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Sample records for southeast pacific ocean

  1. Wind waves climatology of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Catalina; Rutllant, José; Falvey, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The Southeast Pacific coast still lacks a high-resolution wave hindcast and a detailed description of its wave climatology. Since buoy wave measurements are particularly scarce along the coast of South America, a model hindcast forced with wind information derived from atmospheric Reanalysis seems an attractive way to generate a wave climatology in this poorly studied region, providing far better spatial and temporal coverage than can be achieved using observational data alone. Here, the climatology of wind waves over the Southeast Pacific is analyzed using a 32-year hindcast from the WaveWatch III model, complemented by satellite-derived Significant Wave Height (SWH) and buoy measurements for validation. Using partitioned spectral data, a regional climatology of wind sea and swell parameters was constructed. In general, the simulated SWH shows a good agreement with satellite and in-situ SWH measurements. The spatial pattern of SWH is clearly influenced by the meridional variation of mean surface wind speed, where the stronger winds over the Southern Ocean play a significant role generating higher waves at higher latitudes. Nevertheless, regional features are observed in the annual variability of SWH, which are associated with the existence of atmospheric coastal low-level jets off the coast of Peru and central Chile. In particular, the seasonal variation of these synoptic scale jets shows a direct relationship with the annual variability of SWH. Off the coast of Peru at 15°S the coastal low-level jet is strongest during austral winter, increasing the wind sea SWH. In contrast, off central Chile, there is an important increase of wind sea SWH during summer. The seasonal variation of the wind sea component leads to a contrasting seasonal variation of the total SWH at these locations: off Peru the coastal jet amplifies the annual variability of SWH, while off Central Chile the annual variability of SWH is suppressed by the presence of the coastal jet.

  2. Coral record of southeast Indian Ocean marine heatwaves with intensified Western Pacific temperature gradient

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    Zinke, J.; Hoell, A.; Lough, J. M.; Feng, M.; Kuret, A. J.; Clarke, H.; Ricca, V.; Rankenburg, K.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2015-10-01

    Increasing intensity of marine heatwaves has caused widespread mass coral bleaching events, threatening the integrity and functional diversity of coral reefs. Here we demonstrate the role of inter-ocean coupling in amplifying thermal stress on reefs in the poorly studied southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), through a robust 215-year (1795-2010) geochemical coral proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record. We show that marine heatwaves affecting the SEIO are linked to the behaviour of the Western Pacific Warm Pool on decadal to centennial timescales, and are most pronounced when an anomalously strong zonal SST gradient between the western and central Pacific co-occurs with strong La Niña's. This SST gradient forces large-scale changes in heat flux that exacerbate SEIO heatwaves. Better understanding of the zonal SST gradient in the Western Pacific is expected to improve projections of the frequency of extreme SEIO heatwaves and their ecological impacts on the important coral reef ecosystems off Western Australia.

  3. Calls reveal population structure of blue whales across the southeast Indian Ocean and the southwest Pacific Ocean.

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    Balcazar, Naysa E; Tripovich, Joy S; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L; Mellinger, David K; Dziak, Robert P; Rogers, Tracey L

    2015-11-24

    For effective species management, understanding population structure and distribution is critical. However, quantifying population structure is not always straightforward. Within the Southern Hemisphere, the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) complex is extremely diverse but difficult to study. Using automated detector methods, we identified "acoustic populations" of whales producing region-specific call types. We examined blue whale call types in passive acoustic data at sites spanning over 7,370 km across the southeast Indian Ocean and southwest Pacific Ocean (SWPO) from 2009 to 2012. In the absence of genetic resolution, these acoustic populations offer unique information about the blue whale population complex. We found that the Australian continent acts as a geographic boundary, separating Australia and New Zealand blue whale acoustic populations at the junction of the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. We located blue whales in previously undocumented locations, including the far SWPO, in the Tasman Sea off the east coast of Australia, and along the Lau Basin near Tonga. Our understanding of population dynamics across this broad scale has significant implications to recovery and conservation management for this endangered species, at a regional and global scale.

  4. Advances and limitations of atmospheric boundary layer observations with GPS occultation over southeast Pacific Ocean

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    F. Xie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical atmospheric boundary layer (ABL over the southeast (SE Pacific Ocean is featured with a strong temperature inversion and a sharp moisture gradient across the ABL top. The strong moisture and temperature gradients result in a sharp refractivity gradient that can be precisely detected by the Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO measurements. In this paper, the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere & Climate (COSMIC GPS RO soundings, radiosondes and the high-resolution ECMWF analysis over the SE Pacific are analyzed. COSMIC RO is able to detect a wide range of ABL height variations (1–2 km as observed from the radiosondes. However, the ECMWF analysis systematically underestimates the ABL heights. The sharp refractivity gradient at the ABL top frequently exceeds the critical refraction (e.g., −157 N-unit km−1 and becomes the so-called ducting condition, which results in a systematic RO refractivity bias (or called N-bias inside the ABL. Simulation study based on radiosonde profiles reveals the magnitudes of the N-biases are vertical resolution dependent. The $N$-bias is also the primary cause of the systematically smaller refractivity gradient (rarely exceeding −110 N-unit km−1 at the ABL top from RO measurement. However, the N-bias seems not affect the ABL height detection. Instead, the very large RO bending angle and the sharp refractivity gradient due to ducting allow reliable detection of the ABL height from GPS RO. The seasonal mean climatology of ABL heights derived from a nine-month composite of COSMIC RO soundings over the SE Pacific reveals significant differences from the ECMWF analysis. Both show an increase of ABL height from the shallow stratocumulus near the coast to a much higher trade wind inversion further off the coast. However, COSMIC RO shows an overall deeper ABL and reveals different locations of the minimum and maximum ABL

  5. Biogeographic patterns in the cartilaginous fauna (Pisces: Elasmobranchii and Holocephali in the southeast Pacific Ocean

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    Carlos Bustamante

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and species richness of the cartilaginous fish community of the continental shelf and slope off central Chile is described, based on fishery-independent trawl tows made in 2006 and 2007. A total of 194,705 specimens comprising 20 species (9 sharks, 10 skates, 1 chimaera were caught at depths of 100–500 m along a 1,000 km transect between 29.5°S and 39°S. Sample site locations were grouped to represent eight geographical zones within this latitudinal range. Species richness fluctuated from 1 to 6 species per zone. There was no significant latitudinal trend for sharks, but skates showed an increased species richness with latitude. Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE increased with increasing depth for sharks, but not for skates, but the observed trend for increasing CPUE with latitude was not significant for either sharks or skates. A change in community composition occurred along the depth gradient with the skates, Psammobatis rudis, Zearaja chilensis and Dipturus trachyderma dominating communities between 100 and 300 m, but small-sized, deep-water dogfishes, such as Centroscyllium spp. dominated the catch between 300 and 500 m. Cluster and ordination analysis identified one widespread assemblage, grouping 58% of sites, and three shallow-water assemblages. Assemblages with low diversity (coldspots coincided with highly productive fishing grounds for demersal crustaceans and bony fishes. The community distribution suggested that the differences between assemblages may be due to compensatory changes in mesopredator species abundance, as a consequence of continuous and unselective species removal. Distribution patterns and the quantitative assessment of sharks, skates and chimaeras presented here complement extant biogeographic knowledge and further the understanding of deep-water ecosystem dynamics in relation to fishing activity in the south-east Pacific Ocean.

  6. Picoplankton diversity in the South-East Pacific Ocean from cultures

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    F. Le Gall

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off the Marquesas Islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we undertook a vigorous effort to isolate novel photosynthetic picoplanktonic eukaryotes. Two strategies were attempted on board: enrichment of filtered samples with culture medium and sorting of specific populations by flow cytometry based on size and chlorophyll fluorescence. Over 1900 pre-cultures were started and then further purified by flow cytometry, serial dilution or pipette isolation to yield a total of 212 strains. These strains were characterized morphologically and for more than 50% of them, genetically, through partial sequencing of the 18 S rRNA gene.

    Among the characterized strains, the largest number belongs to stramenopiles (Heterokontophyta with a record of 38 strains belonging to the species Pelagomonas calceolata (Pelagophyceae. Strains from the recently described genera Bolidomonas and Florenciella have been re-isolated for the first time since their description. Two other abundant groups are the Chlorophyta, especially Prasinophyceae, and the Haptophyta, especially the genera Phaeocystis and Emiliania. A limited number of heterotrophic flagellates have also been isolated, all of them belonging to groups containing known species. Finally, over a dozen of unicellular cyanobacterial Synechococcus strains have been obtained, some forming unusual short chains.

    Overall our strategy was quite successful since it allowed us to isolate a large number of picoplankton strains. Still it failed in two respects. First, apparently very few novel taxa have been obtained. One set of strains is related to Prasinoderma coloniale (Prasinococcales

  7. Organic matter and non-refractory aerosol over the remote Southeast Pacific: oceanic and combustion sources

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    L. M. Shank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Submicron aerosol physical and chemical properties in remote marine air were measured from aircraft over the Southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx in 2008 and the North Pacific during IMPEX in 2006, and aboard a ship in the Equatorial Pacific in 2009. A High Resolution – Particle Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS measured non-refractory submicron aerosol composition during all campaigns. Sulfate (SO4 and organics (Org, during VOCALS and the cruise show lower absolute values than those reported for previous "clean air" studies. In the marine boundary layer, average concentrations for SO4 were 0.52 μg m−3 for the VOCALS region and 0.85 μg m−3 for the equatorial region while average Org concentrations were 0.10 and 0.07 μg m−3, respectively. Campaign average Org/SO4 ratios were 0.19 (VOCALS and 0.08 (equatorial Pacific. Black carbon (BC measurements from a single particle soot photometer (SP2 and carbon monoxide (CO concentrations over the Southeast Pacific provided sensitive indicators of pollution. CO and BC were used to identify the least polluted air, which had average concentrations of SO4 and Org of 0.14 and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively, with an average Org/SO4 of 0.08. Data from IMPEX was constrained to similar clean air criterion, and resulted in an average Org/SO4 ratio of 0.19. Under the cleanest MBL conditions during VOCALS, identified by CO below 61 ppbv, a robust linear relationship between Org and BC concentrations revealed that even at very low pollution levels, combustion sources dominated organic aerosol, suggesting little to no marine source of submicrometer Org to the atmosphere over the eastern South Pacific. This means marine organics cannot be identified by merely setting a standard for background conditions below which anthropogenic influence can be disregarded. Other methods must be used

  8. Prasinoderma singularis sp. nov. (Prasinophyceae, Chlorophyta), a solitary coccoid Prasinophyte from the South-East Pacific Ocean.

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    Jouenne, Fabien; Eikrem, Wenche; Le Gall, Florence; Marie, Dominique; Johnsen, Geir; Vaulot, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    During the BIOSOPE cruise in the South-East Pacific Ocean in 2004, several unidentified strains of prasinophytes were isolated into culture. Of these, nine strains composed a group for which the partial 18S rRNA gene sequence was related to Prasinoderma coloniale. The ultrastructure, morphology, division process, pigment composition, genome size and molecular genetic phylogeny of these nine strains were investigated, using P. coloniale as a reference. The 18S rRNA gene sequence of P. singularis sp. nov. shares only 96.9% of identity with that of P. coloniale and contains a conserved insertion of 567bp length not recorded in P. coloniale. When compared to P. coloniale, P. singularis sp. nov. is morphologically characterized by the absence of colonies, smaller cells with a thinner cell wall, and a second cell type with a different cell covering. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Subseasonal variability of low cloud radiative properties over the southeast Pacific Ocean

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    R. C. George

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Subseasonal variability of cloud radiative properties in the persistent southeast Pacific stratocumulus deck is investigated using MODIS satellite observations and NCEP reanalysis data. A once-daily albedo proxy is derived based on the fractional coverage of low cloud (a macrophysical field and the cloud albedo, with the latter broken down into contributions from microphysics (cloud droplet concentration and macrophysics (liquid water path. Subseasonal albedo variability is dominated by the contribution of low cloud fraction variability, except within 10–15° of the South American coast, where cloud albedo variability contributes significantly. Covariance between cloud fraction and cloud albedo also contributes significantly and positively to the variance in albedo, which highlights how complex and inseparable the factors controlling albedo are. Droplet concentration variability contributes only weakly to the subseasonal variability of albedo, which emphasizes that attributing albedo variability to the indirect effects of aerosols against the backdrop of natural meteorological variability is extremely challenging.

    The dominant large scale meteorological variability is associated with the subtropical high pressure system. Two indices representing changes in the subtropical high strength and extent explain 80–90% of this variability, and significantly modulate the cloud microphysical, macrophysical, and radiative cloud properties. Variations in droplet concentration of up to 50% of the mean are associated with the meteorological driving. We hypothesize that these fluctuations in droplet concentration are a result of the large scale meteorology and their correlation with cloud macrophysical properties should not be used as evidence of aerosol effects. Mechanisms by which large scale meteorology affects cloud properties are explored. Our results support existing hypotheses linking cloud cover variability to changes in cold advection

  10. Sulfur Isotopic Compositions of Individual Aerosol Particles from Below and Within Stratocumulus Clouds over the Southeast Pacific Ocean During VOCALS

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    Bose, M.; Anderson, J. R.; Twohy, C. H.; Williams, P.

    2012-12-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-Rex) was a large multi-national field experiment that collected data and samples from a region of the southeast Pacific with the world's largest stratocumulus cloud systems. Samples examined here are residues of cloud droplets and ambient particles from below the clouds collected during flights of the NCAR C-130 off the coast of Chile. Selected samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in order to contribute to the understanding of the source of non-sea-salt sulfate in this region. Particles in the size range from 0.2 to 1μm diameter on holey and lacey carbon were characterized by SEM combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), thus identifying sulfur-containing particles. Subsequently, sulfur ion imaging of identified sea salt, ammonium sulfate and sodium sulfate particles was done with the Cameca Ametek NanoSIMS 50L at Arizona State University. A electrons were collected simultaneously at high mass resolution (m/Δm>10000). Each measurement typically consists of 5 to 8 frames (~5.4 min/frame). NIST barium sulfate and ammonium sulfate particles were used as isotopic standards. Preliminary analyses on a small pool of VOCALS individual particles show a wide range in sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34S = -56 to +41‰). In addition, the in-cloud particles are enriched in 32S, while the ambient particles exhibit 34S excesses. Isotopic data on a large inventory of particles is being currently acquired, which will be presented at the meeting. Data will be used to investigate sulfur sources (marine vs. continental) and the processing of aerosols through sulfate formation.

  11. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the Southeast Pacific ocean

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    Twohy, C. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Saide, P.; Spak, S.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

    2012-08-01

    The Southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles such as power plants, urban pollution and smelters on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics from seven flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were more numerous and smaller near shore, and there was less drizzle. Higher droplet number concentration and physically thinner clouds both contributed to the smaller droplets near shore. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500-1000 km offshore, and actually lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water paths there. Differences in the size

  12. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohy, C. H.; Anderson, J. R.; Toohey, D. W.; Andrejczuk, M.; Adams, A.; Lytle, M.; George, R. C.; Wood, R.; Saide, P.; Spak, S.; Zuidema, P.; Leon, D.

    2013-03-01

    The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics, including their significance, from eight flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number that influence droplet concentration. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were smaller in regions of enhanced particles near shore. However, physically thinner clouds, and not just higher droplet number concentrations from pollution, both contributed to the smaller droplets. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500-1000 km offshore, and actually slightly lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower liquid water paths

  13. Impacts of aerosol particles on the microphysical and radiative properties of stratocumulus clouds over the southeast Pacific Ocean

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    C. H. Twohy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world's largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. The effect of anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles on the stratocumulus deck was investigated during the VOCALS field experiment. Aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI, and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties on an E-W track along 20° S from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics, including their significance, from eight flights and many individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud accumulation-mode aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. Single particle analysis was used to reveal types and sources of the enhanced particle number that influence droplet concentration. While a variety of particle types were found throughout the region, the dominant particles near shore were partially neutralized sulfates. Modeling and chemical analysis indicated that the predominant source of these particles in the marine boundary layer along 20° S was anthropogenic pollution from central Chilean sources, with copper smelters a relatively small contribution. Cloud droplets were smaller in regions of enhanced particles near shore. However, physically thinner clouds, and not just higher droplet number concentrations from pollution, both contributed to the smaller droplets. Satellite measurements were used to show that cloud albedo was highest 500–1000 km offshore, and actually slightly lower closer to shore due to the generally thinner clouds and lower

  14. Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño: role of southeast tropical Indian Ocean warming

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    Chen, Zesheng; Du, Yan; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Chunzai

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of southeast tropical Indian Ocean (SETIO) sea surface temperature (SST) warming on Indo-Pacific climate during the decaying phase of the 2015/16 El Niño by using observations and model experiments. The results show that the SETIO SST warming in spring 2016 enhanced local convection and forced a "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern in the lower troposphere. The "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern over the eastern tropical Indian Ocean consists of anomalous westerly flow south of the equator and anomalous easterly flow north of the equator. The anomalous easterly flow then extended eastward into the western North Pacific (WNP) and facilitates the development or the maintenance of an anomalous anticyclone over the South China Sea (SCS). Correspondingly, the eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, the SCS and the WNP suffered less rainfall. Such precipitation features and the associated "C-shape" wind anomaly pattern shifted northward about five latitudes in summer 2016. Additionally, the SETIO warming can induce local meridional circulation anomalies, which directly affect Indo-Pacific climate. Numerical model experiments further confirm that the SETIO SST warming plays an important role in modulating Indo-Pacific climate.

  15. Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference

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    The promotion of interaction among investigators of all oceanographic disciplines studying the eastern Pacific Ocean was the goal of the 1990 Eastern Pacific Ocean Conference (EPOC), held October 17-19 on the snow-covered slopes of Mt. Hood, Oreg. Thirty oceanographers representing all disciplines attended.Dick Barber, Duke University Marine Lab, Beaufort, N.C., chaired a session on the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, emphasizing issues related to biological activity. Steve Ramp of the Naval Postgraduate School in Montery, Calif., chaired a session on recent results from northern and central California experiments. On October 19, following an early morning earthquake, a business meeting and discussions regarding a collaboration in future experiments were held.

  16. Eastern Pacific Ocean Purse-seine Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data sets from U.S.A.-flagged purse-seine vessels fishing in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). These purse seiners...

  17. Salinity and physical data from TS probe and thermometer in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 04 December 1956 to 01 May 1989 (NODC Accession 0000329)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity, temperature, and physical data were collected from the AKADEMIK FEDOROV (AKA AKADEMIK FYODOROV), LENA, and OB from December 4, 1956 to May 1, 1989. These...

  18. Enhanced Decadal Warming of the Southeast Indian Ocean During the Recent Global Surface Warming Slowdown

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    Li, Yuanlong; Han, Weiqing; Zhang, Lei

    2017-10-01

    The rapid Indian Ocean warming during the early-21th century was a major heat sink for the recent global surface warming slowdown. Analysis of observational data and ocean model experiments reveals that during 2003-2012 more than half of the increased upper Indian Ocean heat content was concentrated in the southeast Indian Ocean (SEIO), causing a warming "hot spot" of 0.8-1.2 K decade-1 near the west coast of Australia. This SEIO warming was primarily induced by the enhancements of the Pacific trade winds and Indonesian throughflow associated with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation's (IPO) transition to its negative phase, and to a lesser degree by local atmospheric forcing within the Indian Ocean. Large-ensemble climate model simulations suggest that this warming event was likely also exacerbated by anthropogenic forcing and thus unprecedentedly strong as compared to previous IPO transition periods. Climate model projections suggest an increasing possibility of such strong decadal warming in future.

  19. AFSC/ABL: Ocean Acidification in Southeast Alaska

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains information from one primary project a Southeast Alaska (SEAK) environmental monitoring study. It also includes support analyses for Kodiak...

  20. On the relationship between low cloud variability and lower tropospheric stability in the Southeast Pacific

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    F. Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine marine low cloud cover variability in the Southeast Pacific and its association with lower-tropospheric stability (LTS across a spectrum of timescales. On both daily and interannual timescales, LTS and low cloud amount are very well correlated in austral summer (DJF. Meanwhile in winter (JJA, when ambient LTS increases, the LTS–low cloud relationship substantially weakens. The DJF LTS–low cloud relationship also weakens in years with unusually large ambient LTS values. These are generally strong El Niño years, in which DJF LTS values are comparable to those typically found in JJA. Thus the LTS–low cloud relationship is strongly modulated by the seasonal cycle and the ENSO phenomenon. We also investigate the origin of LTS anomalies closely associated with low cloud variability during austral summer. We find that the ocean and atmosphere are independently involved in generating anomalies in LTS and hence variability in the Southeast Pacific low cloud deck. This highlights the importance of the physical (as opposed to chemical component of the climate system in generating internal variability in low cloud cover. It also illustrates the coupled nature of the climate system in this region, and raises the possibility of cloud feedbacks related to LTS. We conclude by addressing the implications of the LTS–low cloud relationship in the Southeast Pacific for low cloud feedbacks in anthropogenic climate change.

  1. Nutrient limitation of primary productivity in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise

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    S. Bonnet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron is an essential nutrient involved in a variety of biological processes in the ocean, including photosynthesis, respiration and dinitrogen fixation. Atmospheric deposition of aerosols is recognized as the main source of iron for the surface ocean. In high nutrient, low chlorophyll areas, it is now clearly established that iron limits phytoplankton productivity but its biogeochemical role in low nutrient, low chlorophyll environments has been poorly studied. We investigated this question in the unexplored southeast Pacific, arguably the most oligotrophic area of the global ocean. Situated far from any continental aerosol source, the atmospheric iron flux to this province is amongst the lowest of the world ocean. Here we report that, despite low dissolved iron concentrations (~0.1 nmol l−1 across the whole gyre (3 stations located in the center and at the western and the eastern edges, primary productivity are only limited by iron availability at the border of the gyre, but not in the center. The seasonal stability of the gyre has apparently allowed for the development of populations acclimated to these extreme oligotrophic conditions. Moreover, despite clear evidence of nitrogen limitation in the central gyre, we were unable to measure dinitrogen fixation in our experiments, even after iron and/or phosphate additions, and cyanobacterial nif H gene abundances were extremely low compared to the North Pacific Gyre. The South Pacific gyre is therefore unique with respect to the physiological status of its phytoplankton populations.

  2. Aerosol Indirect Effects on Stratocumulus Clouds in the Southeast Pacific

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    Twohy, C. H.; Adams, A.; Toohey, D. W.; Anderson, J.; Shank, L.; Howell, S.; Clarke, A. D.; Wood, R.

    2009-12-01

    The southeast Pacific Ocean is covered by the world’s largest stratocumulus cloud layer, which has a strong impact on ocean temperatures and climate in the region. Anthropogenic sources of aerosol particles such as smelters, power plants and urban pollution are expected to impact properties of the eastern portion of the stratocumulus deck. During the VOCALS (VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) field experiment, aerosol measurements below and above cloud were made with a ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer, an aerosol mass spectrometer, and analytical electron microscopy. In addition to more standard in-cloud measurements, droplets were collected and evaporated using a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI), and the non-volatile residual particles were analyzed. Many flights focused on the gradient in cloud properties along an E-W track from near the Chilean coast to remote areas offshore. Mean statistics from seven flights and about forty individual legs were compiled. Consistent with a continental source of cloud condensation nuclei, below-cloud aerosol and droplet number concentration generally decreased from near shore to offshore. This applied for particles larger than 0.05 and 0.1 µm in diameter, but not for total particles larger than 0.01 µm diameter. This suggests pollution contributed aged accumulation-mode aerosols to the stratocumulus layer, but fresher nuclei-mode particles were generated from other sources as well. Liquid water content and drizzle concentration tended to increase with distance from shore, but exhibited much greater variability. Aerosol number concentration in the >0.05 and >0.1 µm size range was correlated with droplet number concentration, and anti-correlated with droplet effective radius. These variables were especially well correlated on individual flights with near constant liquid water content (LWC), but were also statistically significant for the data set as a whole. When data were stratified into different LWC

  3. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USCGC GLACIER in the NW/SE Pacific Ocean and other seas from 31 January 1987 to 08 April 1987 (NODC Accession 8700183)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USCGC GLACIER in the Northwest/Southeast Pacific Ocean and other seas. Data...

  4. Physical oceanographic data collected from moorings deployed at Southeast Farallon Island by Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) and Bodega Marine Laboratory (BML) in the North Pacific Ocean from 2005-06-27 to 2011-08-19 (NODC Accession 0104198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are netCDF format data collected by GFNMS and BML to understand the physical processes at Southeast Farallon Island and their potential effects on marine...

  5. Gravimetric geoid in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

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    Watts, A. B.; Leeds, A. R.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 3708 1 x 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly averages have been used to construct a new 1 x 1 deg gravimetric geoid of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The 1 x 1 deg averages are based on a compilation of 147,000 surface ship and pendulum gravity measurements. Difference geoid undulations range from a maximum of +19 m over the Hawaiian ridge to a minimum of -31 m over the junction of the Kuril and Aleutian trenches. The Hawaiian swell is associated with a geoidal high of up to +15 m with wavelengths of about 2200 km and the topographic rises seaward of deep-sea trenches are associated with geoidal highs of up to 4 m with wavelengths of about 220-900 km. The agreement between the gravimetric geoid and Skylab-4 and Geos-3 altimeter data is close for wavelengths greater than about 300 km but poor for shorter wavelengths.

  6. Forecasting Ocean Chlorophyll in the Equatorial Pacific

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    Cecile S. Rousseaux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a global ocean biogeochemical model combined with a forecast of physical oceanic and atmospheric variables from the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, we assess the skill of a chlorophyll concentrations forecast in the Equatorial Pacific for the period 2012–2015 with a focus on the forecast of the onset of the 2015 El Niño event. Using a series of retrospective 9-month hindcasts, we assess the uncertainties of the forecasted chlorophyll by comparing the monthly total chlorophyll concentration from the forecast with the corresponding monthly ocean chlorophyll data from the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (S-NPP VIIRS satellite. The forecast was able to reproduce the phasing of the variability in chlorophyll concentration in the Equatorial Pacific, including the beginning of the 2015–2016 El Niño. The anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC was significant (p < 0.05 for forecast at 1-month (R = 0.33, 8-month (R = 0.42 and 9-month (R = 0.41 lead times. The root mean square error (RMSE increased from 0.0399 μg chl L−1 for the 1-month lead forecast to a maximum of 0.0472 μg chl L−1 for the 9-month lead forecast indicating that the forecast of the amplitude of chlorophyll concentration variability was getting worse. Forecasts with a 3-month lead time were on average the closest to the S-NPP VIIRS data (23% or 0.033 μg chl L−1 while the forecast with a 9-month lead time were the furthest (31% or 0.042 μg chl L−1. These results indicate the potential for forecasting chlorophyll concentration in this region but also highlights various deficiencies and suggestions for improvements to the current biogeochemical forecasting system. This system provides an initial basis for future applications including the effects of El Niño events on fisheries and other ocean resources given improvements identified in the analysis of these results.

  7. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii by increasing the water area...

  8. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  9. A Lagrangian Study of Southeast Pacific Boundary Layer Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Gallia

    Low clouds lie at the heart of climate feedback uncertainties. The representation of clouds in global climate models relies on parameterization of many sub-grid scale processes that are crucial to understanding cloud responses to climate; low clouds in particular exist as a result of tightly coupled microphysical, mesoscale, and synoptic mechanisms. The influence of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud properties could have important ramifications for our understanding of how clouds respond to a changing climate. The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS REx) sampled the persistent stratocumulus cloud deck located off the coast of Peru and Chile in the southeastern Pacific ocean. Several cloud features found in the stratocumulus deck during VOCALS exhibit signs of interesting aerosol-cloud interactions, including pockets of open cells (POCs). POCs are regions of open-cellular convection surrounded by closed cell stratocumulus, exhibiting not only a marked transition in mesoscale organization and cloud morphology, but also sharp microphysical gradients (especially in droplet concentration) across the boundary between open-cellular and closed cellular convection. In addition, precipitation is often higher at the POC boundaries, hinting at the importance of precipitation in driving their formation. In order to evaluate the microphysical characteristics of POCs prior cloud breakup, we use Lagrangian trajectories coupled with geostationary satellite imagery and cloud retrievals, as well as observational data from VOCALS REx and model data. In three of our case studies, we found regions of anomalously low droplet concentration 18-24 hours prior to POC formation (coupled with liquid water path similar to or higher than surrounding cloud), supporting a precipitation driven mechanism for POC formation. Another group of features with interesting aerosol-cloud interactions observed during VOCALS were mesoscale hook-like features of high droplet

  10. FINE THERMOHALINE STRUCTURE OF THE COLOMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas Nancy

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present document shows strata classification of the Colombian Pacific Ocean - COLUMBIAN PACIFIC OCEAN, done by first time according its fine thermohaline structure, based on temperature and salinity fields analysis. Layers, where different mechanisms of fine structure predominate, were determined and everywhere in the area a stable stratification was observed, although conditions for not stability as a result of the double diffusion were present.

  11. Regulating Religion in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Ropi, Ismatu

    2012-01-01

    Southeast Asia is one of the most diverse regions, with hundreds of ethnic groups, various religious beliefs and denominations, and different spoken languages and dialects. These different backgrounds pose serious challenges for the governments in Southeast Asia, not only on how they should manage those diversities in building the nation but also in ensuring a harmonious life. Many believe that cultural and racial diversities have the potential to create tension and conflict in the com...

  12. Pacific Water in the Arctic Ocean and Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul; Blaesterdalen, Torgeir; Karcher, Michael; Stedmon, Colin

    2017-04-01

    The volume, characteristics and sources of freshwater circulating in the Arctic Ocean vary in time and are expected to change under a declining sea ice cover, influencing the physical environment and Arctic ecosystem. Here we focus on relatively fresh (S = 32) Pacific Water, which enters the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait and makes up a significant part of the freshwater exiting the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait. More than 30 repeated sections of nutrient measurements were collected across Fram Strait between 1980 and 2015. The fraction of Pacific Water along these repeated sections can be estimated from the ratio of nitrate to phosphate together with salinity. The time-series of repeated Fram Strait sections indicates that the fraction of Pacific Water passing out of the Arctic Ocean has changed significantly over the last 30 years. Pacific water fractions remained high from 1980 to 1998, but in 1999 Pacific water almost disappeared from Fram Strait, reappearing only briefly from 2011 to 2012. Several hypotheses suggest how variations in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over the Arctic Ocean may influence the transport and pathways of Pacific Water. Here we test those hypotheses by comparing established atmospheric indices with the long time series of repeated sections across Fram Strait. Repeated sections across Fram Strait are also compared with a simulated Pacific Water tracer in the NAOSIM numerical model to further investigate the upstream drivers of changes observed in Fram Strait. The principle aim of this work is to identify the processes causing variability in freshwater fluxes out of the Arctic Ocean so that we may better distinguish inter-annual variability from longer-term changes to the Arctic freshwater budget. However, the volume of fresh, silicate-rich Pacific water exported from the Arctic Ocean may also have implications for the ecosystem in the Nordic Seas.

  13. Tectonics and plate boundary processes along the Southeast Indian Ridge and the East Pacific Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, James Andrew

    Classical plate tectonics describes crustal deformation in a simple kinematic way, with deformation occurring only at narrow boundaries of plates with rigid interiors. Many dynamic processes at these boundaries are not well understood. There are also apparent deviations from classical plate tectonics where significant intraplate deformation occurs. In this thesis, we analyze and model geophysical data from the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to address some of these issues. Hotspots often affect the dynamics of nearby spreading centers. As shown by bathymetry, side-scan sonar, and magnetic anomaly data, the Amsterdam-St. Paul (ASP) hotspot has altered the spreading history and geometry of nearby SEIR spreading axes. The hotspot thickened the oceanic crust near the spreading center and reorganized the plate boundary through rift propagation and ridge jumps, creating the youngest known transform fault in the process. The region near the ASP plateau has been suggested as where a wide, diffuse, NW-SE trending oceanic plate boundary meets the SEIR. Using data from the SEIR, we perform a statistical analysis and examine predictions of the model to test its validity. The boundary is not confirmed on statistical grounds, but evidence suggests that it does exist. However, it does not extend south of the St. Paul Fracture Zone, narrowing the previously proposed boundary by 800 km where it meets the SEIR. We also test the hypothesis that deformation near the eastern end of the SEIR, including a large intraplate earthquake can be explained by an additional plate boundary. If the earthquake lies on a plate boundary, its sense of slip should be right-lateral rather than the observed left-lateral motion, ruling out the hypothesis. Asymmetric geophysical properties of the EPR near 17°S suggest more melt beneath the Pacific side than the Nazca side. Numerical modeling results indicate that the asymmetry may be produced by pressure-driven across

  14. Spice: Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Melet, A.; Maes, C.

    2010-12-01

    South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. The transit in the Coral Sea is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. The south branch is associated with comparable impacts in the Tasman Sea area. The Southwest Pacific is a region of complex circulation, with the SEC splitting in strong zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos. Those jets partition on the Australian eastern boundary to feed the East Australian Current for the southern branch and the North Queensland Current and eventually the Equatorial Undercurrent for the northern branch. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) position and intensity. The circulation, and its influence on remote and regional climate, is poorly understood due to the lack of appropriate measurements. Ocean and atmosphere scientists from Australia, France, New Zealand, the United States and Pacific Island countries initiated an international research project under the auspices of CLIVAR to comprehend the southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and its direct and indirect influence on the climate and environment. SPICE is a regionally-coordinated experiment to measure, study and monitor the ocean circulation and the SPCZ, to validate and improve numerical models, and to integrate with assimilating systems. This ongoing project reflects a strong sense that substantial progress can be made through collaboration among South Pacific national research groups, coordinated with broader South Pacific projects.

  15. 78 FR 33240 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ..., France, Guatemala, Japan, Kiribati, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, the United...-like Species in the North Pacific Ocean and the IATTC scientific staff. While Pacific bluefin tuna... Source: Highly Migratory Species Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation: http://www.pcouncil.org/highly...

  16. Modelling microphysical and meteorological controls on precipitation and cloud cellular structures in Southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Microphysical and meteorological controls on the formation of open and closed cellular structures in the Southeast Pacific are explored using model simulations based on aircraft observations during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. The effectiveness of factors such as boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations, surface heat and moisture fluxes, large-scale vertical motion and solar heating in promoting drizzle and open cell formation for prescribed aerosol number concentrations is explored. For the case considered, drizzle and subsequent open cell formation over a broad region are more sensitive to the observed boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations (+0.9 g kg−1; −1 K than to a five-fold decrease in aerosol number concentration (150 vs. 30 mg−1. When embedding the perturbations in closed cells, local drizzle and pockets of open cell (POC formation respond faster to the aerosol reduction than to the moisture increase, but the latter generates stronger and more persistent drizzle. A local negative perturbation in temperature drives a mesoscale circulation that prevents local drizzle formation but promotes it in a remote area where lower-level horizontal transport of moisture is blocked and converges to enhance liquid water path. This represents a potential mechanism for POC formation in the Southeast Pacific stratocumulus region whereby the circulation is triggered by strong precipitation in adjacent broad regions of open cells. A simulation that attempts to mimic the influence of a coastally induced upsidence wave results in an increase in cloud water but this alone is insufficient to initiate drizzle. An increase of surface sensible heat flux is also effective in triggering local drizzle and POC formation.

    Both open and closed cells simulated with observed initial conditions exhibit distinct diurnal variations in cloud properties. A

  17. Precipitation and cloud cellular structures in marine stratocumulus over the southeast pacific: model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Feingold, G.; Wood, R.; Kazil, J.

    2010-03-01

    Microphysical and meteorological controls on the formation of open and closed cellular structures in the Southeast Pacific are explored using model simulations based on aircraft observations during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The effectiveness of factors such as boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations, surface heat and moisture fluxes, large-scale vertical motion and solar heating in promoting drizzle and open cell formation for prescribed aerosol number concentrations is explored. For the case considered, drizzle and subsequent open cell formation over a broad region are more sensitive to the observed boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations (=0.9 g kg-1; -1 K) than to a five-fold decrease in aerosol number concentrations (150 vs. 30 mg-1). When embedding the perturbations in closed cells, local drizzle and pockets of open cells (POCs) formation respond faster to the aerosol reduction than to the moisture increase, but the latter generate stronger and more persistent drizzle. The local negative perturbation in temperature drives a mesoscale circulation that prevents local drizzle formation but promotes it in a remote area where lower-level horizontal transport of moisture is blocked and converges to enhance liquid water path. This represents a potential mechanism for POC formation in the Southeast Pacific stratocumulus region whereby the circulation is triggered by strong precipitation in adjacent broad regions of open cells. A simulation that attempts to mimic the influence of a coastally induced upsidence wave results in an increase in cloud water but this alone is insufficient to initiate drizzle. An increase of surface sensible heat flux is also effective in triggering local drizzle and POC formation. Both open and closed cells simulated with observed initial conditions exhibit distinct diurnal variations in cloud properties. A stratocumulus deck that breaks up due solely to solar

  18. Modelling microphysical and meteorological controls on precipitation and cloud cellular structures in Southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Feingold, G.; Wood, R.; Kazil, J.

    2010-07-01

    Microphysical and meteorological controls on the formation of open and closed cellular structures in the Southeast Pacific are explored using model simulations based on aircraft observations during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The effectiveness of factors such as boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations, surface heat and moisture fluxes, large-scale vertical motion and solar heating in promoting drizzle and open cell formation for prescribed aerosol number concentrations is explored. For the case considered, drizzle and subsequent open cell formation over a broad region are more sensitive to the observed boundary-layer moisture and temperature perturbations (+0.9 g kg-1; -1 K) than to a five-fold decrease in aerosol number concentration (150 vs. 30 mg-1). When embedding the perturbations in closed cells, local drizzle and pockets of open cell (POC) formation respond faster to the aerosol reduction than to the moisture increase, but the latter generates stronger and more persistent drizzle. A local negative perturbation in temperature drives a mesoscale circulation that prevents local drizzle formation but promotes it in a remote area where lower-level horizontal transport of moisture is blocked and converges to enhance liquid water path. This represents a potential mechanism for POC formation in the Southeast Pacific stratocumulus region whereby the circulation is triggered by strong precipitation in adjacent broad regions of open cells. A simulation that attempts to mimic the influence of a coastally induced upsidence wave results in an increase in cloud water but this alone is insufficient to initiate drizzle. An increase of surface sensible heat flux is also effective in triggering local drizzle and POC formation. Both open and closed cells simulated with observed initial conditions exhibit distinct diurnal variations in cloud properties. A stratocumulus deck that breaks up due solely to solar heating

  19. Climate Variability and Phytoplankton in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Nina events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  20. Geographical Distribution and Sources of Nutrients in Atmospheric Aerosol Over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Pacific Ocean, the world's largest (occupying about 30% of the Earth's total surface area) has several distinguishing biogeochemical features. In the western Pacific, dust particles originating from arid and semi-arid regions in Asia and Australia are transported to the north and south, respectively. Biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia are exported to the tropical Pacific, and anthropogenic substances flowing out of Asia and Eurasia spread both regionally and globally. Over high primary productive areas such as the subarctic North Pacific, the equatorial Pacific and the Southern Ocean, biogenic gasses are released to the atmosphere and transported to other areas. These processes may affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and the radiative balance of downwind regions. The deposition of atmospheric aerosols containing iron and other essential nutrients is important for biogeochemical cycles in the oceans because this source of nutrients helps sustain primary production and affects food-web structure; these effects in turn influence the chemical properties of marine atmosphere. From an atmospheric chemistry standpoint, sea-salt aerosols produced by strong winds and marine biogenic gases emitted from highly productive waters affect the physicochemical characteristics of marine aerosols. As phytoplankton populations are patchy and atmospheric processes sporadic, the interactions between atmospheric chemical constituents and marine biota vary for different regions as well as seasonally and over longer timescales. To address these and other emerging issues, and more generally to better understand the important biogeochemical processes and interactions occurring over the open oceans, more long-term recurrent research cruises with standardized atmospheric shipboard measurements will be needed in the future.

  1. Upper ocean circulation modulation by phytoplankton concentration in the Equatorial Pacific and the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nakamoto, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Oberhuber, J.M.; Sammarco, P.; Muneyama, K.; Sato, T.; AjoyKumar, A.; Frouin, R.

    brings nutrient-rich subsurface waters to the euphotic zone, thus the ocean currents supports perinnial phytoplankton bloom. The phytoplankton inhibits downward solar radiation penetration in the equatorial Pacific, resulting in cross equatorial density...

  2. Cryptic variation and recent bipolar range expansion within the Stumped-Toed Gecko Gehyra mutilata across Indian and Pacific Ocean islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, S.; Ineich, I.; Harris, D. James

    2009-01-01

    With an impressively wide distribution, Gehyra mutilata is present on almost all Indian and Pacific Ocean islands and in large regions of Southeast Asia and Indonesia. Mitochondrial sequence data (~500 bp) from individuals covering large parts of its (mainly insular) distribution reveals deep

  3. Regulating Religion in Southeast Asia and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismatu Ropi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia is one of the most diverse regions, with hundreds of ethnic groups, various religious beliefs and denominations, and different spoken languages and dialects. These different backgrounds pose serious challenges for the governments in Southeast Asia, not only on how they should manage those diversities in building the nation but also in ensuring a harmonious life. Many believe that cultural and racial diversities have the potential to create tension and conflict in the community. Thus, government and public officials have the responsibility to ensure that societies with different backgrounds embrace a sense of unity so that everyone shares their pride and attachment to their community and the nation. In sum, this is one of the main arguments why regulation (including in terms of religious life is important. Hence, regulating religion is the most visible manifestation of the state–religion relationship, particularly in a state where religion dominates the political domain and plays an important role in legal and social systems.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v19i3.360 

  4. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Saide

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx, which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and three aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign-averaged longitudinal gradients, and highlight differences in model simulations with (W and without (NW wet deposition processes. The higher aerosol loadings in the NW case produce considerable changes in MBL dynamics and cloud microphysics, in accordance with the established conceptual model of aerosol indirect effects. These include increase in cloud albedo, increase in MBL and cloud heights, drizzle suppression, increase in liquid water content, and increase in cloud lifetime. Moreover, better statistical representation of aerosol mass and number concentration improves model fidelity in reproducing observed spatial and temporal variability in cloud properties, including top and base height, droplet concentration, water content, rain rate, optical depth (COD and liquid water path (LWP. Together, these help to quantify confidence in WRF-Chem's modeled aerosol-cloud interactions, especially in the activation parameterization, while identifying structural and parametric uncertainties including: irreversibility in rain wet removal; overestimation of marine DMS and sea salt emissions, and accelerated aqueous sulfate conversion. Our findings suggest that WRF-Chem simulates marine cloud-aerosol interactions at a level sufficient for applications in forecasting weather and air quality and studying aerosol climate forcing, and may do so with the reliability required for policy analysis.

  5. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A.; Cravatte, S.; Melet, A.; Schiller, A.; Holbrook, N. J.; Sloyan, B. M.; Widlansky, M. J.; Bowen, M.; Verron, J.; Wiles, P.; Ridgway, K.; Sutton, P.; Sprintall, J.; Steinberg, C.; Brassington, G.; Cai, W.; Davis, R.; Gasparin, F.; Gourdeau, L.; Hasegawa, T.; Kessler, W.; Maes, C.; Takahashi, K.; Richards, K. J.; Send, U.

    2014-11-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR. The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. South Pacific thermocline waters are transported in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC) toward Australia and Papua-New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes. The transit in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas is of great importance to the climate system because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, while the southward transports influence the climate and biodiversity in the Tasman Sea. After 7 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. This paper provides a review of recent advancements and discusses our current knowledge gaps and important emerging research directions.

  6. Arctic/North Pacific Ocean Environmental Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mikhalevsky, Peter

    1997-01-01

    .... The objective of the effort was to test the feasibility of acoustic monitoring of the Arctic Ocean and ice cap using long range low frequency acoustic propagation, by answering the fundamental questions: (1...

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Artificial Radionuclides Database in the Pacific Ocean: HAM Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Aoyama

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The database “Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas”, or HAM database, has been created. The database includes 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu concentration data from the seawater of the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas with some measurements from the sea surface to the bottom. The data in the HAM database were collected from about 90 literature citations, which include published papers; annual reports by the Hydrographic Department, Maritime Safety Agency, Japan; and unpublished data provided by individuals. The data of concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu have been accumulating since 1957–1998. The present HAM database includes 7737 records for 137Cs concentration data, 3972 records for 90Sr concentration data, and 2666 records for 239,240Pu concentration data. The spatial variation of sampling stations in the HAM database is heterogeneous, namely, more than 80% of the data for each radionuclide is from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, while a relatively small portion of data is from the South Pacific. This HAM database will allow us to use these radionuclides as significant chemical tracers for oceanographic study as well as the assessment of environmental affects of anthropogenic radionuclides for these 5 decades. Furthermore, these radionuclides can be used to verify the oceanic general circulation models in the time scale of several decades.

  9. Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific as inferred from Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 90ka at ODP Site 1233

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisias, N. G.; Mix, A. C.; Weber, M.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C. H.

    2004-12-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of oceanographic and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples from Site 1233 were used for detailed radiolarian and pollen species population analysis. Samples were taken at 20cm interval equivalent to temporal resolution of 200 to 400 years. In each sample splits used for pollen analysis abundances of 25 species were determined while in the splits used for radiolarian studies abundances of 41 species were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates (Lamy et al., 2004). From detailed multivariate analysis of these data sets we state the following conclusions: 1) During the past 75kyr the region of the southern Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. 2) Changes in ocean conditions during this time interval reflect small north-south shifts in the south Pacific transition zone and its impact on the coastal waters of Chile. 3) The ocean and terrestrial climate records extracted from Site 1233 show remarkable similarities to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic. These records suggest that climate variability during the past 75kyr in the Southeast Pacific is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years and not linked directly to changes in the Northern Hemisphere and; 4) the marine and terrestrial climate records from Site 1233 studied here, show no phase shift in response suggesting that ocean/continental vegetation is much more tightly coupled with regional atmospheric changes as indicated by the Antarctic temperature proxy record while the results of Lamy et al., (2004) show a time lag between ocean responses and the Patagonian Ice Sheet suggesting possibly reflecting the long response time of ice versus continental vegetation and oceanic systems.

  10. The Indian Ocean Experiment : Widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Crutzen, PJ; Ramanathan, A.; Andreae, MO; Brenninkmeijer, CAM; Campos, T; Cass, GR; Dickerson, RR; Fischer, H; de Gouw, JA; Hansel, A; Jefferson, A; Kley, D; de Laat, ATJ; Lal, S; Lawrence, MG; Lobert, JM; Mayol-Bracero, OL; Mitra, AP; Novakov, T; Oltmans, SJ; Prather, KA; Reiner, T; Rodhe, H; Scheeren, HA; Sikka, D; Williams, J

    2001-01-01

    The Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) was an international, multiplatform field campaign to measure Long-range transport of air pollution from South and Southeast Asia toward the Indian Ocean during the dry monsoon season in January to March 1999. Surprisingly high pollution Levels were observed over

  11. Vertical distribution of236U in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigl, R; Steier, P; Sakata, K; Sakaguchi, A

    2017-04-01

    The first extensive study on 236 U in the North Pacific Ocean has been conducted. The vertical distribution of 236 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios and the 236 U concentrations were analysed on seven depth profiles, and large variations with depth were found. The range of 236 U/ 238 U isotopic ratios was from (0.09 ± 0.03) × 10 -10 to (14.1 ± 2.2) × 10 -10 , which corresponds to 236 U concentrations of (0.69 ± 0.24) × 10 5 atoms/kg and (119 ± 21) × 10 5 atoms/kg, respectively. The variations in 236 U concentrations could mainly be attributed to the different water masses in the North Pacific Ocean and their formation processes. Uranium-236 inventories on the water column of each sampling station were calculated and varied between (3.89 ± 0.08) × 10 12 atoms/m 2 and (7.03 ± 0.50) × 10 12 atoms/m 2 , which is lower than in former studies on comparable latitudes in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Sea of Japan. The low inventories of 236 U found for the North Pacific Ocean in this study can be explained by the lack of additional input sources of artificial radionuclides, apart from global and regional/local fallout. This study expands the use of 236 U as oceanographic circulation tracer to yet another ocean basin and shows that this isotope can be used for tracing circulation patterns of water masses in the Pacific Ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seasonal cycles of surface layer salinity in the Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Bingham

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of surface layer salinity (SLS is examined in the Pacific Ocean between 40° S and 60° N using a variety of data sources. Significant seasonal cycles were found in 5 regions: 1 The western North Pacific, 2 The northeastern North Pacific and Alaska gyre, 3 the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ, 4 an area of the central North Pacific north of the Hawaiian Islands, 5 the central South Pacific along 10–20° S. Amplitudes range from 0.1 to > 0.5. The largest amplitudes are in the tropical band and the western North Pacific. Maximum salinity is obtained in late (northern winter in the western North Pacific, late winter and early spring in the northeastern North Pacific, early summer in the ITCZ area, late summer and early fall in the central North Pacific area and (austral winter in the central South Pacific. Large areas of the Pacific have no significant seasonal variation in SLS.

    Seasonal variability of evaporation rate, precipitation rate and the difference between them (E-P were calculated from the OAFlux and Global Precipitation Climatology Project datasets. Typical amplitudes of E-P are 0.1–1 × 10−4 kg m−2 s−1. The seasonal variability of E-P is largely dominated by variability in evaporation in the western North Pacific and precipitation elsewhere. The largest amplitudes are in areas along the edge of the western North Pacific and in the far eastern tropical Pacific around 10° N. Phases in these areas indicate maximum E-P in mid- to late winter in these areas of large amplitude. The closest correspondence between E-P and SLS is in the ITCZ. E-P was combined with seasonal variation of the mixed-layer depth to calculate the freshwater flux forcing term of the SLS balance equation. The term was found to be similar in magnitude and distribution to E-P. Some other terms of the SLS balance were calculated. Horizontal advection was found to have seasonal cycles in a

  13. Indicators of Marine Pollution in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Takada, Hideshige

    2017-08-01

    The complex nature of ocean pollution underscores the utility in identifying and characterizing a limited number of "indicators" that enables scientists and managers to track trends over space and time. This paper introduces a special issue on indicators of marine pollution in the North Pacific Ocean and builds on a scientific session that was held at the North Pacific Marine Science Organization. The special issue highlights studies using a variety of indicators to provide insight into the identification of legacy and emerging contaminants, the ranking of priority pollutants from various sources, and the effects of contaminants on ecosystem health in the North Pacific Ocean. Examples include the use of mussels to illustrate spatial and temporal trends of a number of contaminants following the 2011 tsunami in Japan, the use of molecular marker (linear alkylbenzenes, hopanes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) profiles to identify pollution sources, and the use of plastic resin pellets to illustrate spatial trends of petroleum pollution around the world. Stable isotopes were used to strengthen the utility of the Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) as an indicator of marine pollution. Examples also demonstrate the development and application of biomarker approaches, including gene transcripts, oxidative stress, estradiol, hatchability, and respiration and swimming behavior abnormalities, as a function of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, sulfur-diesel, Pinghu crude oil, galaxolide and antifouling biocides. We provide a brief review of indicators of marine pollution, identify research gaps, and summarize key findings from the articles published within the issue. This special issue represents the first compilation of research pertaining to marine pollution indicators in the North Pacific Ocean and provides guidance to inform mitigation and monitoring efforts of contaminants in the region.

  14. Rayleigh and Love waves incompatibility in the Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, J.A.; Pujadses, L.; Egozcue, J.J.; Rodellar, J. Barbat, A.

    1988-01-01

    The polarization anisotropy is investigated in the whole Pacific Ocean. Generalized inversion applied to Rayleigh and Love waves separately, show inconsistency between SH and SV velocities. A direct method that considers the media being anisotropic yields a shear-wave velocity model in which the anisotropy is constrained to the lithosphere. The inconsistency in the asthenosphere seems to be very small for the period range of this study (18 to 100 seconds).

  15. Physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1007 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-05-17 to 2010-06-16 (NODC Accession 0089615)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0089615 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1007 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  16. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-63 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-03-15 to 2010-04-14 (NODC Accession 0103918)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103918 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-63 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  17. Physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN195-03 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-01-12 to 2009-02-23 (NODC Accession 0104265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0104265 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the KNORR during cruise KN195-03 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  18. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-43 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-01-09 to 2009-02-16 (NODC Accession 0103873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC accession 0103873 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ATLANTIS during cruise AT15-43 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  19. Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) scientific advances and future west pacific coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; Lin, X.; Ando, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. It was designed to measure and monitor the ocean circulation, and to validate and improve numerical models. South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. Water transit through the Coral and Solomon Seas is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the SPCZ position and intensity. The circulation is complex, with the SEC splitting into zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos, before joining either the East Australian Current or the New Guinea Costal UnderCurrent towards the equator. SPICE included large, coordinated in situ measurement programs and high resolution numerical simulations of the area. After 8 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. We will review the recent advancements and discuss

  20. Mercury in Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis):bioaccumulation and trans-Pacific Ocean migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Nogueira, Jacob I.; Pancorbo, Oscar C.; Batdorf, Carol A.; Block, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) have the largest home range of any tuna species and are well known for the capacity to make transoceanic migrations. We report the measurement of mercury (Hg) concentrations in wild Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT), the first reported with known size-of-fish and capture location. The results indicate juvenile PBFT that are recently arrived in the California Current from the western Pacific Ocean have significantly higher Hg concentrations in white muscle (0.51 ug/g wet mass, wm) than PBFT of longer California Current residency (0.41 ug/g wm). These new arrivals are also higher in Hg concentration than PBFT in farm pens (0.43 ug/g wm) that were captured on arrival in the California Current and raised in pens on locally derived feed. Analysis by direct Hg analyzer and attention to Hg by tissue type and location on the fish allowed precise comparisons of mercury among wild and captive fish populations. Analysis of migration and nearshore residency, determined through extensive archival tagging, bioaccumulation models, trophic investigations, and potential coastal sources of methylmercury, indicates Hg bioaccumulation is likely greater for PBFT juvenile habitats in the western Pacific Ocean (East China Sea, Yellow Sea) than in the eastern Pacific Ocean (California Current). Differential bioaccumulation may be a trophic effect or reflect methylmercury availability, with potential sources for coastal China (large hypoxic continental shelf receiving discharge of three large rivers, and island-arc volcanism) different from those for coastal Baja California (small continental shelf, no large rivers, spreading-center volcanism).

  1. A regional ocean model for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region to assess the risk of storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoo, N.; Paul, A.; Hadfield, M.; Jendersie, S.; Bornman, J.; de Lange, W.; Ye, W.; Schulz, M.

    2012-04-01

    New Zealand's coasts are not only affected by mid-latitude storms, but infrequently also by storms that originate from the tropics. Projections for the southern hemisphere's southwest Pacific island countries for the 21st century show a poleward shift of the mid-latitude storm tracks, which consequently might result in changes in wind, precipitation and temperature patterns. Furthermore, an increase in frequency of intense storms is expected for the New Zealand region, which will very likely increase the risk of storm surges and flooding of coastal and low-lying regions. We employ the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to assess the changes in the storm climate of the New Zealand region. The model set-up uses a resolution of ~50 km for the Southwest Pacific Ocean "parent domain" and ~10 km for the New Zealand "child domain", to well represent the major eddies that influence the climate of North Island. With the aim to later utilize this nested ocean model set-up as part of a coupled ocean-atmosphere modelling system for the Southwest Pacific Ocean region, results for the 20th century will be presented. The simulated circulation is shown to be largely consistent with the observed regional oceanography.

  2. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  3. Phosphate availability and the ultimate control of new nitrogen input by nitrogen fixation in the tropical Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moutin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low atmospheric input of phosphate into the open ocean, it is one of the key nutrients that could ultimately control primary production and carbon export into the deep ocean. The observed trend over the last 20 years has shown a decrease in the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP pool in the North Pacific gyre, which has been correlated to the increase in di-nitrogen (N2 fixation rates. Following a NW-SE transect, in the Southeast Pacific during the early austral summer (BIOSOPE cruise, we present data on DIP, dissolved organic phosphate (DOP and particulate phosphate (PP pools along with DIP turnover times (TDIP and N2 fixation rates. We observed a decrease in DIP concentration from the edges to the centre of the gyre. Nevertheless the DIP concentrations remained above 100 nmol L−1 and T DIP was more than 6 months in the centre of the gyre; DIP availability remained largely above the level required for phosphate limitation to occur and the absence of Trichodesmium spp and low nitrogen fixation rates were likely to be controlled by other factors such as temperature or iron availability. This contrasts with recent observations in the North Pacific Ocean at the ALOHA station and in the western Pacific Ocean at the same latitude (DIAPALIS cruises where lower DIP concentrations (<20 nmol L−1 and T DIP <50 h were measured during the summer season in the upper layer. The South Pacific gyre can be considered a High Phosphate Low Chlorophyll (HPLC oligotrophic area, which could potentially support high N2 fixation rates and possibly carbon dioxide sequestration, if the primary ecophysiological controls, temperature and/or iron availability, were alleviated.

  4. 1 Ma East Pacific Rise oceanic crust and uppermost mantle exposed by rifting in Hess Deep (equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francheteau, J.; Armijo, R.; Cheminée, J. L.; Hekinian, R.; Lonsdale, P.; Blum, N.

    1990-12-01

    A series of dives with the French submersible Nautile has been conducted in the region of the Galapagos triple junction, at the tip of the Cocos-Nazca propagator. Most of the dives were devoted to the study of Hess Deep, a rift valley produced by rifting of oceanic crust created at the axis of the very fast-spreading East Pacific Rise. The dives have enabled the structures and lithologies to be assessed and confirmed earlier dredging evidence for abundant basal crust and mantle rocks on an intra-rift ridge located to the north of the axis of Hess Deep. This shows that this situation is not specific not slow-spreading ridges. A nearly complete and unique log of young (1 Ma) crust and uppermost mantle representative of very fast accretion can be reconstructed even though the section is discontinuous and highly dismembered. We propose two models that can explain the exposure on the ocean floor of the deep foundation of the oceanic crust. One model stresses symmetry and vertical tectonics through isostasy/diapirism of serpentinized mantle. Another model requires a larger amount of extension and emphasizes asymmetry with denudation of the upper crust through low-angle detachment faulting. In both models, which differ mainly in the structure at depth, amagmatic extension of East Pacific Rise crust by the Cocos-Nazca propagator tip results in uplift and denudation of lower crust and upper mantle.

  5. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Oceanographic and marine meteorological observations in the Northwest Pacific ocean during 1998 (NODC Accession 0000070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, plankton, and nutrients data were collected using buoy and CTD casts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 22 January 1998 to...

  7. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of humpback whales at the southern limit of the Southeast Pacific breeding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidino, Chiara; Llapapasca, Miguel A; Silva, Sebastian; Alcorta, Belen; Pacheco, Aldo S

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of spatial and temporal distribution in threshold habitats of highly migratory and endangered species is important for understanding their habitat requirements and recovery trends. Herein, we present new data about the distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in neritic waters off the northern coast of Peru: an area that constitutes a transitional path from cold, upwelling waters to warm equatorial waters where the breeding habitat is located. Data was collected during four consecutive austral winter/spring seasons from 2010 to 2013, using whale-watching boats as platforms for research. A total of 1048 whales distributed between 487 groups were sighted. The spatial distribution of humpbacks resembled the characteristic segregation of whale groups according to their size/age class and social context in breeding habitats; mother and calf pairs were present in very shallow waters close to the coast, while dyads, trios or more whales were widely distributed from shallow to moderate depths over the continental shelf break. Sea surface temperatures (range: 18.2-25.9°C) in coastal waters were slightly colder than those closer to the oceanic realm, likely due to the influence of cold upwelled waters from the Humboldt Current system. Our results provide new evidence of the southward extension of the breeding region of humpback whales in the Southeast Pacific. Integrating this information with the knowledge from the rest of the breeding region and foraging grounds would enhance our current understanding of population dynamics and recovery trends of this species.

  8. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of humpback whales at the southern limit of the Southeast Pacific breeding area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Guidino

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of spatial and temporal distribution in threshold habitats of highly migratory and endangered species is important for understanding their habitat requirements and recovery trends. Herein, we present new data about the distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in neritic waters off the northern coast of Peru: an area that constitutes a transitional path from cold, upwelling waters to warm equatorial waters where the breeding habitat is located. Data was collected during four consecutive austral winter/spring seasons from 2010 to 2013, using whale-watching boats as platforms for research. A total of 1048 whales distributed between 487 groups were sighted. The spatial distribution of humpbacks resembled the characteristic segregation of whale groups according to their size/age class and social context in breeding habitats; mother and calf pairs were present in very shallow waters close to the coast, while dyads, trios or more whales were widely distributed from shallow to moderate depths over the continental shelf break. Sea surface temperatures (range: 18.2-25.9°C in coastal waters were slightly colder than those closer to the oceanic realm, likely due to the influence of cold upwelled waters from the Humboldt Current system. Our results provide new evidence of the southward extension of the breeding region of humpback whales in the Southeast Pacific. Integrating this information with the knowledge from the rest of the breeding region and foraging grounds would enhance our current understanding of population dynamics and recovery trends of this species.

  9. Building Conservation Capacity in Southeast Asia: Outcomes of the ATBC 2015 Asia-Pacific Chapter Meeting Conservation Education Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souter, Nicholas J.; Hughes, Alice C.; Savini, Tommaso; Rao, Madhu; Goodale, Eben; Van Nice, Amy; Huang, Natalia; Liu, Jing-Xin; Hunt, Matt P.; O'Connor, David A.; Heung-Lam, Anny Li; Gnuen, Gneb; Sun, Yoeung; Silva, Inês

    2017-01-01

    The "Building Capacity for Conservation in Southeast Asia" symposium was held at the 2015 Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Asia-Pacific Chapter meeting. The range of programs discussed fell into three categories: career development, project-specific activities and outreach, and delivering conservation information to…

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the seventy moorings of the Tropical Atmosphere/Ocean (TAO) Project in the Tropical Pacific Ocean, 1979-2002 (NODC Accession 0000727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and meteorological data were collected in the Tropical Pacific Ocean from 29 January 1979 to 03 November 2001. Data were collected by the Pacific Marine...

  11. Fin whale vocalizations observed with ocean bottom seismometers of cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived waveform data from both hydrophones and ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) of a cabled observatory off Kushiro-Tokachi in Hokkaido. A fin whale was localized on the basis of the incident orientation estimated with a single OBS and the time difference of multipath arrival of sound pressure data from a hydrophone. Furthermore, several fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived OBS waveform data from other cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean. These findings suggest that the cabled OBSs would be significant apparatuses for real-time monitoring of the presence of baleen whales around Japan.

  12. Microphysical variability in southeast Pacific Stratocumulus clouds: synoptic conditions and radiative response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Painemal

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic and satellite-derived cloud property variations for the southeast Pacific stratocumulus region associated with changes in coastal satellite-derived cloud droplet number concentrations (Nd are explored. MAX and MIN Nd composites are defined by the top and bottom terciles of daily area-mean Nd values over the Arica Bight, the region with the largest mean oceanic Nd, for the five October months of 2001, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. The ability of the satellite retrievals to capture composite differences is assessed with ship-based data. Nd and ship-based accumulation mode aerosol concentrations (Na correlate well (r = 0.65, with a best-fit aerosol activation value dln Nddln Na of 0.56 for pixels with Nd>50 cm−3. The adiabatically-derived MODIS cloud depths also correlate well with the ship-based cloud depths (r=0.7, though are consistently higher (mean bias of almost 60 m. The MAX-Nd composite is characterized by a weaker subtropical anticyclone and weaker winds both at the surface and the lower free troposphere than the MIN-Nd composite. The MAX-Nd composite clouds over the Arica Bight are thinner than the MIN-Nd composite clouds, have lower cloud tops, lower near-coastal cloud albedos, and occur below warmer and drier free tropospheres (as deduced from radiosondes and NCEP Reanalysis. CloudSat radar reflectivities indicate little near-coastal precipitation. The co-occurrence of more boundary

  13. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1990-04-30 to 1991-05-15 (NODC Accession 9400005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from April 30, 1990 to May 15, 1991. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  14. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-01 (NODC Accession 8700077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 1, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  15. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1979-01-20 to 1984-04-26 (NODC Accession 8500007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from January 20, 1979 to April 26, 1984. Data were submitted by Pacific...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1986-05-28 to 1987-05-11 (NODC Accession 8900168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Pacific Ocean from 28 May 1986 to 01 May 1983. Data were submitted by Pacific Marine...

  17. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1105 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-04-29 to 2011-05-28 (NODC Accession 0116958)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116958 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1105 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  18. Paleogene Carbonate Dissolution Events in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J.; Dickens, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    A series of carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) mark variations in the global carbon cycle and significant changes in climate through the early Paleogene. The Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) ca. 56 Ma is the most pronounced and well documented of these events, having been described in many sections across the globe. The large CIE across the PETM is marked by a clay rich layer in many deep-sea sections, resulting from widespread carbonate dissolution on the seafloor, which is in turn related to shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth and lysocline. Several studies have suggested that other CIEs have a similar response, but this information is sparse. There is also debate as to how carbonate saturation in the ocean varied over the long-term. Importantly, we observe that though the Eocene climate shows an overall cooling trend, yet it is punctuated by several short term hyperthermals which have been studied sparsely. Here we document changes in carbonate preservation in Eocene sediments at ODP Site 1209A (Shatsky Rise, North Pacific Ocean). This site presently lies in a middle bathyal (2387m) water depth but has undergone negligible subsidence since the Cretaceous. We generate a record of carbonate content, and couple this with magnetic susceptibility (MS) and gamma ray attenuation (GRA) records to locate possible intervals of reduced carbonate accumulation. We then examine the planktonic foraminiferal assemblages for their fragmentation which helps us to better constrain the dynamics of lysoclinal depth at this location of North Pacific Ocean in the Eocene. Throughout the Eocene there are long-term variations in carbonate preservation, as well as some pronounced events of carbonate dissolution. Such documentation allows us to better constrain models for early Paleogene carbon cycling.

  19. Phocine Distemper Virus in Northern Sea Otters in the Pacific Ocean, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Burek, Kathy A.; Hammond, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused 2 epidemics in harbor seals in the Atlantic Ocean but had never been identified in any Pacific Ocean species. We found that northern sea otters in Alaska are infected with PDV, which has created a disease threat to several sympatric and decreasing Pacific marine mammals. PMID:19523293

  20. 33 CFR 334.1400 - Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. 334.1400 Section 334.1400 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.1400 Pacific Ocean, at Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; restricted area. (a) The area. That portion of the Pacific Ocean lying offshore of Oahu between Ewa Beach and Barbers Point, basically...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1370 - Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1370 Section 334.1370 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1370 Pacific Ocean at Keahi Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The waters...

  2. 33 CFR 334.1360 - Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1360 Section 334.1360 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1360 Pacific Ocean at Barber's Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. The...

  3. Solar Influence on Tropical Cyclone in Western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Kim, Ki-Beom; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-12-01

    Solar activity is known to be linked to changes in the Earth’s weather and climate. Nonetheless, for other types of extreme weather, such as tropical cyclones (TCs), the available evidence is less conclusive. In this study the modulation of TC genesis over the western North Pacific by the solar activity is investigated, in comparison with a large-scale environmental parameter, i.e., El-Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). For this purpose, we have obtained the best track data for TCs in the western North Pacific from 1977 to 2016, spanning from the solar cycle 21 to the solar cycle 24. We have confirmed that in the El-Niño periods TCs tend to form in the southeast, reach its maximum strength in the southeast, and end its life as TSs in the northeast, compared with the La-Niña periods. TCs occurring in the El-Niño periods are found to last longer compared with the La-Niña periods. Furthermore, TCs occurring in the El-Niño periods have a lower central pressure at their maximum strength than those occurring in the La-Niña periods. We have found that TCs occurring in the solar maximum periods resemble those in the El-Niño periods in their properties. We have also found that TCs occurring in the solar descending periods somehow resemble those in the El-Niño periods in their properties. To make sure that it is not due to the ENSO effect, we have excluded TCs both in the El-Niño periods and in the La-Niña periods from the data set and repeated the analysis. In addition to this test, we have also reiterated our analysis twice with TCs whose maximum sustained winds speed exceeds 17 m/s, instead of 33 m/s, as well as TCs designated as a typhoon, which ends up with the same conclusions.

  4. On the decade-long deep-ocean warming in the subtropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Denis; Lee, Sang-Ki; Landerer, Felix; Lumpkin, Rick

    2017-04-01

    The persistent energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, inferred from satellite measurements, indicates that the Earth climate system continues to accumulate excess heat. As only sparse and irregular measurements of ocean heat below 2000-m depth exist, one of the most challenging questions in global climate change studies is whether the excess heat has already penetrated into the deep-ocean. The deep-ocean warming can initiate and advance in the regions where the air-sea interactions and ocean internal dynamics favor transfer of heat from the surface to the deeper waters. It is important to identify such regions, preferably using as many independent observing systems as possible, and to understand the associated dynamics. Combination of the present-day satellite and in situ observing systems has a potential to provide a more complete view on the horizontal and vertical distribution of heat in the ocean. While the uncertainties associated with the observing systems are decreasing, the combined use of satellite altimetry, GRACE, and Argo measurements may theoretically become an ideal method to indirectly infer deep-ocean temperature changes below 2000-m depth. The difference between the total sea level (observed by altimetry) and the mass-related sea level (observed by GRACE) gives the steric (due to changes in seawater density) sea level variability, which is mostly a function of the full-depth heat content. The deep-ocean (below 2000-m) contribution can be inferred indirectly, as the difference between the satellite-based (altimetry minus GRACE) and Argo-based steric sea level. Carrying out a comprehensive analysis of satellite and in situ measurements, and atmospheric re-analyses, here we report on deep-ocean warming signatures observed in the subtropical South Pacific during the past decade of 2005-2014. We show that the local accumulation of heat accounted for up to a quarter of the global ocean heat increase, with directly and indirectly inferred deep

  5. Open ocean DMS air/sea fluxes over the eastern South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, C. A.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Miller, S. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2009-01-01

    Air/sea fluxes of dimethylsulfide (DMS) were measured by eddy correlation over the Eastern South Pacific Ocean during January 2006. The cruise track extended from Manzanillo, Mexico, along 110° W, to Punta Arenas, Chile. Bulk air and surface ocean DMS levels were also measured and gas transfer coefficients (kDMS) were computed. Air and seawater DMS measurements were made using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (API-CIMS) and a gas/liquid membrane equilibrator. Mean surface seawater DMS concentrations were 3.8±2.2 nM and atmospheric mixing ratios were 340±370 ppt. The air/sea flux of DMS was uniformly out of the ocean, with an average value of 12±15 μmol m-2 d-1. Sea surface concentration and flux were highest around 15° S, in a region influenced by shelf waters and lowest around 25° S, in low chlorophyll gyre waters. The DMS gas transfer coefficient exhibited a linear wind speed-dependence over the wind speed range of 1 to 9 m s-1. This relationship is compared with previously measured estimates of k from DMS, CO2, and dual tracer data from the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, and with the NOAA/COARE gas transfer model. The model generated slope of k vs. wind speed is at the low end of those observed in previous DMS field studies.

  6. Late Pliocene Changes in Abyssal Southern Ocean Ventilation: New Insights from the Subantarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    New stable isotope records from subantarctic southeast Pacific cores MV0502-4JC (50°20'S, 148°08'W, 4286m) and ELT 25-11 (50°02'S, 127°31'W, 3969m) suggest that the late Pliocene climate transition (LPCT) at ~2.75 Ma marked a dramatic increase in cold, poorly ventilated water in the deepest portion of the Southern Ocean. This conclusion is based on a striking vertical stable isotopic gradient that developed between MV0502-4JC and shallower South Atlantic ODP Site 704 (46°52'S, 7°5'E, 2532 m) in the late Pliocene, a sharp contrast to the comparable benthic δ13C and δ18O values recorded at the two sites during the late Miocene. Similar to existing shallower records from the South Atlantic, benthic stable isotope records from MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11 record a significant decrease in δ13C accompanied by an increase in δ18O in the Late Pliocene. While the δ13C decrease and δ18O increase recorded at the South Atlantic sites appears to represent the onset of a glacial pattern of oxygen isotope enrichment and reduced deep water ventilation in the Southern Ocean, the transition in MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11 signals a far more dramatic shift in conditions at abyssal depths. First, the benthic δ13C shift appears to be more extensive and prolonged in the deep subantarctic Pacific than in the South Atlantic, and second, the δ13C decrease was accompanied by an equally dramatic increase in benthic δ18O that stands out amongst other deep sea records prior to the late Pleistocene. In MV0502-4JC these δ13C and δ18O shifts amount to -1.05‰ and +1.1‰, respectively, over the period ~2.7 to 1.9 Ma (9.6-7.3 MBSF) and are followed by a dramatic return of the benthic δ13C values to pre-LPCT values after ~1.7 Ma that is also recorded in the planktonic record. These benthic δ13C and δ18O shifts likely indicate the accumulation of an ever-larger percentage of cold, poorly-ventilated AABW in the abyssal Southern Ocean during the late Pliocene, probably due to sea ice

  7. Surface Drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean | Wedepohl | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface drift in the South-East Atlantic Ocean is described using historical shipdrift data. The Benguela Current has a width of 200 km in the south and 750 km in the north. The mean speeds of the current vary from <11 cm.s-1 to a maximum of 23 cm.s-1. The highest current speeds occur during summer in the southern ...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1983-10-07 to 1984-02-15 (NCEI Accession 8400106)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from October 7, 1983 to...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-14 to 1977-03-23 (NCEI Accession 8100332)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from March 14, 1977 to March 23, 1977. Data...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-11-14 to 1976-11-22 (NCEI Accession 8100339)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from November 14, 1976 to November 22, 1976....

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-29 to 1977-01-06 (NCEI Accession 8100327)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from December 29, 1976 to January 6, 1977. Data...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-13 to 1977-02-21 (NCEI Accession 8100330)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from February 13, 1977 to February 21, 1977....

  13. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-15 to 1976-12-23 (NCEI Accession 8100326)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from December 12, 1976 to December 23, 1976....

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-27 to 1977-03-08 (NCEI Accession 8100331)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from February 27, 1977 to March 8, 1977. Data...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-05-26 to 1977-06-03 (NCEI Accession 8100341)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from May 26, 1977 to June 3, 1977. Data were...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-01 to 1976-12-07 (NCEI Accession 8100325)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from December 1, 1976 to December 7, 1976. Data...

  17. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-06-24 to 1977-07-02 (NCEI Accession 8100343)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from June 24, 1977 to July 2, 1977. Data were...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PACIFIC ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-07-24 to 1977-08-01 (NCEI Accession 8100345)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PACIFIC ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from July 24, 1977 to August 1, 1977. Data were...

  19. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2009-05-01

    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  20. Climatically driven changes in oceanic processes throughout the equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paytan, Adina; Lyle, Mitch; Mix, Alan; Chase, Zanna

    2004-12-01

    The mass accumulation rates of sedimentary components (carbonate, organic carbon, opal, barite, reactive phosphate, iron, terrigenous minerals, etc.) are used in many paleoceanographic reconstructions to learn about temporal and spatial changes in surficial Earth processes including wind stress and direction, oceanic circulation, weathering rates, marine productivity and ecosystem structure, climate change, and more. In most studies it is assumed/desired that the sediment accumulation represents the production and deposition of particles from the overlying water column since substantial horizontal transport imply homogenization of paleoceanographic proxies and little confidence in any paleoceanographic time series. In this note we highlight some discrepancies between the different approaches used to reconstruct sediment mass accumulation rates and specifically discuss the consequences of these discrepancies to the reconstruction of paleoproductivity in the equatorial Pacific. We pose research questions and suggest possible approaches/research strategies for the community to solve them.

  1. Volcanic rocks cored on hess rise, Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Windom, K.E.; Seifert, K.E.; Thiede, Jorn

    1980-01-01

    Large aseismic rises and plateaus in the western Pacific include the Ontong-Java Plateau, Magellan Rise, Shatsky Rise, Mid-Pacific Mountains, and Hess Rise. These are relatively old features that rise above surrounding sea floors as bathymetric highs. Thick sequences of carbonate sediments overlie, what are believed to be, Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous volcanic pedestals. We discuss here petrological and tectonic implications of data from volcanic rocks cored on Hess Rise. The data suggest that Hess Rise originated at a spreading centre in the late early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian stages). Subsequent off-ridge volcanism in the late Albian-early Cenomanian stages built a large archipelago of oceanic islands and seamounts composed, at least in part, of alkalic rocks. The volcanic platform subsided during its northward passage through the mid-Cretaceousequatorial zone. Faulting and uplift, and possibly volcanism, occurred in the latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian stages). Since then, Hess Rise continued its northward movement and subsidence. Volcanic rocks from holes drilled on Hess Rise during IPOD Leg 62 (Fig. 1) are briefly described here and we relate the petrological data to the origin and evolution of that rise. These are the first volcanic rocks reported from Hess Rise. ?? 1980 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Mesoscale cyclogenesis over the western north Pacific Ocean during TPARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of mesoscale marine cyclogenesis over the subtropics of the Western Pacific Ocean are investigated. Each case occurred during the THORPEX Pacific Asia Regional Campaign and Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS-08 field phases in 2008. Each cyclone developed from remnants of disturbances that earlier showed potential for tropical cyclogenesis within the tropics. Two of the cyclones produced gale-force surface winds, and one, designated as a tropical cyclone, resulted in a significant coastal storm over eastern Japan. Development was initiated by a burst of organized mesoscale convection that consolidated and intensified the surface cyclonic circulation over a period of 12–24 h. Upper-tropospheric potential vorticity anomalies modulated the vertical wind shear that, in turn, influenced the periods of cyclone intensification and weakening. Weak baroclinicity associated with vertical shear was also deemed important in organizing mesoscale ascent and the convection outbreaks. The remnant tropical disturbances contributed exceptional water vapour content to higher latitudes that led to strong diabatic heating, and the tropical remnants contributed vorticity that was the seed of the development in the subtropics. Predictability of these events more than three days in advance appears to be minimal.

  3. Reflection of equatorial Kelvin waves at eastern ocean boundaries Part II: Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soares

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of viscosity, non linearities, incident wave period and realistic eastern coastline geometry on energy fluxes are investigated using a shallow water model with a spatial resolution of 1/4 degree in both meridional and zonal directions. Equatorial and mid-latitude responses are considered. It is found that (1 the influence of the coastline geometry and the incident wave period is more important for the westward energy flux than for the poleward flux, and (2 the effect of the inclination of the eastern ocean boundary on the poleward energy flux, for the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, decline as the period of the incident wave increases. Furthermore, the model simulations suggest that the poleward energy fluxes from meridional boundaries give plausible results for motions of seasonal and annual periods. For comparatively shorter periods, a realistic coastline geometry has to be included for more accurate results. It is recommended that any numerical model involving the reflection of baroclinic Rossby waves (of intraseasonal, seasonal or annual periods on the eastern Pacific or Atlantic Oceans, should consider the effect of the coastline geometry in order to improve the accuracy of the results.Key words. Oceanography: general (climate and interannual variability; equatorial oceanography. Oceanography: physical (eastern boundary currents.

  4. Modulation of the bipolar seesaw in the Southeast Pacific during Termination 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Frank; Kaiser, Jérôme; Arz, Helge W.; Hebbeln, Dierk; Ninnemann, Ulysses; Timm, Oliver; Timmermann, Axel; Toggweiler, J. R.

    2007-07-01

    The termination of the last ice age (Termination 1; T1) is crucial for our understanding of global climate change and for the validation of climate models. There are still a number of open questions regarding for example the exact timing and the mechanisms involved in the initiation of deglaciation and the subsequent interhemispheric pattern of the warming. Our study is based on a well-dated and high-resolution alkenone-based sea surface temperature (SST) record from the SE-Pacific off southern Chile (Ocean Drilling Project Site 1233) showing that deglacial warming at the northern margin of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current system (ACC) began shortly after 19,000 years BP (19 kyr BP). The timing is largely consistent with Antarctic ice-core records but the initial warming in the SE-Pacific is more abrupt suggesting a direct and immediate response to the slowdown of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation through the bipolar seesaw mechanism. This response requires a rapid transfer of the Atlantic signal to the SE-Pacific without involving the thermal inertia of the Southern Ocean that may contribute to the substantially more gradual deglacial temperature rise seen in Antarctic ice-cores. A very plausible mechanism for this rapid transfer is a seesaw-induced change of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system of the ACC and the southern westerly wind belt. In addition, modelling results suggest that insolation changes and the deglacial CO 2 rise induced a substantial SST increase at our site location but with a gradual warming structure. The similarity of the two-step rise in our proxy SSTs and CO 2 over T1 strongly demands for a forcing mechanism influencing both, temperature and CO 2. As SSTs at our coring site are particularly sensitive to latitudinal shifts of the ACC/southern westerly wind belt system, we conclude that such latitudinal shifts may substantially affect the upwelling of deepwater masses in the Southern Ocean and thus the release of CO 2 to the atmosphere

  5. SEA Semester Undergraduates Research the Ocean's Role in Climate Systems in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A. W.; Becker, M. K.; Grabb, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea Education Association (SEA)'s fully accredited Oceans & Climate SEA Semester program provides upper-level science undergraduates a unique opportunity to explore the ocean's role in the global climate system as they conduct real-world oceanographic research and gain first-hand understanding of and appreciation for the collaborative nature of the scientific research process. Oceans & Climate is an interdisciplinary science and policy semester in which students also explore public policy perspectives to learn how scientific knowledge is used in making climate-related policy. Working first at SEA's shore campus, students collaborate with SEA faculty and other researchers in the local Woods Hole scientific community to design and develop an original research project to be completed at sea. Students then participate as full, working members of the scientific team and sailing crew aboard the 134-foot brigantine SSV Robert C. Seamans; they conduct extensive oceanographic sampling, manage shipboard operations, and complete and present the independent research project they designed onshore. Oceans & Climate SEA Semester Cruise S-250 sailed from San Diego to Tahiti on a 7-week, >4000nm voyage last fall (November-December 2013). This remote open-ocean cruise track traversed subtropical and equatorial regions of the Pacific particularly well suited for a diverse range of climate-focused studies. Furthermore, as SEA has regularly collected scientific data along similar Pacific cruise tracks for more than a decade, students often undertake projects that require time-series analyses. 18 undergraduates from 15 different colleges and universities participated in the S-250 program. Two examples of the many projects completed by S-250 students include a study of the possible relationship between tropical cyclone intensification, driven by warm sea surface temperatures, and the presence of barrier layers; and a study of nutrient cycling in the eastern Pacific, focusing on primary

  6. Temperature Data From AUSTRALIA STAR and Other Platforms From Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean From 19860929 to 19890106 (NODC Accession 8900196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature data from Australia Star and other ships from Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from September 29, 1986 to January 6, 1989. The data were collected by...

  7. Stratospheric microbiology at 20 km over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.; Griffin, Dale W.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    An aerobiology sampling flight at 20 km was conducted on 28 April 2008 over the Pacific Ocean (36.5° N, 118–149° W), a period of time that coincided with the movement of Asian dust across the ocean. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of viable bacteria and fungi within a transoceanic, atmospheric bridge and to improve the resolution of flight hardware processing techniques. Isolates of the microbial strains recovered were analyzed with ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing to identify bacterial species Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus endophyticus, and the fungal genus Penicillium. Satellite imagery and ground-based radiosonde observations were used to measure dust movement and characterize the high-altitude environment at the time of collection. Considering the atmospheric residency time (7–10 days), the extreme temperature regime of the environment (-75°C), and the absence of a mechanism that could sustain particulates at high altitude, it is unlikely that our samples indicate a permanent, stratospheric ecosystem. However, the presence of viable fungi and bacteria in transoceanic stratosphere remains relevant to understanding the distribution and extent of microbial life on Earth.

  8. Widespread Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Northwestern Pacific Ocean Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haryun; Lee, Kitack; Lim, Dhong-Il; Nam, Seung-Il; Kim, Tae-Wook; Yang, Jin-Yu T; Ko, Young Ho; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eunil

    2017-06-06

    Sediment samples from the East China and Yellow seas collected adjacent to continental China were found to have lower δ15N values (expressed as δ15N = [15N:14Nsample/15N:14Nair - 1] × 1000‰; the sediment 15N:14N ratio relative to the air nitrogen 15N:14N ratio). In contrast, the Arctic sediments from the Chukchi Sea, the sampling region furthest from China, showed higher δ15N values (2-3‰ higher than those representing the East China and the Yellow sea sediments). Across the sites sampled, the levels of sediment δ15N increased with increasing distance from China, which is broadly consistent with the decreasing influence of anthropogenic nitrogen (NANTH) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and fertilizer use. We concluded that, of several processes, the input of NANTH appears to be emerging as a new driver of change in the sediment δ15N value in marginal seas adjacent to China. The present results indicate that the effect of NANTH has extended beyond the ocean water column into the deep sedimentary environment, presumably via biological assimilation of NANTH followed by deposition. Further, the findings indicate that NANTH is taking over from the conventional paradigm of nitrate flux from nitrate-rich deep water as the primary driver of biological export production in this region of the Pacific Ocean.

  9. Deformation-related volcanism in the Pacific Ocean linked to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, J.M.; Hoernle, K.; Mueller, R.D.; Morgan, J.P.; Butterworth, N.P.; Hauff, F.; Sandwell, D.T.; Jokat, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Stoffers, P.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean islands, seamounts and volcanic ridges are thought to form above mantle plumes. Yet, this mechanism cannot explain many volcanic features on the Pacific Ocean floor and some might instead be caused by cracks in the oceanic crust linked to the reorganization of plate motions. A distinctive bend

  10. Structural variation of the oceanic Moho in the Pacific plate revealed by active-source seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Akane; Kodaira, Shuichi; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Fujie, Gou; Arai, Ryuta; Miura, Seiichi

    2017-10-01

    The characteristics of the oceanic Moho are known to depend on various factors, such as seafloor spreading rate, crustal age, and accretionary processes at a ridge. However, the effect of local magmatic activities on the seismic signature of the Moho is poorly understood. Here an active-source reflection and refraction survey is used to investigate crustal structure and Moho characteristics along a >1000-km-long profile southeast of the Shatsky Rise in a Pacific Ocean basin formed from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous and spanning the onset of Shatsky Rise volcanism. Although the seismic velocity structure estimated from the refraction data showed typical characteristics of the oceanic crust of the old Pacific plate, the appearance of the Moho reflections was spatially variable. We observed clear Moho reflections such as those to be expected where the spreading rate is fast to intermediate only at the southwestern end of the profile, whereas Moho reflections were diffuse, weak, or absent along other parts of the profile. The poor Moho reflections can be explained by the presence of a thick crust-mantle transition layer, which is temporally coincident with the formation of the Shatsky Rise. We inferred that the crust-mantle transition layer was formed by changes in on-axis accretion process or modification of the primary Moho by off-axis magmatism, induced by magmatic activity of the Shatsky Rise.

  11. Seaglider surveys at Ocean Station Papa: Circulation and water mass properties in a meander of the North Pacific Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelland, Noel A.; Eriksen, Charles C.; Cronin, Meghan F.

    2016-09-01

    A Seaglider autonomous underwater vehicle augmented the Ocean Station Papa (OSP; 50°N, 145°W) surface mooring, measuring spatial structure on scales relevant to the monthly evolution of the moored time series. During each of three missions from June 2008 to January 2010, a Seaglider made biweekly 50 km × 50 km surveys in a bowtie-shaped survey track. Horizontal temperature and salinity gradients measured by these surveys were an order of magnitude stronger than climatological values and sometimes of opposite sign. Geostrophically inferred circulation was corroborated by moored acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements and AVISO satellite altimetry estimates of surface currents, confirming that glider surveys accurately resolved monthly scale mesoscale spatial structure. In contrast to climatological North Pacific Current circulation, upper-ocean flow was modestly northward during the first half of the 18 month survey period, and weakly westward during its latter half, with Rossby number O>(0.01>). This change in circulation coincided with a shift from cool and fresh to warm, saline, oxygen-rich water in the upper-ocean halocline, and an increase in vertical fine structure there and in the lower pycnocline. The anomalous flow and abrupt water mass transition were due to the slow growth of an anticyclonic meander within the North Pacific Current with radius comparable to the scale of the survey pattern, originating to the southeast of OSP.

  12. Comparative Study on the Electrical Properties of the Oceanic Mantle Beneath the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H.

    2013-12-01

    We have been conducting long-term seafloor electromagnetic (EM) observations at two sites in the northwest Pacific since 2001. The older site was established at the deep seafloor (~5600m) on the northwest Pacific basin (Site NWP), while the new one was installed on the west Philippine basin (Site WPB) in 2006 at the slightly deeper (~5700m) seafloor. The ages of the oceanic basins at those sites are approximately 129 Ma for Site NWP (Shipboard Scientific Party of ODP Leg 191, 2000) and 49 Ma for Site WPB (Salisbury et al., 2006), respectively. The EM instruments deployed at those sites are seafloor EM stations (SFEMS; Toh et al., 2004 and 2006) and capable of measuring vector EM fields at the seafloor for as long as one year or more with other physical quantities such as the instruments' attitude, orientation and temperature. One of the objectives of the seafloor long-term EM observations by SFEMSs is to make a comparative study of the oceanic mantle with and without influence of the so-called 'stagnant slabs' in terms of their electrical conductivity. It is anticipated that the mantle transition zone under the influence of the stagnant slab has a higher electrical conductivity because the transition zone there could be wetter than that in the absence of the stagnant slab. In this context, the mantle transition zone beneath Site WPB can be said to have influence by the stagnant slab, while that beneath Site NWP does not. It, therefore, is basically possible to estimate how much water is present in each transition zone by comparison of the electrical conductivity profiles of the two. The one-dimensional electrical profile beneath Site NWP has been derived so far using the magnetotelluric (MT) and geomagnetic depth sounding (GDS) methods with significant jumps in the electrical property at 410 and 660km discontinuities. The jumps are approximately factors of 10 and 2, respectively (Ichiki et al., 2009). Here we show a profile beneath Site WPB using both MT and GDS

  13. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin S Shanley

    Full Text Available Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1 and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2 projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation

  14. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Colin S; Albert, David M

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March) was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1) and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2) projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation experiments, and finer

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-15 to 2008-02-23 (NODC Accession 0109903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109903 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  16. Spectral wave conditions in the Colombian Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla, Jesús; Caicedo, Ana Lucía; Padilla-Hernández, Roberto; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the wave conditions in the Colombian Pacific based on wave spectra is presented. The spectral approach offers a detailed description of the different wave regimes, their associated meteorological conditions and their variation in time and geographical space. To this end, two complementary data sources are used, the first is representative for the near-shore zone and comes from observations of the local monitoring network. The second comes from numerical wave model results that cover the open ocean. The measured data used are the first systematically collected spectral wave data in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Modelled spectra correspond to the ERA-Interim database of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts that spans 35 years. An indicator for statistical analysis of the wave spectra has been introduced which basically consists of the occurrence probability of spectral partitions. This indicator has proved to be skilful for the task of defining spectral wave systems of both model and, the more challenging, measured spectra. Following the spectral approach and using this new indicator, six main wave regimes are found in the study area. Two of these systems have well defined swell characteristics that are originated outside the study area in the northern and southern hemispheres. Other three wave systems are to a certain extent associated to the local winds, and in general may be classified as old wind-seas. These are found to flow northeastwards, westwards, and southwards. The sixth system is composed of locally generated wind waves of relatively low magnitude that propagate in several directions. The time variability of these wave systems is highly dependent on the boreal and austral winter storms and on the tropical conditions, in such a way that the wave energy propagation to the region is rather constant along the year, but their origin and characteristics vary significantly.

  17. Feeding habits of billfishes (Carangaria: Istiophoriformes in the Ecuadorian Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Loor-Andrade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The feeding habits of Makaira nigricans, Kajikia audax, Istiophorus platypterus (Istiophoridae, and Xiphias gladius (Xiphiidae in the southeast Pacific Ocean were examined in Manta and Santa Rosa, Ecuador. This study describes the diets of these billfish species, evaluates dietary differences between species, and assesses seasonal differences in diet. A total of 274 M. nigricans, 321 K. audax, 267 I. platypterus, and 252 X. gladius were collected between February 2014 and April 2015. The scombrid Auxis spp. was the most important prey for M. nigricans, K. audax and I. platypterus, while the squid Dosidicus gigas was the most important prey for X. gladius. The results of the ANOSIM confirmed significant differences in feeding habits between the members of the family Istiophoridae and X. gladius. Seasonal differences for I. platypterus also were observed. Billfishes are specialist consumers with a narrow niche breadth (B a: M. nigricans and K. audax=0.1, I. platypterus=0.05, and X. gladius=0.04.

  18. North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory: Analysis of Shadow Zone Arrivals and Acoustic Propagation in Numerical Ocean Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dushaw, Brian

    2009-01-01

    ... depth of the receiver lies well below the depths of the predicted cusps. Several models for the temperature and salinity in the North Pacific Ocean were obtained and processed to enable simulations of acoustic propagation for comparison to the observations...

  19. Distribution characteristics of co-rich manganese deposits on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Yamazaki, T.; Sharma, R.

    Distribution characteristics of cobalt-rich manganese deposits were evaluated from stereo photographs and video data on a seamount in the central Pacific Ocean by image analysis, photogrammetric technique, and visual observations. The results show...

  20. Evidence for transoceanic migrations by loggerhead sea turtles in the southern Pacific Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M.C. Boyle; N.N. FitzSimmons; C.J. Limpus; S. Kelez; X. Velez-Zuazo; M. Waycott

    2009-01-01

    .... Similar migratory behaviour is hypothesized in the South Pacific Ocean as post-hatchling loggerhead turtles are observed in Peruvian fisheries, yet no loggerhead rookeries occur along the coast of South America...

  1. Pacific Ocean buoy temperature date - TAO/TRITON database & National Buoy Data Center database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pacific Ocean buoy temperature data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Carbone, F., M. Landis, C.N. Gencarelli, A. Naccarato, F. Sprovieri,...

  2. Ancient Fungal Life in North Pacific Eocene Oceanic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Manz, W.; Reitner, J.; Lustrino, M.

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the manifold life forms of the deep biosphere although there is increasing scientific evidence that an extensive biosphere does exist in extreme environments such as the rocks below the seafloor. The ODP Leg 200 was devoted to the study of Eocene oceanic crust of the North Pacific Ocean. Within a massive tholeiitic lava flow unit, at depth of 51 mbsf underneath a water column of about 5000 m, we found unique filamentous structures. Based on morphological traits like branching, septa and central pores the filaments are interpreted as fungi. These filaments were found within carbonate-filled vesicles ranging in size from 0.5 to 3 mm in diameter. The net of fungal hyphae completely fills the whole pore space from the basalt-carbonate boundary towards the center of the pores. The cross section dimension of these filaments is about 5-10 micrometer and the length differ from 50 to several hundreds micrometer. Thereby the cell septa of the hyphae are clearly visible. The number of hyphae ranges from some tenth to some hundreds per particular pore. The presence of pyrite within the carbonate cements points out anaerobic conditions in this habitat. After removing the carbonate by etching the vesicles with diluted formic acid, the 3-dimensional structure of the fungus could be clearly visualized. Fine structure analysis of the hyphae obtained by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) revealed a network of tiny small fibers coating the surface of the hyphae. Semi-quantitative chemical analyses of the etched hyphae were conducted with an energy dispersive spectrometer system (EDS) coupled with the FE-SEM. The results evidence a chemical composition of the hyphae different from the surrounding carbonate matrix. Undisturbed filamentous growth through different calcite crystals within the vesicles and small open space between the fungi and matrix indicate endolithic fungal growth after the calcium carbonate filling of the vesicles. To the best

  3. An Update on the Status of the Southeast Atlantic Coastal Ocean Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, H. E.

    2005-05-01

    As a consortium of largely academic institutions in the Southeast US, SEACOOS has been developing and implementing a pilot regional coastal ocean observing system. The four major components of SEACOOS, the observing subsystem, the modeling subsystem, the data management subsystem, and the extension and education subsystem, will be reviewed. In particular, the focus will be on identifying facets of the components that have worked well, those that have proved challenging, and current notions of best practices. Progress towards a near real-time depiction of coastal ocean circulation, and its application in support of search and rescue, spill response and fisheries recruitment studies, continues. The implications of the existing capabilities on needed areas of research and investment will be discussed.

  4. Phylogeography of Indo-Pacific reef fishes: sister wrassesCoris gaimardandC. cuvieriin the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Ahti, Pauliina A.

    2016-02-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to resolve the evolutionary history, biogeographical barriers and population histories for sister species of wrasses, the African Coris (Coris cuvieri) in the Indian Ocean and Red Sea, and the Yellowtail Coris (Coris gaimard) in the Pacific Ocean. Glacial sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene have shaped the evolutionary trajectories of Indo-Pacific marine fauna, primarily by creating barriers between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Here, we evaluate the influence of these episodic glacial barriers on sister species C. cuvieri and C. gaimard. Location: Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean. Methods: Sequences from mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and nuclear introns gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and ribosomal S7 protein were analysed in 426 individuals from across the range of both species. Median-joining networks, analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian estimates of the time since most recent common ancestor were used to resolve recent population history and connectivity. Results: Cytochrome oxidase c subunit I haplotypes showed a divergence of 0.97% between species, and nuclear alleles were shared between species. No population structure was detected between the Indian Ocean and Red Sea. The strongest signal of population structure was in C. gaimard between the Hawaiian biogeographical province and other Pacific locations (COI ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.040-0.173, P < 0.006; S7 ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.046, P < 0.001; GnRH ϕ(symbol)ST = 0.022, P < 0.005). Time to most recent common ancestor is c. 2.12 Ma for C. cuvieri and 1.76 Ma for C. gaimard. Main conclusions: We demonstrate an Indian-Pacific divergence of c. 2 Myr and high contemporary gene flow between the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, mediated in part by the long pelagic larval stage. The discovery of hybrids at Christmas Island indicates that Indian and Pacific lineages have come into secondary contact after allopatric isolation. Subspecies

  5. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived 134 Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of 134 Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived 134 Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scaling Forest Management Practices in Earth System Models: Case Study of Southeast and Pacific Northwest Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmokhtarian, A.; Becknell, J. M.; Hall, J.; Desai, A. R.; Boring, L. R.; Duffy, P.; Staudhammer, C. L.; Starr, G.; Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    A wide array of human-induced disturbances can alter the structure and function of forests, including climate change, disturbance and management. While there have been numerous studies on climate change impacts on forests, interactions of management with changing climate and natural disturbance are poorly studied. Forecasts of the range of plausible responses of forests to climate change and management are need for informed decision making on new management approaches under changing climate, as well as adaptation strategies for coming decades. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate and assess simultaneous responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climatic perturbations and management across multiple spatio-temporal scales, but currently do not represent a wide array of management activities known to impact carbon, water, surface energy fluxes, and biodiversity. The Ecosystem Demography model 2 (ED2) incorporates non-linear impacts of fine-scale (~10-1 km) heterogeneity in ecosystem structure both horizontally and vertically at a plant level. Therefore it is an ideal candidate to incorporate different forest management practices and test various hypotheses under changing climate and across various spatial scales. The management practices that we implemented were: clear-cut, conversion, planting, partial harvest, low intensity fire, restoration, salvage, and herbicide. The results were validated against observed data across 8 different sites in the U.S. Southeast (Duke Forest, Joseph Jones Ecological Research Center, North Carolina Loblolly Pine, and Ordway-Swisher Biological Station) and Pacific Northwest (Metolius Research Natural Area, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Wind River Field Station, and Mount Rainier National Park). These sites differ in regards to climate, vegetation, soil, and historical land disturbance as well as management approaches. Results showed that different management practices could successfully

  7. Temporal variations of potential fecundity of southern blue whiting (Micromesistius australis australis) in the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Andrés; Wiff, Rodrigo; Díaz, Eduardo; Carvajal, Bernardita

    2017-08-01

    Fecundity is a key aspect of fish species reproductive biology because it relates directly to total egg production. Yet, despite such importance, fecundity estimates are lacking or scarce for several fish species. The gravimetric method is the most-used one to estimate fecundity by essentially scaling up the oocyte density to the ovary weight. It is a relatively simple and precise technique, but also time consuming because it requires counting all oocytes in an ovary subsample. The auto-diametric method, on the other hand, is relatively new for estimating fecundity, representing a rapid alternative, because it requires only an estimation of mean oocyte density from mean oocyte diameter. Using the extensive database available from commercial fishery and design surveys for southern blue whiting Micromesistius australis australis in the Southeast Pacific, we compared estimates of fecundity using both gravimetric and auto-diametric methods. Temporal variations in potential fecundity from the auto-diametric method were evaluated using generalised linear models considering predictors from maternal characteristics such as female size, condition factor, oocyte size, and gonadosomatic index. A global and time-invariant auto-diametric equation was evaluated using a simulation procedure based on non-parametric bootstrap. Results indicated there were not significant differences regarding fecundity estimates between the gravimetric and auto-diametric method (p > 0.05). Simulation showed the application of a global equation is unbiased and sufficiently precise to estimate time-invariant fecundity of this species. Temporal variations on fecundity were explained by maternal characteristic, revealing signals of fecundity down-regulation. We discuss how oocyte size and nutritional condition (measured as condition factor) are one of the important factors determining fecundity. We highlighted also the relevance of choosing the appropriate sampling period to conduct maturity studies

  8. Algal Species and other data collected from photographs in Southeast Atlantic Ocean from 11 June 1991 to 22 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9300196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Algal species and other data were collected using photographs from swimmers/divers in Southeast Atlantic Ocean. Data were collected from 11 June 1991 to 22 March...

  9. The Effect of ENSO on Phytoplankton Composition in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, Cecile

    2012-01-01

    The effect of climate variability on phytoplankton communities was assessed for the tropical and sub-tropical Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005 using an established biogeochemical assimilation model. The phytoplankton communities exhibited wide range of responses to climate variability, from radical shifts in the Equatorial Pacific, to changes of only a couple of phytoplankton groups in the North Central Pacific, to no significant changes in the South Pacific. In the Equatorial Pacific, climate variability dominated the variability of phytoplankton. Here, nitrate, chlorophyll and all but one of the 4 phytoplankton types (diatoms, cyanobacteria and coccolithophores) were strongly correlated (p less than 0.01) with the Multivariate El Nino Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). In the North Central Pacific, MEI and chlorophyll were significantly (pphytoplankton groups (chlorophytes and coccolithophores). Ocean biology in the South Pacific was not significantly correlated with MEI. During La Ni a events, diatoms increased and expanded westward along the cold tongue (correlation with MEI, r=-0.81), while cyanobacteria concentrations decreased significantly (r=0.78). El Nino produced the reverse pattern, with cyanobacteria populations increasing while diatoms plummeted. The diverse response of phytoplankton in the different major basins of the Pacific suggests the different roles climate variability can play in ocean biology.

  10. absolute migration of pacific basin mid-ocean ridges since 85 ma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ABSTRACT. Mid-ocean ridges are major physiographic features that dominate the world seafloor. Their absolute motion and tectonics are recorded in magnetic lineations they created. The absolute migration of mid-ocean ridges in the Pacific basin since 85 Ma and their tectonic implications was investigated in this work ...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1350 - Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. 334.1350 Section 334.1350 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Ocean, Island of Oahu, Hawaii; danger zone. (a) The danger zone. Beginning at point of origin at Kaena...

  12. Ingestion of Microplastics by Zooplankton in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Ross, Peter S

    2015-10-01

    Microplastics are increasingly recognized as being widespread in the world's oceans, but relatively little is known about ingestion by marine biota. In light of the potential for microplastic fibers and fragments to be taken up by small marine organisms, we examined plastic ingestion by two foundation species near the base of North Pacific marine food webs, the calanoid copepod Neocalanus cristatus and the euphausiid Euphausia pacifia. We developed an acid digestion method to assess plastic ingestion by individual zooplankton and detected microplastics in both species. Encounter rates resulting from ingestion were 1 particle/every 34 copepods and 1/every 17 euphausiids (euphausiids > copepods; p = 0.01). Consistent with differences in the size selection of food between these two zooplankton species, the ingested particle size was greater in euphausiids (816 ± 108 μm) than in copepods (556 ± 149 μm) (p = 0.014). The contribution of ingested microplastic fibres to total plastic decreased with distance from shore in euphausiids (r (2) = 70, p = 0.003), corresponding to patterns in our previous observations of microplastics in seawater samples from the same locations. This first evidence of microplastic ingestion by marine zooplankton indicate that species at lower trophic levels of the marine food web are mistaking plastic for food, which raises fundamental questions about potential risks to higher trophic level species. One concern is risk to salmon: We estimate that consumption of microplastic-containing zooplankton will lead to the ingestion of 2-7 microplastic particles/day by individual juvenile salmon in coastal British Columbia, and ≤91 microplastic particles/day in returning adults.

  13. Biomineralisation of the ferromanganese crusts in the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Xiao-Ming; Guan, Yao; Gong, Jun-Li; Lu, Yang; Lu, Rong-Fei; Wang, Chi

    2017-04-01

    Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are deep-sea sedimentary polymetallic minerals that are explored for their economic potential, particularly for Mn, Cu, Co, Ni and rare earth elements (REEs). The precipitation mechanism of the metallic elements in crusts has remained controversial between chemical oxidation (abiotic origin) and microbial enzymatic processes (biomineralization). In this study, the microbial mineralization in ferromanganese crusts from the Western Pacific Ocean was explored. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses showed abundant micron-scale spherical aggregates of Mn-oxide filaments (20-80 nm), which are closely associated with filamentous cells within the biofilm (biofilm mineralization) exist within the stromatolitic structure. The high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analysis suggests that biofilms are dominated by three Mn-oxidizing bacterial species from the families Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Pseudomonas. In addition, Mn concentration in the biofilms is approximately 108 times that of the associated seawater (2.3 ppb Mn). Iron (16.2 wt%), Cu (0.11 wt%), Co (0.719 wt%) and Ni (0.459 wt%) were found in the biofilms via X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). We suggest that biomineralization provides a new perspective for understanding Fe-Mn crustal-related mineral deposits, and the ultra-high microbial trace element enrichment ability is noteworthy. Utilization of microbial activities in accumulating precious metals from seawater may offer a viable alternative for the world's metal production in the future.

  14. Calcite production by coccolithophores in the south east Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Beaufort

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available BIOSOPE cruise covered an oceanographic transect through the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG from the Marquesas archipelago to the Peru-Chile upwelling (PCU. Water samples from 6 depths in the euphotic zone were collected at 20 stations. The concentrations of suspended calcite particles, coccolithophores cells and detached coccoliths were estimated together with size and weight using an automatic polarizing microscope, a digital camera, and a collection of softwares performing morphometry and pattern recognition. Some of these softwares are new and described here for the first time. The coccolithophores standing stocks were usually low and reached maxima west of the PCU. The coccoliths of Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa spp. and Crenalithus spp. (Order Isochrysidales represented more than 30% of all the suspended calcite particles detected in the size range 0.1–46 μm (22% of PIC in term of calcite weight. These species grew preferentially in the Chlorophyll maximum zone. In the SPG their maximum cell concentrations were recorded between depth of 150 and 200 m, which is unusually deep for these taxa. The weight of coccoliths and coccospheres were correlated to their size. Large and heavy coccoliths and coccospheres were found in regions with relatively high fertility in the Marquises Island and in the PCU. Small and light coccoliths and coccospheres were found west of the PCU. This distribution is strongly related to ocean chemistry in particular to alkalinity and to carbonate ions concentration. The biotic (coccolithophores production influence on calcification is mainly driven at the local scale (depth whereas the abiotic (carbonate chemistry plays its most important role at the regional (horizontal level. Here 94% of the variability of coccolith and coccosphere weight can be explained by a change in 7 environmental variables.

  15. Rare earth element and neodymium isotope tracing of element input and past ocean circulation. Study from north and south pacific seawater and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froellje, Henning

    2016-08-09

    incorporation of NADW contribute to the changes in the Nd isotope signature of CDW. The absence of such early deglacial Nd isotope changes in the northernmost core were attributed to the isolation of this core from bottom waters by South Pacific bathymetry with potential contribution from shifts in the Southern Ocean's frontal system and potential influence of increased deglacial NPDW convection. Overall the results highlight the important role of glacial deep stratification in sustaining a deep glacial carbon reservoir in the Southern Ocean and the importance of Southern Hemisphere climate to the breakdown of deep stratification and the release of sequestered CO{sub 2} through upwelling. A 140,000 year long Nd isotope record from the Southeast Pacific covering the last glacial-interglacial cycle demonstrates comparable deep water mass mixing in the South Pacific during the last two glacial maxima, but higher NADW contributions during the glacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 (chapter 4). Likewise, the penultimate interglacial (MIS 5) was characterised by similar amounts of NADW and NPDW in CDW as the Holocene and the modern Southeast Pacific. Comparison of the last two glacial terminations thus shows high consistency and suggests similar mechanisms that controlled the deglacial change in water mass structure in the deep South Pacific, including a Southern Ocean contribution to early deglacial Nd isotope shifts. The results show weaker absolute glacial-interglacial Nd isotope changes compared to the South Atlantic due to the lack of direct NADW and slightly higher NPDW influence in the Southeast Pacific. Further, the Nd isotope record confirms the glacial-interglacial variability in NADW and NPDW mixture in CDW obtained previously from carbon isotope records.

  16. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerovecki, Ivana [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; McClean, Julie [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Koracin, Darko [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States). Division of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-11-14

    The overall objective of this study was to improve the representation of regional ocean circulation in the North Pacific by using high resolution atmospheric forcing that accurately represents mesoscale processes in ocean-atmosphere regional (North Pacific) model configuration. The goal was to assess the importance of accurate representation of mesoscale processes in the atmosphere and the ocean on large scale circulation. This is an important question, as mesoscale processes in the atmosphere which are resolved by the high resolution mesoscale atmospheric models such as Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), are absent in commonly used atmospheric forcing such as CORE forcing, employed in e.g. the Community Climate System Model (CCSM).

  17. Transport of Ocean Waters between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis; Castro-Valdez, Ruben; Mascarenhas, Affonso; Margolina, Tetyana

    2014-05-01

    Ocean transports between the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California contribute to the seasonal heating and cooling of the Gulf and add high salinity waters to the surface and upper thermocline waters of the Pacific. These transports have been measured by 1) moored arrays of temperature, salinity and pressure instruments on either side of the entrance to the Gulf in water 130 m deep and 2) shipboard hydrographic measurements across the Gulf along a section between Sinaloa and Baja California. The moored measurements extended from November 2003 to May 2006 and the hydrographic section was occupied eighteen times between 1992 and 2013. Results of these measurements are described in this presentation. The moored measurements resolved baroclinic transport at 40 and 80 dbar referenced to 120 dbar. Geostrophic flow was into (out) the Gulf from May to October (November to April). Mean transport into (out) of the Gulf at 40 dbar was 5.6 x 103 m3/s (4.2 x 103 m3/s) and at 80 dbar was 1.3 x 103 m3/s (1.8 x 103 m3/s). Maximum and minimum geostrophic velocities were observed about July 1 and December 1, respectively, and were about three times as large as the mean values. Steric heights at the mooring locations were compared to satellite sea level height anomalies. Agreement was good and provided a more robust measure of the annual cycle of the mean surface geostrophic flow and transport because 9 years of continuous observations were available. The hydrographic measurements indicated predominately cyclonic flow patterns with inflow along Sinaloa and outflow along Baja California. During periods of strong exchange, narrow deep jets were observed to develop over the continental slopes of Sinaloa and Baja California. Overturning circulation within the Gulf is clearly indicated by the patterns of salinity along the hydrographic sections in which inflows of fresher Pacific waters (S34.8 for densities between 25 and 26 kg/m3) along Baja California. Geostrophic velocities for these

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Halsall, Crispin J; Xie, Zhiyong; Koetke, Danijela; Mi, Wenying; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Gao, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surficial sediments along a marine transect from the North Pacific into the Arctic Ocean. The highest average Σ 18 PAHs concentrations were observed along the continental slope of the Canada Basin in the Arctic (68.3 ± 8.5 ng g -1 dw), followed by sediments in the Chukchi Sea shelf (49.7 ± 21.2 ng g -1 dw) and Bering Sea (39.5 ± 11.3 ng g -1 dw), while the Bering Strait (16.8 ± 7.1 ng g -1 dw) and Central Arctic Ocean sediments (13.1 ± 9.6 ng g -1 dw) had relatively lower average concentrations. The use of principal components analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) indicated that on average oil related or petrogenic sources contributed ∼42% of the measured PAHs in the sediments and marked by higher concentrations of two methylnaphthalenes over the non-alkylated parent PAH, naphthalene. Wood and coal combustion contributed ∼32%, and high temperature pyrogenic sources contributing ∼26%. Petrogenic sources, such as oil seeps, allochthonous coal and coastally eroded material such as terrigenous sediments particularly affected the Chukchi Sea shelf and slope of the Canada Basin, while biomass and coal combustion sources appeared to have greater influence in the central Arctic Ocean, possibly due to the effects of episodic summertime forest fires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On the Enigmatic Birth of the Pacific Plate within the Panthalassa Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, L.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.

    2016-12-01

    The oceanic Pacific Plate started forming in Early Jurassic time within the vast Panthalassa Ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangea and contains the oldest lithosphere that can directly constrain the geodynamic history of the circum-Pangean Earth. Here, we show that the geometry of the oldest marine magnetic anomalies of the Pacific Plate attests of a unique plate kinematic event that sparked the plate's birth in virtually a point location, surrounded by the Izanagi, Farallon and Phoenix Plates. We reconstruct the unstable triple junction that caused the plate reorganization leading to the birth of the Pacific Plate and present a model of the plate tectonic configuration that preconditioned this event. We show that a stable, but migrating triple junction involving the gradual cessation of intra-oceanic Panthalassa subduction culminated in the formation of an unstable transform-transform-transform triple junction. The consequent plate boundary reorganization resulted in the formation of a stable triangular three-ridge system from which the nascent Pacific Plate expanded. We link the birth of the Pacific Plate to the regional termination of intra-Panthalassa subduction. Remnants thereof have been identified in the deep lower mantle of which the locations may provide paleolongitudinal control on the absolute location of the early Pacific Plate. Our results constitute an essential step in unraveling the plate tectonic evolution of `Thalassa Incognita' comprising the comprehensive Panthalassa Ocean surrounding Pangea.

  20. Temperature profile data from STD/CTD casts from the MOANA WAVE from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 22 February to 1975-05-27 (NODC Accession 7800703)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity profile data were collected using STD/CTD casts from MOANA WAVE in the Pacific Ocean from February 22, 1975 to May 27, 1975. Data were...

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBT from the KANA KEOKI from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1979-02-06 to 1980-06-14 (NCEI Accession 8100518)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KANA KEOKI in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1979 to June 14, 1980....

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 1981-11-21 to 1983-11-20 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  3. Wind and temperature data from current meter in the TOGA - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS), 28 May 1994 to 21 March 1995 (NODC Accession 9800041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind and temperature data were collected using current meter in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean (30 N to 30 S) from May 28, 1994 to March 21, 1995. Data were submitted...

  4. Physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1213 in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2012-10-04 to 2012-11-05 (NCEI Accession 0129851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0129851 includes physical, profile and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise RR1213 in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  5. Development and impact of hooks of high droplet concentration on remote southeast Pacific stratocumulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the southeastern Pacific (SEP, droplet concentration (Nd in the typically unpolluted marine stratocumulus west of 80° W (> 1000 km offshore is periodically strongly enhanced in zonally elongated "hook"-shaped features that increase albedo. Here, we examine three hook events using the chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem with 14 km horizontal resolution, satellite data, and aircraft data from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx. A particularly strong hook yields insights into the development, decay, and radiative impact of these features. Hook development occurs with Nd increasing to polluted levels over the remote ocean primarily due to entrainment of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN from the lower free troposphere (FT. The feature advects northwestward until the FT CCN source is depleted, after which Nd decreases over a few days due to precipitation and dilution. The model suggests that the FT CCN source supplying the hook consists of high concentrations of small accumulation-mode aerosols that contribute a relatively small amount of aerosol mass to the MBL, in agreement with near-coast VOCALS measurements of polluted layers in the FT. The aerosol particles in this hook originate mainly from a pulse of offshore flow that transports Santiago-region (33–35° S emissions to the remote marine FT. To provide pollution CCN that can sustain hooks, the FT transport of pollution plumes to the remote ocean requires strong, deep offshore flow. Such flow is favored by a trough approaching the South American coast and a southeastward shift of the climatological subtropical high-pressure system. The model simulations show precipitation suppression in the hook and a corresponding increase in liquid water path (LWP compared with a simulation without anthropogenic sources. LWP also increases as the hook evolves over time due to increasing stability and decreasing subsidence. WRF

  6. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: Continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisias, N.G.; Heusser, L.; Heusser, C.; Hostetler, S.W.; Mix, A.C.; Weber, M.

    2006-01-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiolaria and pollen records from 0 to 50 ka at ODP Site 1233: continental and marine climate records from the Southeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisias, Nicklas G.; Heusser, Linda; Heusser, Cal; Hostetler, Steven W.; Mix, Alan C.; Weber, Mysti

    2006-03-01

    Site 1233 drilled during Leg 202 of the Ocean Drilling Program provides a detailed record of marine and continental climate change in the Southeast Pacific and South American continent. Splits from over 500 samples taken at 20 cm intervals for quantitative analysis of radiolarian and pollen populations yield a temporal resolution of 200-400 years. In each sample, 39 pollen taxa and 40 radiolarian species and genera were evaluated. Age control is provided by 25 AMS 14C dates [Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J., 2004. Science 304, 1959-1962]. Multivariate statistical analyses of these data allow us to conclude the following: (1) During the past 50 ka, the region of the central Chile coast is not directly influenced by polar water from the Antarctic region. (2) Changes in ocean conditions off central Chile during this time interval primarily reflect north-south shifts in the position of the South Pacific transition zone. (3) Changes in Chilean vegetation reflect comparable latitudinal shifts in precipitation and the position of the southern westerlies. (4) The first canonical variate of radiolarian and pollen records extracted from Site 1233 are remarkably similar to each other as well as to temperature records from the Antarctic, which suggests that marine and continental climate variability in the region is tightly coupled at periods longer than 3000 years. (5) The phase coupling of these climate records, which lead variations of continental erosion based on iron abundance at the same site, are consistent with a hypothesis that erosion is linked to relatively long (i.e, few thousand years) response times of the Patagonian ice sheet, and thus is not a direct indicator of regional climate.

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Investigator in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2016-04-26 to 2016-06-29 (NCEI Accession 0160555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160555 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Investigator in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific...

  9. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-01-26 to 1994-04-27 (NODC Accession 0115152)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115152 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific...

  10. Diversity of culturable filamentous Ascomycetes in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jeanett; Gutiérrez, Marcelo H; Palfner, Götz; Pantoja, Silvio

    2017-08-01

    Our study reports the diversity of culturable mycoplankton in the eastern South Pacific Ocean off Chile to contribute with novel knowledge on taxonomy of filamentous fungi isolated from distinct physicochemical and biological marine environments. We characterized spatial distribution of isolates, evaluated their viability and assessed the influence of organic substrate availability on fungal development. Thirty-nine Operational Taxonomic Units were identified from 99 fungal strains isolated from coastal and oceanic waters by using Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery. All Operational Taxonomic Units belonged to phylum Ascomycota and orders Eurotiales, Dothideales, Sordariales and Hypocreales, mainly Penicillium sp. (82%); 11 sequences did not match existing species in GenBank, suggesting occurrence of novel fungal taxa. Our results suggest that fungal communities in the South Pacific Ocean off Chile appear to thrive in a wide range of environmental conditions in the ocean and that substrate availability may be a factor influencing fungal viability in the ocean.

  11. Tropical Cyclone Exposure for U.S. waters within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin, 1900-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent modeled, historical exposure of U.S. offshore and coastal waters to tropical cyclone activity within the Eastern Pacific Ocean basin. BOEM Outer...

  12. AFSC/RACE/GAP/Conrath: Notes on the Reproductive Biology of Female Salmon Sharks in the Eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Little information has previously been published on the reproductive biology of the salmon shark in the Eastern North Pacific ocean. This data set incorporates basic...

  13. The Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and climate experiment (SPICE)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganachaud, A; Cravatte, S; Melet, A; Schiller, A; Holbrook, N. J; Sloyan, B. M; Widlansky, M. J; Bowen, M; Verron, J; Wiles, P; Ridgway, K; Sutton, P; Sprintall, J; Steinberg, C; Brassington, G; Cai, W; Davis, R; Gasparin, F; Gourdeau, L; Hasegawa, T; Kessler, W; Maes, C; Takahashi, K; Richards, K. J; Send, U

    2014-01-01

    ...) toward Australia and Papua‐New Guinea. On its way, the SEC encounters the numerous islands and straits of the Southwest Pacific and forms boundary currents and jets that eventually redistribute water to the equator and high latitudes...

  14. Visualizing the Food-Web Effects of Fishing for Tunas in the Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Hinke, Jefferson T.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Kerim Aydin; Watters, George M.; Olson, Robert J.; James F. K. Kitchell

    2004-01-01

    We use food-web models to develop visualizations to compare and evaluate the interactions of tuna fisheries with their supporting food webs in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP) and the central north Pacific (CNP) Oceans. In the ETP and CNP models, individual fisheries use slightly different food webs that are defined by the assemblage of targeted tuna species. Distinct energy pathways are required to support different tuna species and, consequently, the specific fisheries that target differe...

  15. Acarnidae (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida from the Mexican Pacific Ocean with the description of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Aguilar-Camacho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Acarnidae is characterized by sponges with ectosomal diactinal spicules and choanosomal monactinal spicules. Microscleres include palmate isochelae, toxas and echinating acanthostyles. We described ten species from the Mexican Pacific Ocean. Six of them are new to science: Acarnus michoacanensis n. sp., Acarnus oaxaquensis n. sp., Acarnus sabulum n. sp., Acheliderma fulvum n. sp., Megaciella toxispinosa n. sp. and Iophon bipocillum n. sp. Four are known in Eastern Pacific waters: Acarnus erithacus, Acarnus peruanus, Megaciella microtoxa and Iophon indentatum.

  16. The Pacific and Indian Ocean Exchange: Analysis of the Imos Timor Passage and Ombai Strait Moorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloyan, B.; Wijffels, S. A.; Cowley, R.

    2014-12-01

    A fundamental aspect of observing, describing, understanding and modeling the global climate and particularly the Maritime Continent, is a better knowledge of the fluxes of momentum, heat and freshwater in the ocean. The Indonesian seas are the only major low-latitude connection in the global oceans. This connection permits the transfer of Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean, known as the Indonesian Throughflow. The interaction of the Pacific and Indian basins and their modes of variability (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)), both through atmospheric teleconnections and the ocean link via the Indonesian Throughflow, is now being hotly pursued in the research community. We will present some initial findings from the 3-year time series (2011-2014) of the Timor Passage and Ombai Strait moorings. This mooring array is a component of the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), and builds on the earlier results of the INSTANT (2003-2006) observational program. The moorings comprise of velocity, temperature and salinity instruments. Observations from these moorings provide the required spatial and temporal coverage to understand ocean dynamics, the ocean's role in climate variability and change, investigate forcing of the atmosphere and ocean and assess the realism of data-assimilative ocean models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models.

  17. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pestana, Adriana; Kouri J, Carlos; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena

    2014-01-01

    Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark ( Prionace glauca), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), smooth hammerhead ( Sphyrna zygaena), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus), smooth-hound ( Mustelus whitneyi) and angel shark ( Squatina californica). Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight) are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done.

  18. Shark fisheries in the Southeast Pacific: A 61-year analysis from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Pestana, Adriana; Kouri J., Carlos; Velez-Zuazo, Ximena

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian waters exhibit high conservation value for sharks. This contrasts with a lag in initiatives for their management and a lack of studies about their biology, ecology and fishery. We investigated the dynamics of Peruvian shark fishery and its legal framework identifying information gaps for recommending actions to improve management. Further, we investigated the importance of the Peruvian shark fishery from a regional perspective. From 1950 to 2010, 372,015 tons of sharks were landed in Peru. From 1950 to 1969, we detected a significant increase in landings; but from 2000 to 2011 there was a significant decrease in landings, estimated at 3.5% per year. Six species represented 94% of landings: blue shark ( Prionace glauca), shortfin mako ( Isurus oxyrinchus), smooth hammerhead ( Sphyrna zygaena), common thresher ( Alopias vulpinus), smooth-hound ( Mustelus whitneyi) and angel shark ( Squatina californica). Of these, the angel shark exhibits a strong and significant decrease in landings: 18.9% per year from 2000 to 2010. Peru reports the highest accumulated historical landings in the Pacific Ocean; but its contribution to annual landings has decreased since 1968. Still, Peru is among the top 12 countries exporting shark fins to the Hong Kong market. Although the government collects total weight by species, the number of specimens landed as well as population parameters (e.g. sex, size and weight) are not reported. Further, for some genera, species-level identification is deficient and so overestimates the biomass landed by species and underestimates the species diversity. Recently, regional efforts to regulate shark fishery have been implemented to support the conservation of sharks but in Peru work remains to be done. PMID:27635216

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-09-17 to 1991-10-02 (NODC Accession 0115596)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115596 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2002-12-17 to 2003-02-14 (NODC Accession 0113608)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113608 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-10-06 to 1993-04-13 (NODC Accession 0115156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115156 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-13 to 1991-09-01 (NODC Accession 0115591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115591 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  3. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-06 to 1994-02-05 (NODC Accession 0112362)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112362 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from WECOMA and GYRE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-02-07 to 1980-06-14 (NCEI Accession 0143951)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143951 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from WECOMA and GYRE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-02-07 to...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1997-11-29 to 1997-12-25 (NODC Accession 0112363)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112363 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-10-13 to 1999-11-20 (NODC Accession 0112253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112253 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2004-11-17 to 2004-12-09 (NODC Accession 0112263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112263 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  8. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-02-16 to 2007-03-26 (NODC Accession 0112269)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112269 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  9. Zooplankton, temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle and net casts in the South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific Oceans from the CORIOLIS from 05 April 1981 to 16 August 1981 (NODC Accession 0000527)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, nutrients, and other data were collected from bottle and net casts in the South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific Oceans from the CORIOLIS from 05 April...

  10. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON, cloud amount/frequency and other data from KAIMALINO and MOANA WAVE in the TOGA Area - Pacific and North Pacific Ocean from 1988-10-30 to 1989-11-29 (NODC Accession 9300009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Depth, Salinity, dissolved Oxygen (CTD), and Fluorescence data collected in North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) between October...

  11. Population structure and connectivity of tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) across the Indo-Pacific Ocean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Bonnie J.; Williams, Samuel M.; Otway, Nicholas M.

    2017-01-01

    Population genetic structure using nine polymorphic nuclear microsatellite loci was assessed for the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) at seven locations across the Indo-Pacific, and one location in the southern Atlantic. Genetic analyses revealed considerable genetic structuring (FST > 0.14, p....001) between all Indo-Pacific locations and Brazil. By contrast, no significant genetic differences were observed between locations from within the Pacific or Indian Oceans, identifying an apparent large, single Indo-Pacific population. A lack of differentiation between tiger sharks sampled in Hawaii and other...... Indo-Pacific locations identified herein is in contrast to an earlier global tiger shark nDNA study. The results of our power analysis provide evidence to suggest that the larger sample sizes used here negated any weak population subdivision observed previously. These results further highlight the need...

  12. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F; Jaccard, Samuel L; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-31

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  13. Environmental variability and chum salmon production at the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suam; Kang, Sukyung; Kim, Ju Kyoung; Bang, Minkyoung

    2017-09-01

    Chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, are distributed widely in the North Pacific Ocean, and about 76% of chum salmon were caught from Russian, Japanese, and Korean waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean during the last 20 years. Although it has been speculated that the recent increase in salmon production was aided by not only the enhancement program that targeted chum salmon but also by favorable ocean conditions since the early 1990s, the ecological processes for determining the yield of salmon have not been clearly delineated. To investigate the relationship between yield and the controlling factors for ocean survival of chum salmon, a time-series of climate indices, seawater temperature, and prey availability in the northwestern Pacific including Korean waters were analyzed using some statistical tools. The results of cross-correlation function (CCF) analysis and cumulative sum (CuSum) of anomalies indicated that there were significant environmental changes in the North Pacific during the last century, and each regional stock of chum salmon responded to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) differently: for Russian stock, the correlations between PDO index and catch were significantly negative with a time-lag of 0 and 1 years; for Japanese stock, significantly positive with a timelag of 0-2 years; and for Korean stock, positive but no significant correlation. The results of statistical analyses with Korean chum salmon also revealed that a coastal seawater temperature over 14°C and the return rate of spawning adults to the natal river produced a significant negative correlation.

  14. Ocean dynamics, not dust, have controlled equatorial Pacific productivity over the past 500,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, Gisela; Anderson, Robert F.; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Marcantonio, Franco

    2016-05-01

    Biological productivity in the equatorial Pacific is relatively high compared with other low-latitude regimes, especially east of the dateline, where divergence driven by the trade winds brings nutrient-rich waters of the Equatorial Undercurrent to the surface. The equatorial Pacific is one of the three principal high-nutrient low-chlorophyll ocean regimes where biological utilization of nitrate and phosphate is limited, in part, by the availability of iron. Throughout most of the equatorial Pacific, upwelling of water from the Equatorial Undercurrent supplies far more dissolved iron than is delivered by dust, by as much as two orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, recent studies have inferred that the greater supply of dust during ice ages stimulated greater utilization of nutrients within the region of upwelling on the equator, thereby contributing to the sequestration of carbon in the ocean interior. Here we present proxy records for dust and for biological productivity over the past 500 ky at three sites spanning the breadth of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to test the dust fertilization hypothesis. Dust supply peaked under glacial conditions, consistent with previous studies, whereas proxies of export production exhibit maxima during ice age terminations. Temporal decoupling between dust supply and biological productivity indicates that other factors, likely involving ocean dynamics, played a greater role than dust in regulating equatorial Pacific productivity.

  15. Intraseasonal to interannual Sea Surface Salinity Variations in the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Audrey; Boutin, Jacqueline; Puy, Martin; Reverdin, Gilles; Supply, Alexandre; Morrow, Rosemarry; Lee, Tony; Bingham, Frederick; Farrar, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is one of the key factors influencing the ocean circulation but is also an important indicator of the hydrologic cycle. Understanding processes associated with various SSS regimes is thus crucial to the knowledge of ocean dynamics and of the connection between the ocean and the water cycle. SSS variability is studied between 2010 and mid-2016 in the tropical Pacific Ocean using various datasets such as observations from the satellite missions Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS), Aquarius SAC/D and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); in situ measurements from Argo, voluntary ships and dedicated campaigns; and a forced simulation of the Nemo ocean model. This study focuses mainly on variability north of the Equator, around 10°N. The interannual signal of SSS is particularly intense in this region in 2015, with a very strong and wide freshening and enhanced precipitations. The SSS signature associated with El Niño is however rather centered at the equator. The mechanisms behind the observed freshening and the link to Pacific Ocean state are evaluated by computing each term of the mixed layer salinity budget using the numerical simulation. At the intraseasonal time scale, we underline two processes: the rain events signature on SSS of the order of -.2 pss/mm/hr in SMOS surface measurements and the motion of eddies formed by the Central American coast propagating at a speed of about 17 cm/s within the tropical current system. Understanding the dominant temporal and spatial scales of SSS in the tropical Pacific Ocean is primordial as a support for the NASA's second Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS-2) which first campaign will take place in August-September 2016 in the northeastern equatorial Pacific. SSS datasets presented in this study provide a large-scale context to understand salinity processes that will be observed by the in-situ data collected during field experiments.

  16. Response of the tropical Pacific Ocean to El Niño versus global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fukai; Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-15

    Climate models project an El Niño-like SST response in the tropical Pacific Ocean to global warming (GW). By employing the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and applying an overriding technique to its ocean component, Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2), this study investigates the similarity and difference of formation mechanism for the changes in the tropical Pacific Ocean under El Niño and GW. Results show that, despite sharing some similarities between the two scenarios, there are many significant distinctions between GW and El Niño: 1) the phase locking of the seasonal cycle reduction is more notable under GW compared with El Niño, implying more extreme El Niño events in the future; 2) in contrast to the penetration of the equatorial subsurface temperature anomaly that appears to propagate in the form of an oceanic equatorial upwelling Kelvin wave during El Niño, the GW-induced subsurface temperature anomaly manifest in the form of off-equatorial upwelling Rossby waves; 3) while significant across-equator northward heat transport (NHT) is induced by the wind stress anomalies associated with El Niño, little NHT is found at the equator due to a symmetric change in the shallow meridional overturning circulation that appears to be weakened in both North and South Pacific under GW; and 4) the maintaining mechanisms for the eastern equatorial Pacific warming are also substantially different.

  17. 76 FR 43934 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors... perch allocated to catcher/processors participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the...

  18. 75 FR 42337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch for Catcher/Processors Participating in the Rockfish Limited...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch by catcher/processors... perch allocated to catcher/processors participating in the rockfish limited access fishery in the...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1120 - Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. 334.1120 Section 334.1120 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1120 Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of Point Mugu, Calif.; naval small arms firing range. (a...

  20. 33 CFR 334.1410 - Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii, Makai Undersea Test Range. 334.1410 Section 334.1410 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1410 Pacific Ocean, at Makapuu Point, Waimanalo, Island of Oahu, Hawaii...

  1. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal...

  2. Estimate of radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs (radiocaesium) were released to the North Pacific Ocean by direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. After the FNPP1 accident, measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs were conducted by many researches. However, those results are only snapshots in order to interpret the distribution and transport of the released radiocaesium on a basin scale. It is recognized that estimation of the total amount of released 134Cs and 137Cs is necessary to assess the radioecological impacts of their release on the environment. It was reported that the inventory of 134Cs or 137Cs on the North Pacific Ocean after the FNPP1 accident was 15.2-18.3 PBq based on the observations (Aoyama et al., 2016a), 15.3±1.6 PBq by OI analysis (Inomata et al., 2016), 16.1±1.64 PBq by global ocean model (Tsubono et al., 2016). These suggest that more than 75 % of the atmospheric-released radiocaesium (15.2-20.4 PBq; Aoyama et al., 2016a) were deposited on the North Pacific Ocean. The radiocaesium from the atmospheric fallout and direct discharge were expected to mixing as well as diluting near the coastal region and transported eastward across the North Pacific Ocean in the surface layer. Furthermore, radicaesium were rapidly mixed and penetrated into the subsurface water in the North Pacific Ocean in winter. It was revealed that these radiocaesium existed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b; Kaeriyama et al., 2016) and Central Mode Water (CMW, Aoyama et al., 2016b), suggesting that mode water formation and subduction are efficient pathway for the transport of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium into the ocean interior within 1-year timescale. Kaeriyama et al. (2016) estimated the total amount of FNPP1 derived radiocaesium in the STMW was 4.2 ± 1.1 PBq in October-November 2012. However, there is no estimation of the amount of radiocaesium in the CMW. Therefore, it is impossible to discuss

  3. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada in the Coastal Waters of Southeast Alaska and British Columbia and North Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-16 to 2015-10-13 (NCEI Accession 0135733)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0135733 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical, profile and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System...

  4. Structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiabei; Yang, Xiu-qun

    2017-04-01

    The structure and dynamics of decadal anomalies in the wintertime midlatitude North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system are examined in this study, using the NCEP/NCAR atmospheric reanalysis, HadISST SST and Simple Ocean Data Assimilation data for 1960-2010. The midlatitude decadal anomalies associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation are identified, being characterized by an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low (high) pressure over a cold (warm) oceanic surface. Such a unique configuration of decadal anomalies can be maintained by an unstable ocean-atmosphere interaction mechanism in the midlatitudes, which is hypothesized as follows. Associated with a warm PDO phase, an initial midlatitude surface westerly anomaly accompanied with intensified Aleutian low tends to force a negative SST anomaly by increasing upward surface heat fluxes and driving southward Ekman current anomaly. The SST cooling tends to increase the meridional SST gradient, thus enhancing the subtropical oceanic front. As an adjustment of the atmospheric boundary layer to the enhanced oceanic front, the low-level atmospheric meridional temperature gradient and thus the low-level atmospheric baroclinicity tend to be strengthened, inducing more active transient eddy activities that increase transient eddy vorticity forcing. The vorticity forcing that dominates the total atmospheric forcing tends to produce an equivalent barotropic atmospheric low pressure north of the initial westerly anomaly, intensifying the initial anomalies of the midlatitude surface westerly and Aleutian low. Therefore, it is suggested that the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction can provide a positive feedback mechanism for the development of initial anomaly, in which the oceanic front and the atmospheric transient eddy are the indispensable ingredients. Such a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback mechanism is fundamentally responsible for the observed decadal anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific ocean

  5. Basin-scale transport of hydrothermal dissolved metals across the South Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Joseph A; Sedwick, Peter N; German, Christopher R; Jenkins, William J; Moffett, James W; Sohst, Bettina M; Tagliabue, Alessandro

    2015-07-09

    Hydrothermal venting along mid-ocean ridges exerts an important control on the chemical composition of sea water by serving as a major source or sink for a number of trace elements in the ocean. Of these, iron has received considerable attention because of its role as an essential and often limiting nutrient for primary production in regions of the ocean that are of critical importance for the global carbon cycle. It has been thought that most of the dissolved iron discharged by hydrothermal vents is lost from solution close to ridge-axis sources and is thus of limited importance for ocean biogeochemistry. This long-standing view is challenged by recent studies which suggest that stabilization of hydrothermal dissolved iron may facilitate its long-range oceanic transport. Such transport has been subsequently inferred from spatially limited oceanographic observations. Here we report data from the US GEOTRACES Eastern Pacific Zonal Transect (EPZT) that demonstrate lateral transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron, manganese, and aluminium from the southern East Pacific Rise (SEPR) several thousand kilometres westward across the South Pacific Ocean. Dissolved iron exhibits nearly conservative (that is, no loss from solution during transport and mixing) behaviour in this hydrothermal plume, implying a greater longevity in the deep ocean than previously assumed. Based on our observations, we estimate a global hydrothermal dissolved iron input of three to four gigamoles per year to the ocean interior, which is more than fourfold higher than previous estimates. Complementary simulations with a global-scale ocean biogeochemical model suggest that the observed transport of hydrothermal dissolved iron requires some means of physicochemical stabilization and indicate that hydrothermally derived iron sustains a large fraction of Southern Ocean export production.

  6. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, F-F; Boucharel, J; Lin, I-I

    2014-12-04

    The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) creates strong variations in sea surface temperature in the eastern equatorial Pacific, leading to major climatic and societal impacts. In particular, ENSO influences the yearly variations of tropical cyclone (TC) activities in both the Pacific and Atlantic basins through atmospheric dynamical factors such as vertical wind shear and stability. Until recently, however, the direct ocean thermal control of ENSO on TCs has not been taken into consideration because of an apparent mismatch in both timing and location: ENSO peaks in winter and its surface warming occurs mostly along the Equator, a region without TC activity. Here we show that El Niño--the warm phase of an ENSO cycle--effectively discharges heat into the eastern North Pacific basin two to three seasons after its wintertime peak, leading to intensified TCs. This basin is characterized by abundant TC activity and is the second most active TC region in the world. As a result of the time involved in ocean transport, El Niño's equatorial subsurface 'heat reservoir', built up in boreal winter, appears in the eastern North Pacific several months later during peak TC season (boreal summer and autumn). By means of this delayed ocean transport mechanism, ENSO provides an additional heat supply favourable for the formation of strong hurricanes. This thermal control on intense TC variability has significant implications for seasonal predictions and long-term projections of TC activity over the eastern North Pacific.

  7. Ocean water temperature from data loggers from the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux (JGOFS), the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), and Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999 (NODC Accession 9900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean water temperature data were collected from data loggers attached to the HALE-ALOHA Moorings in the North Pacific Ocean from 24 April 1998 to 03 May 1999. Data...

  8. Zoogeography of Elasmobranchs in the Colombian Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Navia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to investigate zoogeographical patterns of the marine elasmobranch species of Colombia, species richness of the Pacific and Caribbean and their subareas (Coastal Pacific, Oceanic Pacific, Coastal Caribbean, Oceanic Caribbean was analyzed. The areas shared 10 families, 10 genera and 16 species of sharks, and eight families, three genera and four species of batoids. Carcharhinidae had the highest contribution to shark richness, whereas Rajidae and Urotrygonidae had the greatest contribution to batoid richness in the Caribbean and Pacific, respectively. Most elasmobranchs were associated with benthic and coastal habitats. The similarity analysis allowed the identification of five groups of families, which characterize the elasmobranch richness in both areas. Beta diversity indicated that most species turnover occurred between the Coastal Pacific and the two Caribbean subareas. The difference in species richness and composition between areas may be due to vicariant events such as the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. It is unlikely that the Colombian elasmobranch diversity originated from a single colonization event. Local diversification/speciation, dispersal from the non-tropical regions of the Americas, a Pacific dispersion and an Atlantic dispersion are origin possibilities without any of them excluding the others.

  9. 76 FR 18706 - Fisheries in the Eastern Pacific Ocean; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Eastern Pacific Ocean; Pelagic Fisheries; Vessel Identification Requirements AGENCY: National Marine... sensitive or protected information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments (enter N/A in the required fields...-line, tuna purse seine, and pelagic longline fisheries. ] TP05AP11.010 Under the Convention, vessels...

  10. Surface temperature of the equatorial Pacific Ocean and the Indian rainfall

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopinathan, C.K.

    in the seasonal rainfall over India in both the years This effect seems to prevail during a part of the preceding/succeeding seasons A slow and systematic spread of the Pacific Ocean warm pool to the east during 1984 to 1986 was also related to below normal...

  11. Further study of the variability in the frequency of typhoon formation over the West Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y.H.; Reiter, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the variability in the frequency of typhoon formation over the West Pacific ocean, emphasizing the effects of the large-scale sea-air system on the activity of typhoons. Some important relationships between typhoon formation and the climatological aspect of air-sea interaction are pointed out.

  12. VERIFICATION OF MAZEIKA’S METHOD OF THERMOCLINE DEPTH PREDICTION FOR THE NORTHEAST PACIFIC OCEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAPA (50N, 145W) and NOVEMBER (30N, 140W) and a point named MIDPOINT (40N, 140W). The results indicate Mazeika’s method is successful at Station PAPA ...controlling oceanic processes in the Pacific Subarctic region (Station PAPA ), which resemble those involved in the Atlantic region for which Mazeika’s

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0112347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112347 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2001-12-08 to 2002-01-19 (NODC Accession 0113547)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113547 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the Indian Ocean, North Pacific Ocean...

  15. Exploring the Elevated Water Vapor Signal Associated with Biomass Burning Aerosol over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Redemann, Jens; Wood, Rob; Zuidema, Paquita; Flynn, Connor; LeBlanc, Samuel; Noone, David; Podolske, James; Segal Rozenhaimer, Michal; Shinozuka, Yohei; hide

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of radiative forcing due to the cumulative effects of aerosols, both directly and on cloud properties, remains the biggest source of uncertainty in our understanding of the physical climate. How the magnitude of these effects may be modified by meteorological conditions is an important aspect of this question. The Southeast Atlantic Ocean (SEA), with seasonal biomass burning (BB) smoke plumes overlying a persistent stratocumulus cloud deck, offers a perfect natural observatory in which to study the complexities of aerosol-cloud interactions. The NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign consists of three field deployments over three years (2016-2018) with the goal of gaining a better understanding of the complex processes (direct and indirect) by which BB aerosols affect clouds. We present results from the first ORACLES field deployment, which took place in September 2016 out of Walvis Bay, Namibia. Two NASA aircraft were flown with a suite of aerosol, cloud, radiation, and meteorological instruments for remote-sensing and in-situ observations. A strong correlation was observed between the aircraft-measured pollution indicators (carbon monoxide and aerosol properties) and atmospheric water vapor content, at all altitudes. Atmospheric reanalysis indicates that convective dynamics over the continent, near likely contribute to this elevated signal. Understanding the mechanisms by which water vapor covaries with plume strength is important to quantifying the magnitude of the aerosol direct and semi-direct effects in the region.

  16. Antarctic krill swarm characteristics in the Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Krafft, BA

    2012-09-28

    Knowledge about swarm dynamics and underlying causes is essential to understand the ecology and distribution of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. We collected acoustic data and key environmental data continuously across extensive gradients in the little-studied Southeast Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. A total of 4791 krill swarms with swarm descriptors including swarm height and length, packing density, swimming depth and inter-swarm distance were extracted. Through multivariate statistics, swarms were categorized into 4 groups. Group 2 swarms were largest (median length 108 m and thickness 18 m), whereas swarms in both Groups 1 and 4 were on average small, but differed markedly in depth distribution (median: 52 m for Group 1 vs. 133 m for Group 4). There was a strong spatial autocorrelation in the occurrence of swarms, and an autologistic regression model found no prediction of swarm occurrence from environmental variables for any of the Groups 1, 2 or 4. Probability of occurrence of Group 3 swarms, however, increased with increasing depth and temperature. Group 3 was the most distinctive swarm group with an order of magnitude higher packing density (median: 226 ind. m−3) than swarms from any of the other groups and about twice the distance to nearest neighbor swarm (median: 493 m). The majority of the krill were present in Group 3 swarms, and the absence of association with hydrographic or topographic concentrating mechanisms strongly suggests that these swarms aggregate through their own locomotion, possibly associated with migration.

  17. Earthquake triggering in southeast Africa following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Miguel; Custódio, Susana; Peng, Zhigang; Ayorinde, Adebayo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present evidence of earthquake dynamic triggering in southeast Africa. We analysed seismic waveforms recorded at 53 broad-band and short-period stations in order to identify possible increases in the rate of microearthquakes and tremor due to the passage of teleseismic waves generated by the Mw8.6 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake. We found evidence of triggered local earthquakes and no evidence of triggered tremor in the region. We assessed the statistical significance of the increase in the number of local earthquakes using β-statistics. Statistically significant dynamic triggering of local earthquakes was observed at 7 out of the 53 analysed stations. Two of these stations are located in the northeast coast of Madagascar and the other five stations are located in the Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa. We found no evidence of dynamically triggered seismic activity in stations located near the structures of the East African Rift System. Hydrothermal activity exists close to the stations that recorded dynamic triggering, however, it also exists near the East African Rift System structures where no triggering was observed. Our results suggest that factors other than solely tectonic regime and geothermalism are needed to explain the mechanisms that underlie earthquake triggering.

  18. Knowledge of marine fish trematodes of Atlantic and Eastern Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rodney A; Diaz, Pablo E; Cribb, Thomas H

    2016-03-01

    A brief summary of the early history of the study of Atlantic Ocean marine fish digeneans is followed by a discussion of the occurrence and distribution of these worms in the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent Eastern Pacific Ocean, using the Provinces of the 'Marine Ecoregions' delimited by Spalding et al. (Bioscience 57:573-583, 2007). The discussion is based on a database of 9,880 records of 1,274 species in 430 genera and 45 families. 8,633 of these records are from the Atlantic Ocean, including 1,125 species in 384 genera and 45 families. About 1,000 species are endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Basin. The most species-rich families in the Atlantic Ocean are the Opecoelidae Ozaki, 1925, Hemiuridae Looss, 1899 and Bucephalidae Poche, 1907, and the most wide-spread the Opecoelidae, Hemiuridae, Acanthocolpidae Lühe, 1906, Lepocreadiidae Odhner, 1905 and Lecithasteridae Odhner, 1905. A total of 109 species are shared by the Atlantic Ocean and the Eastern Pacific, made up of cosmopolitan, circum-boreal, trans-Panama Isthmus and Magellanic species. The lack of genetic evaluation of identifications is emphasised and the scope for much more work is stressed.

  19. Indo-Pacific variability on seasonal to multidecadal timescales. Part II: Multiscale atmosphere-ocean linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The coupled atmosphere-ocean variability of the Indo-Pacific on interannual to multidecadal timescales is investigated in a millennial control run of CCSM4 and in observations using a family of modes recovered in Part~I of this work from unprocessed SST data through nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis (NLSA). It is found that ENSO and combination modes of ENSO with the annual cycle exhibit a seasonally synchronized southward shift of equatorial surface zonal winds and thermocline adjustment consistent with terminating El Nino and La Nina events. The surface wind patterns associated with these modes also generate teleconnections between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, leading to a pattern of SST anomalies characteristic of the Indian Ocean dipole. Fundamental and combination modes representing the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in CCSM4 are also found to be consistent with mechanisms for seasonally synchronized biennial variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and Walker circulation. On longer tim...

  20. Ionospheric equatorial anomaly formation over Pacific and Atlantic oceans measured by NASA TOPEX satellite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewell, V.R.; Vladimer, J.A.; Lee, M.C. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Dept.; Doherty, P.H.; Decker, D.T. [Boston Coll., Newton, MA (United States). Inst. for Science Research; Anderson, D.N.; Klobuchar, J.A. [Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States). Ionospheric Effects Branch

    1996-12-31

    Previous ionospheric observations have measured Total Electron Content (TEC) values at fixed land based locations. These observations suggest the existence of longitudinal variations in TEC values. Complementing ground data, the current NASA TOPEX mission is providing TEC data collected over oceans as a function of latitude, longitude and time starting from September 1992. With this broad data base, the authors show a more complete picture of the longitudinal dependence between the Atlantic and Pacific ocean regions and relate this dependence to plasma drifts. Periods during June and December solstice, and March and September equinox in the years 1992, through 1995, are picked to study the low-latitude regions spanning the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. TEC isodensity contours are presented by latitude versus longitude at common local time. They correlate these contours with results from the Phillips Laboratory ionospheric model.

  1. North Pacific Mesoscale Coupled Air-Ocean Simulations Compared with Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koracin, Darko; Cerovecki, Ivana; Vellore, Ramesh; Mejia, John; Hatchett, Benjamin; McCord, Travis; McLean, Julie; Dorman, Clive

    2013-04-11

    Executive summary The main objective of the study was to investigate atmospheric and ocean interaction processes in the western Pacific and, in particular, effects of significant ocean heat loss in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions on the lower and upper atmosphere. It is yet to be determined how significant are these processes are on climate scales. The understanding of these processes led us also to development of the methodology of coupling the Weather and Research Forecasting model with the Parallel Ocean Program model for western Pacific regional weather and climate simulations. We tested NCAR-developed research software Coupler 7 for coupling of the WRF and POP models and assessed its usability for regional-scale applications. We completed test simulations using the Coupler 7 framework, but implemented a standard WRF model code with options for both one- and two-way mode coupling. This type of coupling will allow us to seamlessly incorporate new WRF updates and versions in the future. We also performed a long-term WRF simulation (15 years) covering the entire North Pacific as well as high-resolution simulations of a case study which included extreme ocean heat losses in the Kuroshio and Kuroshio Extension regions. Since the extreme ocean heat loss occurs during winter cold air outbreaks (CAO), we simulated and analyzed a case study of a severe CAO event in January 2000 in detail. We found that the ocean heat loss induced by CAOs is amplified by additional advection from mesocyclones forming on the southern part of the Japan Sea. Large scale synoptic patterns with anomalously strong anticyclone over Siberia and Mongolia, deep Aleutian Low, and the Pacific subtropical ridge are a crucial setup for the CAO. It was found that the onset of the CAO is related to the breaking of atmospheric Rossby waves and vertical transport of vorticity that facilitates meridional advection. The study also indicates that intrinsic parameterization of the surface fluxes

  2. Iodine-129 concentrations in marginal seas of the North Pacific and Pacific-influenced waters of the Arctic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Lee W.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M. [Tennessee Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hong, Gi H. [Korea Ocean Research and Development Inst., Seoul (Korea); Beasley, Tom M. [US Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Water sampling during the 1993 IV Russian-US Joint Expedition to the Bering and Chukchi Seas (BERPAC) indicates that Pacific Ocean burdens of the long-lived radionuclide {sup 129}I are relatively low in the Pacific-influenced Arctic, particularly compared to high latitude water influenced by the North Atlantic. These low concentrations occur despite the presence of potential submerged anthropogenic sources in the East Sea (Sea of Japan), and in the northwest Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The concentration of {sup 129}I entering the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait, {approx}0.7x10{sup 8} atoms kg {sup -1}, is only slightly higher than observed in deep Pacific water. Similar concentrations (0.44-0.76x10{sup 8}atoms kg{sup -1}) measured in Long Strait indicate no significant transfer of {sup 129}I eastward into the Chukchi Sea in the Siberian Coastal Current from the Siberian marginal seas to the west, However, the concentrations reported here are more than an order to magnitude higher than the Bering Strait input concentration estimated (1.0x10{sup 6}atoms kg{sup -1}) from bomb fallout mass balances, which supports other existing evidence for a significant atmospheric deposition term for this radionuclide in surface ocean waters. Near-bottom water samples collected in productive waters of the Bering and Chukchi Seas also suggest that sediment regeneration may locally elevate {sup 129}I concentrations, and impact its utility as a water mass tracer. As part of this study, two deep {sup 129}I profiles were also measured in the East Sea in 1993-1994. The near-surface concentration of {sup 129}I ranged from 0.12 to 0.31x10{sup 8}atoms kg{sup -1}. The {sup 129}I concentration showed a steady decrease with depth, although because of active deep water ventilation, the entire 3000 m water column exceeded natural concentrations of the radionuclide. Atom ratios of {sup 129}I/{sup 137}Cs in the East Sea also suggest an excess of {sup 129}I above bomb fallout

  3. Principles underlying the epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring and other fishes throughout the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Garver, Kyle A.; Winton, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Although viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) typically occurs at low prevalence and intensity in natural populations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and other marine fishes in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, epizootics of the resulting disease (VHS) periodically occur, often in association with observed fish kills. Here we identify a list of principles, based on a combination of field studies, controlled laboratory experiments, and previously unpublished observations, that govern the epizootiology of VHS in Pacific herring. A thorough understanding of these principles provides the basis for identifying risk factors that predispose certain marine fish populations to VHS epizootics, including the lack of population resistance, presence of chronic viral carriers in a population, copious viral shedding by infected individuals, cool water temperatures, limited water circulation patterns, and gregarious host behavioral patterns. Further, these principles are used to define the epizootiological stages of the disease in Pacific herring, including the susceptible (where susceptible individuals predominate a school or subpopulation), enzootic (where infection prevalence and intensity are often below the limits of reasonable laboratory detection), disease amplification (where infection prevalence and intensity increase rapidly), outbreak (often accompanied by host mortalities with high virus loads and active shedding), recovery (in which the mortality rate and virus load decline owing to an active host immune response), and refractory stages (characterized by little or no susceptibility and where viral clearance occurs in most VHS survivors). In addition to providing a foundation for quantitatively assessing the potential risks of future VHS epizootics in Pacific herring, these principles provide insights into the epizootiology of VHS in other fish communities where susceptible species exist.

  4. 77 FR 73969 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... member of the IATTC and to reduce overfishing of the stock. DATES: Comments must be submitted in writing... are an important step for reducing the overfishing of bluefin tuna. In 2011, NMFS determined overfishing is occurring on Pacific bluefin tuna based on stock assessment results of the International...

  5. Coccolithophore carbonate during the last 450 ka in the NW Pacific Ocean (ODP site 1209B, Shatsky Rise)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordiga, M.; Cobianchi, M.; Lupi, C.; Pelosi, N.; Venti, N.; Ziveri, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on Pleistocene-Holocene sediments from the Shatsky Rise (Ocean Drilling Program Site 1209B, NW Pacific Ocean). We quantify the contribution of calcite made by coccoliths in oceanic sediments, investigating the role of calcareous nannoplankton during the last 450 ka. Coccolith

  6. Modeling of North Pacific Climate Variability Forced by Oceanic Heat Flux Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulaeva, Elena; Schneider, Niklas; Pierce, David W.; Barnett, Tim P.

    2001-10-01

    Potential predictability of low-frequency climate changes in the North Pacific depends on two main factors. The first is the sensitivity of the atmosphere to ocean-induced anomalies at the sea surface in midlatitudes. The second is the degree of teleconnectivity of the tropical low-frequency variability to midlatitudes. In contrast to the traditional approach of prescribing sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, the response of a coupled atmospheric general circulation (CCM3)-mixed layer ocean model to oceanic perturbations of the mixed layer heat budget is examined. Since positive oceanic heat flux perturbations partially increase SST anomalies (locally), and partially are vented directly into the atmosphere, expressing boundary forcing on the atmosphere by prescribing upper-ocean heat flux anomalies allows for better understanding of the physical mechanism of low-frequency variability in midlatitudes. In the framework of this approach SST is considered to be a part of the adjustment of the coupled system rather than an external forcing. Wintertime model responses to mixed layer heat budget perturbations of up to 40 W m2 in the Kuroshio extension region and in the tropical central Pacific show statistically significant anomalies of 500-mb geopotential height (Z500) in the midlatitudes. The response to the tropical forcing resembles the well-known Pacific-North American pattern, one of the leading modes of internal variability of the control run. The amplitude of the Z500 geopotential height reaches 40 m in the region of the Aleutian low. The response of Z500 to forcing in the Kuroshio Current extension region resembles the mixture of western Pacific and Pacific-North American patterns, the first two modes of the internal variability of the atmosphere. In midlatitudes this response is equivalent barotropic, with the maximum of 80 m at (60°N, 160°W). Examination of the vorticity and thermodynamic budgets reveals the crucial role of submonthly transient eddies in

  7. Distribution of surface plastic debris in the eastern Pacific Ocean from an 11-year data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kara Lavender; Morét-Ferguson, Skye E; Goodwin, Deborah S; Zettler, Erik R; Deforce, Emelia; Kukulka, Tobias; Proskurowski, Giora

    2014-05-06

    We present an extensive survey of floating plastic debris in the eastern North and South Pacific Oceans from more than 2500 plankton net tows conducted between 2001 and 2012. From these data we defined an accumulation zone (25 to 41 °N, 130 to 180 °W) in the North Pacific subtropical gyre that closely corresponds to centers of accumulation resulting from the convergence of ocean surface currents predicted by several oceanographic numerical models. Maximum plastic concentrations from individual surface net tows exceeded 10(6) pieces km(-2), with concentrations decreasing with increasing distance from the predicted center of accumulation. Outside the North Pacific subtropical gyre the median plastic concentration was 0 pieces km(-2). We were unable to detect a robust temporal trend in the data set, perhaps because of confounded spatial and temporal variability. Large spatiotemporal variability in plastic concentration causes order of magnitude differences in summary statistics calculated over short time periods or in limited geographic areas. Utilizing all available plankton net data collected in the eastern Pacific Ocean (17.4 °S to 61.0 °N; 85.0 to 180.0 °W) since 1999, we estimated a minimum of 21,290 t of floating microplastic.

  8. Possible Ballast Water Transfer of Lionfish to the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J MacIsaac

    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific Red Lionfish was first reported off the Florida coast in 1985, following which it has spread across much of the SE USA, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. Lionfish negatively impact fish and invertebrate assemblages and abundances, thus further spread is cause for concern. To date, the fish has not been reported on the Pacific coast of North or Central America. Here we examine the possibility of ballast water transfer of lionfish from colonized areas in the Atlantic Ocean to USA ports on the Pacific coast. Over an eight-year period, we documented 27 commercial vessel-trips in which ballast water was loaded in colonized sites and later discharged untreated into Pacific coast ports in the USA. California had the highest number of discharges including San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles-Long Beach. A species distribution model suggests that the probability of lionfish establishment is low for the western USA, Colombia and Panama, low to medium for Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala, medium to high for mainland Ecuador, and very high for western Mexico, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. Given the species' intolerance of freshwater conditions, we propose that ballast water exchange be conducted in Gatún Lake, Panama for western-bound vessels carrying 'risky' ballast water to prevent invasion of the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  9. Impacts of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability on the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Msadek, Rym; Castruccio, Frederic; Yeager, Stephen; Delworth, Thomas; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV) is associated with marked modulations of climate anomalies over many areas of the globe. This includes droughts in Africa and North America, decline in sea ice, changes of tropical cyclone activity in the Atlantic, and changes in the atmospheric large-scale circulation. However, the shortness of the historical observations compared to the AMV period ( 60-80yr) makes it difficult to show that the AMV is a direct driver of these variations. To isolate the AMV climate response, we use a suite of global coupled models from GFDL and NCAR, in which the North Atlantic sea surface temperatures are restored to the observed AMV pattern, while the other ocean basins are left fully coupled. In order to explore and robustly isolate the AMV impacts, we use large ensemble simulations (between 30 and 100 members depending on the model) that are integrated for 10 years. All models show that during boreal summer the AMV alters the Walker Circulation and generates precipitation anomalies over the whole tropical belt. During boreal winter, the AMV warming is associated with large anomalies over the Pacific, with a response that projects onto a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). In this presentation, we focus on a hierarchy of experiments in which the ocean-atmosphere coupling is globally or regionally precluded to extract the physical mechanisms leading to the Pacific response. We show that the PDO response comes from a lagged adjustment of the tropical Pacific Ocean to the AMV forcing in summer, and it is reinforced by ocean-atmosphere coupling over the extratropical Pacific. It is then show that the PDO response contribute to precipitation and temperature anomalies over North America. Therefore, our study highlights the importance of using a global coupled framework to investigate the climate impacts of the AMV.

  10. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  11. 76 FR 60790 - International Fisheries; Pacific Tuna Fisheries; Fishing Restrictions in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... releases of oceanic whitetip sharks with indication of status (dead or alive) and report it to the IATTC...

  12. Accumulation status of persistent organochlorines in albatrosses from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruge, K S; Watanabe, M; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Current status of contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were examined in 61 individuals belonging to eight albatross species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean. Generally high OC concentrations were found in albatrosses from the North Pacific than those from the Southern Oceans. Black-footed albatrosses had noticeably high PCBs and DDTs concentrations with mean values of 92 and 33 micrograms/g wet weight in subcutaneous fat, respectively. Among the other OCs, concentration of CHLs was higher than that of HCB in North Pacific albatrosses. HCHs accumulation was the lowest among all the OCs analyzed. Species-specific differences were observed for HCB, CHLs and DDTs in some species in the Southern Ocean. No significant difference of gender and age-related accumulation was observed in total OCs. However, PCB concentrations were higher in mature birds than those from immature ones in the Southern Ocean. Species-specific accumulation patterns of OCs in albatrosses were closely related with their feeding, migration, age and geographical ranges.

  13. Interannual Variation in Phytoplankton Concentration and Community in the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseaux, C. S.; Gregg, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    Climate events such as El Nino have been shown to have an effect on the biology of our ocean. Because of the lack of data, we still have very little knowledge about the spatial and temporal effect these climate events may have on biological marine systems. In this study, we used the NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Model (NOBM) to assess the interannual variability in phytoplankton community in the Pacific Ocean between 1998 and 2005. In the North Central and Equatorial Pacific Ocean, changes in the Multivariate El Nino Index were associated with changes in phytoplankton composition. The model identified an increase in diatoms of approx.33 % in the equatorial Pacific in 1999 during a La Nina event. This increase in diatoms coincided with a decrease of approx.11 % in cyanobacteria concentration. The inverse relationship between cyanobacteria and diatoms concentration was significant (pphytoplankton groups known to lead to contrasting food chain at a spatial and temporal resolution unachievable when relying solely on in-situ observations.

  14. No iron fertilization in the equatorial Pacific Ocean during the last ice age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, K M; McManus, J F; Anderson, R F; Ren, H; Sigman, D M; Winckler, G; Fleisher, M Q; Marcantonio, F; Ravelo, A C

    2016-01-28

    The equatorial Pacific Ocean is one of the major high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions in the global ocean. In such regions, the consumption of the available macro-nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate is thought to be limited in part by the low abundance of the critical micro-nutrient iron. Greater atmospheric dust deposition could have fertilized the equatorial Pacific with iron during the last ice age--the Last Glacial Period (LGP)--but the effect of increased ice-age dust fluxes on primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific remains uncertain. Here we present meridional transects of dust (derived from the (232)Th proxy), phytoplankton productivity (using opal, (231)Pa/(230)Th and excess Ba), and the degree of nitrate consumption (using foraminifera-bound δ(15)N) from six cores in the central equatorial Pacific for the Holocene (0-10,000 years ago) and the LGP (17,000-27,000 years ago). We find that, although dust deposition in the central equatorial Pacific was two to three times greater in the LGP than in the Holocene, productivity was the same or lower, and the degree of nitrate consumption was the same. These biogeochemical findings suggest that the relatively greater ice-age dust fluxes were not large enough to provide substantial iron fertilization to the central equatorial Pacific. This may have been because the absolute rate of dust deposition in the LGP (although greater than the Holocene rate) was very low. The lower productivity coupled with unchanged nitrate consumption suggests that the subsurface major nutrient concentrations were lower in the central equatorial Pacific during the LGP. As these nutrients are today dominantly sourced from the Subantarctic Zone of the Southern Ocean, we propose that the central equatorial Pacific data are consistent with more nutrient consumption in the Subantarctic Zone, possibly owing to iron fertilization as a result of higher absolute dust fluxes in this region. Thus, ice-age iron fertilization in the

  15. Helium and neon isotopes in deep Pacific Ocean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Helium and neon concentration measurements, along with isotope ratio determinations, have been made for particles collected in the deep Pacific with a magnetic sled, and they are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin. Analyses were made for samples consisting of composites of many extremely fine particles and for several individual particles large enough to contain sufficient gas for analysis but small enough to escape melting in their passage through the atmosphere. Step-heating was employed to extract the gas. Cosmic-ray spallation products or solar-wind helium and neon, if present, were not abundant enough to account for the isotopic compositions measured. In the case of the samples of magnetic fines, the low temperature extractions provided elemental and isotopic ratios in the general range found for the primordial gas in carbonaceous chondrites and gas-rich meteorites. The isotopic ratios found in the high temperature extractions suggest the presence of solar-flare helium and neon.

  16. Sabellidae (Polychaeta) principally from the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, K.

    1979-01-01

    Morphological and distributional observations are reported for 14 northeast Pacific sabellids, largely using collections from British Columbia and Washington waters, and for one species from New Zealand. For nine of these additions to the descriptions are provided based on type material. Eudistylia Bush is revised using a new combination of diagnostic characters. Eudistylia catharinae is newly described; E. tenella Bush is regarded as a synonym of E. vancouveri (Kinberg). Diagnostic characters at the generic level, particularly those of Sabella Linnaeus, are discussed. Demonax Kinberg, considered to be a subgenus of Sabella, is emended. Distylia volutacornis pacifica Berkeley and Berkeley is elevated to specific rank and referred to Demonax. Jasmineira pacifica Annenkova, Oriopsis gracillis Hartman, and an unnamed species of Sabellastarte Savigny are new additions to the polychaete fauna of British Columbia and Washington.

  17. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Contrasting coastal and shelf nursery habitats of Pacific cod in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study examining the use of demersal and pelagic habitats in the southeast Bering Sea by age-0 Pacific cod, based on 4 years of demersal trawl...

  18. Regal phylogeography: Range-wide survey of the marine angelfish Pygoplites diacanthus reveals evolutionary partitions between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Coleman, Richard R.

    2016-04-08

    The regal angelfish (Pygoplites diacanthus; family Pomacanthidae) occupies reefs from the Red Sea to the central Pacific, with an Indian Ocean/Rea Sea color morph distinct from a Pacific Ocean morph. To assess population differentiation and evaluate the possibility of cryptic evolutionary partitions in this monotypic genus, we surveyed mtDNA cytochrome b and two nuclear introns (S7 and RAG2) in 547 individuals from 15 locations. Phylogeographic analyses revealed four mtDNA lineages (d = 0.006 – 0.015) corresponding to the Pacific Ocean, the Red Sea, and two admixed lineages in the Indian Ocean, a pattern consistent with known biogeographical barriers. Christmas Island in the eastern Indian Ocean had both Indian and Pacific lineages. Both S7 and RAG2 showed strong population-level differentiation between the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean (ΦST = 0.066 – 0.512). The only consistent population sub-structure within these three regions was at the Society Islands (French Polynesia), where surrounding oceanographic conditions may reinforce isolation. Coalescence analyses indicate the Pacific (1.7 Ma) as the oldest extant lineage followed by the Red Sea lineage (1.4 Ma). Results from a median-joining network suggest radiations of two lineages from the Red Sea that currently occupy the Indian Ocean (0.7 – 0.9 Ma). Persistence of a Red Sea lineage through Pleistocene glacial cycles suggests a long-term refuge in this region. The affiliation of Pacific and Red Sea populations, apparent in cytochrome b and S7 (but equivocal in RAG2) raises the hypthosis that the Indian Ocean was recolonized from the Red Sea, possibly more than once. Assessing the genetic architecture of this widespread monotypic genus reveals cryptic evolutionary diversity that merits subspecific recognition.

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway, discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-10-08 to 2007-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108123)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108123 includes Surface underway, discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-24 (NODC Accession 0108082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108082 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SOUTHERN SURVEYOR in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  1. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1991-08-31 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 0115174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115174 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-09-06 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0000193)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0000193 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship DISCOVERER in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-23 to 1994-10-30 (NCEI Accession 0157463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157463 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-11-05 to 1994-11-29 (NCEI Accession 0157470)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157470 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from L'ATALANTE in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2000-12-27 to 2001-02-08 (NODC Accession 0112353)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112353 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  6. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen and other measurement collected from various platforms in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans from 1961-1964 (NODC Accession 0001903)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ARGUS in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from...

  7. Physical and meteorological delayed-mode full-resolution data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the Equatorial Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array of moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific. Moorings within the array measure surface meteorological and upper-ocean...

  8. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from MOANA WAVE and Other Platforms From North Pacific Ocean from 19900103 to 19901220 (NODC Accession 9300148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Depth, Salinity, dissolved Oxygen (CTD); and Ocean chemistry data collected in North Pacific Ocean between January 3, 1990 and December 20, 1990 during...

  9. Temperature profiles collected by XBT in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans from 3/20/1996 to 4/27/2000 (NODC Accession 0000176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT casts from the GODAFOSS and other platforms in the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 20...

  10. Reef Island Evolution and Dynamics: Insights from the Indian and Pacific Oceans and Perspectives for the Spermonde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Kench

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Along southwestern Sulawesi, Indonesia, the Spermonde Archipelago comprises some 120 islands of variable size and degree of anthropogenic modification. Comparable to adjacent areas in Southeast Asia, the Spermonde Archipelago is characterized by the congregation of a naturally high marine biodiversity and, at the same time, a high population density influencing the surrounding environmental conditions. As a consequence, during the last decades, research projects that have been carried out in the Spermonde mainly focused on social, ecological, political and economic interactions. However, geological and geomorphological aspects of the coral reef islands are less well understood and there have been few studies undertaken since the pioneering work of Umbgrove, Kuenen, and Verstappen in the Indonesian archipelago in the early to mid-twentieth century. Here we review the existing studies, with a focus on the Spermonde Archipelago, and reconcile them with more recent works on reef island evolution and dynamics from the Indian and Pacific Oceans. This synthesis shows that reef islands in the Spermonde Archipelago are well suited for geomorphological investigations, and provides perspectives for future reef island research in that area that will have global interest. We identify four research priorities: (1 To identify the timing and chronology of island formation; (2 Improved understanding of carbonate budgets and sediment generation that contribute to island building; (3 Document morphological changes in reef islands at seasonal to decadal timescales, and; (4 Quantify the process regime that drives sediment transport and island change with particular focus on the role of different monsoon seasons.

  11. The air-sea exchange of mercury in the low latitude Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert P.; Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Bowman, Katlin L.; Swarr, Gretchen J.; Shelley, Rachel U.

    2017-04-01

    Air-sea exchange is an important component of the global mercury (Hg) cycle as it mediates the rate of increase in ocean Hg, and therefore the rate of change in levels of methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of Hg in seafood and the driver of human health concerns. Gas evasion of elemental Hg (Hg0) from the ocean is an important sink for ocean Hg with previous studies suggesting that evasion is not uniform across ocean basins. To understand further the factors controlling Hg0 evasion, and its relationship to atmospheric Hg deposition, we made measurements of dissolved Hg0 (DHg0) in surface waters, along with measurements of Hg in precipitation and on aerosols, and Hg0 in marine air, during two GEOTRACES cruises; GP16 in the equatorial South Pacific and GA03 in the North Atlantic. We contrast the concentrations and estimated evasion fluxes of Hg0 during these cruises, and the factors influencing this exchange. Concentrations of DHg0 and fluxes were lower during the GP16 cruise than during the GA03 cruise, and likely reflect the lower atmospheric deposition in the South Pacific. An examination of Hg/Al ratios for aerosols from the cruises suggests that they were anthropogenically-enriched relative to crustal material, although to a lesser degree for the South Pacific than the aerosols over the North Atlantic. Both regions appear to be net sources of Hg0 to the atmosphere (evasion>deposition) and the reasons for this are discussed. Overall, the studies reported here provide further clarification on the factors controlling evasion of Hg0 from the ocean surface, and the role of anthropogenic inputs in influencing ocean Hg concentrations.

  12. An Overview of Aerosol Absorption Above Clouds over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean from Passive Satellite Imagery during September 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, M.; Tilstra, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    The southeast Atlantic Ocean is key region to study the interactions of aerosols, clouds, and radiation. The ocean west of Africa is an upwelling region with low sea surface temperatures, which encourages the formation of stratocumulus clouds. During the dry monsoon season, biomass burning on the African continent, the largest consumption of biomass by fire in the world, produces huge amounts of smoke extending into the free troposphere. When this smoke is transported over the southeast Atlantic Ocean by favorable winds, it creates a natural laboratory to study the interaction of absorbing biomass burning aerosols, clouds and radiation. Smoke aerosols can have a strong local warming effect by absorbing shortwave radiation in constract to the global cooling effect of aerosols. However, this direct radiative effect is strongly dependent on the brightness of the underlying background, and changes from strong negative (cooling) over dark surfaces (ocean) to strong postive (warming) over clouds. This makes the instanteneous direct radiative effect (DRE) a highly senstive diagnostic for climate models, which do not reproduce the high values found in observations, and disagree on magnitude and even sign of the DRE. During September 2016, an international consortium of institutes have studied the southeast Atlantic using a combination of ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments, to improve our understanding of aerosol, clouds and radiation interactions. We present a satellite view of the smoke dispersion during the campaigns over the south Atlantic basin and Africa, and the direct effect of the smoke over clouds. Several techniques have been developed in past, which will be applied to passive satellite instruments like OMI and MODIS. These observations will provide an overview of the meteorological characteristics during the campaigns and a validation tool for the various in-situ and remote sensing observations obtained during the experiments.

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-22 (NCEI Accession 0144533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144533 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2008-12-31 to 2009-12-21 (NCEI Accession 0148771)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148771 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-31 to 2005-12-26 (NCEI Accession 0144531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144531 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean and others from 2004-12-30 to 2005-11-20 (NCEI Accession 0148772)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0148772 includes Surface underway data collected from LAURENCE M. GOULD in the North Pacific Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  17. POTENTIAL OVERLOOKED ANALOGUES TO THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI IN THE WESTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a more detailed examination of subducting margins of the Western and Southwestern Pacific, segments are found that are similar to the segment along the Indian Ocean that ruptured on 26 December 2004. Similarities are found in terms of hypocenter distributions and historical seismicity. The largest reported moment magnitudes in the Western and Southwestern Pacific since 1900 were an 8.5, an 8.4, and an 8.3. Should any substantially larger earthquakes occur along these segments or elsewhere in the Western or Southwestern Pacific, Civil Defense agencies in the Hawaiian Islands should be aware of any possible inadequacies in existing evacuation procedures for western and southern shores.

  18. Chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1001 in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2009-03-21 to 2010-02-10 (NCEI Accession 0089611)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0089611 includes chemical, optical and physical data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1001 in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean...

  19. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Oceans from ALBA and other platforms from 18 November 1962 to 04 May 1990 (NODC Accession 0000413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean and the Southern Oceans from ALBA, LIRA, TAMGA and other platforms from 18 November...

  20. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX03RR in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and others from 2007-02-04 to 2007-03-17 (NCEI Accession 0155647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0155647 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROGER REVELLE during cruise KNOX03RR in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and...

  1. Identifying Stratospheric Air Intrusions and Associated Hurricane-Force Wind Events over the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Kelsey; Folmer, Michael J.; Phillips, Joseph; Sienkiewicz, Joseph M.; Berndt, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Ocean data is sparse: reliance on satellite imagery for marine forecasting; Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) –“mariner’s weather lifeline”. Responsible for: Pacific, Atlantic, Pacific Alaska surface analyses –24, 48, 96 hrs.; Wind & wave analyses –24, 48, 96 hrs.; Issue warnings, make decisions, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite –R Series (now GOES-16), Compared to the old GOES: 3 times spectral resolution, 4 times spatial resolution, 5 times faster coverage; Comparable to Japanese Meteorological Agency’s Himawari-8, used a lot throughout this research. Research Question: How can integrating satellite data imagery and derived products help forecasters improve prognosis of rapid cyclogenesis and hurricane-force wind events? Phase I –Identifying stratospheric air intrusions: Water Vapor –6.2, 6.9, 7.3 micron channels; Airmass RGB Product; AIRS, IASI, NUCAPS total column ozone and ozone anomaly; ASCAT (A/B) and AMSR-2 wind data.

  2. Atmospheric aerosol deposition influences marine microbial communities in oligotrophic surface waters of the western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Teruya; Ishikawa, Akira; Mastunaga, Tomoki; Pointing, Stephen B.; Saito, Yuuki; Kasai, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Koichi; Aoki, Kazuma; Horiuchi, Amane; Lee, Kevin C.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols contain particulates that are deposited to oceanic surface waters. These can represent a major source of nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds for the marine environment. The Japan Sea and the western Pacific Ocean are particularly affected by aerosols due to the transport of desert dust and industrially derived particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) from continental Asia. We hypothesized that supplementing seawater with aerosol particulates would lead to measurable changes in surface water nutrient composition as well as shifts in the marine microbial community. Shipboard experiments in the Pacific Ocean involved the recovery of oligotrophic oceanic surface water and subsequent supplementation with aerosol particulates obtained from the nearby coastal mountains, to simulate marine particulate input in this region. Initial increases in nitrates due to the addition of aerosol particulates were followed by a decrease correlated with the increase in phytoplankton biomass, which was composed largely of Bacillariophyta (diatoms), including Pseudo-nitzschia and Chaetoceros species. This shift was accompanied by changes in the bacterial community, with apparent increases in the relative abundance of heterotrophic Rhodobacteraceae and Colwelliaceae in aerosol particulate treated seawater. Our findings provide empirical evidence revealing the impact of aerosol particulates on oceanic surface water microbiology by alleviating nitrogen limitation in the organisms.

  3. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1–2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle. PMID:27911777

  4. Siderophore-based microbial adaptations to iron scarcity across the eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, Rene M.; Mende, Daniel R.; Hawco, Nicholas J.; McIlvin, Matthew R.; Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.; Saito, Mak A.; Sedwick, Peter N.; DeLong, Edward F.; Repeta, Daniel J.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly all iron dissolved in the ocean is complexed by strong organic ligands of unknown composition. The effect of ligand composition on microbial iron acquisition is poorly understood, but amendment experiments using model ligands show they can facilitate or impede iron uptake depending on their identity. Here we show that siderophores, organic compounds synthesized by microbes to facilitate iron uptake, are a dynamic component of the marine ligand pool in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. Siderophore concentrations in iron-deficient waters averaged 9 pM, up to fivefold higher than in iron-rich coastal and nutrient-depleted oligotrophic waters, and were dominated by amphibactins, amphiphilic siderophores with cell membrane affinity. Phylogenetic analysis of amphibactin biosynthetic genes suggests that the ability to produce amphibactins has transferred horizontally across multiple Gammaproteobacteria, potentially driven by pressures to compete for iron. In coastal and oligotrophic regions of the eastern Pacific Ocean, amphibactins were replaced with lower concentrations (1-2 pM) of hydrophilic ferrioxamine siderophores. Our results suggest that organic ligand composition changes across the surface ocean in response to environmental pressures. Hydrophilic siderophores are predominantly found across regions of the ocean where iron is not expected to be the limiting nutrient for the microbial community at large. However, in regions with intense competition for iron, some microbes optimize iron acquisition by producing siderophores that minimize diffusive losses to the environment. These siderophores affect iron bioavailability and thus may be an important component of the marine iron cycle.

  5. Tropic dynamics of albatrosses associated with squid and large-mesh driftnet fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Diets of Laysan (LAA) and Black-footed albatrosses (BFA) killed in squid and large-mesh driftnets in the transitional zone of the North Pacific Ocean were...

  6. {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios as proxy for particle flux in the equatorial Pacific ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.F.; Fleisher, M.Q. [LDEO of Columbia Univ. (United States); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Particulate {sup 10}Be/{sup 230}Th ratios collected by sediment traps in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean exhibit a positive correlation with particle flux, but little or no correlation with particle composition. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs.

  7. Atmospheric iron deposition in the northwestern Pacific Ocean and its adjacent marginal seas: The importance of coal burning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Yi‐Chiu; Chen, Jen‐Ping; Ho, Tung‐Yuan; Tsai, I‐Chun

    2015-01-01

    ...‐burning fly ashes deposited in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Particular attention was paid to the high iron content of fly ashes emitted from steel and iron plants burning coals...

  8. NODC Standard Product: Experimental Compact Disk NODC-01 Pacific Ocean Temperature-Salinity Profiles (1900-1988) (NODC Accession 0086259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) created a compact disk containing over 1.3 million temperature-depth and salinity-depth profiles taken in the Pacific...

  9. Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor and coherent climate anomalies in post-ENSO summer: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shang-Ping; Kosaka, Yu; Du, Yan; Hu, Kaiming; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Huang, Gang

    2016-04-01

    ENSO induces coherent climate anomalies over the Indo-western Pacific, but these anomalies outlast SST anomalies of the equatorial Pacific by a season, with major effects on the Asian summer monsoon. This review provides historical accounts of major milestones and synthesizes recent advances in the endeavor to understand summer variability over the Indo-Northwest Pacific region. Specifically, a large-scale anomalous anticyclone (AAC) is a recurrent pattern in post-El Ni˜no summers, spanning the tropical Northwest Pacific and North Indian oceans. Regarding the ocean memory that anchors the summer AAC, competing hypotheses emphasize either SST cooling in the easterly trade wind regime of the Northwest Pacific or SST warming in the westerly monsoon regime of the North Indian Ocean. Our synthesis reveals a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode that builds on both mechanisms in a two-stage evolution. In spring, when the northeast trades prevail, the AAC and Northwest Pacific cooling are coupled via wind-evaporation-SST feedback. The Northwest Pacific cooling persists to trigger a summer feedback that arises from the interaction of the AAC and North Indian Ocean warming, enabled by the westerly monsoon wind regime. This Indo-western Pacific ocean capacitor (IPOC) effect explains why El Ni˜no stages its last act over the monsoonal Indo-Northwest Pacific and casts the Indian Ocean warming and AAC in leading roles. The IPOC displays interdecadal modulations by the ENSO variance cycle, significantly correlated with ENSO at the turn of the 20th century and after the 1970s, but not in between. Outstanding issues, including future climate projections, are also discussed.

  10. Enhanced Pacific Ocean Sea Surface Temperature and Its Relation to Typhoon Haiyan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Perez, Gay Jane P.; Stock, Larry V.

    2015-01-01

    Typhoon Haiyan, which devastated the Visayan Islands in the Philippines on November 8, 2013 was recorded as the strongest typhoon ever-observed using satellite data. Typhoons in the region usually originate from the mid-Pacific region that includes the Warm Pool, which is regarded as the warmest ocean surface region globally. Two study areas were considered: one in the Warm Pool Region and the other in the West Pacific Region near the Philippines. Among the most important factors that affect the strength of a typhoon are sea surface temperature (SST) and water vapor. It is remarkable that in November 2013 the average SST in the Warm Pool Region was the highest observed during the 1981 to 2014 period while that of the West Pacific Region was among the highest as well. Moreover, the increasing trend in SST was around 0.20C per decade in the warm pool region and even higher at 0.23C per decade in the West Pacific region. The yearly minimum SST has also been increasing suggesting that the temperature of the ocean mixed layer is also increasing. Further analysis indicated that water vapor, clouds, winds and sea level pressure for the same period did not reveal strong signals associated with the 2013 event. The SST is shown to be well-correlated with wind strength of historically strong typhoons in the country and the observed trends in SST suggest that extremely destructive typhoons like Haiyan are likely to occur in the future.

  11. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Heather M; Lin, Victor; Tanaka, Sho; Velikanov, Anatoly; Mollet, Henry F; Wintner, Sabine P; Fordham, Sonja V; Fisk, Aaron T; Hussey, Nigel E

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8), Republic of Korea (22), Japan (129), China (32), Taiwan (45), Philippines (1) and Vietnam (3). Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea) and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam). Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL) and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL) represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113). Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases) to near term (140 cm TL embryos). On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10) and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated research to

  12. Reproductive biology of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) in the western Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chi-Lu; Yi-Jay Chang, Yi-Jay Chang; Chien-Chung Tszeng, Chien-Chung Tszeng; Su-Zan Yeh, Su-Zan Yeh

    2009-01-01

    The reproductive biology of blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) was assessed from 1001 fish (ranging from 121 to 275 cm in eye-to-fork length; EFL) caught by Taiwanese offshore longliners in the western Pacific Ocean from September 2000 to December 2001 and from 843 gonad samples from these fish, The overall sex ratio of the catch was approximately 1:1 dur ing the sampling period, but blue marlin are sexually dimorphic; females are larger than males. Reprodu...

  13. The export of carbon mediated by mesopelagic fishes in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, Peter Charles

    2011-01-01

    Mesopelagic fishes are under-studied in relation to their importance in pelagic ecosystems. Traditional sampling methods (trawls and acoustic surveys) are biased, yet synergistic, and it has become clear in recent decades with the increased use of acoustic methods that the biomass of mesopelagic fishes is larger than thought from net sampling. For this research, I investigated the importance of mesopelagic fishes to the biogeochemical flux of carbon in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Calculation...

  14. Plastic particles in coastal pelagic ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Miriam J; Watson, William; Bowlin, Noelle M; Sheavly, Seba B

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution, abundance and characteristics of plastic particles in plankton samples collected routinely in Northeast Pacific ecosystems, and to contribute to the development of ideas for future research into the occurrence and impact of small plastic debris in marine pelagic ecosystems. Plastic debris particles were assessed from zooplankton samples collected as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) ongoing ecosystem surveys during two research cruises in the Southeast Bering Sea in the spring and fall of 2006 and four research cruises off the U.S. west coast (primarily off southern California) in spring, summer and fall of 2006, and in January of 2007. Nets with 0.505 mm mesh were used to collect surface samples during all cruises, and sub-surface samples during the four cruises off the west coast. The 595 plankton samples processed indicate that plastic particles are widely distributed in surface waters. The proportion of surface samples from each cruise that contained particles of plastic ranged from 8.75 to 84.0%, whereas particles were recorded in sub-surface samples from only one cruise (in 28.2% of the January 2007 samples). Spatial and temporal variability was apparent in the abundance and distribution of the plastic particles and mean standardized quantities varied among cruises with ranges of 0.004-0.19 particles/m³, and 0.014-0.209 mg dry mass/m³. Off southern California, quantities for the winter cruise were significantly higher, and for the spring cruise significantly lower than for the summer and fall surveys (surface data). Differences between surface particle concentrations and mass for the Bering Sea and California coast surveys were significant for pair-wise comparisons of the spring but not the fall cruises. The particles were assigned to three plastic product types: product fragments, fishing net and line fibers, and industrial pellets; and five size categories: 2

  15. High fungal diversity and abundance recovered in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Pang, Ka-Lai; Luo, Zhu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Knowledge about the presence and ecological significance of bacteria and archaea in the deep-sea environments has been well recognized, but the eukaryotic microorganisms, such as fungi, have rarely been reported. The present study investigated the composition and abundance of fungal community in the deep-sea sediments of the Pacific Ocean. In this study, a total of 1,947 internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA gene clones were recovered from five sediment samples at the Pacific Ocean (water depths ranging from 5,017 to 6,986 m) using three different PCR primer sets. There were 16, 17, and 15 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified from fungal-universal, Ascomycota-, and Basidiomycota-specific clone libraries, respectively. Majority of the recovered sequences belonged to diverse phylotypes of Ascomycota (25 phylotypes) and Basidiomycota (18 phylotypes). The multiple primer approach totally recovered 27 phylotypes which showed low similarities (≤97 %) with available fungal sequences in the GenBank, suggesting possible new fungal taxa occurring in the deep-sea environments or belonging to taxa not represented in the GenBank. Our results also recovered high fungal LSU rRNA gene copy numbers (3.52 × 10(6) to 5.23 × 10(7)copies/g wet sediment) from the Pacific Ocean sediment samples, suggesting that the fungi might be involved in important ecological functions in the deep-sea environments.

  16. Recent Transport History of Fukushima Radioactivity in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John N; Rossi, Vincent; Buesseler, Ken O; Cullen, Jay T; Cornett, Jack; Nelson, Richard; Macdonald, Alison M; Robert, Marie; Kellogg, Jonathan

    2017-09-19

    The large inventory of radioactivity released during the March, 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident in Japan spread rapidly across the North Pacific Ocean and was first observed at the westernmost station on Line P, an oceanographic sampling line extending 1500 km westward of British Columbia (BC), Canada in June 2012. Here, time series measurements of 134Cs and 137Cs in seawater on Line P and on the CLIVAR-P16N 152°W line reveal the recent transport history of the Fukushima radioactivity tracer plume through the northeast Pacific Ocean. During 2013 and 2014 the Fukushima plume spread onto the Canadian continental shelf and by 2015 and early 2016 it reached 137Cs values of 6-8 Bq/m3 in surface water along Line P. Ocean circulation model simulations that are consistent with the time series measurements of Fukushima 137Cs indicate that the 2015-2016 results represent maximum tracer levels on Line P and that they will begin to decline in 2017-2018. The current elevated Fukushima 137Cs levels in seawater in the eastern North Pacific are equivalent to fallout background levels of 137Cs that prevailed during the 1970s and do not represent a radiological threat to human health or the environment.

  17. Climatology and variability of SST frontal activity in Eastern Pacific Ocean over the past decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yuan, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Distribution of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts are derived from high-resolution MODIS dataset in Eastern Pacific Ocean from 2003 to 2015. Daily distribution of frontal activities shows detailed feature and movement of front and the discontinuity of the track of front cause by cloud coverage. Monthly frontal probability is calculated to investigate corresponding climatology and variability. Frontal probability is generally higher along the coast and decreasing offshore. The frontal activity could extend few hundreds of kilometers near the major capes and central Pacific Ocean. SST gradient associated with front is changing over different latitude with stronger gradient near the mid-latitude and under major topographic effects near tropics. Corresponding results from empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) shows major variability of SST front is found in mid-latitude and central Pacific Ocean. The temporal variability captures a strong interannual and annual variability in those regions, while Intraannual variability are found more important at small scale near major capes and topographic features. The frontal variability is highly impacted by wind stress, upwelling, air-sea interaction, current, topography, eddy activity, El Nino along with other factors. And front plays an importance role in influencing the distribution of nutrients, the activity of fisheries and the development of ecosystems.

  18. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2015 (NODC Accession 0127321)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  19. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2011 (NODC Accession 0092276)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  20. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2012 (NODC Accession 0092288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  1. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2013 (NODC Accession 0116306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  2. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2013 (NODC Accession 0110023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  3. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2012 (NODC Accession 0100009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  4. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2011 (NODC Accession 0092280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  5. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2011 (NODC Accession 0092281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  6. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2012 (NODC Accession 0093394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2012 (NODC Accession 0101141)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2013 (NODC Accession 0104399)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  9. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2013 (NODC Accession 0112759)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2012 (NODC Accession 0092289)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  11. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2013 (NODC Accession 0101901)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  12. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2014 (NODC Accession 0115701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  13. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2013 (NODC Accession 0108125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  14. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2013 (NODC Accession 0114237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  15. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2014 (NODC Accession 0118448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  16. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2011 (NODC Accession 0092282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  17. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2011 (NODC Accession 0092278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  18. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2011 (NODC Accession 0092284)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  19. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2013 (NODC Accession 0114994)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  20. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2011 (NODC Accession 0092283)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  1. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2013 (NODC Accession 0105758)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  2. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2012 (NODC Accession 0098162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  3. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2012 (NODC Accession 0092286)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  4. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2014 (NODC Accession 0117433)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  5. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2012 (NODC Accession 0099239)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  6. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2012 (NODC Accession 0092290)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2011 (NODC Accession 0092238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2011 (NODC Accession 0092285)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  9. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2014 (NODC Accession 0118351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  10. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2013 (NODC Accession 0101902)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  11. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during April 2011 (NODC Accession 0092277)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  12. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2013 (NODC Accession 0111754)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  13. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2013 (NODC Accession 0114238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  14. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2011 (NODC Accession 0092279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  15. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2011 (NODC Accession 0092237)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  16. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2012 (NODC Accession 0094858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  17. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2012 (NODC Accession 0092481)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  18. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during November 2014 (NODC Accession 0123641)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  19. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during May 2014 (NODC Accession 0121263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  20. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during January 2015 (NODC Accession 0125688)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  1. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during October 2014 (NODC Accession 0123218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  2. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during December 2014 (NODC Accession 0125593)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  3. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during August 2014 (NODC Accession 0121631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  4. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during June 2014 (NODC Accession 0121264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  5. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during March 2015 (NCEI Accession 0128050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  6. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during July 2014 (NODC Accession 0121265)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  7. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during September 2014 (NODC Accession 0122514)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  8. Physical and meteorological data from the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) array in the tropical Pacific Ocean during February 2012 (NODC Accession 0092287)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) Array of 55 moored buoys spans the tropical Pacific from longitudes 165°E to 95°W between latitudes of approximately 8°S and...

  9. Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Van Wambeke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of potential factors limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the South Eastern Pacific Gyre. The effects of glucose, nitrate, ammonium and phosphate additions on heterotrophic bacterial production (using leucine technique were studied in parallel in unfiltered seawater samples incubated under natural daily irradiance. The enrichments realized on the subsurface showed three types of responses. From 141° W (Marquesas plateau to approx 125° W, bacteria were not bottom-up controlled, as confirmed by the huge potential of growth in non-enriched seawater (median of enhancement factor×39 in 24 h. Within the Gyre (125° W–95° W, nitrogen alone stimulated leucine incorporation rates (median×4.2, but rapidly labile carbon (glucose became a second limiting factor (median×37 when the two elements were added. Finally from the border of the gyre to the Chilean upwelling (95° W–73° W, labile carbon was the only factor stimulating heterotrophic bacterial production. Interaction between phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial communities and the direct versus indirect effect of iron and macronutrients on bacterial production were also investigated in four selected sites: two sites on the vicinity of the Marquesas plateau, the centre of the gyre and the Eastern border of the gyre. Both phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria were limited by availability of nitrogen within the gyre, but not by iron. Iron limited phytoplankton at Marquesas plateau and at the eastern border of the gyre. However 48 h enrichment experiments were not sufficient to show any clear limitation of heterotrophic bacteria within Marquesas plateau and showed a limitation of these organisms by labile carbon in the eastern border of the Gyre.

  10. Oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Johannes; Stramma, Lothar; Visbeck, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Within the eastern tropical oceans of the Atlantic and Pacific basin vast oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) exist in the depth range between 100 and 900 m. Minimum oxygen values are reached at 300-500 m depth which in the eastern Pacific become suboxic (dissolved oxygen content estimate of aOUR. Averaging oxygen ages for main thermocline isopycnals of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean exhibit an exponential increase with density without an obvious signature of the OMZs. Oxygen supply originates from a surface outcrop area and can also be approximated by the turn-over time, the ratio of ocean volume to ventilating flux. The turn-over time corresponds well to the average oxygen ages for the well ventilated waters. However, in the density ranges of the suboxic OMZs the turn-over time substantially increases. This indicates that reduced ventilation in the outcrop is directly related to the existence of suboxic OMZs, but they are not obviously related to enhanced consumption indicated by the oxygen ages. The turn-over time suggests that the lower thermocline of the North Atlantic would be suboxic but at present this is compensated by the import of water from the well ventilated South Atlantic. The turn-over time approach itself is independent of details of ocean transport pathways. Instead the geographical location of the OMZ is to first order determined by: (i) the patterns of upwelling, either through Ekman or equatorial divergence, (ii) the regions of general sluggish horizontal transport at the eastern boundaries, and (iii) to a lesser extent to regions with high productivity as indicated through ocean colour data.

  11. Carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected via time series monitoring from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean from 1998-06-22 to 2004-11-23 (NODC Accession 0100079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0100079 includes chemical, time series and underway - surface data collected from MOORINGS in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from...

  12. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from BAINBRIDGE using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 03 July 1975 to 31 October 1977 (NODC Accession 8900230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the BAINBRIDGE in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean. Data...

  13. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from AMERICAN RESERVIST using BT and XBT casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 20 January 1974 to 29 September 1977 (NODC Accession 8900287)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the AMERICAN RESERVIST in the North Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean....

  14. Green sturgeon physical habitat use in the coastal Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Huff

    Full Text Available The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris is a highly migratory, oceanic, anadromous species with a complex life history that makes it vulnerable to species-wide threats in both freshwater and at sea. Green sturgeon population declines have preceded legal protection and curtailment of activities in marine environments deemed to increase its extinction risk. Yet, its marine habitat is poorly understood. We built a statistical model to characterize green sturgeon marine habitat using data from a coastal tracking array located along the Siletz Reef near Newport, Oregon, USA that recorded the passage of 37 acoustically tagged green sturgeon. We classified seafloor physical habitat features with high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data. We then described the distribution of habitat components and their relationship to green sturgeon presence using ordination and subsequently used generalized linear model selection to identify important habitat components. Finally, we summarized depth and temperature recordings from seven green sturgeon present off the Oregon coast that were fitted with pop-off archival geolocation tags. Our analyses indicated that green sturgeon, on average, spent a longer duration in areas with high seafloor complexity, especially where a greater proportion of the substrate consists of boulders. Green sturgeon in marine habitats are primarily found at depths of 20-60 meters and from 9.5-16.0°C. Many sturgeon in this study were likely migrating in a northward direction, moving deeper, and may have been using complex seafloor habitat because it coincides with the distribution of benthic prey taxa or provides refuge from predators. Identifying important green sturgeon marine habitat is an essential step towards accurately defining the conditions that are necessary for its survival and will eventually yield range-wide, spatially explicit predictions of green sturgeon distribution.

  15. Increased dust deposition in the Pacific Southern Ocean during glacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Frank; Gersonde, Rainer; Winckler, Gisela; Esper, Oliver; Jaeschke, Andrea; Kuhn, Gerhard; Ullermann, Johannes; Martinez-Garcia, Alfredo; Lambert, Fabrice; Kilian, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Dust deposition across the Southern Ocean plays a critical role for marine biological production through iron fertilization and is supposed to control a significant fraction of glacial-interglacial atmospheric CO2 changes. However, in the Pacific, the largest Southern Ocean sector, reliable sediment records are sparse and climate models mostly indicate low dust deposition both for modern times and the last glacial maximum. Here, we present comprehensive data-sets of dust supply based on the analysis of sediment records recently retrieved across the Pacific Southern Ocean. The shape and glacial/interglacial pattern of lithogenic sediment input records in the western and central sector reveals strong similarities to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic. Though our new data document substantial sediment redistribution, glacial dust mass accumulation rates corrected for sediment focusing exceed interglacial values by a factor of ~3. The first-order changes in Subantarctic biological productivity largely follow increased dust supply during glacials. Taken together our new sediment records document a substantial glacial dust supply from Australian and New Zealand sources to the Pacific SO sector eastward to at least 125°W. Such enhancement of dust supply is consistent with stronger aridity in Australia and a glacial dust source in New Zealand. Although the most likely dust source for the South Pacific is Australia/New Zealand, the glacial/interglacial pattern and timing of lithogenic sediment deposition is similar to dust records from Antarctica and the South Atlantic dominated by Patagonian sources. These similarities imply large-scale common climate forcings such as latitudinal shifts of the southern westerlies and regionally enhanced glaciogenic dust mobilization in New Zealand and Patagonia.

  16. Relationship Between Intraseasonal Oscillation and Subtropical Wind Maxima Over the South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dayton G.; Hurrell, James W.; Speth, P.; Sperling, T.; Funk, A.; Zube, S.

    1991-01-01

    The significance of tropical heat sources on higher latitude jet streams has been examined by numerous investigators. Hurrell and Vincent (1990) provide a summary of many of these investigations in their observational case study of the relationship between tropical heating and subtropical wind maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE. They showed that the divergent outflow from tropical heating associated with the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), acted on by the coriolis force, was an important factor in maintaining the subtropical jet on the poleward side of the SPCZ during the period, 6-20 January 1979. They found a similar, but weaker relationship, over the southern Indian Ocean from 3-17 February 1979, a period when the SPCZ heating was greatly reduced and the jet was essentially non-existent. Since their findings were based on a case study and involved the use of the highly-specialized FGGE data set, the natural questions which arose were: (1) Is this relationship a regular feature of the circulation over the South Pacific? and, (2) If so, can it be detected with a routine data set? Another question posed by Hurrell and Vincent in their papers was:(3) How important was the intraseasonal oscillation in causing the enhanced heating and divergent outflow in the Pacific Ocean in January and southern Indian Ocean in February? The purpose of the present paper is to address the answer to these three questions. To accomplish this, some circulation features for an entire warm season in the Southern Hemisphere were examined. The year selected was 1984-85, and the warm season consisted of the 6-month period, 1 November 1984 - 30 April 1985. This period was chosen because there were numerous cases of the westerly wind maxima over the South Pacific and the intraseasonal oscillation was well documented.

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1990-02-22 to 1990-04-16 (NODC Accession 0000183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0000183 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the North Pacific Ocean, South...

  18. Population trends in Pacific Oceanic sharks and the utility of regulations on shark finning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Shelley C; Harley, Shelton J; Hoyle, Simon D; Rice, Joel S

    2013-02-01

    Accurate assessment of shark population status is essential for conservation but is often constrained by limited and unreliable data. To provide a basis for improved management of shark resources, we analyzed a long-term record of species-specific catches, sizes, and sexes of sharks collected by onboard observers in the western and central Pacific Ocean from 1995 to 2010. Using generalized linear models, we estimated population-status indicators on the basis of catch rate and biological indicators of fishing pressure on the basis of median size to identify trends for blue (Prionace glauca), mako (Isurus spp.), oceanic whitetip (Carcharhinus longimanus), and silky (Carcharhinus falciformis) sharks. Standardized catch rates of longline fleets declined significantly for blue sharks in the North Pacific (by 5% per year [CI 2% to 8%]), for mako sharks in the North Pacific (by 7% per year [CI 3% to 11%]), and for oceanic whitetip sharks in tropical waters (by 17% per year [CI 14% to 20%]). Median lengths of silky and oceanic whitetip sharks decreased significantly in their core habitat, and almost all sampled silky sharks were immature. Our results are consistent with results of analyses of similar data sets. Combined, these results and evidence of targeted fishing for sharks in some regional fisheries heighten concerns for sustainable utilization, particularly for oceanic whitetip and North Pacific blue sharks. Regional regulations that prohibit shark finning (removal of fins and discarding of the carcass) were enacted in 2007 and are in many cases the only form of control on shark catches. However, there is little evidence of a reduction of finning in longline fisheries. In addition, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks are more frequently retained than finned, which suggests that even full implementation of and adherence to a finning prohibition may not substantially reduce mortality rates for these species. We argue that finning prohibitions divert attention from

  19. Travel-Related Parasitic Infections in Travellers to Southeast Asia and Western Pacific Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdur Öztürk, Eylem; Ünver, Ayşegül

    2017-12-01

    In the last decades, there has been a significant increase in international human mobility with increase in the prosperity, travel possibilities, and number of refugees. In the first half of 2016, the Asian continent showed the fastest growth in the number of tourists. Such increase is seen due to the interest in Asian history, culture, and cuisine. In the globalizing world, human mobility causes changes in the epidemiology of diseases and the spread of various infections across continents. Parasitic infections that may pose a risk for travellers to the Asia-Pacific are malaria, leishmaniasis, filariasis, foodborne trematode infections, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted infections, and tourist diarrhea. Consulting a travel medical expert and using health services such as pre-travel vaccination and chemoprophylaxis will reduce the risk of infectious diseases among travelers.

  20. Radiocaesium derived FNPP1 accident in the ocean interior of the western North Pacific Ocean through 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Inomata, Yayoi; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Oka, Eitarou; Tsubono, Takaki; Tsumune, Daisuke

    2017-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major pathways, direct discharge and atmospheric deposition released from the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP1) accident in 2011. Activities of radiocaesium released from FNPP1 accident were measured as vertical profiles at 11 stations in 2011, at 14 stations in 2012, at 13 station in 2015 and at 6 stations in 2016 in the North Pacific Ocean to study transport processes in the ocean interior of the North Pacific Ocean. The major pathway from surface to ocean interior after injected in the ocean surface can be considered subduction of central mode water (CMW) and subduction of subduction of subtropical mode water (STMW) at potential densities of 26.1-26.3 for CMW and 25.1-25.3 for STMW, respectively. In June 2012 at 34°N-39°N along 165°E corresponding to the formation region of central mode water (CMW) located north of the Kuroshio Extension, 134Cs activity showed a maximum at around potential density= 26.3 kg m-3. 134Cs activity was higher in CMW than in any of the surrounding waters, including STMW. These observations also indicate that the most effective pathway by which FNPP1-derived radiocaesium is introduced into the ocean interior on a 1-year time scale is CMW formation and subduction. In June-July 2015 at 36 deg. N-44 deg. N along 165 deg. E and June 2016 at 38-40N, 165-170 deg. E, there are only very week signal of subduction of Fukushima derived radiocaesium at in the CMW formation region, which means that subducted radiocaesium might have moved eastward from this region. In June 2012, 134Cs activity reached a maximum of 6.12 ± 0.50 Bq m-3 at a 151-m depth (potential density, 25.3 kg m-3) at 29 deg. N, 165 deg. E. This subsurface maximum, which was also observed along 149°E, might reflect the southward transport of FNPP1-derived radiocaesium in association with the formation and subduction of subtropical mode water (STMW) from the region south

  1. Oceanographic profile plankton, temperature, salinity collected using bottle from various unknown small boats in the South Pacific Ocean from 1981 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0002138)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from unknown platform(s)in the Coastal S Pacific, Equatorial Pacific and other locations from...

  2. Sources of Fe to the equatorial Pacific Ocean from the Holocene to Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Christa L.; Murray, Richard W.; Plank, Terry; Hemming, Sidney R.

    2008-06-01

    Biological productivity in the modern equatorial Pacific Ocean, a region with high nutrients and low chlorophyll, is currently limited by the micronutrient Fe. In order to test whether Fe was limiting in the past and to identify potential pathways of Fe delivery that could drive Fe fertilization (i.e., dust delivery from eolian inputs vs. Fe supplied by the Equatorial Undercurrent), we chemically isolated the terrigenous material from sediment along a cross-equatorial transect in the central equatorial Pacific at 140°W and at Ocean Drilling Program Site 850 in the eastern equatorial Pacific. We quantified the contribution from each potential Fe-bearing terrigenous source using a suite of chemical- and isotopic discrimination strategies as well as multivariate statistical techniques. We find that the distribution of the terrigenous sources (i.e., Asian loess, South American ash, Papua New Guinea, and ocean island basalt) varies through time, latitude, and climate. Regardless of which method is used to determine accumulation rate, there also is no relationship between flux of any particular Fe source and climate. Moreover, there is no connection between a particular Fe source or pathway (eolian vs. Undercurrent) to total productivity during the Last Glacial Maximum, Pleistocene glacial episodes, and the Miocene "Biogenic Bloom". This would suggest an alternative process, such as an interoceanic reorganization of nutrient inventories, may be responsible for past changes in total export in the open ocean, rather than simply Fe supply from dust and/or Equatorial Undercurrent processes. Additionally, perhaps a change in Fe source or flux is related to a change in a particular component of the total productivity (e.g., the production of organic matter, calcium carbonate, or biogenic opal).

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-01-04 to 2011-02-06 (NCEI Accession 0143947)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143947 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2006-12-14 to 2006-12-26 (NODC Accession 0108159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108159 includes Surface underway data collected from ODEN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2010-11-28 to 2011-02-05 (NODC Accession 0108155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108155 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2009-02-03 to 2009-03-03 (NODC Accession 0110379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0110379 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RRS JAMES COOK in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2012-11-28 to 2013-01-04 (NCEI Accession 0143950)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143950 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MIRAI in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, PAR Sensor and other instruments from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2007-12-16 to 2008-01-27 (NCEI Accession 0143932)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143932 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans (>...

  9. A Regional View of Easterly Waves over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean: Tropical Cyclogenesis Thresholds and Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, C.; Done, J.; Bruyere, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) are well known as important contributors to summer precipitation over Intra America Seas (IAS) and the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPA). They contribute up to 30% in the Caribbean Region, Gulf of Mexico and Eastern Pacific during high active seasons. Although Easterly Waves (EWs) are considered high-impact weather phenomena, their regional importance in summer rainfall and regional differences in their development into TCs remains uncertain. This study quantifies the contribution of EWs to summer rainfall. We find that EWs contributed up to 50% of summer rainfall over IAS and EPA during the period 1980-2013. In addition, this study demonstrates regional dependency of the structure of EWs that develop into hurricanes and the thresholds of tropical cyclogenesis. Using ERA-Interim data, vorticity at three levels (850, 700 and 600), Column Integrated Heating, equivalent potential temperature, sea surface temperature, wind speed, stretching radius and integrated moisture flux were analyzed to investigate regional dependency of thresholds for tropical cyclogenesis during the 1980-2013 period. We found that tropical cyclogenesis occurred under different regional environments over Pacific and Atlantic Ocean and the structure of EWs changed depending on the basin. This research can be relevant to improve operational forecast of tropical cyclogenesis since thresholds are used to indicate where and when a TC formation can occur.

  10. Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants and Plasticizers in Ocean Sediments from the North Pacific to the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxin; Xie, Zhiyong; Lohmann, Rainer; Mi, Wenying; Gao, Guoping

    2017-04-04

    The presence of organophosphate ester (OPE) flame retardants and plasticizers in surface sediment from the North Pacific to Arctic Ocean was observed for the first time during the fourth National Arctic Research Expedition of China in the summer of 2010. The samples were analyzed for three halogenated OPEs [tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris(dichloroisopropyl) phosphate], three alkylated OPEs [triisobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri-n-butyl phosphate, and tripentyl phosphate], and triphenyl phosphate. Σ 7 OPEs (total concentration of the observed OPEs) was in the range of 159-4658 pg/g of dry weight. Halogenated OPEs were generally more abundant than the nonhalogenated OPEs; TCEP and TiBP dominated the overall concentrations. Except for that of the Bering Sea, Σ 7 OPEs values increased with increasing latitudes from Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, while the contributions of halogenated OPEs (typically TCEP and TCPP) to the total OPE profile also increased from the Bering Strait to the Central Arctic Ocean, indicating they are more likely to be transported to the remote Arctic. The median budget of 52 (range of 17-292) tons for Σ 7 OPEs in sediment from the Central Arctic Ocean represents only a very small amount of their total production volume, yet the amount of OPEs in Arctic Ocean sediment was significantly larger than the sum of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the sediment, indicating they are equally prone to long-range transport away from source regions. Given the increasing level of production and usage of OPEs as substitutes of PBDEs, OPEs will continue to accumulate in the remote Arctic.

  11. Chilean and Southeast Pacific paleoclimate variations during the last glacial cycle: directly correlated pollen and δ18O records from ODP Site 1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Linda; Heusser, Cal; Mix, Alan; McManus, Jerry

    2006-12-01

    Joint pollen and oxygen isotope data from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1234 in the southeast Pacific provide the first, continuous record of temperate South American vegetation and climate from the last 140 ka. Located at ˜36°S, ˜65 km offshore of Concepcion, Chile, Site 1234 monitors the climatic transition zone between northern semi-arid, summer dry-winter wet climate and southern year-round, rainy, cool temperate climate. Dominance of onshore winds suggests that pollen preserved here reflects transport to the ocean via rivers that drain the region and integrate conditions from the coastal mountains to the Andean foothills. Down-hole changes in diagnostic pollen assemblages from xeric lowland deciduous forest (characterized by grasses, herbs, ferns, and trees such as deciduous beech, Nothofagus obliqua), mesic Valdivian Evergreen Forest (including conifers such as the endangered Prumnopitys andina), and Subantarctic Evergreen Rainforest (comprised primarily of southern beech, N. dombeyi) reveal large rapid shifts that likely reflect latitudinal movements in atmospheric circulation and storm tracks associated with the southern westerly winds. During glacial intervals (MIS 2-4, and 6), rainforests and parkland dominated by Nothofagus moved northward into the region. At the MIS 6/5e transition, coeval with the rapid shift to lower isotopic values, rainforest vegetation was rapidly replaced by xeric plant communities associated with Mediterranean-type climate. An increased prominence of halophytic vegetation suggests that MIS 5e was more arid and possibly warmer than MIS 1. Although rainforest pollen rises again at the end of MIS 5e, lowland deciduous forest pollen persists through MIS 5d and 5c, into MIS 5b. Substantial millennial-scale variations occur in both interglacial and glacial regimes, attesting to the sensitivity of the southern westerly belt to climate change. Comparison of the cool, mesic N. dombeyi rainforest assemblage from Site 1234 with δ18O in

  12. Investigation of the MBL Cloud Macro- and Micro-physical Properties over Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Dong, X.

    2013-12-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) cloud is an important cloud type in global climate system, and its macro- and micro- physical properties relate with not only the radiation budgets but also affect the sea surface temperature. Two DOE ARM Mobile Facilities (AMF1 and AMF2) were recently deployed at both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. One was at the Graciosa Island, Azores in context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) field campaign and the AMF1 collected the most continuous, valuable and comprehensive data of MBL clouds from Jun. 2009 to Dec. 2010. The other filed campaign is the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) IOP, which will provide a great opportunity for us to do the analysis of MBL over Pacific Ocean. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) has been deployed on the Horizon Line cargo ship Spirit traversing the route between Los Angeles, CA and Honolulu, HI for one full year (Oct. 2012 to Sept. 2013) with two additional 2-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, such as including additional instruments and more soundings (3-hr). The AMF2 has very similar data sets as the AMF1 over Azores but will not focus on one single point. The AMF2 observations, as well as retrievals for MBL clouds during MAGIC will allow us to compare the MBL cloud properties between North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In this study, we will compare the MBL clouds macro- and micro- physical properties over two Oceans. These macro- and micro- physical properties of MBL clouds are derived from AMF1 and AMF2 measurements. In details, the cloud heights are derived from radar/lidar pairs; the cloud temperatures are from linearly interpreted soundings; liquid water path (LWP) is retrieved from microwave radiometer; cloud condensation nuclei are derived from AOS measurements under super-saturation ratio at 0.2. The MBL cloud microphysical properties at daytime ( cloud effective radius, optical thickness, and number concentration

  13. Spatial and temporal distribution of Pu in the Northwest Pacific Ocean using modern coral archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Patric; Andersen, Morten B; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Worsfold, Paul; Hyeong, Kiseong; Choi, Min-Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-04-01

    Historical (239)Pu activity concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were determined in skeletons of dated modern corals collected from three locations (Chuuk Lagoon, Ishigaki Island and Iki Island) to identify spatial and temporal variations in Pu inputs to the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The main Pu source in the Northwest Pacific is fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing which consists of global fallout and close-in fallout from the former US Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) in the Marshall Islands. PPG close-in fallout dominated the Pu input in the 1950s, as was observed with higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.30) at the Ishigaki site. Specific fallout Pu contamination from the Nagasaki atomic bomb and the Ivy Mike thermonuclear detonation at the PPG were identified at Ishigaki Island from the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios of 0.07 and 0.46, respectively. During the 1960s and 1970s, global fallout was the major Pu source to the Northwest Pacific with over 60% contribution to the total Pu. After the cessation of the atmospheric nuclear tests, the PPG again dominated the Pu input due to the continuous transport of remobilised Pu from the Marshall Islands along the North Equatorial Current and the subsequent Kuroshio Current. The Pu contributions from the PPG in recent coral bands (1984 onwards) varied over time with average estimated PPG contributions between 54% and 72% depending on location. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C

    2008-03-03

    This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.

  15. The role of vigorous current systems in the Southeast Indian Ocean in redistributing deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Adriana; Müller, Dietmar; Hogg, Andrew; Spence, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the transport of modern deep-sea sediment is critical for accurate models of climate-ocean history and the widespread use of the sedimentological record as a proxy for productivity where the connection between biogenic seafloor lithologies and sea-surface is tenuous. The Southern Ocean, where diatoms contribute the bulk of pelagic material to the seafloor forming an extensive belt of diatom ooze, is an exemplar. However, most of the key studies on large-scale sediment reworking in the Southern Ocean were conducted in the 1970s when relatively little was known about the oceanography of this region. At this time even our knowledge of the bathymetry and tectonic fabric, which underpin the distribution of deep-sea currents, were fairly general. The record of widespread regional disconformities in the abyssal plains of the Southern Ocean is well-established and indicates extensive erosion of deep-sea sediments throughout the Quaternary. Here we combine a high-resolution numerical model of bottom currents with sedimentological data to constrain the redistribution of sediment across the abyssal plains and adjacent mid-ocean ridges in the Southern Ocean. We use the global ocean-sea ice model (GFDL-MOM01) to simulate ocean circulation at a resolution that results in realistic velocities throughout the water column, and is ideal for estimating interaction between time-dependent bottom currents and ocean bathymetry. 230Th-normalized vertical sediment rain rates for 63 sites in the Southeast Indian Ocean, combined with satellite data-derived surface productivity, demonstrate that a wide belt of fast sedimentation rates (> 5.5 cm/kyr) along the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR) occurs in a region of low surface productivity bounded by two major disconformity fields associated with the Kerguelen Plateau to the east and the Macquarie Ridge to the west. Our ocean circulation model illustrates that the disconformity fields occur in regions of intense bottom current

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-03 to 1977-03-10 (NCEI Accession 8100129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from March 3, 1977 to March 10, 1977. Data were...

  17. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HIEI MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-10-09 to 1976-10-16 (NCEI Accession 8100178)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HIEI MARU in the Pacific Ocean from October 9, 1976 to October 16, 1976. Data were...

  18. Nutrients, temperature, and salinity from bottle cats in the North Pacific Ocean by the Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography from 27 August 1950 to 17 November 1997 (NODC Accession 0000843)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients, temperature, and salinity data were collected using bottle casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 27 August 1950 to 17 November 1997. Data were submitted...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-02 to 1985-03-19 (NCEI Accession 8500081)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ELBE EXPRESS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from January 2, 1985 to...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-11-06 to 1976-11-22 (NCEI Accession 8100139)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from November 16, 1976 to November 22, 1976. Data...

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-07-19 to 1977-07-27 (NCEI Accession 8100351)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from July 19, 1977 to July 27, 1977. Data were...

  2. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the LEXA MAERSK and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1986-11-15 to 1988-01-04 (NCEI Accession 8800006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from LEXA MAERSK and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from November 15, 1986 to...

  3. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKUSAN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-30 to 1977-01-09 (NCEI Accession 8100419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKUSAN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from December 30, 1976 to January 9, 1977. Data...

  4. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKONE MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-26 to 1977-04-04 (NCEI Accession 8100303)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKONE MARU in the Pacific Ocean March 26 1977 to April 4, 1977. Data were...

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKUSAN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-08 to 1977-04-14 (NCEI Accession 8100423)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKUSAN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from April 8, 1977 to April 14, 1977. Data were...

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HARUNA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-14 to 1977-03-21 (NODC Accession 8100370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HARUNA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from March 14, 1977 to March 21, 1977. Data were...

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the SIRIUS and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1983-06-07 to 1984-07-29 (NODC Accession 8400165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from SIRIUS and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from June 7, 1983 to July 29,...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-06-05 to 1977-06-13 (NCEI Accession 8100354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from June 5, 1977 to June 13, 1977. Data were...

  9. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-07-06 to 1977-07-14 (NCEI Accession 8100352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from July 6, 1977 to July 14, 1977. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT MCKINLEY from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-09-04 to 1976-09-12 (NCEI Accession 8100324)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT MCKINLEY in the Pacific Ocean from September 4, 1976 to September 12,...

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HAKUSAN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-05-19 to 1977-05-26 (NCEI Accession 8100426)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HAKUSAN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from May 19, 1977 to May 26, 1977. Data were...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the YAMASHIN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, September 1976 to 1976-09-27 (NCEI Accession 8100210)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from YAMASHIN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from September 22, 1976 to September 27, 1976....

  13. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the GOLDEN ARROW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-05-17 to 1977-05-21 (NCEI Accession 8100298)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from GOLDEN ARROW in the Pacific Ocean from May 17, 1977 to May 21, 1977. Data were...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the MEDELENA from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-10-27 to 1976-11-05 (NCEI Accession 8100380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from MEDELENA in the Pacific Ocean from October 27, 1976 to November 5, 1976. Data were...

  15. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the YAMASHIN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-26 to 1977-02-01 (NCEI Accession 8100200)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from YAMASHIN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from January 26, 1977 to February 1, 1977. Data...

  16. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-14 to 1977-04-21 (NCEI Accession 8100275)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from April 14, 1977 to April 21, 1977. Data were...

  17. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-23 to 1977-02-01 (NCEI Accession 8100281)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from January 23, 1977 to February 1, 1977. Data...

  18. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AMERICA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-07 to 1977-01-17 (NCEI Accession 8100348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AMERICA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from January 7, 1977 to January 17, 1977. Data...

  19. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the MEDELENA from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-28 to 1977-03-07 (NCEI Accession 8100387)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from MEDELENA in the Pacific Ocean from February 28, 1977 to March 7, 1977. Data were...

  20. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the HIEI MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-01 to 1977-03-09 (NCEI Accession 8100187)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from HIEI MARU in the Pacific Ocean from March 1, 1977 to March 9, 1977. Data were...

  1. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-18 to 1977-04-25 (NCEI Accession 8100132)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from April 18, 1977 to April 25, 1977. Data were...

  2. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT JOHNSON from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-14 to 1977-04-27 (NCEI Accession 8100155)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT JOHNSON in the Pacific Ocean from April 14, 1977 to April 27, 1977. Data...

  3. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the KASHU MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-10-18 to 1977-06-09 (NCEI Accession 8100137)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from KASHU MARU in the Pacific Ocean from October 18, 1976 to July 9, 1977. Data were...

  4. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the JAPAN ACE from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-04-26 to 1977-05-04 (NCEI Accession 8100254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from JAPAN ACE in the Pacific Ocean from April 26, 1977 to May 04, 1977. Data were...

  5. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the YAMASHIN MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-12-14 to 1976-12-16 (NCEI Accession 8100213)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from YAMASHIN MARU in the Pacific Ocean from December 14, 1976 to December 16, 1976....

  6. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the JAPAN ACE from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-28 to 1977-02-06 (NCEI Accession 8100264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from JAPAN ACE in the Pacific Ocean from January 28, 1977 to February 06, 1977. Data...

  7. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the PRESIDENT JEFFERSON from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-11-14 to 1976-11-21 (NCEI Accession 8100168)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from PRESIDENT JEFFERSON in the Pacific Ocean from November 14, 1976 to November 21,...

  8. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the JARRETT and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1985-01-01 to 1985-03-20 (NCEI Accession 8500096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from JARRETT in the Pacific Ocean from February 1, 1985 to March 20, 1985. Data were...

  9. Pressure, temperature, and salinity collected by CTDs from ships in the North Pacific and South Pacific Oceans from 6/30/1999 to 12/14/1999 (NODC Accession 0000003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and pressure data were collected using CTD casts in the North/South Pacific Ocean from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN AND NOAA Ship KA'IMIMOANA from...

  10. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the JAPAN ACE from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-30 to 1977-04-08 (NCEI Accession 8100253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from JAPAN ACE in the Pacific Ocean from March 30, 1977 to April 8, 1977. Data were...

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the MEDELENA from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-05-31 to 1977-06-03 (NCEI Accession 8100394)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from MEDELENA in the Pacific Ocean from May 31, 1977 to June 3, 1977. Data were...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the JAPAN ACE from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-03-16 to 1977-03-24 (NCEI Accession 8100261)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from JAPAN ACE in the Pacific Ocean from March 13, 1977 to March 24, 1977. Data were...

  13. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the ASIA MARU from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-02-09 to 1977-02-17 (NCEI Accession 8100279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from ASIA MARU in the Pacific Ocean from February 9, 1977 to February 17, 1977. Data...

  14. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the MEDELENA from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1977-01-28 to 1977-01-31 (NCEI Accession 8100386)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from MEDELENA in the Pacific Ocean from January 28, 1977 to January 31, 1977. Data were...

  15. Modeling Surface Water Transport in the Central Pacific Ocean With 129I Records From Coral Skeletons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, W.; Biddulph, D. L.; Russell, J. L.; Burr, G. S.; Jull, T. J.; Correge, T.; Roeder, B.

    2008-12-01

    129I occurs naturally in extremely low abundance via cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere as well as by spontaneous fission of uranium. Oceanic concentrations of 129I have risen by several orders of magnitude during the last half century largely from environmental pollution coming from several point-source nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. In the Pacific basin, much of the increase has apparently come from the Hanford Nuclear reprocessing plant in the United States, with iodine primarily arriving via the Columbia River. Coral skeletons preserve records of 129I concentration of the surface waters from which they were deposited, yielding records with annual resolution or better. We will present three such records from different locations in the Pacific Ocean: the Solomon Islands, Easter Island and Clipperton Atoll. For this study, drill cores from living massive coral skeletons of the species Porites Lobata were collected from these sites. 129I/127I values were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Arizona with an NEC 3 MV Pelletron accelerator. Results from the analysis of the corals will be compared to the distribution of other mixed-layer tracers (chloro-fluorocarbons and tritium) collected during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment cruises conducted between 1990 and 2002. The 129I/127I records observed in these corals will also be compared to tracer transit time calculations determined from a 20th century simulation of the GFDL coupled-climate passive-tracer model.

  16. Developing an enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Yuriy; de Wit, Roald; Atalifo, Terry; Prakash, Bipendra; Waqaicelua, Alipate; Kunitsugu, Masashi; Caroff, Philippe; Chane-Ming, Fabrice

    2013-04-01

    Tropical cyclones are the most extreme weather phenomena which severely impact coastal communities and island nations. There is an ongoing research (i) on accurate analysis of observed trends in tropical cyclone occurrences, and (ii) how tropical cyclone frequency and intensity may change in the future as a result of climate change. Reliable historical records of cyclone activity are vital for this research. The Pacific Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning (PACCSAP) program is dedicated to help Pacific Island countries and Timor Leste gain a better understanding of how climate change will impact their regions. One of the key PACCSAP projects is focused on developing a tropical cyclone archive, climatology and seasonal prediction for the regions. As part of the project, historical tropical cyclone best track data have been examined and prepared to be subsequently displayed through the enhanced tropical cyclone data portal for the Southern Hemisphere and the Western Pacific Ocean. Data from the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (RSMC) Nadi, Fiji and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs) in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington for 1969-1970 to 2010-2011 tropical cyclone seasons have been carefully examined. Errors and inconsistencies which have been found during the quality control procedure have been corrected. To produce a consolidated data set for the South Pacific Ocean, best track data from these four centres have been used. Specifically, for 1969-1970 to 1994-1995 tropical cyclone seasons, data from TCWCs in Brisbane, Darwin and Wellington have been used. In 1995, RSMC Nadi, Fiji has been established with responsibilities for issuing tropical cyclone warnings and preparing best track data for the area south of the equator to 25°S, 160°E to 120°W. Consequently, data from RSMC Nadi have been used as a primary source for this area, starting from the 1995-1996 tropical cyclone season. These data have been combined with the data from

  17. Mercury in tunas and blue marlin in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevnick, Paul E; Brooks, Barbara A

    2017-05-01

    Models and data from the North Pacific Ocean indicate that mercury concentrations in water and biota are increasing in response to (global or hemispheric) anthropogenic mercury releases. In the present study, we provide an updated record of mercury in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) caught near Hawaii that confirms an earlier conclusion that mercury concentrations in these fish are increasing at a rate similar to that observed in waters shallower than 1000 m. We also compiled and reanalyzed data from bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) caught near Hawaii in the 1970s and 2000s. Increases in mercury concentrations in bigeye tuna are consistent with the trend found in yellowfin tuna, in both timing and magnitude. The data available for blue marlin do not allow for a fair comparison among years, because mercury concentrations differ between sexes for this species, and sex was identified (or reported) in only 3 of 7 studies. Also, mercury concentrations in blue marlin may be insensitive to modest changes in mercury exposure, because this species appears to have the ability to detoxify mercury. The North Pacific Ocean is a region of both relatively high rates of atmospheric mercury deposition and capture fisheries production. Other data sets that allow temporal comparisons in mercury concentrations, such as pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in Alaskan waters and albacore tuna (Thunnus alalunga) off the US Pacific coast, should be explored further, to aid in understanding human health and ecological risks and to develop additional baseline knowledge for assessing changes in a region expected to respond strongly to reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1365-1374. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide in deep waters from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Mark J.; Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Achterberg, Eric P.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is present ubiquitously in marine surface waters where it is a reactive intermediate in the cycling of many trace elements. Photochemical processes are considered the dominant natural H2O2 source, yet cannot explain nanomolar H2O2 concentrations below the photic zone. Here, we determined the concentration of H2O2 in full depth profiles across three ocean basins (Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans). To determine the accuracy of H2O2 measurements in the deep ocean we also re-assessed the contribution of interfering species to ‘apparent H2O2’, as analysed by the luminol based chemiluminescence technique. Within the vicinity of coastal oxygen minimum zones, accurate measurement of H2O2 was not possible due to interference from Fe(II). Offshore, in deep (>1000 m) waters H2O2 concentrations ranged from 0.25 ± 0.27 nM (Mediterranean, Balearics-Algeria) to 2.9 ± 2.2 nM (Mediterranean, Corsica-France). Our results indicate that a dark, pelagic H2O2 production mechanism must occur throughout the deep ocean. A bacterial source of H2O2 is the most likely origin and we show that this source is likely sufficient to account for all of the observed H2O2 in the deep ocean.

  19. Observations of the marine boundary layer under a cutoff low over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Stratocumulus is often present offshore of Peru and northern Chile and exists at the top of a cool, moist and well-mixed marine boundary layer (MBL) under a marked temperature inversion maintained by large-scale subsidence. The subtropical MBL and stratocumulus has been the focus of many recent studies, but mid-latitude systems can exert a strong influence. However, this connection is not well established due to debatable model results and few in situ measurements south of 20°S. During a 2-week field campaign in August 2011 at Robinson Crusoe Island (~700 km offshore at 33.6°S), radiosondes were launched to observe the response of the MBL to mid-latitude synoptic forcing. During the observation period a broad, slow-moving cutoff low (COL) passed over the region. Other observations include COSMIC GPS, infrared satellite imagery, TRMM radar reflectivity, and operational radiosondes from the Chilean weather service. A numerical simulation is included to diagnose the synoptic features. The inversion prior to the COL was maintained and lifted above 5 km as the COL passed over the island. Soon after the COL center passed the island, the MBL top did not descend or reform near the surface and then deepen, but rather an inversion reformed at ~2.7 km. Using a variety of datasets, the height of the reformation of the inversion is related to the cloud top height of the scattered shallow cumulus convection under the COL, which coincides with the level of maximum convergence of the vertical velocity.

  20. Interannual Variability of the Upper Ocean in the Southeast Pacific Stratus Cloud Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Satellite Cloud Clima - tology Project (ISCCP)-FD hereafter], reconstructed by Zhang et al. (2004) and available from July 1983 to December 2006...second experiment, the model was forced with clima - tological wind stress and daily surface heat fluxes. The first experiment is able to reproduce

  1. Puffins reveal contrasting relationships between forage fish and ocean climate in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Piatt, John F.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Hatch, Scott A.; Arimitsu, Mayumi; Slater, Leslie; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Rojek, Nora A.; Zador, Stephani G.; Renner, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term studies of predator food habits (i.e., ‘predator-based sampling’) are useful for identifying patterns of spatial and temporal variability of forage nekton in marine ecosystems. We investigated temporal changes in forage fish availability and relationships to ocean climate by analyzing diet composition of three puffin species (horned puffin Fratercula corniculata, tufted puffin Fratercula cirrhata, and rhinoceros auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) from five sites in the North Pacific from 1978–2012. Dominant forage species included squids and hexagrammids in the western Aleutians, gadids and Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) in the eastern Aleutians and western Gulf of Alaska (GoA), and sand lance and capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the northern and eastern GoA. Interannual fluctuations in forage availability dominated variability in the western Aleutians, whereas lower-frequency shifts in forage fish availability dominated elsewhere. We produced regional multivariate indicators of sand lance, capelin, and age-0 gadid availability by combining data across species and sites using Principal Component Analysis, and related these indices to environmental factors including sea level pressure (SPL), winds, and sea surface temperature (SST). There was coherence in the availability of sand lance and capelin across the study area. Sand lance availability increased linearly with environmental conditions leading to warmer ocean temperatures, whereas capelin availability increased in a non-linear manner when environmental changes led to lower ocean temperatures. Long-term studies of puffin diet composition appear to be a promising tool for understanding the availability of these difficult-to-survey forage nekton in remote regions of the North Pacific.

  2. Tsunamigenic Ratio of the Pacific Ocean earthquakes and a proposal for a Tsunami Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suppasri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Ocean is the location where two-thirds of tsunamis have occurred, resulting in a great number of casualties. Once information on an earthquake has been issued, it is important to understand if there is a tsunami generation risk in relation with a specific earthquake magnitude or focal depth. This study proposes a Tsunamigenic Ratio (TR that is defined as the ratio between the number of earthquake-generated tsunamis and the total number of earthquakes. Earthquake and tsunami data used in this study were selected from a database containing tsunamigenic earthquakes from prior 1900 to 2011. The TR is calculated from earthquake events with a magnitude greater than 5.0, a focal depth shallower than 200 km and a sea depth less than 7 km. The results suggest that a great earthquake magnitude and a shallow focal depth have a high potential to generate tsunamis with a large tsunami height. The average TR in the Pacific Ocean is 0.4, whereas the TR for specific regions of the Pacific Ocean varies from 0.3 to 0.7. The TR calculated for each region shows the relationship between three influential parameters: earthquake magnitude, focal depth and sea depth. The three parameters were combined and proposed as a dimensionless parameter called the Tsunami Index (TI. TI can express better relationship with the TR and with maximum tsunami height, while the three parameters mentioned above cannot. The results show that recent submarine earthquakes had a higher potential to generate a tsunami with a larger tsunami height than during the last century. A tsunami is definitely generated if the TI is larger than 7.0. The proposed TR and TI will help ascertain the tsunami generation risk of each earthquake event based on a statistical analysis of the historical data and could be an important decision support tool during the early tsunami warning stage.

  3. Dimethylsulphide (DMS emissions from the western Pacific Ocean: a potential marine source for stratospheric sulphur?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Marandino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface and atmospheric measurements of dimethylsulphide (DMS were performed during the TransBrom cruise in the western Pacific Ocean between Japan and Australia in October 2009. Air–sea DMS fluxes were computed between 0 and 30 μmol m−2 d−1, which are in agreement with those computed by the current climatology, and peak emissions of marine DMS into the atmosphere were found during the occurrence of tropical storm systems. Atmospheric variability in DMS, however, did not follow that of the computed fluxes and was more related to atmospheric transport processes. The computed emissions were used as input fields for the Lagrangian dispersion model FLEXPART, which was set up with actual meteorological fields from ERA-Interim data and different chemical lifetimes of DMS. A comparison with aircraft in situ data from the adjacent HIPPO2 campaign revealed an overall good agreement between modelled versus observed DMS profiles over the tropical western Pacific Ocean. Based on observed DMS emissions and meteorological fields along the cruise track, the model projected that up to 30 g S per month in the form of DMS, emitted from an area of 6 × 104 m2, can be transported above 17 km. This surprisingly large DMS entrainment into the stratosphere is disproportionate to the regional extent of the area of emissions and mainly due to the high convective activity in this region as simulated by the transport model. Thus, if DMS can cross the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, we suggest that the considerably larger area of the tropical western Pacific Ocean can be a source of sulphur to the stratosphere, which has not been considered as yet.

  4. Resurrection of Indian Ocean humbug damselfish, Dascyllus abudafur (Forsskål) from synonymy with its Pacific Ocean sibling, Dascyllus aruanus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Philippe; Sembiring, Andrianus; Fauvelot, Cécile; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Previous phylogeographic studies of the humbug damselfish, a widespread Indo-West Pacific coral reef fish, have revealed a split of two main mitochondrial lineages distributed on either side of the Indo-Pacific barrier. This has been interpreted as the result of vicariance. It has been hypothesized that reproductive barriers might currently limit gene flow between humbug damselfish populations from the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. In this study, we review the published phylogeographic information to update the distribution of the two main mitochondrial lineages of humbug damselfish. The Indian lineage was distributed from the Red Sea to the eastern extremity of the Sunda Shelf while the Pacific lineage, which diverged from the former by 0.6% net nucleotide divergence and diagnostic substitutions at three nucleotide sites at the cytochrome b locus, was distributed east and north of the Sunda Shelf. The two forms, which are also genetically distinct at nuclear loci, were also characterized by distinct pigmentation patterns. We argue that the two forms represent geminate species. Epithet aruanus Linnaeus is maintained for the Pacific Ocean humbug damselfish while epithet abudafur (Forsskål) is here resurrected for the Indian Ocean humbug damselfish. Future studies should focus on the population genetic structure of the transition zone between Dascyllus abudafur and D. aruanus. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Fin whale vocalizations observed with ocean bottom seismometers of cabled observatories off east Japan Pacific Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    岩瀬, 良一; IWASE, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived waveform data from both hydrophones and ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) of a cabled observatory off Kushiro-Tokachi in Hokkaido. A fin whale was localized on the basis of the incident orientation estimated with a single OBS and the time difference of multipath arrival of sound pressure data from a hydrophone. Furthermore, several fin whale vocalizations were found in the archived OBS waveform data from other cabled observatories off east Jap...

  6. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates in open ocean waters of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniyasu, Sachi; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Horii, Yuichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan); Kannan, K.; Sinclair, E. [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, CA (United States); Petrick, G. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Marine Research; Gamo, Toshitaka [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Ocean Research Institute

    2004-09-15

    Environmentally stable perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have appeared as a new class of global pollutants within the last four years. These compounds in general, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in particular, can elicit toxic effects in wildlife and humans. PFCs have unique physicochemical properties due to the highly persistent C-F bond of the non-polar moiety and exhibit a wide variety of volatility/ water solubility depending on the nature of the substituted polar moiety. Environmental kinetics of PFCs is very complex because of the unique characteristics and their wide applications in various products. It is clear that PFCs pollution is a global problem involving several international organizations such as OECD. We have reported the initial survey of open ocean pollution by PFCs in 2003. Our studies have shown that part per quadrillion (ppq) level analysis of PFCs is necessary to obtain reliable information of open ocean pollution. We have developed reliable analytical and sampling method for ultra-trace level analysis of PFCs that is applicable to global survey of open ocean pollution. Analysis of PFCs in open ocean waters is challenging because of the need for ppq level analysis and no earlier studies have reported such a sensitive method. There were two approaches to enable trace level analysis of PFCs, namely, to decrease the blank and to solve co-elution problem. We have tested low blank solid phase extraction method and improvements in the analytical procedures and instrumentation, the blank/background levels of target perfluorinated acids were reduced significantly. Field blanks containing 800 mL of HPLC-grade water taken in a polypropylene bottle were transported to sampling locations. Two hundred microliter of sodium thiosulfate solution has been added to the field blanks. Although the concentrations of target fluorochemicals in field blanks were similar to those in procedural blanks in most cases, any sample sets that were found to have notable

  7. The last frontier: catch records of white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias in the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Christiansen

    Full Text Available White sharks are highly migratory apex predators, globally distributed in temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical waters. Knowledge of white shark biology and ecology has increased recently based on research at known aggregation sites in the Indian, Atlantic, and Northeast Pacific Oceans; however, few data are available for the Northwest Pacific Ocean. This study provides a meta-analysis of 240 observations of white sharks from the Northwest Pacific Ocean between 1951 and 2012. Records comprise reports of bycatch in commercial fisheries, media accounts, personal communications, and documentation of shark-human interactions from Russia (n = 8, Republic of Korea (22, Japan (129, China (32, Taiwan (45, Philippines (1 and Vietnam (3. Observations occurred in all months, excluding October-January in the north (Russia and Republic of Korea and July-August in the south (China, Taiwan, Philippines, and Vietnam. Population trend analysis indicated that the relative abundance of white sharks in the region has remained relatively stable, but parameterization of a 75% increase in observer effort found evidence of a minor decline since 2002. Reliably measured sharks ranged from 126-602 cm total length (TL and 16-2530 kg total weight. The largest shark in this study (602 cm TL represents the largest measured shark on record worldwide. For all countries combined the sex ratio was non-significantly biased towards females (1∶1.1; n = 113. Of 60 females examined, 11 were confirmed pregnant ranging from the beginning stages of pregnancy (egg cases to near term (140 cm TL embryos. On average, 6.0±2.2 embryos were found per litter (maximum of 10 and gestation period was estimated to be 20 months. These observations confirm that white sharks are present in the Northwest Pacific Ocean year-round. While acknowledging the difficulties of studying little known populations of a naturally low abundance species, these results highlight the need for dedicated

  8. Impacts of Interannual Ocean Circulation Variability on Japanese Eel Larval Migration in the Western North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel larvae hatch near the West Mariana Ridge seamount chain and travel through the North Equatorial Current (NEC, the Kuroshio, and the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC region during their shoreward migration toward East Asia. The interannual variability of circulation over the subtropical and tropical regions of the western North Pacific Ocean is affected by the Philippines-Taiwan Oscillation (PTO. This study examines the effect of the PTO on the Japanese eel larval migration routes using a three-dimensional (3D particle tracking method, including vertical and horizontal swimming behavior. The 3D circulation and hydrography used for particle tracking are from the ocean circulation reanalysis produced by the Japan Coastal Ocean Predictability Experiment 2 (JCOPE2. Our results demonstrate that bifurcation of the NEC and the strength and spatial variation of the Kuroshio affect the distribution and migration of eel larvae. During the positive phase of PTO, more virtual eels ("v-eels" can enter the Kuroshio to reach the south coast of Japan and more v-eels reach the South China Sea through the Luzon Strait; the stronger and more offshore swing of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea leads to fewer eels entering the East China Sea and the onshore movement of the Kuroshio to the south of Japan brings the eels closer to the Japanese coast. Significant differences in eel migration routes and distributions regulated by ocean circulation in different PTO phases can also affect the otolith increment. The estimated otolith increment suggests that eel age tends to be underestimated after six months of simulation due to the cooler lower layer temperature. Underestimation is more significant in the positive PTO years due to the wide distribution in higher latitudes than in the negative PTO years.

  9. Role of Low Clouds in Summertime Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions over the North Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Joel R.; Zhang, Yuan; Wallace, John M.

    1998-10-01

    The summer-to-summer variability of the areal extent of marine stratiform cloudiness (MSC; stratus, stratocumulus, and fog) over the North Pacific is examined for the period of record 1952-92 using a dataset based on surface observations. Variability is largest in two regions: the central and western Pacific along 35°N coincident with a strong meridional gradient in climatological MSC amount, and the eastern Pacific near 15°N downstream of the persistent stratocumulus deck off Baja California. The MSC amount in both regions tends to be negatively correlated with local sea surface temperature (SST), suggestive of a positive cloud feedback on SST. The MSC amounts in the two regions also tend to be negatively correlated by virtue of their relationship to the basin-wide sea level pressure (SLP) field: a strengthening of the seasonal mean subtropical anticyclone is accompanied by increased cloudiness in the trade wind regime and decreased cloudiness in the southerly flow farther toward the west. These relationships are reflected in the leading modes derived from empirical orthogonal function analysis and singular value decomposition analysis of the MSC, SST, and SLP fields.From the 1950s to the 1980s, summertime MSC amounts increased in the central and western Pacific and decreased in the trade wind region, while SST exhibited the opposite tendencies. Although these trends contributed to the relationships described above, similar patterns are obtained when the analysis is performed on 1-yr difference fields (e.g., 1953 minus 1952, 1954 minus 1953, etc.). Hence, it appears that MSC plays an important role in atmosphere-ocean coupling over the North Pacific during the summer season when latent and sensible heat fluxes are not as dominant and the coupling between atmospheric circulation and SST is not as strong as in winter.

  10. Subantarctic Pacific hiatuses as clues to periods of enhanced oceanic circulation during the late Neogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2009-12-01

    New stable isotope records from cores MV0502-4JC (50°20’S, 148°08’W, 4286m), ELT 25-11 (50°02’S, 127°31’W, 3969m), and ELT 20-11 (49°00’S, 144°50’W, 4517 m) obtained in close proximity to the Subantarctic Front in the southeast Pacific show a consistent pattern of hiatuses that could be related to late Neogene changes in the strength of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These subantarctic Pacific records show three hiatuses that we have dated to 1) the early Pliocene-early late Pliocene, 2) ~1.57-0.68 Ma, and 3) ~0.53-0.19 Ma. These hiatuses correspond well with the timing of the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and the Mid-Brunhes, as well as with periods of reduced or non-deposition on the Maurice Ewing Bank, also located in the path of the ACC (Ciesielski, 1982). Interestingly, sediment cores recovered from regions outside of the ACC that experience significant bottom water flow (e.g. fracture zones and the western margins of continents), including the Vema Channel (Ledbetter et al., 1978), the South Australia Basin (Ledbetter, 1981), and the continental margin of Northwest Africa (Stein et al., 1986), also show intervals of reduced or non-deposition that correlate well with the timing of hiatuses in the subantarctic Pacific. This correlation could indicate that the Pliocene Warm Period and the climatic transitions of the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution and Mid-Brunhes were characterized not only by a more vigourous ACC but also by a stronger and more globally-distributed overturning circulation than the present day.

  11. Detection and Characters Analysis of Sea Surface Temperature Fronts in the Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Meng; Wang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Sea Surface Temperature (SST) front is a typical mesoscale phenomenon in the ocean. The SST field of the Northwest Pacific Ocean is complex and the SST fronts are well developed in this area. In this research, the accuracy of SST fusion data product of RSS is validated by Argo buoys and the standard deviation is found to be 0.6K. Additionally, the performance of two front detection methods (temperature gradient and Jensen-Shannon divergence method) is compared and assessed by a simulated temperature field. Results show that the JSD is superior to GM. Consequently, SST fronts in the study area are detected by the JSD divergence method and some characters such as evolution process, seasonal variation, fronts intensity and length are studied. The results show that the front is active in January and weaken in September. The front intensity is maximum in winter and reaches its minimum in summer.

  12. Biological, chemical, and physical data from CTD/XCTD from five Japanese R/Vs in the North Pacific Ocean from January to December 2002 (NODC Accession 0001334)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using XCTD and CTD casts from KOFU MARU and other platforms in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 January...

  13. North and South Pacific Ocean Temperature Profile Data collected by the SCRIPPS Institute of Oceanography from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002 (NODC Accession 0000925)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical data were collected from XBT casts from the North and South Pacific Oceans. Data were collected from 17 February 2000 to 11 August 2002. Data were collected...

  14. Physical and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1502 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2015-02-18 (NCEI Accession 0145830)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0145830 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1502 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2015-02-18. These data...

  15. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from USCGC POLAR STAR in the South Pacific Ocean from 1992-11-08 to 1993-04-12 (NODC Accession 9300068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected in South Pacific Ocean as part of project Deep Freeze from ship POLAR STAR. The data was collected from November...

  16. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1211 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2012-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0134541)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0134541 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1211 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2012-07-14....

  17. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 30 June 1979 - 16 August 1979 (NODC Accession 8200104)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from June 30, 1979 to August 16, 1979. Data were submitted by...

  18. Salinity and sigma-t data from CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from 1994-01-06 to 1995-08-03 (NODC Accession 9600024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity and sigma-t data were collected using current meter, pressure gauge, and CTD casts in the TOGA Area - Pacific Ocean from January 6, 1994 to August 3, 1995....

  19. Oceanographic profile Biomass, temperature salinity and other measurements collected using bottle from Alpha Helix in the Pacific Ocean from 1976 (NODC Accession 0002070)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle casts from the ALPHA HELIX in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 06...

  20. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1318 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2013-12-13 (NCEI Accession 0135463)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0135463 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1318 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2013-12-13....

  1. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1406 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2014-10-22 (NCEI Accession 0150629)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0150629 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1406 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2014-10-22....

  2. Temperature profile data collected from multiple ships using bottle casts in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean from 04 November 1956 to 02 January 1994 (NODC Accession 0002701)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bottle casts from multiple ships in the South Pacific and Indian Ocean from 04 November 1956 to 02 January 1994. Data...

  3. Zooplankton data from plankton net in the Northwest Pacific Ocean by the Japan Hydrography Association from 22 April 1952 to 06 January 1990 (NODC Accession 0000273)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea area of the western North Pacific Ocean off the northeastern part of Japan is called Tohoku Sea Area. The hydrography in the sea area is complicated by...

  4. Biological profile and meteorological data collected by bottle and net in the Western Pacific Ocean from 6/5/1973 - 11/7/1973 (NODC Accession 0000151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological profile and meteorological data were collected using bottle and net casts from the RYOFU MARU in the Northwest / Southwest Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  5. Zooplankton data collected using net casts from the FRANCISCO DE ULLOA in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 January 1999 to 31 January 1999 (NODC Accession 0000912)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using net casts in the North Pacific Ocean from FRANCISCO DE ULLOA. Data were collected from 01 January 1999 to 31 January 1999. Data...

  6. Plankton data collected using net casts from the FRANCISCO DE ULLOA in the North Pacific Ocean from 15 July 1998 to 30 July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000911)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Plankton data were collected using net casts in the North Pacific Ocean from FRANCISCO DE ULLOA. Data were collected from 15 July 1998 to 30 July 1998. Data were...

  7. Influence of ambient water intrusion on coral reef acidification in the Chuuk lagoon, located in the coral‐rich western Pacific Ocean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ko, Young Ho; Lee, Kitack; Noh, Jae Hoon; Lee, Charity M; Kleypas, Joan A; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2016-01-01

    ...) of the Federated States of Micronesia, located in the western Pacific Ocean, were analyzed. The results showed that, during periods of weak intrusion of ambient seawater from the surrounding open ocean, two internal biological processes...

  8. Current direction data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 1984-04-24 to 1984-06-01 (NODC Accession 8500122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from April 24, 1984 to June 1, 1984. Data were submitted by...

  9. Physical and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1313 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2013-06-04 (NCEI Accession 0132108)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0132108 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the NEW HORIZON during cruise NH1313 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2013-06-04. These data...

  10. Physical, nutrients, and other data from CTD and bottle casts from the North Pacific Ocean from 19 February 1991 to 31 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, nutrients, and other data were collected from CTD and bottle casts from the North Pacific Ocean from 19 February 1991 to 31 December 2000. Parameters...

  11. Salinity data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Gulf of Alaska from 03 October 1984 - 01 May 1988 (NODC Accession 8900056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salinity data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Gulf of Alaska from October 3, 1984 to May 1, 1988. Data...

  12. Oceanographic profile temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients measurements collected using bottle and MBT from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 0002214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and meteorological data were collected using bottle and MBT casts from the A.I. VOEIKOV in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected...

  13. Physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1301 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2013-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0153498)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0153498 includes physical and underway data collected aboard the ROBERT GORDON SPROUL during cruise SP1301 in the North Pacific Ocean on 2013-06-17....

  14. Zooplankton biomass data from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean from 27 January 1967 to 26 November 1967 (NODC Accession 9500090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data were collected from net tows from the South Pacific Ocean. Data were collected by the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) from 27...

  15. Delta Oxygen-18 and SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE collected from KNORR in Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 0862-01-01 to 2009-01-01 (NCEI Accession 0142201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to lack of evidence from the eastern...

  16. Chemical and temperature profile data from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean (NODC Accession 9700022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and temperature profile data were collected from CTD casts in the East China Sea, Sea of Japan, and North Pacific Ocean. Data were submitted by the Japan...

  17. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 05 February 1979 - 01 December 1980 (NODC Accession 8300042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the North Pacific Ocean from February 5, 1979 to December 1, 1980. Data...

  18. Temperature, salinity, nutrient, primary production, and meteorological data collected by bottle in the South Pacific Ocean from 1/16/1962 - 8/2/1964 (NODC Accession 0000092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, nutrients, and other data were collected using net and bottle casts from the HUAYAIPE and ST JUDE in the South Pacific Ocean. Data were...

  19. Temperature profile and nutrients data from bottle casts in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean from 19 April 1971 to 30 March 1994 (NODC Accession 0000225)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from the ORION and EASTWARD in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from 19...

  20. Opportunism on the High Seas: Foraging Ecology of Olive Ridley Turtles in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey E. Peavey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotopic compositions in animal tissues have been widely used to gain insight into trophic dynamics, especially of mobile aquatic predators whose behavior and dietary preferences are difficult to directly measure. Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea range across >3 million km2 of the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific Ocean and their trophic ecology in open ocean areas has not yet been adequately described. Individuals feed within biogeographic regions where varying nutrient cycling regimes result in phytoplankton with distinct δ13C and δ15N values that are assimilated by the turtles. We sampled 346 turtles at-sea between 2003 and 2009 and used bulk tissue (n = 346 and amino acid compound specific isotope analysis (AA-CSIA, n = 31 to empirically support the conventional understanding that olive ridleys are omnivores. Bulk δ15N values did not significantly vary with carapace length, a proxy for age, or with putative sex of adults. We therefore hypothesize that trophic position (TP does not vary across age or sex. In line with other isotopic studies of this biogeographic scale in the same region, we observed a trend of bulk tissue 15N enrichment with increasing latitude. Using AA-CSIA to account for δ15N baseline shifts among food webs (space, we estimated the TP of adult foragers using two methods. We found that across their eastern Pacific range, olive ridley δ13C and δ15N niche area varied, but median TP of adults remained constant (~3.1. Using a two-amino acid TP estimation method, we detected a small but notable elevation of TP for olive ridleys on the Costa Rica Dome. This study underscores the value of large-scale in-water olive ridley sea turtle research across oceanic foraging habitats to confirm or challenge anecdotal understanding of trophic roles, susceptibility to environmental change, and critical habitats. Further, it improves our understanding of why this species is now abundant in the eastern Pacific

  1. Toxic diatoms and domoic acid in natural and iron enriched waters of the oceanic Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mary W; Bargu, Sibel; Coale, Susan L; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R; Garcia, Ana C; Roberts, Kathryn J; Sekula-Wood, Emily; Bruland, Kenneth W; Coale, Kenneth H

    2010-11-30

    Near-surface waters ranging from the Pacific subarctic (58°N) to the Southern Ocean (66°S) contain the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), associated with the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Of the 35 stations sampled, including ones from historic iron fertilization experiments (SOFeX, IronEx II), we found Pseudo-nitzschia at 34 stations and DA measurable at 14 of the 26 stations analyzed for DA. Toxin ranged from 0.3 fg·cell(-1) to 2 pg·cell(-1), comparable with levels found in similar-sized cells from coastal waters. In the western subarctic, descent of intact Pseudo-nitzschia likely delivered significant amounts of toxin (up to 4 μg of DA·m(-2)·d(-1)) to underlying mesopelagic waters (150-500 m). By reexamining phytoplankton samples from SOFeX and IronEx II, we found substantial amounts of DA associated with Pseudo-nitzschia. Indeed, at SOFeX in the Antarctic Pacific, DA reached 220 ng·L(-1), levels at which animal mortalities have occurred on continental shelves. Iron ocean fertilization also occurs naturally and may have promoted blooms of these ubiquitous algae over previous glacial cycles during deposition of iron-rich aerosols. Thus, the neurotoxin DA occurs both in coastal and oceanic waters, and its concentration, associated with changes in Pseudo-nitzschia abundance, likely varies naturally with climate cycles, as well as with artificial iron fertilization. Given that iron fertilization in iron-depleted regions of the sea has been proposed to enhance phytoplankton growth and, thereby, both reduce atmospheric CO(2) and moderate ocean acidification in surface waters, consideration of the potentially serious ecosystem impacts associated with DA is prudent.

  2. Toxic diatoms and domoic acid in natural and iron enriched waters of the oceanic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Mary W.; Bargu, Sibel; Coale, Susan L.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Garcia, Ana C.; Roberts, Kathryn J.; Sekula-Wood, Emily; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Coale, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    Near-surface waters ranging from the Pacific subarctic (58°N) to the Southern Ocean (66°S) contain the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), associated with the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia. Of the 35 stations sampled, including ones from historic iron fertilization experiments (SOFeX, IronEx II), we found Pseudo-nitzschia at 34 stations and DA measurable at 14 of the 26 stations analyzed for DA. Toxin ranged from 0.3 fg·cell−1 to 2 pg·cell−1, comparable with levels found in similar-sized cells from coastal waters. In the western subarctic, descent of intact Pseudo-nitzschia likely delivered significant amounts of toxin (up to 4 μg of DA·m−2·d−1) to underlying mesopelagic waters (150–500 m). By reexamining phytoplankton samples from SOFeX and IronEx II, we found substantial amounts of DA associated with Pseudo-nitzschia. Indeed, at SOFeX in the Antarctic Pacific, DA reached 220 ng·L−1, levels at which animal mortalities have occurred on continental shelves. Iron ocean fertilization also occurs naturally and may have promoted blooms of these ubiquitous algae over previous glacial cycles during deposition of iron-rich aerosols. Thus, the neurotoxin DA occurs both in coastal and oceanic waters, and its concentration, associated with changes in Pseudo-nitzschia abundance, likely varies naturally with climate cycles, as well as with artificial iron fertilization. Given that iron fertilization in iron-depleted regions of the sea has been proposed to enhance phytoplankton growth and, thereby, both reduce atmospheric CO2 and moderate ocean acidification in surface waters, consideration of the potentially serious ecosystem impacts associated with DA is prudent. PMID:21068374

  3. Anomalous circulation in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean in July-December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Oceana P.; Yaremchuk, Max; Panteleev, Gleb G.; Zhang, Jinlun; Kulakov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    Variability of the mean summer-fall ocean state in the Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean (PSAO) is studied using a dynamically constrained synthesis (4Dvar) of historical in situ observations collected during 1972 to 2008. Specifically, the oceanic response to the cyclonic (1989-1996) and anticyclonic (1972-1978, 1997-2006) phases of the Arctic Ocean Oscillation (AOO) is assessed for the purpose of quantitatively comparing the 2008 circulation pattern that followed the 2007 ice cover minimum. It is shown that the PSAO circulation during July-December of 2008 was characterized by a pronounced negative Sea Surface Height (SSH) anomaly along the Eurasian shelf break, which caused a significant decline of the transport in the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow region into the PSAO and increased the sea level difference between the Bering and Chukchi Seas. This anomaly could be one of the reasons for the observed amplification of the Bering Strait transport carrying fresh Pacific Waters into the PSAO. Largrangian analysis of the optimized solution suggests that the freshwater (FW) accumulation in the Beaufort Gyre has a negligible contribution from the East Siberian Sea and is likely caused by the enhanced FW export from the region north of the Canadian Archipelago/Greenland. The inverse modeling results are confirmed by validation against independent altimetry observations and in situ velocity data from NABOS moorings. It is also shown that presented results are in significantly better agreement with the data than the output of the PIOMAS model run utilized as a first guess solution for the 4dVar analysis.

  4. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  5. Nitrogen and Triple Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Atmospheric Particulate Nitrate over the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamezaki, Kazuki; Hattori, Shohei; Iwamoto, Yoko; Ishino, Sakiko; Furutani, Hiroshi; Miki, Yusuke; Miura, Kazuhiko; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2017-04-01

    Nitrate plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle. Atmospheric nitrate (NO3- and HNO3) are produced by reaction precursor as NOx (NO and NO2) emitted by combustion, biomass burning, lightning, and soil emission, with atmospheric oxidants like ozone (O3), hydroxyl radical (OH), peroxy radical and halogen oxides. Recently, industrial activity lead to increases in the concentrations of nitrogen species (NOx and NHy) throughout the environment. Because of the increase of the amount of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, the oceanic biogeochemical cycle are changed (Galloway et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2011). However, the sources and formation pathways of atmospheric nitrate are still uncertain over the Pacific Ocean because the long-term observation is limited. Stable isotope analysis is useful tool to gain information of sources, sinks and formation pathways. The nitrogen stable isotopic composition (δ15N) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used to posses information of its nitrogen sources (Elliott et al., 2007). Triple oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 ×δ18O) of atmospheric particulate NO3- can be used as tracer of the relative importance of mass-independent oxygen bearing species (e.g. O3, BrO; Δ17O ≠ 0 ‰) and mass-dependent oxygen bearing species (e.g. OH radical; Δ17O ≈ 0 ‰) through the formation processes from NOx to NO3- in the atmosphere (Michalski et al., 2003; Thiemens, 2006). Here, we present the isotopic compositions of atmospheric particulate NO3- samples collected over the Pacific Ocean from 40˚ S to 68˚ N. We observed significantly low δ15N values for atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean during both cruises. Although the data is limited, combination analysis of δ15N and Δ17O values for atmospheric particulate NO3- showed the possibility of the main nitrogen source of atmospheric particulate NO3- on equatorial Pacific Ocean is ammonia oxidation in troposphere. Furthermore, the Δ17O values

  6. Southeast Asia's changing palaeogeography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, R

    2009-01-01

    Geology provides the basis for understanding distributions of faunas and floras in Southeast Asia but only via a complex interplay of plate movements, palaeogeography, ocean circulation and climate...

  7. Chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2011-02-19 to 2011-03-14 (NCEI Accession 0130849)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0130849 includes chemical, optical and other data collected aboard the MELVILLE during cruise MV1102 in the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific...

  8. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from HMAS DARWIN and other platforms using BT and XBT casts in the North / South Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean from 29 April 1985 to 12 April 1988 (NODC Accession 8800166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the HMAS DARWIN and other platforms in the North / South Pacific Ocean and Indian...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean as part of the Ocean Prediction Through Observation Modeling and Analysis (OPTOMA) project, 26 September 1984 - 16 July 1985 (NODC Accession 9600075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific Ocean from September 26, 1984 to July 16, 1985. Data were submitted by...

  10. Asian droughts in the last millennium: a search for robust impacts of Pacific Ocean surface temperature variabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Entao; King, Martin P.; Sobolowski, Stefan; Otterå, Odd Helge; Gao, Yongqi

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the robustness of hydroclimate impacts in Asia due to major drivers of climate variability in the Pacific Ocean, namely the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Composite analyses are carried out on a tree ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index as well as on a long coupled global climate model control experiment. El Niño (La Niña) has a robust impact on wet (dry) conditions in West Asia and dry (wet) conditions in South Asia. For the PDO, impacts are found throughout the Asia domain. However, identifying the robust signals due to PDO from these analyses is more challenging due to the limited lengths of the data. Results indicate that West Asia (South and Southeast Asia) experiences wet (dry) conditions during periods of positive PDO. For East Asia, there is indication that positive (negative) PDO is associated with wet (dry) conditions around and southward of 30°N and dry (wet) conditions north of this latitude. This result is consistent with the current understanding of the role of PDO in the "southern-flood northern-drought" phenomenon in China. We suggest that specific extreme events or periods have regional impacts with strong intensities that cannot be fully explained through the composite analysis of ENSO, PDO, or any combination thereof. Two such examples are shown to illustrate this: the Strange Parallel Drought (1756-1768 CE) and the Great Drought (1876-1878 CE). Additionally, during these climate events, ENSO and PDO can be in phases which are not consistent with the required phases of these drivers that explain the concurrent drought and pluvial conditions in Asia. Therefore, not all historical drought and pluvial events in Northeast Asia and northern China can be related back to ENSO or PDO. Finally, we also examine the dynamical characteristics of the reported hydroclimatic impacts in the global climate model experiment. There is moisture transport into (out of) regions that exhibit

  11. Ocean warming since 1982 has expanded the niche of toxic algal blooms in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobler, Christopher J; Doherty, Owen M; Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Griffith, Andrew W; Kang, Yoonja; Litaker, R Wayne

    2017-05-09

    Global ocean temperatures are rising, yet the impacts of such changes on harmful algal blooms (HABs) are not fully understood. Here we used high-resolution sea-surface temperature records (1982 to 2016) and temperature-dependent growth rates of two algae that produce potent biotoxins, Alexandrium fundyense and Dinophysis acuminata, to evaluate recent changes in these HABs. For both species, potential mean annual growth rates and duration of bloom seasons significantly increased within many coastal Atlantic regions between 40°N and 60°N, where incidents of these HABs have emerged and expanded in recent decades. Widespread trends were less evident across the North Pacific, although regions were identified across the Salish Sea and along the Alaskan coastline where blooms have recently emerged, and there have been significant increases in the potential growth rates and duration of these HAB events. We conclude that increasing ocean temperature is an important factor facilitating the intensification of these, and likely other, HABs and thus contributes to an expanding human health threat.

  12. Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W; Galbraith, Moira; Dangerfield, Neil; Ross, Peter S

    2014-02-15

    We document the abundance, composition and distribution of microplastics in sub-surface seawaters of the northeastern Pacific Ocean and coastal British Columbia. Samples were acid-digested and plastics were characterized using light microscopy by type (fibres or fragments) and size (1000 μm). Microplastics concentrations ranged from 8 to 9200 particles/m(3); lowest concentrations were in offshore Pacific waters, and increased 6, 12 and 27-fold in west coast Vancouver Island, Strait of Georgia, and Queen Charlotte Sound, respectively. Fibres accounted for ∼ 75% of particles on average, although nearshore samples had more fibre content than offshore (p<0.05). While elevated microplastic concentrations near urban areas are consistent with land-based sources, the high levels in Queen Charlotte Sound appeared to be the result of oceanographic conditions that trap and concentrate debris. This assessment of microplastics in the NE Pacific is of interest in light of the on-coming debris from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transport and diagenesis of dissolved and particulate terrigenous organic matter in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Benner, Ronald

    2002-12-01

    Lignin measurements were made on suspended particulate organic matter (POM), total dissolved organic matter (DOM), high-molecular-weight (HMW) DOM, and low-molecular-weight (LMW) DOM in the North Pacific at Station Aloha. Carbon-normalized yields of lignin and δ13C measurements indicate that while terrigenous organic matter accounts only for ˜1% of DOM in seawater, submicron POM has a substantial terrigenous component. The apparent size distribution and terrigenous nature of the particles is consistent with an aerosol source, but these particles could also be delivered to the ocean via rivers. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl phenols as well as the fraction of dissolved lignin in HMW DOM provide molecular evidence of photochemical oxidation. Several differences in lignin composition and concentrations were evident between water masses. In particular, concentrations in North Pacific Intermediate Water were a factor of two greater than at all other depths. This is likely a reflection of higher riverine input via the Sea of Okhotsk. These trends suggest that lignin could serve as a general circulation tracer in addition to tracing riverine input and diagenetic processing of terrigenous organic matter in the ocean.

  14. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of two ascomycetes found on sunken wood off Vanuatu islands in the deep Pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Magnin, Sandrine; Rousseau, Florence; Zbinden, Magali; Frebourg, Ghislaine; Samadi, Sarah; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Jones, E B Gareth

    2009-12-01

    A new genus of a deep-sea ascomycete with one new species, Alisea longicolla, is described based on analyses of 18S and 28S rDNA sequences and morphological characters. A. longicolla was found together with Oceanitis scuticella, on small twigs and sugar cane debris trawled from the bottom of the Pacific Ocean off Vanuatu Islands. Molecular and morphological characters indicate that both fungi are members of Halosphaeriaceae. Within this family, O. scuticella is phylogenetically related to Ascosalsum and shares similar ascospore morphology and appendage ontogeny. The genus Ascosalsum is considered congeneric with Oceanitis and Ascosalsum cincinnatulum, Ascosalsum unicaudatum and Ascosalsum viscidulum are transferred to Oceanitis, an earlier generic name.

  15. Predictability and prediction of persistent cool states of the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Nandini; Cane, Mark A.; Seager, Richard; Lee, Dong Eun

    2017-10-01

    The Tropical Pacific Ocean displays persistently cool sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies that last several years to a decade, with either no El Niño events or a few weak El Niño events. These cause large-scale droughts in the extratropics, including major North American droughts such as the 1930s Dust Bowl, and also modulate the global mean surface temperature. Here we show that two models with different levels of complexity—the Zebiak-Cane intermediate model and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model version 2.1—are able to produce such periods in a realistic manner. We then test the predictability of these periods in the Zebiak-Cane model using an ensemble of experiments with perturbed initial states. Our results show that in most cases the cool mean state is predictable. We then apply this method to make retrospective forecasts of shifts in the decadal mean state and to forecast the mean state of the Tropical Pacific Ocean for the upcoming decade. Our results suggest that the Pacific will undergo a shift to a warmer mean state after the 2015-2016 El Niño. This could imply the cessation of the drier than normal conditions that have generally afflicted southwest North America since the 1997-1998 El Niño, as well as the twenty-first-century pause in global warming. Implications for our understanding of the origins of such persistent cool states and the possibility of improving predictions of large-scale droughts are discussed.

  16. ENSO-Driven Variability of Denitrification and Suboxia in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Simon; Gruber, Nicolas; Long, Matthew C.; Vogt, Meike

    2017-10-01

    The Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP) hosts two of the world's three Oxygen Deficient Zones (ODZs), large bodies of suboxic water that are subject to high rates of water column denitrification (WCD). In the mean, these two ODZs are responsible for about 15 to 40% of all fixed N loss in the ocean, but little is known about how this loss varies in time. Here we use a hindcast simulation with the ocean component of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Earth System Model over the period 1948 to 2009 to show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) drives large variations in the rates of WCD in this region. During mature La Niña (El Niño) conditions, peak denitrification rates are up to 70% higher (lower) than the mean rates. This large variability is the result of wind-driven changes in circulation and isopycnal structure concurrently modifying the thermocline distribution of O2 and organic matter export in such a way that the response of WCD is strongly amplified. During average La Niña (El Niño) conditions, the overall changes in ODZ structure and primarily the shoaling (deepening) of the upper boundary of both ODZs by 40 to 100 m explains 50% of the changes in WCD in the North Pacific and 94% in the South Pacific. Such a large variability of WCD in the ETP has strong implications for the assessments of trends, the balance of the marine N cycle and the emission of the greenhouse gas N2O.

  17. Transforming Ocean Sciences in the Northeast Pacific: NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative Cabled Array is Now Operational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. S.

    2016-02-01

    In July-August, 2015 the first operations and maintenance cruise was successfully completed for the high power and bandwidth underwater cabled component of the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative: the Cabled Array. This system includes 900 km of backbone cable and 7 Primary Nodes, which provide 8 kW power and 10 Gbs bandwidth to myriad seafloor instruments (Manalang et al., this meeting) and instrumented full water column moorings (McRae et al., this meeting). Over 33,000 m of extension cables connected to 17 secondary junction boxes support >100 instruments now streaming data live to shore. In concert, this array forms: 1) the most advanced observatory along the global mid-ocean ridge network were 20 instruments and a state-of-the-art mooring system are providing new insights into volcanic and overlying water column processes at Axial Seamount (which erupted April 2015, see Delaney et al., this meeting); and 2) an extensive, technologically-advanced coastal observatory spanning 80 m to 2900 m water depths off Newport, OR. Here, cabled, instrumented moorings, with up to 18 instruments each, and associated seafloor arrays provide real-time, coregistered geophysical, biogeochemical, and physical measurements at unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution. Nearly 1.5 years of continuous data (see Knuth et al., this meeting), two-way communication capabilities that allow responses to events, and continuing real-time data flow, will allow the community to investigate in ways never before possible earthquakes along the Cascadia margin with impacts on fluid flow and release of methane into the hydrosphere, underwater eruptions resulting in perturbations to hydrothermal systems, associated biological communities, and overlying water column properties, and linkages among biogeochemical and physical processes along the Cascadia margin.

  18. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  19. Potential impact of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and sea surface temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean-Western Pacific on the variability of typhoon landfall on the China coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Sheng; Wang, Chunzai; Wang, Dongxiao; Wang, Xin

    2017-12-01

    The landfall activity of typhoons (TYs) along the coast of China during July-August-September (JAS) shows significant interdecadal variation during 1965-2010. We identify three sub-periods of TY landfall activity in JAS along the China coast in this period, with more TY landfall during 1965-1978 (Period I) and 1998-2010 (Period III), and less during 1982-1995 (Period II). We find that the interdecadal variation might be related to the combined effects of Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes and sea surface temperature (SST) variation in the tropical Indian Ocean and Western Pacific (IO-WP). During the negative PDO phase in Periods I and III, a cyclonic anomaly is located in the western North Pacific (WNP), inducing easterly flow in its northern part, which favors TY landfall along the eastern China coast. Warm SST anomalies over the tropical IO-WP during Period III induce an anomalous anticyclonic circulation in the WNP through both the Gill-pattern response to the warm SST in the tropical IO and the anomalous meridional circulation induced by the warm SST in the tropical WNP. As a result, the northern South China Sea and WNP (10°-20° N) are dominated by southeasterly flow, which favors TYs making landfall on both the southern and eastern China coast. With both landfalling-favorable conditions satisfied, there are significantly more TYs making landfall along the China coast during Period III than during Period I, which shows cool SST anomalies in the tropical IO-WP.

  20. Adjustments of a global Finite-Element Sea Ice Ocean Model configuration to improve the general ocean circulation in the North Pacific and its marginal seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Patrick; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-04-01

    The sub-Arctic oceans like the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea, the Labrador Sea or the Greenland- Irminger-Norwegian (GIN) Sea react particularly sensitive to global climate changes and have the potential to reversely regulate climate change by CO2 uptake in the other areas of the world. So far, the natural processes in the Arctic and Subarctic system, especially over the Pacific realm, remain poorly understood in terms of numerical modeling. As such, in this study we focus on the North Pacific and its adjacent marginal seas (e.g. the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of Japan), which have nowadays a significant role in the climate system of the Northwest Pacific by influencing the atmospheric and oceanic circulation as well as the hydrology of the Pacific water masses. The Sea of Okhotsk, in particular, is characterized by a highly dynamical sea-ice coverage, where, in autumn and winter, due to massive sea ice formation and brine rejection, the Sea of Okhotsk Intermediate Water (SOIW) is formed which contributes to the mid-depth (500-1000m) water layer of the North Pacific known as newly formed North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW). By employing a Finite-Element Sea-Ice Ocean Model (FESOM), in a global configuration, but with high resolution over the marginal seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean ( 7 km), we tested different meshes and forcing improvements to correct the general ocean circulation in the North Pacific realm towards a more realistic pattern. By using different forcing data (e.g. CORE2, ERA-40/interim, CCMP-correction), adapting the mesh resolutions in the tropical and subtropical North Pacific and changing the bathymetry over important inflow straits (e.g. Amukta Passage, Kruzenstern Strait), we show that the better results are obtained (when compared with observational data) via a combination of CCMP corrected COREv2 forcing with increased resolution in the pathway of the Kuroshio Extension Current and Northern Equatorial Current.

  1. Western Pacific atmospheric nutrient deposition fluxes, their impact on surface ocean productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M.; Hamilton, D.; Baker, A. R.; Jickells, T. D.; Bromley, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Quack, B.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-07-01

    The atmospheric deposition of both macronutrients and micronutrients plays an important role in driving primary productivity, particularly in the low-latitude ocean. We report aerosol major ion measurements for five ship-based sampling campaigns in the western Pacific from ~25°N to 20°S and compare the results with those from Atlantic meridional transects (~50°N to 50°S) with aerosols collected and analyzed in the same laboratory, allowing full incomparability. We discuss sources of the main nutrient species (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe)) in the aerosols and their stoichiometry. Striking north-south gradients are evident over both basins with the Northern Hemisphere more impacted by terrestrial dust sources and anthropogenic emissions and the North Atlantic apparently more impacted than the North Pacific. We estimate the atmospheric supply rates of these nutrients and the potential impact of the atmospheric deposition on the tropical western Pacific. Our results suggest that the atmospheric deposition is P deficient relative to the needs of the resident phytoplankton. These findings suggest that atmospheric supply of N, Fe, and P increases primary productivity utilizing some of the residual excess phosphorus (P*) in the surface waters to compensate for aerosol P deficiency. Regional primary productivity is further enhanced via the stimulation of nitrogen fixation fuelled by the residual atmospheric iron and P*. Our stoichiometric calculations reveal that a P* of 0.1 µmol L-1 can offset the P deficiency in atmospheric supply for many months. This study suggests that atmospheric deposition may sustain ~10% of primary production in both the western tropical Pacific.

  2. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Haigh

    Full Text Available As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA. Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC, sport (recreational fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry. Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated, little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  3. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID

  4. Distributions and Sources of Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) over the Tropical Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Gray, B. A.; Gu, D.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Bandy, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfur chemistry in the marine atmosphere is critical to the production of sulfate aerosols, which play an important role in the climate system. Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) is a major yet not well studied oxidation product of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is emitted from the ocean. In this study, gas-phase MSA was measured in the lower troposphere over the tropical Pacific on the NCAR C-130 aircraft during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE). A 1-dimensional chemical transport model (REAM) was used to analyze the vertical profiles of MSA driven by chemistry and turbulent transport. The observed vertical profiles of MSA revealed two remarkable features. First, the measured MSA concentration was enhanced near the ocean surface, decreasing rapidly in the boundary layer from the surface to ~600 m. The model analysis suggests that this sharp gradient cannot be explained by the OH oxidation of DMS or the oxidation by a reasonable level of BrO near the surface. The gradient would imply an unidentified MSA source of 4.0×10 7 molecule/cm2/s close to the ocean surface. Secondly, a large peak of MSA was observed in the lower free troposphere (FT, 1000~2000m). The MSA concentration in the lower FT was an order of magnitude larger than that in the boundary and buffer layers. The anti-correlation between the lower FT MSA concentration and relative humidity (RH) suggests that the enhancement in gas-phase MSA is related to the dehydration of aerosols due to the decreased RH at higher altitudes. The dehydrated aerosols in lower FT lose their capacity to take up gaseous MSA. In addition, our model analysis suggests that a fraction (10-20%) of aerosol-phase MSA must degas from dry aerosols to reproduce the observed vertical profile. The degassing mechanism provides a source of 1.2×10 7 molecule/cm2/s of MSA to the lower free troposphere.

  5. Biological N2O fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and marine cyanobacterial cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Farías

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth's system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2 under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON. N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L(-1 d(- to 14.8 nmol N L(-1 d(-1 (mean ± SE of 0.522 ± 1.06 nmol N L(-1 d(-1, n = 93. Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101, and Crocosphaera (W-8501 have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029. The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N.

  6. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2015-12-17 to 2016-01-13 (NCEI Accession 0157011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1992-11-01 to 1992-12-08 (NODC Accession 0115024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115024 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAMES CLARK ROSS in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern Oceans from 2011-02-19 to 2011-04-23 (NODC Accession 0109933)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0109933 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from NATHANIEL B. PALMER in the South Atlantic Ocean, South Pacific Ocean and Southern...

  9. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Rahn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this work we study the day-to-day variability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MBL over the subtropical southeast Pacific using primarily results from a numerical simulation that covered the whole VOCALS-REx period (October–November 2008. In situ and satellite-derived observations of the MBL height in the offshore region indicate rapid, significant variations (from 500 m to 1700 m a.s.l. over a few days during October. These MBL changes are connected with the passage of midlatitude troughs that altered the large-scale environment over the VOCALS-REx region. In contrast, the synoptic forcing and MBL changes were less prominent during November. Modelled and observed MBL depth at Point Omega (20° S, 85° W compare quite well during October (but the simulation is on average 200 m lower while in November the simulation does not perform as well.

    In the prognostic local MBL height equation the height change, the horizontal MBL height advection, and the large scale vertical velocity at MBL top are calculated explicitly from the simulation. The entrainment velocity is calculated as the residual of the other terms in the equation. While the vertical velocity and residual terms are opposing and generally have the largest magnitude on average, it is the variability in the advection that explains most of the large changes in the MBL depth. Examination of several cases during VOCALS-REx suggests that the advective term is in turn largely controlled by changes in wind direction, driven by midlatitude activity, acting on a MBL that generally slopes down toward the coast. In one phase, the subtropical anticyclone is reinforced and extends toward the Chilean coast, leading to easterly wind that advects low MBL heights from the coast as far as Point Omega. The opposite phase occurs after the passage of an extratropical cyclone over southern Chile, leading to southwesterly wind that advects a deeper MBL towards subtropical

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS CURTS using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Pacific Ocean from 02 June 1988 to 19 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8800215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS CURTS in the Northeast / Northwest Pacific Ocean and TOGA Area - Pacific...

  11. Forecasting Ocean Acidification in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecki, S. A.; Alin, S. R.; Feely, R. A.; Hermann, A. J.; Bednarsek, N.; Nguyen, T.; Officer, S.; Kaplan, I.; Bond, N.; Newton, J.; Fisher, J. L.; Morgan, C.; Saenger, C.

    2016-12-01

    Acidification of coastal waters is of increasing concern to local fisheries. Many economically or ecologically important species (oysters, crabs, phytoplankton, zooplankton) in the Pacific Northwest are expected to feel direct effects of ocean acidification. Direct effects have been observed on the $100 million shellfish industry, and additional indirect economic impacts are possible on the finfish industry due to a loss of prey species. The ability to predict the degree of acidification as well as relevant indices of impact for species of interest could be of considerable benefit to managers. An experimental seasonal ocean prediction system, JISAO's Seasonal Coastal Ocean Prediction of the Ecosystem (J-SCOPE), has recently been developed and assessed for the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest (Siedlecki et al. 2016; Kaplan et al. 2016). The goal has been to provide seasonal (six month) predictions of ocean conditions that are testable and relevant to management decisions for fisheries, protected species, and ecosystem health components. The output from this model (http://www.nanoos.org/products/j-scope/home.php/) include products relevant to the Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (e.g. forecasts of ecological indicators) for the California Current System. In this work, we have expanded the scope of our seasonal oceanographic forecasts from J-SCOPE to explicitly include acidification, and developed new acidification indices from model output, relevant to biological impacts (e.g. severity index for shellfish and pteropods, and a habitat map for crab megalopae). The model is able to reproduce and forecast the seasonal change in corrosive water observed in the region, over the simulated time periods. The volume of undersaturated water increases over the upwelling season, occupying more of the water column later in the upwelling season. This results in increasingly stressful conditions over most of the water column for biota on the shelf as the upwelling season

  12. The specific features of pollution spread in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianskii, N. A.; Gusev, A. V.; Fomin, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    We present two calculations of pollutant dispersal in the Pacific Ocean: (1) during possible ship-wrecks in the process of spent nuclear fuel transportation from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and (2) pollutant spread from the Japanese coast after the Fukushima-1 nuclear disaster on March 11, 2011. The circulation was calculated using a σ model of ocean hydrothermodynamics developed at the Institute of Numerical Mathematics (INM), Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); it is adapted to cover the Pacific Ocean basin from the equator to the Bering Strait with a high (1/8)° spatial resolution and it is capable of reproducing the mesoscale ocean variations. The pollutant dispersal in the case of possible shipwrecks was estimated for currents characteristic for a statistically average year with atmospheric forcing in accordance with the so-called normal CORE year data. The pollution spread from the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) was estimated by calculating the circulation with the real atmospheric forcing in accordance with the NCEP analysis data obtained from the Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. It is noteworthy that a simplified assimilation of the observed sea surface temperature (SST) was performed. In both cases the currents were calculated simultaneously with the transport calculation of the pollutant as a passive admixture, which corresponds to a real-time calculation of pollutant transport. A map analysis of pollution dispersal shows that the horizontal transport is substantially more intense in the upper ocean layers than in deep ones. Therefore, like in the North branch of Kuroshio, pollutants can be delivered to the deep layers not through deep-water horizontal transport, but rather as a result of vertical downwelling from the already contaminated upper layers. However, the complex three-dimensional structure of the horizontal and vertical transport may lead to reverse situations. A calculation of pollution transport from the Fukushima-1 NPP showed that

  13. Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to a Remote Islet in the Subtropical Northwest Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, G.; Lin, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thirty-four weekly rainwater samples were collected in 2009 at Pengjiayu, a remote islet in the subtropical Northwest (NW) Pacific Ocean with an area of 1.14 km^2, to study the distribution of rainwater mercury (Hg) concentrations and associated wet deposition fluxes. This is the first study concerning wet Hg deposition to the subtropical NW Pacific Ocean downwind of the East Asian continent, which is the major source region for Hg emissions worldwide. Sample Hg concentrations ranged from 2.25 to 22.33 ng L^-1, with a volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of 8.85 ng L^-1. The annual wet Hg deposition flux was 10.18 μg m^-2, about 2.5 times the fluxes measured at sites on the Pacific coast of the USA, supporting the hypothesis that deposition is higher in the western than in the eastern Pacific. Seasonal VWM concentrations were 7.23, 11.58, 7.82, and 9.84 ng L^-1, whereas seasonal wet deposition fluxes were 2.14, 3.45, 2.38, and 2.21 μg m^-2, for spring, summer, fall and winter, respectively. Higher summer wet Hg deposition was a function of both higher rainwater Hg concentration and greater rainfall. The seasonal pattern of rainwater Hg concentrations was the opposite of the general seasonal pattern of the East Asian air pollutant export. Since there is no significant anthropogenic Hg emission source on the islet of Pengjiayu, the observed high summertime rainwater Hg concentration hints at the importance of Hg(0) oxidation and/or scavenging of upper-altitude reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) by deep convection. Direct anthropogenic RGM emissions from the East Asian continent may not contribute significantly to the rainwater Hg concentrations, but anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions could be transported to the upper troposphere or marine boundary layer where they can be oxidized to produce RGM, which will then be effectively scavenged by cloud water and rainwater.

  14. Atlantic and Pacific Ocean synergistic forcing of the Mesomerican monsoon over the last two millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Bernal, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new replicated, high resolution (~2 yrs) and precisely-dated (± 4 yr) wet season hydroclimate reconstruction for the Mesoamerican sector of the North American Monsoon over the past 2250 years. Our new reconstruction is based on two aragonite stalagmites from southwestern Mexico which replicate oxygen isotope variations over the 950-1950 CE interval, and are calibrated to instrumental rainfall variations in the Basin of Mexico. Such data complement existing dendroclimatic reconstructions of early wet season and winter drought severity. Comparisons to indices of ocean-atmosphere circulation show a combined forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. Monsoon strengthening coincided with synergistic forcing of a La Niña-like mode and a negative North Atlantic Oscillation, and vice versa for droughts. Although drought is commonly invoked as an stressor leading to societal change, the role of intensified monsoon onto cultural development is rarely explored. We observe that prominent transitions from drought to pluvial conditions are associated with population increases in three of the major highland Mexico civilizations of Teotihuacan, Tula Grande, and the Aztecs. These data suggest a role for ocean-atmosphere dynamics arising from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans on Mesoamerican monsoon strength.

  15. Steroid geochemistry in the oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeham, Stuart G.

    1987-11-01

    Particulate matter was collected in the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean, an area characterized by a shallow and intense oxygen minimum zone, in order to investigate the geochemistry of particulate organic matter in the ocean. Sinking, large particles and suspended, small particles were analyzed for sterols, 3-ketosteroids, 3-methoxy-steroids and sterenes. Vertical fluxes of steroid classes in sinking particles and concentrations of steroids in suspended particles decreased rapidly below the euphotic zone consistent with upper ocean sources and deep water decomposition. Significant compositional changes were observed with increasing depth and as a function of particle size. Sinking particles were enriched in C 27-Sterols but deficient in C 28 and C 29-sterols compared to the suspended particles. Suspended particles, especially in the oxygen minimum zone, were enriched in steroidal ketones and sterenes compared to sinking particles. Steroid distributions suggest that the oxygen minimum zone is the site of active "diagenetic" transformations, most likely microbially-mediated, of stenols to steroidal ketones, stanols and sterenes. These transformations occur preferentially in suspended particles relative to sinking particles.

  16. Observed Marine Debris in the Pacific Ocean 00e2?? Victoria to Maui 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race in July 2012. These observations are organized according to the following map layers: Family Affairs Observations, Fleet Debris Levels, Return Vessels Special Reports, Roll Call Debris Data-Race, Special Report Debris-Race, Vessel Specific Observations, and Return Vessel Specific Levels Observations.The March, 2011 tsunami that affected northern Japan washed enormous amounts of debris out to sea. While most of this debris sank quickly out at sea, much remains on the surface and by ocean current and wind is working its way across the Pacific Ocean. In early days, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) could track the debris slick by satellite, but by early 2012, the debris had become too dispersed to track. News stories have reported containers with motorcycles on Haida Gwaii, whole fishing boats in Alaska, and sections of concrete dock in Oregon. Recent reports are about the struggles of local governments to deal with cleaning up and disposing of flotsam washing up on local beaches.

  17. Detection of Pu in Pacific Ocean water with AMS related to the Fukushima accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, Karin; Faestermann, Thomas; Fimiani, Leticia; Guzman, Jose Manuel; Korschinek, Gunther; Kortmann, Florian; Lierse v Gostomski, Christoph; Ludwig, Peter [TUM (Germany); Golser, Robin; Steier, Peter [Universitaet Wien (Austria); Yamada, Masatoshi [Hirosaki University (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    The concentration of plutonium (Pu) and its isotopic ratios were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Pacific Ocean water samples. The isotopic ratios {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu/{sup 239}Pu can be used to identify a possible release of Pu into the ocean by the Fukushima accident. {sup 241}Pu from fallout of nuclear weapon testings has already significantly decayed. {sup 241}Am, the daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, causes isobaric background on {sup 241}Pu in mass-spectrometric measurements. Therefore, Am and Pu had to be separated chemically using extraction chromatography. The method was verified by analyzing certified reference material. 12 sea water samples, collected at different depths, were prepared at the Radiochemie Muenchen. The concentration of Pu was measured with AMS at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich and the Vienna Environmental Research Laboratory (VERA). After a short motivation related to the Fukushima accident, the chemical separation method will be presented. Preliminary results of the distribution of Pu in ocean water will be discussed.

  18. Ocean feedback on tropical cyclone intensity in a multidecadal coupled simulation of the South Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullien, Swen; Marchesiello, Patrick; Menkes, Christophe; Lefevre, Jérôme; Jourdain, Nicolas; Lengaigne, Matthieu; Samson, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    Tropical cyclone (TC)-ocean interactions are essential for cyclone formation and evolution. Surface cooling is observed in the cyclone wake and is expected to exert a negative feedback to the storm intensity. Its quantification is assessed with a coupled regional model of the southwest Pacific developed for present climate simulations at mesoscale resolution. The feedback of the ocean response is investigated for the first time by comparing 20-year forced and coupled experiments. This provides statistically robust experiments filling a gap between coarse-resolution and short-term studies. The intensity distribution is significantly affected but the SST feedback is of moderate amplitude (5-15 hPa/Celsius) compared with theoretical models. Our analysis contradicts the direct thermodynamic control of TC intensification by surface moisture fluxes in favor of a storm-scale dynamic control. In addition, regional oceanography strongly modulates TC-ocean coupling. It is stronger in the Coral Sea that has shallow mixed layer and numerous eddies but extremely weak in the warm pool that has deep mixed layer, thick barrier layer and no mesoscale activity. These pre-conditions to SST cooling impact the TC distribution.

  19. In situ measurement of coastal ocean movements and survival of juvenile Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, David W; Melnychuk, Michael C; Payne, John C; Rechisky, Erin L; Porter, Aswea D; Jackson, George D; Ward, Bruce R; Vincent, Stephen P; Wood, Chris C; Semmens, Jayson

    2011-05-24

    Many salmon populations in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans have experienced sharply decreasing returns and high ocean mortality in the past two decades, with some populations facing extirpation if current marine survival trends continue. Our inability to monitor the movements of marine fish or to directly measure their survival precludes experimental tests of theories concerning the factors regulating fish populations, and thus limits scientific advance in many aspects of fisheries management and conservation. Here we report a large-scale synthesis of survival and movement rates of free-ranging juvenile salmon across four species, 13 river watersheds, and 44 release groups of salmon smolts (>3,500 fish tagged in total) in rivers and coastal ocean waters, including an assessment of where mortality predominantly occurs during the juvenile migration. Of particular importance, our data indicate that, over the size range of smolts tagged, (i) smolt survival was not strongly related to size at release, (ii) tag burden did not appear to strongly reduce the survival of smaller animals, and (iii) for at least some populations, substantial mortality occurred much later in the migration and more distant from the river of origin than generally expected. Our findings thus have implications for determining where effort should be invested to improve the accuracy of salmon forecasting, to understand the mechanisms driving salmon declines, and to predict the impact of climate change on salmon stocks.

  20. Trophic ecology of sharks in the mid-east pacific ocean inferred from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Gong, Yi; Chen, Xinjun; Dai, Xiaojie; Zhu, Jiangfeng

    2013-11-01

    As apex predators, sharks are of ecological and conservation importance in marine ecosystems. In this study, trophic positions of sharks were estimated using stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen for five representative species caught by the Chinese longline fleet in the mid-east Pacific, i.e., the blue shark (Prionace glauca), the bigeye thresher shark (Alopias superciliosus), the silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis), the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), and the oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus). Of these species, oceanic whitetip shark has the lowest trophic level and mean δ15N value (3.9 and 14.93‰ ± 0.84‰), whereas bigeye thresher shark has the highest level/values (4.5 and 17.02‰ ± 1.21‰, respectively). The bigeye thresher shark has significantly higher δ15N value than other shark species, indicating its higher trophic position. The blue shark and oceanic whitetip shark has significantly higher δ13C values than bigeye thresher shark, silky shark and scalloped hammerhead, possibly due to different diets and/or living habitats. The stable isotope data and stomach content data are highly consistent, suggesting that stable isotope analysis supplements traditional feeding ecology study of sharks, and thus contributes to understanding their trophic linkage.

  1. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORING_TAO165E0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-02-23 to 2013-02-03 (NODC Accession 0113238)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113238 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORING_TAO165E0N in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific...

  2. On the Upper Ocean Thermal Structure in a Western North Pacific Ocean Model: Model Evaluation and Sensitivity Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mien-Tze Kueh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variations in the upper water column of the western North Pacific are simulated with the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS. The model is driven by surface fluxes of heat, momentum and freshwater without prescribing sea surface temperature or salinity. A series of numerical experiments are conducted to explore the sensitivity of the upper ocean thermal structure to the parameterized solar penetration scheme and two common practices to control model climate through a flux correction term and a nudging term. The absorption of solar radiation by the water column beneath the sea surface destabilizes the upper layers to cause a stronger mixing and deeper mixed layer in the warm season (from April to September. Therefore, removing solar penetration from the model results in an exceptionally stable surface layer, and tends to produce an overly shallow mixed layer in the warm season. The experiment with a prescribed net surface heat flux shows that the model is unable to maintain a heat balance in the upper water column, producing a cooling trend. Experiments with a flux correction term are able to keep the simulated sea surface temperature (SST from a long term drift by adjusting the amount of the net surface heat flux. However, unrealistic net surface heat flux is produced in the experiment, when the model assumes no solar penetration. The implementation of a weak temperature nudging (1/50 days toward a long term mean climatology prevents the model from simulating a cold bias during long term integration. The experiment with solar penetration and a weak nudging produces reasonable interannual variability during the period of 1995 - 2006 without flux corrections. The nudging terms steer advective heat fluxes towards the climatological mean state so as to avoid long-term drift in upper water column heat content. A detailed understanding of the function of nudging terms in controlling the hydrodynamics of the water column remains to be

  3. Characteristics of fin whale vocalizations recorded on instruments in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirathmueller, Maria Michelle Josephine

    This thesis focuses on fin whale vocalizations recorded on ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, using data collected between 2003 and 2013. OBSs are a valuable, and largely untapped resource for the passive acoustic monitoring of large baleen whales. This dissertation is divided into three parts, each of which uses the recordings of fin whale vocalizations to better understand their calling behaviors and distributions. The first study describes the development of a technique to extract source levels of fin whale vocalizations from OBS recordings. Source levels were estimated using data collected on a network of eight OBSs in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. The acoustic pressure levels measured at the instruments were adjusted for the propagation path between the calling whales and the instruments using the call location and estimating losses along the acoustic travel path. A total of 1241 calls were used to estimate an average source level of 189 +/-5.8 dB re 1uPa 1m. This variability is largely attributed to uncertainties in the horizontal and vertical position of the fin whale at the time of each call, and the effect of these uncertainties on subsequent calculations. The second study describes a semi-automated method for obtaining horizontal ranges to vocalizing fin whales using the timing and relative amplitude of multipath arrivals. A matched filter is used to detect fin whale calls and pick the relative times and amplitudes of multipath arrivals. Ray-based propagation models are used to predict multipath times and amplitudes as function of range. Because the direct and first multiple arrivals are not always observed, three hypotheses for the paths of the observed arrivals are considered; the solution is the hypothesis and range that optimizes the fit to the data. Ray-theoretical amplitudes are not accurate and solutions are improved by determining amplitudes from the observations using a bootstrap method. Data from ocean bottom

  4. Effects of ocean-atmosphere coupling on rainfall over the Indian Ocean and northwestern Pacific Ocean during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. Q.; Xie, S. P.; Zhou, W.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM), forced with specified SST, has been widely used in climate studies. On one hand, AGCM is much faster to run compared to coupled general circulation model (CGCM). Also, the identical SST forcing allows a clean evaluation of the atmospheric component of CGCM. On the other hand, the coupling between atmosphere and ocean is missed in such atmosphere-only simulations. It is not clear how such simplification could affect the simulate of the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of ocean-atmosphere coupling is studied by comparing a CGCM simulation with an AGCM simulation which is forced with monthly SSTs specified from the CGCM simulation. Particularly, we focus on the climatology and interannual variability of rainfall over the IONWP during boreal summer. The IONWP is a unique region with a strong negative correlation between sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall during boreal summer on the interannual time scale. The lead/lag correlation analysis suggests a negative feedback of rainfall on SST, which is only reasonably captured by CGCMs. We find that the lack of the negative feedback in AGCM not only enhances the climatology and interannual variability of rainfall but also increases the internal variability of rainfall over the IONWP. A simple mechanism is proposed to explain such enhancement. In addition, AGCM is able to capture the large-scale rainfall pattern over the IONWP during boreal summer, this is because that rainfall here is caused by remote ENSO effect on the interannual time scale. Our results herein suggest that people should be more careful when using an AGCM for climate change studies.

  5. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified...

  6. 33 CFR 334.910 - Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. 334.910 Section 334.910... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.910 Pacific Ocean, Camp Pendleton Boat Basin, U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, Calif.; restricted area. (a) The area. All of the waters of Camp Pendleton Boat...

  7. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certifi...... in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1420 - Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Orote Point, Apra Harbor, Island of Guam, Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. 334.1420 Section 334.1420..., Marianas Islands; small arms firing range. (a) The danger zone. The waters within an area delineated by a...

  9. Understanding Pacific Ocean influence on interannual precipitation variability in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomposi, Catherine; Giannini, Alessandra; Kushnir, Yochanan; Lee, Dong Eun

    2016-09-01

    Moisture budget decomposition is performed for the Sahel (10°-20°N and 20°W-40°E) in order to understand the processes that govern regional hydroclimate variability on interannual time scales and frame them in the context of their primary ocean driver. Results show that warm conditions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific remotely force anomalously dry conditions primarily through affecting the low-troposphere mass divergence field. This behavior is related to increased subsidence over the tropical Atlantic and into the Sahel and an anomalous westward flow of moisture from the continent, both resulting in a coherent drying pattern. Understanding the physical processes relating remote sea surface temperature anomalies to atmospheric circulation changes and the resulting complex local convergence patterns is important for advancing seasonal prediction of precipitation over West Africa.

  10. Ingestion of plastic marine debris by longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox) in the North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Lesley A; Morishige, Carey L; Bruland, Gregory L; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2013-04-15

    Plastic marine debris affects species on most trophic levels, including pelagic fish. While plastic debris ingestion has been investigated in planktivorous fish in the North Pacific Ocean, little knowledge exists on piscivorous fish. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of occurrence and the composition of ingested plastic marine debris in longnose lancetfish (Alepisaurus ferox), a piscivorous fish species captured in the Hawaii-based pelagic longline fishery. Nearly a quarter (47 of 192) of A. ferox sampled contained plastic marine debris, primarily in the form of plastic fragments (51.9%). No relationship existed between size (silhouette area) or amount of plastic marine debris ingested and morphometrics of A. ferox. Although A. ferox are not consumed by humans, they are common prey for fish commercially harvested for human consumption. Further research is needed to determine residence time of ingested plastic marine debris and behavior of toxins associated with plastic debris. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Icefield-to-ocean linkages across the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Hood, Eran; Bidlack, Allison L.; Fleming, Sean W.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Arendt, Anthony; Burgess, Evan W.; Sergeant, Christopher J.; Beaudreau, Anne E.; Timm, Kristin; Hayward, Gregory D.; Reynolds, Joel H.; Pyare, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Rates of glacier mass loss in the northern Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) are among the highest on Earth, and changes in glacier volume and extent will affect the flow regime and chemistry of coastal rivers, as well as the nearshore marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Alaska. Here we synthesize physical, chemical and biological linkages that characterize the northern PCTR ecosystem, with particular emphasis on the potential impacts of glacier change in the coastal mountain ranges on the surface–water hydrology, biogeochemistry, coastal oceanography and aquatic ecology. We also evaluate the relative importance and interplay between interannual variability and long-term trends in key physical drivers and ecological responses. To advance our knowledge of the northern PCTR, we advocate for cross-disciplinary research bridging the icefield-to-ocean ecosystem that can be paired with long-term scientific records and designed to inform decisionmakers.

  12. Millennial-scale plankton regime shifts in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kelton W; McCarthy, Matthew D; Sherwood, Owen A; Larsen, Thomas; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2015-12-18

    Climate change is predicted to alter marine phytoplankton communities and affect productivity, biogeochemistry, and the efficacy of the biological pump. We reconstructed high-resolution records of changing plankton community composition in the North Pacific Ocean over the past millennium. Amino acid-specific δ(13)C records preserved in long-lived deep-sea corals revealed three major plankton regimes corresponding to Northern Hemisphere climate periods. Non-dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (950-1250 Common Era) before giving way to a new regime in which eukaryotic microalgae contributed nearly half of all export production during the Little Ice Age (~1400-1850 Common Era). The third regime, unprecedented in the past millennium, began in the industrial era and is characterized by increasing production by dinitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. This picoplankton community shift may provide a negative feedback to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Exotic outcross between late Miocene polycystine radiolaria from the central equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Robert M.

    1985-09-01

    Sphaerospyris? sp. is a unique megalocephalic nassellarian that has been studied in two piston cores from the central equatorial Pacific Ocean. This large morph first appeared about 9.5 Ma (near the top of the Diartus petterssoni Biozone) and had its last occurrence about 6.5 Ma (near the base of the Dimymocyrtis penultimus Biozone). There is no descendant lineage. The species was not found in time-equivalent recovery from Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 65, 77, 83, and 289. The rare and somewhat sporadic occurrence of Sphaerospyris? sp. is attributed to hybridization between Acanthosphaera? sp. (Spumellarida) and Nephrospyris leibnitziana (Nassellarida). Skeletal characters of the parent species appear to have been exchanged through the process of introgression, which was the most important evolutionary agent in these lineages. The introduction of new morphological variants by introgression may have general significance in pelagic plankton communities.

  14. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  15. Climatic forcing of Quaternary deep-sea benthic communities in the North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Hokanishi, N.; Kawahata, H.; Tsujimoto, Akira; Ishitake, M.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that changes in deep-sea benthic ecosystems are modulated by climate changes, but most evidence to date comes from the North Atlantic Ocean. Here we analyze new ostracod and published foraminiferal records for the last 250,000 years on Shatsky Rise in the North Pacific Ocean. Using linear models, we evaluate statistically the ability of environmental drivers (temperature, productivity, and seasonality of productivity) to predict changes in faunal diversity, abundance, and composition. These microfossil data show glacial-interglacial shifts in overall abundances and species diversities that are low during glacial intervals and high during interglacials. These patterns replicate those previously documented in the North Atlantic Ocean, suggesting that the climatic forcing of the deep-sea ecosystem is widespread, and possibly global in nature. However, these results also reveal differences with prior studies that probably reflect the isolated nature of Shatsky Rise as a remote oceanic plateau. Ostracod assemblages on Shatsky Rise are highly endemic but of low diversity, consistent with the limited dispersal potential of these animals. Benthic foraminifera, by contrast, have much greater dispersal ability and their assemblages at Shatsky Rise show diversities typical for deep-sea faunas in other regions. Statistical analyses also reveal ostracod-foraminferal differences in relationships between environmental drivers and biotic change. Rarefied diversity is best explained as a hump-shaped function of surface productivity in ostracods, but as having a weak and positive relationship with temperature in foraminifera. Abundance shows a positive relationship with both productivity and seasonality of productivity in foraminifera, and a hump-shaped relationship with productivity in ostracods. Finally, species composition in ostracods is influenced by both temperature and productivity, but only a temperature effect is evident in foraminifera. Though

  16. Oceanographic profile data collected from sound velocimeter - moving vessel profiler casts aboard Pacific Storm as part of project M-M928-KR-09 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2009-08-07 to 2009-09-23 (NCEI Accession 0130793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0130793 includes physical and profile data collected aboard the Pacific Storm during project M-M928-KR-09 in the North Pacific Ocean from 2009-08-07...

  17. Scales of Spatial Heterogeneity of Plastic Marine Debris in the Northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Miriam C.; Titmus, Andrew J.; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch,” has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20–40°N, 120–155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m−2 and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m−2, but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm2. Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  18. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam C Goldstein

    Full Text Available Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG, colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2 and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2, but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km. Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2. Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial

  19. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast pacific ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Miriam C; Titmus, Andrew J; Ford, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris has been documented in many marine ecosystems, including remote coastlines, the water column, the deep sea, and subtropical gyres. The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG), colloquially called the "Great Pacific Garbage Patch," has been an area of particular scientific and public concern. However, quantitative assessments of the extent and variability of plastic in the NPSG have been limited. Here, we quantify the distribution, abundance, and size of plastic in a subset of the eastern Pacific (approximately 20-40°N, 120-155°W) over multiple spatial scales. Samples were collected in Summer 2009 using surface and subsurface plankton net tows and quantitative visual observations, and Fall 2010 using surface net tows only. We documented widespread, though spatially variable, plastic pollution in this portion of the NPSG and adjacent waters. The overall median microplastic numerical concentration in Summer 2009 was 0.448 particles m(-2) and in Fall 2010 was 0.021 particles m(-2), but plastic concentrations were highly variable over the submesoscale (10 s of km). Size-frequency spectra were skewed towards small particles, with the most abundant particles having a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.01 cm(2). Most microplastic was found on the sea surface, with the highest densities detected in low-wind conditions. The numerical majority of objects were small particles collected with nets, but the majority of debris surface area was found in large objects assessed visually. Our ability to detect high-plastic areas varied with methodology, as stations with substantial microplastic did not necessarily also contain large visually observable objects. A power analysis of our data suggests that high variability of surface microplastic will make future changes in abundance difficult to detect without substantial sampling effort. Our findings suggest that assessment and monitoring of oceanic plastic debris must account for high spatial variability

  20. Climate Change, Pacific Ocean and Land Use Influences on Los Angeles' Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelin, B.; Hsu, F.; LaDochy, S.; Ramirez, P. C.; Ye, H.; Sequera, P.; Gonzalez, J.; McDonald, K.; Patzert, W. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Los Angeles urban heat island (UHI) is a complex entity that is changing in time, space and intensity. The major influences on its characteristics appear to be population, landuse, and Pacific Ocean variability. Since 1950, the city of Los Angeles has nearly tripled in population from 1,333,300 to 3,792,621 in 2010. The downtown skyline has also changed as more high-rises replace lower density buildings and parking lots. Downtown average temperatures have increased rapidly, rising over 3oC in the last century. Tmin values have increased faster than Tmax similar to other UHI cities. However the Los Angeles UHI is unique among most cities, with its complex terrain and dominant land/sea breeze circulations. Also, the city is part of a regional megalopolis, where the surrounding rural areas are distant and ill-defined, in contrast to most UHIs. Our study looks at the diurnal and seasonal patterns in the urban thermal regime and how they have changed over recent decades. Temporal changes in land use, particularly vegetation, coastal sea surface temperatures, Pacific climatic indices such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and coastal upwelling all seem to contribute to the changes in city temperatures. The PDO especially correlates well with Los Angeles temperatures. The spatial changes in an UHI are described combining surface met data and aircraft remote sensing, using the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and the MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensors at spatial resolutions of 30 and 50 m, respectively. In our study recent sea breeze enhancement will be investigated in its influence on coastal cooling. Implications of the role of the intensifying UHI in the increases in Los Angeles heat waves will also be discussed.

  1. Scaling wind stirring effects in an oceanic bulk mixed layer model with application to an OGCM of the tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuchao; Zhang, Rong-Hua

    2017-11-01

    The mixed layer depth (MLD) plays an important role in the climate system through its influences on sea surface temperature (SST). The Kraus-Turner-Niiler (hereafter referred to as KTN) bulk mixed layer (ML) model is designed for describing the MLD and has been adopted widely by many ocean modeling. However, large biases exist in the MLD simulation using the original KTN model in the tropical Pacific. This is partly due to the uncertainties in representing wind stirring effect in the model, which is scaled by a parameter (m 0). Traditionally, m 0 is taken as a constant uniformly in space. In this study, the m 0 is estimated as spatially and seasonally varying through its inverse calculation from a balance equation describing the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget of the ML. It is illustrated that the m 0 is spatially varying over the tropical Pacific. The derived m 0 fields are then embedded into an ocean general circulation model (OGCM). Compared with the observations and the global ocean data assimilation system (GODAS) analyses, the MLD simulations in the OGCM with varying m 0 are substantially improved in the tropical Pacific Ocean on seasonal and interannual time scales. Additionally, the Pacific subtropical cells (STCs) become intensified, accompanied with the strengthening of upwelling in the eastern equatorial Pacific; thus, more realistic simulations are obtained in spatially and seasonally varying m 0 case compared with the constant m 0 case. As the related cooling effect from the upwelling is enhanced, the simulated SST is slightly cooled down in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Further applications and implications are also discussed.

  2. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  3. Distributions of dissolved and particulate biogenic thiols in the subartic Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Christopher L.; Moffett, James. W.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Ahner, Beth A.

    2006-12-01

    Dissolved and particulate concentrations of the biogenic thiols cysteine (Cys), arginine-cysteine (Arg-Cys), glutamine-cysteine (Gln-Cys), γ-glutamate-cysteine ( γ-Glu-Cys) and glutathione (GSH) were measured in the subartic Pacific Ocean in the summer of 2003 using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with precolumn derivatization as reported in previous work. In this study, a preconcentration protocol for the derivatized thiols was utilized to extend detection limits of dissolved thiols to picomolar levels. The measured concentrations of particulate and dissolved thiols were uncoupled, with distinctive depth profiles and large differences in the particulate to dissolved ratios between individual compounds. Glutathione was the most abundant particulate thiol whereas the most abundant dissolved thiol was γ-Glu-Cys, with concentrations as high as 15 nM. Given the relatively small pool of intracellular γ-Glu-Cys and the very low dissolved concentrations of GSH, we hypothesize that glutathione released from cells is rapidly converted to the potentially degradation resistant γ-Glu-Cys outside the cell. The relatively high concentrations of other dissolved thiols compared to particulate concentrations implies both biological exudation and slow degradation rates. Some thiols appear to vary with changes in nutrient availability but this effect is difficult to decouple from changes in community structure inferred from pigment analyses. Dissolved thiol concentrations also exceed typical metal concentrations in the subartic Pacific, supporting previous arguments that they may be important in metal speciation.

  4. Horizontal distribution of Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kitamura

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of the 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and the ensuing tsunami on 11 March 2011, inflicted heavy damage on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP1. Fission products were emitted, falling over a broad range in the Northern Hemisphere, and water contaminated with radionuclides leaked into the ocean. In this study, we described the horizontal distribution of the Fukushima-derived radiocesium in zooplankton and in seawater in the western North Pacific Ocean (500–2100 km from the FNPP1 10 months after the accident. 134Cs and 137Cs were detected in zooplankton and seawater from all the stations. Because of its short half-life, the 134Cs detected in our samples could only be derived from the FNPP1 accident. The highest 137Cs activity in zooplankton was the same order of magnitude as it was one month after the accident, and average activity was one or two orders of magnitude higher than 137Cs activities observed before the accident around Japan. Horizontally, the radiocesium activity concentrations in zooplankton were high at around 25° N while those in surface seawater were high at around the transition area between the Kuroshio and the Oyashio currents (36–40° N. We observed subsurface radiocesium maxima in density range of the North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and the occurrence of many diel vertical migratory zooplankton. These suggested that the high activity concentrations in the subtropical zooplankton at around 25° N were connected to the subsurface radiocesium and active vertical migration of zooplankton. However, the high activity concentrations of radiocesium in subsurface seawater did not necessarily correlate with the higher radiocesium activity in zooplankton. Activity concentrations of radiocesium in zooplankton might be influenced not only by the environmental radiocesium activity concentrations but also by other factors, which are still unknown.

  5. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng

    2017-03-01

    V ariations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  6. Water exchange through the Kerama Gap estimated with a 25-year Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenzheng; Yu, Fei; Nan, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Variations in water exchange through the Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island) from 1979 to 2003 were estimated with the 0.08° Pacific HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). The model results show that the mean transport through the Kerama Gap (KGT) from the Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) was 2.1 Sv, which agrees well with the observed mean KGT (2.0 Sv) for 2009-2010. Over the time period examined, the monthly KGT varied from -10.9 Sv to 15.8 Sv and had a standard deviation of ± 5.0 Sv. The water mainly enters the ECS via the subsurface layer (300-500 m) along the northeastern slope of the Kerama Gap and mainly flows out of the ECS into the southwest of the Kerama Gap. The seasonal and interannual variations of the KGT and the Kuroshio upstream transport were negatively correlated. The Kuroshio upstream transport was largest in summer and smallest in autumn while the KGT was smallest in summer (1.02 Sv) and largest in spring (2.94 Sv) and autumn (2.44 Sv). The seasonal and interannual variations in the Kuroshio downstream (across the PN-line) transport differed significantly from the Kuroshio upstream transport but corresponded well with the KGT and the sum of the transport through the Kerama Gap and the Kuroshio upstream, which indicates that information about variation in the KGT is important for determining variation in the Kuroshio transport along the PN-line.

  7. Comparisons of The Habitat Utilization Of Top Predators In The Southern Ocean And The North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, D. P.; Robinson, P.; Huckstadt, L. E.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Northern and Southern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, M. leonina) separated some 4 MYA. While these congeners are physiologically very similar and thus have the potential to forage in similar ways they inhabit very different habitats. While southern elephant seals (SES) are distributed throughout the southern ocean, northern elephant seals (NES) are limited to the Northeast Pacific Ocean and range over lower latitudes than SES. In order to compare and contrast the physiological capability and response to different habitats we compared the foraging behavior of 167 adult female northern elephant seals (Año Nuevo and San Benitos Islands) and 55 southern elephant seals (Livingston Island, Antarctic Peninsula) using satellite telemetry and dive recorders. As expected both species carried out very similar dive depths (NES 509m ± 166 vs SES 345m±79) and dive durations (NES 23.0 min ± 6.7; SES 22.5 min ± 5.0). However, there were significant differences in their foraging pattern that we attribute to differences in the availability of continental shelf and suitable foraging habitat. While 85% of NES females foraged offshore, the dominant strategy for SES was benthic foraging on the continental shelf. Even with the differences in habitat, the fundamental components of their foraging patterns remained the same as when they foraged pelagically they both species relied on persistent large scale oceanographic features where mixing enhances productivity such as the North Pacific Transition zone (NES) and the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SES). Given the very different habitats and prey species consumed by these two species their overall foraging behavior is surprisingly similar suggesting that as a mesopelagic predator the elephant seal design is rather robust.

  8. Determining probability distribution of coherent integration time near 133 Hz and 1346 km in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesberger, John L

    2013-02-01

    The hypothesis tested is that internal gravity waves limit the coherent integration time of sound at 1346 km in the Pacific ocean at 133 Hz and a pulse resolution of 0.06 s. Six months of continuous transmissions at about 18 min intervals are examined. The source and receiver are mounted on the bottom of the ocean with timing governed by atomic clocks. Measured variability is only due to fluctuations in the ocean. A model for the propagation of sound through fluctuating internal waves is run without any tuning with data. Excellent resemblance is found between the model and data's probability distributions of integration time up to five hours.

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea and South Pacific Ocean from 2010-07-06 to 2010-08-22 (NODC Accession 0109921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0109921 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean, Philippine Sea...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-04-13 to 1993-06-11 (NODC Accession 0112228)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112228 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-07 to 1992-10-05 (NODC Accession 0112227)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112227 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  12. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the DANT and other platforms from the Pacific Ocean during the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project, 1975-02-06 to 1975-07-28 (NODC Accession 7700894)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, depth, and other data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from DANT and other platforms in the Pacific Ocean from February 6, 1975 to...

  13. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the JOHN V. VICKERS in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1992-08-16 to 1992-10-21 (NODC Accession 0115003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115003 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN V. VICKERS in the Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  14. Physical, chemical, and other data collected using meteorological sensors, secchi disk, and bottle casts from the Pacific Ocean as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / North Pacific Experiment (IDOE/NORPAX) project from 18 June 1976 to 14 June 1977 (NODC Accession 8100434)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, chemical, and other data were collected using meteorological sensors, secchi disk, and bottle casts in the Pacific Ocean. Data were collected from the...

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the L'ATALANTE in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-23 to 1994-10-29 (NODC Accession 0111870)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0111870 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from L'ATALANTE in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and South...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2008-06-17 to 2008-08-03 (NODC Accession 0112336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112336 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KEIFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1993-08-07 to 1993-10-05 (NODC Accession 0112229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112229 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HAKUREI MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and Calcium collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1979-04-01 to 1982-06-30 (NODC Accession 0000180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0000180 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 1999-09-17 to 1999-11-09 (NODC Accession 0115279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115279 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the North Pacific Ocean and South...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, Coulometer for DIC measurement and other instruments from the Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean and South Pacific Ocean from 2007-01-18 to 2007-03-12 (NODC Accession 0112294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112294 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Ryofu Maru II in the North Pacific Ocean and South...