence of cloud liquid water path on increasing aerosol concentrations. Impacts of variations of the SCM configuration and the sedimentation-entrainment parameterization will be explored. Its impact on global aerosol indirect forcing in the framework of idealized atmospheric GCM simulations will also be assessed.

  1. Low cloud investigations for project FIRE: Island studies of cloud properties, surface radiation, and boundary layer dynamics. A simulation of the reflectivity over a stratocumulus cloud deck by the Monte Carlo method. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    1993-01-01

    The radiation field over a broken stratocumulus cloud deck is simulated by the Monte Carlo method. We conducted four experiments to investigate the main factor for the observed shortwave reflectively over the FIRE flight 2 leg 5, in which reflectivity decreases almost linearly from the cloud center to cloud edge while the cloud top height and the brightness temperature remain almost constant through out the clouds. From our results, the geometry effect, however, did not contribute significantly to what has been observed. We found that the variation of the volume extinction coefficient as a function of its relative position in the cloud affects the reflectivity efficiently. Additional check of the brightness temperature of each experiment also confirms this conclusion. The cloud microphysical data showed some interesting features. We found that the cloud droplet spectrum is nearly log-normal distributed when the clouds were solid. However, whether the shift of cloud droplet spectrum toward the larger end is not certain. The decrease of number density from cloud center to cloud edges seems to have more significant effects on the optical properties.

  2. Homogeneous population of the brown alga Sargassum polycystum in Southeast Asia: possible role of recent expansion and asexual propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Wai Chan

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has been known as one of the biodiversity hotspots in the world. Repeated glacial cycles during Pleistocene were believed to cause isolation of marine taxa in refugia, resulting in diversification among lineages. Recently, ocean current was also found to be another factor affecting gene flow by restricting larval dispersal in animals. Macroalgae are unique in having mode of reproduction that differs from that of animals. Our study on the phylogeographical pattern of the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum using nuclear Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, plastidal RuBisCO spacer (Rub spacer and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-III (Cox3 as molecular markers revealed genetic homogeneity across 27 sites in Southeast Asia and western Pacific, in sharp contrast to that revealed from most animal studies. Our data suggested that S. polycystum persisted in single refugium during Pleistocene in a panmixia pattern. Expansion occurred more recently after the Last Glacial Maximum and recolonization of the newly flooded Sunda Shelf could have involved asexual propagation of the species. High dispersal ability through floating fronds carrying developing germlings may also contribute to the low genetic diversity of the species.

  3. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Salim, Mohammad A.; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E.; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; Defries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013 - a non-drought year - Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated ``very unhealthy''). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 +/- 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 +/- 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  4. Major atmospheric emissions from peat fires in Southeast Asia during non-drought years: evidence from the 2013 Sumatran fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaveau, David L A; Salim, Mohammad A; Hergoualc'h, Kristell; Locatelli, Bruno; Sloan, Sean; Wooster, Martin; Marlier, Miriam E; Molidena, Elis; Yaen, Husna; DeFries, Ruth; Verchot, Louis; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Nasi, Robert; Holmgren, Peter; Sheil, Douglas

    2014-08-19

    Trans-boundary haze events in Southeast Asia are associated with large forest and peatland fires in Indonesia. These episodes of extreme air pollution usually occur during drought years induced by climate anomalies from the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation) and Indian Oceans (Indian Ocean Dipole). However, in June 2013--a non-drought year--Singapore's 24-hr Pollutants Standards Index reached an all-time record 246 (rated "very unhealthy"). Here, we show using remote sensing, rainfall records and other data, that the Indonesian fires behind the 2013 haze followed a two-month dry spell in a wetter-than-average year. These fires were short-lived (one week) and limited to a localized area in Central Sumatra (1.6% of Indonesia): burning an estimated 163,336 ha, including 137,044 ha (84%) on peat. Most burning was confined to deforested lands (82%; 133,216 ha). The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this brief, localized event were considerable: 172 ± 59 Tg CO2-eq (or 31 ± 12 Tg C), representing 5-10% of Indonesia's mean annual GHG emissions for 2000-2005. Our observations show that extreme air pollution episodes in Southeast Asia are no longer restricted to drought years. We expect major haze events to be increasingly frequent because of ongoing deforestation of Indonesian peatlands.

  5. Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's climate has varied significantly in the past, yet climate records reveal that in the tropics, sea surface temperatures seem to have been remarkably stable, varying by less than a few degrees Celsius over geologic time. Today, the large warm pool of the western Pacific shows similar characteristics. Its surface temperature always exceeds 27[degree]C, but never 31[degree]C. Heightened interest in this observation has been stimulated by questions of global climate change and the exploration of stabilizing climate feedback processes. Efforts to understand the observed weak sensitivity of tropical sea surface temperatures to climate forcing has led to a number of competing ideas about the nature of this apparent thermostat. Although there remains disagreement on the processes that regulate tropical sea surface temperature, most agree that further progress in resolving these differences requires comprehensive field observations of three-dimensional water vapor concentrations, solar and infrared radiative fluxes, surface fluxes of heat and water vapor, and cloud microphysical properties. This document describes the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX) plan to collect such observations over the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during March of 1993.

  6. Pacific Northwest regional assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (comprised of the states of Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington and Wyoming) can by several measures be regarded as a national warehouse of fossil energy resources. This condition coupled with an evolving national policy stressing utilization of fossil fuels in the near term prior to development of more advanced technologies for energy supply, could result in the imposition of major changes in the region's environmental, socioeconomic and possibly health status. The objective of the Pacific Northwest Regional Assessment Program is to establish and exercise an integrated analytical assessment program for evaluation of these potential changes that may result from various energy development or conservation scenarios. After consideration of a variety of approaches to integrated assessment at a regional level, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) has concluded that dynamic simulation techniques provide the best available approach to evaluating the issues pertinent to the Northwest. As a result, the PNW Regional Assessment Program has been structured in a framework involving ten sectors. Each of these sectors involve their own submodels that receive information either from outside the model as exogenous inputs or from other sector submodels

  7. EMIGRATION FROM RUSSIA TO SOUTHEAST ASIA: FACTORS, GEOGRAPHY AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Ryazantsev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the geographical features and trends of emigration of Russian citizens to the countries of Southeast Asia on the basis of a comparative analysis of domestic and foreign statistics. The results of sociological research in these countries have been used: interviews with experts and migrant citizens of various countries of the former USSR who live or stay in Southeast Asia for more than six months. In the course of the study, a comprehensive methodology was developed and the degree of favorableness of the migration and visa regimes of the Southeast Asian countries for Russian citizens has been assessed for a number of characteristics. Factors attracting Russian citizens to the countries of the region in the context of the migration theory of the factors of “pull and push” have been revealed. The socio-demographic structure of migration flows and the geographical features of the resettlement of Russian citizens in the Southeast Asian countries have been considered. The main channels of migration of Russian citizens to the region are given: temporary labor migration, migration for permanent residence, and tourism. Several groups of Russian-speaking migrants in the Southeast Asian countries have been singled out: migrants who have moved to permanent residence, as a rule, opened their own businesses; temporary migrant workers who work for several years in Southeast Asia, are tied to work and are planning to return to Russia after some time; temporary migrants who live in Southeast Asia for several months and periodically return to Russia; Russian women who married citizens of Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia and other Southeast Asian countries – former students who studied in the USSR and Russia. On the basis of expert assessments, the types of migration and visa regimes of the countries of Southeast Asia for Russian citizens have been highlighted. Specifics of the formation of Russian-speaking communities in the countries of the

  8. Predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP CFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jianyin [CMA Institute of Tropical and Marine Meteorology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Yang, Song; Kumar, Arun [NOAA/NWS/NCEP Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Hu, Zeng-Zhen [Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Huang, Bohua [George Mason University, Department of Climate Dynamics, Fairfax, VA (United States); Zhang, Zuqiang [CMA National Climate Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-06-15

    The predictable patterns of the Asian and Indo-Pacific summer precipitation in the NCEP climate forecast system (CFS) are depicted by applying a maximized signal-to-noise empirical orthogonal function analysis. The CFS captures the two most dominant modes of observed climate patterns. The first most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the onset years of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), with strong precipitation signals over the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, Southeast Asia, and tropical Asian monsoon regions including the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The second most dominant mode is characterized by the climate features of the decay years of ENSO, with weakening signals over the western-central Pacific and strengthening signals over the Indian Ocean. The CFS is capable of predicting the most dominant modes several months in advance. It is also highly skillful in capturing the air-sea interaction processes associated with the precipitation features, as demonstrated in sea surface temperature and wind patterns. (orig.)

  9. Deformation of the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.R.; Camp, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Four structural elements north of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament in the southeast part of the Columbia Plateau (Washington, Idaho, and Oregon) are (1) the offlap of progressively younger basalt units from prebasalt topographic highs; (2) east-west open folds associated with reverse faulting; (3) northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south faults with predominantly vertical displacement; and (4) vertical north-northwest-south-southeast feeder dikes. These may be explained by (1) a regional east to west tilting of the plateau caused by the isostatic rise of older rocks on the eastern margin; (2) a stress regime with a horizontal maximum principal stress in a north-northwest-south-southeast direction, and a horizontal minimum principal stress in a west-southwest-east-northeast direction; and (3) reactivation of an older northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest, and north-south structural grain in the pre-Miocene basement. The stress regime is similar to that envisaged for the area southwest of the Olympic-Wallowa lineament, and the difference in the type of deformation on either side of that feature may be attributed to differences in the thickness of the crust across the ancient boundary

  10. Falls amongst older people in Southeast Asia: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, M H; Tan, M P; Mackenzie, L; Lovarini, M; Suttanon, P; Clemson, L

    2017-04-01

    The older population in the Southeast Asian region is accelerating and is expected to surpass the proportion of the ageing population in North America and Europe in the future. This study aims to identify the research literature related to falls among older people in Southeast Asia, to examine current practice and discuss the future direction on falls prevention and interventions in the region. A scoping review design was used. A systematic literature search was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Ageline, PsycINFO, Web of Sciences, Scopus, Thai-Journal Citation Index, MyCite and trial registries databases. Thirty-seven studies and six study protocols were included, from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. One-sixth of the studies involved interventions, while the remainder were observational studies. The observational studies mainly determined the falls risk factors. The intervention studies comprised multifactorial interventions and single interventions such as exercises, educational materials and visual correction. Many of the studies replicated international studies and may not have taken into account features unique to Southeast Asia. Our review has revealed studies evaluating falls and management of falls in the Southeast Asian context. More research is required from all Southeast Asian countries to prepare for the future challenges of managing falls as the population ages. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of HIV Transmission in South-East Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Chaillon, Antoine; Kessler, Harald H; Haas, Bernhard; Stelzl, Evelyn; Weninger, Karin; Little, Susan J; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2016-01-01

    To gain deeper insight into the epidemiology of HIV-1 transmission in South-East Austria we performed a retrospective analysis of 259 HIV-1 partial pol sequences obtained from unique individuals newly diagnosed with HIV infection in South-East Austria from 2008 through 2014. After quality filtering, putative transmission linkages were inferred when two sequences were ≤1.5% genetically different. Multiple linkages were resolved into putative transmission clusters. Further phylogenetic analyses were performed using BEAST v1.8.1. Finally, we investigated putative links between the 259 sequences from South-East Austria and all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory HIV sequence database. We found that 45.6% (118/259) of the sampled sequences were genetically linked with at least one other sequence from South-East Austria forming putative transmission clusters. Clustering individuals were more likely to be men who have sex with men (MSM; pAustria had at least one putative inferred linkage with sequences from a total of 69 other countries. In conclusion, analysis of HIV-1 sequences from newly diagnosed individuals residing in South-East Austria revealed a high degree of national and international clustering mainly within MSM. Interestingly, we found that a high number of heterosexual males clustered within MSM networks, suggesting either linkage between risk groups or misrepresentation of sexual risk behaviors by subjects.

  12. Contraction of the southeast Polynesian interaction sphere and resource depression on Temoe Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisler, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    The southeast Polynesian interaction sphere, involving most frequently islands in Mangareva and the Pitcairn group, was active for at least five centuries beginning about AD 1000. By western contact in the early seventeenth century, all islands in the Pitcairn group were abandoned, signalling a contraction of the sphere. Systematic survey and excavations were conducted on Temoe Atoll, the next closest island to the main Mangareva group, to determine the spatial and temporal boundaries of that contraction. The excavations in five late prehistoric habitation sites are described, and provide the first subsistence remains from the atoll. These consist of 21,590 bones of fish, bird, turtle, Pacific rat and human as well as 25 kg of shell midden, mostly Turbo gastropods. Reconstructed weights of parrotfish (Scaridae), by far the most common fish taxon, illustrate a decline in size during late prehistory, pointing to exploitation depression. The x-ray fluorescence analysis of volcanic artefacts documents ties with the main Mangarewa group, suggesting that the reduced interaction sphere lasted until the early nineteenth century when Temoe was finally abandoned. (author). 34 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Indian Ocean warming modulates Pacific climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing-Jia; Sasaki, Wataru; Masumoto, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    It has been widely believed that the tropical Pacific trade winds weakened in the last century and would further decrease under a warmer climate in the 21st century. Recent high-quality observations, however, suggest that the tropical Pacific winds have actually strengthened in the past two decades. Precise causes of the recent Pacific climate shift are uncertain. Here we explore how the enhanced tropical Indian Ocean warming in recent decades favors stronger trade winds in the western Pacific via the atmosphere and hence is likely to have contributed to the La Niña-like state (with enhanced east–west Walker circulation) through the Pacific ocean–atmosphere interactions. Further analysis, based on 163 climate model simulations with centennial historical and projected external radiative forcing, suggests that the Indian Ocean warming relative to the Pacific’s could play an important role in modulating the Pacific climate changes in the 20th and 21st centuries. PMID:23112174

  14. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Baker Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Baker Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  15. Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Howland Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry at 40m resolution surrounding Howland Island, within the Pacific Remote Island Areas - Central Pacific Ocean. Bottom coverage was achieved in...

  16. Oceanographic data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  17. Pacific Hake - Growth and natal origin of Pacific hake from the Georgia Basin DPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) is an abundant species residing along the Pacific coast from the Gulf of California to the Strait of Georgia. It is the most...

  18. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Pacific/ North Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Pacific/ North Pacific teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated...

  19. Biological data - Integrated acoustic and trawl survey of Pacific hake off the Pacific Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated acoustic and trawl surveys are used to assess the distribution, biomass, and biology of Pacific hake along the Pacific coasts of the United States and...

  20. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  1. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing

  2. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the

  3. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawari, Ayman; Hertel, Nolan; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamed; Miller, Laurence; Bayoumi, Abdel-Moeze; Haghighat, Ali; Lewis, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation's premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: (a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, (b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering faculty and the MUSIC URRs

  4. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing

  5. Teaching East and Southeast Asia through Asian Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy C. Barrett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colonialism and indigenous responses to its varied forms dominate modern Asian historiography and imbue the history of the region with rich and multifaceted connections to world history. As a result, the histories of East and Southeast Asian nation-states since 1500 cannot be viewed outside of the context of global affairs. Imagining Asian peoples and cultures during this time is problematic for students, who typically approach colonialism from a western perspective. This presentation explores various means of incorporating into the classroom pedagogical materials and diverse media sources that facilitate a more grounded examination of East and Southeast Asian colonies, peoples, and nation-states.It pays special attention to teaching colonialism, anti-colonialism, nationalism, and transnationalism from the perspective of Southeast Asia’s indigenous peoples.

  6. How will Southeast Asian petrochemicals impact the HPI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    Development of East Asia's petrochemical industry has been phenomenal, with major complexes built in numerous locations. The Southeast Asian countries of particular interest are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Brunei and Vietnam. As new capacity is built in this region, these large operating facilities will affect supply and demand for key petrochemical products--ethylene and polyolefins. What are the potential regional effects from this new capacity? Traditional net export countries will have to re-evaluate their future marketing strategies to remain competitive in Southeast Asia and other trading areas. As East Asia's petrochemical industry comes of age, competition will undoubtedly increase. However, this growing region offers opportunities to widen manufacturing basis. The paper discusses basic chemical demands and the outlook for the Asian petrochemical industry

  7. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    On 8 August 1986 the Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty were adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17 th session, in Suva. The attached texts of the Protocols were formally communicated to the Director General by the Director of the South Pacific Bureau for Economic Co-operation (SPEC) and are herewith being circulated to all Member States for their information pursuant to a request made by the Director of SPEC. Following the deposit of the eighth instrument of ratification, the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986 [es

  8. Sediment Evaluation Framework for the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Sediment Evaluation Framework provides a regional framework for assessment, characterization and management of sediments in the Pacific Northwest to determine suitability for unconfined in-water disposal.

  9. Pacific oyster culture in British Columbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quayle, D. B; Quayle, Daniel Branch

    1988-01-01

    .... Harvesting, processing, and storage methods are described. The problems of Pacific oyster culture include industrial and sewage pollution, paralytic shellfish poisoning along with predators and disease...

  10. Diversification and autonomy: axes in Argentine rapprochement to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Florencia Rubiolo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2007 onwards, with the change of presidency in Argentina and the consolidation of the internal recovery, the orientation of foreign policy acquires more autonomist nuances. It is in this scenario that the links with less developed countries - or of the South - should be understood, including the ties with the economies of Southeast Asia. Our objective in this work is to analyze the current state of Argentina’s bilateral ties with Southeast Asia - with special emphasis on the Philippines -analyzing these bonds as an alternative for insertion within a strategy of selective diversification and extension of margins of autonomy.

  11. Will biofuel projects in Southeast Asia become white elephants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asia's attempt to join the global biofuel development has not been very successful, despite the large amount of subsidies and incentives allotted for biofuel projects. The outcome of these projects has failed to meet expectation due to overrated assumptions and shortsighted policies. Utilization of edible feedstock such as palm oil and sugar cane for biofuel has disrupted the fragile industry due to the fluctuations of feedstock prices. The appropriate research on jatropha to prove its economic and environmental feasibility as energy crop has not been performed. Biofuel development in Southeast Asia remains at an early stage of development and requires highly intensive monitoring and strict legal enforcement to ensure future success.

  12. 76 FR 55363 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) [[Page 55364... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...; telephone: (206) 526-6150. Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE Ambassador Place...

  13. 78 FR 25955 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be implemented pursuant to the precautionary management framework for North Pacific albacore...

  14. 77 FR 75614 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  15. 78 FR 27367 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be implemented pursuant to the precautionary management framework for North Pacific albacore...

  16. 75 FR 49890 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... will be available at the following location: Pacific Fishery Management Council, Small Conference Room...

  17. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... soldiers Island-hopped through the Philippines enjoying ultimate victory in the Pacific theater, while during the Vietnam War, the United States experienced policy failures and conflicts in the nation's will...

  18. 76 FR 47563 - Fisheries of the South Atlantic; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); South Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Management Councils, in conjunction with NOAA Fisheries and the Atlantic and Gulf States Marine Fisheries... Management Councils and NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office and Southeast Fisheries Science Center..., biologists, and researchers; constituency representatives including fishermen, environmentalists, and NGO's...

  19. 78 FR 54869 - Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... NOAA Fisheries Southeast Regional Office, Highly Migratory Species Management Division, and Southeast... describes the fisheries, evaluates the status of the stock, estimates biological benchmarks, projects future...

  20. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  1. Commonwealth Local Government Forum Pacific Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Parker

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF Pacific Project works with local government and other stakeholders in nine Pacific Island countries – Cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. It seeks to strengthen local democracy and good governance, and to help local governments deal with the increasing challenges of service delivery and urban management in the unique Pacific environment. Human settlement patterns in the region are changing rapidly. The Pacific has traditionally been a rural agricultural/subsistence society, but this is no longer the case. The accelerated pace of urbanisation has impacted significantly on Pacific nations and in the very near future the majority of Pacific Islanders will be found in urban areas. Already over 50% of Fiji’s population are urban dwellers. Rapid urbanisation brings with it unique challenges and opportunities. Local governments are at the forefront of this phenomenon, with the responsibility to manage urban development and the transition from rural areas to cities and towns. Their success or failure to manage urbanisation and provide the required levels of physical and social infrastructure will affect many lives in a new urban Pacific. The project now has three components – the main Pacific Regional Project and two country-specific programmes: the Honiara City Council Institutional Capacity Building Project and the Commonwealth Local Government Good Practice Scheme in Papua New Guinea.

  2. The South Pacific Forestry Development Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang Hon Tat

    1992-01-01

    Only a few countries in the South Pacific are large enough for industrial forestry to be a key component of the national economy, but forests provide benefits to many people. The United Nations FA0 South Pacific Forestry Development Programme was established in April 1988, at Port Vila, Vanuatu, with a $385,000 budget, and 14 nations participating. The Programme's...

  3. Forestry research in Asia and Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Chamberlain; Erin Moore

    1992-01-01

    Much research has been done in Asia and the Pacific that might help Pacific Island countries produce more biomass and better manage their natural resources. National forestry research institutes throughout the region have examined many important aspects of forestry. Not all research findings are directly transferable between countries, but research methods and results...

  4. South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the 3 Protocols to the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (INFCIRC-331) adopted by the South Pacific Forum at its 17th session in Suva on 8 August 1986. The treaty entered into force on 11 December 1986

  5. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented

  6. Mangroves of the Pacific Islands: research opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    1990-01-01

    The perception of mangroves by people in the Pacific islands and throughout all the world has changed in the past decades. Today, the economic, social, ecologic, and esthetic values of mangroves are well recognized. Past research on these ecosystems is responsible for the change in perception. However, a review of eleven subjects relevant to the management of Pacific...

  7. 78 FR 33810 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... reduction loan for the fishing capacity reduction program in the Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery... July 22, 2012. Since then, all harvesters of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon must pay the fee and...

  8. 77 FR 26744 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Capacity Reduction Program for the Southeast Alaska Purse Seine Salmon Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... of reduction payment tender of Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon permits. SUMMARY: The National... Southeast Alaska purse seine salmon fishery. The program authorizes NMFS to make payments to permit holders...

  9. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  10. Ruptured Uterus At Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. | Eze | Ebonyi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is an obstetric catastrophe associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the incidence, causes, management and fetomaternal outcomes of ruptured uterus in Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Delivery records, theatre registers and case notes of all ruptured ...

  11. The Prosea Programme (Plant Resources of Southeast Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Dr. A.J.G.H. Kostermans (BO) died on 10 July 1994. He became 88 years old and was buried in the Bogor Botanical Garden, close to the plants and the herbarium to which he devoted most of his life. The life and work of ‘Dok’ are well known to Southeast Asian botanists and various obituaries appeared

  12. Downed woody material in southeast Alaska forest stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederic R. Larson

    1992-01-01

    Data collected in conjunction with the multiresource inventory of southeast Alaska in 1985-86 included downed wood along 234 transects at 60 locations. Transects occurred in 11 forest types and 19 plant associations within the entire southeastern Alaska archipelago. Downed wood weights in forest types ranged from 1232 kilograms per hectare (0.6 ton per acre) in muskeg...

  13. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  14. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  15. Deploying Renewables in Southeast Asian Countries: Trends and Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper is part of the IEA ongoing analysis of global renewable energy markets and policies. It focuses on six Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The report investigates the potentials and barriers for scaling up market penetration of renewable energy technologies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors in the six countries.

  16. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  17. New trends in the anthropology of Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question, is there such an entity as a separate field of the anthropology of Southeast Asia? Has the crisis in anthropology in the 1970s and ‘the literary turn’ of the 1980s led to a renewed interest in area studies? A number of topics that originally belonged to the field

  18. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramita, Mora; Nugraheni, Mubarika D F; van Dalen, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-03-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a Southeast Asian setting. We conducted a qualitative study based on principles of grounded theory. Twenty residents and specialists and 20 patients of a low or high educational level were interviewed in internal medicine outpatient clinics of an Indonesian teaching hospital and two affiliated hospitals. During 26 weeks we engaged in an iterative interview and coding process to identify emergent factors. Patients were generally dissatisfied with doctors' communication style. The doctors indicated that they did not deliberately use a one-way style. Communication style appeared to be associated with characteristics of Southeast Asian culture, the health care setting and medical education. Doctor-patient communication appeared to be affected by cultural characteristics which fell into two broad categories representing key features of Southeast Asian culture, "social distance" and "closeness of relationships", and to characteristics categorized as "specific clinical context". Consideration of these characteristics could be helpful in promoting the use of a partnership communication style.

  19. Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014 [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeado, Joe; Schmidt, Jeff; Hart, Rebecca; Henken, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This summary from the "Public Schooling in Southeast Wisconsin: 2013-2014" full report presents the school district performance in a pull-out format. Definitions are provided for the column heading: (1) Total Operations Spending, (2) Property Tax Revenue, (3) Total Enrollment; (4) One-Year Change in Enrollment, (5) Minority Enrollment,…

  20. Microsoft in Southeast Europe: A Conversation with Goran Radman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, William; Frayne, Colette; Kelley, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Goran Radman (GR) joined Microsoft in 1996 and served until Fall 2008 as Microsoft Chairman, Southeast Europe (SEE) and Chairman, East and Central Europe (ECEE). Based in Croatia, where he enjoys sailing the Adriatic coast and islands, he spoke with the authors during 2008 and 2009 about his experience launching Microsoft's commercial presence in…

  1. Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Using Evaluation for CBNRM Capacity Development (Southeast Asia). Recently, capacity development has regained a central place on the agenda of many donor organizations, including IDRC. The challenge is to measure the results of capacity development initiatives. In Asia, there are a few ongoing efforts to document ...

  2. Effects of lithology on geothermal gradient on the southeast Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the effects of lithologic formations on geothermal gradients is carried out in the south-east Niger Delta, Nigeria, using continuous temperature and lithologic log data from closely-spaced petroleum wells. The gradient profiles obtained for the deep wells, logged to depths between 6500 ft (1981m) and 8500ft ...

  3. Globalization and Women in Southeast Asian Higher Education Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    This case study of Southeast Asian women in higher education management investigates culture-specific dimensions of "glass ceiling" impediments to career advancement in higher education. Respondents note that despite considerable training and expertise, Asian values and ideologies demand enactment of a construct of Asian femininity that…

  4. Doctor-patient communication in Southeast Asia: a different culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claramita, M.; Nugraheni, M.D.; Dalen, J. Van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Studies of doctor-patient communication generally advocate a partnership communication style. However, in Southeast Asian settings, we often see a more one-way style with little input from the patient. We investigated factors underlying the use of a one-way consultation style by doctors in a

  5. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  6. Food Preferences, Beliefs and Practices of Southeast Asian Refugee Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Mary; Harris, Linda J.

    1988-01-01

    Results from a study of 207 Southeast Asian refugee high school students indicate that these students have maintained strong ties to their native foods and traditional meal patterns. Cambodian, Vietnamese, and Hmong students showed varying degrees of nutritional awareness. Implications of beliefs, preferences, and practices for nutrition education…

  7. On lunisolar calendars and intercalation schemes in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislén, Lars

    2018-04-01

    This is a survey of different calendar intercalation schemes, mainly in Southeast Asia. The Thai and Burmese Calendars, superficially very similar, are shown to have quite different and interesting intercalation schemes. We also investigate similarities between the original Burmese Calendar and the Romakasiddhânta from India.

  8. Turning value chains into social gains in Southeast Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global value chains, which now form the largest share of the world's trade, involve producers and enterprises that produce goods as inputs for other producers. In Southeast Asian countries, these industries employ large numbers of low-skilled workers, particularly women. Governments aim to facilitate these value chains ...

  9. Southeast Asia: A Selected Functional and Country Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Foreign Service Inst.

    This bibliography, which contains approximately 500 citations dated between 1952 and 1972, is one of a series on various areas of the world. Countries included in this bibliography on Southeast Asia are: Australia, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia and Singapore, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, Viet-Nam, Western Samoa and the…

  10. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  11. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 5. Soil mass movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1974-01-01

    Research in southeast Alaska has identified soil mass movement as the dominant erosion process, with debris avalanches and debris flows the most frequent events on characteristically steep, forested slopes. Periodically high soil water levels and steep slopes are controlling factors. Bedrock structure and the rooting characteristics of trees and other vegetation exert...

  12. The Nature of Values Education in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R. Murray

    In recent years, concern in several Southeast Asian nations about the deterioration of values within their societies has resulted in renewed efforts to teach values by means of special courses in the schools. This paper compares the current programs of values education in four of the nations: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Phillipines, and Singapore.…

  13. Application of geotechnical data to resource planning in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.L. Schroeder; D.N. Swanston

    1987-01-01

    Recent quantification of engineering properties and index values of dominant soil types in the Alexander Archipelago, southeast Alaska, have revealed consistent diagnostic characteristics useful to evaluating landslide risk and subgrade material stability before timber harvesting and low-volume road construction. Shear strength data are summarized and grouped by Soil...

  14. The forest ecosystem of southeast Alaska: 8. Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald C. Schmiege; Austin E. Helmers; Daniel M. Bishop

    1974-01-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of southeast Alaska is the abundance of water. Large glaciers, icefields, and thousands of streams result from heavy precipitation throughout the year. Published and unpublished data on water regimen, temperature, sedimentation, and chemistry are combined. These serve as a basis for understanding how this valuable resource may...

  15. Building Capacity to Adapt to Climate Change in Southeast Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The effects of climate change on Southeast Asia are well documented. Temperature increases have the potential to reduce water availability, affecting crop yields and food security. Coastal cities are vulnerable to sea-level rise and flooding during periods of intense rainfall. Coastal ecosystems, plains and deltas are affected ...

  16. Language Education Policy and Practice in East and Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Andy; Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    East and Southeast Asia represents a linguistically and culturally diverse region. For example, more than 700 languages are spoken in Indonesia alone. It is against this backdrop of diversity that the ten countries that comprise Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) have recently signed the ASEAN Charter which, while calling for respect…

  17. Manganese in the North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruland, K.W.; Landing, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative and precise method for determination of dissolved M (nmol)/kg level in seawater has been developed and used to study the distribution of Mn in the northeast Pacific. Mn concentrations in the surface mixed layer decrease from 1.0 to 0.6 nmol/kg between the central gyre and the western boundary of the California Current, then increase to values from 2 to 6 nmol/kg near the coastal boundary (in contrast to the distribution of 210 Pb). Particulate Mn in the surface waters accounts for only about 1% of the total. Vertical distributions of Mn are characterized by surface maxima, minima near 300 m, maxima at mid-depth coinciding with the oxygen minimum and the labile nutrient maxima, and concentrations in Pacific bottom waters of approximately 0.2 nmol/kg. The oceanic distribution of Mn appears to be dominated by external inputs superimposed upon ovberall scavenging which can lead to Mn maxima in (1) the surface waters due to riverine and atmospheric sources; (2) the deep ocean as a result of hydrothermal injection and/or sediment resuspension; and (3) the oxygen minimum region resulting from in-situ breakdown of organic matter, in-situ MnO 2 reduction, and/or advective-diffusive transport of dissolved Mn from anoxic slope sediments. (orig.)

  18. The Towuti Drilling Project: A new, long Pleistocene record of Indo-Pacific Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James M.; Vogel, Hendrik; Bijaksana, Satria; Melles, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Lake Towuti is the largest tectonic lake in Indonesia, and the longest known terrestrial sediment archive in Southeast Asia. Lake Towuti's location in central Indonesia provides an important opportunity to reconstruct long-term changes in terrestrial climate in the Western Pacific warm pool, heart of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Lake Towuti has extremely high rates of floral and faunal endemism and is surrounded by one of the most diverse tropical forests on Earth making it a hotspot of Southeast Asian biodiversity. The ultramafic rocks and soils surrounding Lake Towuti provide high concentrations of metals to the lake and its sediments that feed a diverse, exotic microbial community. From May - July, 2015, the Towuti Drilling Project, consisting of more than 30 scientists from eight countries, recovered over 1,000 meters of new sediment core from 3 different drill sites in Lake Towuti, including cores through the entire sediment column to bedrock. These new sediment cores will allow us to investigate the history of rainfall and temperature in central Indonesia, long-term changes in the composition of the region's rainforests and diverse aquatic ecosystems, and the micro-organisms living in Towuti's exotic, metal-rich sediments. The Indo-Pacific region plays a pivotal role in the Earth's climate system, regulating critical atmospheric circulation systems and the global concentration of atmospheric water vapor- the Earth's most important greenhouse gas. Changes in seasonal insolation, greenhouse gas concentrations, ice volume, and local sea level are each hypothesized to exert a dominant control on Indo-Pacific hydroclimate variations through the Pleistocene. Existing records from the region are short and exhibit fundamental differences and complexity in orbital-scale climate patterns that limit our understanding of the regional climate responses to climate boundary conditions. Our sediment cores, which span much of the past 1 million years, allow new tests of

  19. The Asia-Pacific region: non-proliferation and other disarmament issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years, the United States and the former Soviet Union began to adjust their force structures in Asia-Pacific region. In this respect, a large range of issues have been raised in discussions on the non-proliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction. Apart from the issues and trends related to proliferation, military expenditure, arms transfer and other disarmament matters, the specific situations in the respective subregions of South-East Asia, South Asia and North-East Asia were discussed. Comprehensive and verified commitments not to possess any such weapons is stressed as the main goal of the meeting. It is vitally important that opportunities that were opened should be seized to prevent the spread of nuclear, chemical, biological as well as highly destabilizing conventional weapons

  20. Multifaceted intra-seasonal modes over the East Asia-western North Pacific summer monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K. J.; Oh, H.

    2017-12-01

    Intra-seasonal monsoon prediction is the most imperative task due to high impact on 2/3 of world populations' daily life, but there remains an enduring challenge in climate science. The present study aims to provide a physical understanding of the sources for prediction of dominant intra-seasonal modes in the East Asian-western North Pacific summer monsoon (EA-WNPSM): preMeiyu&Baiu, Changma&Meiyu, WNPSM, and monsoon gyre modes classified by the self-organizing map analysis. The preMeiyu-Baiu mode is strongly linked to both the anomalous low-level convergence and vertical wind shear through baroclinic instability, and the Changma&Meiyu mode has a strengthened tropic-subtropics connection along the western north Pacific subtropical high, which induces vertical destabilization and strong convective instability. The WNPSM and monsoon gyre modes are characterized by anomalous southeasterly flow of warm and moist air from western north Pacific monsoon, and low-level easterly flow, respectively. Prominent difference in response to the ENSO leads to different effects of the Indian Ocean and western Pacific thermal state, and consequently, the distinct moisture supply and instability variations for the EASM intra-seasonal modes. We attempt to determine the predictability sources for the four modes in the EA-WNPSM using physical-empirical model. The selected predictors are based on the persistent and tendency signals of the SST/2m air temperature and sea level pressure fields, which reflect the asymmetric response to the ENSO and the ocean and land surface anomalous conditions. For the preMeiyu&Baiu mode, the SST cooling tendency over the WNP, which persists into summer, is the distinguishing contributor which is causative of north-south thermal contrast. Since the Changma&Meiyu mode is strongly related to the WNP subtropical high, a major precursor is the persistent SST difference between the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. The WNPSM mode is mostly affected by the

  1. Role of sea surface wind stress forcing on transport between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q.

    Using an Indian-Pacific Ocean Circulation Model (IPOM) a simulation study on the Transports of between Tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean such as Indonesian Through flow (ITF) has been done. IPOM covered the area 25°E-70°W, 35°S-60°N. There are 31 levels in the vertical with 22 levels upper 400m in it. The horizontal resolution is 1/3° lat x 1.5° lon between 10°S and 10°N. The coastline and ocean topography of IPOM is prepared from Scripps topography data on 1x1°grid. Forcing IPOM with monthly observational wind stress in 1990-1999 the interannual variation of sea temperature has been reproduced well, not only on El Nino in the Pacific but also on Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Therefore, the oceanic circulations in the tropical ocean are reasonable. The analyses of the oceanic circulations from the simulations suggest that the transport southward through Makassar Strait is the primary route of thermocline water masses from the North Pacific to the Indonesian sea. The transport westward through Bali-Western Australian Transect (BWAT, at 117.5E) can be thought as the final output of ITF through the archipelago to Indian Ocean. The transport westward through BWAT is in 8-12S above 150m, its core centered near surface 10S, which looks like a jet. The westward velocity is more than 50 cm/s. The transport shows significant seasonal and interannual variations. The maximum is in Jul-Oct, minimum in Jan-Mar. These results are consistent with some observation basically. The correlation analyses indict that the variations of transport westward is related with the southeasterly anomaly in the east tropical Indian ocean. The transport variation lags wind anomaly about 3 months. The correlation coefficient is more than 0.6. The transport is strong during IOD, for example in 1994 and 1997. The variations are also related with the northwesterly anomaly in the center equatorial Pacific and the easterly in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The transport is strong in most ENSO

  2. The Nova-Canton Trough and the Late Cretaceous evolution of the central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Devorah; Taylor, Brain; Shor, Alexander N.; Yamazaki, Toshitsugu

    termination. We concur with previous hypotheses that portions of the Phoenix plate were trapped on the Pacific plate by a ridge jump south to the nascent Manihiki Plateau; some portions were overprinted by the Aptian volcanism that formed the Manihiki Plateau and Robbie Ridge. Pacific-Farallon spreading south of the Nova-Canton Trough jumped westwards, initiating transcurrent motion along the easternmost section of the failed ˜M0 spreading axis (the western deep of the Nova-Canton Trough) which subsequently became the western end of the Clipperton (Pacific-Farallon) transform. In our reconstruction, the northeast and southeast margins of the Manihiki Plateau are rifted margins that form the western limit of Pacific-Farallon spreading between the Clipperton, Galapagos, and Marquesas fracture zones.

  3. Ambae Island, Vanuatu (South Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The recently active volcano Mt. Manaro is the dominant feature in this shaded relief image of Ambae Island, part of the Vanuatu archipelago located 1400 miles northeast of Sydney, Australia. About 5000 inhabitants, half the island's population, were evacuated in early December from the path of a possible lahar, or mud flow, when the volcano started spewing clouds of steam and toxic gases 10,000 feet into the atmosphere. Last active in 1996, the 1496 meter (4908 ft.) high Hawaiian-style basaltic shield volcano features two lakes within its summit caldera, or crater. The ash and gas plume is actually emerging from a vent at the center of Lake Voui (at left), which was formed approximately 425 years ago after an explosive eruption. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena

  4. Diabetic Retinopathy in the Asia-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Jacqueline; Lim, Claire Xin Ying; Wong, Tien Yin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common complication of diabetes mellitus, is the leading cause of new cases of blindness in middle-aged and elderly in the Asia-Pacific. It has been estimated that 51% of all those with blindness due to DR globally (n = 424,400) and 56% of those with visual impairment due to DR (2.1 million) come from the Asia-Pacific. Prevalence of DR among those with diabetes ranged from 10% in India to 43% in Indonesia within the Asia-Pacific. Awareness of DR among persons with diabetes ranged from 28% to 84%. Most common modifiable risk factors for DR in the Asia-Pacific were hyperglycemia, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and obesity. Implementation of systematic screening programs for DR and advancement in telemedicine screening methods have increased patient coverage and cost-effectiveness, though there are still numerous factors impeding screening uptake in the low-middle income regions of the Asia-Pacific. Management and treatment of DR in the Asia-Pacific is mainly limited to traditional laser retinopexy, but it is suboptimal despite new clinical approaches such as use of intravitreal anti.vascular endothelial growth factor and steroids due to limited resources. Further research and data are required to structure a more cost-effective public healthcare program and more awareness-building initiatives to increase the effectiveness of DR screening programs. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  5. Riparian and aquatic habitats of the Pacific Northwest and southeast Alaska: ecology, management history, and potential management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Everest; Gordon H. Reeves

    2007-01-01

    Management of riparian habitats is controversial because land use policies have historically emphasized economic values (e.g., timber production) at the expense of ecological and social values. Attempting to manage these valuable resources to attain the greatest combination of benefits has created a long-term controversy that continues to the present. Our analysis...

  6. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  7. Chronic Liver Disease and Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio All Sites ... Cancer Asian/Pacific Islander Women Non-Hispanic White Women Asian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White Ratio Liver & IBD* ...

  8. 77 FR 45591 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Ad Hoc South of Humbug Pacific Halibut Workgroup..., monitoring, and allocation history of Pacific halibut in the area south of Humbug Mt. DATES: The conference...

  9. 76 FR 20959 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council (Pacific Council) will convene a Pacific mackerel Stock Assessment... of the meeting is to review the Pacific mackerel stock assessment for 2011, in order to inform... action under Section 305(c) of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, provided the...

  10. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... § 161.170 Canned Pacific salmon. (a) Identity. (1) Canned Pacific salmon is the food prepared from one... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail...

  11. The IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean expedition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.; Huynh-Ngoc, L.; Liong Wee Kwong, L.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) started in 1995 a five-year project 'Research on World-wide Marine Radioactivity', generously supported by the Government of Japan. In the framework of the project, IAEA-MEL conducted the 'IAEA '97 Pacific Ocean Expedition' to the NW Pacific Ocean from 21 October to 20 November, 1997. The objectives of the expedition were to provide new data on the current marine radioactivity in order to compare them with data sets obtained during national and international surveys at sites used for radioactive waste dumping or nuclear bomb testing in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

  12. Local Government in the South Pacific Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Hassall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we seek to answer some basic questions about the condition of local government in the Pacific. Firstly, we examine what is meant by ‘local government’ in the various islands and for that matter how Pacific Island states have perceived and accepted local government institutions in practice; second, we ask basic questions about existing legal and constitutional recognition and powers; and third, we provide initial findings on current per capita expenditure and local government financial viability in a number of Pacific cities and towns. We also make some observations on current moves towards local government reform.

  13. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  14. Closing ceremonies of the FIRST Southeast Regional robotics competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At the conclusion of the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition held at the KSC Visitor Complex, KSC Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings speaks to the teams and other attendees. At left is Gregg Gale, with Walt Disney World, which is the site of the national competition (at EPCOT) April 6-8. Teams of high school students from all over the country tested the limits of their imagination using robots they designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at the Southeast Regional event, 16 were Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  15. Southeast Asian Fathers’ Experiences with Adolescents: Challenges and Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Detzner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the fathering experiences of Southeast Asian immigrant men who are parenting their adolescent children in the United States. Focus group discussions were conducted with twenty-two Cambodian, Hmong, Lao, and Vietnamese immigrant fathers. The study found that most fathers wanted to become closer to their children and be more involved in their children’s daily activities. Common fathering roles such as the family provider, teacher, supervisor, and disciplinarian also emerged from the analyses. Parent educators, social service providers, policy makers, and practitioners who work with Southeast Asian families should understand the complex and critical roles of fathers and includethem when designing, developing, and delivering programs and services for families.

  16. Health and social welfare of expatriates in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Henry; Gollogly, James G

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Vietnam War and increasing tourism to Asia, there has been ongoing reverse migration of Westerners to Southeast Asia. Some, but not all, have pensions and modest assets. Some acquire a locals spouse and raise a second family. Many of those who arrived early are now aging rapidly and are depleting their financial resources. Health problems become socio/economic threats. None of the Asian target countries that attract reverse migrants have adequate health care and social safety nets that are available to them. The usual health care safety nets expected in western countries do not cover their nationals in a foreign country. This essay discusses these problems as seen from the perspective of two practicing physicians in Southeast Asia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ridge-like lava tube systems in southeast Tharsis, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiannan; Huang, Jun; Kraft, Michael D.; Xiao, Long; Jiang, Yun

    2017-10-01

    Lava tubes are widely distributed in volcanic fields on a planetary surface and they are important means of lava transportation. We have identified 38 sinuous ridges with a lava-tube origin in southeast Tharsis. The lengths vary between 14 and 740 km, and most of them occur in areas with slopes rate, low lava viscosity, and sustained magma supply during a long period. Besides, lava flow inflation is also important in the formation of the ridge-like lava tubes and some associated features. These lava tubes provide efficient lateral pathways for magma transportation over the relatively low topographic slopes in southeast Tharsis, and they are important for the formation of long lava flows in this region. The findings of this study provide an alternative formation mechanism for sinuous ridges on the martian surface.

  18. Popular Orientalism: Somerset Maugham in Mainland Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Doran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on his experiences during a journey through mainland Southeast Asia in 1923, Somerset Maugham wrote a book of colonial travel entitled The Gentleman in the Parlour. As the work of one of the most popular writers of the twentieth century, Maugham’s travelogue both expressed and helped to shape contemporary thinking about Southeast Asia and Western imperialism. Focusing especially on his representations of Burma and Cambodia, an analysis is presented of Maugham’s book in the light of postcolonial scholarship, especially the theoretical insights developed under the inspiration of Edward Said’s Orientalism. Despite its pretensions to be apolitical, Maugham’s travel book is shown to be a repository of Western colonial ideas and attitudes, integrally involved in the circulation of the prevailing European discourse of high imperialism. As such, it is a valuable resource for historians and other scholars who wish to understand the way that discourse worked at the level of popular literature.

  19. 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference. Nuclear energy, science and technology - Pacific partnership. Proceedings Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The theme of the 9th Pacific Basin Nuclear conference held in Sydney from 1-6 May 1994, embraced the use of the atom in energy production and in science and technology. The focus was on selected topics of current and ongoing interest to countries around the Pacific Basin. The two-volume proceedings include both invited and contributed papers. They have been indexed separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Pacific partnership; perspectives on nuclear energy, science and technology in Pacific Basin countries; nuclear energy and sustainable development; economics of the power reactors; new power reactor projects; power reactor technology; advanced reactors; radioisotope and radiation technology; biomedical applications

  20. Religion in Public Spaces in Contemporary Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Afrianty, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Religion is among the most overlooked factors in the development of nation-states in Southeast Asia. Some reasons for this include a bias emphasizing religious ideology in the study of anti-colonial organizations that dates to the origins of the politics of state formation; the influence of many ideas on the patterns of modern elite formations that stress the need for religion to shape national constitutions, and the fact that religion is difficult to neglect in shaping the behavior of...

  1. Application of Prognostic Mesoscale Modeling in the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    A prognostic model is being used to provide regional forecasts for a variety of applications at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Emergency response dispersion models available at SRS use the space and time-dependent meteorological data provided by this model to supplement local and regional observations. Output from the model is also used locally to aid in forecasting at SRS, and regionally in providing forecasts of the potential time and location of hurricane landfall within the southeast United States

  2. Financial Crisis and Economic Restructuring in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yul Kwon

    1998-01-01

    The hidden inner structural problem with the rapid growth of economy was exposed after the financial crisis and South-East Asia is facing serious economic crisis. Currently, the core of the financial crisis is the low function of financial system, so to make the financial department normal by rebuilding the untrue financial system is the problem we are facing. If our financial sector delay the structural adjustment and continue to be competitive in credit, the insolvent debenture will soar. E...

  3. Population and society in twentieth-century Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschman, C

    1994-09-01

    The historical demographic analysis in this article is a revision of a paper presented at the Conference of the Northwest Regional Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in 1988 at the University of Oregon. The author takes the view that fertility has remained high in the Southeast Asian region due to the dynamics of colonialism and the reinforcement of traditional society. Industrialization, urbanization, and advancing education was not favored by colonial policy. The shift to planting cash crops was labor-intensive work which reinforced large families. The fertility decline after the 1960s is attributed to population pressure and the lower limits of land and production per family. Incentives for smaller families are identified as the expansion of mass education, increased consumer aspirations, and opportunities for modern sector employment. The impact of population growth is viewed as multidimensional and indicative of the conflicts between resources, obligations, and aspirations. The historical record in Southeast Asia reveals a population shortage and the risk of losing the minimum supply of labor necessary for a subsistence economy. Traditional local authorities were in need of men for waging war and producing an economic surplus. Colonial administrators imported cheap labor. As mortality declined and population increased, the societal response was migration, usually to frontier areas. New zones of wet rice production were created in lower Burma, central Siam, and Cochin China due to increased demand. Other survival strategies are identified as infinite land subdivision and multiple job holding in the off-season. Densely populated areas appeared to have lower fertility. Over the past 20 years the strategy appears to have been lower fertility coupled with acceptance of family planning, higher female educational attainment, and higher age at marriage. Southeast Asian patterns are considered indicative of the impact of wars, crises, and economic change on

  4. Medication Errors in the Southeast Asian Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Salmasi

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is a worldwide issue, but most studies on ME have been undertaken in developed countries and very little is known about ME in Southeast Asian countries. This study aimed systematically to identify and review research done on ME in Southeast Asian countries in order to identify common types of ME and estimate its prevalence in this region.The literature relating to MEs in Southeast Asian countries was systematically reviewed in December 2014 by using; Embase, Medline, Pubmed, ProQuest Central and the CINAHL. Inclusion criteria were studies (in any languages that investigated the incidence and the contributing factors of ME in patients of all ages.The 17 included studies reported data from six of the eleven Southeast Asian countries: five studies in Singapore, four in Malaysia, three in Thailand, three in Vietnam, one in the Philippines and one in Indonesia. There was no data on MEs in Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Timor. Of the seventeen included studies, eleven measured administration errors, four focused on prescribing errors, three were done on preparation errors, three on dispensing errors and two on transcribing errors. There was only one study of reconciliation error. Three studies were interventional.The most frequently reported types of administration error were incorrect time, omission error and incorrect dose. Staff shortages, and hence heavy workload for nurses, doctor/nurse distraction, and misinterpretation of the prescription/medication chart, were identified as contributing factors of ME. There is a serious lack of studies on this topic in this region which needs to be addressed if the issue of ME is to be fully understood and addressed.

  5. State of rare disease management in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Supian, Azuwana; Lim, Jeremy; Zafra, Matt; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2016-08-02

    Rare diseases, also referred to as orphan diseases, are characterised by their low prevalence with majority of them are chronically debilitating and life threatening. Given the low prevalence and the widely dispersed but very small patient base for each disease, there may often be a disproportion in the availability of treatments and resources to manage patients, spur research and train experts. This is especially true in Southeast Asian countries that are currently in the process of implementing or revising their universal health coverage schemes. This paper aims to examine the status of rare disease management in Southeast Asian countries. It will serve as the basis for a more active discussion on how countries in the region can address an under-recognised rare disease burden and enhance national and regional capacities. The study consists of literature reviews and key stakeholders interviews in six focus countries, including the Philippines, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand and five countries as best practice, comprising of France, Canada, Australia, Taiwan, and South Korea. Rare disease management initiatives across each country were examined based on the World Health Organization's framework for action in strengthening health systems. The results suggest rare disease management remains challenging across Southeast Asia, as many of the focus countries face fundamental issues from basic healthcare systems to funding. Nonetheless, there are substantial improvement opportunities, including leveraging best practices from around the world and organising a multi-stakeholder and regional approach and strategy. Southeast Asian countries have made significant progress in the management of rare disease, but there remain key areas for substantial development opportunities.

  6. Uranium metallogeny, magmatism and structure in southeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    Granite magmatism and the associated uranium metallogeny in southeast China are considered in relation to a plate tectonic model previously developed for Jiangxi Province which envisages the suturing of three separate continental fault blocks or plates which are thought to have existed as separate continental microplates until the Permian, namely the Sino-Korean, Yangtze and South China Plates. In Jiangxi Province, most of the granitic magmas, including those considered in the paper to be associated with U ore deposits, can be shown to be systematically distributed in relation to the postulated destructive plate margins which are thought to have existed along all the plate boundaries between the continental microplates. The granitic intrusions in Jiangxi range from those more proximal to the inferred location of the subduction zone in a modified Andean type model, such as porphyries of Cu, Cu-Mo and W-Cu type, to more distal granites of U-W-Sn-F-Nb-REE type. They range in age from Indosinian to Yanshanian (but mainly the latter) and are intruded in tensional settings along major lithospheric fracture zones, with sinistral strike slip, many of which continued to move both during and after granite emplacement. These U, W, Sn, F, Nb and REE rich metalliferous granites, which all intruded post-tectonically long after the principal metamorphic events, which are Jinningian (Late Proterozoic on the Yangtze Plate) and Caledonian (South China Plate), and the younger suturing events, are considered in the study to be essentially of juvenile magmatic rather than crustal origin. Such a tectonic model helps to account for the well developed and structurally zoned metallogeny of southeast China and the genesis of the Southeast China Uranium Province. Selected examples of U ore deposits which occur within the Southeast China Uranium Province are considered in order to develop the basis for a genetic model for U which would be more generally applicable to this region and possibly

  7. Southeast Asia’s Democratic Developmental States and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michael T. Rock

    2015-01-01

    How has democracy impacted growth in Southeast Asia? This question can be answered by demonstrating how political elites in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand crafted quite unique democratic developmental states that enabled them to provide the public goods and public policies to maintain high growth. Because of this, growth under democracy has been as high as it was during the heyday of these polities’ developmental autocracies. Moreover, as there was no single dominant pathway to the construc...

  8. Improving communication skills in the Southeast Asian health care context

    OpenAIRE

    Claramita, Mora; Susilo, Astrid Pratidina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of these two PhD thesis are to develop a guideline on doctor-patient communication skills based on cultural characteristics of Southeast Asian context and to develop communication skills training for nurses to enhance their contribution to the informed consent and shared decision making process, in the same context. These studies started with qualitative methods; including grounded theory methodology, by exploring doctors’, patients’, medical students’ and nurses’ perceptions on the c...

  9. Building Maritime Security in Southeast Asia: Outsiders Not Welcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Najib Razak , has called for greater vigi- lance and intelligence sharing to combat piracy and prevent terrorism along the Malacca Strait.21 To improve...part a reward for its partnership in the war on terrorism. Weatherbee, International Rela- tions in Southeast Asia, p. 37. 18. Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun...Abd Razak , “The Security of the Straits of Malacca and Its Im- plications to the South East Asia Regional Se- curity” (speech, Seoul, 13 March 2007

  10. Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Fraedrich, K.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-01-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter precipitation in Southeast China (1961–2010) is characterized by the first empirical orthogonal function of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR reanalyzes) reveals the followin...

  11. Asymmetric Exchange Rate Exposure - Research in Southeast Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Thi Hong Le; Ha Thi Cam Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Dinh

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to analyse the impact of exchange rate exposure on stock returns in six countries representative of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam from 2009 to 2014. Both nominal and real exchange rates are taken into account for evaluating exchange rate fluctuations via panel data. In order to achieve this goal, a panel regressive estimation approach is proposed in which a GLS model is firstly used to treat heteroscedasticity in the...

  12. Analysis of CCN activity of Remote and Combustion Aerosol over the South East Pacific during autumn 2008 and links to Sc cloud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, S.; Clarke, A. D.; Howell, S. G.; Twohy, C. H.; Snider, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Shank, L.; McNaughton, C. S.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Kapustin, V.

    2013-12-01

    The earth's most extensive Stratocumulus (Sc) deck, situated off the coast of Northern Chile and Southern Peru, strongly influences the radiation budget and climate over the South East Pacific (SEP) by enhancing solar reflection. This feature makes Sc clouds an important constituent for climate modeling, yet these clouds are poorly represented in models. A large uncertainty in understanding the variability in these low cloud fields arises from our deficit in understanding the role of aerosol. Hence, a major goal of the VOCALS (www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals) campaign in 2008 was to further explore and assess interactions of natural and anthropogenic aerosol with Sc clouds in both the more polluted coastal environment and west of 80W where we encountered nearly pristine boundary layer clouds often exposed to cloud-top entrainment of pollution aerosol from the free troposphere. Extensive airborne measurements of size-resolved aerosol volatility and chemical composition collected aboard the NCAR C-130 were analyzed with an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2) to calculate aerosol hygroscopicity (κ) and predict cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration for all observed air mass types above and below cloud utilizing estimated Sc cloud supersaturations deduced from cloud-processed aerosol size distribution information. The predicted CCN agree to within 10% to measured CCN. Results from this analysis are presented here and CCN variability observed along VOCALS flight tracks is discussed in conjunction with size-resolved cloud droplet information. This includes assessing the impact of aerosol perturbations on the shape of the cloud droplet size distribution parameterized in models and satellite algorithms such as cloud top effective radius retrievals. We will further discuss cloud droplet residual composition collected using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) and analyzed with the AMS and SP2. Size resolved variations in

  13. Australia's role in Pacific energy trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McColl, G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Australia's resources and the expansion of its steaming coal exports. The author reviews Australia's development of its natural gas resources and future prospects for exporting to the Pacific region

  14. Food irradiation seminar: Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The report covers the Seminar for Asia and the Pacific on the practical application of food irradiation. The seminar assessed the practical application of food irradiation processes, commercial utilisation and international trade of irradiated food

  15. U.S. Pacific Command > Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    USPACOM U.S. Pacific Command Search USPACOM: Search Search Search USPACOM: Search Home Leadership Directory Media Inquiries Home : Leadership Admiral Harry B. Harris, Jr., U.S. Navy Read the full biography

  16. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  17. PODs cruise - Pacific Orcinus Distrbution Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orcinus spp. occur in the Pacific Ocean throughout the West Coast of North America. Data concerning their precise locations and abundance are critical to...

  18. Out of the Pacific and back again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Morin, Phillip A.; Durban, John W.

    2011-01-01

    or have been consolidated upon secondary contact due to resource competition. The estimated timing of bidirectional migration between the North Pacific and North Atlantic coincided with the previous inter-glacial when the leakage of fauna from the Indo-Pacific into the Atlantic via the Agulhas current......Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are the most widely distributed marine mammals and have radiated to occupy a range of ecological niches. Disparate sympatric types are found in the North Atlantic, Antarctic and North Pacific oceans, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms driving...... divergence. Previous phylogeographic analysis using complete mitogenomes yielded a bifurcating tree of clades corresponding to described ecotypes. However, there was low support at two nodes at which two Pacific and two Atlantic clades diverged. Here we apply further phylogenetic and coalescent analyses...

  19. Pacific Islands Climate Change Virtual Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virtual Library provides access to web based climate variability and climate change information and tools relevant to the Pacific Islands including case studies,...

  20. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  1. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheet 2016 Update Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) (ICD 10 codes I00-I99, Q20- ... of na- tive Hawaiians or oth- A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 I00- ...

  2. Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and Asians and Pacific Islanders Overall, Asian American ... are less likely than white adults to have heart disease and they are less likely to die from ...

  3. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jietao; Han, Weixiao; Jiang, Baofa; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Ying

    2017-05-07

    Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs) with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RR s ) were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis ( ps infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  4. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W.

    2016-01-01

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. PMID:26834197

  5. Infectious Diseases and Tropical Cyclones in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jietao Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Southeast China is frequently hit by tropical cyclones (TCs with significant economic and health burdens each year. However, there is a lack of understanding of what infectious diseases could be affected by tropical cyclones. This study aimed to examine the impacts of tropical cyclones on notifiable infectious diseases in southeast China. Disease data between 2005 and 2011 from four coastal provinces in southeast China, including Guangdong, Hainan, Zhejiang, and Fujian province, were collected. Numbers of cases of 14 infectious diseases were compared between risk periods and reference periods for each tropical cyclone. Risk ratios (RRs were calculated to estimate the risks. TCs were more likely to increase the risk of bacillary dysentery, paratyphoid fever, dengue fever and acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (ps < 0.05 than to decrease the risk, more likely to decrease the risk of measles, mumps, varicella and vivax malaria (ps < 0.05 than to increase the risk. In conclusion, TCs have mixed effects on the risk of infectious diseases. TCs are more likely to increase the risk of intestinal and contact transmitted infectious diseases than to decrease the risk, and more likely to decrease the risk of respiratory infectious diseases than to increase the risk. Findings of this study would assist in developing public health strategies and interventions for the reduction of the adverse health impacts from tropical cyclones.

  6. Taenia solium Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Ar Kar; Spelman, Denis W

    2016-05-04

    Human taeniasis/cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease by the International Task Force for Disease Eradication of the World Health Organization. In southeast Asia, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is considered one of the major neglected tropical diseases afflicting the region. In the last few decades, a considerable effort has been invested toward establishing the epidemiology and burden of disease in several southeast Asian countries. Moreover, further evidence is emerging as to understanding the dynamics of disease transmission and cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors influencing the success of control and eradication efforts within the region. However, despite major collaborations by several champion groups, advances have been slow and little remains known about the complete epidemiology of taeniasis/cysticercosis and the barriers to programmatic success. This review article aims to address the above issues with a further focus on the challenges to control and eradicate taeniasis/cysticercosis within the southeast Asia region. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  8. The US Pivot Towards Asia-Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War.......An analysis of the US new Asia-Pacific strategy. The brief seeks to set the new strategy in the context of American foreign policy since the end of the Cold War....

  9. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Léonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  10. Sponges from Clipperton Island, East Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    van Soest, R.W.M.; Kaiser, K.L.; van Syoc, R.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty sponge species (totalling 190 individuals) were collected during the 1938, 1994 and 2004/5 expeditions to the remote island of Clipperton in the East Pacific Ocean. Seven species are widespread Indo-Pacific sponges; nine species comprise sponges new to science; four species were represented only by small thin patches insufficient for proper characterization and could be only determined to genus. The new species may not be necessarily endemic to the island, as several show similarities ...

  11. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  12. Structures and Evolutions of Explosive Cyclones over the Northwestern and Northeastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuqin; Fu, Gang

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the structures and evolutions of moderate (MO) explosive cyclones (ECs) over the Northwestern Pacific (NWP) and Northeastern Pacific (NEP) are investigated and compared using composite analysis with cyclone-relative coordinates. Final Operational Global Analysis data gathered during the cold seasons (October-April) of the 15 years from 2000 to 2015 are used. The results indicate that MO NWP ECs have strong baroclinicity and abundant latent heat release at low levels and strong upper-level forcing, which favors explosive cyclogenesis. The rapid development of MO NEP ECs results from their interaction with a northern cyclone and a large middle-level advection of cyclonic vorticity. The structural differences between MO NWP ECs and MO NEP ECs are significant. This results from their specific large-scale atmospheric and oceanic environments. MO NWP ECs usually develop rapidly in the east and southeast of the Japan Islands; the intrusion of cold dry air from the East Asian continent leads to strong baroclinicity, and the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension provides abundant latent heat release at low levels. The East Asian subtropical westerly jet stream supplies strong upper-level forcing. While MO NEP ECs mainly occur over the NEP, the low-level baroclinicity, upper-level jet stream, and warm ocean currents are relatively weaker. The merged cyclone associated with a strong middle-level trough transports large cyclonic vorticity to MO NEP ECs, which favors their rapid development.

  13. Molecular genetic evidence for the place of origin of the Pacific rat, Rattus exulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Thomson

    Full Text Available Commensal plants and animals have long been used to track human migrations, with Rattus exulans (the Pacific rat a common organism for reconstructing Polynesian dispersal in the Pacific. However, with no knowledge of the homeland of R. exulans, the place of origin of this human-commensal relationship is unknown. We conducted a mitochondrial DNA phylogeographic survey of R. exulans diversity across the potential natural range in mainland and Island Southeast Asia in order to establish the origin of this human-commensal dyad. We also conducted allozyme electrophoresis on samples from ISEA to obtain a perspective on patterns of genetic diversity in this critical region. Finally, we compared molecular genetic evidence with knowledge of prehistoric rodent faunas in mainland and ISEA. We find that ISEA populations of R. exulans contain the highest mtDNA lineage diversity including significant haplotype diversity not represented elsewhere in the species range. Within ISEA, the island of Flores in the Lesser Sunda group contains the highest diversity in ISEA (across all loci and also has a deep fossil record of small mammals that appears to include R. exulans. Therefore, in addition to Flores harboring unusual diversity in the form of Homo floresiensis, dwarfed stegodons and giant rats, this island appears to be the homeland of R. exulans.

  14. [Political and organizational-legal frameworks for cooperation between countries of the Asia-Pacific region in the field of military medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholikov, I V; Dmitrakovich, D V

    2014-12-01

    A framework for cooperation in the field of military medicine in the Asia-Pacific region is considered. Expert Working Group on Military Medicine in cooperation with the Association of Southeast Asian dialogue partners (including Russia) was formed to discuss the most important issues in the field of military medicine, to share practical experience of military physicians, standardization and unification of medical equipment, medicines, levels and standards of medical services and other issues in order to enhance cooperation of military medical services of the participating countries. From 2014 to 2016, the Russian Federation and the Kingdom of Thailand are co-chairs of the expert group.

  15. Boundary scavenging in the Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.F.; Lao, Y.; Broecker, W.S.; Trumbore, S.E.; Hofmann, H.J.; Wolfli, W.

    1990-01-01

    Concentrations of U, Th, 231 Pa and 10 Be were measured in Holocene sediments from two cores collected off the west coast of South America, two cores from the East Pacific Rise, two from the equatorial Pacific and one from the south Pacific central gyre. Our results, together with data from 5 cores reported in the literature, show that boundary scavenging plays a major role in the removal of 10 Be from the Pacific Ocean. Deposition rates of 10 Be at three margin sites are more than an order of magnitude greater than at sites of red clay accumulation in the deep central Pacific. Deposition of 231 Pa is 4 to 5-fold greater at the margin sites. The residence time of 10 Be with respect to chemical scavenging, defined as its inventory in the water column divided by its rate of removal to the sediments, varies regionally from >1000 years at the red-clay sites in the deep central Pacific to ∝100 years at the margin sites. Different factors control boundary scavenging of Pa and Be. For example, scavenging of 231 Pa is enhanced by metal-oxide coatings of particles, whereas this seems to have little influence on the scavenging of 10 Be. (orig.)

  16. 76 FR 32929 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... are revised from ``Indo-Pacific blue marlin, Makaira mazara'' to ``Pacific blue marlin, Makaira... Istiompax indica striped marlin Kajikia audax * * * * * Pacific blue marlin Makaira nigricans [[Page 32932...

  17. Health in Southeast Asia 6 Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Patcharanarumol, W; Ir, P; Aljunid, SM; Mukti, AG; Akkhavong, K; Banzon, E; Huong, DB; Thabrany, H; Mills, A

    2011-01-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for natio...

  18. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  19. Role of changed Indo-Pacific atmospheric circulation in the recent disconnect between the Indian summer monsoon and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feba, F.; Ashok, K.; Ravichandran, M.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the decadal variability of teleconnection from tropical Pacific to the Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) using various observational and Reanalysis datasets for the period 1958-2008. In confirmation with the earlier findings, we find that the interannual correlations between the various SST indices of ENSO and ISMR have continued to weaken. Interestingly, we find that even the robust lead correlations of the tropical pacific warm-water-volume with ISMR have weakened since late 1970s. Our analysis suggests that there is a relative intensification of the cross-equatorial flow from the southern hemisphere into the equatorial Indian Ocean associated with ISMR due to strenghtening of Mascarene High. Further, a shift in the surface wind circulation associated with monsoon over the northern pacific since late 1970s has resulted in a strenghtened cyclonic seasonal circulation south-east of Japan. These changed circulation features are a shift from the known circulation-signatures that efficiently teleconnect El Niño forcing to South Asia. These recent changes effectively weakened the teleconnection of the El Niño to ISMR.

  20. X-ray fluorescent analysis on Indo-Pacific glass beads from Sungai Mas archaeological sites, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuliskandar Ramli; Nik Hassan Shuhaimi; Nik Abdul Rahman; Abdul Latif Samian

    2011-01-01

    Sungai Mas was an ancient port-kingdom located on West Coast of Peninsula Malaysia in a district of Kota Kuala Muda, Kedah, Malaysia. The port-kingdom evolved as an entrepot since fifth century AD and continuously visited by international trader from India, China, Middle East and Europe until eighteenth century AD. Sungai Mas was also one of the Indo-Pacific beads making centers in Southeast Asia since sixth to thirteenth century AD and also produced pottery and brick. X-ray fluorescent analysis (XRF) on Sungai Mas Indo-Pacific beads is carried out to determine whether the glass beads originated from Arikamedu, India or locally made by community in Sungai Mas. Totally, twenty-two samples of beads and beads materials assayed by XRF were chosen. Contents of nine major elements and nine trace elements, which might be present of flux, stabilizer, colorants or opacifier were examined. The elements Si, Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Ti, Mn, Mg, Cu, Pb, Zr, Sr, Ba, La, U, Ni and Cr were detectable in all samples. The concentration of elements found are discussed in terms of flux, silica or lead base glass, color and/or opacity of the glass beads and glass samples. The result showed that Sungai Mas produced their own Indo-Pacific beads from sixth to thirteenth century AD. (author)

  1. The Trans-Pacific Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voon Tania

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of the recently concluded Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP, a treaty the parties have described as comprehensive and ambitious, yet also representing a balance of competing interests. The article focuses on the TPP’s chapters relating to investment, services, intellectual property and regulatory coherence, each of which provides insight into the motivations that drove the conclusion of the TPP and the negotiating dynamics that determined its final content. In areas such as investment, the TPP takes a more balanced approach than many earlier agreements, providing greater safeguards for the regulatory autonomy of states while still embodying core protections for foreign investors. In relation to intellectual property and services, the TPP goes beyond earlier agreements in several key respects, such as preventing the imposition of local presence requirements for service providers or requiring longer copyright terms than those demanded by other international treaties. The TPP chapter on regulatory coherence is one of the most novel features of the treaty, as regulatory coherence is not frequently included in earlier trade agreements, demonstrating the increased focus of states on addressing regulatory barriers to trade and investment. While all of these elements of the TPP are interesting in their own right, given the number and size of the parties involved in the agreement, they also provide valuable guidance about the direction of other ongoing and future preferential trade agreement negotiations, such as the proposed Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP and Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA.

  2. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  3. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N L , a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N H , a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F S ; (2) N H is phase locked directly to F S while N L is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F S . At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N L since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N L is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N H component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N L can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  4. The Pacific sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, David H., E-mail: douglass@pas.rochester.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2011-12-05

    The Pacific sea surface temperature data contains two components: N{sub L}, a signal that exhibits the familiar El Niño/La Niña phenomenon and N{sub H}, a signal of one-year period. Analysis reveals: (1) The existence of an annual solar forcing F{sub S}; (2) N{sub H} is phase locked directly to F{sub S} while N{sub L} is frequently phase locked to the 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of F{sub S}. At least ten distinct subharmonic time segments of N{sub L} since 1870 are found. The beginning or end dates of these segments have a near one-to-one correspondence with the abrupt climate changes previously reported. Limited predictability is possible. -- Highlights: ► El Niño/La Niña consists of 2 components phase-locked to annual solar cycle. ► The first component N{sub L} is the familiar El Niño/La Niña effect. ► The second N{sub H} component has a period of 1 cycle/year. ► N{sub L} can be phase-locked to 2nd or 3rd subharmonic of annual cycle. ► Ends of phase-locked segments correspond to abrupt previously reported climate changes.

  5. Exploring the 'cultural' in cultural competencies in Pacific mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Kathleen Seataoai; Suaalii-Sauni, Tamasailau

    2009-02-01

    Cultural competency is about the ability of individuals and systems to respond respectfully and effectively to the cultural needs of peoples of all cultures. Its general attributes include knowledge, attitudes, skills and professional judgment. In Pacific mental health, 'the cultural' is generally understood to be ethnic culture. Accordingly, Pacific cultural competencies assume ethnic specific markers. In mental health Pacific cultural competencies has seen a blending of cultural and clinical beliefs and practices. This paper provides an overview of five key theme areas arising from Auckland-based ethnic-specific Pacific workshop data: language, family, tapu relationships, skills and organisation policy. Workshop participants comprised of Pacific mental health providers, Pacific consumers, family members of Pacific consumers and members of the Pacific community members. This paper purports that identifying the perceptions of different Pacific groups on ethnic-specific elements of cultural competencies are necessary to build and strengthen the capacity and capability of mental health services to provide culturally relevant services.

  6. A Pacific hydrographic section at 88°W: Water-property distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Mizuki; Talley, Lynne D.

    1998-06-01

    Full-depth conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD)/hydrographic measurements with high horizontal and vertical resolution were made in February-April 1993 along a line lying at a nominal longitude of 88°W and extending from southern Chile (54°S) to Guatemala (14°N). It crossed five major deep basins (Southeast Pacific, Chile, Peru, Panama, and Guatemala basins) east of the East Pacific Rise. Vertical sections of potential temperature, salinity, potential density, oxygen, silica, phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite are presented to illustrate the structure of the entire water column. Some features of interest found in the sections are described, and an attempt is made to interpret them in terms of the isopycnal property distributions associated with the large-scale ocean circulation. These features include: various near-surface waters observed in the tropical and subtropical regions and the fronts that mark the boundaries of these waters; the possible importance of salt fingering to the downward salt transfer from the high-salinity subtropical water; a shallow thermostad (pycnostad) developed at 16°-18.5°C in the subtropical water; low-salinity surface water in the subantarctic zone west of southern Chile; large domains of extremely low oxygen in the subpycnocline layer on both sides of the equator and a secondary nitrite maximum associated with a nitrate minimum in these low-oxygen domains; high-salinity, low-oxygen, high-nutrient subpycnocline water that is carried poleward along the eastern boundary by the Peru-Chile Undercurrent; the Subantarctic Mode and Antarctic Intermediate waters; middepth isopycnal property extrema observed at the crest of the Sala y Gomez Ridge; influences of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic upon deep waters along the section; and the characteristics and sources of the bottom waters in the five deep basins along the section.

  7. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnett, Michael P.

    Climate change have been a major concern among Pacific Islanders since the late 1990s. During that period, Time Magazine featured a cover story that read: Say Goodbye to the Marshall Islands, Kiribati, and Tuvalu from sea level rise. Since that time, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, UN and government agencies and academic researchers have been assessing the impacts of long-term climate change and seasonal to inter-annual climate variability on the Pacific Islands. The consensus is that long-term climate change will result in more extreme weather and tidal events including droughts, floods, tropical cyclones, coastal erosion, and salt water inundation. Extreme weather events already occur in the Pacific Islands and they are patterned. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events impact rainfall, tropical cyclone and tidal patterns. In 2000, the first National Assessment of the Consequences of Climate Variability and Change concluded that long-term climate change will result in more El Niño events or a more El Niño like climate every year. The bad news is that will mean more natural disasters. The good news is that El Niño events can be predicted and people can prepare for them. The reallly bad news is that some Pacific Islands are already becoming uninhabitable because of erosion of land or the loss of fresh water from droughts and salt water intrusion. Many of the most vulnerable countries already overseas populations in New Zealand, the US, or larger Pacific Island countries. For some Pacific Islander abandoning their home countries will be their only option.

  8. ENSO dynamics and seasonal cycle in the tropical Pacific as simulated by the ECHAM4/OPYC3 coupled general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Oberhuber, J.M. [Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum (DKRZ), Hamburg (Germany); Roeckner, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    The new version of the atmospheric general circulation model, ECHAM4, at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, has been coupled to the OPYC3 isopycnic global ocean general circulation and sea ice model (Oberhuber 1993) in a multi-century present-day climate simulation. Nonseasonal constant flux adjustment for heat and freshwater was employed to ensure a long-term annual mean state close to present day climatology. This paper examines the simulated upper ocean seasonal cycle and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific for the first 100 years. The coupled model`s seasonal cycle of tropical Pacific SSTs is in good agreement with the observations with respect to both the warm pool variation and the Central and Eastern Pacific, with significant errors (up to -2 K) only in the cold tongue around April. The cold phase cold tongue extent and strength is as observed, and for this the heat flux adjustment does not play the decisive role; corrections beyond {+-}40 Wm{sup -2} are rare and only occupy small areas, such as near coasts. A well established south Pacific convergence zone is characteristic for the new AGCM version. Apart from extending the south-east trades seasonal maximum to midbasin, windstress pattern and strength are well captured. The subsurface structure is overall consistent with the observed, with a realistically sharp thermocline at about 150 m depth in the west and rising to the surface from 160 W to 100 W.

  9. Difference in the influence of Indo-Pacific Ocean heat content on South Asian Summer Monsoon intensity before and after 1976/1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yujie; Feng, Junqiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-05-01

    Monthly ocean temperature from ORAS4 datasets and atmospheric data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I/II were used to analyze the relationship between the intensity of the South Asian summer monsoon (SASM) and upper ocean heat content (HC) in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean. The monsoon was differentiated into a Southwest Asian Summer Monsoon (SWASM) (2.5°-20°N, 35°-70°E) and Southeast Asian Summer Monsoon (SEASM) (2.5°-20°N, 70°-110°E). Results show that before the 1976/77 climate shift, the SWASM was strongly related to HC in the southern Indian Ocean and tropical Pacific Ocean. The southern Indian Ocean affected SWASM by altering the pressure gradient between southern Africa and the northern Indian Ocean and by enhancing the Somali cross-equatorial flow. The tropical Pacific impacted the SWASM through the remote forcing of ENSO. After the 1976/77 shift, there was a close relationship between equatorial central Pacific HC and the SEASM. However, before that shift, their relationship was weak.

  10. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  11. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  12. Regional modelling of anthropogenic sulphur in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engardt, M.; Leong, C. P.

    A co-operative research project between the Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) focussing on the usage of an atmospheric transport and chemistry model, has just been initiated. Here, we describe the main features of the dispersion model and discuss a first set of calculations in light of available measurements of sulphuric species in Southeast Asia. According to our results, anthropogenic sulphur concentrations and depositions are particularly high near the large cities of the region, around a metal smelter in the southern Philippines, and in a region extending from northern Vietnam into southeastern China. These areas coincide with the high-emissions regions of Southeast Asia and we tentatively conclude that regional transport of acidifying species is not as far-reaching as in the mid-latitudes. From our calculations, and from supporting measurements we conclude that most of rural Southeast Asia is not yet severely affected by anthropogenic sulphur, but given the rapid rate of economical development in this region the situation may deteriorate quickly. Areas that are particularly at risk include the large cities, northern Vietnam, most of central Thailand, most of peninsular Malaysia, eastern Sumatra and parts of Java, all of which receive total-sulphur depositions in excess of 0.5 g S m -2 yr -1. Our model simulates sulphate in precipitation in accordance with measurements, but it has a tendency to overestimate atmospheric SO 2. It remains to be investigated whether this is a problem in the model formulation or a result of unrepresentative sampling. An immediate continuation of this study should be performed with higher spatial resolution than the currently used 100×100 km 2. Other imperfections in this model study, which should be addressed in future work, include parameterised vertical transport in deep convective clouds, the influence of natural emissions (primarily from volcanoes) on the

  13. Parent refugee status, immigration stressors, and Southeast Asian youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James H; Le, Thao N

    2006-10-01

    To assess the effects of parents' experience of traumatic events on violence among Southeast Asian and Chinese youth. The study examines independent effects of parents' refugee camp experiences and immigration stress on serious or family/partner violence among youth. Findings contribute evidence on the intergenerational effects of community-level trauma that can help policy makers better integrate family and community strategies to reduce youth violence. Obtained cross-sectional, face-to-face interview data including peer delinquency, parental engagement, parental discipline, serious violence, and family/partner violence from a sample of 329 Chinese and Southeast Asian adolescents. Measures of socioeconomic status, refugee status, and immigration stressors were collected from their respective parents. Data were analyzed using LISREL 8.54 for structural equation modeling. Findings show that parents' refugee status facilitated serious violence, and was fully mediated by peer delinquency and parental engagement, but for Vietnamese only. Parents' refugee status was also significantly related to family/partner violence, and mediated by peer delinquency. This relationship was not observed among the other Asian ethnic groups. The immigration stress variable had no significant effects on either serious violence or family/partner violence. Refugee communities may not transform easily into stereotypical immigrant Asian communities characterized by little youth violence. Results suggest that the refugee process, as experienced second-hand through the children of refugees, has a strong effect on externally oriented violence (serious violence) and on family/partner violence for particular subgroups. Therefore, community-oriented policy makers should join social workers in developing programs to address youth violence in Southeast Asian families and communities. Findings have implications for other forms of community trauma such as natural disasters.

  14. Epidemiology of Leptospira Transmitted by Rodents in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielcarek, Mathilde; Tatard, Caroline; Chaval, Yannick; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Buchy, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Morand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses and has been identified as an important emerging global public health problem in Southeast Asia. Rodents are important reservoirs for human leptospirosis, but epidemiological data is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings We sampled rodents living in different habitats from seven localities distributed across Southeast Asia (Thailand, Lao PDR and Cambodia), between 2009 to 2010. Human isolates were also obtained from localities close to where rodents were sampled. The prevalence of Leptospira infection was assessed by real-time PCR using DNA extracted from rodent kidneys, targeting the lipL32 gene. Sequencing rrs and secY genes, and Multi Locus Variable-number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analyses were performed on DNA extracted from rat kidneys for Leptospira isolates molecular typing. Four species were detected in rodents, L. borgpetersenii (56% of positive samples), L. interrogans (36%), L. kirschneri (3%) and L. weilli (2%), which were identical to human isolates. Mean prevalence in rodents was approximately 7%, and largely varied across localities and habitats, but not between rodent species. The two most abundant Leptospira species displayed different habitat requirements: L. interrogans was linked to humid habitats (rice fields and forests) while L. borgpetersenii was abundant in both humid and dry habitats (non-floodable lands). Conclusion/Significance L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii species are widely distributed amongst rodent populations, and strain typing confirmed rodents as reservoirs for human leptospirosis. Differences in habitat requirements for L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii supported differential transmission modes. In Southeast Asia, human infection risk is not only restricted to activities taking place in wetlands and rice fields as is commonly accepted, but should also include tasks such as forestry work, as well as the hunting and preparation of rodents for consumption, which

  15. The expectation from radiation breeding in the Southeast Asia - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, F.I.S. III

    1996-01-01

    The induction of mutation by radiation and chemical mutagens is now will established. At times, it is the only way to increase genetic variation in the primary gene pool, as in asexually propagated plants or where the desired market type genotype is very heterozygous and selfing or out-crossing will lead to its breakdown. It was demonstrated that mutation breeding coupled with molecular and biotechnology is a very effective means to modify various traits such as protein and oil content and composition, plant architecture and habits and physiological processes especially resistance/tolerance to various stresses of biotic and abiotic nature and higher stabler yields with lower inputs of labour. It was also seen that mutation breeding is a practical method to produce the desired genetic variability, together with a wide range of additional favourable and unfavourable variation. The mutant alleles in the adapted variety may then be used directly by releasing an improved cultivar, or in cross breeding as the source of a desired gene. Some researchers in the Southeast Asian countries felt the need and the importance of specialized training because standard methodologies are often still lacking and must be developed by the researchers themselves for special crops. Exchange of informations, materials and techniques among involved Institutes should be encouraged. The Southeast Asian country's researcher should be able to utilize the research network and linkages to the maximum and thus benefit more from newly developed molecular and biotechnologies of mutation breeding and thus develop a more realistic and efficient mutation breeding technology and programmes. The present programmes on mutation breeding of most Southeast Asian countries and the aspiration for the contribution of mutation breeding for the coming century are discussed in the paper. (J.P.N.)

  16. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  17. Huperzine alkaloids from Australasian and southeast Asian Huperzia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wei-Han; Goodger, Jason Q D; Field, Ashley R; Holtum, Joseph A M; Woodrow, Ian E

    2010-09-01

    The pharmaceutical alkaloid huperzine A (HupA), currently used in herbal supplements and medicines worldwide, is predominantly sourced from the Chinese lycopod Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. (Lycopodiaceae), which on average contains only 0.08 mg HupA g(-1) dry weight, and is experiencing a rapid decline in China due to over-harvesting. To find a high-yielding, natural source of HupA and/or the related huperzine B (HupB) that could potentially be used as the starting material in a commercial propagation program. We surveyed 17 Huperzia species (15 indigenous to Australia and southeast Asia) for their foliar HupA and HupB concentrations. We also studied intra-specific variation for the huperzines in four species that were available in sufficient numbers, and determined tissue-specific accumulation in larger specimens. HupA was detected in 11 Australasian and southeast Asian species, with eight also containing HupB, albeit at much lower concentrations. A H. elmeri (Herter) Holub plant from the Philippines had one of the highest HupA concentrations recorded (1.01 mg g(-1) dry wt) and it also had the highest HupB content of all plants surveyed (0.34 mg g(-1) dry wt). Intra-specific HupA and HupB concentrations were extremely variable, and at the intra-plant level, reproductive strobili were found to accumulate the highest HupA concentrations. Select Huperzia species from Australia and southeast Asia have potential as the starting material for establishing commercial HupA plantations, but the high intra-specific variability observed suggests that detailed screening is needed to isolate high huperzine-yielding individuals.

  18. Autochthonous leptospirosis in South-East Austria, 2004-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Wallner, Carina; Allerberger, Franz; Schmoll, Friedrich; Seeber, Katharina; Wagner, Jasmin; Valentin, Thomas; Zollner-Schwetz, Ines; Flick, Holger; Krause, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is one of the world's mostly spread zoonoses causing acute fever. Over years, leptospirosis has been reported to occur rarely in Austria and Germany (annual incidence of 0.06/100,000 in Germany). Only imported cases have been on the increase. Objectives of this case-series study were to retrospectively assess epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of leptospirosis illnesses in South-East Austria, to describe risk exposures for autochthonous infections, and to compare patients with imported versus autochthonous infection. During the 9-year period between 2004 and 2012, 127 adult patients (49 females, 78 males) who tested positive by rapid point-of-care test for Leptospira-specific IgM (Leptocheck®) were identified through electronic hospital databases. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted with 82 patients. A total of 114 (89.8%) of the 127 patients enrolled had acquired leptospirosis within Austria and 13 (10.2%) had potentially imported infections. Most autochthonous cases were diagnosed during the months of June and July, whereas fewest were diagnosed during the winter months. Exposure to rodents, recreational activities in woods or wet areas, gardening, cleaning of basements or huts were the most common risk exposures found in autochthonous infection. Serogroups Australis (n = 23), Sejroe (n = 22), and Icterohaemorrhagiae (n = 11) were identified most frequently by MAT testing in autochthonous infections. Patients with imported leptospirosis were significantly younger, less likely to be icteric and had significantly lower liver transaminase levels (p = 0.004) than those with autochthonous infections. Leptospirosis is endemic in South-East Austria. In contrast to reports from other countries we found a relatively high proportion of leptospirosis cases to be female (39% vs. ∼ 10%), likely the result of differing risk exposures for South-East Austria.

  19. Studies for geologic storage of radioactive waste in the southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1977-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was initiated to conduct the research necessary to select a site for a geologic repository for the storage of high-level, solidified radioactive waste from commercial power reactors. The program also includes the design and construction of the facility and its operation once completed. As part of this program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting geological research that is particularly relevant to potential repository sites in the Southeast, but is also of generic applicability. This paper describes the National Waste Terminal Storage program as well as the research program at the Savannah River Laboratory

  20. Studies for geologic storage of radioactive waste in the southeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1978-01-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was initiated to conduct the research necessary to select a site for a geologic repository for the storage of high-level, solidified radioactive waste from commercial power reactors. The program also includes the design and construction of the facility and its operation once completed. As part of this program, the Savannah River Laboratory is conducting geological research that is particularly relevant to potential repository sites in the southeast, but is also of generic applicability. This paper describes the National Waste Terminal Storage program as well as the research program at the Savannah River Laboratory. 31 figures

  1. Civil Society and Distributional Conflicts in Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2010-01-01

    focuses on the competing theoretical definitions and assumptions about civil society, democratization and social change; the second part explores the attempts by civil society actors to impact conflicts over resources and distribution of welfare in Southeast Asia; the third section focuses...... on the conflictual relationship between civil society organizations (CSOs) and the state and various types of social and labour market regulations, laws and contractual relationships, and finally the need for progressive social reform is emphasized as one important type of social resistance against the downsizing...

  2. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for southeast Asian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, H. L.; Mcnair, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The present program focuses on rice because of its importance world-wide as a food. Specifically, the focus is on rice fields in the Philippines. Two primary program objectives are: (1) to establish the feasibility of extracting from ERTS imagery the areas where rice is grown, and (2) to determine those measurements on the imagery which enable the assessment of crop condition. Achieving these objectives with procedures which can be cost-effective can lead the way toward yield prediction, irrigation system management, and similar functions which are known to be important needs in Southeast Asia.

  3. Current and Future Opportunities for Wind Power in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinnesand, Heidi; Roberts, Owen; Lantz, Eric

    2016-10-05

    This presentation discusses future wind opportunities in the Southeast including factors such as changes in wind turbine technology, historical innovation trends, and forecast demand growth among regions. The presentation covers the current status of wind in the United States at 80-m hub height and the near-future outlook with a hub height at 110 to 140 meters. Future cost reductions in 2030 and beyond are also explored. Heidi Tinnesand presented this information to a utility advisory group meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina, on October 5, 2016.

  4. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Scott B. Halstead

    2006-01-01

    The populations of Southeast Asia (SE Asia) and tropical America are similar, and all four dengue viruses of Asian origin are endemic in both regions. Yet, during comparable 5-year periods, SE Asia experienced 1.16 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), principally in children, whereas in the Americas there were 2.8 million dengue fever (DF) cases, principally in adults, and only 65 000 DHF cases. This review aims to explain these regional differences. In SE Asia, World War II ampli...

  5. Introduction: New Forms of Voter Mobilization in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Lotta E. Hedman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia in the twenty-first century is no longer what it used to be, at least not at its ASEAN core. By the 1990s, competitive elections had (reemerged as the primary mechanism for the assumption of state office in the Philippines and Thailand. By the turn of the century, Indonesia had experienced two orderly transfers of presidential power, as well as the country’s freest and fairest elections since 1955. Meanwhile, opposition parties made strong showings in federal elections in Malaysia, seizing control over state assemblies and increasing their share of seats in the national legislature.

  6. Influences of large-scale convection and moisture source on monthly precipitation isotope ratios observed in Thailand, Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhongwang; Lee, Xuhui; Liu, Zhongfang; Seeboonruang, Uma; Koike, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2018-04-01

    Many paleoclimatic records in Southeast Asia rely on rainfall isotope ratios as proxies for past hydroclimatic variability. However, the physical processes controlling modern rainfall isotopic behaviors in the region is poorly constrained. Here, we combined isotopic measurements at six sites across Thailand with an isotope-incorporated atmospheric circulation model (IsoGSM) and the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to investigate the factors that govern the variability of precipitation isotope ratios in this region. Results show that rainfall isotope ratios are both correlated with local rainfall amount and regional outgoing longwave radiation, suggesting that rainfall isotope ratios in this region are controlled not only by local rain amount (amount effect) but also by large-scale convection. As a transition zone between the Indian monsoon and the western North Pacific monsoon, the spatial difference of observed precipitation isotope among different sites are associated with moisture source. These results highlight the importance of regional processes in determining rainfall isotope ratios in the tropics and provide constraints on the interpretation of paleo-precipitation isotope records in the context of regional climate dynamics.

  7. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Hart, Lucas M.; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Richard L.; Stick, K.; Coonradt, Eric; Otis, E. O.; Vollenweider, Johanna J.; Garver, Kyle A.; Lovy, Jan; Meyers, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20–32% in 2007 to 0–3% during 2009–13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host–pathogen relationship.

  8. The parasite Ichthyophonus sp. in Pacific herring from the coastal NE Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, P K; Gregg, J L; Hart, L M; Moffitt, S; Brenner, R; Stick, K; Coonradt, E; Otis, E O; Vollenweider, J J; Garver, K A; Lovy, J; Meyers, T R

    2016-04-01

    The protistan parasite Ichthyophonus occurred in populations of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes throughout coastal areas of the NE Pacific, ranging from Puget Sound, WA north to the Gulf of Alaska, AK. Infection prevalence in local Pacific herring stocks varied seasonally and annually, and a general pattern of increasing prevalence with host size and/or age persisted throughout the NE Pacific. An exception to this zoographic pattern occurred among a group of juvenile, age 1+ year Pacific herring from Cordova Harbor, AK in June 2010, which demonstrated an unusually high infection prevalence of 35%. Reasons for this anomaly were hypothesized to involve anthropogenic influences that resulted in locally elevated infection pressures. Interannual declines in infection prevalence from some populations (e.g. Lower Cook Inlet, AK; from 20-32% in 2007 to 0-3% during 2009-13) or from the largest size cohorts of other populations (e.g. Sitka Sound, AK; from 62.5% in 2007 to 19.6% in 2013) were likely a reflection of selective mortality among the infected cohorts. All available information for Ichthyophonus in the NE Pacific, including broad geographic range, low host specificity and presence in archived Pacific herring tissue samples dating to the 1980s, indicate a long-standing host-pathogen relationship. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Rise and Decline of Japanese Pacifism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cai

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese pacifist constitution has been a symbol of Japan’s commitment to peace and more importantly its renunciation of wartime militarism. There has been strong support for its continuing existence amongst the Japanese populace despite persistent attempts by the Japanese government to amend it. However, the prevalent pacifist sentiment is showing signs of fading vitality in recent times. This article purports to examine the underlying forces that contributed to the development and the decline of Japanese pacifism. A host of domestic and international factors were responsible for the growth of pacifism and its subsequent decline, but only three important domestic factors will be examined in detail: the concept of victimhood in the development of pacifism and its implication for its continuing strength, the importance of peace education and the role played by the influential Japan’s Teachers’ Union on the formation of pacifist conscience and finally, the influence of leftist organisations on the organised peace movement.

  10. Regional climate change for the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBean, G.A.; Thomas, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest climate is dominated by topography and the Pacific Ocean; the forests have become adapted to the present climate. Within short distances there are large changes in precipitation and temperature, with resultant changes in ecosystems. As the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, global climate is expected to warm and precipitation to increase. Global climate model simulations show enhanced warming at high northern latitudes. For the Pacific Northwest, models show 2-6 degree C warming and increased precipitation in the winter for doubled atmospheric CO 2 concentration. However, the regional details of these models are presently not very reliable. The results and limitations of present global climate models are reviewed. The roles of the oceans, clouds, and other feedback mechanisms are described along with some of the possible impacts of climate change on forest resources. 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. The Pacific northwest stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Sheibley, Rich W.

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is assessing stream quality in the Pacific Northwest. The goals of the Pacific Northwest Stream Quality Assessment (Pacific Northwest study) are to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and to evaluate the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality for the Puget Lowlands and Willamette Valley are the focus of this regional study. Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information regarding which human and environmental factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect or improve the health of streams in the region.

  12. Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN): A conceptual model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.; Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    Asia Pacific Mangrove Information Network (APMIN), its structure and scope, is discussed in this paper. Establishment of National Mangrove Information Centers (NMIC) in 20 Asia-Pacific countries, would contribute towards development of databases...

  13. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  14. 75 FR 55745 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT) and... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... sardine stock assessment for 2010. Other issues relevant to Coastal Pelagic Species fisheries management...

  15. 75 FR 33245 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... be held at the Pacific Fishery Management Council office, Large Conference Room, 7700 NE Ambassador...

  16. 78 FR 77658 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Highly Migratory Species Management Team (HMSMT... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Potential changes to management measures for the west coast drift gillnet fishery. 2. Developments to...

  17. 78 FR 56659 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Pacific Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...-16 groundfish harvest specifications and management measures, long-term impact analysis, and...

  18. 75 FR 80470 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council) Groundfish Management Team (GMT) will hold a working... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National.... Council address: Pacific Fishery Management Council, 7700 NE. Ambassador Place, Suite 101, Portland, OR...

  19. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  20. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...