WorldWideScience

Sample records for southbridge mass research

  1. Mass spectrometry in epigenetic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    cancers has gained tremendous interest in recent years, and many of these inhibitors are currently undergoing clinical trials. Despite intense research, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of action of these molecules remain, to a wide extent, unclear. The recent application of mass spectrometry...

  2. Mass spectrometry in life science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Stefan; Markgraf, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Investigating complex signatures of biomolecules by mass spectrometry approaches has become indispensable in molecular life science research. Nowadays, various mass spectrometry-based omics technologies are available to monitor qualitative and quantitative changes within hundreds or thousands of biological active components, including proteins/peptides, lipids and metabolites. These comprehensive investigations have the potential to decipher the pathophysiology of disease development at a molecular level and to monitor the individual response of pharmacological treatment or lifestyle intervention.

  3. Mass spectrometric researches in isotope cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, K.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of solar system processes, past and present, based on mass spectrometric researches on meteorites and moon samples are reviewed. The topics include the following : (1) Duration of nebular condensation, (2) Terminal stages of nucleosynthesis, (3) Planetary formation and evolution, (4) Heterogeneities in the solar nebula and (5) Solar wind composition. (auth.)

  4. Radiation Biomarker Research Using Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bach, Stephan B; Hubert, Walter

    2007-01-01

    .... This review is intended to give an overview of mass spectrometry and its application to biological systems and biomarker discovery and how that might relate to relevant radiation dosimetry studies...

  5. The Social Purposes of Mass Communications Research: A Transatlantic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumler, Jay G.

    Purposes and alternative forms of mass communications research are explored in this four-part presentation. Part One examines the origins of, and the differences between, two conflicting types of research: administrative research, in which the mass media are perceived as neutral tools, capable of serving a wide range of purposes; and critical…

  6. New Directions in Mass Communications Research: Physiological Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, James E.

    Psychophysiological research into the effects of mass media, specifically the music of the masses, promises increased insight into the control the media exert on all their consumers. Attention and retention of mass media messages can be tested by measuring the receiver's electrodernal activity, pupil dilation, peripheral vasodilation, and heart…

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; Turteltaub, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Biological effects occur in natural systems at chemical concentrations of parts per billion (1:10 9 ) or less. Affected biomolecules may be separable in only milligram or microgram quantities. Quantification at attomole sensitivity is needed to study these interactions. AMS measures isotope concentrations to parts per 10 13--15 on milligram-sized samples and is ideal for quantifying long-lived radioisotopic labels that are commonly used to trace biochemical pathways in natural systems. 14 C-AMS has now been coupled to a variety of organic separation and definition technologies. The primary research investigates pharmacokinetics and genotoxicities of toxins and drugs at very low doses. Human subject research using AMS includes nutrition, toxicity and elemental balance studies. 3 H, 41 Ca and 26 Al are also traced by AMS for fundamental biochemical kinetic research. Expansion of biomedical AMS awaits further development of biochemical and accelerator technologies designed specifically for these applications

  8. Research Questions: Women and Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Linda J.

    Typically, research concerning media presentations of women has involved six types of analysis: (1) content analysis (what is said), (2) cultural and social analysis (why it is said), (3) control or gatekeeper analysis (by whom it is said), (4) audience analysis (to whom it is said), (5) media analysis (in which channel), and (6) effects analysis…

  9. Mass Media in Society: The Need of Research. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication, Number 59.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    More and better research should be undertaken, nationally and internationally, on the effect of mass media upon society. Prior to such research, there needs to be an awareness of the realities of society today and of broadcasting structure. There should also be an understanding of the research that has already been done and of the gaps in that…

  10. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  11. The Historical Origins of Mass Communication Research in Our Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Samuel L.

    The seeds of mass communication research in broadcasting were extracurricular, not academic, inspired by experimental campus radio stations. Prior to the mid-1930s, radio research was scarce. Until World War II, radio speech was the most important topic, followed by articles on how to use radio for improving instruction. There are three…

  12. Mass Communication Research Trends from 1980 to 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Rasha; Weaver, David

    2003-01-01

    Uses thematic meta-analysis to examine study method, medium and area of focus, theoretical approach, funding source, and time period covered in research articles published in 10 major mass communications journals during the 1980 to 1999 period. Finds that qualitative research methods continued to be much less common than quantitative methods…

  13. Recent research and progress of laser mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinying; Wang Fan; Zhao Yonggang; Xiao Guoping; Guo Dongfa; Cui Haiping

    2012-01-01

    The progress of laser mass spectrometry (LMS) was introduced. Its history and principle characteristics were reviewed. The research and applications of LMS in geology, mining, organics, biochemistry, environment and nuclear industry were given. The trend of LMS in the future was outlined, and the main issue and the available solutions were discussed. (authors)

  14. Framing in mass communication research: an overview and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the use of the framing concept in mass communication research. It focuses on the questions what a frame is and how it is measured, how variation in framing can be explained and what the effects of media framing are. Specific attention will be paid to the

  15. Molecular mass spectrometry imaging in biomedical and life science research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pól, Jaroslav; Strohalm, Martin; Havlíček, Vladimír; Volný, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 5 (2010), s. 423-443 ISSN 0948-6143 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC545; GA ČR GPP206/10/P018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Mass spectrometry * Chemical imaging * Molecular imaging Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.727, year: 2010

  16. RESEARCH NOTE POST-WEANING BODY MASS GAIN OF FOUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    POST-WEANING BODY MASS GAIN OF FOUR BREEDS OF STEERS ON DIFFERENT. NUTRITIONAL LEVELS. H.P. Eloff and C.J.F. Liidemann. Mara Research Station, Msa 0922. Receipt of MS. 4.8.1977. In South Africa there are 2O breeds of cattle which are mainly kept for the purpose of beef production (van. Marle ...

  17. Scandinavian Mass Communication Research: Publications in English, French and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordic Documentation Center for Mass Communication Research, Aarhus (Denmark).

    This update to the bibliographies from Nordicom edited in 1975 and 1976 lists publications on mass communications research from Denmark, Finland, and Norway, that have appeared in one or more of the three languages--English, French, or German. Materials are listed for each country separately, arranged by author (or title if there is no author),…

  18. Study of mass consciousnessand its dynamics in sociologic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khobta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to analysis of the approaches used to study mass consciousness and the methods of their dynamics research. The two following approaches are reviewed: aggregative and group. The author shows that the study of the dynamics of mass consciousness in the modern day science is performed via computer modeling applying agent-oriented models and mass surveys of public opinion. Special attention is given to the concept of mass consciousness according to B. Grushin, where the mass consciousness is analyzed as a complex phenomenon according to its structure and the formation process. It is further analyzed what this particular concept is able to provide for the mass consciousness studies in the times of crises, similar to the situation of the military conflict at the East. It is then proven that the dialectic approach should be used as the basis for the mass consciousness studies adjusted for the interaction dynamics between the individual and collective, spontaneous and the institutionalized inside the collective consciousness. The mass consciousness is a complex structural formation, both heterogeneous and syncretical. Inside this structure one must distinguish between the layers that differ in depth and mobility and pay attention to its various conditions. The layers represent different worldviews, where, depending on the situation, scientific, religious or mystical images of the world can be actualized along with their ideological, moral and aesthetic precepts. These can cross, merge or coexist without contradicting each other and get actualized to a different extent. Besides the aforementioned the mass consciousness serves as a carrier of different kinds of deep, hard to change formations, such as «historical/collective memory», memlexes as well as superficial, most actualized forms, such as mems. It has «public/formal», socially accepted, and «private/real» levels that manifest themselves, in particular, in the forms of

  19. Research on the Mass Digitization of the Print Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongmei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The mass digitization of the print collection is an inevitable action for digital libraries. It has enlarged the depth and breadth of library services, and has enormously promoted the development and progress of academic exchange and academic research. [Method/process] This paper analyzed the global mass digitization of the print collection in terms of the origin, environmental factors, development status and current problems. It took HathiTrust as a case study. [Result/conclusion] Building the principles, solving the copyright problems with fair use and establishing a multi-stage and multi-sided framework for cooperation are important measures to promote the full realization of the mass digitization.

  20. Quality assurance for mass spectrometry research and development analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piciorea, Iuliana; Vremera, Raluca; Calota, Iulian Virgil

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A well functioning quality system need not stifle creativity in R and D, and is vital for ensuring the smooth transfer of technology from research to diagnostic or commercial environments. Research workers must have an evaluation of the quality requirements of clients and quality must be ensured by design in every process. No single method of assessment stands out as being the most suitable for monitoring the quality of non-routine and R and D work. It is recommended that where some kind of external assessment is required a combination of approaches should be conducted and formal assessment should be confined wherever possible to those parts of the quality system that remain stable from project to project, e.g. the management levels and technical infrastructure. Illustrations for the case of organophosphorus materials, mass spectrometry research and developments are presented. (authors)

  1. The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Sage Annual Reviews of Communication Research Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumler, Jay G., Ed.; Katz, Elihu, Ed.

    The essays in this volume examine the use of the mass media and explore the findings of the gratifications approach to mass communication research. Part one summaries the achievements in this area of mass media research and proposes an agenda for discussion of the future direction of this research in terms of a set of theoretical, methodological,…

  2. Research of connection between mass audience and new media. Approaches to new model of mass communication measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sibiriakova Olena Oleksandrivna

    2015-01-01

    In this research the author examines changes to approaches of observation of mass communication. As a result of systemization of key theoretical models of communication, the author comes to conclusion of evolution of ideas about the process of mass communication measurement from linear to multisided and multiple.

  3. The emergence of mass spectrometry in biochemical research

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The initial steps toward routinely applying mass spectrometry in the biochemical laboratory have been achieved. In the past, mass spectrometry was confined to the realm of small, relatively stable molecules; large or thermally labile molecules did not survive the desorption and ionization processes intact. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allow for the analysis of both small and large biomolecules through "mild" desorption...

  4. Research at the fragment mass analyser at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.; Bearden, I.G.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental program at the Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) at the ATLAS heavy ion accelerator of the Argonne National Laboratory is described. The brief description and operational properties of the FMA are presented. The highest mass resolution obtained with the FMA is 525/1. Some experimental results are presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  5. Surface-MALDI mass spectrometry in biomaterials research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesser, H.J.; Kingshott, P.; McArthur, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has been used for over a decade for the determination of purity and accurate molecular masses of macromolecular analytes, such as proteins, in solution. In the last few years the technique has been adapted to become a new...... surfaces and detecting their molecular ions with high mass resolution and at levels much below monolayer coverage. Thus, Surface-MALDI-MS offers unique means of addressing biomaterial surface analysis needs, such as identification of the proteins and lipids that adsorb from multicomponent biological...... solutions in vitro and in vivo, the study of interactions between biomaterial surfaces and biomolecules, and identification of surface-enriched additives and contaminants. Surface-MALDI-MS is rapid, experimentally convenient, overcomes limitations in mass resolution and sensitivity of established...

  6. Miniature Mass Spectrometer for Earth Science Research, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — By drastically reducing the physical footprint of a mass spectrometer to the size of a beverage can, Ceramitron could set a new performance/price standard in the...

  7. Research of compression strength of fissured rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Г. Протосеня

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines a method of forecasting strength properties and their scale effect in fissured rock mass using computational modelling with final elements method in ABAQUS software. It shows advantages of this approach for solving tasks of determining mechanical properties of fissured rock mass, main stages of creating computational geomechanic model of rock mass and conducting a numerical experiment. The article presents connections between deformation during loading of numerical model, inclination angle of main fracture system from uniaxial and biaxial compression strength value, size of the sample of fissured rock mass and biaxial compression strength value under conditions of apatite-nepheline rock deposit at Plateau Rasvumchorr OAO «Apatit» in Kirovsky region of Murmanskaya oblast. We have conducted computational modelling of rock mass blocks testing in discontinuities based on real experiment using non-linear shear strength criterion of Barton – Bandis and compared results of computational experiments with data from field studies and laboratory tests. The calculation results have a high-quality match to laboratory results when testing fissured rock mass samples.

  8. RESEARCH OF THE MASS TRANSFER AT MEMBRANE CLEANING OF BIOGAZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat SATAYEV

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has long known the benefits and effectiveness of biogas. Particularly, getting biogas from the agricultural waste is very promising. But, the question is if we can use such a useful and effective biogas at 100%. Today, we use only a half of the benefit, because to get the biogas we spend more energy than we get. In this regard, the work on the study of the biogas development is extremely important. The study of the biogas formation requires numerous experiments. This article analyzes the biogas mass transfer with the membrane purification and identification of the of mass transfer mechanisms through the membrane pores.

  9. The Undergraduate as Researcher: Selected Studies in Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    Reporting on a group of class projects undertaken by a series of his college-level "Broadcasting and Society" courses, the author concludes that there is great value in encouraging undergraduates to do their own original research. Among the topics researched by the students are the effect of television on nuns, television news viewing habits of…

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry researches at NIES-TERRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasuyuki; Yoneda, Minoru; Tanaka, Atsushi; Uehiro, Takashi; Morita, Masatoshi; Uchida, Masao; Yoshinaga, Jun

    2003-01-01

    In the AMS facility at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES-TERRA; Tandem accelerator for Environmental Research and Radiocarbon Analysis), several research programs have been proceeded, including a program, called GC-AMS, for the compound-specific 14 C analysis in environmental samples

  11. Research on high-performance mass storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yaodong; Wang Lu; Huang Qiulan; Zheng Wei

    2010-01-01

    With the enlargement of scientific experiments, more and more data will be produced, which brings great challenge to storage system. Large storage capacity and high data access performance are both important to Mass storage system. This paper firstly reviews some kinds of popular storage systems including network storage system, SAN-based sharing system, WAN File system, object-based parallel file system, hierarchical storage system and cloud storage systems. Then some key technologies are presented. Finally, this paper takes BES storage system as an example and introduces its requirements, architecture and operation results. (authors)

  12. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D.J.; Wotruba, T.R.

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  13. Mass transit: devising a research-based marketing plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, D J; Wotruba, T R

    1977-08-01

    This study presents a marketing planning procedural model that can be operationally used by marketing managers. The model enables the user to assess his company's performance on the various attributes of the marketing mix and to design a marketing program that caters to the needs of his marketplace. The model is applied here specifically to mass transit and is tested empirically. Within this context, it permits transit marketing to aim at increasing the probabilities of (i) greater usage on the part of existing riders and (ii) attracting prospects and converting them into actual customers.

  14. Mass spectrometry based proteomics in cell biology and signaling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.; Andersen, J.; Ishihama, Y.; Rappsilber, J.; Ong, S.; Foster, L.; Blagoev, B.; Kratchmarova, I.; Lasonder, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Proteomics is one of the most powerful post-genomics technologies. Recently accomplishments include large scale protein-protein interaction mapping, large scale mapping of phosphorylation sites and the cloning of key signaling molecules. In this talk, current state of the art of the technology will be reviewed. Applications of proteomics to the mapping of multiprotein complexes will be illustrated with recent work on the spliceosome and the nucleolus. More than 300 proteins have been mapped to each of these complexes. Quantitative techniques are becoming more and more essential in proteomics. They are usually performed by the incorporation of stable isotopes - a light form in cell state 'A' and a heavy form in cell state 'E' - and subsequent comparison of mass spectrometric peak heights. A new technique called, SILAC for Stable isotope Incorporation by Amino acids in Cell culture, has been applied to studying cell differentiation and mapping secreted proteins from adipocytes. A number of known and novel proteins important in adipocyte differentiation have been identified by this technique. Some of these proved to be upregulated at the 1 mRNA level, too, whereas others appear to be regulated post-translationally. We have also applied the SILAC method to protein-protein interaction mapping. For example, we compared immunoprecipitates from stimulated and non-stimulated cells to find binding partners recruited to the bait due to the stimulus. Several novel substrates in the EGF pathway were found in this way. An important application of proteomics in the signaling field is the mapping of post-translational modifications. In particular, there are a number of techniques for phosphotyrosine phosphorylation mapping which have proven very useful. Making use of the mass deficiency of the phosphogroup, 'parent ion scans' con be performed, which selectively reveal phosphotyrosine peptides from complex peptides mixtures. This technique has been used to clone several

  15. Proposal and Research Direction of Soil Mass Organic Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Han, Jichang

    2018-01-01

    Land engineering as a new discipline has been temporarily outrageous. The proposition of soil body organic reorganization undoubtedly enriches the research content for the construction of land engineering disciplines. Soil body organic reconstruction is designed to study how to realize the ecological ecology of the land by studying the external force of nature, to study the influence of sunlight, wind and water on soil body, how to improve the soil physical structure, to further strengthen the research of biological enzymes and microbes, and promote the release and utilization of beneficial inert elements in soil body. The emerging of frontier scientific research issues with soil body organic reorganization to indicate directions for the future development of soil engineering.

  16. Applications of accelerator mass spectrometry for pharmacological and toxicological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen; Tompkins, Elaine M; White, Ian N H

    2006-01-01

    The technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), known for radiocarbon dating of archeological specimens, has revolutionized high-sensitivity isotope detection in pharmacology and toxicology by allowing the direct determination of the amount of isotope in a sample rather than measuring its decay. It can quantify many isotopes, including 26Al, 14C, 41Ca, and 3H with detection down to attomole (10(-18)) amounts. Pharmacokinetic data in humans have been achieved with ultra-low levels of radiolabel. One of the most exciting biomedical applications of AMS with 14C-labeled potential carcinogens is the detection of modified proteins or DNA in tissues. The relationship between low-level exposure and covalent binding of genotoxic chemicals has been compared in rodents and humans. Such compounds include heterocyclic amines, benzene, and tamoxifen. Other applications range from measuring the absorption of 26Al to monitoring 41Ca turnover in bone. In epoxy-embedded tissue sections, high-resolution imaging of 14C label in cells is possible. The uses of AMS are becoming more widespread with the availability of instrumentation dedicated to the analysis of biomedical samples. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mass Spectrometry for Research and Application in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring or Clinical and Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Hans H

    2018-04-30

    This paper reviews current applications of various hyphenated low- and high-resolution mass spectrometry techniques in the field of therapeutic drug monitoring and clinical/forensic toxicology in both research and practice. They cover gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, or paper spray ionization coupled to quadrupole, ion trap, time-of-flight, or Orbitrap mass analyzers.

  18. Research issues in preparedness for mass casualty events, disaster, war, and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton Walker, Patricia; Garmon Bibb, Sandra C; Elberson, Karen L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a perspective on the types of research questions that might be explored and strategies used in relation to disaster,terrorism, and mass casualty events. Research is addressed in the context of three areas of focus: issues related to the health care provider; issues affecting the patient, individual, family, and community; and issues related to the health care system.

  19. RESEARCH OF THE METABOLIC AGE AND BODY MASS INDEX FOR FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Petrova Dyakova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic age - this feature takes into account, the basic metabolism and all the basic physical parameters and the determining of age, which corresponds to this type of metabolism. The aim of the research is to establish a metabolic age and the index of the body mass (Body Mass Index for students. Anthropometric measurement was applied. The analyzer was used for the composition of body weight (body composition analyzer, BC-420MA “Tanita” for determining the metabolic age and body mass index. The conducted monitoring of the metabolic age reveals opportunities to improve students' motivation for healthy lifestyle.

  20. Principles and applications of a research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, J.E.; Risby, T.H.; Jurs, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    A research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system for a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been developed based on a centrally located departmental computer facility. An overview of the hardware and software system is presented, emphasizing the important aspects of on-line computer data acquisition and control and the design philosophy used in the development of the system. The application of the system is demonstrated by the g.c.-m.s. analysis of a mixture of four transition metal β-diketonates (Al, Cr, Rh, and Ru tris-1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate). This anaysis involved vacuum gas chromatography with a support-coated open tubular column and detection of the eluent by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate the data system capabilities and indicate the utility of the combined methodologies. (Auth.)

  1. Mass Communication, Advertising, and Marketing Research at the Strategic and Operational Levels of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-05

    EBSCOhost (accessed November 4, 2012): 157. 43 Ibid., 156. 44 Ibid., 163. 45 Chang, Chun-Tuan. 2011. “Guilt appeals in cause-related marketing ...Mass Communication, Advertising, and Marketing Research at the Strategic and Operational Levels of War by Colonel Ralph...Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on

  2. Research on mass transfer and actual performance of the membrane regeneration air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research has been made on the membrane air-conditioning system. • We develop mass transfer models for the membrane regeneration process. • The paper exposes the actual performance of the system. • Increase of membrane pairs improves the performance. - Abstract: Absorption air-conditioning system has great advantages in energy conservation and environmental protection. To improve the performance of the traditional system, the membrane regeneration absorption system was proposed. Its COP could approach 6 by regenerating absorbent solution with the ion exchange membranes. However, the theoretical conclusion has not been supported by the experiment. This paper presents the experimental research of the membrane regeneration process. It has investigated the mass transfer process, energy efficiency and actual performance under different working conditions. Based on that, a mass transfer model has been developed and the influences of some key parameters have been exposed. It found the regeneration performance is mainly influenced by the current intensity. The calculation results with the model agree well the experimental data. The actual efficiency was lower than 50%, caused by energy loss in heat and electrochemical reactions. The actual COP is between 1 and 3, lower current intensity and more membrane pairs could improve it.

  3. Selective-Reagent-Ionization Mass Spectrometry: New Prospects for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzer, Philipp; Jordan, Alfons; Hartungen, Eugen; Hanel, Gernot; Jürschik, Simone; Herbig, Jens; Märk, Lukas; Märk, Tilmann D.

    2014-05-01

    Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), which was introduced to the scientific community in the 1990's, has quickly evolved into a well-established technology for atmospheric research and environmental chemistry [1]. Advantages of PTR-MS are i) high sensitivities of several hundred cps/ppbv, ii) detection limits at or below the pptv level, iii) direct injection sampling (i.e. no sample preparation), iv) response times in the 100 ms regime and v) online quantification. However, one drawback is a somehow limited selectivity, as in case of quadrupole mass filter based instruments only information about nominal m/z are available. In Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass analyzer based instruments selectivity is drastically increased by a high mass resolution of up to 8000 m/Δm, but e.g. isomers still cannot be separated. In 2009 we introduced an advanced version of PTR-MS, which permits switching the reagent ions from H3O+ to NO+ and O2+, respectively [2]. This novel type of instrumentation was called Selective-Reagent-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SRI-MS) and has been successfully used to separate isomers, e.g. the biogenic compounds isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol as shown by Karl et al. [3]. Switching the reagent ions dramatically increases selectivity and thus applicability of SRI-MS in atmospheric research. Here we report on the latest results utilizing an even more advanced embodiment of SRI-MS enabling the use of the additional reagent ions Kr+ and Xe+ [4]. With this technology important atmospheric compounds, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O2, etc. can be quantified and selectivity is increased even further. We present comparison data between diesel and gasoline car exhaust gases and quantitative data on indoor air for these compounds, which are not detectable with classical PTR-MS. Additionally, we show very recent examples of isomers which cannot be separated with PTR-MS but can clearly be distinguished with SRI-MS. Finally, we give an overview of ongoing SRI

  4. Communication about scientific uncertainty in environmental nanoparticle research - a comparison of scientific literature and mass media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Ilona; Milde, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    The research about the fate and behavior of engineered nanoparticles in the environment is despite its wide applications still in the early stages. 'There is a high level of scientific uncertainty in nanoparticle research' is often stated in the scientific community. Knowledge about these uncertainties might be of interest to other scientists, experts and laymen. But how could these uncertainties be characterized and are they communicated within the scientific literature and the mass media? To answer these questions, the current state of scientific knowledge about scientific uncertainty through the example of environmental nanoparticle research was characterized and the communication of these uncertainties within the scientific literature is compared with its media coverage in the field of nanotechnologies. The scientific uncertainty within the field of environmental fate of nanoparticles is by method uncertainties and a general lack of data concerning the fate and effects of nanoparticles and their mechanisms in the environment, and by the uncertain transferability of results to the environmental system. In the scientific literature, scientific uncertainties, their sources, and consequences are mentioned with different foci and to a different extent. As expected, the authors in research papers focus on the certainty of specific results within their specific research question, whereas in review papers, the uncertainties due to a general lack of data are emphasized and the sources and consequences are discussed in a broader environmental context. In the mass media, nanotechnology is often framed as rather certain and positive aspects and benefits are emphasized. Although reporting about a new technology, only in one-third of the reports scientific uncertainties are mentioned. Scientific uncertainties are most often mentioned together with risk and they arise primarily from unknown harmful effects to human health. Environmental issues itself are seldom mentioned

  5. Application research of computational mass-transfer differential equation in MBR concentration field simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunqing; Tie, Xiaobo; Liang, Kai; Ji, Chanjuan

    2016-01-01

    After conducting the intensive research on the distribution of fluid's velocity and biochemical reactions in the membrane bioreactor (MBR), this paper introduces the use of the mass-transfer differential equation to simulate the distribution of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in MBR membrane pool. The solutions are as follows: first, use computational fluid dynamics to establish a flow control equation model of the fluid in MBR membrane pool; second, calculate this model by adopting direct numerical simulation to get the velocity field of the fluid in membrane pool; third, combine the data of velocity field to establish mass-transfer differential equation model for the concentration field in MBR membrane pool, and use Seidel iteration method to solve the equation model; last but not least, substitute the real factory data into the velocity and concentration field model to calculate simulation results, and use visualization software Tecplot to display the results. Finally by analyzing the nephogram of COD concentration distribution, it can be found that the simulation result conforms the distribution rule of the COD's concentration in real membrane pool, and the mass-transfer phenomenon can be affected by the velocity field of the fluid in membrane pool. The simulation results of this paper have certain reference value for the design optimization of the real MBR system.

  6. Research on heat and mass transfer model for passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaowei; Yu Hongxing; Sun Yufa; Huang Daishun

    2013-01-01

    Different with the traditional dry style containment design without external cooling, the PCCS design increased the temperature difference between the wall and the containment atmosphere significantly, and also the absolute temperature of the containment surfaces will be lower, affecting properties relevant in the condensation process. A research on the heat and mass transfer model has been done in this paper, especially the improvement on the condensation and evaporation model in the presence of noncondensable gases. Firstly, the Peterson's diffusion layer model was proved to equivalent to the stagnant film model adopted by CONTAIN code using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, then a factor which can be used to stagnant film model was derived from the comparison between the Y.Liao's generalized diffusion layer model and the Peterson's diffusion layer model. Finally, the model in CONTAIN code used to compute the condensation and evaporation mass flux was modified using the factor, and the Wisconsin condensation tests and Westinghouse film evaporation on heated plate tests were simulated which had proved the improved model can predict more closer value of the heat and mass transfer coefficient to experimental value than original model. (authors)

  7. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry in forensic science and food adulteration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B.

    2009-01-01

    Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (SIRMS) is an established technique for the determination of origin of geological, biological, chemical and physio-chemical samples/materials. With the development of highly precise mass spectrometers, the stable isotope ratio determination of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen have gained considerable interest in the fields of forensic science and food authentication. Natural variations in the isotopic composition of lighter elements occur due to fractionation effects, resulting in the finger printing of specific isotope ratio values that are characteristic of the origin, purity, and manufacturing processes of the products and their constituents. Forensic science uses scientific and technical methods to investigate traceable evidence of criminal acts. Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has been applied to numerous aspects of the forensic science. The analysis of explosives such as ammonium nitrate, gun powder and tri-nitro-toluene (TNT), cases of murder, armed robbery, drug smuggling, terrorism, arson and hit and run traffic accidents are a few of them. The main types of geological evidences in such cases are mud, soil, rocks, sand, gravel, dust particles, biological materials, organic particles and anthropogenic components. Stable isotopes are used as tools to corroborate and confirm the evidential leads in the investigation of such crimes. The variation in natural abundances of carbon and nitrogen and their isotopic ratios δ 13 C and δ 15 N can identify links between items found at crime scene with those of suspect. The paper discusses the applications of SIRMS in the field of forensic science and food adulteration research

  8. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation, time-of-flight mass spectrometry in genomics research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiannis Ragoussis

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of this millennium has seen dramatic advances in genomic research. Milestones such as the complete sequencing of the human genome and of many other species were achieved and complemented by the systematic discovery of variation at the single nucleotide (SNP and whole segment (copy number polymorphism level. Currently most genomics research efforts are concentrated on the production of whole genome functional annotations, as well as on mapping the epigenome by identifying the methylation status of CpGs, mainly in CpG islands, in different tissues. These recent advances have a major impact on the way genetic research is conducted and have accelerated the discovery of genetic factors contributing to disease. Technology was the critical driving force behind genomics projects: both the combination of Sanger sequencing with high-throughput capillary electrophoresis and the rapid advances in microarray technologies were keys to success. MALDI-TOF MS-based genome analysis represents a relative newcomer in this field. Can it establish itself as a long-term contributor to genetics research, or is it only suitable for niche areas and for laboratories with a passion for mass spectrometry? In this review, we will highlight the potential of MALDI-TOF MS-based tools for resequencing and for epigenetics research applications, as well as for classical complex genetic studies, allele quantification, and quantitative gene expression analysis. We will also identify the current limitations of this approach and attempt to place it in the context of other genome analysis technologies.

  9. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  10. YPED: an integrated bioinformatics suite and database for mass spectrometry-based proteomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Christopher M; Shifman, Mark; Cheung, Kei-Hoi; Stone, Kathryn L; Carriero, Nicholas J; Gulcicek, Erol E; Lam, TuKiet T; Wu, Terence; Bjornson, Robert D; Bruce, Can; Nairn, Angus C; Rinehart, Jesse; Miller, Perry L; Williams, Kenneth R

    2015-02-01

    We report a significantly-enhanced bioinformatics suite and database for proteomics research called Yale Protein Expression Database (YPED) that is used by investigators at more than 300 institutions worldwide. YPED meets the data management, archival, and analysis needs of a high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics research ranging from a single laboratory, group of laboratories within and beyond an institution, to the entire proteomics community. The current version is a significant improvement over the first version in that it contains new modules for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) database search results, label and label-free quantitative proteomic analysis, and several scoring outputs for phosphopeptide site localization. In addition, we have added both peptide and protein comparative analysis tools to enable pairwise analysis of distinct peptides/proteins in each sample and of overlapping peptides/proteins between all samples in multiple datasets. We have also implemented a targeted proteomics module for automated multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)/selective reaction monitoring (SRM) assay development. We have linked YPED's database search results and both label-based and label-free fold-change analysis to the Skyline Panorama repository for online spectra visualization. In addition, we have built enhanced functionality to curate peptide identifications into an MS/MS peptide spectral library for all of our protein database search identification results. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Scientometric mapping of mass spectrometry research in nuclear science and technology: a global perspective. IT-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Anil; Kademani, B.S.; Vijai Kumar

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to analyse quantitatively the growth and development of Mass Spectrometry research in Nuclear Science and Technology in terms of publication output as reflected in International Nuclear Information System (INIS) database (1970-2005). During 1970-2005, a total of 10913 papers were published in various domains: Chemistry, Materials and Earth Sciences (5286) (48.44%), Physical Sciences (2367) (21.69%), Engineering and Technology (1434) (13.14), Life and Environmental Sciences (1212) (11.11), other aspects of Nuclear and Non Nuclear Energy (492) (4.51%) and Isotopes, Isotope and Radiation Applications (122) (1.12%). There were only three papers published in 1970. The highest number of papers (816) were published in 2004. The average number of publications published per year was 303.13. United States topped the list with 2247 publications followed by Germany with 1333 publications, Japan with 820 publications, France with 525 publications, and India with 460 publications. Authorship and collaboration trend was towards multi-authored papers as 81.83 percent of the papers were collaborative is indicative of the multidisciplinary nature of research activity. The most prolific authors were: S.K. Aggarwal, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 113 publications, W. Kutschera, University of Vienna, Austria with 85 publications, and H.C. Jain, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India with 70 publications. The highly productive institutions were: Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India) with 233 publications, Argonne National Laboratory (USA) with 150 publications, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) with 146 publications, University of California (USA) with 118 publications, Los Alamos National Laboratory (USA) with 104 publications and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan) with 91 publications. The journals most preferred by the scientists for publication of papers were: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research

  12. Report on a Round Table "Communication 1980" on Mass Communication Research and Policy. Hanko, Finland, April 9-11, 1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnish Broadcasting Co., Helsinki.

    The papers presented at the conference fall into three main categories: 1) outlines for critical research into mass communication, 2) international perspectives in broadcasting, and 3) the functions and goals of mass communication, together with problems of democratic control over broadcasting. All papers have been translated into English, as have…

  13. Hydrogeology of the rock mass encountered at the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, E.T.; Davison, C.C.

    1992-09-01

    The rock mass surrounding the 240 level of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) has been hydrogeologically characterized through observations made in the tunnel and room excavations and from a network of radiating low-dipping boreholes. The 240 level complex sits in a wedge of grey-to-pink granite between two important, low-dipping, hydraulically active fracture zones, known as Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2) and Fracture Zone 2.5 (FZ2.5), a splay of FZ2. There is no apparent seepage into the 240 level room and tunnel network from the surrounding rock mass except from a vertical fracture intersected by the Room 209 tunnel. Extensive hydraulic and geomechanical tests have been conducted in boreholes intersecting the Room 209 vertical fracture, and transmissivities were found to range from 10 -10 to 10 -6 m 2 /s. FZ2 and FZ2.5 occur at the 240 m depth approximately 10 m to the west and 100 m to the south respectively of the 240 level tunnel network. Hydraulic testing within packer-isolated boreholes intersecting these fracture zones showed that transmissivities ranged from 10 -7 to 10 -5 m 2 /s in FZ2, and 10 -9 to 10 -7 m 2 /s in FZ2.5. No naturally-occurring fractures were encountered east of the 240 level complex up to 300 m away. The rock mass to the north of the 240 level is dominated by the Room 209 vertical fracture, which tends to splay with distance and has been intersected 95 m from the Room 209 tunnel. (Author) (50 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.)

  14. A Virtual Research Environment for a Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenbeck, M.; Schäfer, L.; Klump, J.; Galkin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Overview: This poster describes the development of a Virtual Research Environment for the Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (SIMS) at GFZ Potsdam. Background: Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometers (SIMS) are extremely sensitive instruments for analyzing the surfaces of solid and thin film samples. These instruments are rare, expensive and experienced operators are very highly sought after. As such, measurement time is a precious commodity, until now only accessible to small numbers of researchers. The challenge: The Virtual SIMS Project aims to set up a Virtual Research Environment for the operation of the CAMECA IMS 1280-HR instrument at the GFZ Potsdam. The objective of the VRE is to provide SIMS access not only to researchers locally present in Potsdam but also to scientists working with SIMS cooperation partners in e.g., South Africa, Brazil or India. The requirements: The system should address the complete spectrum of laboratory procedures - from online application for measurement time, to remote access for data acquisition to data archiving for the subsequent publication and for future reuse. The approach: The targeted Virtual SIMS Environment will consist of a: 1. Web Server running the Virtual SIMS website providing general information about the project, lab access proposal forms and calendar for the timing of project related tasks. 2. LIMS Server, responsible for scheduling procedures, data management and, if applicable, accounting and billing. 3. Remote SIMS Tool, devoted to the operation of the experiment within a remote control environment. 4. Publishing System, which supports the publication of results in cooperation with the GFZ Library services. 5. Training Simulator, which offers the opportunity to rehearse experiments and to prepare for possible events such as a power outages or interruptions to broadband services. First results: The SIMS Virtual Research Environment will be mainly based on open source software, the only exception being the CAMECA IMS

  15. A study on rock mass behaviour induced by shaft sinking in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsusaka, Kimikazu; Tokiwa, Tetsuya; Inagaki, Daisuke; Hatsuyama, Yoshihiro; Koike, Masashi; Ijiri, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been excavating three deep shafts through soft sedimentary rock in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. In this paper, the authors discussed rock mass behaviour induced by a 6.5 m diameter shaft sinking. They conducted geological mapping in an excavation face and boreholes digged around the shaft wall, field measurements such as convergence measurements and monitoring of rock displacements using multi-interval borehole extensometers around a shaft at around 160 m and 220 m in depths, and three-dimensional numerical analysis which models the shaft excavation procedure such as timing of installation of support elements and setting and removal of a concrete form. As a result, it was clarified that remarkably large compressive strains occurred within about 1 m into the shaft wall in a radial direction since the rock mass behaviour was controlled by the concrete lining and that the behaviour would predominantly be induced by the fractures closing which opened significantly and propagated during excavation steps before the installation of a concrete lining and the directions where the strains occurred heavily depended on the fracture orientation around the shaft. (author)

  16. Advances in mass spectrometry-based cancer research and analysis: from cancer proteomics to clinical diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, John F; Hale, Oliver J; Cramer, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    The last 20 years have seen significant improvements in the analytical capabilities of biological mass spectrometry (MS). Studies using advanced MS have resulted in new insights into cell biology and the etiology of diseases as well as its use in clinical applications. This review discusses recent developments in MS-based technologies and their cancer-related applications with a focus on proteomics. It also discusses the issues around translating the research findings to the clinic and provides an outline of where the field is moving. Expert commentary: Proteomics has been problematic to adapt for the clinical setting. However, MS-based techniques continue to demonstrate potential in novel clinical uses beyond classical cancer proteomics.

  17. Principle Research on a Single Mass Piezoelectric Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingcheng Liu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A signal mass piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom (six-DOF accelerometer is put forward in response to the need for health monitoring of the dynamic vibration characteristics of high grade digitally controlled machine tools. The operating principle of the piezoelectric six-degrees-of-freedom accelerometer is analyzed, and its structure model is constructed. The numerical simulation model (finite element model of the six axis accelerometer is established. Piezoelectric quartz is chosen for the acceleration sensing element and conversion element, and its static sensitivity, static coupling interference and dynamic natural frequency, dynamic cross coupling are analyzed by ANSYS software. Research results show that the piezoelectric six-DOF accelerometer has advantages of simple and rational structure, correct sensing principle and mathematic model, good linearity, high rigidity, and theoretical natural frequency is more than 25 kHz, no nonlinear cross coupling and no complex decoupling work.

  18. Vectors into the Future of Mass and Interpersonal Communication Research: Big Data, Social Media, and Computational Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Joseph N

    2017-10-01

    Simultaneous developments in big data, social media, and computational social science have set the stage for how we think about and understand interpersonal and mass communication. This article explores some of the ways that these developments generate 4 hypothetical "vectors" - directions - into the next generation of communication research. These vectors include developments in network analysis, modeling interpersonal and social influence, recommendation systems, and the blurring of distinctions between interpersonal and mass audiences through narrowcasting and broadcasting. The methods and research in these arenas are occurring in areas outside the typical boundaries of the communication discipline but engage classic, substantive questions in mass and interpersonal communication.

  19. Techniques for the research on mass deposition effects in the bio-materials induced by heavy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Shibin; Wei Zengquan; Li Qiang

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have used heavy ion beams to implant small biomolecules, followed by advanced instrumental analysis to make preliminary studies on mass deposition induced by ion implantation. But research reports on the biological effects, i.e. mass deposition effects induced by mass deposition in living tissues, cells and macro-biomolecules have not been delivered hitherto. In the near future radioactive heavy ion beams will be possible to implant living cells and biomolecules, and auto-radiography, radioactive measurements and molecular biological techniques will be employed to further studies on the effects

  20. Nuclear mass inventory, photon dose rate and thermal decay heat of spent research reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, R.B.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-05-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's spent nuclear fuel acceptance criteria, the mass of uranium and transuranic elements in spent research reactor fuel must be specified. These data are, however, not always known or readily determined. It is the purpose of this report to provide estimates of these data for some of the more common research reactor fuel assembly types. The specific types considered here are MTR, TRIGA and DIDO fuel assemblies. The degree of physical protection given to spent fuel assemblies is largely dependent upon the photon dose rate of the spent fuel material. These data also, are not always known or readily determined. Because of a self-protecting dose rate level of radiation (dose rate greater than 100 ren-x/h at I m in air), it is important to know the dose rate of spent fuel assemblies at all time. Estimates of the photon dose rate for spent MTR, TRIGA and DIDO-type fuel assemblies are given in this report

  1. Research Techniques Made Simple: Experimental Methodology for Single-Cell Mass Cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos, Tiago R.; Liu, Hongye; Ritz, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the complexity of interactions within cellular systems has fueled the development of mass cytometry. The precision of time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with the labeling of specific ligands with mass tags enables detection and quantification of more than 40 markers at

  2. Pushing the accelerator - speeding up drug research with accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, R.C. E-mail: colin.garner@cbams.co.uk; Leong, D

    2000-10-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive analytical method yet developed for elemental isotope analysis and has a broad range of applications. The measurement of {sup 14}C is of most interest to biomedical researchers but few studies have been reported using AMS in drug discovery and development. For biomedical use, {sup 14}C is incorporated into organic molecules by either radiosynthesis or biosynthetically and the isotope is used as a surrogate for the distribution of the radiolabelled molecule either in animal or human studies. The majority of users of {sup 14}C quantitate the radioactivity using decay counting usually with a liquid scintillation counter (LSC). Our Centre over the past 12 months has been evaluating and validating the use of AMS as an alternative detection method. In vitro spiking studies of human plasma with {sup 14}C-Fluconazole, a prescription antifungal drug has demonstrated an excellent correlation between AMS and LSC (correlation coefficient 0.999). Human Phase I clinical studies have been conducted with radioactive doses ranging from 120 Bq (7000 dpm) to 11 kBq (300 nCi) to provide mass balance, plasma concentration and radioactive metabolite profiling data. Limits of detection of 0.00022 Bq {sup 14}C-labelled drug/ml plasma have been accurately quantitated in a plasma background of 0.0078 Bq/ml (0.013 dpm/ml in a plasma background of 0.47 dpm/ml or 2.72 pMC in a background of 90.19 pMC)

  3. Mass Spectrometry of Single Particles Levitated in an Electrodynamic Balance: Applications to Laboratory Atmospheric Chemistry Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, A.; Krieger, U. K.; Keutsch, F. N.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic changes to atmospheric aerosol particle composition (e.g., originating from evaporation/condensation, oxidative aging, or aqueous-phase chemical reactions) impact particle properties with importance for understanding particle effects on climate and human health. These changes can take place over the entire lifetime of an atmospheric particle, which can extend over multiple days. Previous laboratory studies of such processes have included analyzing single particles suspended in a levitation device, such as an electrodynamic balance (EDB), an optical levitator, or an acoustic trap, using optical detection techniques. However, studying chemically complex systems can require an analytical method, such as mass spectrometry, that provides more molecular specificity. Existing work coupling particle levitation with mass spectrometry is more limited and largely has consisted of acoustic levitation of millimeter-sized droplets.In this work an EDB has been coupled with a custom-built ionization source and commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) as a platform for laboratory atmospheric chemistry research. Single charged particles (radius 10 μm) have been injected into an EDB, levitated for an arbitrarily long period of time, and then transferred to a vaporization-corona discharge ionization region for MS analysis. By analyzing a series of particles of identical composition, residing in the controlled environment of the EDB for varying times, we can trace the chemical evolution of a particle over hours or days, appropriate timescales for understanding transformations of atmospheric particles.To prove the concept of our EDB-MS system, we have studied the evaporation of particles consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules of mixed chain lengths, used as a benchmark system. Our system can quantify the composition of single particles (see Figure for sample spectrum of a single PEG-200 particle: PEG parent ions labeled with m/z, known PEG fragment ions

  4. Extracellular mass transport considerations for space flight research concerning suspended and adherent in vitro cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, David M; Benoit, Michael R; Nelson, Emily S; Hammond, Timmothy G

    2004-03-01

    Conducting biological research in space requires consideration be given to isolating appropriate control parameters. For in vitro cell cultures, numerous environmental factors can adversely affect data interpretation. A biological response attributed to microgravity can, in theory, be explicitly correlated to a specific lack of weight or gravity-driven motion occurring to, within or around a cell. Weight can be broken down to include the formation of hydrostatic gradients, structural load (stress) or physical deformation (strain). Gravitationally induced motion within or near individual cells in a fluid includes sedimentation (or buoyancy) of the cell and associated shear forces, displacement of cytoskeleton or organelles, and factors associated with intra- or extracellular mass transport. Finally, and of particular importance for cell culture experiments, the collective effects of gravity must be considered for the overall system consisting of the cells, their environment and the device in which they are contained. This does not, however, rule out other confounding variables such as launch acceleration, on orbit vibration, transient acceleration impulses or radiation, which can be isolated using onboard centrifuges or vibration isolation techniques. A framework is offered for characterizing specific cause-and-effect relationships for gravity-dependent responses as a function of the above parameters.

  5. Assessment of air mass ventilation potential in and around Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, R.; Vinod Kumar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the present study is quantification of airborne pollutant dispersion potential in and around Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, a coastal belt of Arabian sea. Apart from synoptic atmospheric circulation, there is local land-sea interactive breezes diurnally in the area for which air mass ventilation potential is assessed here. For this purpose, a micro-meteorological station was established at Mandala hill top representing Trombay area to measure 3 dimensional wind components, i.e. Zonal: u, meridional: v and vertical: w, using ultrasonic anemometer. Hourly wind speed and wind direction are derived in this study for a period of 1 year, January-December 2013. Accuracy of wind components measurement is 0.1 m/s. This covers low wind condition too, i.e. wind speed below 1 m/s. Hourly statistics of year-long as well as seasonal period of wind field and associated parameters reveals the uniqueness of wind field phenomenon at the site being situated in west coast. Seasonal Wind Roses captures various frequencies of wind speed and wind direction for the respective periods

  6. Current medical research with the application of coupled techniques with mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ka?u?na-Czapli?ska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Summary The most effective methods of analysis of organic compounds in biological fluids are coupled chromatographic techniques. Capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) allows the most efficient separation, identification and quantification of volatile metabolites in biological fluids. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is especially suitable for the analysis of non-volatile and/or thermally unstable compounds. A major drawback of liquid chromatography-mass spectro...

  7. Proceedings of the relevance of mass spectrometry to DNA sequence determination: Research needs for the Human Genome Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, C.G.; Smith, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Smith, L.M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-11-01

    A workshop was sponsored for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Health and Environmental Research by Pacific Northwest Laboratory, April 4--5, 1990, in Seattle, Washington, to examine the potential role of mass spectrometry in the joint DOE/National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Genome Program. The workshop was occasioned by recent developments in mass spectrometry that are providing new levels for selectivity, sensitivity, and, in particular, new methods of ionization appropriate for large biopolymers such as DNA. During discussions, three general mass spectrometric approaches to the determination of DNA sequence were considered: (1) the mass spectrometric detection of isotopic labels from DNA sequencing mixtures separated using gel electrophoresis, (2) the direct mass spectrometric analysis from direct ionization of unfractionated sequencing mixtures where the measured mass of the constituents functions to identify and order the base sequence (replacing separation by gel electrophoresis), and (3) an approach in which a single highly charged molecular ion of a large DNA segment produced is rapidly sequenced in an ion cyclotron resonance ion trap. The consensus of the workshop was that, on the basis of the new developments, mass spectrometry has the potential to provide the substantial increases in sequencing speed required for the Human Genome Program. 66 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Application of accelerator mass spectrometry to environmental research, Trial of GC-AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2003-01-01

    The accelerator analysis facility of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, which aims to develop a new device capable of measuring "1"4C age for each compound, is promoting the study to establish the GC-AMS that combines two-dimensional gas chromatograph (GC) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The on-line GC-AMS system for the metabolic measurement of "1"4C-labeled compounds for medicinal biochemical research is a system, in which a GC-separated sample is continuously converted into CO_2 in a combustion tube and introduced directly to a gas ion source to continuously measure "1"4C. In the "1"4C detection experiment, the concentration of CO_2 gas was changed using a helium introduction line and a sample injection valve, and CO_2 gas plus helium gas were introduced into the gas ion source. As a result, it was found that the online GC-AMS has feasibility and high potential capability. For off-line GC-AMS for environmental samples, after purification with preparative gas chromatography, the sample is converted to graphite in a vacuum line and applied to common AMS measurement. The authors collected Northwest Pacific Ocean bottom sediment cores, and performed the extraction and purification of fatty acids of specific stratigraphy and the "1"4C measurement of each compound. The age of the compound derived from the surface layer planktons was the result capable of indicating the sedimentary age of the stratigraphy. In addition, as an application study to explore the source of pollutants in the environment using "1"4C as a tracer representing the characteristics of each source, the authors started to conduct the research choosing atmospheric dust samples. As a starting point, the authors attempted to measure the "1"4C concentration of vehicle exhaust particles and incinerator fly ash particles respectively. There was hardly any "1"4C in vehicle exhaust particles. (A.O.)

  9. Investigation of material systems in industry and research by organic analytical mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decsy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The modern, many-sided and efficient organic analytical mass spectrometer possesses all the structure-and composition-examination possibilities of complex organic analytical laboratories. The article presents the advantages and possibilities of the application of mass spectrometer in different operation modes in connection with the examination of a petrochemical synthesis product: ortho-phenylene-diamine, an experimental gas odorizing material, a petroleum production auxiliary material: petroleum sulfonate, a gasoline sample and a sulfur-containing standard substance. The useful operation modes include spectrum records of low and high resolution, the application of space ionization and space desorption ion sources as well as the ''mass fragmentographic'' measuring method. (author)

  10. Application of resonance ionization mass spectrometry for trace analysis and in fundamental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passler, G.

    1997-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS) has been used for ultra-trace analysis on long-lived radioisotopes like Pu, Tc and 89,90 Sr in various environmental samples. The experimental approaches cover pulsed laser spectroscopy on a thermal atomic beam and subsequent time-of-flight mass analysis, a pulsed laser ion source combined with conventional mass spectrometry, and collinear resonance ionization on a mass-separated fast atomic beam. The high sensitivity of RIMS also enables atomic spectroscopy on rare isotopes. For the first time experimental values for the ionization potential of actinides up to Cf have been determined. The paper reviews the dependency of the different experimental approaches on the analytical problem. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Study on flow and mass transport through fractured soft sedimentary rocks (Contact research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Kumamoto, Sou; Maekawa, Keisuke

    2007-03-01

    It is important for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal to evaluate groundwater flow and mass transport in deep underground accurately. Though it is considered that the mass transport in sedimentary rock occurs in pores between grains mainly, fractures of sedimentary rock can be main paths. The objective of this study is to establish a conceptual model for flow and mass transport in fractured soft sedimentary rock. In previous study, a series of laboratory hydraulic and tracer tests and numerical analyses were carried out using sedimentary rock specimens obtained from Koetoi and Wakkanai formation. Single natural fractured cores and rock block specimen were used for the tests and analyses. The results indicated that the matrix diffusion played an important role for mass transport in the fractured soft sedimentary rocks. In this study, the following two tasks were carried out: (1) laboratory hydraulic and tracer experiments of rock cores of Koetoi and Wakkanai formation obtained at HDB-9, HDB-10 and HDB-11 boreholes and a rock block specimen, Wakkanai formation, obtained at an outcrop in the Horonobe area, (2) a numerical study on the conceptual model of flow and mass transport through fractured soft sedimentary rocks. Non-sorbing tracer experiments using naturally fractured cores and rock block specimens were carried out. Pottasium iodide was used as a tracer. The obtained breakthrough curves were interpreted and fitted by using a numerical simulator, and mass transport parameters, such as longitudinal dispersivity, matrix diffusion coefficient, transport aperture, were obtained. Mass transport simulations using a fracture network model, a continuum model and a double porosity model were performed to study the applicability of continuum model and double porosity model for transport in fractured sedimentary rock. (author)

  12. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry using TANDEM accelerator in National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizota, Takeshi; Nakao, Setsuo; Niwa, Hiroaki; Saito, Kazuo [Particle Beam Sceince Laboratory, Multi-Function Material Science Department, National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry (PDMS) analysis was studied using TANDEM accelerator. The heavy ions of MeV range emit the secondary ions of atoms, molecules, polymers and clusters from the irradiated samples without destruction. The analysis system of PDMS designed and set-up using a mass spectrometer of Time of Flight and the TANDEM accelerator. The system performance was tested for C-60 fullerene on the surface of the samples using 11.2 MeV {sup 28}Si beams produced by the TANDEM accelerator of 1.7MV. The result shows that the hydrogen and hydrocarbons can be analyzed in the range of 1amu unit. The resolution (M/{delta}M) of the Mass Spectrometry system is confirmed to be about 1000 from the separation of the 720 and 721amu peaks, which is attributed to the C-60 fullerene including {sup 13}C atoms. (H. Katsuta)

  13. The research of sub-picogram plutonium's quantitative analysis by isotope mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lei; Long Kaiming; Yang Tianli; Liu Xuemei

    2005-10-01

    By using active carbon powder as emission matter, the detect sensitivity of 239 Pu was 0.5 pg (1 ± 0.15, 95% confidence level), improved 20 times compared with the sensitivity 10 pg (1 ± 0.5) of the tradition method. The sub-picogram plutonium sample was determined quantatively by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). (authors)

  14. Caricatural Imagery in the Mass Media. Research Report, Vol. 9, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Lawrence H.

    Caricature and its distortion of reality as developed in the mass press are discussed in relation to the appearance of caricatural elements in other media, such as radio and television. High frequency of appearances of these distorted roles and situations might lead to viewers' perceptual rigidity in typing of characters in general, but might have…

  15. Research on improvement strategies of elite culture, mass culture and the comprehensive quality of undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongling

    2011-10-01

    This article, placed the comprehensive quality improvement of undergraduates under the background of elite culture and mass culture, analyzed the influences and challenges brought by elite culture and mass culture on the undergraduate education from multiple perspectives of philosophy, ethics, economics, education, sociology and etc. and combing some foreign developed countries' experiences proposed the principles should be insisted by high schools in the context of elite culture and mass culture. With the development of times, undergraduate education should also constantly develop into new historical starting points and thoroughly reform the undergraduate education from content to essence, perception to format with a globalized horizon, so as to be able to reflect the time characteristics and better promote the overall development of undergraduates. Exactly based on such a view, this article, on the premise of full recognition that the flourishing and development of elite culture and mass culture has promoted China into a multicultural situation, proposed the principles for university moral education, such as education should promote the integration of undergraduate multi-values, sticking to the integration of unary guidance with diverse development, insisting on seeking common points while reserving differences and harmony but with differences, and etc.

  16. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters Final Report to the Subsurface Biogeochemical Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Timothy; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-03-10

    . In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Our study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3-part research plan involving (1) development of computer codes and techniques to estimate mass-transfer parameters from time-lapse electrical data; (2) bench-scale experiments on synthetic materials and materials from cores from the Hanford 300 Area; and (3) field demonstration experiments at the DOE’s Hanford 300 Area.

  17. A new direction for dark matter research: intermediate-mass compact halo objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapline, George F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Frampton, Paul H., E-mail: george.chapline@gmail.com, E-mail: paul.h.frampton@gmail.com [15 Summerheights, 29 Water Eaton Road, Oxford OX2 7PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    The failure to find evidence for elementary particles that could serve as the constituents of dark matter brings to mind suggestions that dark matter might consist of massive compact objects (MACHOs). In particular, it has recently been argued that MACHOs with masses > 15 M {sub ⊙} may have been prolifically produced at the onset of the big bang. Although a variety of astrophysical signatures for primordial MACHOs with masses in this range have been discussed in the literature, we favor a strategy that uses the potential for magnification of stars outside our galaxy due to gravitational microlensing of these stars by MACHOs in the halo of our galaxy. We point out that the effect of the motion of the Earth on the shape of the micro-lensing brightening curves provides a promising approach to testing over the course of next several years the hypothesis that dark matter consists of massive compact objects.

  18. Experimental research data on stress state of salt rock mass around an underground excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, VD; Baryshnikov, DV

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the experimental stress state data obtained in surrounding salt rock mass around an excavation in Mir Mine, ALROSA. The deformation characteristics and the values of stresses in the adjacent rock mass are determined. Using the method of drilling a pair of parallel holes in a stressed area, the authors construct linear relationship for the radial displacements of the stress measurement hole boundaries under the short-term loading of the perturbing hole. The resultant elasticity moduli of rocks are comparable with the laboratory core test data. Pre-estimates of actual stresses point at the presence of a plasticity zone in the vicinity of the underground excavation. The stress state behavior at a distance from the excavation boundary disagrees with the Dinnik–Geim hypothesis.

  19. A study on excavation of rock mass by lasers. Researching the possibility of utilizing low-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Fumio [Taisei Corporation, Technology Research Center, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The object of this research is to develop the techniques of rock-mass excavation by laser irradiation. This rock-mass excavation technique by lasers has a characteristic of extremely little effect to the surroundings of an excavation site no matter how the target rock mass is with regard to geological aspects and given physical property. Moreover, it could be utilized in excavation of waste dump facilities, which need to be re-buried, and applied to excavation of long piles and tunnels, which are drilled through different kinds of strata, and to improvement of rock mass and ground. Lasers have a characteristic of concentrating the energy into a limited point and not only discontinue or cut a large area with a small output like sharp scissors but also block up the cracks deep inside the rock mass by fusing vitrification for its improvement. It leads to restrain the loss of energy, minimization of the effected environment, effective utilization of resources and energy, environmental restoration, and improvement of the working environment. In the field of nuclear fuel, which includes excavating dump pits, dismantling a furnace, and taking appropriate steps of mine remains, excavating, cutting, and fusing could be required to do within a limited space of rock mass or concrete. Up to the present, those things have been done mainly by large machines, but it is too scarce in possibility for them to improve their large size, heavy weight, difficulty in unmanned operation, limited shapes of cutting, and stabilization of waste. In this research the concrete system images have been examined, doing the fundamental researches about higher-power lasers, smaller sizing, transmitting by fibers to find our the breakthrough to realization of laser excavation, This year, as the summary of examining the laser excavation techniques, utilizing a low-power laser, which is thought to be highly effective in rock-mass improvement, will be examined, considering application of the technique

  20. Catch and measure-mass spectrometry-based immunoassays in biomarker research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Frederik; van den Berg, Bart H J; Planatscher, Hannes; Pynn, Christopher J; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Mass spectrometry-based (MS) methods are effective tools for discovering protein biomarker candidates that can differentiate between physiological and pathophysiological states. Promising candidates are validated in studies comprising large patient cohorts. Here, targeted protein analytics are used to increase sample throughput. Methods involving antibodies, such as sandwich immunoassays or Western blots, are commonly applied at this stage. Highly-specific and sensitive mass spectrometry-based immunoassays that have been established in recent years offer a suitable alternative to sandwich immunoassays for quantifying proteins. Mass Spectrometric ImmunoAssays (MSIA) and Stable Isotope Standards and Capture by Anti-Peptide Antibodies (SISCAPA/iMALDI) are two prominent types of MS-based immunoassays in which the capture is done either at the protein or the peptide level. We present an overview of these emerging types of immunoassays and discuss their suitability for the discovery and validation of protein biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biomarkers: A Proteomic Challenge. © 2013.

  1. The psychology of health and well-being in mass gatherings: A review and a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Hopkins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass gatherings bring large numbers of people into physical proximity. Typically, this physical proximity has been assumed to contribute to ill health (e.g., through being stressful, facilitating infection transmission, etc.. In this paper, we add a new dimension to the emerging field of mass gatherings medicine. Drawing on psychological research concerning group processes, we consider the psychological transformations that occur when people become part of a crowd. We then consider how these transformations may have various consequences for health and well-being. Some of these consequences may be positive. For example, a sense of shared identity amongst participants may encourage participants to view others as a source of social support which in turn contributes to a sense of health and well-being. However, some consequences may be negative. Thus, this same sense of shared identity may result in a loss of disgust at the prospect of sharing resources (e.g., drinking utensils which could, in turn, facilitate infection transmission. These, and related issues, are illustrated with research conducted at the Magh Mela (North India. We conclude with an agenda for future research concerning health practices at mass gatherings.

  2. Images of Men and Masculinity in the Mass Media: A Selected Research Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Steve, Comp.

    This bibliography lists 285 books and articles from the past 20 years which researchers or scholars interested in men's studies can use to investigate the portrayal of men or masculinity in the media. Many of the studies listed in this bibliography were clearly conceived as research on women rather than men, but offer insights into masculinity as…

  3. A scoping review of research on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the mass media: looking back, moving forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Laura C; Strudsholm, Tina

    2008-07-19

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become more common in Western developed countries in recent years, as has media reporting on CAM and related issues. Correspondingly, media reports are a primary information source regarding decisions to use CAM. Research on CAM related media reports is becoming increasingly relevant and important; however, identifying key concepts to guide future research is problematic due to the dispersed nature of completed research in this field. A scoping review was conducted to: 1) determine the amount, focus and nature of research on CAM and the mass media; and 2) summarize and disseminate related research results. The main phases were: 1) searching for relevant studies; 2) selecting studies based on pre-defined inclusion criteria; 3) extracting data; and 4) collating, summarizing and reporting the results. Of 4,454 studies identified through various search strategies, 16 were relevant to our objectives and included in a final sample. CAM and media research has focused primarily on print media coverage of a range of CAM therapies, although only a few studies articulated differences within the range of therapies surveyed. Research has been developed through a variety of disciplinary perspectives, with a focus on representation research. The research reviewed suggests that journalists draw on a range of sources to prepare media reports, although most commonly they cite conventional (versus CAM) sources and personal anecdotes. The tone of media reports appears generally positive, which may be related to a lack of reporting on issues related to risk and safety. Finally, a variety of discourses within media representations of CAM are apparent that each appeal to a specific audience through resonance with their specific concerns. Research on CAM and the mass media spans multiple disciplines and strategies of inquiry; however, despite the diversity in approach, it is clear that issues related to production and reception

  4. Mass market development strategies of software industries: Case study based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Gupta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success in competitive mass market software development depends on the quality of software development and market segments targeted. Market segments are categorized by uncertainties contributed by “Newness” and “turbulences”, making the software success stochastic in nature. Selecting good market segments, delivering high quality software versions in the lowest time than competitors, result in increasing demand in markets and ultimately revenues. Enhanced customer base is beneficial for current product as well as for future products of industry in the form of increased reputation and increased involvement of customers in future development. The case study was conducted with 13 representatives drawing experiences of 14 mass market projects. Results indicate that software solutions are delivered to few investors or in highly competitive markets, as per the survey's findings of the marketing departments. The software organizations are reluctant to deliver relatively complex solutions in new markets unless and until strongly convinced with the probable success. The method for selection of market segments belonging to new and existing markets for undertaking the software delivery is also proposed in this paper. The model will help software industry decide the market segments and high abstract level features that could increase probability of software success. Poor selection of markets or targeting markets of “improper” size affects the market share of the industry to a great extend.

  5. Development of a smoking prevention mass media program using diagnostic and formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, J K; Flynn, B S; Geller, B M; Chen, M; Shelton, L G; Secker-Walker, R H; Solomon, D S; Solomon, L J; Couchey, S; Costanza, M C

    1988-09-01

    The process of developing a mass media campaign to prevent smoking among adolescents is described in detail. This campaign supplements a school smoking prevention program and shares educational objectives with the school program but is otherwise independent. It comprises various television and radio 30- and 60-sec "spot" messages. The campaign development process includes identifying educational objectives and strategies for appealing to young people; conducting diagnostic surveys and focus groups to determine target audience interests and perceptions about smoking and media content; suggesting approaches to producers to create preliminary television and radio messages for testing; conducting formative pretests with target groups to select optimal messages and suggest improvements to those messages; producing final messages for media presentation; and developing a media exposure plan to place messages in local media at optimal times for reception by target audiences. The media campaign is being evaluated in a 5-year project with 5,500 adolescents in four communities to determine the additional effect of mass media over a school program alone in preventing smoking.

  6. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics: applications to biomarker and metabolic pathway research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Yan, Guangli; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become increasingly popular in molecular medicine. High-definition mass spectrometry (MS), coupled with pattern recognition methods, have been carried out to obtain comprehensive metabolite profiling and metabolic pathway of large biological datasets. This sets the scene for a new and powerful diagnostic approach. Analysis of the key metabolites in body fluids has become an important part of improving disease diagnosis. With technological advances in analytical techniques, the ability to measure low-molecular-weight metabolites in bio-samples provides a powerful platform for identifying metabolites that are uniquely correlated with a specific human disease. MS-based metabolomics can lead to enhanced understanding of disease mechanisms and to new diagnostic markers and has a strong potential to contribute to improving early diagnosis of diseases. This review will highlight the importance and benefit with certain characteristic examples of MS-metabolomics for identifying metabolic pathways and metabolites that accurately screen for potential diagnostic biomarkers of diseases. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Mass spectrometric analytical services and research activities to support coal-liquid characterization research. Quarterly report, June 9, 1976--October 5, 1976. [10 refs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheppele, S.E.

    1976-10-19

    Low-resolution field ionization and high-resolution 70-eV electron-impact mass spectra data were obtained for 28 GPC fractions acquired from Bartlett, Kansas, heavy petroleum by members of the Separation and Characterization group at the Bartlesville Energy Research Center. This group was supplied with most-probable empirical formulas deduced from the high resolution electron-impact data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative analytical data previously obtained for GPC fractions from a Synthoil sample by high- and low-resolution field-ionization and high-resolution 70-eV electron-impact mass spectrometry is essentially complete. A study of field-ionization sensitivities for saturates and mixtures of saturates and aromatics is in progress. Components required to modify the combined FI/EI ion source to permit operation in the field desorption mode have been ordered.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry as a method in proteomic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walcher, W.

    2003-06-01

    During the sequencing of the human genome it became clear, that a lot of human diseases and/or malfunctions don't base on genomic information, but on differences at the protein level. Therefore biochemistry, biology and medicine are faced to various novel problems where new and authentic analysis methods are needed. Miniaturized chromatographic separation methods are frequently the methods of choice for the separation of peptides and proteins, when the amount of sample is limited. Monolithic capillary columns were prepared by copolymerization of styrene and divinylbenzene in the presence of a suitable porogen mixture of 1-decanol and tetrahydrofuran. The synthesized columns enabled the highly efficient separation of peptides and proteins by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with peak capacities of 80 and more in 10 minutes. By the hyphenation of RP-HPLC to electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) the potential of the analysis method was even extended. The monolithic column technology was further miniaturized from 200 μm to 100 and 50 μm inner diameters to improve detection limits by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. After the optimization of the RP-HPLC-ESI-MS method, the ion source and the ion transfer optics of an ion trap mass spectrometer (LCQ classic, Thermofinnigan) have been advanced for protein and peptide analysis. The improved RP-HPLC-ESI-MS system was subsequently applied to the detection of posttranslational protein modifications at the example of the nitration of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of the RP-HPLC-ESI-MS analysis were found to be highly reproducible, which enabled the determination of nitration degrees for different tyrosine residues in the protein sequence. Y 1 60, Y 4 96 and Y 3 52 or Y369 were found to be the predominant positions of protein nitration in BSA. At last light harvesting proteins from the photosystem II (PSII) of higher plants have been analyzed by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS and RP-HPLC-ESI-MSMS. Beside the

  9. How the mass media report social statistics: a case study concerning research on end-of-life decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive

    2010-09-01

    The issue of whether it is right to be concerned about the accuracy with which mass media report social scientific research is explored through a detailed case study of media reporting of two surveys of UK doctors' end-of-life decision-making. Data include press releases, emails and field notes taken during periods of media interest supplemented by a collection of print and broadcast media reports. The case study contributes to existing knowledge about the ways in which mass media establish, exaggerate and otherwise distort the meaning of statistical findings. Journalists ignored findings that did not fit into existing media interest in the 'assisted dying' story and were subject to pressure from interest groups concerned to promote their own interpretations and viewpoints. Rogue statistics mutated as they were set loose from their original research report context and were 'laundered' as they passed from one media report to another. Yet media accounts of the research, fuelling an already heated public debate about ethical issues in end-of-life care, arguably acted as a conduit for introducing new considerations into this debate, such as the role played by sedation at the end of life, the extent to which euthanasia is practiced outside the law, and the extent of medical opposition to the legalisation of assisted dying. The expectation that accuracy and comprehensiveness should be the sole criteria for judging journalists' reports is, finally, considered to be unrealistic and it is argued that social scientists need to understand and adapted to the conditions under which mass media reporting operates if they are to succeed in introducing the findings of social research into public debates. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.

  11. Mass customization process for the Social Housing. Potentiality, critical points, research lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Di Sivo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The demand for lengthening the life cycle of the residential estate, engendered with the economical and housing crisis since the last few years, brings out, in the course of time, the need for conservation and improvement works of the property house performances, through the direct involvement of the users. The possibility of reducing maintenance and adjustment costs may develop into a project resource, consistent to the participation and cooperation principles, identifying social housing interventions. With this aim, the BETHA group of the d’Annunzio University is investigating the potentiality of technological transfer of the ‘mass customization’ process from the industrial products field to the social housing segment, by detecting issues, strategies and opportunities.

  12. Collaborative Research: failure of RockMasses from Nucleation and Growth of Microscopic Defects and Disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, William [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Over the 21 years of funding we have pursued several projects related to earthquakes, damage and nucleation. We developed simple models of earthquake faults which we studied to understand Gutenburg-Richter scaling, foreshocks and aftershocks, the effect of spatial structure of the faults and its interaction with underlying self organization and phase transitions. In addition we studied the formation of amorphous solids via the glass transition. We have also studied nucleation with a particular concentration on transitions in systems with a spatial symmetry change. In addition we investigated the nucleation process in models that mimic rock masses. We obtained the structure of the droplet in both homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation. We also investigated the effect of defects or asperities on the nucleation of failure in simple models of earthquake faults.

  13. A research on relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index among Turkish seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Selçuk; Fışkın, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate and to reveal the relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index (BMI) and obesity among Turkish seafarers by using the health examination reports data obtained from 2009 to 2016. The data on age, gender, weight, height and blood groups obtained from 298,247 medical examination reports of Turkish seafarers were used with the official permission of Directorate General of Health for Border and Coastal Areas. Only 116,871 reports included blood group data. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to survey relationship between variables. The results of the study were compared with other studies in the related literature. It has been revealed that AB Rh (-) group was associated the highest mean BMI value (mean: 25.952). It is suggested that seafarers with AB Rh (-) blood group, who have the highest mean BMI value, should pay special attention to their weight.

  14. Heavy methanes (mass-20 and -21) as atmospheric tracers. A new research initiatives project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthals, P.R.; Fowler, M.M.

    1978-07-01

    Products from the stable isotope production project (ICONS) at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) have had applications in a number of practical problems. Fully deuterated methanes, using 12 C and 13 C (mass-20 and -21, respectively), are detectable in the atmosphere at very low concentrations. The detection limits are due to an almost zero background and a distinct mass-spectrometric line. These properties, coupled with long lifetimes in the atmosphere, make the heavy methanes strong candidates for tracers of atmospheric transport and turbulence on regional to global scales. Three field tests have been conducted to assess the feasibility and to demonstrate the desirable properties of heavy methanes as atmospheric tracers. In the first test in May 1974, heavy methane released at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was sampled and detected in several midwestern cities up to 2500 km downstream. These results agree with trajectories estimated from observed meteorological data. A second experiment, conducted in December 1975 at the Savannah River Plant, compared two heavy methanes with SF 6 and 85 Kr over a transport distance of 100 km. Increased detail in meteorological support data and ground-level sampling offered options of data interpretation unavailable in the first test. Qualitative patterns of tracer concentrations show good agreement among the four tracers and are verified by the meteorological inputs. The third experiment, performed in April 1977 at INEL, built on the experience of the previous two. Detailed ground-level sampling arrays at 3, 50, and 90 km from the release point were supplemented by aircraft and a crude sampling line across the Continental Divide at 300-km distance. Two new perfluorocarbon tracers were included for comparison

  15. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-02-01

    To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.

  16. Low field pulsed NMR- a mass screening tool in agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.N.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main requirements in agricultural research is to analyse large number of samples for their one or more chemical constituents and physical properties. In plant breeding programmes and germplasm evaluation, it is necessary that the analysis is fast as many samples are to be analysed. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a potential tool for developing rapid and nondestructive method of analysis. Various applications of low resolution pulsed NMR in agricultural research, which are generally used as screening method are briefly described. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Heterogeneous mass transfer in HRE in the presence of electrostatic field research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshetnikov, S. M.; Zyryanov, I. A.; Budin, A. G.; Pozolotin, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents research results of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) combustion in a hybrid rocket engine (HRE) under the influence of an electrostatic field. It is shown that the main mechanism of electrostatic field influence on the combustion rate is process changes in the condensed phase.

  18. Promoting Research to the Masses: Assessing the Impact of a Poster Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Denise R.; Lyon, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    Poster sessions are often used to educate communities. In this paper, we describe a project in which students summarized research findings on child development issues in poster form and showcased their work to the campus community. Through a variety of assessments, we show that poster walk participants not only enjoyed the event but also became…

  19. RESEARCH OF SOPHORA JAPONICA L. FLOWER BUDS VOLATILE COMPOUNDS WITH GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS- SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholak I.S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This work represents the results of the research ofessential oil contained in Sophora japonica L. flowerbuds volatile compounds collected during the nextstages of their development: green flower buds, formedflower buds and the beginning of flower buds opening.Essential oil assay content in Sophora japonica L.flower buds was determined with hydrodistillationmethod. Content of essential oil in the raw material isless than 0,1%. Qualitative composition and assaycontent of Sophora japonica L. flower buds essential oilconstituents were determined with chromato-massspectrometry method. In consequence of the research 80constituents were identified in Sophora japonica L.flower buds out of which 61 substances are during thegreen flower buds and beginning of flower budsopening stages, 66 substances are during formed flowerbuds stage. Substances are represented by aliphatic andcyclic terpenoids, their alcohols and ketones. Mostvolatile substances were extracted on the stage offormed buds.

  20. Research of processes of eutrophication of Teteriv river reservoir based on neural networks mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelnikova T.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods of process control of eutrophication in water are based on water sampling, handling them in the laboratory and calculation of indexes of pond ecosystem. However, these methods have some significant drawbacks associated with using manual labor. The method of determining of the geometric parameters of phytoplankton through the use of neural networks for processing water samples is developed. Due to this method eutrophic processes of reservoirs of river Teteriv are investigated. A comparative analysis of eutrophic processes of reservoirs "Denyshi" and “Vidsichne” intake during 2014-2015 years are given. The differences between qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton algae in two reservoirs of the river Teteriv used for water supply of Zhitomir city area are found out. The influence of exogenous and endogenous factors on the expansion of phytoplankton is researched. Research results can be used for monitoring and forecasting of ecological state of water for household purposes, used for water supply of cities.

  1. Applications of Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry in Mechanistic Studies and Catalysis Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schröder, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 9 (2012), s. 1521-1532 ISSN 0001-4842 Grant - others:European Research Council(XE) AdG HORIZOMS Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cross - coupling reactions * Baylis–Hillman reaction * molecular-dynamics simulations * solution-phase mechanism * gas-phase * infrared-spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 20.833, year: 2012

  2. Modified quadrupole mass analyzer RGA-100 for beam plasma research in forevacuum pressure range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The industrial quadrupole RGA-100 residual gas analyzer was modified for the research of electron beam-generated plasma at forevacuum pressure range. The standard ionizer of the RGA-100 was replaced by three electrode extracting unit. We made the optimization of operation parameters in order to provide the maximum values of measured currents of any ion species. The modified analyzer was successfully tested with beam plasma of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbons.

  3. A review of research on cytological approach in salivary gland masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Babu Rajendra Santosh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspirations (FNAs in salivary gland pathologies. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in the PubMed database using related Medical Subject Heading terms “sensitivity and specificity of FNA in salivary gland” and “diagnostic accuracy of FNA in salivary gland” for the period 1980–2016, and we found that 414 research studies had been published. PRISMA technology was utilized to prepare flow chart for displaying data search strategy. A total of 385 articles were excluded based on the established inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Twenty-nine research studies were included. Those twenty-nine studies on the sensitivity and specificity of FNAs in salivary gland pathology consisted of 5274 cases of benign, malignant and inflammatory salivary gland lesions. The present study identified a range of 87%–100% sensitivity and 90%–100% specificity for the usefulness of FNAs in distinguishing benign and malignant salivary gland lesions. Although a considerable number of studies have been identified that reported on sensitivity and specificity of FNAs in salivary gland pathologies, each study had a different approach in reporting the sensitivity and specificity. We emphasize that standardized reporting protocols of sensitivity and specificity report supported with checklists would help future researchers to interpret this cytological method and make more accurate clinical utility and usefulness reports on salivary gland pathologies.

  4. Original Research Body Mass Index is a Poor Predictor of Bedside Appendix Ultrasound Success or Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel H.F. Lam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between body mass index (BMI and success or accuracy rate of beside ultrasound (BUS for the diagnosis of appendicitis. Methods: Patients four years of age and older presenting to the emergency department with suspected appendicitis were eligible. Enrollment was by convenience sampling. After informed consent, BUS was performed by trained emergency physicians who had undergone a minimum of one-hour didactic training on the use of BUS to diagnose appendicitis. We ascertained subject outcomes by a combination of medical record review and telephone follow up. Calculated BMI for adults and children were divided into four categories (underweight, normal, overweight, obese according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classifications. Results: A total of 125 subjects consented for the study, and 116 of them had adequate image data for final analysis. Seventy (60% of the subjects were children. Prevalence of appendicitis was 39%. Fifty-two (45% of the BUS studies were diagnostic (successful. Overall accuracy rate was 75%. Analysis by chi-square test or Mann-Whitney U test did not find any significant correlation between BMI category and BUS success. Similarly, there was no significant correlation between BMI category and BUS accuracy. The same conclusion was reached when children and adults were analyzed separately, or when subjects were dichotomized into underweight/ normal and overweight/ obese categories. Conclusion: BMI category alone is a poor predictor of appendix BUS success or accuracy. [West J Emerg Med. 2016;17(4454-459.

  5. Research on the technologies of cracking-resistance of mass concrete in subway station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yanmin; Li, Shujin; Jiang, Guoquan; Shi, Xiaoqing; Yang, Zhu; Zhu, Zhihang

    2018-03-01

    This paper takes the theory of multi-field coupling and the model of hydration-temperature-humidity-constraint to assess the effect of cracking-resistance on structural concrete and optimize the controlling index of crack resistance. The effect is caused by structure, material and construction, etc. The preparation technology of high cracking-resistance concrete is formed through the researching on the temperature rising and deformation over the controlling influence of new anti-cracking materials and technologies. A series of technologies on anti-cracking and waterproof in underground structural concrete of urban rail transit are formed based on the above study. The technologies include design, construction, materials and monitoring. Those technologies are used in actual engineering to improve the quality of urban rail transit and this brings significant economic and social benefits.

  6. Numerical research of heat and mass transfer during low-temperature ignition of a coal particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical researches have been carried out to study the influence of air flow temperature and a fossil fuel particle rate on sufficient conditions of ignition in a “coal particle - air” system. Developed mathematical model takes into account interconnected processes of heat transfer in a coal particle and gas area, thermal decomposition of organic material, diffusion and gas-phase oxidation of volatiles, heating of a coke (carbon and its heterogeneous ignition. The effect of low-temperature (about 600 K ignition for a single coal particle is impossible even at variation of its rate (radius from 0.05 mm to 0.5 mm. Nevertheless this process is possible for group of particles (two, three, et al. situated at close-range from each other. The physical aspects of the problem are discussed.

  7. From stem cells to human development: a distinctly human perspective on early embryology, cellular differentiation and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, April M; Johnson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Over 100 scientists with common interests in human development, disease and regeneration gathered in late September 2016 for The Company of Biologists' second 'From Stem Cells to Human Development' meeting held in historic Southbridge. In this Meeting Review, we highlight some of the exciting new findings that were presented, and discuss emerging themes and convergences in human development and disease that arose during these discussions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Potential of gas chromatography-orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-oaTOFMS) in flavor research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Laurent B; Newton, Anthony; Simian, Hervé; Robert, Fabien; Douce, David; Hancock, Peter; Green, Martin; Blank, Imre

    2003-04-23

    Gas chromatography-orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-oaTOFMS) is an emerging technique offering a straightforward access to a resolving power up to 7000. This paper deals with the use of GC-oaTOFMS to identify the flavor components of a complex seafood flavor extract and to quantify furanones formed in model Maillard reactions. A seafood extract was selected as a representative example for complex food flavors and was previously analyzed using GC-quadrupole MS, leaving several molecules unidentified. GC-oaTOFMS analysis was focused on these unknowns to evaluate its potential in flavor research, particularly for determining exact masses. N-Methyldithiodimethylamine, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and tetrahydro-2,4-dimethyl-4H-pyrrolo[2,1-d]-1,3,5-dithiazine were successfully identified on the basis of the precise mass determination of their molecular ions and their major fragments. A second set of experiments was performed to test the capabilities of the GC-oaTOFMS for quantification. Calibration curves were found to be linear over a dynamic range of 10(3) for the quantification of furanones. The quantitative data obtained using GC-oaTOFMS confirmed earlier results that the formation of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was favored in the xylose/glycine model reaction and 2(or 5)-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone in the xylose/alanine model reaction. It was concluded that GC-oaTOFMS may become a powerful analytical tool for the flavor chemist for both identification and quantification purposes, the latter in particular when combined with stable isotope dilution assay.

  9. Differential response to targeted recruitment strategies to fitness promotion research by African-American women of varying body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, A K; Miles, O L; McCarthy, W J; Sandoval, G; Hill, J; Leslie, J J; Harrison, G G

    2001-01-01

    To assess patterns of recruitment into a community-based NCI-funded physical activity and dietary lifestyle change program targeting African-American women. Acquisition of a convenience sample to be screened for participation in a randomized, controlled prevention intervention. African-American-owned and -operated health club located in an area of Los Angeles in which African Americans are concentrated. 893 African-American women. RECRUITMENT STRATEGIES: Social networking/word-of-mouth, staff presentations, mass and targeted media, and physician referral. Completion of screening questionnaire indicating a desire to enroll in the study. Screening questionnaire domains included self-reported height and weight, recent participation in organized weight loss programs, ability to walk one mile unassisted, current medication use, smoking status, personal medical history of cancer, sociodemographic variables, and recruitment source. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics distinguished between respondents obtained through different recruitment strategies. In particular, women with a higher body mass index (BMI) were more likely than those with lower BMIs (P = .014) to be recruited through more personalized methods (eg, social networking). Culturally tailored recruitment strategies are critical in securing the participation of members of "hard-to-reach" populations, who are both under-represented in health promotion research and at high risk for chronic diseases.

  10. Chiral drug analysis using mass spectrometric detection relevant to research and practice in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2012-12-21

    This paper reviews analytical approaches published in 2002-2012 for chiral drug analysis and their relevance in research and practice in the field of clinical and forensic toxicology. Separation systems such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electromigration, and supercritical fluid chromatography, all coupled to mass spectrometry, are discussed. Typical applications are reviewed for relevant chiral analytes such as amphetamines and amphetamine-derived designer drugs, methadone, tramadol, psychotropic and other CNS acting drugs, anticoagulants, cardiovascular drugs, and some other drugs. Usefulness of chiral drug analysis in the interpretation of analytical results in clinical and forensic toxicology is discussed as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies on the reconstruction of the concept of rock mass around the tunnel. Japanese fiscal year, 2013 (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Keiji [Geospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Ohnishi, Yuzo [Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan); Aoki, Kenji [Geosystem Research Inst., Kyoto (Japan); Tochiyama, Osamu [Nuclear Safety Research Association, Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nishigaki, Makoto [Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Tosaka, Hiroyuki [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, Hidekazu [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Ogata, Nobuhisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Sector of Decommissioning and Radioactive Waste Management, Tono Geoscience Center, Mizunami, Gifu (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    This report is concerned with research to reconstruct more realistic near-field (NF) concept for the geological disposal. In previous year, we examined the realistic concept for near-field, including rock mass around the tunnel, particularly based on the nuclide migration scenario. The time-series change of the field was divided into five stages of 0 to IV through the process of geological disposal (Excavation, Operation and Post-closure). Then, at each respective stage, post-closure stage in particular; we examined interaction between environmental factors and exhaustive extraction of those factors affecting the near-field, focusing on each scale-time cross-section. Subsequently, we committee, presented tasks for the next fiscal year. This year, to reflect/develop the results obtained from above study, we tried to establish a realistic conceptual model of near-field focusing on, which is among the factors that have been extracted. In addition, Japan Atomic Energy Agency is planning to re-flood studies at the -500m Research Gallery, which leads to the verification of the matters as part of reconstructing practical near-field concept. The committee has conducted this plan and exchanging of views was held among the committee members. Comments on the chapter I from respective members are compiled in Appendix. In chapter II, we discussed and then summarized the 'Realistic conceptual model description of near field focusing on fault and fractures in crystalline rock' described in chapter I. In addition, since the 'Great East Japan Earthquake 2011', a paradigm shift for safety has dramatically changed. In the reconstruction of realistic near-field concept, it is necessary to analyze security matters are unacceptable by society, regarding geological disposal. In the committee, we also exchanged views on those matters and presented the future direction of research and development for geological disposal. (author)

  12. Representativeness and optimal use of body mass index (BMI) in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Forbes, Harriet J; Douglas, Ian; Leon, David A; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the completeness and representativeness of body mass index (BMI) data in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), and determine an optimal strategy for their use. Design Descriptive study. Setting Electronic healthcare records from primary care. Participants A million patient random sample from the UK CPRD primary care database, aged ≥16 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures BMI completeness in CPRD was evaluated by age, sex and calendar period. CPRD-based summary BMI statistics for each calendar year (2003–2010) were age-standardised and sex-standardised and compared with equivalent statistics from the Health Survey for England (HSE). Results BMI completeness increased over calendar time from 37% in 1990–1994 to 77% in 2005–2011, was higher among females and increased with age. When BMI at specific time points was assigned based on the most recent record, calendar–year-specific mean BMI statistics underestimated equivalent HSE statistics by 0.75–1.1 kg/m2. Restriction to those with a recent (≤3 years) BMI resulted in mean BMI estimates closer to HSE (≤0.28 kg/m2 underestimation), but excluded up to 47% of patients. An alternative strategy of imputing up-to-date BMI based on modelled changes in BMI over time since the last available record also led to mean BMI estimates that were close to HSE (≤0.37 kg/m2 underestimation). Conclusions Completeness of BMI in CPRD increased over time and varied by age and sex. At a given point in time, a large proportion of the most recent BMIs are unlikely to reflect current BMI; consequent BMI misclassification might be reduced by employing model-based imputation of current BMI. PMID:24038008

  13. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  14. Mass hysteria

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Considerable research is being undertaken to identify the Higgs particle that is believed to give things their mass. According to the standard model, what we call mass is really an indication of how strongly particles interact with an invisible syrupy substance called the Higgs field. Quantum mechanics say that the mass-giving field can also be thought of as a sea of electrically neutral Higgs particles that should be dislodged in collisions between subatomic particles with high enough energies. Particle physicists expect the Higgs to exist only for a fleeting moment before decaying into other particles, which are caught in a detector. (Edited abstract).

  15. Continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) and its applications in hydrocarbon research and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpana, G.; Patil, D.J.; Kumar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope ratio mass spectrometers have been widely used to determine the isotopic ratios of light elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (CFIRMS) provides reliable data on nanomole amount of sample gas without the need for cryogenic trapping using cold fingers as in dual inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometer. High sample throughput is achieved as the system is configured with automated sample preparation devices and auto samplers. This paper presents a brief description of CFIRMS exploration

  16. Investigative Research on the Effect of Zero-Mass Jets on the Base Drag of Axisymmatric Bodies at Sunersonic Speeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fasel, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    ... out. For low subsonic Mach numbers, we have found that zero-mass jets that are generated by high-frequency forcing can have a significant effect on the flow structures that develop downstream of the base...

  17. Open Source Software Tool Skyline Reaches Key Agreement with Mass Spectrometer Vendors | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full proteomics analysis of a small tumor sample (similar in mass to a few grains of rice) produces well over 500 megabytes of unprocessed "raw" data when analyzed on a mass spectrometer (MS). Thus, for every proteomics experiment there is a vast amount of raw data that must be analyzed and interrogated in order to extract biological information. Moreover, the raw data output from different MS vendors are generally in different formats inhibiting the ability of labs to productively work together.

  18. Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) in the active upwelling zone on the west coast of South Africa 1969-12-02 to 1969-12-16 (NODC Accession 0071850)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by South African the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) during SFRI upwelling...

  19. Tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns: research needs for Articles 11 and 12 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Wakefield, Melanie; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily

    2013-04-01

    Communicating the health risks of smoking remains a primary objective of tobacco-control policy. Articles 11 and 12 of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control establish standards for two important forms of communication: packaging regulations (Article 11), and mass media campaigns (Article 12). A narrative review approach was used to identify existing evidence in the areas of package labeling regulations (including health warnings, constituent and emission messages, and prohibitions on misleading information) and communication activities (including mass media campaigns and news media coverage). When available, recent reviews of the literature were used, updated with more recent high-quality studies from published literature. Implementation of Articles 11 and 12 share several important research priorities: (a) identify existing consumer information needs and gaps, (b) research on the message source to identify effective types of content for health warnings and media campaigns, (c) research on how messages are processed and the extent to which the content and form of messages need to be tailored to different cultural and geographic groups, as well as subgroups within countries, and (d) research to identify the most cost-effective mix and best practices for sustaining health communications over time. A unifying theme of effective health communication through tobacco packaging and mass media campaigns is the need to provide salient, timely, and engaging reminders of the consequences of tobacco use in ways that motivate and support tobacco users trying to quit and make tobacco use less appealing for those at risk of taking it up.

  20. A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M

    2006-01-01

    Mass media campaigns have long been a tool for promoting public health. How effective are such campaigns in changing health-related attitudes and behaviors, however, and how has the literature in this area progressed over the past decade? The purpose of the current article is threefold. First, I discuss the importance of health mass media campaigns and raise the question of whether they are capable of effectively impacting public health. Second, I review the literature and discuss what we have learned about the effectiveness of campaigns over the past 10 years. Finally, I conclude with a discussion of possible avenues for the health campaign literature over the next 10 years. The overriding conclusion is the following: The literature is beginning to amass evidence that targeted, well-executed health mass media campaigns can have small-to-moderate effects not only on health knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes, but on behaviors as well, which can translate into major public health impact given the wide reach of mass media. Such impact can only be achieved, however, if principles of effective campaign design are carefully followed.

  1. Research on Time Selection of Mass Sports in Tibetan Areas Plateau of Gansu Province Based on Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jike

    2018-01-01

    Through using the method of literature review, instrument measuring, questionnaire and mathematical statistics, this paper analyzed the current situation in Mass Sports of Tibetan Areas Plateau in Gansu Province. Through experimental test access to Tibetan areas in gansu province of air pollutants and meteorological index data as the foundation, control related national standard and exercise science, statistical analysis of data, the Tibetan plateau, gansu province people participate in physical exercise is dedicated to providing you with scientific methods and appropriate time.

  2. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F.C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schloegl, R.

    2006-01-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000 deg. C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100 μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10 ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20 ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N 2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N 2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250 deg. C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH 3 · radicals is successfully demonstrated

  3. Molecular beam mass spectrometer equipped with a catalytic wall reactor for in situ studies in high temperature catalysis research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, R.; Ihmann, K.; Ihmann, J.; Jentoft, F. C.; Geske, M.; Taha, A.; Pelzer, K.; Schlögl, R.

    2006-05-01

    A newly developed apparatus combining a molecular beam mass spectrometer and a catalytic wall reactor is described. The setup has been developed for in situ studies of high temperature catalytic reactions (>1000°C), which involve besides surface reactions also gas phase reactions in their mechanism. The goal is to identify gas phase radicals by threshold ionization. A tubular reactor, made from the catalytic material, is positioned in a vacuum chamber. Expansion of the gas through a 100μm sampling orifice in the reactor wall into differentially pumped nozzle, skimmer, and collimator chambers leads to the formation of a molecular beam. A quadrupole mass spectrometer with electron impact ion source designed for molecular beam inlet and threshold ionization measurements is used as the analyzer. The sampling time from nozzle to detector is estimated to be less than 10ms. A detection time resolution of up to 20ms can be reached. The temperature of the reactor is measured by pyrometry. Besides a detailed description of the setup components and the physical background of the method, this article presents measurements showing the performance of the apparatus. After deriving the shape and width of the energy spread of the ionizing electrons from measurements on N2 and He we estimated the detection limit in threshold ionization measurements using binary mixtures of CO in N2 to be in the range of several hundreds of ppm. Mass spectra and threshold ionization measurements recorded during catalytic partial oxidation of methane at 1250°C on a Pt catalyst are presented. The detection of CH3• radicals is successfully demonstrated.

  4. Study on crystalline rock aiming at evaluation method of long-term behavior of rock mass (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Katsunori; Hashiba, Kimihiro; Matsui, Hiroya

    2017-11-01

    It is important to evaluate the stability of a repository for high-level radioactive waste not only during the design, construction and operation phases, but also during the post-closure period, for time frames likely exceeding several millennia or longer. The rock mass around the tunnels could be deformed through time in response to time dependent behavior such as creep and stress relaxation. Therefore, development of methodology to evaluate the past long-term behavior of rock mass is considered to be an issue. In view of above points, this study has been started as a collaboration study with the University of Tokyo from Fiscal Year 2016. In FY 2016, creep testing on Tage tuff was continuously conducted. Existing theory of rate process and stochastic process was modified to be applied to evaluate effects of water, and then the modified theory was validated based on the results of strength and creep tests performed under dry and wet conditions. Furthermore, effects of water contents on stress-strain curves were examined by uniaxial compression testing under various water content conditions. (author)

  5. Using data-independent, high-resolution mass spectrometry in protein biomarker research: perspectives and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajic, Tatjana; Liu, Yansheng; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-04-01

    In medicine, there is an urgent need for protein biomarkers in a range of applications that includes diagnostics, disease stratification, and therapeutic decisions. One of the main technologies to address this need is MS, used for protein biomarker discovery and, increasingly, also for protein biomarker validation. Currently, data-dependent analysis (also referred to as shotgun proteomics) and targeted MS, exemplified by SRM, are the most frequently used mass spectrometric methods. Recently developed data-independent acquisition techniques combine the strength of shotgun and targeted proteomics, while avoiding some of the limitations of the respective methods. They provide high-throughput, accurate quantification, and reproducible measurements within a single experimental setup. Here, we describe and review data-independent acquisition strategies and their recent use in clinically oriented studies. In addition, we also provide a detailed guide for the implementation of SWATH-MS (where SWATH is sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra)-one of the data-independent strategies that have gained wide application of late. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Plant cell wall proteomics: mass spectrometry data, a trove for research on protein structure/function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Zhang, Yu; San Clemente, Hélène; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2009-09-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organelles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identification, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRP. Maturation events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  7. External validation of a publicly available computer assisted diagnostic tool for mammographic mass lesions with two high prevalence research datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benndorf, Matthias; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Herda, Christoph; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2015-08-01

    Lesions detected at mammography are described with a highly standardized terminology: the breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) lexicon. Up to now, no validated semantic computer assisted classification algorithm exists to interactively link combinations of morphological descriptors from the lexicon to a probabilistic risk estimate of malignancy. The authors therefore aim at the external validation of the mammographic mass diagnosis (MMassDx) algorithm. A classification algorithm like MMassDx must perform well in a variety of clinical circumstances and in datasets that were not used to generate the algorithm in order to ultimately become accepted in clinical routine. The MMassDx algorithm uses a naïve Bayes network and calculates post-test probabilities of malignancy based on two distinct sets of variables, (a) BI-RADS descriptors and age ("descriptor model") and (b) BI-RADS descriptors, age, and BI-RADS assessment categories ("inclusive model"). The authors evaluate both the MMassDx (descriptor) and MMassDx (inclusive) models using two large publicly available datasets of mammographic mass lesions: the digital database for screening mammography (DDSM) dataset, which contains two subsets from the same examinations-a medio-lateral oblique (MLO) view and cranio-caudal (CC) view dataset-and the mammographic mass (MM) dataset. The DDSM contains 1220 mass lesions and the MM dataset contains 961 mass lesions. The authors evaluate discriminative performance using area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC) and compare this to the BI-RADS assessment categories alone (i.e., the clinical performance) using the DeLong method. The authors also evaluate whether assigned probabilistic risk estimates reflect the lesions' true risk of malignancy using calibration curves. The authors demonstrate that the MMassDx algorithms show good discriminatory performance. AUC for the MMassDx (descriptor) model in the DDSM data is 0.876/0.895 (MLO/CC view) and AUC

  8. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  9. Research of an emergency medical system for mass casualty incidents in Shanghai, China: a system dynamics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenya; Lv, Yipeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Haiping; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2018-01-01

    Emergency medical system for mass casualty incidents (EMS-MCIs) is a global issue. However, China lacks such studies extremely, which cannot meet the requirement of rapid decision-support system. This study aims to realize modeling EMS-MCIs in Shanghai, to improve mass casualty incident (MCI) rescue efficiency in China, and to provide a possible method of making rapid rescue decisions during MCIs. This study established a system dynamics (SD) model of EMS-MCIs using the Vensim DSS program. Intervention scenarios were designed as adjusting scales of MCIs, allocation of ambulances, allocation of emergency medical staff, and efficiency of organization and command. Mortality increased with the increasing scale of MCIs, medical rescue capability of hospitals was relatively good, but the efficiency of organization and command was poor, and the prehospital time was too long. Mortality declined significantly when increasing ambulances and improving the efficiency of organization and command; triage and on-site first-aid time were shortened if increasing the availability of emergency medical staff. The effect was the most evident when 2,000 people were involved in MCIs; however, the influence was very small under the scale of 5,000 people. The keys to decrease the mortality of MCIs were shortening the prehospital time and improving the efficiency of organization and command. For small-scale MCIs, improving the utilization rate of health resources was important in decreasing the mortality. For large-scale MCIs, increasing the number of ambulances and emergency medical professionals was the core to decrease prehospital time and mortality. For super-large-scale MCIs, increasing health resources was the premise.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    7 oct. 2015 ... Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle mass, muscle strength and bone mineral density in ... Androgens, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and carrier proteins (SHBG ...

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... Introduction. Teenage sexual activity is increasing globally with a trend towards .... of EC including indication, time frame for use, and side effects like nausea ... hospitals. This was followed by the mass media (Television and.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... Introduction: The incidence of breast cancer (BCa) in Cameroon is on the rise and accounts for a leading ... years onwards should be educated on the benefits of performing ..... The unique role of mass media, particularly.

  13. The chemical composition and mineralogy of meteorites measured with very high spatial resolution by a laser mass spectrometer for in situ planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Frey, Samira; Riedo, Andreas; Wurz, Peter; Wiesendanger, Reto

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. High resolution in situ studies on planetary surfaces can yield important information on surface heterogeneity, basic grain mineralogy and chemical composition of surface and subsurface. In turn, these data are the basis for our understanding of the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation and alteration of planetary material [1]. We investigated samples of Allende and Sayh al Uhaymir with a highly miniaturised laser mass spectrometer (LMS), which has been designed and built for in situ space research [2,3]. Both meteorite samples were investigated with a spatial resolution of about 10μm in lateral direction. The high sensitivity and high dynamic range of the LMS allow for quantitative measurements of the abundances of the rock-forming and minor and trace elements with high accuracy [4]. From the data, the modal mineralogy of micrometre-sized chondrules can be inferred [5], conclusions about the condensation sequence of the material are possible and the sensitivity for radiogenic elements allows for dating analyses of the investigated material. We measured the composition of various chondrules in Allende, offering valuable clues about the condensation sequence of the different components of the meteorite. We explicitly investigated the chemical composition and heterogeneity of the Allende matrix with an accuracy that cannot be reached by the mechanical analysis methods that were and are widely used in meteoritic research. We demonstrate the capabilities for dating analyses with the LMS. By applying the U-Th-dating method, the age of the SaU169 sample could be determined. Our analyses show that the LMS would be a suitable instrument for high-quality quantitative chemical composition measurements on the surface of a celestial body like a planet, moon or

  14. Numerical research of heat and mass transfer at the ignition of system “fabric – combustible liquid – oxidant” by the local energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical research was executed for macroscopic regularities determination of heat and mass transfer processes under the conditions of phase transformation and chemical reaction at the ignition of vapour coming from fabrics impregnated by typical combustible liquid into oxidant area at the local power supply. Limit conditions of heterogeneous system “fabric – combustible liquid – oxidant” ignition at the heating of single metal particle was established. Dependences of ignition delay time on temperature and rates of local power source were obtained.

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...

  16. A Network Analysis of the Teachers and Graduate Students’ Research Topics in the Field of Mass Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Shu Yuan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The completion of a master’s thesis requires the advisor’s guidance on topic selection, data collection, analysis, interpretation and writing. The advisory committee’s input also contributes to the work. This study conducted content analysis and network analysis on a sample of 547 master’s theses from eight departments of the College of Journalism and Communications of Shih Hsin University to examine the relationships between the advisors and committee members as well as the connections of research topics. The results showed that the topic “lifestyle” have attracted cross-department research interests in the college. The academic network of the college is rather loose, and serving university administration duties may have broadened a faculty member’s centrality in the network. The Department of Communications Management and the Graduate Institute of Communications served as the bridges for the inter-departmental communication in the network. One can understand the interrelations among professors and departments through study on network analysis of thesis as to identify the characteristics of each department, as well as to reveal invisible relations of academic network and scholarly communication. [Article content in Chinese

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-06

    Jun 6, 2012 ... Key words: Oestradiol, risk, breast cancer, women, sub-sahara Africa. Received: 06/01/2012 .... Further management followed depending on the results of the test. Needle and ... Cases had significantly lower body mass index than the controls. The age at .... risk of breast cancer. Annals of internal medicine.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-28

    Apr 28, 2016 ... SUPCR, SUPOR, 24HUPCR, 24HUPOR, SUCOR, 24HUCOR, ClCr, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglyceride, hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP). SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data. The distribution and.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cqq1a

    2010-10-02

    Oct 2, 2010 ... It has been speculated that the lack of an early cancer detection programme is responsible for the majority of women presenting at a late, symptomatic stage when cure is impossible [2]. Umanah et al found out that other breast masses like fibroadenoma (54.8%) and fibrocystic changes (17%) were common ...

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... protein, carotid intima -media thickness and asymmetric dimethyl arginine have been .... with LVH had a higher body mass index (27.3 vs 26.3, p=0.04) and were slightly .... adversely impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CKD patients [2-4]. ... conceptualized and designed the study. Yaw Ampem ...

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  3. Research on perfusion weighted imaging and diffusion weighted imaging of pancreatic masses at 3.0 T MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xiuzhong; Zeng mengsu; Rao Shengxiang; Ji Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of MR perfusion parameters and ADC in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and pancreatic mass at 3.0 T MR. Methods: Twenty healthy volunteers and 25 patients with pancreatic cancers proven by pathological results underwent MR PWI at a 3.0 T scanner. A two-compartment model was used to quantify K trans , K ep and V e in the pancreatic cancer, adjacent pancreatic tissue, distal inflammatory pancreatic tissue and normal pancreatic tissue. All parameters among different tissues were analyzed and compared with ANONA. Fifteen normal volunteers and 58 patients, including 30 patients with pancreatic cancer (proven histopathologically), 9 patients with pancreatitis pseudotumor (4 patients proven by histopathological results, 5 patients proven by follow-up after treatment), 9 patients with solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas (SPTP, proven histopathologically) and 10 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PET, proven by histopathology), underwent respiratory-triggered DWI on 3.0 T. ADC values of normal pancreas and all types of pancreatic lesions were statistically analyzed and compared with ANONA. ROC curve was used to analyze the diagnostic power of ADC value. Results: K trans of pancreatic cancer, adjacent pancreatic tissue, distal inflammatory pancreatic tissue and normal pancreatic tissue were (1.66±1.25), (3.77±2.67), (1.16±0.94) and (2.69±1.46 )/min respectively (F= 8. 160, P ep of pancreatic cancer, adjacent pancreatic tissue, distal inflammatory pancreatic tissue and normal pancreatic tissue were (2. 53 +1. 55) , (5.64±2.64), (1.70±0.91) and (4.28±1.64)/min respectively (F=4.544, P ep in pancreatic cancer was statistically lower than that in normal pancreatic tissue (P= 0.035) and adjacent pancreatic tissue (P=0.041). The median of V e among the pancreatic cancer, adjacent pancreatic tissue, distal inflammatory pancreatic tissue and normal pancreatic tissue were 0.926, 0.839, 0.798 and 0.659 respectively (χ 2 =12

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-06

    May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...

  7. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part presents a number of alternative suggestions and definitions of the media system’s code, which both indicate the scope of systems theoretical media research, but also point to some of the limitations in the systems theoretical approach. In the last part, the paper takes a critical look at the systems theoretical code discussion by arguing that a too narrow focus on code definitions is blocking a more productive investigation of the conditions, evolution, and autonomy of the media system.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast [16] that breast self-examination may cause.

  9. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-02

    Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-07-12

    Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.

  12. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al [33] ...

  13. Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.

  15. Research on gravity and magnetic field in east part of Yangzi land mass. The relationship between physical stratification zoning of the crust and the deep-seated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhua; Huang Linping

    1999-08-01

    The research area ranges mainly in Yangzi platform (the east part of Yangzi platform) north latitude from 24 degree to 32 degree and east longitude from 108 degree to 126 degree including South China geo-synclinal area (south east parts), east part of Qingqi geo-synclinal area and southern parts of North China platform. The research results show that: (1) There has once been happened a large-scale lithosphere fold in this area during geological history period. The developed fault structure, the intensity of the magmatic activity and all kinds of igneous rocks (especially granite) are widely and variety distributed. (2) There had been occurred the stretches and compression belt of multi-mass interaction in this area with some strong rift activities. Therefore it could be an ideal place to exchange positions of the crust and mantle physics and to offer some advantageous space condition for mineral physics transportation and occurrence, in which various kinds of ore deposits could be mineralized. (3) Jiangnan and Huaxia ancient continent were developed due to rift activities and the distribution of granite rocks and all kinds of igneous rocks were resulted from rift activities. (4) The physics vertical layering and horizontal layering are attemptable presented, which resulted in the depth distribution of magnetic layer, and the dividing of the thin varied zone of the magnetic layer and the thick varied zone of the magnetic layer were arisen. In horizontal direction five 'unstable zones' were divided, which further inferred its relationship with mineralization

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-18

    May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...

  17. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-14

    Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.[5]. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.

  18. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

  19. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-04-21

    Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.

  20. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.

  1. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-24

    Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment [6]. In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...

  2. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...

  3. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-06-22

    Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...

  4. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...

  5. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-20

    Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...

  7. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.

  8. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.

  9. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  10. The ASTARTE Paleotsunami and Mass Transport Deposits data bases - web-based references for tsunami and submarine landslide research around Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Paolo Marco; Patera, Antonio; Orefice, Simone; Paris, Raphael; Völker, David; Lastras, Galderic; Terrinha, Pedro; Noiva, João; Smedile, Alessandra; Pantosti, Daniela; Hunt, James; Gutscher, Marc-Andre; Migeon, Sébastien; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Triantafyllou, Ioanna; Yalciner, Ahmet C.

    2017-04-01

    EU project ASTARTE aims at developing a higher level of tsunami hazard assessment in the North East Atlantic, Mediterranean and Connected seas (NEAM) region by a combination of field work, experimental work, numerical modeling and technical development. The project is a cooperative work of 26 institutes from 16 countries and links together the description of past tsunamigenic events, the identification and characterization of tsunami sources, the calculation of the impact of such events, and the development of adequate resilience and risks mitigation strategies (www.astarte.eu). Within ASTARTE two web-based data bases on Paleotsunami and Mass Transport Deposits in the NEAM areas were created with the purpose to be the future information repositories for tsunami research in Europe.The aim is to integrate every existing official scientific reports and peer reviewed papers on these topics and update on new entries every 6-12 months, hosting information and detailed data, that are crucial e.g for tsunami modeling. A relational database managed by ArcGIS for Desktop 10.x software has been implemented. One of the final goals of the project is the public sharing of the archived datasets through a web-based map service that will allow visualizing, querying, analyzing, and interpreting all datasets. The interactive map service will be hosted by ArcGIS Online and will deploy the cloud capabilities of the portal. Any interested users will be able to access the online GIS resources through any Internet browser or specific apps that run on desktop machines, smartphones, or tablets and will be able to use the analytical tools, key tasks, and workflows of the service.We will present the data bases structure and topics as well as their ArcGIS Online version. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction for

  11. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Conlin, Jeremy L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, Louise G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hu, Jianwei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanc, Pauline C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lafleur, Adrienne M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schear, Melissa A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Croft, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fensin, Michael L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koehler, William E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mozin, V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandoval, N P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, T H [KAERI; Cambell, L W [PNNL; Cheatham, J R [ORNL; Gesh, C J [PNNL; Hunt, A [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Ludewigt, B A [LBNL; Smith, L E [PNNL; Sterbentz, J [INL

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  12. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSI research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Conlin, Jeremy L.; Evans, Louise G.; Hu, Kianwei; Blanc, P.C.; Lafleur, Am; Menlove, H.O.; Schear, M.A.; Swinhoe, M.T.; Croft, S.; Fensin, M.L.; Freeman, C.R.; Koehler, W.E.; Mozin, V.; Sandoval, N.P.; Lee, T.H.; Cambell, L.W.; Cheatham, J.R.; Gesh, C.J.; Hunt, A.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Smith, L.E.; Sterbentz, J.

    2010-01-01

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies (burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)). The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: 252 Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  13. Collaborative Research and Support of Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center DWH Research Program Projects. The Effects of Region-Specific Resistance Exercises on Bone Mass in Premenopausal Military Women, Protocol 8

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayes, Robert

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study is to determine if peak bone mass can be improved after age 20, the age at which peak bone mass is usually reached, and to compare the effects of region-specific resistance...

  14. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  15. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  16. Nominal Mass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attygalle, Athula B; Pavlov, Julius

    2017-08-01

    The current IUPAC-recommended definition of the term "nominal mass," based on the most abundant naturally occurring stable isotope of an element, is flawed. We propose that Nominal mass should be defined as the sum of integer masses of protons and neutrons in any chemical species. In this way, all isotopes and isotopologues can be assigned a definitive identifier. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of geological standards with a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer designed for in situ application in space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuland, M B; Riedo, A; Tulej, M; Wurz, P; Grimaudo, V; Moreno-García, P; Mezger, K

    2016-01-01

    A key interest of planetary space missions is the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the planetary surface material. The chemical composition of surface material (minerals, rocks, soils) yields fundamental information that can be used to answer key scientific questions about the formation and evolution of the planetary body in particular and the Solar System in general. We present a miniature time-of-flight type laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer (LMS) and demonstrate its capability in measuring the elemental and mineralogical composition of planetary surface samples quantitatively by using a femtosecond laser for ablation/ionization. The small size and weight of the LMS make it a remarkable tool for in situ chemical composition measurements in space research, convenient for operation on a lander or rover exploring a planetary surface. In the laboratory, we measured the chemical composition of four geological standard reference samples USGS AGV-2 Andesite, USGS SCo-l Cody Shale, NIST 97b Flint Clay and USGS QLO-1 Quartz Latite with LMS. These standard samples are used to determine the sensitivity factors of the instrument. One important result is that all sensitivity factors are close to 1. Additionally, it is observed that the sensitivity factor of an element depends on its electron configuration, hence on the electron work function and the elemental group in agreement with existing theory. Furthermore, the conformity of the sensitivity factors is supported by mineralogical analyses of the USGS SCo-l and the NIST 97b samples. With the four different reference samples, the consistency of the calibration factors can be demonstrated, which constitutes the fundamental basis for a standard-less measurement-technique for in situ quantitative chemical composition measurements on planetary surface. (paper)

  18. The Influence of Body Mass Index on Outcomes in Ureteroscopy: Results from the Clinical Research Office of Endourological Society URS Global Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krambeck, Amy; Wijnstok, Nienke; Olbert, Peter; Mitroi, George; Bariol, Simon; Shah, Hemendra N; El-Abd, Ahmed S; Onal, Bulent; de la Rosette, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Although ureteroscopy (URS) has been established as a viable treatment for stones in obese patients, its safety and success has not been fully elucidated. The current study describes the worldwide prevalence of obesity in patients with urolithiasis and examines trends in URS outcomes, safety, and efficacy. This study utilized the Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES) URS Global Study, which was a prospective, multicenter study including 11,885 patients treated with URS for urinary stones at 1 of 114 urology departments across 32 countries. The relationship between body mass index (BMI), diabetes, and creatinine, with retreatment, stone-free rates, complications, and long hospital stay, was examined with a multivariate logistic regression analyses. Of the 10,099 URS patients with BMI data, 17.4% were obese and 2.2% were super obese. Overall, 86.7% patients were stone free and 16.8% required retreatment. Higher BMI was associated with lower stone-free rates, and any deviation from normal weight was associated with higher retreatment rates. In multivariate analysis controlling for several variables including stone size, the association between BMI and lower stone-free rates with higher retreatment rates persisted. Intraoperative complications occurred in 518 (5.1%) patients, and 343 (3.4%) experienced a postoperative complication. Postoperative complications were more frequent in the underweight and super obese subjects, and there was no relationship between BMI and intraoperative complications. Although URS for stone disease was found to be an overall safe procedure for obese and super obese patients, efficacy of the procedure may be lower compared with normal-weight subjects and higher retreatment rates may be necessary.

  19. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  20. First-year progress on research and development of a mass accelerator (MAID) as a driver for impact fusion, May 6, 1981-May 5, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this program is to construct a small scale mass accelerator consisting of 10 plasma discharge modules, and perform experiments and analysis with the system so that reliable scaling laws can be obtained for the device. The effort is directed to determining whether a large scale version of such a plasma driven mass accelerator could be used as a driver for inertial fusion, or other energy-related applications

  1. NEUTRINO MASS

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Boris

    1988-01-01

    This is a review article about the most recent developments on the field of neutrino mass. The first part of the review introduces the idea of neutrino masses and mixing angles, summarizes the most recent experimental data then discusses the experimental prospects and challenges in this area. The second part of the review discusses the implications of these results for particle physics and cosmology, including the origin of neutrino mass, the see-saw mechanism and sequential dominance, and la...

  2. Neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed

  3. Small Body GN and C Research Report: G-SAMPLE - An In-Flight Dynamical Method for Identifying Sample Mass [External Release Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Bayard, David S.

    2006-01-01

    G-SAMPLE is an in-flight dynamical method for use by sample collection missions to identify the presence and quantity of collected sample material. The G-SAMPLE method implements a maximum-likelihood estimator to identify the collected sample mass, based on onboard force sensor measurements, thruster firings, and a dynamics model of the spacecraft. With G-SAMPLE, sample mass identification becomes a computation rather than an extra hardware requirement; the added cost of cameras or other sensors for sample mass detection is avoided. Realistic simulation examples are provided for a spacecraft configuration with a sample collection device mounted on the end of an extended boom. In one representative example, a 1000 gram sample mass is estimated to within 110 grams (95% confidence) under realistic assumptions of thruster profile error, spacecraft parameter uncertainty, and sensor noise. For convenience to future mission design, an overall sample-mass estimation error budget is developed to approximate the effect of model uncertainty, sensor noise, data rate, and thrust profile error on the expected estimate of collected sample mass.

  4. Mass Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian

    2017-01-01

    the negative features usually ascribed by late nineteenth-century crowd psychology to spontaneous crowds, and attributes these to the entire social fabric. However, in contrast to crowd psychology, theorists of mass society often place greater emphasis on how capitalism, technological advances, or demographic......Mass society is a societal diagnosis that emphasizes – usually in a pejorative, modernity critical manner – a series of traits allegedly associated with modern society, such as the leveling of individuality, moral decay, alienation, and isolation. As such, the notion of mass society generalizes...... developments condition such negative features, and some theorists argue that mass society produces a propensity to totalitarianism. Discussions of mass society culminated in the early and mid-twentieth century....

  5. Neutrino mass sum-rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Asan

    2018-03-01

    Neutrino mass sum-rele is a very important research subject from theoretical side because neutrino oscillation experiment only gave us two squared-mass differences and three mixing angles. We review neutrino mass sum-rule in literature that have been reported by many authors and discuss its phenomenological implications.

  6. A Comprehensive Review of School-Based Body Mass Index Screening Programs and Their Implications for School Health: Do the Controversies Accurately Reflect the Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Dominique G.; Bass, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whereas legislation for body mass index (BMI) surveillance and screening programs has passed in 25 states, the programs are often subject to ethical debates about confidentiality and privacy, school-to-parent communication, and safety and self-esteem issues for students. Despite this debate, no comprehensive analysis has been completed…

  7. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS) in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Thissen, Roland; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis; Vuitton, Véronique

    2016-03-24

    It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks ("seeds") for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

  8. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Somogyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks (“seeds” for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan.

  9. The Role of Ultrahigh Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FT-MS) in Astrobiology-Related Research: Analysis of Meteorites and Tholins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Árpád; Thissen, Roland; Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis; Vuitton, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    It is an important but also a challenging analytical problem to understand the chemical composition and structure of prebiotic organic matter that is present in extraterrestrial materials. Its formation, evolution and content in the building blocks (“seeds”) for more complex molecules, such as proteins and DNA, are key questions in the field of exobiology. Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry is one of the best analytical techniques that can be applied because it provides reliable information on the chemical composition and structure of individual components of complex organic mixtures. Prebiotic organic material is delivered to Earth by meteorites or generated in laboratories in simulation (model) experiments that mimic space or atmospheric conditions. Recent representative examples for ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry studies using Fourier-transform (FT) mass spectrometers such as Orbitrap and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometers are shown and discussed in the present article, including: (i) the analysis of organic matter of meteorites; (ii) modeling atmospheric processes in ICR cells; and (iii) the structural analysis of laboratory made tholins that might be present in the atmosphere and surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. PMID:27023520

  10. Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    The rearing of tsetse flies for the sterile insect technique has been a laborious procedure in the past. The purpose of this co-ordinated research project (CRP) 'Automation for tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes' was to develop appropriate semiautomated procedures to simplify the rearing, reduce the cost and standardize the product. Two main objectives were accomplished. The first was to simplify the handling of adults at emergence. This was achieved by allowing the adults to emerge directly into the production cages. Selection of the appropriate environmental conditions and timing allowed the manipulation of the emergence pattern to achieve the desired ratio of four females to one male with minimal un-emerged females remaining mixed with the male pupae. Tests demonstrated that putting the sexes together at emergence, leaving the males in the production cages, and using a ratio of 4:1 (3:1 for a few species) did not adversely affect pupal production. This has resulted in a standardized system for the self stocking of production cages. The second was to reduce the labour involved in feeding the flies. Three distinct systems were developed and tested in sequence. The first tsetse production unit (TPU 1) was a fully automated system, but the fly survival and fecundity were unacceptably low. From this a simpler TPU 2 was developed and tested, where 63 large cages were held on a frame that could be moved as a single unit to the feeding location. TPU 2 was tested in various locations, and found to satisfy the basic requirements, and the adoption of Plexiglas pupal collection slopes resolved much of the problem due to light distribution. However the cage holding frame was heavy and difficult to position on the feeding frame and the movement disturbed the flies. TPU 2 was superseded by TPU 3, in which the cages remain stationary at all times, and the blood is brought to the flies. The blood feeding system is mounted on rails to make it

  11. Current developments in laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for use in geology, forensics, and nuclear nonproliferation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, Joshua D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-08-26

    This dissertation focused on new applications of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The diverse fields that were investigated show the versatility of the technique. In Chapter 2, LA-ICP-MS was used to investigate the rare earth element (REE) profiles of garnets from the Broken Hill Deposit in New South Wales, Australia. The normalized REE profiles helped to shed new light on the formation of deposits of sulfide ores. This information may be helpful in identifying the location of sulfide ore deposits in other locations. New sources of metals such as Pg, Zn, and Ag, produced from these ores, are needed to sustain our current technological society. The application of LA-ICP-MS presented in Chapter 3 is the forensics analysis of automotive putty and caulking. The elemental analysis of these materials was combined with the use of Principal Components Analysis (PCA). The PCA comparison was able to differentiate the automotive putty samples by manufacturer and lot number. The analysis of caulk was able to show a differentiation based on manufacturer, but no clear differentiation was shown by lot number. This differentiation may allow matching of evidence in the future. This will require many more analyses and the construction of a database made up of many different samples. The 4th chapter was a study of the capabilities of LA-ICP-MS for fast and precise analysis of particle ensembles for nuclear nonproliferation applications. Laser ablation has the ability to spatially resolve particle ensembles which may contain uranium or other actinides from other particles present in a sample. This is of importance in samples obtained from air on filter media. The particle ensembles of interest may be mixed in amongst dust and other particulates. A problem arises when ablating these particle ensembles directly from the filter media. Dust particles other than ones of interest may be accidentally entrained in the aerosol of the ablated particle

  12. PODCAST: From Lost in Translation to Paradise Found: Enabling Protein Biomarker Method Transfer by Mass Spectrometry | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translation of novel biomarkers into clinical care for the evaluation of therapeutic safety and efficacy has been slow, partly attributable to the cost and complexity of immunoassay development.  The potential for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to streamline the translation of novel protein biomarkers is profound.  Drs. Henry Rodriguez and Andrew Hoofnagle discuss what the future may be for clinical proteomics. This is an American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) podcast.

  13. Model Test Research on the End Bearing Behavior of the Large-Diameter Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For large-diameter, cast-in-place concrete piles, the end bearing capacity of a single pile is affected by discontinuous surfaces that exist in natural rock masses when the bearing layer of the pile end is located in the rock layer. In order to study the influence of the jointed dip angle on the bearing characteristics of the pile end, the discrete element models are adopted to simulate the mechanical characteristics of the jointed rock masses, and the model tests of the failure mode of the jointed rock masses were also designed. The results of the numerical calculations and modeling tests show that the joints, which have a filtering effect on the internal stress of the bedrock located at the pile end, change the load transferring paths. And the failure mode of the jointed rock foundation also changes as jointed dip angle changes. The rock located at the pile end generally presents a wedge failure mode. In addition, the Q-S curves obtained by model tests show that the ultimate end bearing capacity of a single pile is influenced by the jointed dip angle. The above results provide an important theoretical basis for how to correctly calculate end resistance for a cast-in-place concrete pile.

  14. Application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in research of plant proteins and peptides%液相色谱质谱联用技术在植物蛋白及多肽研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许岩; 任皓威; 周广运; 刘宁

    2017-01-01

    With liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technology developing continuously,the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technology has been widely available in the field of medicine,environment,food security recently,and also play a key role in plant protein and peptide research.Recently advances on development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry application in the cereals,legumes and other crop proteins were reviewed.The development trend and prospects of plant protein research by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to provide the latest basic theory for the further study of plant proteins.%近年来,随着液相色谱质谱联用技术的发展,其在医药、环境和食品安全等领域中已得到广泛应用,目前也成为植物蛋白研究的重要手段.本文将从液相色谱质谱联用技术发展及液相色谱质谱联用技术在谷物蛋白、豆类蛋白及其他作物蛋白中的研究和应用进行归纳和总结,并对液相色谱质谱联用技术在植物蛋白研究中的发展方向和前景进行展望,以期为植物蛋白的深入研究提供最新的基础理论.

  15. Neutrino mass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    After arguing that we should be looking for evidence of neutrino mass, we illustrate the possible consequences of neutrino mass and mixing. We then turn to the question of whether neutrinos are their own antiparticles, and to the process which may answer this question: neutrinoless double beta decay. Next, we review the proposed Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solution to the solar neutrino problem, and discuss models which can generate neutrino electromagnetic moments large enough to play a role in the sun. Finally, we consider how the possible 17 keV neutrino, if real, would fit in with everything we know about neutrinos. (orig.)

  16. Mass metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the practical aspects of mass measurements. Concepts of gravitational, inertial and conventional mass and details of the variation of acceleration of gravity are described. The Metric Convention and International Prototype Kilogram and BIPM standards are described. The effect of change of gravity on the indication of electronic balances is derived with respect of latitude, altitude and earth topography. The classification of weights by OIML is discussed. Maximum permissible errors in different categories of weights prescribed by national and international organizations are p

  17. Researching research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....

  18. Mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvang Hartmeyer, Gitte; Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Böcher, Sidsel

    2010-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is currently being introduced for the rapid and accurate identification of bacteria. We describe 2 MALDI-TOF MS identification cases - 1 directly on spinal fluid and 1 on grown bacteria. Rapidly obtained...

  19. A study on the strength properties of the rock mass based on triaxial tests conducted at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Kazuhei; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujita, Tomoo; Kondo, Keiji; Tsusaka, Kimikazu

    2015-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting R and D activities at the off-site URL at Horonobe, Hokkaido, Japan in order to enhance reliability of technology related to deep geological disposal of HLW in sedimentary rocks. In this report, strength properties (cohesion and frictional angle) of rock masses in the Koetoi and Wakkanai formations are investigated on the basis of triaxial tests conducted in the Horonobe URL considering the relative depths to the formation. Strength properties investigated in this report are compared with the properties obtained in the designing phase. The cohesion in the Koetoi Formation increased with increasing depth. On the other hand, in the transition zone of the Wakkanai Formation, the cohesion increased significantly in the shallow Wakkanai formation (transition zone). Below the transition zone, the cohesion does not significantly depend on the depth. Thus the strength properties between two formations were found to be different. Comparing the cohesions and frictional angles determined from triaxial tests with the values determined in the designing phase, there was no agreement between these values in almost all the depth. Thus it is essential to determine cohesion and frictional angle considering the relative depths to the formation for detailed understanding of strength properties of rock mass. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  20. Accelerator-based ultrasensitive mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gove, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter describes a new mass spectrometry technique involving charged particle accelerators normally used for basic research in nuclear science. Topics considered include the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, the limitations of the direct measurement of radioactive decay, mass spectrometry using a tandem electrostatic accelerator, mass spectrometry using a cyclotron, how accelerator mass spectrometry circumvents the limitations of conventional mass spectrometry, measurements of stable isotopes, nuclear physics and astrophysics applications, modifications to existing accelerators, descriptions of dedicated systems, and future applications

  1. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. Methods and analysis WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded

  2. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  3. Talking to Themselves: The Search for Rights and Responsibilities of the Press and Mass Media in Four Latin American Nations. IIE Research Report Number Twenty-Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Craufurd D.; Nacht, Michael

    This research report assesses the state of the press and the needs for journalism training in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. It is based upon discussions in these countries during 1992 and 1993 with reporters, editors, publishers, broadcasters, broadcast owners, government officials, business people, and scholars. Separate chapters provide…

  4. Biomarker research for moyamoya disease in cerebrospinal fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruwaka, Mikio; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Sho; Araki, Yoshio; Sumitomo, Masaki; Kawamura, Akino; Yokoyama, Kinya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disease characterized by steno-occlusive change in bilateral internal carotid arteries with unknown etiology. To discover biomarker candidates in cerebrospinal fluid from MMD patients, proteome analysis was performed by the surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Three peptides, 4473Da, 4475Da, and 6253Da, were significantly elevated in MMD group. A positive correlation between 4473Da peptide and postoperative angiogenesis was determined. Twenty MMD patients were enrolled in this pilot study, including 11 pediatric cases less than 18 years of age (mean age, 8.67 years) and 9 adult MMD patients (mean age, 38.1 years). This study also includes 17 control cases with the mean age of 27.9 years old. In conclusion, 4473Da peptide is supposed to be a reliable biomarker of MMD. 4473Da peptide showed higher intensity peaks especially in younger MMD patients, and it was proved to be highly related to postoperative angiogenesis. Further study is needed to show how 4473Da peptide is involved with the etiology and the onset of MMD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Critical mass, explosive participation at the Max-Planck Institute about research of the living conditions of the scientific-technical world in Starnberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers of the Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPIL) did focus upon an abundance of vague reports of evaluative commissions, of benchmarking, of scientific modes. Thus it remained rather neglected, what staff actually had researched. An example: Progression and end of project AKR (Work-Consumption-Assessment) does display all kinds of related emotions at MPIL, and the sensitive guidance by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker.

  6. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.

  7. Critical Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070299

    2017-01-01

    Critical Mass is a cycling event typically held on the last Friday of every month; its purpose is not usually formalized beyond the direct action of meeting at a set location and time and traveling as a group through city or town streets on bikes. The event originated in 1992 in San Francisco; by the end of 2003, the event was being held in over 300 cities around the world. At CERN it is held once a year in conjunction with the national Swiss campaing "Bike to work".

  8. Research of nitroxynil residues in bovine milk following a single administration in the dry period by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chirollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxynil (NIT is a halogenated phenol used to control fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. The Commission Regulation EU No 37/2010 has established maximum residue limits for NIT in bovine and ovine muscle (400 μg kg−1, fat (200 μg kg−1, liver (20 μg kg−1 and kidney (400 μg kg−1, and more recently in bovine and ovine milk (20 μg kg−1. Thirty-five pregnant dairy cows were treated in this study with nitroxynil (340 mg/mL solution for injection at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at the start of the dry period, i.e. 53 to 74 days before the expected calving. Calving occurred between 43 days and 79 days after treatment. The concentrations of NIT in the milk were monitored for up to 120 days after calving. NIT residues were extracted using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. NIT was detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS in negative ionization mode. The highest concentrations of this drug were found in two animals at the first milking, 48 and 53 day post treatment with levels of 362 and 657 μg kg–1, respectively. NIT residues were below the limit of detection of the method (0.24 μg/kg–1 between 67 and 106 day post-treatment. Following calving, residues rapidly depleted in animals and were non-detectable from 10 to 38 days post-calving. In particular, in all animals milk resulted compliant (<20 μg/kg−1 three days post partum.

  9. Spectroscopic research of Lambda hypernuclei up to medium-heavy mass region with the (e,e'K+) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogami, Toshiyuki [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    In 2009 (August-November), the E05-115 experiment was carried out at JLab to investigate L hypernuclei in the wide mass region up to A = 52 ($7\\atop{Λ}$He, $10\\atop{Λ}$Be, $12\\atop{Λ}$B and $52\\atop{Λ}$V) with the (e,e'K+) reaction. This is the first attempt to investigate a medium heavy L hypernucleus with the (e,e'K+) reaction. Experimentally, it is difficult to measure heavier L hypernuclei as background rates of particles which originate from electromagnetic processes are roughly in proportion to Z2 (Z: target proton number) in the (e,e'K+) experiment. To perform the experiment, many experimental techniques have been developed and introduced such as optimization of the electron spectrometer configuration (tilt method), clean kaon identification, particle tracking under high multiplicity environment, precise energy scale calibration and so on. In the present thesis, experimental results of the elementary process of p(e,e'K+)L, L hypernuclei of $7\\atop{Λ}$He, $10\\atop{Λ}$Be, $12\\atop{Λ}$B and $52\\atop{Λ}$V are shown. Elementary processes of the electroproduction of L and Σ0, p(e,e'K+)L, Σ0 were used for the absolute energy scale calibration of our spectrometer systems. A careful Monte Carlo simulation shows that the binding energy can be obtained with a systematic error of 0.11 MeV with our energy scale calibration method. A study of the elementary process of L is important to understand L hypernuclei as it is essential for theoretical calculations of L hypernuclei. The differential cross section of the p(e,e'K+)L reaction at the small K+ scattering angle (theta-CM/gamma-K approx. 15.5°), the small Q2 (approx 0.01 [GeV/c]2) and the total energy of W = 1.92 GeV, where no experimental data exists was obtained to be 235 ± 13$+28\\atop{-24}$ nb/sr. The ground state (1/2+) binding energy

  10. Mass Media and Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, James R.

    1976-01-01

    Research reviews and statistical analysis of a specific study suggest that the mass media play a direct role in the political socialization of adolescents insofar as overt political behavior is concerned. (Author/AV)

  11. Pacific Islands Mass Communications; Selected Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richstad, Jim; McMillan, Michael

    1977-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of materials on such area of mass communications in the Pacific Islands as broadcasting, radio and television, cinema, communication research, mass media in education, Honululu Media Council, newspapers and newspapermen, and printing and satellite communication. (JEG)

  12. Monitoring the High-Energy Radiation Environment of Exoplanets Around Low-mass Stars with SPARCS (Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Ardila, David; Barman, Travis; Beasley, Matthew; Bowman, Judd D.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Jacobs, Daniel; Jewell, April; Llama, Joe; Meadows, Victoria; Nikzad, Shouleh; Scowen, Paul; Swain, Mark; Zellem, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Roughly seventy-five billion M dwarfs in our galaxy host at least one small planet in the habitable zone (HZ). The stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation from M dwarfs is strong and highly variable, and impacts planetary atmospheric loss, composition and habitability. These effects are amplified by the extreme proximity of their HZs (0.1–0.4 AU). Knowing the UV environments of M dwarf planets will be crucial to understanding their atmospheric composition and a key parameter in discriminating between biological and abiotic sources for observed biosignatures. The Star-Planet Activity Research CubeSat (SPARCS) will be a 6U CubeSat devoted to photometric monitoring of M stars in the far-UV and near-UV, measuring the time-dependent spectral slope, intensity and evolution of M dwarf stellar UV radiation. For each target, SPARCS will observe continuously over at least one complete stellar rotation (5 - 45 days). SPARCS will also advance UV detector technology by flying high quantum efficiency, UV-optimized detectors developed at JPL. These Delta-doped detectors have a long history of deployment demonstrating greater than five times the quantum efficiency of the detectors used by GALEX. SPARCS will pave the way for their application in missions like LUVOIR or HabEx, including interim UV-capable missions. SPARCS will also be capable of ‘target-of-opportunity’ UV observations for the rocky planets in M dwarf HZs soon to be discovered by NASA’s TESS mission, providing the needed UV context for the first habitable planets that JWST will characterize.Acknowledgements: Funding for SPARCS is provided by NASA’s Astrophysics Research and Analysis program, NNH16ZDA001N.

  13. A cluster-randomised controlled trial integrating a community-based water, sanitation and hygiene programme, with mass distribution of albendazole to reduce intestinal parasites in Timor-Leste: the WASH for WORMS research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nery, Susana Vaz; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca; Andrews, Ross M; Black, Jim; Gray, Darren; Weking, Edmund; Atkinson, Jo-An; Campbell, Suzy; Francis, Naomi; Vallely, Andrew; Williams, Gail; Clements, Archie

    2015-12-30

    There is limited evidence demonstrating the benefits of community-based water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes on infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and intestinal protozoa. Our study aims to contribute to that evidence base by investigating the effectiveness of combining two complementary approaches for control of STH: periodic mass administration of albendazole, and delivery of a community-based WASH programme. WASH for WORMS is a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test the hypothesis that a community-based WASH intervention integrated with periodic mass distribution of albendazole will be more effective in reducing infections with STH and protozoa than mass deworming alone. All 18 participating rural communities in Timor-Leste receive mass chemotherapy every 6 months. Half the communities also receive the community-based WASH programme. Primary outcomes are the cumulative incidence of infection with STH. Secondary outcomes include the prevalence of protozoa; intensity of infection with STH; as well as morbidity indicators (anaemia, stunting and wasting). Each of the trial outcomes will be compared between control and intervention communities. End points will be measured 2 years after the first albendazole distribution; and midpoints are measured at 6 months intervals (12 months for haemoglobin and anthropometric indexes). Mixed-methods research will also be conducted in order to identify barriers and enablers associated with the acceptability and uptake of the WASH programme. Ethics approval was obtained from the human ethics committees at the University of Queensland, Australian National University, Timorese Ministry of Health, and University of Melbourne. The results of the trial will be published in peer-reviewed journals presented at national and international conferences, and disseminated to relevant stakeholders in health and WASH programmes. This study is funded by a Partnership for Better Health--Project grant from the National

  14. Mini ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, D.D.; Keville, R.F.

    1995-09-19

    An ion trap is described which operates in the regime between research ion traps which can detect ions with a mass resolution of better than 1:10{sup 9} and commercial mass spectrometers requiring 10{sup 4} ions with resolutions of a few hundred. The power consumption is kept to a minimum by the use of permanent magnets and a novel electron gun design. By Fourier analyzing the ion cyclotron resonance signals induced in the trap electrodes, a complete mass spectra in a single combined structure can be detected. An attribute of the ion trap mass spectrometer is that overall system size is drastically reduced due to combining a unique electron source and mass analyzer/detector in a single device. This enables portable low power mass spectrometers for the detection of environmental pollutants or illicit substances, as well as sensors for on board diagnostics to monitor engine performance or for active feedback in any process involving exhausting waste products. 10 figs.

  15. Research and development of basic technologies for next-generation industries. Evaluation of 2nd phase research and development of technologies of mass culture of cells; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu saibo tairyo baiyo gijutsu. Dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-30

    The project aims to establish basic technologies for the mass culture of cells which will enable a large, stable supply of fine chemical products whose industrial production the conventional technique of synthesis has failed to realize. In the 1st phase, cell stains were selected, a serumless medium was developed, basic culturing conditions were established, and substances production rates were improved, and the 2nd phase stands succeeding these 1st phase achievements. Toward the ultimate goal of establishing basic technologies for serumless high-density cultures for industrial use and technologies for isolating and refining useful substances, a small-scale optimum culture technique and a serumless culture technique are developed. Serumless cultures are developed for strains of man's lymphoid cells, cells deriving from bone marrow, epithelial cells, and hybridomas of man and mouse, all these sampled during the 1st phase endeavors. Success is attained in growing each cell strain on a scale of 1-10L to increase to 10{sup 7} cells/ml or more in population density. It is found that each cell strain produces useful substances, such as man's monoclonal antibodies and elements involved in the multiplication or differentiation of new cells. (NEDO)

  16. Research and development of basic technologies for next-generation industries. Evaluation of 2nd phase research and development of technologies of mass culture of cells; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu saibo tairyo baiyo gijutsu. Dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-30

    The project aims to establish basic technologies for the mass culture of cells which will enable a large, stable supply of fine chemical products whose industrial production the conventional technique of synthesis has failed to realize. In the 1st phase, cell stains were selected, a serumless medium was developed, basic culturing conditions were established, and substances production rates were improved, and the 2nd phase stands succeeding these 1st phase achievements. Toward the ultimate goal of establishing basic technologies for serumless high-density cultures for industrial use and technologies for isolating and refining useful substances, a small-scale optimum culture technique and a serumless culture technique are developed. Serumless cultures are developed for strains of man's lymphoid cells, cells deriving from bone marrow, epithelial cells, and hybridomas of man and mouse, all these sampled during the 1st phase endeavors. Success is attained in growing each cell strain on a scale of 1-10L to increase to 10{sup 7} cells/ml or more in population density. It is found that each cell strain produces useful substances, such as man's monoclonal antibodies and elements involved in the multiplication or differentiation of new cells. (NEDO)

  17. Mass Analyzers Facilitate Research on Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The famous go/no go command for Space Shuttle launches comes from a place called the Firing Room. Located at Kennedy Space Center in the Launch Control Center (LCC), there are actually four Firing Rooms that take up most of the third floor of the LCC. These rooms comprise the nerve center for Space Shuttle launch and processing. Test engineers in the Firing Rooms operate the Launch Processing System (LPS), which is a highly automated, computer-controlled system for assembly, checkout, and launch of the Space Shuttle. LPS monitors thousands of measurements on the Space Shuttle and its ground support equipment, compares them to predefined tolerance levels, and then displays values that are out of tolerance. Firing Room operators view the data and send commands about everything from propellant levels inside the external tank to temperatures inside the crew compartment. In many cases, LPS will automatically react to abnormal conditions and perform related functions without test engineer intervention; however, firing room engineers continue to look at each and every happening to ensure a safe launch. Some of the systems monitored during launch operations include electrical, cooling, communications, and computers. One of the thousands of measurements derived from these systems is the amount of hydrogen and oxygen inside the shuttle during launch.

  18. Status of neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackler, O.

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 two experiments ignited a fertile field of research - the determination of the neutrino masses. Subsequently, over 35 experiments using a variety of techniques have probed or are probing this question. Primarily the author discuss electron antineutrino (hereafter referred to as neutrino) mass experiments. Section I begins with a discussion of astronomical and terrestrial observations which motivated these experiments. In Section II, the author quote limits from muon and tau mass determinations. These limits are more thoroughly discussed in other paper. The author continues by describing the four approaches used to measure the electron neutrino mass. In Section III, tritium beta decay mass determinations are reviewed. This section includes a general summary of previous experimental results, and discussion of the major ongoing experiments. Section IV offers concluding remarks

  19. Status of neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fackler, O.

    1985-12-01

    In 1980 two experiments ignited a fertile field of research the determination of the neutrino masses. Subsequently, over 35 experiments using a variety of techniques have probed or are probing this question. Primarily I will discuss electron antineutrino (hereafter referred to as neutrino) mass experiments. However, let me begin in Section I to discuss astronomical and terrestrial observations which motivated these experiments. In Section II, I will quote limits from muon and tau mass determinations. These limits are more thoroughly discussed in other papers. I will continue by describing the four approaches used to measure the electron neutrino mass. In Section III, tritium beta decay mass determinations will be reviewed. This section includes a general summary of previous experimental results, and discussion of the major ongoing experiments. Section IV offers concluding remarks. 24 refs., 24 figs

  20. Mass spectrometry with accelerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, A E; Zhao, X-L; Kieser, W E

    2011-01-01

    As one in a series of articles on Canadian contributions to mass spectrometry, this review begins with an outline of the history of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), noting roles played by researchers at three Canadian AMS laboratories. After a description of the unique features of AMS, three examples, (14)C, (10)Be, and (129)I are given to illustrate the methods. The capabilities of mass spectrometry have been extended by the addition of atomic isobar selection, molecular isobar attenuation, further ion acceleration, followed by ion detection and ion identification at essentially zero dark current or ion flux. This has been accomplished by exploiting the techniques and accelerators of atomic and nuclear physics. In 1939, the first principles of AMS were established using a cyclotron. In 1977 the selection of isobars in the ion source was established when it was shown that the (14)N(-) ion was very unstable, or extremely difficult to create, making a tandem electrostatic accelerator highly suitable for assisting the mass spectrometric measurement of the rare long-lived radioactive isotope (14)C in the environment. This observation, together with the large attenuation of the molecular isobars (13)CH(-) and (12)CH 2(-) during tandem acceleration and the observed very low background contamination from the ion source, was found to facilitate the mass spectrometry of (14)C to at least a level of (14)C/C ~ 6 × 10(-16), the equivalent of a radiocarbon age of 60,000 years. Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, or AMS, has now made possible the accurate radiocarbon dating of milligram-sized carbon samples by ion counting as well as dating and tracing with many other long-lived radioactive isotopes such as (10)Be, (26)Al, (36)Cl, and (129)I. The difficulty of obtaining large anion currents with low electron affinities and the difficulties of isobar separation, especially for the heavier mass ions, has prompted the use of molecular anions and the search for alternative

  1. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.E.

    1990-07-01

    The SURRC (Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre) is a multidisciplinary research centre shared by a consortium of Scottish Universities. Funding is jointly by the University Funding Committee and commercially from Research Councils, government departments and industry. The focus of research lies in earth, environmental and biomedical sciences. The research activities are discussed under the following headings: environmental radioactivity and nuclear geochemistry, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, body composition studies, stable isotopes in biological sciences, nuclear physics, luminescence dating and dosimetry radiation effects in electrical insulation, gamma-ray irradiation processing, radiogenic isotopes in geology, stable isotope geology, laser microprobe mass spectrometry for geology and NERC Radiocarbon Laboratory work. There are also reports on the reactor itself; reactor operation, production of radioactive isotopes and application of radioactive tracers. The educational aspects of the Centre, safety aspects, staffing, funding and all publications are reported. (UK)

  2. A REVIEW ON MASS SPECTROMETRY DETECTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri Neetu; Gupta Ankit; Taneja Ruchi; Bilandi Ajay; Beniwal Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for "weighing" molecules. Obviously, this is not done with a conventional scale or balance. Instead, mass spectrometry is based upon the principle of the motion of a charged particle that is called an ion, in an electric or magnetic field. The mass to charge ratio (m/z) of the ion affects particles motion. Since the charge of an electron is known, the mass to charge ratio (m/z) is a measurement of mass of an ion. Mass spectrometry research focuses ...

  3. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of selected herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, J.L.; Thurman, E.M.; Scribner, E.A.; Zimmerman, L.R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for the extraction and analysis of eight herbicides and five degradation products using solid-phase extraction from natural water samples followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. This method was developed for dimethenamid; flufenacet; fluometuron and its degradation products, demethylfluometuron (DMFM), 3-(trifluromethyl)phenylurea (TFMPU), 3-(trifluromethyl)-aniline (TFMA); molinate; norflurazon and its degradation product, demethylnorflurazon; pendamethalin; the degradation product of prometryn, deisopropylprometryn; propanil; and trifluralin. The eight herbicides are used primarily in the southern United States where cotton, rice, and soybeans are produced. The exceptions are dimethenamid and flufenacet, which are used on corn in the Midwest. Water samples received by the U.S. Geological Survey's Organic Geochemistry Research Group in Lawrence, Kansas, are filtered to remove suspended particulate matter and then passed through disposable solid-phase extraction columns containing octadecyl-bonded porous silica (C-18) to extract the compounds. The herbicides and their degradation products are removed from the column by ethyl acetate elution. The eluate is evaporated under nitrogen, and components then are separated, identified, and quantified by injecting an aliquot of the concentrated extract into a high-resolution, fused-silica capillary column of a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer under selected-ion mode. Method detection limits ranged from 0.02 to 0.05 ?g/L for all compounds with the exception of TFMPU, which has a method detection limit of 0.32 ?g/L. The mean absolute recovery is 107 percent. This method for the determination of herbicides and their degradation products is valuable for acquiring information about water quality and compound fate and transport in water.

  4. Imaging mass spectrometry statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emrys A; Deininger, Sören-Oliver; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Deelder, André M; McDonnell, Liam A

    2012-08-30

    Imaging mass spectrometry is increasingly used to identify new candidate biomarkers. This clinical application of imaging mass spectrometry is highly multidisciplinary: expertise in mass spectrometry is necessary to acquire high quality data, histology is required to accurately label the origin of each pixel's mass spectrum, disease biology is necessary to understand the potential meaning of the imaging mass spectrometry results, and statistics to assess the confidence of any findings. Imaging mass spectrometry data analysis is further complicated because of the unique nature of the data (within the mass spectrometry field); several of the assumptions implicit in the analysis of LC-MS/profiling datasets are not applicable to imaging. The very large size of imaging datasets and the reporting of many data analysis routines, combined with inadequate training and accessible reviews, have exacerbated this problem. In this paper we provide an accessible review of the nature of imaging data and the different strategies by which the data may be analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the assumptions of the data analysis routines to ensure that the reader is apprised of their correct usage in imaging mass spectrometry research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Achievement report for fiscal 1987 on the entrusted research and development of basic technologies for next-generation industries. Research and development of technologies of mass culture of cells; 1987 nendo jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Saibo tairyo baiyo gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The aim is to add value to the chemical industry by establishing technologies for realizing a large and stable supply of fine chemical products whose industrial production is difficult when conventional techniques are applied, the products including various useful substances yielded by animal cells including those of man. To fulfill the aim, efforts are exerted to complete basic technologies involving the mass culture of cells through conducting researches into animal biofunctions. This report covers the endeavors made in fiscal 1987 under the above-named project created in fiscal 1981. All the subject matters are for the development of substance production methods for industrial use, and include the studies of use of optimal cultivation methods mainly for serumless cultures and cultivation engineering, studies centering on the high-density cultivation of cells and serumless cultures, studies using suspended and quasi-suspended cell lines, studies using cells deriving from bone marrow, and studies using epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results are outlined of the comprehensive researches conducted into technologies of mass cultivation of cells. (NEDO)

  6. Neutrino mass matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    Given the many conflicting experimental results, examination is made of the neutrino mass matrix in order to determine possible masses and mixings. It is assumed that the Dirac mass matrix for the electron, muon, and tau neutrinos is similar in form to those of the quarks and charged leptons, and that the smallness of the observed neutrino masses results from the Gell-Mann-Ramond-Slansky mechanism. Analysis of masses and mixings for the neutrinos is performed using general structures for the Majorana mass matrix. It is shown that if certain tentative experimental results concerning the neutrino masses and mixing angles are confirmed, significant limitations may be placed on the Majorana mass matrix. The most satisfactory simple assumption concerning the Majorana mass matrix is that it is approximately proportional to the Dirac mass matrix. A very recent experimental neutrino mass result and its implications are discussed. Some general properties of matrices with structure similar to the Dirac mass matrices are discussed

  7. Research, development, and evaluation of basic technologies for next-generation industries. Technologies of mass culture of cells; Jisedai sangyo kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu hyoka. Saibo tairyo baiyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    The project aims to establish basic technologies for the mass culture of cells by utilizing the features of animal cells, which will enable a large, stable supply of fine chemicals such as highly functional physiologically active proteins whose industrial production the conventional technique of synthesis fails to realize. For this purpose, efforts are exerted to select cells which are capable of producing target substances, to breed highly productive strains, to develop a serumless medium that satisfies demands for an all-purpose feature and heat sterilization, and to develop technologies of high-density culture and effective refining, etc. Some DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) recombination technologies are also resorted to. As the result, a high-density culture of 2 times 10{sup 8} cells/ml has become available. Production is now feasible of various differentiation-inducing elements such as monoclonal antibodies with anti-HB virus activity, DIF, etc. Furthermore, cooperation with the Tsukuba University leads to the discovery of a novel vasopressor peptide (endothelin). The heat sterilization accepting serumless medium, which is put to practical use as the first of the kind in the world under this research and development project, contributes to the advancement of basic studies about cell biology. (NEDO)

  8. Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning Fra massemedier til mediesystem - om kodediskussionen i systemteoretisk medieforskning [From mass media to media system - code discussions in systems theoretical media research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Fugl Eskjær

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Systemteoretisk medieforskning rejser spørgsmålet om, hvorvidt massemedierne udgør en samlet institution, eller om medierne, i kraft af deres indbyrdes forskelle, skal betragtes uafhængigt af hinanden. Ved at indskrive medierne i en generel samfundsteori fremstiller systemteorien medierne som et autonomt funktionssystem. Denne bestræbelse kommer tydeligst til udtryk i identifikationen af en fælles kode for massemediernes system. Med udgangspunkt i Niklas Luhmanns medieteori foretager nærværende artikel en kritisk gennemgang af den systemteoretiske medieforsknings kodediskussion. Første del præsenterer kort systemteoriens kodebegreb og Luhmanns bestemmelse af mediesystemet som organiseret omkring koden information. Den midterste del gennemgår en række alternative forslag til denne kodedefinition, hvilket illustrerer omfanget, men også nogle af begrænsningerne, ved systemteoretisk medieforskning. Sidste del foretager en kritisk diskussion af systemteoriens kodeproblematik og viser, hvordan en ensidig kodefokusering står i vejen for en fortsat udforskning af vilkårene for mediesystemets udvikling og autonomi.Systems theoretical media research raises the question whether the mass media constitute a unified institution, or whether the media, due to their internal differences, should be considered individually and independent of each other. By inscribing the media in a general social theory, systems theory conceptualises the media as an autonomous functional system. This intention is most clearly illustrated by the efforts to identify a shared code for the entire media system. Based on the media theory of Niklas Luhmann, this paper offers a critical presentation of the code discussion within systems theoretical media research. The first part of the paper briefly introduces the systems theoretical notion of a code as well as Luhmann’s definition of the media system as organised and regulated by the code of information. The second part

  9. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  10. Mass spectrometry of large molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchetti, S.

    1985-01-01

    The lectures in this volume were given at a course on mass spectrometry of large molecules, organized within the framework of the Training and Education programme of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities. Although first presented in 1983, most of the lectures have since been updated by their authors. (orig.)

  11. Mass Customization and Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storbjerg, Simon Haahr; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Mass customization (MC) has been introduced as the future of manufacturing, and great results have been proven. Recent research, however, documents a high failure rate for companies trying to adapt to MC as a business strategy. Making this transition is, as highlighted by several scholars...

  12. Galaxy Masses : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courteau, Stephane; Cappellari, Michele; Jong, Roelof S. de; Dutton, Aaron A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy masses play a fundamental role in our understanding of structure formation models. This review addresses the variety and reliability of mass estimators that pertain to stars, gas, and dark matter. The dierent sections on masses from stellar populations, dynamical masses of gas-rich and

  13. The Origin of Mass

    OpenAIRE

    森岡, 達史

    2013-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle is introduced and used within the Standard Model to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ans\\"{a}tze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of si...

  14. Heavy quark masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Massimo

    1990-01-01

    In the large quark mass limit, an argument which identifies the mass of the heavy-light pseudoscalar or scalar bound state with the renormalized mass of the heavy quark is given. The following equation is discussed: m(sub Q) = m(sub B), where m(sub Q) and m(sub B) are respectively the mass of the heavy quark and the mass of the pseudoscalar bound state.

  15. Neutrino masses and oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A Yu

    1996-11-01

    New effects related to refraction of neutrinos in different media are reviewed and implication of the effects to neutrino mass and mixing are discussed. Patterns of neutrino masses and mixing implied by existing hints/bounds are described. Recent results on neutrino mass generation are presented. They include neutrino masses in SO(10) GUT`s and models with anomalous U(1), generation of neutrino mass via neutrino-neutralino mixing, models of sterile neutrino. (author). 95 refs, 9 figs.

  16. Alienation, Mass Society and Mass Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hari N.

    This monograph examines the nature of alienation in mass society and mass culture. Conceptually based on the "Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft" paradigm of sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies, discussion traces the concept of alienation as it appears in the philosophies of Hegel, Marx, Kierkegaard, Sartre, and others. Dwight Macdonald's "A Theory of Mass…

  17. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  18. Low Muscle Mass and Breast Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study, researchers compared the risk of death for women with breast cancer who had low skeletal muscle mass, or sarcopenia, at diagnosis and women who had adequate muscle mass. Learn what they found and what it might mean for patients in this Cancer Currents blog post.

  19. Surface analysis by imaging mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vidová, Veronika; Volný, Michael; Lemr, Karel; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, 7-8 (2009), s. 1101-1116 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : secondary ion mass spectrometry * matrix assisted laser desorption ionization * mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2009

  20. Common Psycholinguistic Themes in Mass Murderer Manifestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, Laura E.

    2017-01-01

    Mass murder in the United States is increasing, yet understanding of mass murderers is still relatively limited. Many perpetrators compose manifestos, which include journals, blogs, letters, videos, and other writings. Previous research has indicated that personal messages are of great social and psychological importance; however, there remains an…

  1. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base

  2. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  3. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  4. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  5. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  6. Radiative Majorana Neutrino Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Wei-Shu; Wong, Gwo-Guang

    1994-01-01

    We present new radiative mechanisms for generating Majorana neutrino masses, within an extension of the standard model that successfully generates radiative charged lepton masses, order by order, from heavy sequential leptons. Only the new sequential neutral lepton has a right-handed partner, and its Majorana mass provides the seed for Majorana neutrino mass generation. Saturating the cosmological bound of $50$ eV with $m_{\

  7. Microalgal Mass Culture Room Harvest Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The microalgal mass culture room, housed at the NOAA Fisheries' Milford CT laboratory, provides research grade microalgae (phytoplankton) to in-house and...

  8. Asteroids mass determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.

    1989-01-01

    Basic methods for asteroid mass determinations and their errors are discussed. New results and some current developments in the astrometric method are reviewed. New methods and techniques, such as electronic imaging, radar ranging and space probes are becoming important for asteroid mass determinations. Mass and density estimations on rotational properties and possible satelites are also discussed

  9. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  10. Scalar quarkonium masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.; Weingarten, D.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluate the valence approximation to the mass of scalar quarkonium for a range of different parameters. Our results strongly suggest that the infinite volume continuum limit of the mass of ss scalar quarkonium lies well below the mass of f J (1710). The resonance f 0 (1500) appears to the best candidate for ss scalar quarkonium. (orig.)

  11. What masses for Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.G.

    To understand the evolution of giant stars, it is important to pin down the masses for Cepheids. The 7- to 10-day bump Cepheids imply lower than evolutionary mass (60%). Recent theoretical work, though, indicates that for Cepheids with periods of 15 to 16 days, the best understanding of the light curves results from using evolutionary masses

  12. Quantitative mass spectrometry: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Pawel L.

    2016-10-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a mainstream chemical analysis technique in the twenty-first century. It has contributed to numerous discoveries in chemistry, physics and biochemistry. Hundreds of research laboratories scattered all over the world use MS every day to investigate fundamental phenomena on the molecular level. MS is also widely used by industry-especially in drug discovery, quality control and food safety protocols. In some cases, mass spectrometers are indispensable and irreplaceable by any other metrological tools. The uniqueness of MS is due to the fact that it enables direct identification of molecules based on the mass-to-charge ratios as well as fragmentation patterns. Thus, for several decades now, MS has been used in qualitative chemical analysis. To address the pressing need for quantitative molecular measurements, a number of laboratories focused on technological and methodological improvements that could render MS a fully quantitative metrological platform. In this theme issue, the experts working for some of those laboratories share their knowledge and enthusiasm about quantitative MS. I hope this theme issue will benefit readers, and foster fundamental and applied research based on quantitative MS measurements. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  13. Mass spectrometric analysis for nuclear safeguards

    OpenAIRE

    BOULYGA S.; KONEGGER-KAPPEL S.; RICHTER Stephan; SANGELY L.

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is currently being implemented in a wide spectrum of research and industrial areas, such as material sciences, cosmo- and geochemistry, biology and medicine, to name just a few. Research and development in nuclear safeguards is closely related to the general field of “Peace Research”; representing a specific application area for analytical sciences in general and for mass spectrometry in particular. According to Albert Einstein “peace cannot be kept by force. It only can be ...

  14. Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sai Baba, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric method for the determination of vapour pressures and thermodynamic properties is described. The aim of the article is to give a general introduction to the method rather than to give a critical review of the technique. The latest developments in this area of research are reviewed by the peers in the field during the triennial international mass spectrometric conferences. The Knudsen effusion mass spectrometric method is being applied for thermodynamic measurements. In recent times, laser vaporisation mass spectrometric methods have emerged as a source of determination of vapour pressures at very high temperatures and beyond the pressure regime far exceeding Knudsen effusion range

  15. Imaging Mass Spectrometry in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is an emerging technique of great potential for investigating the chemical architecture in biological matrices. Although the potential for studying neurobiological systems is evident, the relevance of the technique for application in neuroscience is still in its infancy. In the present Review, a principal overview of the different approaches, including matrix assisted laser desorption ionization and secondary ion mass spectrometry, is provided with particular focus on their strengths and limitations for studying different neurochemical species in situ and in vitro. The potential of the various approaches is discussed based on both fundamental and biomedical neuroscience research. This Review aims to serve as a general guide to familiarize the neuroscience community and other biomedical researchers with the technique, highlighting its great potential and suitability for comprehensive and specific chemical imaging. PMID:23530951

  16. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  17. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  18. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  19. The Mainz Neutrino Mass Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraus, C.; Bornschein, L.; Bonn, J.; Bornschein, B.; Flatt, B.; Kovalík, Alojz; Müller, B.; Otten, EW; Schall, JP.; Thummler, T.; Weinheimer, C.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 143, - (2005), s. 143 ISSN 0920-5632. [International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics /21./. Paříž, 14.06.2004-19.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : neutrino mass * tritium beta decay Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2005

  20. Mass media tours Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    In May 1998, representatives of Japan's mass media toured Bangladesh to learn about the country's reproductive health and population programs. The goal of the visit was for the journalists to spread information about the projects to their peers, to government officials, and parliamentarians responsible for allocations of foreign aid. The 1st stage of the visit involved meetings with program officials and organizers. In the 2nd stage, the journalists toured: 1) Matlab, where the International Center for Diarrhoeal Disease Research has been implementing an intensive family planning (FP) program; 2) the Panchdona IP area, where the Integrated Family Development Project is being conducted with funding from the Japanese government; 3) an FP office and satellite clinic; and 4) a site where voluntary organizations are providing FP/maternal-child health care. The journalists also learned about how micro-credit loans operate. Participating journalists reported that they were very impressed with the people of Bangladesh, and that they had gained a new understanding of the relationship between reproductive health and human rights.

  1. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  2. Main sequence mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.

    1987-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs

  3. MassTRIX: mass translator into pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhre, Karsten; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2008-07-01

    Recent technical advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have brought the field of metabolomics to a point where large numbers of metabolites from numerous prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms can now be easily and precisely detected. The challenge today lies in the correct annotation of these metabolites on the basis of their accurate measured masses. Assignment of bulk chemical formula is generally possible, but without consideration of the biological and genomic context, concrete metabolite annotations remain difficult and uncertain. MassTRIX responds to this challenge by providing a hypothesis-driven approach to high precision MS data annotation. It presents the identified chemical compounds in their genomic context as differentially colored objects on KEGG pathway maps. Information on gene transcription or differences in the gene complement (e.g. samples from different bacterial strains) can be easily added. The user can thus interpret the metabolic state of the organism in the context of its potential and, in the case of submitted transcriptomics data, real enzymatic capacities. The MassTRIX web server is freely accessible at http://masstrix.org.

  4. Glycomics using mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in structural glycomics. This review provides an overview on currently used mass spectrometric approaches such as the characterization of glycans, the analysis of glycopeptides obtained by proteolytic cleavage of proteins and the analysis of glycosphingolipids. The given examples are demonstrating the application of mass spectrometry to study glycosylation changes associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation, lysosomal storage di...

  5. Mass spectrometry in oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography

  6. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  7. The origin of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, R.; Sutton, C.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of mass in the Universe remains unexplained but recent high-energy experiments, described in this article, are close to testing the most plausible explanation for the masses of fundamental particles, which may, in turn, lead to a clearer understanding of mass on the macro-scale. The Standard Model includes the concept of the Higgs mechanism which endows particles with mass. Actual evidence for the existence of the postulated particle known as the Higgs boson would lead to confirmation of the theory and efforts to detect it at CERN are complex and determined. (UK)

  8. MassAI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX.......A software tool for general analysis and data-mining of mass-spectrometric datasets. The program features a strong emphasis on scan-by-scan identification and results-transparency. MassAI also accommodates residue level analysis of labelled runs, e.g. HDX....

  9. Masses of Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    About ten years ago it became apparent that the masses of Cepheids predicted from the theory of stellar evolution were larger than those predicted by pulsation theory. This mass anomaly for the classical Cepheids was displayed by Christy (1968) and Stobie (1969a,b,c) using nonlinear hydrodynamic calculations and by Cogan (1970) using linear theory. Rodgers (1970) has also discussed the several mass anomalies in some detail. These mass anomalies, and some others to be discussed, have not yet been completely resolved, but many of the discrepancies have been alleviated mostly by an increase in the Cepheid luminosities and a decrease in their surface temperatures

  10. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS EFFICIENT MASS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical basis for determining the effectiveness of mass valuation of land in present-day conditions are described. The concept defenitsy effect and effectiveness as economic categories and their classification values for mass valuation of land are presented. The effectiveness of mass valuation of land in the settlements defines the structure of local budget and economic activities undertaken by local authorities on the basis of the results of the mass appraisal of real estate. Mass valuation is regular and it is characterized by high degree of standardization of procedures and a significant increase in the role of statistical methods for processing data related to the use of the most significant factors influencing the parameters of the object to its cost, as well as the need to determine the value of the objective laws change equivalent, which is only possible when using economic and mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Quality control results of mass valuation carried out principally in other ways, as obtained by applying statistical machine results can be checked as soon statistical methods. This shows the relevance of research topic and lack of elaboration for Ukraine problems of efficiency of mass land valuation. Scientific research conducted through the use of the dialectical method and techniques of abstraction, comparative analysis and synthesis, the article various models and methods of valuation of land for taxation purposes are analyzed. In addition, the group explored methods used, comparisons, and more. In economic theory and practice problems and determine the effect of efficiency aimed at profit is quite relevant. Economists consider cost-effectiveness, such as economic efficiency. In this case, the production can be attributed to the activities to conduct and organization of mass valuation of land. This pushes many different positions on criteria and indicators of economic efficiency, the

  11. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  12. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  13. ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schechter, J.; Shahid, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos.......We discuss the possibility of using experiments timing the propagation of neutrino beams over large distances to help determine the absolute masses of the three neutrinos....

  14. Systematics of quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.; Jarlskog, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the quark mass matrices in the Standard Electroweak Model satisfy the empirical relation M = M 1 + Ψ(Λ 2 ), where M(M sp (')) refers to the mass matrix of the charge 2/3(-1/3) quarks normalized to the largest eigenvalue, m sub (t)(m sub (b)), and Λ = V sub (us) = 0.22

  15. Measurements of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Direct experimental information of neutrino mass as derived from the study of nuclear and elementary-particle weak decays is reviewed. Topics include tritium beta decay; the 3 He-T mass difference; electron capture decay of 163 Ho and 158 Tb; and limits on massive neutrinos from cosmology. 38 references

  16. The Origin of Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2010-07-01

    The world of physics presently looks to the LHC (CERN), where many expect the Higgs boson to be found. The Higgs is supposed to (partly) explain the cause of mass. There are indications that neither the Higgs nor Supersymmetric Particles will be found. In order to understand mass, the Higgs is not needed. Inertial mass is caused by a fundamental process. Binding fields propagate at the finite speed of light. An inevitable consequence is that every expanded object has an inertial behaviour, even if the constituents of the object are mass-less. To explain the mass of elementary particles, we have to accept that these particles are expanded. This is on the one hand in conflict with the concept of present physics; on the other hand it is in no conflict with any experiment. And it conforms to the analysis of Schroedinger with respect to the Dirac function of the electron. The corresponding particle model explains particle properties, like the magnetic moment (and therefore also the Bohr Magneton) and the constancy of the spin, correctly without any use of QM. Also the dynamic properties of mass, i.e. the relativistic increase of mass at motion and the mass-energy-relation, follow in a straight way from this concept.

  17. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  18. Mass of AC Andromedae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations indicate that AC Andromedae is population I rather than population II. A mass and radius for this star are calculated using a new set of opacities for the Kippenhahn Ia mixture. It is concluded that the mass is too high for an ordinary RR Lyrae star. (BJG)

  19. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  20. Elbow mass flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  1. Cold fusion, mass media and actual science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orefice, A. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1990-03-01

    The peculiar affair of cold nuclear fusion, a recent and exemplary pattern of today's scientific and public habits, is considered. An overview is proposed on the contemporary approach to science and technology, both of the mass media and research worlds. It shows how mass media with its power of suggestion and ability to raise financial resources can lead many researchers into unpredictable - if not irresponsible behaviour. Yet, an eccess of empiricism may often induce researchers to rely rather on serendipity than on deeper meditation.

  2. About limit masses of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibadova, U.R.

    2002-01-01

    The simple examples of spontaneous breaking of various symmetries for the scalar theory with fundamental mass have been considered. Higgs' generalizations on 'fundamental masses' that was introduced into the theory on a basis of the five-dimensional de Sitter space. The connection among 'fundamental mass', 'Planck's mass' and 'maxim ons' has been found. Consequently, the relationship among G-gravitational constant and other universal parameters can be established. The concept the mass having its root from deep antiquity (including Galilee's Pis sans experiment, theoretical research of the connection of mass with the Einstein's energy etc.) still remains fundamental. Every theoretical and experimental research in classical physics and quantum physics associated with mass is of step to the discernment of Nature. Besides of mass, the other fundamental constants such as Planck's constant ℎ and the speed of light also play the most important role in the modern theories. The first one related to quantum mechanics and the second one is related to the theory of relativity. Nowadays the properties and interactions of elementary particles can be described more or less adequately in terms of local fields that are affiliated with the lowest representations of corresponding compact groups of symmetry. It is known that the mass of any body is composed of masses of its comprising elementary particles. The mass of elementary particles is the Casimir operator of the non-compact Poincare group, and those representations of the given group, that are being used in Quantum Field Theory (QFT), and it can take any values in the interval of 0≤m≤∞. Two particles, today referred to as elementary particles, can have masses; distinct one from another by many orders. For example, vectorial bosons with the mass of ∼10 15 GeV take place in general relativity theory modules, whereas the mass of an electron is only ∼0.5·10 3 GeV. Formally, the standard QFT remains logical in a case

  3. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  4. Proton mass decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Ying; Draper, Terrence; Liang, Jian; Liu, Keh-Fei

    2018-03-01

    We report the results on the proton mass decomposition and also on the related quark and glue momentum fractions. The results are based on overlap valence fermions on four ensembles of Nf = 2 + 1 DWF configurations with three lattice spacings and volumes, and several pion masses including the physical pion mass. With 1-loop pertur-bative calculation and proper normalization of the glue operator, we find that the u, d, and s quark masses contribute 9(2)% to the proton mass. The quark energy and glue field energy contribute 31(5)% and 37(5)% respectively in the MS scheme at µ = 2 GeV. The trace anomaly gives the remaining 23(1)% contribution. The u, d, s and glue momentum fractions in the MS scheme are consistent with the global analysis at µ = 2 GeV.

  5. Linear mass reflectron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operating principle of a linear mass reflectron with V-form trajectory of ion motion -a new non-magnetic time-of-flight mass spectrometer with high resolution are presented. The ion-optical system of the device consists of an ion source with ionization by electron shock, of accelerating gaps, reflector gaps, a drift space and ion detector. Ions move in the linear mass refraction along the trajectories parallel to the axis of the analyzer chamber. The results of investigations into the experimental device are given. With an ion drift length of 0.6 m the device resolution is 1200 with respect to the peak width at half-height. Small-sized mass spectrometric transducers with high resolution and sensitivity may be designed on the base of the linear mass reflectron principle

  6. Top Quark Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the top quark at the Tevatron collider in 1995 the measurement of its mass has been a high priority. As one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Theory of particle physics, the precise value of the top quark mass together with other inputs provides a test for the self-consistency of the theory, and has consequences for the stability of the Higgs field that permeates the Universe. In this review I will briefly summarize the experimental techniques used at the Tevatron and the LHC experiments throughout the years to measure the top quark mass with ever improving accuracy, and highlight the recent progress in combining all measurements in a single world average combination. As experimental measurements became more precise, the question of their theoretical interpretation has become important. The difficulty of relating the measured quantity to the fundamental top mass parameter has inspired alternative measurement methods that extract the top mass in complementary ways. I wil...

  7. Origins of mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  8. Dynamical Mass Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel Horwitz, Roberto Ruben

    1982-03-01

    In the framework of the Glashow-Weinberg-Salem model without elementary scalar particles, we show that masses for fermions and intermediate vector bosons can be generated dynamically. The mechanism is the formation of fermion-antifermion pseudoscalar bound states of zero total four momentum, which form a condensate in the physical vacuum. The force responsible for the binding is the short distance part of the net Coulomb force due to photon and Z exchange. Fermions and bosons acquire masses through their interaction with this condensate. The neutrinos remain massless because their righthanded components have no interactions. Also the charge -1/3 quarks remain massless because the repulsive force from the Z exchange dominates over the Coulomb force. To correct this, we propose two possible modifications to the theory. One is to cut off the Z exchange at very small distances, so that all fermions except the neutrinos acquire masses, which are then, purely electromagnetic in origin. The other is to introduce an additional gauge boson that couples to all quarks with a pure vector coupling. To make this vector boson unobservable at usual energies, at least two new fermions must couple to it. The vector boson squared masses receive additive contributions from all the fermion squared masses. The photon remains massless and the masses of the Z and W('(+OR -)) bosons are shown to be related through the Weinberg angle in the conventional way. Assuming only three families of fermions, we obtain estimates for the top quark mass.

  9. Probabilistic Mass Growth Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, Eric; Elliott, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Mass has been widely used as a variable input parameter for Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) for space systems. As these space systems progress from early concept studies and drawing boards to the launch pad, their masses tend to grow substantially, hence adversely affecting a primary input to most modeling CERs. Modeling and predicting mass uncertainty, based on historical and analogous data, is therefore critical and is an integral part of modeling cost risk. This paper presents the results of a NASA on-going effort to publish mass growth datasheet for adjusting single-point Technical Baseline Estimates (TBE) of masses of space instruments as well as spacecraft, for both earth orbiting and deep space missions at various stages of a project's lifecycle. This paper will also discusses the long term strategy of NASA Headquarters in publishing similar results, using a variety of cost driving metrics, on an annual basis. This paper provides quantitative results that show decreasing mass growth uncertainties as mass estimate maturity increases. This paper's analysis is based on historical data obtained from the NASA Cost Analysis Data Requirements (CADRe) database.

  10. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  11. Research of the way of communicating information to the mass media by comparison with the media coverage about nuclear accidents. Analysis of the three main cases of accidents and troubles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Media coverage plays an important role in delivering information to the public in a rapid and easy-to-understand manner in terms of the subjects of nuclear energy. The mass media has so far covered nuclear accidents that occurred in nuclear facilities. The media coverage usually gains the attention of the public through the news media, such as TV and newspapers. In this study, three main cases of nuclear accidents were quantitatively examined by using the database of a newspaper. In addition, various comments of journalists whom the author interviewed were added for the evaluation of the three cases. As a result, it was revealed that the amount of media reporting commonly reached a maximum just after the nuclear accidents occurred. It became also clear that the smoothness of the information flow from the nuclear industry to the mass media affected the trend of the media coverage from the viewpoints of the duration and number of news reports. Most of the journalists considered that it was significant for the nuclear industry to strengthen the initial reaction on the occasion of nuclear accidents. The nuclear industry should understand the characteristics that are typical of the media coverage on nuclear accidents in the future. (author)

  12. Masses of supernova progenitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The possible nature and masses of supernovae progenitors, and the bearing of empirical results on some unsolved theoretical problems concerning the origin of supernovae, are discussed. The author concentrates on two main questions: what is the lower mass limit for stars to die explosively and what stars initiate type I supernovae. The evidence considered includes local supernova rates, empirical estimates of msub(w) (the upper mass limit for death as a white dwarf), the distributions of supernovae among stellar populations in galaxies and the colors of supernova producing galaxies. (B.D.)

  13. Photon mass experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A Coulomb null experiment is described that enables physics students to obtain rigorous upper bounds on photon mass. The experimenter searches for subnanovolt signals that would escape a closed shell were photon mass to be positive. The approach can be adapted for several college levels. At the simplest level, a ''miniature'' low-cost experiment allows a student to verify the exponent ''-2'' in Coulomb's law to eight or more decimal places. An advanced student given a full-size apparatus (at greater cost) can obtain mass bounds very close to the established laboratory limit

  14. Masses of Formal Philosophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods i...... in philosophy. Including contributions from a wide range of philosophers, Masses of Formal Philosophy contains important new responses to the original five questions.......Masses of Formal Philosophy is an outgrowth of Formal Philosophy. That book gathered the responses of some of the most prominent formal philosophers to five relatively open and broad questions initiating a discussion of metaphilosophical themes and problems surrounding the use of formal methods...

  15. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  16. Neutrino mass experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of the experimental search for neutrino mass is reviewed, with emphasis on direct kinematic methods. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. The situation concerning the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay has not changed significantly in the last two years. We discuss the ''model independent'' lower limit of 17 eV obtained by the ITEP group in light of existing data on the 3 H-- 3 He mass difference. 42 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. A framework study on assessment of mass customization capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2012-01-01

    Much research has been done to assist industries to move from mass production to mass customization. Salvador F., et al. made it clear in the article “Cracking the code of Mass Customization”, that becoming a Mass Customizer is not a single step quick fix, but requires 3 fundamental capabilities....... In that article it is proposed that these three capabilities are evaluated in a continuum model as an illustration of a company’s status of mass customization. This paper will introduce the neccesarity for a framework for measuring a company’s performance as a mass customizer....

  18. High mass planets and low mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on theoretical models of brown dwarf stars was presented to the workshop on ''Astrophysics of brown dwarfs'', Virginia, USA, 1985. The ingredients in the models i.e. equation of state, entropy and the infrared opacity are described. An analytical model is developed which is based on a polytrope (n = 3/4) but which neglects thermonuclear reactions. The model forms the basis of scaling laws for luminosity, mass, opacity and age. Complicating factors in brown dwarf evolution are also discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Principle of accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    The principle of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is described mainly on technical aspects: hardware construction of AMS, measurement of isotope ratio, sensitivity of measurement (measuring limit), measuring accuracy, and application of data. The content may be summarized as follows: rare isotope (often long-lived radioactive isotope) can be detected by various use of the ion energy obtained by the acceleration of ions, a measurable isotope ratio is one of rare isotope to abundant isotopes, and a measured value of isotope ratio is uncertainty to true one. Such a fact must be kept in mind on the use of AMS data to application research. (M.H.)

  20. Very low mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebert, J.; Probst, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses several theoretical and observational topics involved in discovering and analyzing very low mass stellar objects below about 0.3 M circle, as well as their likely extension into the substellar range. The authors hereafter refer to these two classes of objects as VLM stars and brown dwarfs, respectively; collectively, they are called VLM objects. The authors outline recent theoretical work on low-mass stellar interiors and atmospheres, the determination of the hydrogen-burning mass limit, important dynamical evidence bearing on the expected numbers of such objects, and the expectations for such objects from star-formation theory. They focus on the properties of substellar objects near the stellar mass limit. Observational techniques used to discover and analyze VLM objects are summarized

  1. [Small renal mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  2. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  3. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness show us how stress affects us. Think of how stage fright can cause nausea, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, a racing heart, a stomachache, or diarrhea. ...

  4. Body Mass Index Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    To this effect, two basic research with these research ... In this area, Ho conducted a research on a topic “Effectiveness o .... questioning, making a list, clustering, preparing a scratch .... three data collection instruments by using quantitative and.

  6. Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative feather mass indices: are feather masses needed to estimate the percentage of new feather mass grown for moult regression models? ... As an alternative, it is here tested if feather mass indices may be sufficient replacements for species-specific feather masses. Thirty-five species of birds with known primary ...

  7. Leptogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, M.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal leptogenesis explains the baryon asymmetry of the universe by the out-of-equilibrium decays of heavy right-handed neutrinos. In the minimal seesaw model this leads to interesting implications for light neutrino properties. In particular, quasi-degenerate light neutrino masses are incompatible with leptogenesis. An upper bound on light neutrino masses of 0.1 eV can be derived, which will be tested by forthcoming laboratory experiments and cosmology. (author)

  8. Ion Mass Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (100) is described for determining the mass of ions, the apparatus configured to hold a plasma (101 ) having a plasma potential. The apparatus (100) comprises an electrode (102) having a surface extending in a surface plane and an insulator (104) interfacing with the electrode (102......, and a processing unit (108) configured to interpret the detected impact locations in terms of the mass of the impacting ions....

  9. Mass of the photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.; Nieto, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    Several experiments are discussed for which results are equivalent to the catching and weighing of a photon. It is noted that none of the experiments has proved the rest mass to be zero and that such a proof may be impossible. It is shown by such experiments that the rest mass is less than the limit of accuracy of the experiment. These limits have approached ever closer to zero, and the most recent values are exceedingly small

  10. Substernal Thyroid Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.H. Regal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thyroid mass, most often a non toxic colloid goiter or occasionally an adenoma, is not an unusual finding below the level of the thoracic inlet.1 In 1992 Creswell and Wells estimated that these tumors comprise 5.8% of all mediastinal lesions.1 There is no standard definition for thyroid glands extending below the thoracic inlet, but such masses descend from their original cervical location for more than 2 or 3 cm below the thoracic inlet, and are not truly primary tumors of the mediastinum. They preserve the connection between the thoracic and cervical portion and receive their blood supply from the neck.2,3 In 1940, the seminal report of Wakeley and Mulvany divided intrathoracic thyroid masses into 3 types; (1”Small substernal extension” of a mainly cervical mass, (2 “Partial” intrathoracic, in which the major portion of the mass is situated within the thorax, and (3”Complete” in which all of the mass lies within the thoracic cavity.

  11. Establishment of peak bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Stefano; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-03-01

    Among the main areas of progress in osteoporosis research during the last decade or so are the general recognition that this condition, which is the cause of so much pain in the elderly population, has its antecedents in childhood and the identification of the structural basis accounting for much of the differences in bone strength among humans. Nevertheless, current understanding of the bone mineral accrual process is far from complete. The search for genes that regulate bone mass acquisition is ongoing, and current results are not sufficient to identify subjects at risk. However, there is solid evidence that BMD measurements can be helpful for the selection of subjects that presumably would benefit from preventive interventions. The questions regarding the type of preventive interventions, their magnitude, and duration remain unanswered. Carefully designed controlled trials are needed. Nevertheless, previous experience indicates that weight-bearing activity and possibly calcium supplements are beneficial if they are begun during childhood and preferably before the onset of puberty. Modification of unhealthy lifestyles and increments in exercise or calcium assumption are logical interventions that should be implemented to improve bone mass gains in all children and adolescents who are at risk of failing to achieve an optimal peak bone mass.

  12. Methods of Analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group?Determination of acetamide herbicides and their degradation products in water using online solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.A.; Strahan, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 6 acetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, dimethenamid, flufenacet, metolachlor, and propachlor) and 16 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is described in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using octadecylsilane as the solid-phase extraction media on online automated equipment followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method uses only 10 milliliters of sample per injection. Three different water-sample matrices, a reagent-water, a ground-water, and a surface-water sample spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter, were analyzed to determine method performance. Method detection limits ranged from 0.004 to 0.051 microgram per liter for the parent acetamide herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the acetamide compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples ranged from 62.3 to 117.4 percent. The secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) was recovered at an average rate of 43.5 percent. The mean recoveries for propachlor and propachlor oxanilic acid (OXA) were next lowest, ranging from 62.3 to 95.5 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 90.3 to 118.3 percent for all compounds. Overall the mean of the mean recoveries of all compounds in the three matrices spiked at 0.10 and 1.0 microgram per liter ranged from 89.9 to 100.7 percent, including the secondary amide of acetochlor/metolachlor ESA and the propachlor compounds. The acetamide herbicides and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit is 2.0 micrograms per liter for all compounds without dilution. With the exception of the secondary amide of

  13. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Group : determination of triazine and phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products in water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Alan; Strahan, Alex P.; Thurman, Earl Michael

    2002-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of 7 triazine and phenylurea herbicides and 12 of their degradation products in natural water samples using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is presented in this report. Special consideration was given during the development of the method to prevent the formation of degradation products during the analysis. Filtered water samples were analyzed using 0.5 gram graphitized carbon as the solid-phase extraction media followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Three different water-sample matrices?ground-water, surface-water, and reagent-water samples?spiked at 0.2 and 2.0 micrograms per liter were analyzed. Method detection limits ranged from 0.013 to 0.168 microgram per liter for the parent triazine herbicides and the triazine degradation products. Method detection limits ranged from 0.042 to 0.141 microgram per liter for the parent phenylurea herbicides and their degradation products. Mean recoveries for the triazine compounds in the ground- and surface-water samples generally ranged from 72.6 to 117.5 percent, but deethyl-cyanazine amide was recovered at 140.5 percent. Mean recoveries from the ground- and surface-water samples for the phenylurea compounds spiked at the 2.0-micrograms-per-liter level ranged from 82.1 to 114.4 percent. The mean recoveries for the phenylureas spiked at 0.2-microgram per liter were less consistent, ranging from 87.0 to 136.0 percent. Mean recoveries from reagent-water samples ranged from 87.0 to 109.5 percent for all compounds. The triazine compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 2.0 micrograms per liter, with the exception of deethylcyanazine and deethylcyanazine amide which are reported at 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The phenylurea compounds and their degradation products are reported in concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 2.0 micrograms per liter. The upper concentration limit was 2

  14. Greenland Ice Sheet Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, N.

    1984-01-01

    Mass balance equation for glaciers; areal distribution and ice volumes; estimates of actual mass balance; loss by calving of icebergs; hydrological budget for Greenland; and temporal variations of Greenland mass balance are examined.

  15. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.)

  16. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  17. Neutrino mass from Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Lesgourgues, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Neutrinos can play an important role in the evolution of the Universe, modifying some of the cosmological observables. In this contribution we summarize the main aspects of cosmological relic neutrinos and we describe how the precision of present cosmological data can be used to learn about neutrino properties, in particular their mass, providing complementary information to beta decay and neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We show how the analysis of current cosmological observations, such as the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background or the distribution of large-scale structure, provides an upper bound on the sum of neutrino masses of order 1 eV or less, with very good perspectives from future cosmological measurements which are expected to be sensitive to neutrino masses well into the sub-eV range.

  18. Gaugino mass without singlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    1998-01-01

    In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations

  19. Diffusion and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Vrentas, James S

    2013-01-01

    The book first covers the five elements necessary to formulate and solve mass transfer problems, that is, conservation laws and field equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, parameters in constitutive equations, and mathematical methods that can be used to solve the partial differential equations commonly encountered in mass transfer problems. Jump balances, Green’s function solution methods, and the free-volume theory for the prediction of self-diffusion coefficients for polymer–solvent systems are among the topics covered. The authors then use those elements to analyze a wide variety of mass transfer problems, including bubble dissolution, polymer sorption and desorption, dispersion, impurity migration in plastic containers, and utilization of polymers in drug delivery. The text offers detailed solutions, along with some theoretical aspects, for numerous processes including viscoelastic diffusion, moving boundary problems, diffusion and reaction, membrane transport, wave behavior, sedime...

  20. Keaton and the Masses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    This paper explores conflicts between individual and mass and the process of 'massification' (i.e. the becoming of masses) as comic potential in Buster Keaton’s physical comedies. This comic potential is characterized by a person’s formalized and aestheticized de-individualization when confronted...... with tangible, non-human matter. As already indicated by Henri Bergson, de-individualization plays an important role in modern comedy in general. With his intense focus on massification, Keaton is not only one of the first, but also one of the most dedicated investigators of comic de-individualization by purely...... and thematics of the films and down to the comic details of each individual gag. The paper initiates by considering the complex relations in Keaton between gag and narrative with specific regard to the conflict between the individual and the masses. This leads to an exploration of the basic compositional...

  1. Baryogenesis and neutrino masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The erasure of any preexisting B+L asymmetry in the universe in its late stages suggests that the B asymmetry observed today either originated at the electroweak scale or it arose from an original L asymmetry. For the latter case to be viable either neutrino masses are much below the eV scale or the L asymmetry itself is generated at an intermediate scale. Several features of the generation of a B asymmetry via an L asymmetry are discussed, including the interesting possibility that the present baryon asymmetry in the universe originates as a result of CP violating phases in the neutrino mass matrix

  2. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  3. Ambient ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A T

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ionization mass spectrometry emerged as a new scientific discipline only about ten years ago. A considerable body of information has been reported since that time. Keeping the sensitivity, performance and informativity of classical mass spectrometry methods, the new approach made it possible to eliminate laborious sample preparation procedures and triggered the development of miniaturized instruments to work directly in the field. The review concerns the theoretical foundations and design of ambient ionization methods. Their advantages and drawbacks, as well as prospects for application in chemistry, biology, medicine, environmetal analysis, etc., are discussed. The bibliography includes 194 references

  4. Atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1997-01-01

    The elemental inorganic analysis seems to be dominated today by techniques based on atomic spectrometry. After an evaluation of advantages and limitations of using mass analysers (ion detectors) versus conventional photomultipliers (photon detector) a brief review of the more popular techniques of the emerging Atomic Mass spectrometry is carried out. Their huge potential for inorganic trace analysis is such that in the future we could well witness how this end of the century and millennium marked the fall of the photons empire in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. (Author)

  5. Fermion masses and multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    A general survey and analysis of fermion masses is presented in terms of both the known low energy gauge structure and of the simplest GUT structure. The replication of fermion families is discussed in the context of possible family group structures. Sample family gauge groups are presented in the cases of three and four chiral families, using ABJ and Witten anomalies to restrict the maximal gauged family group. The possible relevance of the family group to the fermion mass hierarchy is discussed in the context of various models. (author)

  6. Towards absolute neutrino masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Petr [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory 106-38, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Various ways of determining the absolute neutrino masses are briefly reviewed and their sensitivities compared. The apparent tension between the announced but unconfirmed observation of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay and the neutrino mass upper limit based on observational cosmology is used as an example of what could happen eventually. The possibility of a 'nonstandard' mechanism of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay is stressed and the ways of deciding which of the possible mechanisms is actually operational are described. The importance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} nuclear matrix elements is discussed and their uncertainty estimated.

  7. Question of neutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  8. Mass Spectrometry-Based Biomarker Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Longo, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of candidate biomarkers within the entire proteome is one of the most important and challenging goals in proteomic research. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a modern and promising technology for semiquantitative and qualitative assessment of proteins, enabling protein sequencing and identification with exquisite accuracy and sensitivity. For mass spectrometry analysis, protein extractions from tissues or body fluids and subsequent protein fractionation represent an important and unavoidable step in the workflow for biomarker discovery. Following extraction of proteins, the protein mixture must be digested, reduced, alkylated, and cleaned up prior to mass spectrometry. The aim of our chapter is to provide comprehensible and practical lab procedures for sample digestion, protein fractionation, and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis.

  9. Water and Solute Mass Transport in Soils Developed on glacial Drift: A Br Tracer Investigation Using Instrumented Soil Monoliths at an Agricultural Long Term Ecological Research Site (Kellogg Biological Station, Hickory Corners, Southern Michigan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L.; Hamilton, S. K.; Walter, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrologic processes control the residence time of water in the soil column. This is of central importance in understanding mineral weathering rates in terms of reaction kinetics and solute transport. In order to better quantify the coupling between water and solute mass transport and to better define controls on carbonate and aluminosilicates weathering rates, we have conducted bromide-tracer introduction experiments at four replicate soil monoliths (4 m3 volume) instrumented and managed by the KBS-LTER. Monolith soils are developed on the pitted outwash plain of the morainic system left by the last retreat of the Wisconsin glaciation, around 12,000 years ago. Soil profiles from the monolith sections extend to 200 cm and they were sampled and characterized texturally and mineralogically. Quartz and feldspar are dominant throughout the soil profile, while carbonates and hornblende occur only in deeper soil horizons. The four replicate monoliths are instrumented with gas and soil water sampling devices (Prenart tension lysimeters) at various depths. The monoliths also have a large capacity tray at the bottom, which permits collection of water for weight and chemical determinations. A bromide tracer solution (as lithium bromide) was applied to coincide as closely as possible with a major snowmelt event (2/27/04). The saturated and unsaturated transport of bromide through the four monoliths was followed as a function of time and soil profile depth for the duration of the snowmelt as well as intermittent rain events. Because the soil was saturated at the time of bromide application, the bromide solution is expected to move rapidly through macropores, followed by slower movement into micropores. The unsaturated transport of bromide is largely controlled by the intensity and duration of the rains if it is dominated by piston flow as opposed to preferential channel flow. In general, the tracer moved through the shallow soils very quickly, which is shown by early sharp

  10. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  11. Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, S.; le Gac, Severine; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2009-01-01

    With this book we want to illustrate how two quickly growing fields of instrumentation and technology, both applied to life sciences, mass spectrometry and microfluidics (or microfabrication) naturally came to meet at the end of the last century and how this marriage impacts on several types of

  12. The Disk Mass Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; de Jong, Roelof Sybe

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  13. Mass of 48K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.; Zeller, A.F.; Ophel, T.R.; Hebbard, D.F.

    1978-08-01

    The mass excess of 48 K was measured to be -32.117 +or- .027 MeV using the 48 Ca( 7 Li, 7 Be) 48 K reaction at 52 MeV. The result is consistent with predictions and a previous less accurate measurement. There is evidence for an excited state in 48 K at 0.58 MeV

  14. Processes of Mass Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channey, David

    This sociological treatment of mass communications analysis first discusses the theories of audience behavior, then turns to the organization of media production, and closes with a study of performance. The book covers audience needs and gratifications, the history of British press and broadcasting results of systems of media distribution, the…

  15. Emotions and Mass Atrocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Johannes

    social and political forces, deeply involved in the history of mass violence. Drawing on recent insights from philosophy, psychology, history, and the social sciences, this volume examines the emotions of perpetrators, victims, and bystanders. Editors Thomas Brudholm and Johannes Lang have brought...

  16. Analytical mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  17. Analytical mass spectrometry. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This 43rd Annual Summer Symposium on Analytical Chemistry was held July 24--27, 1990 at Oak Ridge, TN and contained sessions on the following topics: Fundamentals of Analytical Mass Spectrometry (MS), MS in the National Laboratories, Lasers and Fourier Transform Methods, Future of MS, New Ionization and LC/MS Methods, and an extra session. (WET)

  18. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, Christian, E-mail: weinheimer@uni-muenster.de [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Direct neutrino mass experiments are complementary to searches for neutrinoless double {beta}-decay and to analyses of cosmological data. The previous tritium beta decay experiments at Mainz and at Troitsk have achieved upper limits on the neutrino mass of about 2 eV/c{sup 2} . The KATRIN experiment under construction will improve the neutrino mass sensitivity down to 200 meV/c{sup 2} by increasing strongly the statistics and-at the same time-reducing the systematic uncertainties. Huge improvements have been made to operate the system extremely stably and at very low background rate. The latter comprises new methods to reject secondary electrons from the walls as well as to avoid and to eject electrons stored in traps. As an alternative to tritium {beta}-decay experiments cryo-bolometers investigating the endpoint region of {sup 187}Re {beta}-decay or the electron capture of {sup 163}Ho are being developed. This article briefly reviews the current status of the direct neutrino mass measurements.

  19. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  20. On the Mass Distribution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The observational stellar-mass black hole mass distribution exhibits a maximum at about 8 M⊙. It can be explained via the details of the massive star evolution, supernova explosions, or consequent black hole evolution. We propose another explanation, connected with an underestimated influence of the relation between the initial stellar mass and the compact remnant mass. We show that an unimodal observational mass distribution of black holes can be produced by a power-law initial mass function and a monotonic “remnant mass versus initial mass” relation.

  1. 'Biracial'-Looking Twins: A New Twin Type?/Twin Research: Twins with Cystic Teratomas; Sleep Quality and Body Mass Index; Previable Membrane Rupture/Print and Online Reports: Twins Born to a Sister Surrogate; NASA Twin Study; African-Cosmopolitan Twin Fashion Inspirations; Triplet Hockey Stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2017-06-01

    Dizygotic (DZ) co-twins born to mothers and fathers from different racial or ethnic backgrounds often resemble one parent much more than the other. As such, these pairs comprise a unique subset of twins for investigating how others' responses to their different looks may affect their personalities and self-esteem. This article describes some of these twin pairs and some challenges of raising them, and suggests ways they may be used in research. Next, recent twin research on cystic teratomas, relations between sleep quality and body mass index, and previable membrane rupture is described. The final section concerns twins, twin studies, and related events in the media, namely: twins born to a sister surrogate, the NASA twin investigation, inspiring African-Cosmopolitan twins in fashion, and triplet Hockey Stars.

  2. Research of the Mass Spectra of the Fission Products and Yields of (n, gamma) and (n, 2n) Reactions in a Model Subcritical Uranium Blanket of the Electronuclear System "Energy Plus Transmutation" on Proton Beam of the Dubna Synchrophasotron at 1.5 Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Chultem, D; Krivopustov, M I; Gerbish, S; Tumendemberel, B; Pavlyuk, A B; Zaveryukha, O S

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the research of the spatial distributions of the yields of (n, f), (n, gamma) and (n, 2n) reactions in a two-section model of the uranium blanket electronuclear installation constructed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR (Dubna) for experiments according to the program "Research of physical aspects of the electronuclear method of energy production and of radioactive waste transmutation in atomic power-engineering on beams of the synchrophasotron and nuclotron" - project "Energy plus Transmutation". The mass spectrum of the fission products and yields of above reactions in uranium activation detectors placed on the radii of the so-called detector plates is determined. The experimental results testify that the fission of nuclei in the uranium blanket is made by fast neutrons. This conclusion coincides with the result obtained with track integrators of uranium fission.

  3. Agenda Setting and Mass Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eugene F.

    The agenda-setting concept in mass communication asserts that the news media determine what people will include or exclude in their cognition of public events. Findings in uses and gratification research provide the foundation for this concept: an initial focus on people's needs, particularly the need for information. The agenda-setting concept…

  4. Radiation-induced Mass Transfer through Membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levdansky, V.V.; Smolík, Jiří; Moravec, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2009), s. 125-128 ISSN 0735-1933 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400720804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : mass transfer * adiation * membrane Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.189, year: 2009

  5. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop and validate a simple, efficient and reliable Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of two dermatological drugs, ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  6. Four decades of joy in mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbering, N.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tremendous developments in mass spectrometry have taken place in the last 40 years. This holds for both the science and the instrumental revolutions in this field. In chemistry the research was heavily focused on organic molecules that upon electron ionization fragmented via complex mechanistic

  7. Inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry. Chapter 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahalingam, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a new technique for elemental and isotopic analysis which is currently attracting a great deal of interest. This relatively new technique has found wide applications in different fields of research viz., nuclear, geological, biological and environmental sciences

  8. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the functional elements of a mass spectrometer and of some currently employed mass spectrometric techniques, such as combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass chromatography, and selected ion monitoring. Various areas of application of mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry are discussed, such as inborn errors of metabolism and other metabolic disorders, intoxications, quantitative determinations of drugs, hormones, gases, and trace elements, and the use of isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a definitive method for the establishment of true values for concentrations of various compounds in reference sera. It is concluded that mass spectrometry is of great value in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

  9. A comparative research on obesity hypertension by the comparisons and associations between waist circumference, body mass index with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and the clinical laboratory data between four special Chinese adult groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ou; Leng, Jian-Hang; Yang, Fen-Fang; Yang, Hai-Ming; Zhang, Hu; Li, Zeng-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Yu; Yuan, Cheng-Da; Li, Jia-Jia; Pan, Qi; Liu, Wei; Ren, Yan-Jun; Liu, Bing; Liu, Qing-Min; Cao, Cheng-Jian

    2018-01-01

    The obesity-hypertension pathogenesis is complex. From the phenotype to molecular mechanism, there is a long way to clarify the mechanism. To explore the association between obesity and hypertension, we correlate the phenotypes such as the waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SB), and diastolic blood pressure (DB) with the clinical laboratory data between four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group), and the results may show something. To explore the mechanisms from obesity to hypertension by analyzing the correlations and differences between WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data indices in four specific Chinese adult physical examination groups. This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2012 to July 2014, and 153 adult subjects, 34 women and 119 men, from 21 to 69 years, were taken from four characteristic Chinese adult physical examination groups (newly diagnosed untreated just-obesity group, newly diagnosed untreated obesity-hypertension group, newly diagnosed untreated just-hypertension group, and normal healthy group). The study was approved by the ethics committee of Hangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. WC, BMI, SB, DB, and other clinical laboratory data were collected and analyzed by SPSS. Serum levels of albumin (ALB),alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (Ua), and TC/HDLC (odds ratio) were statistically significantly different between the four groups. WC statistically significantly positively correlated with BMI, ALT, Ua, and serum levels of glucose (GLU), and TC/HDLC, and negatively with ALB, HDLC, and serum levels of conjugated bilirubin (CB). BMI

  10. The W Boson Mass Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the W boson mass has been growing in importance as its precision has improved, along with the precision of other electroweak observables and the top quark mass. Over the last decade, the measurement of the W boson mass has been led at hadron colliders. Combined with the precise measurement of the top quark mass at hadron colliders, the W boson mass helped to pin down the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson through its induced radiative correction on the W boson mass. With the discovery of the Higgs boson and the measurement of its mass, the electroweak sector of the Standard Model is over-constrained. Increasing the precision of the W boson mass probes new physics at the TeV-scale. We summarize an extensive Tevatron (1984–2011) program to measure the W boson mass at the CDF and Dø experiments. We highlight the recent Tevatron measurements and prospects for the final Tevatron measurements.

  11. Minimalistic Neutrino Mass Model

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouvêa, A; Gouvea, Andre de

    2001-01-01

    We consider the simplest model which solves the solar and atmospheric neutrino puzzles, in the sense that it contains the smallest amount of beyond the Standard Model ingredients. The solar neutrino data is accounted for by Planck-mass effects while the atmospheric neutrino anomaly is due to the existence of a single right-handed neutrino at an intermediate mass scale between 10^9 GeV and 10^14 GeV. Even though the neutrino mixing angles are not exactly predicted, they can be naturally large, which agrees well with the current experimental situation. Furthermore, the amount of lepton asymmetry produced in the early universe by the decay of the right-handed neutrino is very predictive and may be enough to explain the current baryon-to-photon ratio if the right-handed neutrinos are produced out of thermal equilibrium. One definitive test for the model is the search for anomalous seasonal effects at Borexino.

  12. Neutrino mass: Recent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Some recent developments in the experimental search for neutrino mass are discussed. Simpson and Hime report finding new evidence for a 17-keV neutrino in the β decay of 3 H and 35 S. New data from Los Alamos on the electron neutrino mass as measured in tritium beta decay give an upper limit of 13.5 eV at the 95% confidence level. This result is not consistent with the long-standing ITEP result of 26(5) eV within a ''model-independent'' range of 17 to 40 eV. It now appears that the electron neutrino is not sufficiently massive to close the universe by itself. 38 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Coronal Mass Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Kunow, H; Linker, J. A; Schwenn, R; Steiger, R

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Sun gravitationally controls the orbits of planets and minor bodies. Much less known, however, is the domain of plasma fields and charged particles in which the Sun governs a heliosphere out to a distance of about 15 billion kilometers. What forces activates the Sun to maintain this power? Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants are the troops serving the Sun during high solar activity periods. This volume offers a comprehensive and integrated overview of our present knowledge and understanding of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and their descendants, Interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). It results from a series of workshops held between 2000 and 2004. An international team of about sixty experimenters involved e.g. in the SOHO, ULYSSES, VOYAGER, PIONEER, HELIOS, WIND, IMP, and ACE missions, ground observers, and theoreticians worked jointly on interpreting the observations and developing new models for CME initiations, development, and interplanetary propagation. The book provides...

  14. Research News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Research News Research News Quarterly Updates Research Call Archive ... Clinical Trials in MS Learn More Become a Research Champion An MS Research Revolution Support MS Research ...

  15. Data acquisition of mass transport parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Riyo; Hama, Katsuhiro; Morikawa, Keita; Hosoya, Shinichi

    2017-02-01

    Tono Geoscience Center of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been carrying out the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project, which is a scientific study understanding the deep geological environment as a basis of research and development for geological disposal of high level radioactive wastes. The aim of the MIU project is to establish comprehensive techniques for the investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment in fractured crystalline rock, and to develop a range of engineering techniques for deep underground application. This project has three overlapping phases: Surface-based investigation phase (Phase I), Construction phase (Phase II), and Operation phase (Phase III). Currently, the project is being carried out under the Phase III. Mass transport study is mainly performed as part of Phase III project. In Phase III, the goal of mass transport study is to obtain a better understanding of mass transport phenomena in the geological environment as well as to develop technologies for measurement of the mass transport parameters, model construction, numerical analysis and validation of those technologies. This study was planned to understand the influence of the geological characteristics of fracture on the mass transport parameters. This report presents the results of diffusion experiment, observation of polished thin section, sorption experiment and porophysicality measurement. (author)

  16. Large mass storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, Arnold M.

    1978-08-01

    This is the final report of a study group organized to investigate questions surrounding the acquisition of a large mass storage facility. The programatic justification for such a system at Brookhaven is reviewed. Several candidate commercial products are identified and discussed. A draft of a procurement specification is developed. Some thoughts on possible new directions for computing at Brookhaven are also offered, although this topic was addressed outside of the context of the group's deliberations. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  18. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Leland

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) methods can reveal much about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of proteins. The addition of mass spectrometry (MS) to an earlier fragmentation-separation HX analysis now extends HX studies to larger proteins at high structural resolution and can provide information not available before. This chapter discusses experimental aspects of HX labeling, especially with respect to the use of MS and the analysis of MS data. PMID:26791986

  19. Gravitational field mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author's definition for the mass-momentum/angular momentum surrounded by a spacelike 2-surface with S/sup 2/ topology is presented. This definition is motivated by some ideas from twistor theory in relation to linearized gravitational theory. The status of this definition is examined in relation to many examples which have been worked out. The reason for introducing a slight modification of the original definition is also presented

  20. Neutrino masses and mixings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfenstein, L.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices, cosmology, and neutrino oscillation experiments all suggest neutrino mass are far below present direct experimental limits. Four interesting scenarios and their implications are discussed: (1) a 17 keV ν τ , (2) a 30 ev ν τ making up the dark matter, (3) a 10 -3 ev ν μ to solve the solar neutrino problem, and (4) a three-neutrino MSW solution

  1. Measurement of mass and isotopic fission yields for heavy fission products with the LOHENGRIN mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bail, A.

    2009-05-01

    In spite of the huge amount of fission yield data available in different libraries, more accurate values are still needed for nuclear energy applications and to improve our understanding of the fission process. Thus measurements of fission yields were performed at the mass spectrometer Lohengrin at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, France. The mass separator Lohengrin is situated at the research reactor of the institute and permits the placement of an actinide layer in a high thermal neutron flux. It separates fragments according to their atomic mass, kinetic energy and ionic charge state by the action of magnetic and electric fields. Coupled to a high resolution ionization chamber the experiment was used to investigate the mass and isotopic yields of the light mass region. Almost all fission yields of isotopes from Th to Cf have been measured at Lohengrin with this method. To complete and improve the nuclear data libraries, these measurements have been extended in this work to the heavy mass region for the reactions 235 U(n th ,f), 239 Pu(n th ,f) and 241 Pu(n th ,f). For these higher masses an isotopic separation is no longer possible. So, a new method was undertaken with the reaction 239 Pu(n th ,f) to determine the isotopic yields by spectrometry. These experiments have allowed to reduce considerably the uncertainties. Moreover the ionic charge state and kinetic energy distributions were specifically studied and have shown, among others, nanosecond isomers for some masses. (author)

  2. Teaching English through Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Tafani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the importance of using Mass Media in the classroom and finding the ways how to use Printed and Audio-visual Media. It is the result of an in-depth study, surveys and questionnaires thus trying to make the ideas in this article more trustworthy. It is based not only on the literature review but also on long personal experience. It is a brief description of some practical examples and some tips for novice teachers. Further more, this article tends to deal with some of the key issues of using media in the classroom. Here are included some of the findings of my research work on a post-doctorate Fulbright Program in 2001. The following issues are open for discussion: the importance of Media in general and in education in particular; Media are persuasive and pervasive, newspapers, magazines, radio, television and internet in the classroom, etc.

  3. Accelerator mass spectrometry in NIPNE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivascu, M; Marinescu, L.; Dima, R.; Cata-Danil, D.; Petrascu, M.; Popescu, I.; Stan-Sion, C.; Radulescu, M.; Plostinaru, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is today the method capable to measure the lowest concentration of a particular nuclide in sample materials. The method has applications in environmental physics, medicine, measurements of cosmic-ray or nuclear power plant produced radionuclides in the earth's atmosphere. All over the world, more than 40 charged particles and heavy ion accelerators are performing such analyses concerning the research interest of a huge number of laboratories. The Romanian Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest has initiated a construction project for the AMS facility at the FN - Van de Graaff Tandem accelerator. This program benefits of technical and financial assistance provided by IAEA in the frame of the IAEA-TC Project ROM 8014-265C. A general lay-out of the AMS project is presented. The construction work has begun and first tests of the AMS injector will take place between July - September this year. (authors)

  4. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  5. Masses of noble gases

    CERN Document Server

    Marx, G H; Herfurth, F; Stora, T; Blaum, K; Beck, D; Audi, G; Rosenbusch, M

    The so-called magic numbers, cornerstones of the quantum nuclear ensemble, are now known to lose their supernatural powers far from the protected valley of stability. To complement the well-established (but not yet well-understood) case of N = 20, we propose to examine the erstwhile N = 28 shell closure via a measurement of the important (but unknown) mass of the nuclide $^{48}$Ar. The quenching of a shell closure, a mechanism as mysterious as the reason for magic numbers themselves, also has important consequences in nucleosynthesis. While $^{48}$Ar is not part of the region concerned by the canonical rapid neutro-capture r-process, the question of shell strength is of great importance for heavier nuclides. The location of the r-process path would benefit from extending the succesful ISOTRAP krypton mass measurements beyond the N = 58 sub-shell to $^{96-98}$Kr. Modeling the complementary rapid proton-capture rp- process, putative source of some proton-rich species, requires the mass of $^{70}$Kr, near the e...

  6. Slope of the mass function of low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the modern method of obtaining the initial mass function contains a number of a uncertainties that can have a significant effect on the slope of the function in the low-mass section (m < m**). The influence of changes of the mass-luminosity relation, the scale of bolometric corrections, and the luminosity function on the form of the mass function is considered. The effect of photometrically unresolved binaries is also discussed. Some quantitative estimates are made, and it is shown that the slope of the initial mass function in the low-mass section can vary in wide ranges

  7. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  9. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative ... and mass transfer from a vertical flat plate in a porous medium saturated with ... boundary layer with suction and mass transfer in a porous medium.

  10. Mass spectrometry by means of tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1985-01-01

    Mass spectrometry based on an accelerator allows to measure rare cosmogenic isotopes found in natural samples with isotopic abundances up to 10E-15. The XTU Tandem of Legnaro National Laboratories can measure mean heavy isotopes (36Cl, 41Ca, 129I) in applications interesting cosmochronology and Medicine. The TTT-3 Tandem of the Naples University has been modified in view of precision studies of C14 in Archeology, Paleantology and Geology. In this paper a review is made of principles and methodologies and of some applicationy in the framework of the National Program for mass spectrametry research with the aid of accelerators

  11. Religious communication and hegemony of mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is the complex object of scientific research that involves existential component and the inextricable link with relevant historical trends. Mass culture and the information society put pressure on modern religious communication. Media is actively integrating into the system of religious communication. Hegemony of mass communication is realized through the media and religious communicative system becomes the part of this hegemony. Peculiarities of religious communication processes are conditioned by consciousness of itself impact and the need to integrate into the media system.

  12. Charm mass corrections to the bottomonium mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Faustov, R. N.; Galkin, V. O.

    2002-01-01

    The one-loop corrections to the bottomonium mass spectrum due to the finite charm mass are evaluated in the framework of the relativistic quark model. The obtained corrections are compared with the results of perturbative QCD

  13. Static-light meson masses from twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Karl; Michael, Chris; Shindler, Andrea; Wagner, Marc

    2008-08-01

    We compute the static-light meson spectrum using two-flavor Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. We have considered five different values for the light quark mass corresponding to 300 MeV PS S mesons. (orig.)

  14. Body mass in comparative primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J; Jungers, W L

    1997-06-01

    Data are presented on adult body mass for 230 of 249 primate species, based on a review of the literature and previously unpublished data. The issues involved in collecting data on adult body mass are discussed, including the definition of adults, the effects of habitat and pregnancy, the strategy for pooling data on single species from multiple studies, and use of an appropriate number of significant figures. An analysis of variability in body mass indicates that the coefficient of variation for body mass increases with increasing species mean mass. Evaluation of several previous body mass reviews reveals a number of shortcomings with data that have been used often in comparative studies.

  15. Direct analysis of samples by mass spectrometry: From elements to bio-molecules using laser ablation inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdian, David C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometric methods that are able to analyze solid samples or biological materials with little or no sample preparation are invaluable to science as well as society. Fundamental research that has discovered experimental and instrumental parameters that inhibit fractionation effects that occur during the quantification of elemental species in solid samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is described. Research that determines the effectiveness of novel laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric methods for the molecular analysis of biological tissues at atmospheric pressure and at high spatial resolution is also described. A spatial resolution is achieved that is able to analyze samples at the single cell level.

  16. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindler, A.

    2007-07-01

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  18. Fermion masses from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is assumed that the E 8 gauge group of the E 8 x E 8 heterotic superstring can be broken into SO(10) x SU(4). The mass relations among fermions m/sub u//m/sub d/ = m/sub c//m/sub s/ = m/sub t//m/sub b/ and m/sub ν e//m/sub e/ = m/sub ν mu//m/sub μ/ = m/sub ν tau//m/sub tau/ are discussed. 18 refs

  19. Triple mode Cepheid masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    Cepheid wind enrichment from the surface and the instability mixing below the convection zones compete to give much deeper large Y homogeneous and transition layers than previously thought. The theoretical model data and derived masses are presented. It is shown that if the helium enrichment goes to 250,000 K (l-q = 2 x 10 -4 ) with a transition zone to 300,000 K (1-q = 5 x 10 -4 ) for AC And, its periods can be explained. For TU Cas a very unlikely model is required to give the three periods reported previously. 28 references

  20. Photon mass and electrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, Alexander; Pelliccia, Diego N.

    2007-01-01

    We show that if the photon possesses a tiny but non-vanishing mass, the universe cannot be electrically neutral. A cosmological electric asymmetry could be generated either at an early stage by the different evaporation rates of the primordial black holes with respect to positively and negatively charged particles or by a predominant capture of protons in comparison to electrons by the heavy galactic black holes in the contemporary universe. An impact of this phenomenon on the generation of large scale magnetic fields and on the acceleration of the universe is considered

  1. Higgs for the masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-03-15

    The unified theory of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force, crowned with the discovery at CERN in 1983 of the W and Z bosons which carry the weak nuclear force, is one of the great triumphs of modern physics. But the picture is not yet complete. An essential but still elusive ingredient is the so-called 'Higgs boson' (after Edinburgh theorist Peter Higgs), responsible for the vital symmetry breaking in the theory. This gives the carriers of the weak force mass, while the photon, the carrier of electromagnetism, is massless.

  2. Mass extinctions of Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, B.; Fernandez, P.; Pereira, B.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of our planet, there have been global phenomena which have led to the disappearance of a large number of species: It is what is known as mass or massive extinctions. This article will make a tour of these large events, from the most remote antiquity to the present day. Today we find ourselves immersed in a process unprecedented since we are eyewitnesses and, more important still, an active part in the decision-making process to try to mitigate their effects. (Author)

  3. Twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindler, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2007-07-15

    I review the theoretical foundations, properties as well as the simulation results obtained so far of a variant of the Wilson lattice QCD formulation: Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD. Emphasis is put on the discretization errors and on the effects of these discretization errors on the phase structure for Wilson-like fermions in the chiral limit. The possibility to use in lattice simulations different lattice actions for sea and valence quarks to ease the renormalization patterns of phenomenologically relevant local operators, is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Twelve gra using simple random sampling technique and an En ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. Technol. ... he quantitative data disclosed lower student scores, .... work on relating the title to students' lives, motivating,.

  5. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    genetic improvement and lack of organized market system are the ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journ. Sci. ... located in Oromia Regional States in the western. Ethiopia ..... district in the western Ethiopia that reported the price of.

  6. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    mountage types (ply wood, cartoon made, Banana leaf, pl leaf montages) and ... at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center in the sericulture ry during 2011-2013 ..... (2009) also study qualitative improvement in terms of economic gained by.

  7. ON THE MASS DISTRIBUTION AND BIRTH MASSES OF NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Santos Villarreal, Antonio; Narayan, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the distribution of neutron star masses in different populations of binaries, employing Bayesian statistical techniques. In particular, we explore the differences in neutron star masses between sources that have experienced distinct evolutionary paths and accretion episodes. We find that the distribution of neutron star masses in non-recycled eclipsing high-mass binaries as well as of slow pulsars, which are all believed to be near their birth masses, has a mean of 1.28 M ☉ and a dispersion of 0.24 M ☉ . These values are consistent with expectations for neutron star formation in core-collapse supernovae. On the other hand, double neutron stars, which are also believed to be near their birth masses, have a much narrower mass distribution, peaking at 1.33 M ☉ , but with a dispersion of only 0.05 M ☉ . Such a small dispersion cannot easily be understood and perhaps points to a particular and rare formation channel. The mass distribution of neutron stars that have been recycled has a mean of 1.48 M ☉ and a dispersion of 0.2 M ☉ , consistent with the expectation that they have experienced extended mass accretion episodes. The fact that only a very small fraction of recycled neutron stars in the inferred distribution have masses that exceed ∼2 M ☉ suggests that only a few of these neutron stars cross the mass threshold to form low-mass black holes.

  8. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  9. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A·Mass 1/2 + B·(Mass) p where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs

  10. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A{center_dot}Mass{sup 1/2} + B{center_dot}(Mass){sup p} where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. Twisted mass lattice QCD with non-degenerate quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Gernot; Sudmann, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics on a lattice with Wilson fermions and a chirally twisted mass term is considered in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. For two and three numbers of quark flavours, respectively, with non-degenerate quark masses the pseudoscalar meson masses and decay constants are calculated in next-to-leading order including lattice effects quadratic in the lattice spacing a

  12. Assessment of rock mass decay in artificial slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.

    2006-01-01

    This research investigates the decay of rock masses underlying slopes, and seeks to quantify the relations of such decay with time and geotechnical parameters of the slope and rock mass. Decay can greatly affect the geotechnical properties of rocks within engineering timescales, and may induce a

  13. A simple device for dehairing insect egg masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin J. Cosenza; Edwin A. Boger; Normand R. Dubois; Franklin B. Lewis

    1963-01-01

    The egg masses of some lepidopterous insects are covered by a mat of hairs that for some research purposes must be removed. Doing this by hand is tedious. Besides, the hairs on the egg masses of certain insects such as the gypsy moth (Porthetria dispar [L.] and the browntail moth Nygmia phaeorrhoea [Donov.]) can cause severe...

  14. The Move toward Pluralism in Journalism and Mass Communication Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning-Miller, Carmen L.; Dunlap, Karen Brown

    2002-01-01

    Surveys diversity research in journalism and mass communication education. Examines student admissions and retention, faculty and administration hiring and retention, and curriculum. Explores historical context of diversity efforts in journalism and mass communication education. Finds few departments are developing multicultural courses or…

  15. Imaging Teachers: In Fact and in the Mass Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Xae Alicia; Rios, Diana I.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of mass media on public images of teachers and students is considered in a dialogue between two educational and mass media researchers. Stereotypes in films, such as teacher-savior and student-failure, and abundant reports about Latino dropout rates and low academic achievement impact teachers and the public, who accept negative images…

  16. Coronal mass ejections and coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, E.; Bassi, J.; Bougeret, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Research on coronal mass ejections (CMF) took a variety of forms, both observational and theoretical. On the observational side there were: case studies of individual events, in which it was attempted to provide the most complete descriptions possible, using correlative observations in diverse wavelengths; statistical studies of the properties of CMEs and their associated activity; observations which may tell us about the initiation of mass ejections; interplanetary observations of associated shocks and energetic particles; observations of CMEs traversing interplanetary space; and the beautiful synoptic charts which show to what degree mass ejections affect the background corona and how rapidly (if at all) the corona recovers its pre-disturbance form. These efforts are described in capsule form with an emphasis on presenting pictures, graphs, and tables so that the reader can form a personal appreciation of the work and its results

  17. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  18. The respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M 2 body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O 2 consumption of less than 50 ml O 2 /min/M 2 ) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery

  19. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  20. Gas chromatography: mass selective detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinskas, R.

    1988-01-01

    The mechanism of mass spectrometry technique directed for detecting molecular structures is described, with some considerations about its operational features. This mass spectrometer is used as a gas chromatography detector. (author)

  1. Mass of the spirals galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupome, L; Pismis, P; Aguilar, L [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have found that the total mass of galaxies-especially of the spirals-based on values published until 1975, decreased as the Hubble type varied from Sa through Sc and Irregulars. It was also pointed out that masses determined from the hydrogen 21-cm line were higher than the optically determined masses. To investigate the cause of these tendencies we have estimated the masses using an analytic rotation curve of Brandt adjusted to the optical observations in order to include all the mass of a galaxy up to the last observed point. Although the masses computed in this manner were found to be larger, as expected, the decrease of mass with Hubble type found earlier is confirmed. However, there is a discrepancy in the earlier types (Sa, Sab) in that their radio-masses are smaller than the optically determined ones. At present, the cause of this is not clear.

  2. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... Health Information Email Alerts Jobs and Careers Site Index About NHLBI National Institute of Health Department of ...

  3. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1% , of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1% ; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1% >4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1% >4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  4. Localizability and the planck mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX

    1993-06-01

    The author combines the assumption of environmental decoherence, as the mechanism generating the classical (i.e. no quantum interferences) nature of spacetime, with the limit on its other classical feature, point-like continuity, namely Planck length. As a result, quantum extended objects with masses larger than Planck mass have to derive their quantum behavior from long-range correlations; objects with masses smaller than Planck mass cannot display classical behavior

  5. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation in Proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap......, Orbitrap and ion mobility instruments. Together they offer various and complementary capabilities in terms of ionization, sensitivity, speed, resolution, mass accuracy, dynamic range and methods of fragmentation. Mass spectrometers can acquire qualitative and quantitative information on a large scale...

  6. Video Games as Mass Art

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Tavinor

    2011-01-01

    Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and...

  7. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  8. Research report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The SURRC, opened in 1963 in the grounds of the National Engineering Laboratory, East Kilbride, was originally established in order to provide the Scottish Universities with the research and teaching facilities associated with a research reactor. Colleagues from the consortium universities now have access to a range of state-of-the-art equipment suitable for research in the broad areas of nuclear, isotopic and earth sciences. The research activities reported for 1992 fall into eleven categories; environmental radioactivity and nuclear geochemistry including radiocarbon dating, neutron activation analysis and tracer studies, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, body composition studies, stable isotopes in medical and biological science, luminescence dating and dosimetry, radiation effects in electrical insulation gamma ray irradiation processes, radiogenic isotopes in geology, stable isotope geochemistry and laser microprobe mass spectrometry for geology. Details of staffing, teaching activities and reactor operation are also given. (author)

  9. Artistic research, context research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Benjamín Toledo Castellanos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some concepts in contemporary art works, dealing with some life aspects and passed through the sensitive and expressive test, are formulated in this paper and shed light on the foundation of researches about singular phenomenons of the existence. For this, it is argued that there are researches belonging to arts, fundamental researches that compromise the certainty of the assumptions where the sense system of a context has its bases (epoch, culture, nation, region. These researches come ahead of the researches of the rational-discursive enunciation fields, given that the last ones haven’t passed any protocol accepted yet by any community. To bring into play the certainty is done by a cognitive movement named by Martin Heidegger unconcealment [Unverborgenheit], and it consist on the interruption of the habituality of the beings who form the (trustworthy family setting to put into perspective the fundamental structures that allow to produce its sense. The unconcealment, typical in art and in creative actions, sets up an event that stops the solidity of the established (social, ethical, technical, scientific, philosophical order, and unleashes conditions for changing the lifestyles hold until then.

  10. 13th International Mass Spectrometry Conference. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The collection contains abstracts of several hundred papers presented at the international conference on new research and development results and applications of mass spectrometry. Abstracts falling into the INIS scope were indexed separately in the INIS database. (Roboz, P.)

  11. Thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis–mass spectrometry system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Thermal analysis is a widely used analytical technique for materials research. ... nique. This method can not distinguish the actual nature ... Among the different types of mass .... pressure and (iv) for qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  12. 13th International Mass Spectrometry Conference. Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The collection contains abstracts of several hundred papers presented at the international conference on new research and development results and applications of mass spectrometry. Abstracts falling into the INIS scope were indexed separately in the INIS database. (Roboz, P.).

  13. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Original Research Article. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects. Keywords: Mallotus ..... stability as well as reduce cost. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.

  14. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Nematicidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Nematicidal Essential Oil of Valeriana ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... have a potential to be developed to natural nematicides for the control of cereal cyst nematodes.

  15. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... apelta aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) to determine its composition. ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects.

  16. Diagonalization of the mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)

  17. Mass distributions in disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinsson, Thomas; Verheijen, Marc; Bershady, Matthew; Westfall, Kyle; Andersen, David; Swaters, Rob

    We present results on luminous and dark matter mass distributions in disk galaxies from the DiskMass Survey. As expected for normal disk galaxies, stars dominate the baryonic mass budget in the inner region of the disk; however, at about four optical scale lengths (hR ) the atomic gas starts to

  18. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  19. Instrumentation for mass spectrometry: 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLuckey, S.A.

    1997-08-01

    All mass spectrometry experiments involve the manipulation of material, an interface with the mass spectrometer, ionization, ion manipulation/analysis, detection and data collection/reduction. Each of these elements involve instrumentation. The wide range of species now amenable to mass spectrometry and the diverse areas of physical science in which it plays a role have led to a seemingly unlimited array of instrumental combinations. However, only a limited number of mass analyzers, and their combinations, dominate. The dominant analyzers include time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, the Paul trap, the mass filter, and the sector mass spectrometer. Why there are so few (or so many, depending upon one`s point of view) can be understood upon consideration of a set of mass analyzer figures of merit. These include mass resolution, mass accuracy, mass range, dynamic range, abundance sensitivity, precision, efficiency, speed, MS{sup n} capability, compatibility with the ionizer, cost, and size. The most appropriate form of mass spectrometry is determined by the priorities of the particular measurement placed on the various mass analyzer characteristics and the relative strengths of the analyzers in meeting the requirements. Each of the analyzer types has a unique set of figures of merit that makes it optimally suited for particular applications. This paper discusses these figures of merit, provides data illustrating recent developments for each analyzer type, and gives the figures of merit of each type of analyzer as they stand in 1997. 101 refs., 24 figs.

  20. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  1. The expanding universe of mass analyzer configurations for biological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of electrically charged gas-phase particles. All mass spectrometers combine ion formation, mass analysis, and ion detection. Although mass analyzers can be regarded as sophisticated devices that manipulate ions in space and time, the rich diversity of possible ways to combine ion separation, focusing, and detection in dynamic mass spectrometers accounts for the large number of instrument designs. A historical perspective of the progress in mass spectrometry that since 1965 until today have contributed to position this technique as an indispensable tool for biological research has been recently addressed by a privileged witness of this golden age of MS (Gelpí J. Mass Spectrom 43:419-435, 2008; Gelpí J. Mass Spectrom 44:1137-1161, 2008). The aim of this chapter is to highlight the view that the operational principles of mass spectrometry can be understood by a simple mathematical language, and that an understanding of the basic concepts of mass spectrometry is necessary to take the most out of this versatile technique.

  2. [Mass media communication of biomedical advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Salas, Sofía; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2008-10-01

    The public dissemination of advances in biomedical research and clinical medicine generates several difficulties and problems. Mass media have the responsibility to report accurately and in a comprehensive way, and physicians and researchers must provide this information in a timely manner and without bias. After reviewing the literature related to this subject and discussing some examples of inadequate information in the Chilean context, the authors suggest the following recommendations: journalists should compare and evaluate the information appropriately before its publication, researchers and journalists should work together, reports should inform clearly about the state of the research and every academic institution should avoid reporting publicly preliminary experiences. If these recommendations are followed, the general public, physicians, researchers and health care institutions will be benefited.

  3. Probing the Absolute Mass Scale of Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaggio, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental efforts of the Neutrino Physics Group at MIT center primarily around the exploration of neutrino mass and its significance within the context of nuclear physics, particle physics, and cosmology. The group has played a prominent role in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, a neutrino experiment dedicated to measure neutrino oscillations from 8B neutrinos created in the sun. The group is now focusing its efforts in the measurement of the neutrino mass directly via the use of tritium beta decay. The MIT group has primary responsibilities in the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino mass experiment, expected to begin data taking by 2013. Specifically, the MIT group is responsible for the design and development of the global Monte Carlo framework to be used by the KATRIN collaboration, as well as responsibilities directly associated with the construction of the focal plane detector. In addition, the MIT group is sponsoring a new research endeavor for neutrino mass measurements, known as Project 8, to push beyond the limitations of current neutrino mass experiments.

  4. The Mental Health Consequences of Mass Shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Galea, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    Mass shooting episodes have increased over recent decades and received substantial media coverage. Despite the potentially widespread and increasing mental health impact of mass shootings, no efforts to our knowledge have been made to review the empirical literature on this topic. We identified 49 peer-reviewed articles, comprised of 27 independent samples in the aftermath of 15 mass shooting incidents. Based on our review, we concluded that mass shootings are associated with a variety of adverse psychological outcomes in survivors and members of affected communities. Less is known about the psychological effects of mass shootings on indirectly exposed populations; however, there is evidence that such events lead to at least short-term increases in fears and declines in perceived safety. A variety of risk factors for adverse psychological outcomes have been identified, including demographic and pre-incident characteristics (e.g., female gender and pre-incident psychological symptoms), event exposure (e.g., greater proximity to the attack and acquaintance with the deceased), and fewer psychosocial resources (e.g., emotion regulation difficulties and lower social support). Further research that draws on pre-incident and longitudinal data will yield important insights into the processes that exacerbate or sustain post-incident psychological symptoms over time and provide important information for crisis preparedness and post-incident mental health interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Pharmaceutical Research Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Phlippen, Sandra; Vermeersch, Ad

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study analyses 1400 research projects of the top 20 R&D-spending pharmaceuticals to identify the determinants of successful research projects. We provide clear evidence that externally sourced projects and projects involving biotechnologies perform better than internal projects and chemical projects, respectively. Controlling for these effects, we find that big pharma should either build a critical mass of disease area knowledge or diversify projects over different DA’s in or...

  6. Recent advances in preventing mass violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, David A

    2010-10-01

    Since his presidency of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and co-chairmanship of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, David Hamburg has been actively engaged in projects related to the prevention of genocide and other mass violence. In these remarks to the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, he describes the significance of preventing mass violence in the 21st century. In particular, he discusses the danger of nuclear and other highly lethal weapons, emphasizing examples of prevention drawn from the Cold War and subsequent period. He delineates practical steps that can be taken to prevent war and genocide, including restraints on weaponry, preventive diplomacy, fostering indigenous democracy, fostering equitable socioeconomic development, education for human survival, and international justice in relation to human rights. Training and support in preventive diplomacy are highlighted as crucially important, particularly in the context of the United Nations, using the novel Mediation Support Unit based out of the Department of Political Affairs as a key example. He concludes that the creation of international centers for the prevention of mass atrocities could provide a crucial resource in preventing mass violence. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  7. Integrative Mass Spectrometry Approaches to Monitor Protein Structures, Modifications, and Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lössl, P.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis illustrates the current standing of mass spectrometry (MS) in molecular and structural biology. The primary aim of the herein described research is to facilitate protein characterization by combining mass spectrometric methods among each other and with complementary analytical

  8. The BDNYC database of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle; Rodriguez, David; Filippazzo, Joseph; Gonzales, Eileen; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Rice, Emily; BDNYC

    2018-01-01

    We present a web-interface to a database of low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary mass companions. Users can send SELECT SQL queries to the database, perform searches by coordinates or name, check the database inventory on specified objects, and even plot spectra interactively. The initial version of this database contains information for 198 objects and version 2 will contain over 1000 objects. The database currently includes photometric data from 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer and version 2 will include a significant portion of the publicly available optical and NIR spectra for brown dwarfs. The database is maintained and curated by the BDNYC research group and we welcome contributions from other researchers via GitHub.

  9. Heat and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Karwa, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the classical treatment of the problems of heat transfer in an exhaustive manner with due emphasis on understanding of the physics of the problems. This emphasis is especially visible in the chapters on convective heat transfer. Emphasis is laid on the solution of steady and unsteady two-dimensional heat conduction problems. Another special feature of the book is a chapter on introduction to design of heat exchangers and their illustrative design problems. A simple and understandable treatment of gaseous radiation has been presented. A special chapter on flat plate solar air heater has been incorporated that covers thermo-hydraulic modeling and simulation. The chapter on mass transfer has been written looking specifically at the needs of the students of mechanical engineering. The book includes a large number and variety of solved problems with supporting line diagrams. The author has avoided duplicating similar problems, while incorporating more application-based examples. All the end-...

  10. Mass transport by groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, E.; Goblet, P.; Jamet, Ph.; De Marsily, G.; Des Orres, P.E.; Lewi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The first analyses of the safety of radioactive waste disposal published in 1970s were mostly of a generic type using the models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. These simply constructed models gave way to more sophisticated techniques in order to represent better the complexity and diversity of geological media. In this article, it is attempted to review the various concepts used to quantify radionuclide migration and the evolution of their incorporation into the models. First, it was examined how the type of discontinuity occurring in geological media affects the choice of a representative model. The principle of transport in the subsurface was reviewed, and the effect that coupled processes exert to groundwater flow and mass migration was discussed. The processes that act directly to cause groundwater flow were distinguished. The method of validating such models by comparing the results with the geochemical systems in nature was explained. (K.I.)

  11. Neutrino masses and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogli, G.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the solar neutrino problem in terms of both Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) and vacuum neutrino oscillations, with the inclusion of the data collected by the SuperKamiokande experiment during 306.3 days of operation. In particular, the observed energy spectrum of the recoil electrons from 8 B neutrino scattering is discussed in detail and used to constrain the mass-mixing parameter space. Going to the atmospheric neutrino anomaly, the paper performs both a two- and three-flavor analysis of the most recent SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino data. The variations of the zenith distributions of ν events in the presence of flavor oscillations are investigated. It is seen that fits to the SK data, with and without the addition of the CHOOZ constrains, strongly limit the parameter space. Detailed bounds in triangle graphs are reported

  12. The Mass Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Laursen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    spaces. We postulate that citizens’ levels of awareness and knowledge of EU matters depend on the EU institutions’ ability to reach European citizens directly or indirectly through a wide range of channels, including the mass media. Citizens’ participation in political debates, however, requires more......(s). The EU institutions also need to communicate frames of interpretation around political issues. In this chapter we analyse the EU institutions’ external communication and specifically their media relations efforts, and suggest improvements in view of remedying some of the legitimacy problems that the EU......This chapter deals with the EU institutions’ external communication and how it relates to the European public sphere(s). We argue that one of the preconditions for establishing a well-functioning European public sphere is that the EU institutions’ decision-making and political debates around...

  13. Plain Language Summary: Evaluation of the Neck Mass in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pynnonen, Melissa A; Colandrea, Maria; Finestone, Sandra A; O'Connor, Sarah S

    2017-09-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining the evaluation of the neck mass in adults. The summary applies to patients aged ≥18 years and is based on the 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Evaluation of the Neck Mass in Adults." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective evaluation and diagnosis of the neck mass in adults. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for evaluation of the neck mass by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  14. Research medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A major effort of this program is in the field of quantitative radionuclide imaging. Four approaches to noninvasive evaluation of human biochemical and physiological states are used: positron tomography for three-dimensional quantitative imaging; computerized whole-body scanning of isotope distribution; expired air analysis of 14 CO 2 from the metabolism of injected pharmaceuticals; and whole-body counting. This program is closely associated with the development of instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide studies, and the investigative studies using them. Its major emphasis is to apply the efforts of new instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals to medical problems such as brain and heart blood flow and metabolism resulting from various disease and environmental conditions. Kinetic analyses are made based on the conservation-of-mass equation and precise information of the sequential tissue concentrations by three-dimensional imaging. The technology being developed embodies the concept of in vivo biochemistry of amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose. This group continues its research effort in the hematology area. Currently studies of the megakaryocytic cell system are being carried out in an effort to understand platelet turnover and how the blood platelet count is regulated. This is important not only in a broad spectrum of blood disorders, but also in the evaluation of toxic environmental pollutants

  15. The masses of cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Masses are derived for the individual components of six cataclysmic variables. There is a considerable spread in the masses of the white dwarf components, which range from 0.73 M/sub sun/ in EM Cyg to 1.26 M/sub sun/ in Z Cam. All of the white dwarfs have masses greater than 0.70 M/sub sun/, but there is no evidence that there is any preferred mass. It is found that the morphology of the eruptions (i.e., nova versus dwarf nova) is independent of the mass of both the white dwarf and the late-type star

  16. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Sustainability Evaluation of Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Taps, Stig B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Some factors indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however...... other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass...... customized products are essential to consider during product development....

  18. Unification and fermion mass structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Graham G.; Serna, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Grand Unified Theories predict relationships between the GUT-scale quark and lepton masses. Using new data in the context of the MSSM, we update the values and uncertainties of the masses and mixing angles for the three generations at the GUT scale. We also update fits to hierarchical patterns in the GUT-scale Yukawa matrices. The new data shows not all the classic GUT-scale mass relationships remain in quantitative agreement at small to moderate tanβ. However, at large tanβ, these discrepancies can be eliminated by finite, tanβ-enhanced, radiative, threshold corrections if the gluino mass has the opposite sign to the wino mass

  19. Positron effective mass in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, B.K.; Shan, Y.Y.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The positron effective mass in Si is obtained from the first-principles calculations along various crystallographic directions. The effect of electron-positron correlation on the band mass is examined in this work. A positron pseudopotential scheme is worked out to calculate the isotropic band mass without explicitly solving the band energy. The effective mass 1.46m obtained as a sum of band mass and the positron-plasmon interaction compares very well with 1.5m obtained from the positron mobility data

  20. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    research is to determine the level of interference ... perceived in the foreign language production (Aber. 2013). ... Accordingly, it is important to help learners reduce th ... Official International Journal of Wollega University, Ethiopia .... e learning process, learners .... them to self-evaluate errors and improve their English writing ...

  1. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This research pape of mobile advertising in the mind of customers espec. Delhi, India. Further it also tries to find out the go product / services due to mobile advertising. INTRODUCTION. Mobile advertising is a brand new phenomenon. Yunos et al. (2003) defined mobile advertising as marketing and advertising activities.

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-19

    Jun 19, 2013 ... After collecting knowledge, attitude and behavior inventory questionnaire, the researcher conducted. FGDs that contain 1 male and 1 female student from grade 9, 10, 11 and 12 for 2 hours in two sessions (1 hour for each session) which are selected with the support of room teachers. Due to limited time to ...

  3. Original Research Article Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related disciplines. ... study population and was commoner in males (5.9%) than in females (0.89%). ..... in the Indian Social Class and Heart Survey. J Hum ... homogenous caste population of Andra Pradesh. Am J Human Biol.

  4. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  5. mMass as a Software Tool for the Annotation of Cyclic Peptide Tandem Mass Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niedermeyer, T. H. J.; Strohalm, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), e44913 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cyclic peptides * nMass Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  6. First stars. II. Evolution with mass loss

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bahena, David; Hadrava, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 337, č. 2 (2012), s. 651-663 ISSN 0004-640X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC506; GA ČR GA202/09/0772 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : first stars * evolution * mass loss Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.064, year: 2012

  7. The allure of mass spectrometry: From an earlyday chemist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tőkés, László

    2017-07-01

    This reminiscing review article is an account of the author's fascination and involvements with mass spectrometry from the perspective of an organic chemist with an interest in natural product chemistry. It covers a period from 1961 through the mid 1990s as mass spectrometry evolved form a novelty technique to become a most widely used analytical technique. Following a brief synopsis of my pathway to mass spectrometry, my research efforts in this field are presented with a focus mainly on evolving principles and technologies which I had personal involvements with. To provide historical perspectives, discussions of these developments are accompanied by brief outlines of the relevant state-of-the-art, shedding light on the technical and conceptual challenges encountered during those early days in mass spectrometry. Examples are presented of my involvements with basic and applied research in mass spectrometry during graduate studies at Stanford University and close to three decade tenure in pharmaceutical research at Syntex Research. My basic research interests focused mainly on principles of electron ionization induced fragmentation mechanisms, with an emphasis on steroids and other model compounds. Extensive deuterium labeling evidence was used to determine the fragmentation mechanisms of the diagnostically significant ions in the spectra of numerous model compounds, uncovering examples of wide-ranging hydrogen transfers, skeletal rearrangements, methyl and phenyl migrations, stereoselective fragmentations and low and high energy fragmentation processes. Depiction of the industrial research phase of my career includes comments on the pivotal role mass spectrometry played on advancing modern pharmaceutical research. Examples are presented of involvements with instrumental developments and a few select cases of applied research, including studies of bile mechanisms in vertebrates, identification of bisphenol-A leaching from sterilized polycarbonate containers, high

  8. Nucleon and delta masses in twisted mass chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker-Loud, Andre; Wu, Jackson M.S.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the masses of the nucleons and deltas in twisted mass heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We work to quadratic order in a power counting scheme in which we treat the lattice spacing, a, and the quark masses, m q , to be of the same order. We give expressions for the mass and the mass splitting of the nucleons and deltas both in and away from the isospin limit. We give an argument using the chiral Lagrangian treatment that, in the strong isospin limit, the nucleons remain degenerate and the delta multiplet breaks into two degenerate pairs to all orders in chiral perturbation theory. We show that the mass splitting between the degenerate pairs of the deltas first appears at quadratic order in the lattice spacing. We discuss the subtleties in the effective chiral theory that arise from the inclusion of isospin breaking

  9. Boundaries of mass resolution in native mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lössl, Philip; Snijder, Joost; Heck, Albert J R

    2014-06-01

    Over the last two decades, native mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a valuable tool to study intact proteins and noncovalent protein complexes. Studied experimental systems range from small-molecule (drug)-protein interactions, to nanomachineries such as the proteasome and ribosome, to even virus assembly. In native MS, ions attain high m/z values, requiring special mass analyzers for their detection. Depending on the particular mass analyzer used, instrumental mass resolution does often decrease at higher m/z but can still be above a couple of thousand at m/z 5000. However, the mass resolving power obtained on charge states of protein complexes in this m/z region is experimentally found to remain well below the inherent instrument resolution of the mass analyzers employed. Here, we inquire into reasons for this discrepancy and ask how native MS would benefit from higher instrumental mass resolution. To answer this question, we discuss advantages and shortcomings of mass analyzers used to study intact biomolecules and biomolecular complexes in their native state, and we review which other factors determine mass resolving power in native MS analyses. Recent examples from the literature are given to illustrate the current status and limitations.

  10. Mass: Fortran program for calculating mass-absorption coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Aa.; Svane Petersen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Determinations of mass-absorption coefficients in the x-ray analysis of trace elements are an important and time consuming part of the arithmetic calculation. In the course of time different metods have been used. The program MASS calculates the mass-absorption coefficients from a given major element analysis at the x-ray wavelengths normally used in trace element determinations and lists the chemical analysis and the mass-absorption coefficients. The program is coded in FORTRAN IV, and is operational on the IBM 370/165 computer, on the UNIVAC 1110 and on PDP 11/05. (author)

  11. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  12. Accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellborg, Ragnar; Skog, Göran

    2008-01-01

    In this overview the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and its use are described. AMS is a highly sensitive method of counting atoms. It is used to detect very low concentrations of natural isotopic abundances (typically in the range between 10(-12) and 10(-16)) of both radionuclides and stable nuclides. The main advantages of AMS compared to conventional radiometric methods are the use of smaller samples (mg and even sub-mg size) and shorter measuring times (less than 1 hr). The equipment used for AMS is almost exclusively based on the electrostatic tandem accelerator, although some of the newest systems are based on a slightly different principle. Dedicated accelerators as well as older "nuclear physics machines" can be found in the 80 or so AMS laboratories in existence today. The most widely used isotope studied with AMS is 14C. Besides radiocarbon dating this isotope is used in climate studies, biomedicine applications and many other fields. More than 100,000 14C samples are measured per year. Other isotopes studied include 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, 41Ca, 59Ni, 129I, U, and Pu. Although these measurements are important, the number of samples of these other isotopes measured each year is estimated to be less than 10% of the number of 14C samples. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Holograms for the Masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newswanger, Craig; Klug, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Traditional holography subject matter has been generally limited to small dead things (SMD). Pulse lasers and the advent of holographic stereography have made it easier to make holograms of scaled objects and those that live (un-SMD), at a cost of single dimensional parallax or monochromaticity. While stunning results have been produced, all of these required access to a lab, expensive lasers and optics, and infinite patience, care and skill to collect and record content. This complexity has generally kept holography out of reach for the masses. The recent introduction of new 3D data sources, free or inexpensive composition and editing software, and fast, consistent print services may make it possible to finally 'democratize' holography, and enable image makers to focus on message rather than medium. This paper will outline several photogrammetry-based methods for producing 3D content for holograms (with a camera and mouse finger), software applications for editing, positioning and lighting, and production means that are usable by anyone, from novice to professional. We will present step-by-step examples and display results depicting various subject matter, from color holographic portraits made from smart phone input to holographic maps made from movies collected with remote control airplanes. The aim is to inspire image making, spontaneity, and maybe even social media-based collaboration to make EVERYONE a holographer.

  14. Lung Mass in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Kinney, Gregory L; Ross, James C; San José Estépar, Raúl; Han, MeiLan K; Dransfield, Mark T; Kim, Victor; Hatabu, Hiroto; Come, Carolyn E; Bowler, Russell P; Silverman, Edwin K; Crapo, James; Lynch, David A; Hokanson, John; Diaz, Alejandro A

    2017-04-01

    Emphysema is characterized by airspace dilation, inflammation, and irregular deposition of elastin and collagen in the interstitium. Computed tomographic studies have reported that lung mass (LM) may be increased in smokers, a finding attributed to inflammatory and parenchymal remodeling processes observed on histopathology. We sought to examine the epidemiologic and clinical associations of LM in smokers. Baseline epidemiologic, clinical, and computed tomography (CT) data (n = 8156) from smokers enrolled into the COPDGene Study were analyzed. LM was calculated from the CT scan. Changes in lung function at 5 years' follow-up were available from 1623 subjects. Regression analysis was performed to assess for associations of LM with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) and FEV 1 decline. Subjects with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had greater LM than either smokers with normal lung function or those with GOLD 2-4 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P smokers: the presence of such nonlinearity must be accounted for in longitudinal computed tomographic studies. Baseline LM predicts the decline in lung function. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality evaluation of tandem mass spectral libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacher, Herbert; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Tandem mass spectral libraries are gaining more and more importance for the identification of unknowns in different fields of research, including metabolomics, forensics, toxicology, and environmental analysis. Particularly, the recent invention of reliable, robust, and transferable libraries has increased the general acceptance of these tools. Herein, we report on results obtained from thorough evaluation of the match reliabilities of two tandem mass spectral libraries: the MSforID library established by the Oberacher group in Innsbruck and the Weinmann library established by the Weinmann group in Freiburg. Three different experiments were performed: (1) Spectra of the libraries were searched against their corresponding library after excluding either this single compound-specific spectrum or all compound-specific spectra prior to searching; (2) the libraries were searched against each other using either library as reference set or sample set; (3) spectra acquired on different mass spectrometric instruments were matched to both libraries. Almost 13,000 tandem mass spectra were included in this study. The MSforID search algorithm was used for spectral matching. Statistical evaluation of the library search results revealed that principally both libraries enable the sensitive and specific identification of compounds. Due to higher mass accuracy of the QqTOF compared with the QTrap instrument, matches to the MSforID library were more reliable when comparing spectra with both libraries. Furthermore, only the MSforID library was shown to be efficiently transferable to different kinds of tandem mass spectrometers, including "tandem-in-time" instruments; this is due to the coverage of a large range of different collision energy settings-including the very low range-which is an outstanding characteristics of the MSforID library.

  16. A history of mass spectrometry in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downard, K.M.; de Laeter, J.R. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    An interest in mass spectrometry in Australia can be traced back to the 1920s with an early correspondence with Francis Aston who first visited these shores a decade earlier. The region has a rich tradition in both the development of the field and its application, from early measurements of ionization and appearance potentials by Jim Morrison at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) around 1950 to the design and construction of instrumentation including the first use of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for tandem mass spectrometry, the first suite of programs to simulate ion optics (SIMION), the development of early TOF/TOF instruments and orthogonal acceleration and the local design and construction of several generations of a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) instrument. Mass spectrometry has been exploited in the study and characterization of the constituents of this nation's unique flora and fauna from Australian apples, honey, tea plant and eucalyptus oil, snake, spider, fish and frog venoms, coal, oil, sediments and shale, environmental studies of groundwater to geochronological dating of limestone and granite, other terrestrial and meteoritic rocks and coral from the Great Barrier Reef. This article traces the history of mass spectrometry in its many guises and applications in the island continent of Australia. It focuses on contributions of scientists who played a major role in the early establishment of mass spectrometry in Australia. In general, those who are presently active in the field, and whose histories are incomplete, have been mentioned at best only briefly despite their important contributions to the field.

  17. Heavy quark hadron mass scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Without the spin interactions the hardron masses within a multiplet are degenerate. The light quark hadron degenerate mulitplet mass spectrum is extended from the 3 quark ground state multiplets at J P =0 - , 1/2 + , 1 - to include the excited states which follow the spinorial decomposition of SU(2)xSU(2). The mass scales for the 4, 5, 6, .. quark hadrons are obtained from the degenerate multiplet mass m 0 /M=n 2 /α with n=4, 5, 6, .. The 4, 5, 6, .. quark hadron degenerate multiplet masses follow by splitting of the heavy quark mass scales according to the spinorial decomposition of SU(2)xSU(2). (orig.)

  18. Video Games as Mass Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tavinor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Videogames are one of the most significant developments in the mass arts of recent times. In commercial terms, they are now among the most prominent of the mass arts worldwide. This commercial and cultural success does not exhaust the interest in videogames as a mass art phenomenon because games such as Grand Theft Auto IV and Fallout 3 are structurally radically different from previous forms of mass art. In particular, the ontology of videogames, the nature and identity of their works, and how they are instanced and evaluated is a departure from the familiar mass arts of film and popular music. This paper explores these differences in an attempt to fit videogames into a theory of mass art, but also to provide guidance on the issues of criticism and evaluation that surely follow from their ontological distinctiveness.

  19. Mass loss from S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jura, M.

    1988-01-01

    The mass-loss process in S stars is studied using 65 S stars from the listing of Wing and Yorka (1977). The role of pulsations in the mass-loss process is examined. It is detected that stars with larger mass-loss rates have a greater amplitude of pulsations. The dust-to-gas ratio for the S stars is estimated as 0.002 and the average mass-loss rate is about 6 x 10 to the -8th solar masses/yr. Some of the properties of the S stars, such as scale height, surface density, and lifetime, are measured. It is determined that scale height is 200 pc; the total duration of the S star phase is greater than or equal to 30,000 yr; and the stars inject 3 x 10 to the -6th solar masses/sq kpc yr into the interstellar medium. 46 references

  20. Responsible conduct of research: enhancing local opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requisite for a successful academic research environment. Lately, a lot of revelations of fraud and other unacceptable behaviour in research have been highly publicized in scientific journals and mass media. Whereas institutions in developed ...

  1. The neutron star mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiziltan, Bülent [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kottas, Athanasios; De Yoreo, Maria [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Thorsett, Stephen E., E-mail: bkiziltan@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California and UCO/Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    In recent years, the number of pulsars with secure mass measurements has increased to a level that allows us to probe the underlying neutron star (NS) mass distribution in detail. We critically review the radio pulsar mass measurements. For the first time, we are able to analyze a sizable population of NSs with a flexible modeling approach that can effectively accommodate a skewed underlying distribution and asymmetric measurement errors. We find that NSs that have evolved through different evolutionary paths reflect distinctive signatures through dissimilar distribution peak and mass cutoff values. NSs in double NS and NS-white dwarf (WD) systems show consistent respective peaks at 1.33 M {sub ☉} and 1.55 M {sub ☉}, suggesting significant mass accretion (Δm ≈ 0.22 M {sub ☉}) has occurred during the spin-up phase. The width of the mass distribution implied by double NS systems is indicative of a tight initial mass function while the inferred mass range is significantly wider for NSs that have gone through recycling. We find a mass cutoff at ∼2.1 M {sub ☉} for NSs with WD companions, which establishes a firm lower bound for the maximum NS mass. This rules out the majority of strange quark and soft equation of state models as viable configurations for NS matter. The lack of truncation close to the maximum mass cutoff along with the skewed nature of the inferred mass distribution both enforce the suggestion that the 2.1 M {sub ☉} limit is set by evolutionary constraints rather than nuclear physics or general relativity, and the existence of rare supermassive NSs is possible.

  2. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (approx. 10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (approx. 10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to Dirac's large number hypothesis. (orig.)

  3. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1981-02-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (--10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (--10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to the Dirac's large number hypothesis. (author)

  4. Adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Chu, Yang Ku

    1993-01-01

    Off the evaluation of clinical significance and pathologic correlation of echogenic adnexal mass in tubal pregnancy, which is separated from ipsilateral ovary, we performed a retrospective analysis of 15 proved tubal pregnancies. All showed hematosalpinx containing blood coagulum and chorionic villi with intact fallopian tube.The echogenicity of the adnexal mass was considered to represent the nonclotted or clotted blood within the fallopian tube. We conclude that the discrete, echogenic adnexal mass is the suggestive finding of unrupturedtubal pregnancy

  5. Limits on the photon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, G.

    1996-03-01

    Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig

  6. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  7. The magnetic centrifugal mass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Mass filters using rotating plasmas have been considered for separating nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. We propose a new mass filter that utilizes centrifugal and magnetic confinement of ions in a way similar to the asymmetric centrifugal trap. This magnetic centrifugal mass filter is shown to be more proliferation resistant than present technology. This filter is collisional and produces well confined output streams, among other advantages.

  8. Luxury for the masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael J; Fiske, Neil

    2003-04-01

    Increasingly wide income disparities, higher levels of education, and greater awareness of other cultures' ideas of the good life have given rise to a new class of American consumer. And a new category of products and services, including automobiles, apparel, food, wine, and spirits, has sprung into being to cater to it. That category is called new luxury. America's middle-market consumers are trading up to higher levels of quality and taste than ever before. Members of the middle market (those earning $50,000 and above annually) collectively have around $1 trillion of disposable income. And they will pay premiums of 20% to 200% for well-designed, well-engineered, and well-crafted goods that can't be found in the mass middle market and that have the artisanal touches of traditional luxury items. Most important, even when they address basic necessities, such goods evoke and engage consumers' emotions while feeding their aspirations for a better life. Supply-side forces are essential to the rise of new luxury. Like the consumers of their goods, entrepreneurs are better educated and more sophisticated about their customers than ever before. In addition, global sourcing, falling trade barriers and transportation costs, and rising offshore manufacturing standards are making possible the economical production of alluring products of high quality. Unlike old-luxury goods, new-luxury products can generate high sales volumes despite their relatively high prices. As a result, new-luxury companies are achieving levels of profitability and growth beyond the reach of their conventional competitors. Whether the item in question is a $6 Panera sandwich or a $30,000 Mercedes, new luxury is a formula that middle-market companies, facing erosion of their market share by high-end and low-end producers, can ill afford to ignore.

  9. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  10. Mass loss from Eta Carinae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriesse, C.D.; Viotti, R.

    1979-01-01

    This high luminosity (5x10 6 solar luminosity) star since 1840 is losing mass at the rate of 7.5x10 -2 solar masses per year. The large mass loss could be the result of vibrational instabilities produced in the CNO hydrogen burning phase of a very massive (160 solar masses) star. The presence of high excitation lines in the ultraviolet spectrum of Eta Car suggests the idea of a hot zone excited by dissipation of the supersonic turbulent flow. (Auth.)

  11. Vortex mass in a superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simula, Tapio

    2018-02-01

    We consider the inertial mass of a vortex in a superfluid. We obtain a vortex mass that is well defined and is determined microscopically and self-consistently by the elementary excitation energy of the kelvon quasiparticle localized within the vortex core. The obtained result for the vortex mass is found to be consistent with experimental observations on superfluid quantum gases and vortex rings in water. We propose a method to measure the inertial rest mass and Berry phase of a vortex in superfluid Bose and Fermi gases.

  12. Review of atomic mass formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachibana, Takahiro [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Advanced Research Center for Science and Engineering

    1997-07-01

    Wapstra and Audi`s Table is famous for evaluation of experimental data of atomic nuclear masses (1993/1995 version) which estimated about 2000 kinds of nuclei. The error of atomic mass of formula is 0.3 MeV-0.8 MeV. Four kinds of atomic mass formula: JM (Jaenecke and Masson), TUYY (Tachibana, Uno, Yamada and Yamada), FRDM (Moeller, Nix, Myers and Swiatecki) and ETFSI (Aboussir, Pearson, Dutta and Tondeur) and their properties (number of parameter and error etc.) were explained. An estimation method of theoretical error of mass formula was presented. It was estimated by the theoretical error of other surrounding nuclei. (S.Y.)

  13. Simulating at realistic quark masses. Light quark masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Streuer, T.

    2006-11-01

    We present new results for light quark masses. The calculations are performed using two flavours of O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We have reached lattice spacings as small as a ∝0.07 fm and pion masses down to m π ∝340 MeV in our simulations. This gives us significantly better control on the chiral and continuum extrapolations. (orig.)

  14. Mass-shell properties of the dynamical quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.; Stam, K.

    1986-07-01

    We discuss the running dynamical quark mass in the framework of the operator product expansion. It is shown that for vertical strokep 2 vertical stroke>m 2 the quark-condensate part of the quark self energy has no contributions of order m 2 or higher, and is frozen to its mass-shell value for smaller vertical strokep 2 vertical stroke. (orig.)

  15. Atomic masses 1995. The 1995 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The 1995 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment or systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  16. Atomic masses 1993. The 1993 atomic mass evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.; Wapstra, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The 1993 atomic mass evaluation by G. Audi and A.H. Wapstra is documented. The resulting data files containing recommended values of atomic masses, obtained by experiment of systematics, and related data such as reaction and separation energies are described. The data files can be obtained through online services from several nuclear data centers or on magnetic tape, free of charge. (author)

  17. A Review of the Emerging Field of Underwater Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Chua

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass spectrometers are versatile sensor systems, owing to their high sensitivity and ability to simultaneously measure multiple chemical species. Over the last two decades, traditional laboratory-based membrane inlet mass spectrometers have been adapted for underwater use. Underwater mass spectrometry has drastically improved our capability to monitor a broad suite of gaseous compounds (e.g., dissolved atmospheric gases, light hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds in the aquatic environment. Here we provide an overview of the progress made in the field of underwater mass spectrometry since its inception in the 1990s to the present. In particular, we discuss the approaches undertaken by various research groups in developing in situ mass spectrometers. We also provide examples to illustrate how underwater mass spectrometers have been used in the field. Finally, we present future trends in the field of in situ mass spectrometry. Most of these efforts are aimed at improving the quality and spatial and temporal scales of chemical measurements in the ocean. By providing up-to-date information on underwater mass spectrometry, this review offers guidance for researchers interested in adapting this technology as well as goals for future progress in the field.

  18. The Features of the Concept of Mass Customization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Skačkauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve competitive advantage organizations are forced to analyse and discuss application possibilities of customized solutions. Unfortunately, the application of such solutions is associated with increases in costs, raising the time of delivery and decreasing the level of quality compared to mass-produced products. Circa 1990 the concept of mass customization was proposed which solved mentioned problems and which, compared to the mass production, has properties necessary for more efficient adaptation to changing market conditions without making concessions in price, quality and delivery time. This paper analyses the concept of mass customization aiming to define research area in order to adapt the concept for service organizations. The analysis of mass customization definitions presented in the literature was processed and summary presented, this enabled to identify the main dimensions which are characterizing mass individualization. The main types of mass customization were presented and analysed in this article as well. Comparative literature analysis, abstraction and synthesis methods were applied during the research. The results of analysis enabled to formulate guidelines of further research.

  19. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. Research and development program 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The KfK R and D activities are classified by ten point-of-main-effort projects: 1) low-pollution/low-waste methods, 2) environmental energy and mass transfers, 3) nuclear fusion, 4) nuclear saftey research, 5) radioactive waste management, 6) superconduction, 7) microtechnics, 8) materials handling, 9) materials and interfaces, 10) basic physical research. (orig.) [de

  20. W Boson Mass Measurement at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotwal, Ashutosh V. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Physics Dept.

    2017-03-27

    This is the closeout report for the grant for experimental research at the energy frontier in high energy physics. The report describes the precise measurement of the W boson mass at the CDF experiment at Fermilab, with an uncertainty of ≈ 12 MeV, using the full dataset of ≈ 9 fb-1 collected by the experiment up to the shutdown of the Tevatron in 2011. In this analysis, the statistical and most of the experimental systematic uncertainties have been reduced by a factor of two compared to the previous measurement with 2.2 fb-1 of CDF data. This research has been the culmination of the PI's track record of producing world-leading measurements of the W boson mass from the Tevatron. The PI performed the first and only measurement to date of the W boson mass using high-rapidity leptons using the D0 endcap calorimeters in Run 1. He has led this measurement in Run 2 at CDF, publishing two world-leading measurements in 2007 and 2012 with total uncertainties of 48 MeV and 19 MeV respectively. The analysis of the final dataset is currently under internal review in CDF. Upon approval of the internal review, the result will be available for public release.

  1. Maximally twisted mass lattice QCD at the physical pion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    In computer simulations of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, the usage of unphysically large quark masses and the subsequent extrapolation of results to the physical value of the quark masses are major sources of systematic uncertainty. In this thesis, the feasibility and practicality of numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics with physically light up and down quarks using the Wilson twisted mass quark discretisation are explored. Working in this regime is complicated firstly by the numerical expense of these simulations and secondly by the presence of potentially large lattice artefacts. The twisted mass discretisation is affected by an unphysical mass difference between the charged and neutral pions, rendering simulations at the physical charged pion mass infeasible if this mass splitting is too large. With the aim of reducing it, the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert term is added to the twisted mass fermion action and simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks are then performed as a proof of concept. It is demonstrated that these simulations are stable and that the parameters of the lattice theory can be successfully tuned to correspond to the physical charged pion mass. Subsequently, the parameter tuning for simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks as well as strange and charm quarks is explored and it is shown that it can be carried out in steps. As benchmark observables, the masses and decay constants of pseudoscalar mesons with light, strange and charm valence quarks are calculated and seen to largely reproduce their phenomenological values, even though continuum and infinite volume extrapolations are not performed. Light, strange and charm quark mass estimates are determined based on this data and also seen to coincide with phenomenological and other lattice determinations. In this analysis, a particular emphasis is placed on the systematic error due to the choice of fit range for pseudoscalar correlation functions and a weighting method is

  2. Neutrino mass, a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental approaches to neutrino mass include kinematic mass measurements, neutrino oscillation searches at rectors and accelerators, solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and single and double beta decay. The solar neutrino results yield fairly strong and consistent indications that neutrino oscillations are occurring. Other evidence for new physics is less consistent and convincing

  3. Mass Mentality, Culture Industry, Fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saladdin Said Ahmed

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Some fashionable leftist movements and populist intellectuals habitually blame the sources of information for public ignorance about the miserable state of the world. It could be argued, however, that the masses are ignorant because they prefer ignorance. A mass individual is politically apathetic and intellectually lazy. As a result, even when huge amounts of information are available, which is the case in this epoch, the masses insist on choosing ignorance. It is true that there is not enough information about what has happened in a place such as Darfur, but the masses choose not to access even the amount of information that is available. The great majority of people in China, Iran, and America, despite the fact that they have varying amounts of access to various types of "knowledge," still tend to be misinformed. It seems that a mass individual is curious only about what directly affects his/her own personal life. I will explore the connection between mass mentality and the culture industry in order to capture the essential role of the former in the latter. I will also argue that a mass individual is the source of fascism although fascism as a phenomenon needs a mass culture in which to flourish.

  4. Preface Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; le Gac, Severine; le Gac, S.; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry illustrates this trend and focuses on one particular analysis technique, mass spectrometry whose popularity has "dramatically" increased in the last two decades with the explosion of the field of biological analysis and the development of two "soft" ionization

  5. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  6. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  7. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  8. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  9. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  10. Longitudinal bulk acoustic mass sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hales, Jan Harry; Teva, Jordi; Boisen, Anja

    2009-01-01

    A polycrystalline silicon longitudinal bulk acoustic cantilever is fabricated and operated in air at 51 MHz. A mass sensitivity of 100 Hz/fg (1 fg=10(-15) g) is obtained from the preliminary experiments where a minute mass is deposited on the device by means of focused ion beam. The total noise...

  11. Digital Integration: Towards Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Finn

    Mass production in lots of one” is a phrase coined by Oliver Morton in a seminal piece for The Economist (1994). In few words this sentence contains the essence (and schism) of true customization aiming at manufacturing the artifact for the mass. Emerging Nanotechnologies are said to enable...

  12. Laboratory of acceleration mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybler, P.; Chrapan, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper authors describe the principle of the method of acceleration mass spectrometry and the construction plans of this instrument at the Faculty of ecology and environmental sciences in Banska Stiavnica. Using of this instrument for radiocarbon dating is discussed. A review of laboratories with acceleration mass spectrometry is presented

  13. Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    various possible oscillation solutions to the solar neutrino puzzle. It seems .... A first hint of this new ingredient came from the observation of Weinberg that if ..... Using the discussion of the above paragraph, the Dirac mass of the neutrino as .... that contributes to charged fermion masses, one can write the quark and lepton.

  14. Masses management in the epoch of the consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zubarieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the nature and origins of the idea of the phenomenon of mass, the mass consciousness, determinants of social and political science and philosophical aspects. The influence of external factors on the installation of the masses in the context of socio­psychological, informational  and communicational  components is analyzed. The main characteristics of the consumer society: mass consumption of goods and the formation of an appropriate system of values and attitudes are identified. Outlined the difficulties faced by the researcher mass phenomenon. The theory of Jean Baudrillard about simulation in the media is observed. The views of scientific information and interdependence of meaning, the essential characteristics of the simulation are  investigated. Signs of mass properties: missing attribute, predicate, quality, references are demonstrated. The issue of media terrorism and its impact on the consciousness of the masses in the context of the information war between Russia and Ukraine is examined, the main kinds of informational terrorism and the threats to the informational safety, also the degree of their danger is valued.  The reaction of mass media on terrorism, including the emergence of ethnic conflicts, destructive phenomena in society (depression, disappointment in the state, etc. are shown. The recommendations for effective management of the masses in the era of consumer society, the ability to resist attempts to manipulate them through information flows are provided.

  15. Cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Smith, Donald F; Jungmann, Julia H; Heeren, Ron M A

    2013-12-30

    Microscope mode imaging for secondary ion mass spectrometry is a technique with the promise of simultaneous high spatial resolution and high-speed imaging of biomolecules from complex surfaces. Technological developments such as new position-sensitive detectors, in combination with polyatomic primary ion sources, are required to exploit the full potential of microscope mode mass spectrometry imaging, i.e. to efficiently push the limits of ultra-high spatial resolution, sample throughput and sensitivity. In this work, a C60 primary source was combined with a commercial mass microscope for microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The detector setup is a pixelated detector from the Medipix/Timepix family with high-voltage post-acceleration capabilities. The system's mass spectral and imaging performance is tested with various benchmark samples and thin tissue sections. The high secondary ion yield (with respect to 'traditional' monatomic primary ion sources) of the C60 primary ion source and the increased sensitivity of the high voltage detector setup improve microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. The analysis time and the signal-to-noise ratio are improved compared with other microscope mode imaging systems, all at high spatial resolution. We have demonstrated the unique capabilities of a C60 ion microscope with a Timepix detector for high spatial resolution microscope mode secondary ion mass spectrometry imaging. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Computational force, mass, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numrich, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a correspondence between computational quantities commonly used to report computer performance measurements and mechanical quantities from classical Newtonian mechanics. It defines a set of three fundamental computational quantities that are sufficient to establish a system of computational measurement. From these quantities, it defines derived computational quantities that have analogous physical counterparts. These computational quantities obey three laws of motion in computational space. The solutions to the equations of motion, with appropriate boundary conditions, determine the computational mass of the computer. Computational forces, with magnitudes specific to each instruction and to each computer, overcome the inertia represented by this mass. The paper suggests normalizing the computational mass scale by picking the mass of a register on the CRAY-1 as the standard unit of mass

  17. Mass spectrometry. [in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Shackleton, C. H. L.; Howe, I.; Chizhov, O. S.

    1978-01-01

    A review of mass spectrometry in organic chemistry is given, dealing with advances in instrumentation and computer techniques, selected topics in gas-phase ion chemistry, and applications in such fields as biomedicine, natural-product studies, and environmental pollution analysis. Innovative techniques and instrumentation are discussed, along with chromatographic-mass spectrometric on-line computer techniques, mass spectral interpretation and management techniques, and such topics in gas-phase ion chemistry as electron-impact ionization and decomposition, photoionization, field ionization and desorption, high-pressure mass spectrometry, ion cyclotron resonance, and isomerization reactions of organic ions. Applications of mass spectrometry are examined with respect to bio-oligomers and their constituents, biomedically important substances, microbiology, environmental organic analysis, and organic geochemistry.

  18. Fiscal 1999 research and verification of geothermal energy exploring technologies and the like. Development of reservoir mass and heat flow characterization (Development of seismic monitoring technology - Summary); 1999 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho (yoyaku). Choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu (jishinha tansaho kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Development is under way of a reservoir mass and heat flow characterization method using seismic wave analysis. Specifics of the endeavor cover detailed studies of techniques for monitoring and analyzing seismic wave changes due to changes in the reservoir that accompanies production and reinjection of geothermal fluids, which are carried out through preliminary monitoring accomplished at the test field. For the construction of a microearthquake monitoring network, a monitoring network design is prepared, a data processing/analyzing system is improved and tested for serviceability, analysis programs for 3-dimensional velocity structure analysis technology are improved, and methods for analyzing changes in the reservoir are deliberated, all these based on the results of microearthquake preliminary monitoring and simulation carried out at the Akinomiya district, Akita Prefecture. For the research of elastic wave velocity structure change, short-duration reflection events and waveform changes due to geothermal power plant periodic inspections are extracted, and studies are conducted about the applicability of the diffraction stacking method to the exploration of geothermal energy. (NEDO)

  19. Laser Mass Spectrometry in Planetary Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurz, P.; Whitby, J. A.; Managadze, G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Knowing the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary objects allows the study of their origin and evolution within the context of our solar system. Exploration plans in planetary research of several space agencies consider landing spacecraft for future missions. Although there have been successful landers in the past, more landers are foreseen for Mars and its moons, Venus, the jovian moons, and asteroids. Furthermore, a mass spectrometer on a landed spacecraft can assist in the sample selection in a sample-return mission and provide mineralogical context, or identify possible toxic soils on Mars for manned Mars exploration. Given the resources available on landed spacecraft mass spectrometers, as well as any other instrument, have to be highly miniaturised.

  20. Recent development in isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platzner, I.

    1992-01-01

    Within the limited of this review the following topics will be briefly discussed: a) Accuracy, precision, internal relative standard deviation (RISD) and external relative standard deviation (RESD) of isotope ratio measurements. With advanced instrumentation and use of standard reference materials, high accuracy and RESD = 0.002% (or better) may be achieved; b) The advantages of modern automatic isotope ratio mass spectrometer are briefly described. Computer controlled operation and data acquisition, and multiple ion collection are the recent important improvement; c) The isotopic fractionation during the course of isotope ratio measurement is considered as a major source of errors in thermal ionization of metallic elements. The phenomenon in strontium, neodymium, uranium, lead and calcium and methods to correct the measured data are discussed; d) Applications of isotope ratio mass spectrometry in atomic weight determinations, the isotope dilution technique, isotope geology, and isotope effects in biological systems are described together with specific applications in various research and technology area. (author)