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Sample records for southbridge mass central

  1. Mass distribution and evolutionary scheme for central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heap, S.R.; Augensen, H.J.; Widener Univ., Chester, PA)

    1987-01-01

    IUE data and a distance measuring method that considered central stars in optically thick nebulae were used to examine mass distributions of planetary nebulae. Other data such as spectral type, spatial and kinematic characteristics, etc., were studied to derive relationships between population type and mass distribution. A central star mass range of at least 0.55 solar mass was obtained. Stars with masses of at least 0.64 solar mass, concentrated in the galactic disk, originated from 1.5 solar mass stars. Low mass nuclei originated in old disk or halo populations and evolved from 1.0 solar mass objects. A mass-loss parameter value of 1/3 was calculated for red giants, implying that white dwarfs evolve from stars of under 5 solar masses. Mass distributions around planetary nuclei were concluded to follow patterns associated with the individual mass. 75 references

  2. Relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco J; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose A; Gonzalez, Carmen; Martín, Joaquin; Pascual, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass. Cross-sectional study that included 392 never treated hypertensive individuals. Measurement of office, 24-h ambulatory, and central blood pressure (obtained using applanation tonometry) and determination of left ventricular mass by echocardiography were performed in all patients. In a multiple regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender and metabolic syndrome, 24-h blood pressure was more closely related to ventricular mass than the respective office and central blood pressures. Systolic blood pressures always exhibited a higher correlation than diastolic blood pressures in all 3 determinations. The correlation between left ventricular mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure was higher than that of office (P<.002) or central systolic blood pressures (P<.002). Changes in 24-h systolic blood pressure caused the greatest variations in left ventricular mass index (P<.001). In our population of untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, left ventricular mass index is more closely related to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure than to office or central blood pressure. Central blood pressure does not enable us to better identify patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Accretion of satellites on to central galaxies in clusters: merger mass ratios and orbital parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Giocoli, Carlo; Despali, Giulia

    2018-05-01

    We study the statistical properties of mergers between central and satellite galaxies in galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0 identify dark-matter haloes, we construct halo merger trees for different values of the overdensity Δc. While the virial overdensity definition allows us to probe the accretion of satellites at the cluster virial radius rvir, higher overdensities probe satellite mergers in the central region of the cluster, down to ≈0.06rvir, which can be considered a proxy for the accretion of satellite galaxies on to central galaxies. We find that the characteristic merger mass ratio increases for increasing values of Δc: more than 60 per cent of the mass accreted by central galaxies since z ≈ 1 comes from major mergers. The orbits of satellites accreting on to central galaxies tend to be more tangential and more bound than orbits of haloes accreting at the virial radius. The obtained distributions of merger mass ratios and orbital parameters are useful to model the evolution of the high-mass end of the galaxy scaling relations without resorting to hydrodynamic cosmological simulations.

  4. Direct gravimetric determination of aerosol mass concentration in central antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Illuminati, Silvia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    In Antarctica, experimental difficulties due to extreme conditions have meant that aerosol mass has rarely been measured directly by gravimetry, and only in coastal areas where concentrations were in the range of 1-7 μg m(-3). The present work reports on a careful differential weighing methodology carried out for the first time on the plateau of central Antarctica (Dome C, East Antarctica). To solve problems of accurate aerosol mass measurements, a climatic room was used for conditioning and weighing filters. Measurements were carried out in long stages of several hours of readings with automatic recording of temperature/humidity and mass. This experimental scheme allowed us to sample from all the measurements (up to 2000) carried out before and after exposure, those which were recorded under the most stable humidity conditions and, even more importantly, as close to each other as possible. The automatic reading of the mass allowed us in any case to obtain hundreds of measurements from which to calculate average values with uncertainties sufficiently low to meet the requirements of the differential weighing procedure (±0.2 mg in filter weighing, between ±7% and ±16% both in aerosol mass and concentration measurements). The results show that the average summer aerosol mass concentration (aerodynamic size ≤10 μm) in central Antarctica is about 0.1 μg m(-3), i.e., about 1/10 of that of coastal Antarctic areas. The concentration increases by about 4-5 times at a site very close to the station.

  5. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  6. Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechetti, Renuka; Seth, Anil; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard; den Brok, Mark; Mieske, Steffen; Strader, Jay

    2017-11-01

    We present dynamical measurements of the central mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of a sample of 27 low-mass early-type {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies. We consider all {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies with 9.7 text{}}M/L{{s}} are higher than dynamical {\\text{}}M/L{{s}} derived at larger radii and stellar population estimates of the galaxy centers in ˜80% of galaxies, with a median enhancement of ˜14% and a statistical significance of 3.3σ. We show that the enhancement in the central M/L is best described either by the presence of black holes in these galaxies or by radial initial mass function variations. Assuming a black hole model, we derive black hole masses for the sample of galaxies. In two galaxies, NGC 4458 and NGC 4660, the data suggest significantly overmassive black holes, while in most others only upper limits are obtained. We also show that the level of M/L enhancements we see in these early-type galaxy nuclei are consistent with the larger enhancements seen in ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), supporting the scenario where massive UCDs are created by stripping galaxies of these masses.

  7. Mitigating mass movement caused by earthquakes and typhoons: a case study of central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2013-04-01

    Typhoons caused huge damages to Taiwan at the average of 3.8 times a year in the last 100 years, according to Central Weather Bureau data. After the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 at the magnitude of Richard Scale 7.3, typhoons with huge rainfall would cause huge debris flow and deposits at river channels. As a result of earthquakes, loose debris falls and flows became significant hazards in central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and data about the sites of slope failure show that damage from natural hazards was enhanced in the last 20 years, as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. There are three main types of mass movement in Central Taiwan: landslides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and river channel banks. Many dams, check dams, housing structures and even river channels can be raised to as high as 60 meters as a result of stacking up floating materials of landslides. Debris flows occurred mainly through typhoon periods and activated ancient debris deposition. New gullies were thus developed from deposits loosened and shaken up by earthquakes. Extreme earthquakes and typhoon events occurred frequently in the last 20 years. This paper analyzes the geological and geomorphologic background for the precarious areas and typhoons in central Taiwan, to make a systematic understanding of mass movement harzards. The mechanism and relations of debris flows and rainfall data in central Taiwan are analyzed. Ways for mitigating mass movement threats are also proposed in this paper. Keywords: mass movement, earthquakes, typhoons, hazard mitigation, central Ta

  8. Central and peripheral fat body mass have a protective effect on osteopenia or osteoporosis in adults and elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, P M S S; Garcia Rosa, M L; Gomes, A M; Wahrlich, V; Di Luca, D G; da Cruz Filho, R A; da Silva Correia, D M; Faria, C A; Yokoo, E M

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study involves randomly selected men aged 50 to 99 years and postmenopausal women. Either central fat mass or peripheral fat mass were associated to osteoporosis or osteopenia independently from fat-free body mass and other confounding factors. Obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems that probably share common pathophysiological mechanisms. The question if body fat mass, central or peripheral, is protective or harmful for osteoporosis or osteopenia is not completely resolved. This study aims to investigate the association between osteoporosis or osteopenia, and fat body mass (central and peripheral) independently from fat-free body mass, in men aged 50 to 99 years old and postmenopausal women randomly selected in the community. This is a cross-sectional investigation with a random sample of registered population in Niterói Family Doctor Program (FDP), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Bone mineral density (BMD) and fat-free mass were assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). There was statistically significant bivariate association between bone loss with gender, age, skin color, alcohol consumption at risk dose, use of thiazide, fat-free body mass, and fat body mass (central and peripheral). In the multiple analysis of fat-free body mass, central and peripheral fat body mass showed an independent and protective effect on the presence of osteoporosis or osteopenia (p value obesity and osteoporosis are public health problems worldwide, strategies aimed at preventing both conditions should be encouraged during aging.

  9. Relationship Between 24-Hour Ambulatory Central Systolic Blood Pressure and Left Ventricular Mass: A Prospective Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Rodilla, Enrique; Ablasser, Cornelia; Jankowski, Piotr; Lorenza Muiesan, Maria; Giannattasio, Cristina; Mang, Claudia; Wilkinson, Ian; Kellermair, Jörg; Hametner, Bernhard; Pascual, Jose Maria; Zweiker, Robert; Czarnecka, Danuta; Paini, Anna; Salvetti, Massimo; Maloberti, Alessandro; McEniery, Carmel

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the relationship between left ventricular mass and brachial office as well as brachial and central ambulatory systolic blood pressure in 7 European centers. Central systolic pressure was measured with a validated oscillometric device, using a transfer function, and mean/diastolic pressure calibration. M-mode images were obtained by echocardiography, and left ventricular mass was determined by one single reader blinded to blood pressure. We studied 289 participants (137 women) free from antihypertensive drugs (mean age: 50.8 years). Mean office blood pressure was 145/88 mm Hg and mean brachial and central ambulatory systolic pressures were 127 and 128 mm Hg, respectively. Mean left ventricular mass was 93.3 kg/m 2 , and 25.6% had left ventricular hypertrophy. The correlation coefficient between left ventricular mass and brachial office, brachial ambulatory, and central ambulatory systolic pressure was 0.29, 0.41, and 0.47, respectively ( P =0.003 for comparison between brachial office and central ambulatory systolic pressure and 0.32 for comparison between brachial and central ambulatory systolic pressure). The results were consistent for men and women, and young and old participants. The areas under the curve for prediction of left ventricular hypertrophy were 0.618, 0.635, and 0.666 for brachial office, brachial, and central ambulatory systolic pressure, respectively ( P =0.03 for comparison between brachial and central ambulatory systolic pressure). In younger participants, central ambulatory systolic pressure was superior to both other measurements. Central ambulatory systolic pressure, measured with an oscillometric cuff, shows a strong trend toward a closer association with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy than brachial office/ambulatory systolic pressure. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01278732. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Central configurations of the collinear three-body problem and singular surfaces in the mass space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhifu, E-mail: zxie@vsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23806 (United States)

    2011-09-12

    This Letter is to provide a new approach to study the phenomena of degeneracy of the number of the collinear central configurations under geometric equivalence. A direct and simple explicit parametric expression of the singular surface H{sub 3} is constructed in the mass space (m{sub 1},m{sub 2},m{sub 3}) element of (R{sup +}){sup 3}. The construction of H{sub 3} is from an inverse respective, that is, by specifying positions for the bodies and then determining the masses that are possible to yield a central configuration. It reveals the relationship between the phenomena of degeneracy and the inverse problem of central configurations. We prove that the number of central configurations is decreased to 3!/2-1=2, m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}, and m{sub 3} are mutually distinct if m element of H{sub 3}. Moreover, we know not only the number of central configurations but also what the nonequivalent central configurations are. -- Highlights: → Provide a new method to study the degeneracy of number of CC. → Results advanced the understanding of number of central configurations. → Singular mass surface H{sub 3} is given by a direct and simple parametric expression. → The proof only requires some basic knowledge of linear algebra. → The method can be applied to some other collinear n-body problem.

  11. Activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Isabelle; Green, Sara M; Morgan, Drake; Carter, Christy S; Tümer, Nihal; Scarpace, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    Recent evidence indicate that melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to MTII, we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison with a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group. Food intake and body mass were recorded daily, and body composition was assessed biweekly. The present study demonstrates that central MTII-mediated body mass loss is only partially mediated by caloric restriction, and the long-term body mass loss is independent of the initial hypophagia. More importantly, central MTII administration induced a rapid but sustained fat mass loss, independently of caloric reduction. MTII-treated animals preserved their lean/fat mass ratio throughout the study, whereas PF animals underwent a transient reduction of lean/fat mass ratio that was only normalized when food intake returned to Control level. In summary, it can be concluded that activation of the central melanocortin system in rats persistently reduces body and fat mass independently of caloric reduction.

  12. 75 FR 68618 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From China and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... is threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China and Korea of diamond sawblades and... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of diamond sawblades and parts thereof from China... Diamond, Punxsutawney, PA; Hyde Manufacturing, Southbridge, MA; [[Page 68619

  13. Chronic central administration of Ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism independent of appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Leptin plays a critical role in the central regulation of bone mass. Ghrelin counteracts leptin. In this study, we investigated the effect of chronic intracerebroventricular administration of ghrelin on bone mass in Sprague-Dawley rats (1.5 μg/day for 21 days. Rats were divided into control, ghrelin ad libitum-fed (ghrelin ad lib-fed, and ghrelin pair-fed groups. Ghrelin intracerebroventricular infusion significantly increased body weight in ghrelin ad lib-fed rats but not in ghrelin pair-fed rats, as compared with control rats. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased bone mass in the ghrelin pair-fed group compared with control as indicated by increased bone volume percentage, trabecular thickness, trabecular number and volumetric bone mineral density in tibia trabecular bone. There was no significant difference in trabecular bone mass between the control group and the ghrelin ad-lib fed group. Chronic intracerebroventricular ghrelin infusion significantly increased the mineral apposition rate in the ghrelin pair-fed group as compared with control. In conclusion, chronic central administration of ghrelin increases bone mass through a mechanism that is independent of body weight, suggesting that ghrelin may have a bone anabolic effect through the central nervous system.

  14. Strong bimodality in the host halo mass of central galaxies from galaxy-galaxy lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Wang, Wenting; Zu, Ying; White, Simon; Henriques, Bruno; More, Surhud

    2016-04-01

    We use galaxy-galaxy lensing to study the dark matter haloes surrounding a sample of locally brightest galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We measure mean halo mass as a function of the stellar mass and colour of the central galaxy. Mock catalogues constructed from semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations demonstrate that most LBGs are the central objects of their haloes, greatly reducing interpretation uncertainties due to satellite contributions to the lensing signal. Over the full stellar mass range, 10.3 10.7. Tests using the mock catalogues and on the data themselves clarify the effects of LBG selection and show that it cannot artificially induce a systematic dependence of halo mass on LBG colour. The bimodality in halo mass at fixed stellar mass is reproduced by the astrophysical model underlying our mock catalogue, but the sign of the effect is inconsistent with recent, nearly parameter-free age-matching models. The sign and magnitude of the effect can, however, be reproduced by halo occupation distribution models with a simple (few-parameter) prescription for type dependence.

  15. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  16. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  17. Diagnostic Yield and Safety of Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration of Central Mediastinal Lung Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vazquez-Sequeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. EUS-FNA is an accurate and safe technique to biopsy mediastinal lymph nodes. However, there are few data pertaining to the role of EUS-FNA to biopsy central lung masses. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic yield and safety of EUS-FNA of indeterminate central mediastinal lung masses. Methods. Design: Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database; noncomparative. Setting: Tertiary referral center. From 10/2004 to 12/2010, all patients with a lung mass located within proximity to the esophagus were referred for EUS-FNA. Main Outcome Measurement: EUS-FNA diagnostic accuracy and safety. Results. 73 consecutive patients were included. EUS allowed detection in 62 (85% patients with lack of visualization prohibiting FNA in 11 patients. Among sampled lesions, one patient (1/62 = 1.6% had a benign lung mass (hamartoma, while the remaining 61 patients (61/62 = 98.4% had a malignant mass (primary lung cancer: 55/61 = 90%; lung metastasis: 6/61 = 10%. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS-FNA were 96.7%, 100%, and 96.7%, respectively. The sensitivity was 80.8% when considering nonvisualized masses. One patient developed a pneumothorax (1/62 = 1.6%. Conclusions. EUS-FNA appears to be an accurate and safe technique for tissue diagnosis of central mediastinal lung masses.

  18. EFFECT OF CENTRAL MASS CONCENTRATION ON THE FORMATION OF NUCLEAR SPIRALS IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Parijat; Jiang, I.-G.; Ann, H. B.

    2009-01-01

    We have performed smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to study the response of the central kiloparsec region of a gaseous disk to the imposition of nonaxisymmetric bar potentials. The model galaxies are composed of three axisymmetric components (halo, disk, and bulge) and a nonaxisymmetric bar. These components are assumed to be invariant in time in the frame corotating with the bar. The potential of spherical γ-models of Dehnen is adopted for the bulge component whose density varies as r -γ near the center and r -4 at larger radii and, hence, possesses a central density core for γ = 0 and cusps for γ>0. Since the central mass concentration of the model galaxies increases with the cusp parameter γ, we have examined here the effect of the central mass concentration by varying the cusp parameter γ on the mechanism responsible for the formation of the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies. Our simulations show that the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals are formed by hydrodynamic spiral shocks driven by the gravitational torque of the bar for the models with γ = 0 and 0.5. On the other hand, the symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in the models with γ = 1 and 1.5 are explained by gas density waves. Thus, we conclude that the mechanism responsible for the formation of symmetric two-armed nuclear spirals in barred galaxies changes from hydrodynamic shocks to gas density waves as the central mass concentration increases from γ = 0 to 1.5.

  19. Molecular composition of organic aerosols in central Amazonia: an ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtchev, I; Godoi, RHM; Connors, S; Levine, JG; Archibald, AT; Godoi, AFL; Paralovo, SL; Barbosa, CGG; Souza, RAF; Manzi, AO; Seco, R; Sjostedt, S; Park, J-H; Guenther, A; Kim, S

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon Basin plays key role in atmospheric chemistry, biodiversity and climate change. In this study we applied nanoelectrospray (nanoESI) ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHRMS) for the analysis of the organic fraction of PM$_{2.5}$ aerosol samples collected during dry and wet seasons at a site in central Amazonia receiving background air masses, biomass burning and urban pollution. Comprehensive mass spectral data evaluation methods (e.g. Kendrick mass defect, Van Krevelen diagr...

  20. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    An empirical relationship, of particular interest for studies of high redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars, between the masses of their central black-holes and rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) parameters measured in single-epoch AGN spectra is presented. This relationship is calibrated...... black-hole demographics at high redshift as well as to statistically study the fundamental properties of AGNs. The broad line region size - luminosity relationship is key to the calibrations presented here. The fact that its intrinsic scatter is also the main source of uncertainty in the calibrations...

  1. Cancellation of the central singularity of the Schwarzschild solution with natural mass inversion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean-Pierre; D'Agostini, G.

    2015-03-01

    We reconsider the classical Schwarzschild solution in the context of a Janus cosmological model. We show that the central singularity can be eliminated through a simple coordinate change and that the subsequent transit from one fold to the other is accompanied by mass inversion. In such scenario matter swallowed by black holes could be ejected as invisible negative mass and dispersed in space.

  2. Combining Body Mass Index With Measures of Central Obesity in the Assessment of Mortality in Subjects With Coronary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity.......This study sought to assess the mortality risk of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) based ona combination of body mass index (BMI) with measures of central obesity....

  3. The effect of the mass of a moderator positioned in the central region of a hollow fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simopoulos, S.E.; Leonidou, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a short slowing down length moderator, in the central region of a hollow fuel element is investigated as a function of the mass per unit length of the central moderator . The increase of the thermal neutron flux level, when comparing the situation with that existing without a central moderator , is shown to depend on the quantity of the central moderator and on the mode of the geometrical distribution of the moderator material in the central region of the hollow fuel element. (orig.) [de

  4. Determining Central Black Hole Masses in Distant Active Galaxies and Quasars. II. Improved Optical and UV Scaling Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Peterson, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We present four improved empirical relationships useful for estimating the central black hole mass in nearby AGNs and distant luminous quasars alike using either optical or UV single-epoch spectroscopy. These mass-scaling relationships between line widths and luminosity are based on recently...

  5. Effective Power-Law Dependence of Lyapunov Exponents on the Central Mass in Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, N.; Efthymiopoulos, C.; Kalapotharakos, C.

    2015-01-01

    Using both numerical and analytical approaches, we demonstrate the existence of an effective power-law relation L alpha m(sup p) between themean Lyapunov exponent L of stellar orbits chaotically scattered by a supermassive black hole (BH) in the centre of a galaxy and the mass parameter m, i.e. ratio of the mass of the BH over the mass of the galaxy. The exponent p is found numerically to obtain values in the range p approximately equals 0.3-0.5. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these exponents, based on estimates of local 'stretching numbers', i.e. local Lyapunov exponents at successive transits of the orbits through the BH's sphere of influence. We thus predict p = 2/3 - q with q approximately equaling 0.1-0.2. Our basic model refers to elliptical galaxy models with a central core. However, we find numerically that an effective power-law scaling of L with m holds also in models with central cusp, beyond a mass scale up to which chaos is dominated by the influence of the cusp itself. We finally show numerically that an analogous law exists also in disc galaxies with rotating bars. In the latter case, chaotic scattering by the BH affects mainly populations of thick tube-like orbits surrounding some low-order branches of the x(sub 1) family of periodic orbits, as well as its bifurcations at low-order resonances, mainly the inner Lindblad resonance and the 4/1 resonance. Implications of the correlations between L and m to determining the rate of secular evolution of galaxies are discussed.

  6. Relationships between central arterial stiffness, lean body mass, and absolute and relative strength in young and older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahs, Christopher A; Thiebaud, Robert S; Rossow, Lindy M; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Debra A; Bemben, Michael G

    2017-08-16

    Relationships between muscular strength and arterial stiffness as well as between muscle mass and arterial stiffness have been observed suggesting a link between the neuromuscular system and vascular health. However, the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength along with muscle mass has not been investigated in both sexes across a broad age range. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between central arterial stiffness and absolute and relative strength as well as between central arterial stiffness and lean body mass (LBM) in men and women across a broad age range. LBM, central arterial stiffness and strength were measured on 36 men and 35 women between the ages of 18 and 75 years. Strength was measured on five machine resistance exercises and summed as one measure of overall strength (absolute strength). Relative strength was calculated as total strength divided by LBM (relative strength). Central arterial stiffness was inversely related to both absolute (r = -0·230; P = 0·029) and relative strength (r = -0·484; P LBM (r = 0·097; P = 0·213). The relationship between central arterial stiffness and relative strength was attenuated but still present when controlling for either age, per cent body fat, LBM or mean arterial pressure. These results suggest that, across a wide age range, the expression of relative muscular strength has a stronger relationship with central arterial stiffness compared to either LBM or absolute strength. This suggests that muscle function more than muscle mass may be coupled with vascular health. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Mass balance and hydrological contribution of glaciers in northern and central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Shelley; Vivero, Sebastian; McPhee, James; Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Campos, Cristian; Caro, Dennys; Ponce, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    Water is a critical resource in the northern and central regions of Chile, as the area supports more than 40% of the country's population, and the regional economy depends on agricultural production and mining, which are two industries that rely heavily on a consistent water supply. Due to relatively low rates of rainfall, meltwater from snow and ice bodies in the highland areas provides a key component of the annual water supply in these areas. Consequently, accurate estimates of the rates of ablation of the cryosphere (i.e. snow and ice) are crucial for predicting current supply rates, and future projections. Whilst snow is generally a larger contributor of freshwater, during periods of drought, glaciers provide a significant source. This study aims to determine the contribution of glaciers to two catchments in northern and central Chile during a 2.5 year period, which largely consisted of extreme dry periods, but also included the recent El Niño event. This study combined field and modelling studies to understand glacier and rock glacier contributions in the Tapado (30°S), Yeso (33°S) catchments. In the field we undertook glaciological mass balance monitoring of three glaciers, monitored albedo and snow line changes using automatic cameras for three glaciers, measured discharge continuously at several points, installed six automatic weather stations and used thermistors to monitor thermal regime changes of two rock glaciers. The combination of these datasets where used to drive energy balance and hydrological models to estimate the contribution of ice bodies to streamflow in the two studied catchments. Over the course of the study all glaciers maintained a negative mass balance, however glaciers in central Chile lost more mass, which is due to the higher melt rates experienced due to lower elevations and higher temperatures. Areas free of debris generally contributed more to streamflow than sediment covered regions, and snow generally contributed more over

  8. The central object R 136 in the gas nebula 30 Doradus - Structure, color, mass and excitation parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitzinger, J. V.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, T.; Winkler, C.

    1980-04-01

    Photographic observations with the 3,6 m ESO and 0,61 m Bochum telescopes in different colours of the central part of the 30 Doradus Nebula are presented. The structure of the central object R 136 is studied by image analysis methods, i.e. digitalisation and contrast enhancement. The central object R 136 of the supergiant gas nebula 30 Doradus consists of three components; the main component covers an area of (0.7 pc)2. The components show a colour gradient, R 136a being much bluer than R 136c. This composite structure is seen in photographic IR, U and V likewise. A plot of the spectral intensity distribution from λ = 73 cm to 1550 Å of the central 2'.5 × 2'.5 region of 30 Doradus is given. The main contribution in the UV can be attributed to R 136. This object dominates the of the central part of 30 Doradus. It determines together with 16 other bright stars in the center the excitation parameter of the nebula. Its effective temperature lies between 50000 and 55000K and the tipper and lower mass values are 250 and 103 solar masses. The bolometric magnitude is brighter than -l4m. The inner structure of 30 Doradus can be explained as the result of the stellar-wind of R 136.

  9. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): gas fuelling of spiral galaxies in the local Universe II. - direct measurement of the dependencies on redshift and host halo mass of stellar mass growth in central disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootes, M. W.; Dvornik, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Tuffs, R. J.; Popescu, C. C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Liske, J.; Brown, M. J. I.; Holwerda, B. W.; Wang, L.

    2018-06-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the specific star formation rate-stellar mass (sSFR-M*) of z ≤ 0.13 disc central galaxies using a morphologically selected mass-complete sample (M* ≥ 109.5 M⊙). Considering samples of grouped and ungrouped galaxies, we find the sSFR-M* relations of disc-dominated central galaxies to have no detectable dependence on host dark-matter halo (DMH) mass, even where weak-lensing measurements indicate a difference in halo mass of a factor ≳ 5. We further detect a gradual evolution of the sSFR-M* relation of non-grouped (field) central disc galaxies with redshift, even over a Δz ≈ 0.04 (≈5 × 108 yr) interval, while the scatter remains constant. This evolution is consistent with extrapolation of the `main sequence of star-forming-galaxies' from previous literature that uses larger redshift baselines and coarser sampling. Taken together, our results present new constraints on the paradigm under which the SFR of galaxies is determined by a self-regulated balance between gas inflows and outflows, and consumption of gas by star formation in discs, with the inflow being determined by the product of the cosmological accretion rate and a fuelling efficiency - \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ. In particular, maintaining the paradigm requires \\dot{M}_{b,halo}ζ to be independent of the mass Mhalo of the host DMH. Furthermore, it requires the fuelling efficiency ζ to have a strong redshift dependence (∝(1 + z)2.7 for M* = 1010.3 M⊙ over z = 0-0.13), even though no morphological transformation to spheroids can be invoked to explain this in our disc-dominated sample. The physical mechanisms capable of giving rise to such dependencies of ζ on Mhalo and z for discs are unclear.

  10. Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, ash-free dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project from 1978-07-25 to 1978-09-12 by France (NODC Accession 0070783)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass (displacement volume, dry mass, and ashfree dry mass) data collected in Eastern Central Atlantic during CIPREA project in Jul - Sep 1978 by...

  11. Influence of blood flow occlusion on the development of peripheral and central fatigue during small muscle mass handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxterman, R M; Craig, J C; Smith, J R; Wilcox, S L; Jia, C; Warren, S; Barstow, T J

    2015-09-01

    Critical power represents an important threshold for neuromuscular fatigue development and may, therefore, dictate intensities for which exercise tolerance is determined by the magnitude of fatigue accrued. Peripheral fatigue appears to be constant across O2 delivery conditions for large muscle mass exercise, but this consistency is equivocal for smaller muscle mass exercise. We sought to determine the influence of blood flow occlusion during handgrip exercise on neuromuscular fatigue development and to examine the relationship between neuromuscular fatigue development and W '. Blood flow occlusion influenced the development of both peripheral and central fatigue, thus providing further evidence that the magnitude of peripheral fatigue is not constant across O2 delivery conditions for small muscle mass exercise. W ' appears to be related to the magnitude of fatigue accrued during exercise, which may explain the reported consistency of intramuscular metabolic perturbations and work performed for severe-intensity exercise. The influence of the muscle metabolic milieu on peripheral and central fatigue is currently unclear. Moreover, the relationships between peripheral and central fatigue and the curvature constant (W ') have not been investigated. Six men (age: 25 ± 4 years, body mass: 82 ± 10 kg, height: 179 ± 4 cm) completed four constant power handgrip tests to exhaustion under conditions of control exercise (Con), blood flow occlusion exercise (Occ), Con with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Con + Occ), and Occ with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Occ + Occ). Neuromuscular fatigue measurements and W ' were obtained for each subject. Each trial resulted in significant peripheral and central fatigue. Significantly greater peripheral (79.7 ± 5.1% vs. 22.7 ± 6.0%) and central (42.6 ± 3.9% vs. 4.9 ± 2.0%) fatigue occurred for Occ than for Con. In addition, significantly greater peripheral (83.0 ± 4.2% vs. 69.0 ± 6.2%) and central

  12. Neuropeptide Y knockout mice reveal a central role of NPY in the coordination of bone mass to body weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Baldock

    Full Text Available Changes in whole body energy levels are closely linked to alterations in body weight and bone mass. Here, we show that hypothalamic signals contribute to the regulation of bone mass in a manner consistent with the central perception of energy status. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y (NPY, a well-known orexigenic factor whose hypothalamic expression is increased in fasting, have significantly increased bone mass in association with enhanced osteoblast activity and elevated expression of bone osteogenic transcription factors, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, wild type and NPY knockout (NPY (-/- mice in which NPY is specifically over expressed in the hypothalamus (AAV-NPY+ show a significant reduction in bone mass despite developing an obese phenotype. The AAV-NPY+ induced loss of bone mass is consistent with models known to mimic the central effects of fasting, which also show increased hypothalamic NPY levels. Thus these data indicate that, in addition to well characterized responses to body mass, skeletal tissue also responds to the perception of nutritional status by the hypothalamus independently of body weight. In addition, the reduction in bone mass by AAV NPY+ administration does not completely correct the high bone mass phenotype of NPY (-/- mice, indicating the possibility that peripheral NPY may also be an important regulator of bone mass. Indeed, we demonstrate the expression of NPY specifically in osteoblasts. In conclusion, these data identifies NPY as a critical integrator of bone homeostatic signals; increasing bone mass during times of obesity when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are low and reducing bone formation to conserve energy under 'starving' conditions, when hypothalamic NPY expression levels are high.

  13. Episodic mass loss from the hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula Longmore 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Current address: Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A spectacular transient mass-loss episode from the extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient central star of the planetary nebula (PN) Longmore 4 (Lo 4) was discovered in 1992 by Werner et al. During that event, the star temporarily changed from its normal PG 1159 spectrum to that of an emission-line low-luminosity early-type Wolf-Rayet [WCE] star. After a few days, Lo 4 reverted to its normal, predominantly absorption-line PG 1159 type. To determine whether such events recur, and if so how often, I monitored the optical spectrum of Lo 4 from early 2003 to early 2012. Out of 81 spectra taken at random dates, 4 of them revealed mass-loss outbursts similar to that seen in 1992. This indicates that the episodes recur approximately every 100 days (if the recurrence rate has been approximately constant and the duration of a typical episode is ∼5 days), and that the star is in a high-mass-loss state about 5% of the time. Since the enhanced stellar wind is hydrogen-deficient, it arises from the photosphere and is unlikely to be related to phenomena such as a binary or planetary companion or infalling dust. I speculate on plausible mechanisms for these unique outbursts, including the possibility that they are related to the non-radial GW Vir-type pulsations exhibited by Lo 4. The central star of the PN NGC 246 has stellar parameters similar to those of Lo 4, and it is also a GW Vir-type pulsator with similar pulsation periods. I obtained 167 spectra of NGC 246 between 2003 and 2011, but no mass ejections were found.

  14. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ice Mass Variations and the Local Climatic Factors in the Riparian Zone of Central Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamdar, P.; Ambinakudige, S.

    2016-12-01

    Californian icefields are natural basins of fresh water. They provide irrigation water to the farms in the central valley. We analyzed the ice mass loss rates, air temperature and land surface temperature (LST) in Sacramento and San Joaquin basins in California. The digital elevation models from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were used to calculate ice mass loss rate between the years 2002 and 2015. Additionally, Landsat TIR data were used to extract the land surface temperature. Data from local weather stations were analyzed to understand the spatiotemporal trends in air temperature. The results showed an overall mass recession of -0.8 ± 0.7 m w.e.a-1. We also noticed an about 60% loss in areal extent of the glaciers in the study basins between 2000 and 2015. Local climatic factors, along with the global climate patterns might have influenced the negative trends in the ice mass loss. Overall, there was an increase in the air temperature by 0.07± 0.02 °C in the central valley between 2000 and 2015. Furthermore, LST increased by 0.34 ± 0.4 °C and 0.55± 0.1 °C in the Sacramento and San Joaquin basins. Our preliminary results show the decrease in area and mass of ice mass in the basins, and changing agricultural practices in the valley.

  15. From stem cells to human development: a distinctly human perspective on early embryology, cellular differentiation and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, April M; Johnson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Over 100 scientists with common interests in human development, disease and regeneration gathered in late September 2016 for The Company of Biologists' second 'From Stem Cells to Human Development' meeting held in historic Southbridge. In this Meeting Review, we highlight some of the exciting new findings that were presented, and discuss emerging themes and convergences in human development and disease that arose during these discussions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Measuring the masses of a pair of semi-invisibly decaying particles in central exclusive production with forward proton tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harland-Lang, L.A.; Stirling, W.J.

    2011-10-01

    We discuss how the mass of new physics particles involved in a pair of short decay chains leading to two invisible particles, for example slepton pair production, followed by the decay into two leptons and two neutralinos, may be measured in central exclusive production (CEP) with forward proton tagging. We show how the existing mass measurement strategies in CEP may be improved by making full use of the mass-shell constraints, and demonstrate that, with around 30 signal events, the masses of the slepton and neutralino can be measured with an accuracy of a few GeV. (orig.)

  17. Chemical characteristics of submicron particles at the central Tibetan Plateau: insights from aerosol mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Jinsen; Ge, Xinlei; Xie, Conghui; Wang, Junfeng; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Ruixiong; Wang, Yuhang

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a significant influx of anthropogenic aerosol from South Asia to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP) during pre-monsoon period. In order to characterize the chemical composition, sources, and transport processes of aerosol in this area, we carried out a field study during June 2015 by deploying a suite of online instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) at Nam Co station (90°57' E, 30°46' N; 4730 m a.s.l.) at the central of the TP. The measurements were made at a period when the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon occurred. The average ambient mass concentration of submicron particulate matter (PM1) over the whole campaign was ˜ 2.0 µg m-3, with organics accounting for 68 %, followed by sulfate (15 %), black carbon (8 %), ammonium (7 %), and nitrate (2 %). Relatively higher aerosol mass concentration episodes were observed during the pre-monsoon period, whereas persistently low aerosol concentrations were observed during the monsoon period. However, the chemical composition of aerosol during the higher aerosol concentration episodes in the pre-monsoon season was on a case-by-case basis, depending on the prevailing meteorological conditions and air mass transport routes. Most of the chemical species exhibited significant diurnal variations with higher values occurring during afternoon and lower values during early morning, whereas nitrate peaked during early morning in association with higher relative humidity and lower air temperature. Organic aerosol (OA), with an oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.94, was more oxidized during the pre-monsoon period than during monsoon (average O / C ratio of 0.72), and an average O / C was 0.88 over the entire campaign period, suggesting overall highly oxygenated aerosol in the central TP. Positive matrix factorization of the high-resolution mass spectra of OA identified two oxygenated

  18. Determination of central q and effective mass on textor based on discrete Alfven wave (DAW) spectrum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, P.; Wassenhove, G. van; Koch, R.; Messiaen, A.M.; Vandenplas, P.E.; Lister, J.B.; Marmillod, P.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the discrete Alfven wave spectrum to determine the current density profile and the effective mass density of the plasma in the TEXTOR tokamak is studied; the measurement, the validity of which is discussed, confirms independently the central q(r=0)<1 already obtained by polarimetry. (orig.)

  19. Lean muscle mass in classic or ovulatory PCOS: association with central obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mario, F M; do Amarante, F; Toscani, M K; Spritzer, P M

    2012-10-01

    This age-matched case-control study assessed total and segmental lean muscle mass in classic or ovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and investigated whether lean mass is associated with hormone and metabolic features. Participants underwent anthropometric and clinical evaluation. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a digital pedometer, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Laboratory measurements included total cholesterol, cholesterol fractions, triglycerides, glucose, total serum testosterone, serum insulin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, and SHBG. Energy intake was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. Classic PCOS patients had higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, testosterone and lipid accumulation product values than ovulatory PCOS and controls. Energy consumption, homeostasis model assessment index, SHBG, free androgen index and triglycerides, total and trunk lean mass were higher only in classic PCOS women vs. controls. Arm, leg, trunk, total or limb lean masses were not correlated with hormone levels in any of the groups. However, in PCOS women lipid accumulation product was positively correlated with total (r=0.56, p=0.001), trunk (r=0.59, p=0.001), arm (r=0.54, p=0.001), leg (r=0.44, p=0.03) and limb (r=0.48, p=0.001) lean masses. BMI was positively correlated with all lean mass segments and independently associated with total lean mass. Lipid accumulation product and BMI were independently associated with trunk lean mass variation. The increase in lean mass in classic PCOS appears to be associated with insulin resistance and central obesity rather than with energy intake, physical activity or androgens. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The effect of stellar-mass black holes on the central kinematics of ω Cen: a cautionary tale for IMBH interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Alice; Gieles, Mark; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent

    2018-06-01

    The search for intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in the centre of globular clusters is often based on the observation of a central cusp in the surface brightness profile and a rise towards the centre in the velocity dispersion profiles. Similar signatures, however, could result from other effects, that need to be taken into account in order to determine the presence (or the absence) of an IMBH in these stellar systems. Following our previous exploration of the role of radial anisotropy in shaping these observational signatures, we analyse here the effects produced by the presence of a population of centrally concentrated stellar-mass black holes. We fit dynamical models to ω Cen data, and we show that models with ˜5% of their mass in black holes (consistent with ˜100% retention fraction after natal kicks) can reproduce the data. When simultaneously considering both radial anisotropy and mass segregation, the best-fit model includes a smaller population of remnants, and a less extreme degree of anisotropy with respect to the models that include only one of these features. These results underline that before conclusions about putative IMBHs can be made, the effects of stellar-mass black holes and radial anisotropy need to be properly accounted for.

  1. The extraordinary mass-loss bubble G2.4 + 1.4 and its central star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Mcgregor, P.J.; Rawlings, S.J.; Lozinskaia, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Data are presented on the WR 102 star and the surrounding nebula (G2.4 + 1.4). It is shown that WR 102 and the nebula are associated, the nebula being a mass-loss bubble powered by the central star. From a photoionization analysis of the surrounding nebula, the star was determined to have the following parameters: log T(ion) = 5.20 + or - 0.05; log (R/solar R) = about 0.05; and log (L/solar L) = 5.85 + or - 0.20. 42 refs

  2. Chemical characteristics of submicron particles at the central Tibetan Plateau: insights from aerosol mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed a significant influx of anthropogenic aerosol from South Asia to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (TP during pre-monsoon period. In order to characterize the chemical composition, sources, and transport processes of aerosol in this area, we carried out a field study during June 2015 by deploying a suite of online instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP at Nam Co station (90°57′ E, 30°46′ N; 4730 m a.s.l. at the central of the TP. The measurements were made at a period when the transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon occurred. The average ambient mass concentration of submicron particulate matter (PM1 over the whole campaign was  ∼  2.0 µg m−3, with organics accounting for 68 %, followed by sulfate (15 %, black carbon (8 %, ammonium (7 %, and nitrate (2 %. Relatively higher aerosol mass concentration episodes were observed during the pre-monsoon period, whereas persistently low aerosol concentrations were observed during the monsoon period. However, the chemical composition of aerosol during the higher aerosol concentration episodes in the pre-monsoon season was on a case-by-case basis, depending on the prevailing meteorological conditions and air mass transport routes. Most of the chemical species exhibited significant diurnal variations with higher values occurring during afternoon and lower values during early morning, whereas nitrate peaked during early morning in association with higher relative humidity and lower air temperature. Organic aerosol (OA, with an oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O ∕ C of 0.94, was more oxidized during the pre-monsoon period than during monsoon (average O ∕ C ratio of 0.72, and an average O ∕ C was 0.88 over the entire campaign period, suggesting overall highly oxygenated aerosol in the central TP. Positive matrix factorization of the

  3. Evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus. I. Evolution with a constant mass influx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.J.; Vishniac, E.T.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term evolution of the central black hole in an active galactic nucleus (AGN), whose rotational energy is being extracted by the Blandford-Znajek process, was analyzed. The model is based on previous axisymmetric, stationary descriptions of the black hole and its magnetosphere, but includes the secular effects of the mass accretion rate. The properties of the black hole and the nonthermal radiation from its environment are calculated under the assumption that the mass influx is constant. It is noted that this model fails to explain the correlation of evolutionary time scale with luminosity or the extremely rapid evolution required for the most luminous sources. It is concluded that the evolution of AGNs is driven by a rapid decrease in mass accretion rate. Since the nature of an AGN is dependent on the ratio mass accretion/total mass, this leads to a conclusion that AGNs evolve from QSOs into the nuclei of Seyfert or radio galaxies. 20 references

  4. A midrapidity source of intermediate mass fragments in highly central collisions of Au+Au at 150 A MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alard, J P; Bastid, N; Crouau, M; Dupieux, P; Fraysse, L; Jorio, M; Montarou, G; Morel, P [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Basrak, Z; Caplar, R; Cindro, N; Hoelbling, S [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Yugoslavia); Belayev, I M; Frolov, S; Korchagin, Y; Lebedev, A; Smolyankin, S; Zhilin, A V [Institute for Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russia); Bini, M; Olmi, A; Pasquali, G; Poggi, G; Taccetti, N [Florence Univ. (Italy); [INFN, Florence (Italy); Blaich, T [Mainz Univ. (Germany); Buta, A; Legrand, I; Moisa, D; Petrovici, M; Simion, V [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cerruti, C; Coffin, J P; Fintz, P; Guillaume, G; Houari, O; Jundt, F; Kuhn, C; Maguire, C; Rami, F; Tezkratt, R; Wagner, P [Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France); [Strasbourg Univ., 67 (France); Eroe, J; Fodor, Z; Kecskemeti, J; Koncz, P; Seres, Z [Central Research Inst. for Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Grigoriyan, Y; Manko, V; Mgebrishvili, G; Sadchikov, A; Vasiliev, M A [Kurchatov Inst. for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russia); Herrmann, N; Pelte, D; Trzaska, M; Wienold, T [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Kotte, R; Moesner, J; Neubert, W; Wohlfarth, D [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (Germany); Matulewicz, T; Sikora, B; Wilhelmi, Z [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics; Bock, R; Fan, Z G; Freifelder, R; Gobbi, A; Hildenbrand, K D; Jeong, S C; Kraemer, M; Reisdorf, W; Schuell, D; Sodan, U; Teh, K; Wessels, J P; FOPI Collaboration at GSI

    1992-02-01

    Charged particles have been observed in collisions of Au on Au at incident energy of 150 A MeV using a high-granularity detector system covering approximatley the forward hemisphere in the center-of-mass system. Highly central collisions have been studied using a double selection criterion which combines large charged particle multiplicities with small transverse momentum directivities. In this class of events about one quarter of the total nuclear charge emerges as intermediate mass fragments with nuclear charges Z>2. These fragments are centred at midrapidity and are produced with large transverse velocities. (orig.).

  5. A midrapidity source of intermediate mass fragments in highly central collisions of Au+Au at 150 A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alard, J.P.; Bastid, N.; Crouau, M.; Dupieux, P.; Fraysse, L.; Jorio, M.; Montarou, G.; Morel, P.; Basrak, Z.; Caplar, R.; Cindro, N.; Hoelbling, S.; Belayev, I.M.; Frolov, S.; Korchagin, Y.; Lebedev, A.; Smolyankin, S.; Zhilin, A.V.; Bini, M.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Taccetti, N.; Blaich, T.; Buta, A.; Legrand, I.; Moisa, D.; Petrovici, M.; Simion, V.; Cerruti, C.; Coffin, J.P.; Fintz, P.; Guillaume, G.; Houari, O.; Jundt, F.; Kuhn, C.; Maguire, C.; Rami, F.; Tezkratt, R.; Wagner, P.; Eroe, J.; Fodor, Z.; Kecskemeti, J.; Koncz, P.; Seres, Z.; Grigoriyan, Y.; Manko, V.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Sadchikov, A.; Vasiliev, M.A.; Herrmann, N.; Pelte, D.; Trzaska, M.; Wienold, T.; Matulewicz, T.; Sikora, B.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Bock, R.; Fan, Z.G.; Freifelder, R.; Gobbi, A.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Jeong, S.C.; Kraemer, M.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Sodan, U.; Teh, K.; Wessels, J.P.

    1992-02-01

    Charged particles have been observed in collisions of Au on Au at incident energy of 150 A MeV using a high-granularity detector system covering approximatley the forward hemisphere in the center-of-mass system. Highly central collisions have been studied using a double selection criterion which combines large charged particle multiplicities with small transverse momentum directivities. In this class of events about one quarter of the total nuclear charge emerges as intermediate mass fragments with nuclear charges Z>2. These fragments are centred at midrapidity and are produced with large transverse velocities. (orig.)

  6. Regulation of lean mass, bone mass, and exercise tolerance by the central melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P Braun

    Full Text Available Signaling via the type 4-melanocortin receptor (MC4R is an important determinant of body weight in mice and humans, where loss of function mutations lead to significant obesity. Humans with mutations in the MC4R experience an increase in lean mass. However, the simultaneous accrual of fat mass in such individuals may contribute to this effect via mechanical loading. We therefore examined the relationship of fat mass and lean mass in mice lacking the type-4 melanocortin receptor (MC4RKO. We demonstrate that MC4RKO mice display increased lean body mass. Further, this is not dependent on changes in adipose mass, as MC4RKO mice possess more lean body mass than diet-induced obese (DIO wild type mice with equivalent fat mass. To examine potential sources of the increased lean mass in MC4RKO mice, bone mass and strength were examined in MC4RKO mice. Both parameters increase with age in MC4RKO mice, which likely contributes to increases in lean body mass. We functionally characterized the increased lean mass in MC4RKO mice by examining their capacity for treadmill running. MC4R deficiency results in a decrease in exercise performance. No changes in the ratio of oxidative to glycolytic fibers were seen, however MC4RKO mice demonstrate a significantly reduced heart rate, which may underlie their impaired exercise performance. The reduced exercise capacity we report in the MC4RKO mouse has potential clinical ramifications, as efforts to control body weight in humans with melanocortin deficiency may be ineffective due to poor tolerance for physical activity.

  7. Preschool Weight and Body Mass Index in Relation to Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test the associ......BACKGROUND: If preschool measures of body size routinely collected at preventive health examinations are associated with adult central obesity and metabolic syndrome, a focused use of these data for the identification of high risk children is possible. The aim of this study was to test...... the associations between preschool weight and body mass index (BMI) and adult BMI, central obesity and metabolic alterations. METHODS: The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) (N = 4111) is a population-based cohort. Preschool weight (age 5 months and 1 year) and BMI (age 2-5 years) were studied...... in relation to metabolic syndrome as well as BMI, waist circumference, lipoproteins, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at the age of 31 years. Linear regression models and generalized linear regression models with log link were used. RESULTS: Throughout preschool ages, weight and BMI were significantly...

  8. A Catalog Sample of Low-mass Galaxies Observed in X-Rays with Central Candidate Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nucita, A. A.; Manni, L.; Paolis, F. De; Giordano, M.; Ingrosso, G., E-mail: nucita@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via per Arnesano, CP 193, I-73100, Lecce (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of X-ray-selected candidate black holes in 51 low-mass galaxies with z ≤ 0.055 and masses up to 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} obtained by cross-correlating the NASA-SLOAN Atlas with the 3XMM catalog. We have also searched in the available catalogs for radio counterparts of the black hole candidates and find that 19 of the previously selected sources also have a radio counterpart. Our results show that about 37% of the galaxies of our sample host an X-ray source (associated with a radio counterpart) spatially coincident with the galaxy center, in agreement with other recent works. For these nuclear sources, the X-ray/radio fundamental plane relation allows one to estimate the mass of the (central) candidate black holes, which are in the range of 10{sup 4}–2 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ⊙} (with a median value of ≃3 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙} and eight candidates having masses below 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}). This result, while suggesting that X-ray emitting black holes in low-mass galaxies may have had a key role in the evolution of such systems, makes it even more urgent to explain how such massive objects formed in galaxies. Of course, dedicated follow-up observations both in the X-ray and radio bands, as well as in the optical, are necessary in order to confirm our results.

  9. Coral recovery in the central Maldives archipelago since the last major mass-bleaching, in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisapia, C.; Burn, D.; Yoosuf, R.; Najeeb, A.; Anderson, K. D.; Pratchett, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing frequency and severity of disturbances is causing global degradation of coral reef ecosystems. This study examined temporal changes in live coral cover and coral composition in the central Maldives from 1997 to 2016, encompassing two bleaching events, a tsunami, and an outbreak of Acanthaster planci. We also examined the contemporary size structure for five dominant coral taxa (tabular Acropora, Acropora muricata, Acropora humilis, Pocillopora spp, and massive Porites). Total coral cover increased throughout the study period, with marked increases following the 1998 mass-bleaching. The relative abundance of key genera has changed through time, where Acropora and Pocillopora (which are highly susceptible to bleaching) were under-represented following 1998 mass-bleaching but increased until outbreaks of A. planci in 2015. The contemporary size-structure for all coral taxa was dominated by larger colonies with peaked distributions suggesting that recent disturbances had a disproportionate impact on smaller colonies, or that recruitment is currently limited. This may suggest that coral resilience has been compromised by recent disturbances, and further bleaching (expected in 2016) could lead to highly protracted recovery times. We showed that Maldivian reefs recovered following the 1998 mass-bleaching event, but it took up to a decade, and ongoing disturbances may be eroding reef resilience.

  10. Atomic Mass Dependence of $\\Xi^{-}$ Baryon and $\\bar \\Xi^+$ Baryon Production in Central 250-GeV/c $\\pi^-$ - Nucleon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagenhart, William David [Tufts U.

    2000-02-01

    We present the first measurement of the atomic mass dependence of central $\\Xi^-$ and $\\overline{\\Xi}^+$ production. It is measured using a sample of 22,459 $\\Xi^-$'s and $\\overline{\\Xi}^+$'s produced in collisions between a 250 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam and targets of beryllium, aluminum, copper, and tungsten. The relative cross sections are fit to the two parameter function $\\sigma_0 A^{\\alpha}$, where A is the atomic mass. We measure $\\alpha$ = 0:924 $\\pm$ 0:020 $\\pm$ 0:025, for Feynman-x in the range $\\pm$ 0:09 < $x_F$ < 0:15.

  11. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system with diffuse cerebral mass effect and giant cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, J A

    2012-02-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), also called primary CNS vasculitis, is an idiopathic inflammatory condition affecting only intracranial and spinal cord vessels, particularly medium-sized and smaller arteries and arterioles. Angiography and histopathology typically do not reveal evidence of systemic vasculitis.(1,2) Histopathology usually reveals granulomatous inflammation affecting arterioles and small arteries of the parenchyma and\\/or leptomeninges, similar to that seen in Takayasu\\'s or giant cell arteritis.(1-3) We report a patient with biopsy-proven PACNS with giant cells and cerebral mass effect on MRI. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography appeared normal and there was no evidence of extracranial vasculitis.

  12. Deep Learning Identifies High-z Galaxies in a Central Blue Nugget Phase in a Characteristic Mass Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lapiner, S.; Ceverino, D.; Simons, R. C.; Snyder, G. F.; Bernardi, M.; Chen, Z.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Lee, C. T.; Margalef-Bentabol, B.; Tuccillo, D.

    2018-05-01

    We use machine learning to identify in color images of high-redshift galaxies an astrophysical phenomenon predicted by cosmological simulations. This phenomenon, called the blue nugget (BN) phase, is the compact star-forming phase in the central regions of many growing galaxies that follows an earlier phase of gas compaction and is followed by a central quenching phase. We train a convolutional neural network (CNN) with mock “observed” images of simulated galaxies at three phases of evolution— pre-BN, BN, and post-BN—and demonstrate that the CNN successfully retrieves the three phases in other simulated galaxies. We show that BNs are identified by the CNN within a time window of ∼0.15 Hubble times. When the trained CNN is applied to observed galaxies from the CANDELS survey at z = 1–3, it successfully identifies galaxies at the three phases. We find that the observed BNs are preferentially found in galaxies at a characteristic stellar mass range, 109.2–10.3 M ⊙ at all redshifts. This is consistent with the characteristic galaxy mass for BNs as detected in the simulations and is meaningful because it is revealed in the observations when the direct information concerning the total galaxy luminosity has been eliminated from the training set. This technique can be applied to the classification of other astrophysical phenomena for improved comparison of theory and observations in the era of large imaging surveys and cosmological simulations.

  13. Evolutionary effects of mass loss in low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of mass loss on the evolution of low-mass stars (actual mass smaller than 1.4 solar masses) are reviewed. The case of globular cluster stars is discussed in some detail, and it is shown that evolutionary theory sets quite precise limits to the mass-loss rate in population II red giants. The effects of mass loss on the final evolutionary stages of stars producing white dwarfs is also discussed. In particular, the interaction of the wind from the hot central star with the surrounding planetary nebula is considered. Finally, the problem of the origin of hydrogen-deficient stars is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Mass balance and surface movement of the Greenland Ice Sheet at Summit, Central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, C.S.; Keller, K.; Gundestrup, N.S.

    1997-01-01

    During the GRIP deep drilling in Central Greenland, the ice sheet topography and surface movement at Summit has been mapped with GPS. Measurements of the surface velocity are presented for a strain net consisting of 13 poles at distances of 25-60 km from the GRIP site. Some results are: The GRIP...... site is located approximately 2 km NW of the topographic summit; the surface velocity at the GISP 2 site is 1.7 m/yr in the W direction. The present mass balance at Summit is calculated to be -0.03+/-0.04 m/yr, i.e. close to steady state. This result is the best now available for Summit. A small...... thinning rate might be a transient response of the Greenland Ice Sheet due to the temperature increase at the Wisconsin-Holocene transition....

  15. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Marco, Orsola De [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davies, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Lotarevich, I. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harrington, J. Patrick [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lanz, Thierry, E-mail: gjacoby@lowell.edu, E-mail: orsola.demarco@mq.edu.au, E-mail: jdavies@stsci.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: jph@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: thierry.lanz@oca.eu [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2017-02-10

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M {sub ⊙} for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M {sub ⊙}) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and H α emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2.

  16. Electrons in the D0 central calorimeter: A study of the systematic biases in the measurement of the W mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuring, T.C.

    1993-08-01

    The D0 detector at Fermilab is a general purpose collider detector designed for the study of proton-antiproton collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The detector consists of an inner tracking volume, a hermetic uranium/liquid argon calorimeter, and an outer muon detection system. Since the detector lacks a central magnetic field, it relies on energy measurements from the calorimeter as opposed to momentum measurements using the tracking chambers. To provide the necessary understanding of the calorimeter, a testbeam was conducted at Fermilab during the second half of 1991 featuring detector modules from the central calorimeter. Detailed simulations of the detector apparatus were also written. This thesis will present the results of this testbeam and simulation effort and relate them to the measurement of the W ± intermediate vector boson mass in the full D0 detector. In the testbeam, an energy resolution that scaled as 14% divided by the square root of the beam energy was found. The uniformity of response of the detector as a function of angle of incidence was investigated. We found that the response increased by 4% over the range investigated. The results were compared to a simulation written using the CERN package GEANT. Although GEANT was able to reproduce the energy resolution, it was not able to reproduce the uniformity of response function. A second simulation utilizing the EGS4 package from SLAC was successful in reproducing the behavior of the detector as a function of angle. The biases induced by the discrepancies between the detector and GEANT response functions in the W ± mass measurement are studied. We find that using GEANT as a detector simulation will cause a bias of between 460 and 680 MeV in the W ± mass determination

  17. Ages of evolved low mass stars: Central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa R.D.D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have developed several methods to estimate the ages of central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN, which are based either on observed nebular properties or on data from the stars themselves. Our goal is to derive the age distribution of these stars and compare the results with empirical distributions for CSPN and white dwarfs. We have initially developed three methods based on nebular abundances, using (i an age-metallicity relation which is also a function of the galactocentric distance; (ii an age-metallicity relation obtained for the galactic disk, and (iii the central star masses derived from the observed nitrogen abundances. In this work we present two new, more accurate methods, which are based on kinematic properties: (I in this method, the expected rotation velocities of the nebulae around the galactic centre at their galactocentric distances are compared with the predicted values for the galactic rotation curve, and the differences are attributed to the different ages of the evolved stars; (II we determine directly the U, V, W, velocity components of the stars, as well as the velocity dispersions, and use the dispersion-age relation by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. These methods were applied to two large samples of galactic CSPN. We conclude that most CSPN in the galactic disk have ages under 5 Gyr, and that the age distribution is peaked around 1 to 3 Gyr.

  18. On the Masses of the quasi-stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbidge, G.; Perry, J.

    1976-01-01

    If it is assumed that the gas giving rise to the emission and absorption lines in quasi-stellar objects has been driven out of the central object by radiation pressure, arguments based on the dynamics of radiation-driven gas flows enable us to establish limits on the central masses and the rates of mass loss. For QSOs at cosmological distances it is found that the masses of the central objects must lie in the range 5 x 10 7 M/sub sun/approximately-less-thanMapproximately-less-than2 x 10 9 m/sub sun/ and that the mass loss rates should be M/Mapprox. =10 -7 yr -1 . If the QSOs are local objects, the upper limits to the masses are about 2 x 10 7 M/sub sun/

  19. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  20. Central Diffraction in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R

    2012-01-01

    The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of a central barrel, a muon spectrometer and of additional detectors for trigger and event classification purposes. The low transverse momentum threshold of the central barrel gives ALICE a unique opportunity to study the low mass sector of central production at the LHC. I will report on first analysis results of meson production in double gap events in minimum-bias proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 7 TeV, and will describe a dedicated double gap trigger for future data taking.

  1. Elemental composition of air masses under different altitudes in Azores, central north Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, B.J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Between 8th July 2002 and 18th June 2004, aerosol samples were collected in Azores. Their inorganic composition was obtained by neutron activation analysis in order to study the differences of aerosols in two atmospheric altitudes of the central north Atlantic: (1) PICO-NARE observatory (Lower Free Troposphere-LFT) at Pico mountain summit (38,470 deg N, 28,404 deg W, 2,225 m a.s.l.) in Pico Island, Azores, where air masses from the surrounding continents (Africa, Europe, Central and North America) pass through, carrying aerosols with anthropogenic (Sb, Br, Mo, U, Se and Tb) and/or natural emissions (Fe, Co, La, Na, Sm, Cr, Zn, Hf, K and Th); (2) TERCEIRA-NARE station (Marine Boundary Layer) at Serreta (38,69 deg N, 27,36 deg W, 50 m a.s.l.), in Terceira Island, Azores, where natural aerosols (I, Cl, Na, Br and other soil related elements) are predominant. However, a combined interpretation of the data points out to a co-existence of the anthropogenic elements Sb and Mo, eventually with similar origins as the ones passing Pico Mountain summit. Very high concentrations and enrichment factors for Sb, Mo and Br in LFT, higher than the ones found in other areas, confirm atmospheric long-range transport mainly from the west boundary of north Atlantic; this may indicate eventual accumulation and persistence of those elements in the area due to the presence of Azores high pressures or the Hadley cells effect. A significant correlation between Fe and Yb and the enrichment of rare earth elements (La, Sm, Tb and Yb) and Th in LFT aerosols, both reflect a mineral dust intrusions from north Africa (Sahara and Sahel region). (author)

  2. Peripheral cholangio carcimona with central abscess: one case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Taek Soo; Jung, Hoe Seok; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1993-01-01

    The authors experienced one case of peripheral cholangio carcinoma with central abscess. CT and ultrasound demonstrate a well defined fluid collection with smooth wall in central portion of mass in left hepatic lobe.Needle aspiration revealed 150ml of pus with chocolate color. Follow-up ultrasound 2 weeks after antibiotics therapy showed fluid collection again. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed from a surrounding solid portion of a fluid collection area, and pathologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. In case of recurrent abscess or necrosis, we recommend fine needle aspiration biopsy from a central fluid collection area as well as surrounding solid portion of mass for the possibility of central abscess in peripheral cholangio carcinoma of the liver

  3. Peripheral cholangio carcimona with central abscess: one case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Taek Soo; Jung, Hoe Seok; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The authors experienced one case of peripheral cholangio carcinoma with central abscess. CT and ultrasound demonstrate a well defined fluid collection with smooth wall in central portion of mass in left hepatic lobe.Needle aspiration revealed 150ml of pus with chocolate color. Follow-up ultrasound 2 weeks after antibiotics therapy showed fluid collection again. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed from a surrounding solid portion of a fluid collection area, and pathologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma. In case of recurrent abscess or necrosis, we recommend fine needle aspiration biopsy from a central fluid collection area as well as surrounding solid portion of mass for the possibility of central abscess in peripheral cholangio carcinoma of the liver

  4. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Turbulent Central Engine of the Low-mass AGN Hosted by NGC 404

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyland, Kristina; Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Davis, Timothy A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Wrobel, Joan M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kamble, Atish; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Alatalo, Katherine [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Mukherjee, Dipanjan [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Young, Lisa M., E-mail: knyland@nrao.edu [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    The nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (<150,000 M {sub ⊙}) central massive black hole (MBH), with a dynamical mass constraint, currently known, thus providing a rare low-redshift analog to the MBH “seeds” that formed in the early universe. Here, we present new imaging of the nucleus of NGC 404 at 12–18 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of the CO(2–1) line with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). For the first time, we have successfully resolved the nuclear radio emission, revealing a centrally peaked, extended source spanning 17 pc. Combined with previous VLA observations, our new data place a tight constraint on the radio spectral index and indicate an optically thin synchrotron origin for the emission. The peak of the resolved radio source coincides with the dynamical center of NGC 404, the center of a rotating disk of molecular gas, and the position of a compact, hard X-ray source. We also present evidence for shocks in the NGC 404 nucleus from archival narrowband HST imaging, Chandra X-ray data, and Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, and discuss possible origins for the shock excitation. Given the morphology, location, and steep spectral index of the resolved radio source, as well as constraints on nuclear star formation from the ALMA CO(2–1) data, we find the most likely scenario for the origin of the radio source in the center of NGC 404 to be a radio outflow associated with a confined jet driven by the active nucleus.

  5. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Turbulent Central Engine of the Low-mass AGN Hosted by NGC 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyland, Kristina; Lacy, Mark; Davis, Timothy A.; Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil; Wrobel, Joan M.; Kamble, Atish; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter; Alatalo, Katherine; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Young, Lisa M.

    2017-01-01

    The nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (<150,000 M ⊙ ) central massive black hole (MBH), with a dynamical mass constraint, currently known, thus providing a rare low-redshift analog to the MBH “seeds” that formed in the early universe. Here, we present new imaging of the nucleus of NGC 404 at 12–18 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of the CO(2–1) line with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). For the first time, we have successfully resolved the nuclear radio emission, revealing a centrally peaked, extended source spanning 17 pc. Combined with previous VLA observations, our new data place a tight constraint on the radio spectral index and indicate an optically thin synchrotron origin for the emission. The peak of the resolved radio source coincides with the dynamical center of NGC 404, the center of a rotating disk of molecular gas, and the position of a compact, hard X-ray source. We also present evidence for shocks in the NGC 404 nucleus from archival narrowband HST imaging, Chandra X-ray data, and Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, and discuss possible origins for the shock excitation. Given the morphology, location, and steep spectral index of the resolved radio source, as well as constraints on nuclear star formation from the ALMA CO(2–1) data, we find the most likely scenario for the origin of the radio source in the center of NGC 404 to be a radio outflow associated with a confined jet driven by the active nucleus.

  6. A Multi-wavelength Study of the Turbulent Central Engine of the Low-mass AGN Hosted by NGC 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Kristina; Davis, Timothy A.; Nguyen, Dieu D.; Seth, Anil; Wrobel, Joan M.; Kamble, Atish; Lacy, Mark; Alatalo, Katherine; Karovska, Margarita; Maksym, W. Peter; Mukherjee, Dipanjan; Young, Lisa M.

    2017-08-01

    The nearby dwarf galaxy NGC 404 harbors a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus powered by the lowest-mass (<150,000 M ⊙) central massive black hole (MBH), with a dynamical mass constraint, currently known, thus providing a rare low-redshift analog to the MBH “seeds” that formed in the early universe. Here, we present new imaging of the nucleus of NGC 404 at 12-18 GHz with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and observations of the CO(2-1) line with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). For the first time, we have successfully resolved the nuclear radio emission, revealing a centrally peaked, extended source spanning 17 pc. Combined with previous VLA observations, our new data place a tight constraint on the radio spectral index and indicate an optically thin synchrotron origin for the emission. The peak of the resolved radio source coincides with the dynamical center of NGC 404, the center of a rotating disk of molecular gas, and the position of a compact, hard X-ray source. We also present evidence for shocks in the NGC 404 nucleus from archival narrowband HST imaging, Chandra X-ray data, and Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy, and discuss possible origins for the shock excitation. Given the morphology, location, and steep spectral index of the resolved radio source, as well as constraints on nuclear star formation from the ALMA CO(2-1) data, we find the most likely scenario for the origin of the radio source in the center of NGC 404 to be a radio outflow associated with a confined jet driven by the active nucleus.

  7. On Defining Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Though central to any pedagogical development of physics, the concept of mass is still not well understood. Properly defining mass has proven to be far more daunting than contemporary textbooks would have us believe. And yet today the origin of mass is one of the most aggressively pursued areas of research in all of physics. Much of the excitement surrounding the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is associated with discovering the mechanism responsible for the masses of the elementary particles. This paper will first briefly examine the leading definitions, pointing out their shortcomings. Then, utilizing relativity theory, it will propose—for consideration by the community of physicists—a conceptual definition of mass predicated on the more fundamental concept of energy, more fundamental in that everything that has mass has energy, yet not everything that has energy has mass.

  8. On the evolution of central stars of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahel, R.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of nuclei of planetary nebulae has been calculated from the end of the ejection stage that produces the nebulae to the white dwarf stage. The structure of the central star is in agreement with the general picture of Finzi (1973) about the mass ejection from the progenitors of planetary nebulae. It has been found that in order to obtain evolutionary track consistent with the Harman-Seaton track (O'Dell, 1968) one has to assume that the masses of the nuclei stars are less than approximately 0.7 solar masses. The calculated evolutionary time scale of the central stars of planetary nebulae is approximately 2 x 10 4 yr. This time scale is negatively correlated with the stellar mass: the heavier the stellar mass, the shorter the evolutionary time scale. (Auth.)

  9. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  10. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Modification of the ρ meson detected by low-mass electron positron pairs in central PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres Collaboration; Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.

    2008-09-01

    We present a measurement of ee pair production in central PbAu collisions at 158A GeV/c. As reported earlier, a significant excess of the ee pair yield over the expectation from hadron decays is observed. The improved mass resolution of the present data set, recorded with the upgraded CERES experiment at the CERN-SPS, allows for a comparison of the data with different theoretical approaches. The data clearly favor a substantial in-medium broadening of the ρ spectral function over a density-dependent shift of the ρ pole mass. The in-medium broadening model implies that baryon induced interactions are the key mechanism to the observed modifications of the ρ meson at SPS energy.

  12. Modification of the ρ meson detected by low-mass electron-positron pairs in central Pbsbnd Au collisions at 158A GeV/c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamová, D.; Agakichiev, G.; Antończyk, D.; Appelshäuser, H.; Belaga, V.; Bielcikova, J.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Busch, O.; Cherlin, A.; Damjanović, S.; Dietel, T.; Dietrich, L.; Drees, A.; Dubitzky, W.; Esumi, S. I.; Filimonov, K.; Fomenko, K.; Fraenkel, Z.; Garabatos, C.; Glässel, P.; Holeczek, J.; Kushpil, V.; Maas, A.; Marín, A.; Milošević, J.; Milov, A.; Miśkowiec, D.; Panebrattsev, Yu.; Petchenova, O.; Petráček, V.; Pfeiffer, A.; Rak, J.; Ravinovich, I.; Rehak, P.; Sako, H.; Schmitz, W.; Sedykh, S.; Shimansky, S.; Stachel, J.; Šumbera, M.; Tilsner, H.; Tserruya, I.; Wessels, J. P.; Wienold, T.; Wurm, J. P.; Xie, W.; Yurevich, S.; Yurevich, V.; Ceres Collaboration

    2008-09-01

    We present a measurement of e+e- pair production in central Pbsbnd Au collisions at 158 A GeV / c. As reported earlier, a significant excess of the e+e- pair yield over the expectation from hadron decays is observed. The improved mass resolution of the present data set, recorded with the upgraded CERES experiment at the CERN-SPS, allows for a comparison of the data with different theoretical approaches. The data clearly favor a substantial in-medium broadening of the ρ spectral function over a density-dependent shift of the ρ pole mass. The in-medium broadening model implies that baryon induced interactions are the key mechanism to the observed modifications of the ρ meson at SPS energy.

  13. Changes in total and central fat mass after a hypocaloric diet associate with changes of apoC-I in postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Hanny; Davignon, Jean; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Faraj, May

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the secretion of apolipoprotein apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE from adipose tissue in postmenopausal obese women, suggesting their potential regulation by energy balance in humans. We examined the changes of these apolipoproteins, in relation to changes in cardiometabolic risks, following a hypocaloric diet in overweight/obese women. A total of 137 postmenopausal overweight/obese women who were free of chronic disease were examined at baseline, 56 women of whom were reevaluated following a 6-month hypocaloric diet. At baseline, there was no association between the plasma transferable apolipoproteins with any index of adiposity, insulin sensitivity, lipids, or inflammation, except for apoE with peripheral fat mass (r = 0.18, P hypocaloric diet reduced adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers but had no significant effects on plasma transferable apolipoproteins or lipids, whose average concentrations were within normal range at baseline. The changes in total and central, but not peripheral, fat mass associated with changes of apoC-I only (r = 0.28 and r = 0.43; respectively, P < .05). Post-weight-loss apoC-I increased in some women (52%) yet it decreased in others, however there were no differences in cardiometabolic risk factors between the 2 groups. Plasma apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE are not associated with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, or inflammation in obese but healthy postmenopausal women. Post-weight-loss changes of total and central fat mass associate with changes of apoC-I. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomic landscape in Central and Eastern Europe: the 9th Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference, Poznan, Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gadher, S. J.; Marczak, L.; Luczak, M.; Stobiecki, M.; Widlak, P.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 5-7 ISSN 1478-9450. [Central and Eastern European Proteomic Conference (CEEPC) /9./. Poznaň, 15.06.2015-18.06.2015] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Central and Eastern Proteomic Conference * proteomics * mass spectrometry imaging Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.849, year: 2016

  15. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Franca, Fabio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Onori, Francesca [Netherlands Institute for Space Research, SRON, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Marconi, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Sani, Eleonora [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Vignali, Cristian, E-mail: lafranca@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Bologna (Italy)

    2016-04-18

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) samples. However, these measurements use the width of the broad line region (BLR) as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band shows an absorbed (N{sub H}=8.5±0.4×10{sup 21}cm{sup -2}) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L{sub 14−195}/ergs{sup −1}) = 42.05, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A{sub V} = 3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the Hα, HeI, and Paβ lines (FWHM ~1400–2300 km s{sup −1}) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a reddened starbust galaxy which hosts an AGN. We use the measure of the broad components to provide a first estimate of its central black hole mass (M{sub BH}=10{sup 6.6±0.3}M{sub ⊙}, λ{sub Edd} = 0.01−0.03), obtained using recently calibrated virial relations suitable for moderately obscured (N{sub H} < 10{sup 24} cm{sup −2}) AGN.

  16. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modification of the $\\rho$-meson detected by low-mass electron-positron pairs in central Pb - Au collisions at 158 A GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Adamová, D; Appelshäuser, H; Belaga, V; Bielcikova, J; Braun-munziger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glssel, P; Holeczek, J; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, a W; Maas, A; Marn, A; Miloevi, J; Milov, A; Mikowiec, D; Panebrattsev, iscs Yu; Petchenova, O; Petrek, V; Pfeiffer, A; Rak, J; Ravinovich, acI; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Xie, W; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We present a measurement of $e^+e^-$ pair production in central Pb-Au collisions at 158$A$ GeV/$c$. As reported earlier, a significant excess of the $e^+e^-$ pair yield over the expectation from hadron decays is observed. The improved mass resolution of the present data set, recorded with the upgraded CERES experiment at the CERN-SPS, allows for a comparison of the data with different theoretical approaches. The data clearly favor a substantial in-medium broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function over a density-dependent shift of the $\\rho$ pole mass at SPS energy. The in-medium broadening model implies that baryon induced interactions are the key mechanism to in-medium modifications of the $\\rho$-meson in the hot fireball.

  18. Limits on the electron-antineutrino mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    New measurements near the endpoint of the tritium beta-decay spectrum are producing limits on the electron-antineutrino mass which are below the central mass value of 30 eV reported by ITEP. The factors that influence the neutrino mass sensitivity of tritium beta decay measurements will be discussed followed by a review of the current experimental results. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. THE STELLAR MASS COMPONENTS OF GALAXIES: COMPARING SEMI-ANALYTICAL MODELS WITH OBSERVATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lei; Yang Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Springel, Volker

    2010-01-01

    We compare the stellar masses of central and satellite galaxies predicted by three independent semi-analytical models (SAMs) with observational results obtained from a large galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In particular, we compare the stellar mass functions of centrals and satellites, the relation between total stellar mass and halo mass, and the conditional stellar mass functions, Φ(M * |M h ), which specify the average number of galaxies of stellar mass M * that reside in a halo of mass M h . The SAMs only predict the correct stellar masses of central galaxies within a limited mass range and all models fail to reproduce the sharp decline of stellar mass with decreasing halo mass observed at the low mass end. In addition, all models over-predict the number of satellite galaxies by roughly a factor of 2. The predicted stellar mass in satellite galaxies can be made to match the data by assuming that a significant fraction of satellite galaxies are tidally stripped and disrupted, giving rise to a population of intra-cluster stars (ICS) in their host halos. However, the amount of ICS thus predicted is too large compared to observation. This suggests that current galaxy formation models still have serious problems in modeling star formation in low-mass halos.

  20. Modelled and observed mass balance of Rikha Samba Glacier, Nepal, Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, T. R.; Kayastha, R. B.; Fujita, K.; Sinisalo, A. K.; Stumm, D.; Joshi, S.; Litt, M.

    2016-12-01

    Glacier mass balance variability has an implication for the regional water resources and it helps to understand the response of glacier to climate change in the Himalayan region. Several mass balance studies have been started in the Himalayan region since 1970s, but they are characterized by frequent temporal gaps and a poor spatial representatively. This study aims at bridging the temporal gaps in a long term mass balance series of the Rikha Samba glacier (5383 - 6475 m a.s.l.), a benchmark glacier located in the Hidden Valley, Mustang, Nepal. The ERA Interim reanalysis data for the period 2011-2015 is calibrated with the observed meteorological variables from an AWS installed near the glacier terminus. We apply an energy mass balance model, validated with the available in-situ measurements for the years 1998 and 2011-2015. The results show that the glacier is shrinking at a moderate negative mass balance rate for the period 1995 to 2015 and the high altitude location of Rikha Samba also prevents a bigger mass loss compared to other small Himalayan glaciers. Precipitation from July to January and the mean air temperature from June to October are the most influential climatic parameters of the annual mass balance variability of Rikha Samba glacier.

  1. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Uncovering the Angular Momentum Content of Central and Satellite Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Ge, J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Greco, J.; Lin, Y.-T.; Mao, S.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.; Yan, R.; van den Bosch, F.

    2018-01-01

    We study 379 central and 159 satellite early-type galaxies with two-dimensional kinematics from the integral-field survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) to determine how their angular momentum content depends on stellar and halo mass. Using the Yang et al. group catalog, we identify central and satellite galaxies in groups with halo masses in the range {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}ȯ {10}11 {h}-2 {M}ȯ tend to have very little rotation, while nearly all galaxies at lower mass show some net rotation. The ∼30% of high-mass galaxies that have significant rotation do not stand out in other galaxy properties, except for a higher incidence of ionized gas emission. Our data are consistent with recent simulation results suggesting that major merging and gas accretion have more impact on the rotational support of lower-mass galaxies. When carefully matching the stellar mass distributions, we find no residual differences in angular momentum content between satellite and central galaxies at the 20% level. Similarly, at fixed mass, galaxies have consistent rotation properties across a wide range of halo mass. However, we find that errors in classification of central and satellite galaxies with group finders systematically lower differences between satellite and central galaxies at a level that is comparable to current measurement uncertainties. To improve constraints, the impact of group-finding methods will have to be forward-modeled via mock catalogs.

  2. Interleukin-6 levels in the central nervous system are negatively correlated with fat mass in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlöf, Kaj; Wernstedt, Ingrid; Fjällman, Ted; Wallenius, Ville; Wallenius, Kristina; Jansson, John-Olov

    2003-09-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular injection of IL-6 increases energy expenditure and decreases body fat in rodents. Therefore, IL-6 may play a role in appetite and body weight control in the central nervous system. In the present study we evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum IL-6 levels in humans in relation to body fat content and to CSF and serum levels of leptin. Thirty-two healthy overweight/obese male subjects with a body mass index range of 29.3-36.0 kg/m(2) were studied. Total and sc body fat were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography, respectively. CSF IL-6 levels were in some individuals higher than serum IL-6 levels and correlated negatively with total body weight, sc and total body fat. In contrast, CSF leptin levels were 30-60 times lower than serum leptin levels and correlated positively with serum leptin, body weight, sc and total body fat. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between CSF IL-6 and leptin. In conclusion, CSF IL-6 differs in many ways from CSF leptin. CSF IL-6 may be locally produced rather than serum derived, and body fat-regulating regions in the central nervous system may be exposed to insufficient IL-6 levels in more severe obesity.

  3. A pediatric renal lymphoma case presenting with central nervous system findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Ahmet; Küpeli, Serhan; Doğru, Omer

    2013-06-01

    In pediatric patients renal lymphoma frequently presents in the form of multiple, bilateral mass lesions, infrequently as a single or retroperitoneal mass, and rarely as diffuse infiltrative lesions. In patients with apparent central nervous system involvement close attention to other physical and laboratory findings are essential for preventing a delay in the final diagnosis. Herein we present a pediatric patient with renal lymphoma that presented with central nervous system findings that caused a delay in diagnosis. None declared.

  4. Analysis of coolant flow in central tube of WWER-440 fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsiros, G.; Toth, S.; Attila Aszodi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics model has been built to investigate the coolant flow in the central tube of the WWER-440 fuel assemblies. The model was verified based on measured data of the Kurchatov Institute. With the model calculations were performed for two fuel assemblies used in PAKS NPP. One of them has symmetrical and another has inclined pin power profile. Ratios of the outlet mass fluxes of the central tube to the inlet mass fluxes of the rod bundle were determined. Heat up ratios of the tube and rod bundle flows were calculated too. Sensitivity of the results on the assembly power distribution, inlet temperature and mass flow rate was investigated. The results of these simulations can be used as boundary conditions of central tube in studies of coolant mixing in fuel assembly heads. (Authors)

  5. Water Mass Classification on a Highly Variable Arctic Shelf Region: Origin of Laptev Sea Water Masses and Implications for the Nutrient Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, D.; Cherniavskaia, E.

    2018-03-01

    Large gradients and inter annual variations on the Laptev Sea shelf prevent the use of uniform property ranges for a classification of major water masses. The central Laptev Sea is dominated by predominantly marine waters, locally formed polynya waters and riverine summer surface waters. Marine waters enter the central Laptev Sea from the northwestern Laptev Sea shelf and originate from the Kara Sea or the Arctic Ocean halocline. Local polynya waters are formed in the Laptev Sea coastal polynyas. Riverine summer surface waters are formed from Lena river discharge and local melt. We use a principal component analysis (PCA) in order to assess the distribution and importance of water masses within the Laptev Sea. This mathematical method is applied to hydro-chemical summer data sets from the Laptev Sea from five years and allows to define water types based on objective and statistically significant criteria. We argue that the PCA-derived water types are consistent with the Laptev Sea hydrography and indeed represent the major water masses on the central Laptev Sea shelf. Budgets estimated for the thus defined major Laptev Sea water masses indicate that freshwater inflow from the western Laptev Sea is about half or in the same order of magnitude as freshwater stored in locally formed polynya waters. Imported water dominates the nutrient budget in the central Laptev Sea; and only in years with enhanced local polynya activity is the nutrient budget of the locally formed water in the same order as imported nutrients.

  6. Mass Media vs. Interpersonal Channels: The Synthetic Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Steven H.

    Some of the major assumptions, empirical inferences, and theoretical linkages that underlie the generalization that interpersonal influence is more efficacious than mass communication in bringing about social change are examined in this paper. The central premise of the paper is that the presumed competition between mass and interpersonal channels…

  7. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  8. The Morphologies and Alignments of Gas, Mass, and the Central Galaxies of CLASH Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan; Ettori, Stefano; Rasia, Elena; Sayers, Jack; Zitrin, Adi; Meneghetti, Massimo; Voit, G. Mark; Golwala, Sunil; Czakon, Nicole; Yepes, Gustavo; Baldi, Alessandro; Koekemoer, Anton; Postman, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Morphology is often used to infer the state of relaxation of galaxy clusters. The regularity, symmetry, and degree to which a cluster is centrally concentrated inform quantitative measures of cluster morphology. The Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble Space Telescope (CLASH) used weak and strong lensing to measure the distribution of matter within a sample of 25 clusters, 20 of which were deemed to be “relaxed” based on their X-ray morphology and alignment of the X-ray emission with the Brightest Cluster Galaxy. Toward a quantitative characterization of this important sample of clusters, we present uniformly estimated X-ray morphological statistics for all 25 CLASH clusters. We compare X-ray morphologies of CLASH clusters with those identically measured for a large sample of simulated clusters from the MUSIC-2 simulations, selected by mass. We confirm a threshold in X-ray surface brightness concentration of C ≳ 0.4 for cool-core clusters, where C is the ratio of X-ray emission inside 100 h70-1 kpc compared to inside 500 {h}70-1 kpc. We report and compare morphologies of these clusters inferred from Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect (SZE) maps of the hot gas and in from projected mass maps based on strong and weak lensing. We find a strong agreement in alignments of the orientation of major axes for the lensing, X-ray, and SZE maps of nearly all of the CLASH clusters at radii of 500 kpc (approximately 1/2 R500 for these clusters). We also find a striking alignment of clusters shapes at the 500 kpc scale, as measured with X-ray, SZE, and lensing, with that of the near-infrared stellar light at 10 kpc scales for the 20 “relaxed” clusters. This strong alignment indicates a powerful coupling between the cluster- and galaxy-scale galaxy formation processes.

  9. THE MEGAMASER COSMOLOGY PROJECT. III. ACCURATE MASSES OF SEVEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN ACTIVE GALAXIES WITH CIRCUMNUCLEAR MEGAMASER DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Braatz, J. A.; Condon, J. J.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Lo, K. Y.; Zaw, I.; Schenker, M.; Henkel, C.; Reid, M. J.; Greene, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of H 2 O masers from circumnuclear disks in active galaxies for the Megamaser Cosmology Project (MCP) allow accurate measurement of the mass of supermassive black holes (BH) in these galaxies. We present the Very Long Baseline Interferometry images and kinematics of water maser emission in six active galaxies: NGC 1194, NGC 2273, NGC 2960 (Mrk 1419), NGC 4388, NGC 6264 and NGC 6323. We use the Keplerian rotation curves of these six megamaser galaxies, plus a seventh previously published, to determine accurate enclosed masses within the central ∼0.3 pc of these galaxies, smaller than the radius of the sphere of influence of the central mass in all cases. We also set lower limits to the central mass densities of between 0.12 x 10 10 and 61 x 10 10 M sun pc -3 . For six of the seven disks, the high central densities rule out clusters of stars or stellar remnants as the central objects, and this result further supports our assumption that the enclosed mass can be attributed predominantly to a supermassive BH. The seven BHs have masses ranging between 0.75 x 10 7 and 6.5 x 10 7 M sun , with the mass errors dominated by the uncertainty of the Hubble constant. We compare the megamaser BH mass determination with BH mass measured from the virial estimation method. The virial estimation BH mass in four galaxies is consistent with the megamaser BH mass, but the virial mass uncertainty is much greater. Circumnuclear megamaser disks allow the best mass determination of the central BH mass in external galaxies and significantly improve the observational basis at the low-mass end of the M-σ * relation. The M-σ * relation may not be a single, low-scatter power law as originally proposed. MCP observations continue and we expect to obtain more maser BH masses in the future.

  10. Reconstructing Neutrino Mass Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, A. Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the neutrino mass spectrum and lepton mixing is one of the fundamental problems of particle physics. In this connection we consider two central topics: (i) the origin of large lepton mixing, (ii) possible existence of new (sterile) neutrino states. We discuss also possible relation between large mixing and existence of sterile neutrinos.

  11. The Politics of Mass Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating...... this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale....... Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial...

  12. Transport and transformation of surface water masses across the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transport and transformation of surface water masses across the Mascarene Plateau during the Northeast Monsoon season. ... Mixing occurs in the central gap between intermediate water masses (Red Sea Water [RSW] and Antarctic Intermediate Water [AAIW]) as well as in the upper waters (Subtropical Surface Water ...

  13. THE STRIKINGLY SIMILAR RELATION BETWEEN SATELLITE AND CENTRAL GALAXIES AND THEIR DARK MATTER HALOS SINCE z = 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Douglas F.; Conroy, Charlie

    2013-01-01

    Satellite galaxies in rich clusters are subject to numerous physical processes that can significantly influence their evolution. However, the typical L* satellite galaxy resides in much lower mass galaxy groups, where the processes capable of altering their evolution are generally weaker and have had less time to operate. To investigate the extent to which satellite and central galaxy evolution differs, we separately model the stellar mass-halo mass (M * -M h ) relation for these two populations over the redshift interval 0 peak . At z ∼ 0 the satellites, on average, have ∼10% larger stellar masses at fixed M peak compared to central galaxies of the same halo mass (although the two relations are consistent at 2σ-3σ for M peak ∼> 10 13 M ☉ ). This is required in order to reproduce the observed stellar mass-dependent 2PCF and satellite fractions. At low masses our model slightly under-predicts the correlation function at ∼1 Mpc scales. At z ∼ 1 the satellite and central galaxy M * -M h relations are consistent within the errors, and the model provides an excellent fit to the clustering data. At present, the errors on the clustering data at z ∼ 2 are too large to constrain the satellite model. A simple model in which satellite and central galaxies share the same M * -M h relation is able to reproduce the extant z ∼ 2 clustering data. We speculate that the striking similarity between the satellite and central galaxy M * -M h relations since z ∼ 2 arises because the central galaxy relation evolves very weakly with time and because the stellar mass of the typical satellite galaxy has not changed significantly since it was accreted. The reason for this last point is not yet entirely clear, but it is likely related to the fact that the typical ∼L* satellite galaxy resides in a poor group where transformation processes are weak and lifetimes are short

  14. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  15. Morphometric Controls on Glacier Mass Balance of the Puruogangri Ice Field, Central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the impacts of climatic changes and morphometric features on glacier mass balance is crucial to providing insight into glacier changes and their effects on regional water resources and ecosystems. Here, we presented an evaluation of morphometric effects on the glacier mass balances of the Puruogangri ice field (PIF on the Tibetan Plateau. A clear spatial variability of glacier mass balances, ranging from −0.035 to +0.019 m·w.e.·year−1, was estimated by comparing the TanDEM-X DEM (2012 with the SRTM-X DEM (2000. In general, the observed glacier mass changes were consistent with our fieldwork investigations. Furthermore, by applying the method of linear regression analysis, we found that the mass changes of individual glaciers on the PIF were mainly dominated by the mean altitude (R = 0.84, p < 0.001, however, they were statistically independent of glacier size, aspect, and surface velocity. At a local scale (grid size of 10 × 10 pixels, apart from the factor of altitude, surface velocity was correlated with glacier mass change.

  16. The Mass Elevation Effect of the Central Andes and Its Implications for the Southern Hemisphere's Highest Treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest treelines in the world is at 4810 m above sea level on the Sajama Volcano in the central Andes. The climatological cause of that exceptionally high treeline position is still unclear. Although it has been suggested that the mass elevation effect (MEE explains the upward shift of treelines in the Altiplano region, the magnitude of MEE has not yet been quantified for that region. This paper defines MEE as the air temperature difference in summer at the same elevation between the inner mountains/plateaus (Altiplano and the free atmosphere above the adjacent lowlands of the Andean Cordillera. The Altiplano air temperature was obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly temperature database, and the air temperature above the adjacent lowlands was interpolated based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 1 data set. We analyzed the mean air temperature differences for January, July, and the warm months from October to April. The air temperature was mostly higher on the Altiplano than over the neighboring lowlands at the same altitude. The air temperature difference increased from the outer Andean east-facing slope to the interior of the Altiplano in summer, and it increased from high latitudes to low latitudes in winter. The mean air temperature in the Altiplano in summer is approximately 5 K higher than it is above the adjacent lowlands at the same mean elevation, averaging about 3700 m above sea level. This upward shift of isotherms in the inner part of the Cordillera enables the treeline to climb to 4810 m, with shrub-size trees reaching even higher. Therefore, the MEE explains the occurrence of one of the world’s highest treelines in the central Andes.

  17. First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Kumar, Samresh

    2016-04-15

    PM2.5 mass and its optical properties were measured over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India between January and December, 2012. Meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and barometric pressure were also monitored. During the study period, the PM2.5 (fine PM) concentration ranged between 3.2μgm(-3) and 193.9μgm(-3) with a median concentration of 31.4μgm(-3). The attenuation coefficients, βATN at 370nm, 550nm, and 880nm had median values of 104.5Mm(-1), 79.2Mm(-1), and 59.8Mm(-1), respectively. Further, the dry scattering coefficient, βSCAT at 550nm had a median value of 17.1Mm(-1) while the absorption coefficient βABS at 550nm had a median value of 61.2Mm(-1). The relationship between fine PM mass and attenuation coefficients showed pronounced seasonality. Scattering, absorption, and attenuation coefficient at different wavelengths were all well correlated with fine PM mass only during the post-monsoon season (October, November, and December). The highest correlation (r(2)=0.81) was between fine PM mass and βSCAT at 550nm during post-monsoon season. During this season, the mass scattering efficiency (σSCAT) was 1.44m(2)g(-1). Thus, monitoring optical properties all year round, as a surrogate for fine PM mass was found unsuitable for the study location. In order to assess the relationships between fine PM mass and its optical properties and meteorological parameters, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were fitted for each season, with fine PM mass as the dependent variable. Such a model fitted for the post-monsoon season explained over 88% of the variability in fine PM mass. However, the MLR models were able to explain only 31 and 32% of the variability in fine PM during pre-monsoon (March, April, and May) and monsoon (June, July, August, and September) seasons, respectively. During the winter (January and February) season, the MLR model explained 54% of the PM2.5 variability. Copyright

  18. Scaling properties of the transverse mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2002-01-01

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m t . The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m t -scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m t -scaling at RHIC. (orig.)

  19. The dependence of halo mass on galaxy size at fixed stellar mass using weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paul J. L.; Hudson, Michael J.; Balogh, Michael L.; Khatri, Sumeet

    2017-12-01

    Stellar mass has been shown to correlate with halo mass, with non-negligible scatter. The stellar mass-size and luminosity-size relationships of galaxies also show significant scatter in galaxy size at fixed stellar mass. It is possible that, at fixed stellar mass and galaxy colour, the halo mass is correlated with galaxy size. Galaxy-galaxy lensing allows us to measure the mean masses of dark matter haloes for stacked samples of galaxies. We extend the analysis of the galaxies in the CFHTLenS catalogue by fitting single Sérsic surface brightness profiles to the lens galaxies in order to recover half-light radius values, allowing us to determine halo masses for lenses according to their size. Comparing our halo masses and sizes to baselines for that stellar mass yields a differential measurement of the halo mass-galaxy size relationship at fixed stellar mass, defined as Mh(M_{*}) ∝ r_{eff}^{η }(M_{*}). We find that, on average, our lens galaxies have an η = 0.42 ± 0.12, i.e. larger galaxies live in more massive dark matter haloes. The η is strongest for high-mass luminous red galaxies. Investigation of this relationship in hydrodynamical simulations suggests that, at a fixed M*, satellite galaxies have a larger η and greater scatter in the Mh and reff relationship compared to central galaxies.

  20. Dynamic Diversity: Toward a Contextual Understanding of Critical Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.; Jayakumar, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis of relevant social science evidence, this article provides a deeper understanding of critical mass, a concept that has become central in litigation efforts related to affirmative action admissions policies that seek to further the educational benefits of diversity. We demonstrate that the concept of critical mass requires an…

  1. Body Mass Index and Operating Times in Vascular Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durup-Dickenson

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The influence of body mass index (BMI on operating times in central and peripheral vascular surgical procedures was investigated. Report: A national cohort of Danish patients who underwent a vascular procedure between 1983 and 2012 was used for analysis. Data were analysed with pairwise comparisons of BMI groups for operating times using the independent samples Kruskall–Wallis test. Discussion: A total of 3,255 carotid endarterectomies; 6,885 central vascular procedures; and 4,488 peripheral bypasses were included for the analysis. Median operating times for carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures were, respectively, 5 and 15 minutes longer in obese patients than in normal weight patients. This represents a 7% and 10% increase in median operating times, respectively. Linear and multi-adjusted linear regressions were conducted adjusting for confounders, showing a significant correlation between BMI and operating time. Obesity significantly increased the operating times in carotid endarterectomy and central vascular procedures. These may have ramifications for the individual operative stress but not necessarily on logistical operation planning. Keywords: Body mass index (BMI, Obesity, Operating time, Surgery, Vascular surgical procedures

  2. Determining mass-to-light ratios in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    If the endstate of cooling hot gas in elliptical galaxies is a population of optically dark, low-mass stars near the galactic cores, the mass-to-light ratio could be expected to vary significantly with projected radius. No strong variation in M/L is observed. To investigate the sensitivity and reliability of observational mass-to-light determinations for a variety of galactic parameters, model galaxies having de Vaucouleurs profiles (but with central cores and outer cutoffs), variable velocity ellipsoid structure, and extended dark halos are constructed. Spurious radial variations in M/L can occur when none are present if the properties of the galactic models are processed similar to observational data. Conversely, when a population of diffuse dark stellar matter is added near the galactic cores, large gradients in M/L can escape detection. However, the magnitude of the central velocity dispersion and its variation with projected radius within the effective radius both suggest that a component of dark stars is unlikely to be more massive than about 30 times the core mass of luminous stars. This restriction is important in establishing the initial mass function of stars in elliptical galaxies and the history of winds and cooling inflows in the interstellar medium. 35 references

  3. MASS AND ENVIRONMENT AS DRIVERS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION. II. THE QUENCHING OF SATELLITE GALAXIES AS THE ORIGIN OF ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Yingjie; Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2012-09-20

    We extend the phenomenological study of the evolving galaxy population of Peng et al. (2010) to the central/satellite dichotomy in Yang et al. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) groups. We find that satellite galaxies are responsible for all the environmental effects in our earlier work. The fraction of centrals that are red does not depend on their environment but only on their stellar masses, whereas that of the satellites depends on both. We define a relative satellite quenching efficiency {epsilon}{sub sat}, which is the fraction of blue centrals that are quenched upon becoming the satellite of another galaxy. This is shown to be independent of stellar mass, but to depend strongly on local overdensity, {delta}, ranging between 0.2 and at least 0.8. The red fraction of satellites correlate much better with the local overdensity {delta}, a measure of location within the group, than with the richness of the group, i.e., dark matter halo mass. This, and the fact that satellite quenching depends on local density and not on either the stellar mass of the galaxy or the dark matter halo mass, gives clues as to the nature of the satellite-quenching process. We furthermore show that the action of mass quenching on satellite galaxies is also independent of the dark matter mass of the parent halo. We then apply the Peng et al. approach to predict the mass functions of central and satellite galaxies, split into passive and active galaxies, and show that these match very well the observed mass functions from SDSS, further strengthening the validity of this phenomenological approach. We highlight the fact that the observed M* is exactly the same for the star-forming centrals and satellites and the observed M* for the star-forming satellites is independent of halo mass above 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, which emphasizes the universality of the mass-quenching process that we identified in Peng et al. Post-quenching merging modifies the mass function of the central galaxies but can

  4. Production of intermediate-mass dileptons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvasnikova, Ioulia; Gale, Charles; Kumar Srivastava, Dinesh

    2002-01-01

    The production of intermediate-mass dileptons in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions at SPS energies is studied. The acceptance and detector resolution inherent to measurements by the NA50 experimental collaboration are accurately modeled. The measured centrality dependence of the intermediate mass lepton pair excess is also addressed

  5. The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Joshua N; Rusin, David; Kochanek, Christopher S

    2004-02-12

    A galaxy can act as a gravitational lens, producing multiple images of a background object. Theory predicts that there should be an odd number of images produced by the lens, but hitherto almost all lensed objects have two or four images. The missing 'central' images, which should be faint and appear near the centre of the lensing galaxy, have long been sought as probes of galactic cores too distant to resolve with ordinary observations. There are five candidates for central images, but in one case the third image is not necessarily the central one, and in the others the putative central images might be foreground sources. Here we report a secure identification of a central image, based on radio observations of one of the candidates. Lens models using the central image reveal that the massive black hole at the centre of the lensing galaxy has a mass of 20,000M(o) pc(-2), which is in agreement with expections based on observations of galaxies that are much closer to the Earth.

  6. Mass flows of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in central wastewater treatment plants of industrial zones in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Tanaka, Shuhei; Fujii, Shigeo; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Musirat, Chanatip; Wongwattana, Thana; Shivakoti, Binaya Raj

    2011-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are fully fluorinated organic compounds, which have been used in many industrial processes and have been detected in wastewater and sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) around the world. This study focused on the occurrences of PFCs and PFCs mass flows in the industrial wastewater treatment plants, which reported to be the important sources of PFCs. Surveys were conducted in central wastewater treatment plant in two industrial zones in Thailand. Samples were collected from influent, aeration tank, secondary clarifier effluent, effluent and sludge. The major purpose of this field study was to identify PFCs occurrences and mass flow during industrial WWTP. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis. Total 10 PFCs including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluoropropanoic acid (PFPA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA), perfluordecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) were measured to identify their occurrences. PFCs were detected in both liquid and solid phase in most samples. The exceptionally high level of PFCs was detected in the treatment plant of IZ1 and IZ2 ranging between 662-847ngL(-1) and 674-1383ngL(-1), respectively, which greater than PFCs found in most domestic wastewater. Due to PFCs non-biodegradable property, both WWTPs were found ineffective in removing PFCs using activated sludge processes. Bio-accumulation in sludge could be the major removal mechanism of PFCs in the process. The increasing amount of PFCs after activated sludge processes were identified which could be due to the degradation of PFCs precursors. PFCs concentration found in the effluent were very high comparing to those in river water of the area. Industrial activity could be the one of major sources of PFCs

  7. Galaxies in x-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey Data I: Stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies since Z similar to 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.; Miller, C.; McKay, T.; Rooney, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Romer, A. K.; Perfecto, R.; Song, J; Desai, S.; Mohr, J. J.; Vikram, V.

    2016-01-10

    Using the science verification data of the Dark Energy Survey for a new sample of 106 X-ray selected clusters and groups, we study the stellar mass growth of bright central galaxies (BCGs) since redshift z similar to 1.2. Compared with the expectation in a semi-analytical model applied to the Millennium Simulation, the observed BCGs become under-massive/under-luminous with decreasing redshift. We incorporate the uncertainties associated with cluster mass, redshift, and BCG stellar mass measurements into an analysis of a redshift-dependent BCG-cluster mass relation, m(*) proportional to (M-200/1.5 x 10(14)M(circle dot))(0.24 +/- 0.08)(1+z)(-0.19 +/- 0.34), and compare the observed relation to the model prediction. We estimate the average growth rate since z = 1.0 for BCGs hosted by clusters of M-200,M-z = 10(13.8)M(circle dot); at z = 1.0: m(*, BCG) appears to have grown by 0.13 +/- 0.11 dex, in tension at the similar to 2.5 sigma significance level with the 0.40 dex growth rate expected from the semi-analytic model. We show that the build-up of extended intracluster light after z = 1.0 may alleviate this tension in BCG growth rates.

  8. Central Bank Independence, Transparency and Accountability Indexes: a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin Cornel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the remarkable trend upon central bank independence and the efficient monetary policy were seriously highlighted in the monetary economics field. Starting from 1990s’ central bank independence was at the core of policy making and central banking problems, because of the widespread economical, political, personal and budgetary autonomy of the central bank. Nowadays, we can observe an increasing trend upon central bank transparency, for evaluating more accurate the central bank’s performances by the wide public, mass-media and financial markets. Consequently, a central bank must encompass a high degree of accountability and responsibility, because of the final liability in case of failure. In this paper we present, analyze and assess the construction of the most important indices regarding central bank independence, transparency and accountability in a chronological manner, presenting also the advantages and disadvantages of these indices related to actual practices of central banks. Moreover, we analyze the analytical results of the empirical testing of these indices with a considerable impact upon the developed and developing country group. In regard with the empirical results of different authors, we suggest the importance and the necessity for constructing an aggregate index for measuring central bank independence, transparency and accountability, based on de jure stipulations and the actual practices of the central banks.

  9. Comparisons between different techniques for measuring mass segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard J.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the performance of four different methods which are used to measure mass segregation in star-forming regions: the radial variation of the mass function {M}_MF; the minimum spanning tree-based ΛMSR method; the local surface density ΣLDR method; and the ΩGSR technique, which isolates groups of stars and determines whether the most massive star in each group is more centrally concentrated than the average star. All four methods have been proposed in the literature as techniques for quantifying mass segregation, yet they routinely produce contradictory results as they do not all measure the same thing. We apply each method to synthetic star-forming regions to determine when and why they have shortcomings. When a star-forming region is smooth and centrally concentrated, all four methods correctly identify mass segregation when it is present. However, if the region is spatially substructured, the ΩGSR method fails because it arbitrarily defines groups in the hierarchical distribution, and usually discards positional information for many of the most massive stars in the region. We also show that the ΛMSR and ΣLDR methods can sometimes produce apparently contradictory results, because they use different definitions of mass segregation. We conclude that only ΛMSR measures mass segregation in the classical sense (without the need for defining the centre of the region), although ΣLDR does place limits on the amount of previous dynamical evolution in a star-forming region.

  10. Core or Cusps: The Central Dark Matter Profile of a Strong Lensing Cluster with a Bright Central Image at Redshift 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Thomas E.; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Lin, Huan; Bacon, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Nord, Brian; Morice-Atkinson, Xan; Amara, Adam; Birrer, Simon; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; More, Anupreeta; Papovich, Casey; Romer, Kathy K.; Tessore, Nicolas; Abbott, Tim M. C.; Allam, Sahar; Annis, James; Benoit-Lévy, Aurlien; Brooks, David; Burke, David L.; Carrasco Kind, Matias; Castander, Francisco Javier J.; D’Andrea, Chris B.; da Costa, Luiz N.; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H. Thomas; Doel, Peter; Eifler, Tim F.; Flaugher, Brenna; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David W.; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Gruen, Daniel; Gschwend, Julia; Gutierrez, Gaston; James, David J.; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuhlmann, Steve; Lahav, Ofer; Li, Ting S.; Lima, Marcos; Maia, Marcio A. G.; March, Marisa; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Miquel, Ramon; Plazas, Andrs A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Sanchez, Eusebio; Scarpine, Vic; Schindler, Rafe; Schubnell, Michael; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Smith, Mathew; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Swanson, Molly E. C.; Tarle, Gregory; Tucker, Douglas L.; Walker, Alistair R.

    2017-07-10

    We report on SPT-CLJ2011-5228, a giant system of arcs created by a cluster at $z=1.06$. The arc system is notable for the presence of a bright central image. The source is a Lyman Break galaxy at $z_s=2.39$ and the mass enclosed within the 14 arc second radius Einstein ring is $10^{14.2}$ solar masses. We perform a full light profile reconstruction of the lensed images to precisely infer the parameters of the mass distribution. The brightness of the central image demands that the central total density profile of the lens be shallow. By fitting the dark matter as a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile---with a free parameter for the inner density slope---we find that the break radius is $270^{+48}_{-76}$ kpc, and that the inner density falls with radius to the power $-0.38\\pm0.04$ at 68 percent confidence. Such a shallow profile is in strong tension with our understanding of relaxed cold dark matter halos; dark matter only simulations predict the inner density should fall as $r^{-1}$. The tension can be alleviated if this cluster is in fact a merger; a two halo model can also reconstruct the data, with both clumps (density going as $r^{-0.8}$ and $r^{-1.0}$) much more consistent with predictions from dark matter only simulations. At the resolution of our Dark Energy Survey imaging, we are unable to choose between these two models, but we make predictions for forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope imaging that will decisively distinguish between them.

  11. Mass Distribution in Galaxy Cluster Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, M. T.; McNamara, B. R.; Pulido, F.; Vantyghem, A. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Nulsen, P. E. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Russell, H. R. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Edge, A. C. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Main, R. A., E-mail: m4hogan@uwaterloo.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2017-03-01

    Many processes within galaxy clusters, such as those believed to govern the onset of thermally unstable cooling and active galactic nucleus feedback, are dependent upon local dynamical timescales. However, accurate mapping of the mass distribution within individual clusters is challenging, particularly toward cluster centers where the total mass budget has substantial radially dependent contributions from the stellar ( M {sub *}), gas ( M {sub gas}), and dark matter ( M {sub DM}) components. In this paper we use a small sample of galaxy clusters with deep Chandra observations and good ancillary tracers of their gravitating mass at both large and small radii to develop a method for determining mass profiles that span a wide radial range and extend down into the central galaxy. We also consider potential observational pitfalls in understanding cooling in hot cluster atmospheres, and find tentative evidence for a relationship between the radial extent of cooling X-ray gas and nebular H α emission in cool-core clusters. At large radii the entropy profiles of our clusters agree with the baseline power law of K ∝ r {sup 1.1} expected from gravity alone. At smaller radii our entropy profiles become shallower but continue with a power law of the form K ∝ r {sup 0.67} down to our resolution limit. Among this small sample of cool-core clusters we therefore find no support for the existence of a central flat “entropy floor.”.

  12. Mass Media Perception of the European Union in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakyt Ospanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the mass media perception of the European Union (EU in Kazakhstan through the content analysis of major mass media outlets. This paper examines news reports and periodical articles from four major national Kazakh newspapers: “Yegemen Kazakhstan”, “Kazakhstanskaya Pravda”, “Zhas Alash” and “Vremya” at three measurement points. The first measurement point covers early 1990s when Kazakhstan became an independent state and started to build its foreign relations. The second measurement point covers years before and after introduction of the EU Strategy for Central Asia, namely years between 2006 and 2008. The third measurement point covers last three years (2011-2013 associated with implementation with the EU Strategy and assessing its results. The research suggests that the mass media generally positively perceives the EU, as most publications emphasize the positive role played by the EU in the region and Kazakhstan. Additionally, the initiation of the EU strategy for Central Asia led to wider coverage and therefore wider public recognition of the EU in Kazakhstan. However, discourse analysis of publications authored by the EU and Kazakhstanian elites indicates substantial variation in depiction of the European Union and its engagement in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in particular.

  13. Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Tomer; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Oesch, Pascal; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Marchesini, Danilo; Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-01-01

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ∼ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M * /M ☉ = 6.5 × 10 10 ) to nearby massive ellipticals (M * /M ☉ = 1.5 × 10 11 ). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M * /M ☉ = 6.5 × 10 9 ). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10 12 and 10 13 M ☉ , consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  14. Observations of environmental quenching in groups in the 11 Gyr since z = 2.5: Different quenching for central and satellite galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tal, Tomer; Illingworth, Garth D.; Magee, Daniel [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Oesch, Pascal; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Leja, Joel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J. [Yale University Astronomy Department, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Brammer, Gabriel B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marchesini, Danilo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Patel, Shannon G.; Quadri, Ryan F. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Skelton, Rosalind E. [South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory Road, Cape Town (South Africa); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E., E-mail: tal@ucolick.org [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0 < z < 2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z ∼ 0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 10}) to nearby massive ellipticals (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 1.5 × 10{sup 11}). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M{sub *}/M{sub ☉} = 6.5 × 10{sup 9}). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 13} M{sub ☉}, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.

  15. THE COLORS OF CENTRAL AND SATELLITE GALAXIES IN zCOSMOS OUT TO z ≅ 0.8 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR QUENCHING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobel, C.; Lilly, S. J.; Kovač, K.; Peng, Y.; Bschorr, T. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Caputi, K.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the red fraction of central and satellite galaxies in the large zCOSMOS group catalog out to z ≅ 0.8, correcting for both the incompleteness in stellar mass and for the less than perfect purities of the central and satellite samples. We show that at all masses and at all redshifts, the fraction of satellite galaxies that have been quenched, i.e., that are red, is systematically higher than that of centrals, as seen locally in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The satellite quenching efficiency, which is the probability that a satellite is quenched because it is a satellite rather than a central, is, as locally, independent of stellar mass. Furthermore, the average value is about 0.5, which is also very similar to that seen in the SDSS. We also construct the mass functions of blue and red centrals and satellites and show that these broadly follow the predictions of the Peng et al. analysis of the SDSS groups. Together, these results indicate that the effect of the group environment in quenching satellite galaxies was very similar to what it is today when the universe was about half its present age.

  16. [Identification of the central sulcus using magnetoencephalography and neuronavigator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Mayanagi, Y; Kaneko, Y

    1993-11-01

    The brain-generated currents that produce potentials measured by the electroencephalogram also produce magnetic fields which can be measured by the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), N 20 compatible evoked field after median nerve stimulation is known to be generated in primary sensory cortex. Using MEG with 37 channel SQUIDs, a current dipole is back traced which corresponds to the sensory cortex. When the dipole is projected onto the MRI of the same patient, the primary sensory cortex is precisely identified in the MRI images. These data were used as the key images for navigator enabling a surgeon identify the central cortex in the surgical field. Seven patients with peri-central mass lesion (3 meningiomas, 1 metastatic tumors, 1 angiomas, 2 gliomas) underwent surgery under MEG-navigator method. In every case, the central sulcus and motor cortex were easily identified on the cortex and the tumor was removed as far as possible preserving the motor strip. There were no postoperative worsening of the motor paresis and no other complications were noticed. The method which combines the MEG functional mapping and navigator was considered to be a powerful tool in surgery of the pericentral mass lesions.

  17. Spinning solutions in general relativity with infinite central density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, P. D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents general relativistic numerical simulations of uniformly rotating polytropes. Equations are developed using MSQI coordinates, but taking a logarithm of the radial coordinate. The result is relatively simple elliptical differential equations. Due to the logarithmic scale, we can resolve solutions with near-singular mass distributions near their center, while the solution domain extends many orders of magnitude larger than the radius of the distribution (to connect with flat space-time). Rotating solutions are found with very high central energy densities for a range of adiabatic exponents. Analytically, assuming the pressure is proportional to the energy density (which is true for polytropes in the limit of large energy density), we determine the small radius behavior of the metric potentials and energy density. This small radius behavior agrees well with the small radius behavior of large central density numerical results, lending confidence to our numerical approach. We compare results with rotating solutions available in the literature, which show good agreement. We study the stability of spherical solutions: instability sets in at the first maximum in mass versus central energy density; this is also consistent with results in the literature, and further lends confidence to the numerical approach.

  18. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass and Optical Attenuation Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, J.; Raman, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples (N=366) were collected over an ecologically sensitive zone (Van Vihar National Park) in Bhopal, Central India for two years (01 January, 2012 to 31 December, 2013). Samples were collected using three co-located Mini-Vol® samplers on Teflon, Nylon, and Quartz filter substrates. The aerosol was then chemically characterized for water-soluble inorganic ions, elements, and carbon fractions (elemental carbon and organic carbon) using ion chromatography, ED-XRF, and thermal-optical EC/OC analyzer, respectively. The optical attenuation (at 370 nm and 800 nm) of PM2.5 aerosols was also determined by optical transmissometry (OT-21). The application of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a combination of PM2.5 mass, its ions, elements, carbon fractions, and optical attenuation and its outcomes will be discussed.

  19. Different fission behavior induced by heavy ion central and peripheral collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Enjiu; Zheng Jiwen; Xiao Zhigang; Zhang Chun; Tan Jilian; Yin Shuzhi; Wang Sufang; Jin Genming; Yin Xu; Song Mingtao; Jin Weiyang; Peng Xingping; Li Zuyu; Wu Heyu; He Zhiyong; Jiang Dongxing; Qian Xing

    2000-01-01

    Correlated fission fragments from the 40 Ar + 209 Bi reaction and their further correlation with α particles have been studied for peripheral and central collisions simultaneously. The existence of different fission behavior of hot nuclei formed in central and peripheral collisions was found from the systematic analysis of the mass and energy distributions of fission fragments as a function of the initial temperature of hot fissioning nuclei

  20. High-throughput and simultaneous analysis of eight central-acting muscle relaxants in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in the positive and negative ionization modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tadashi; Hattori, Hideki; Kaneko, Rina; Ito, Kenjiro; Iwai, Masae; Mizutani, Yoko; Arinobu, Tetsuya; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi

    2011-06-01

    In this report, a high-throughput and sensitive method for analysis of eight central-acting muscle relaxants in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) in the positive and negative ionization modes using tolbutamide as internal standard is presented. After pretreatment of a plasma sample by solid-phase extraction with an Oasis HLB cartridge, muscle relaxants were analyzed by UPLC with Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and Acquity TQD tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization interface. The calibration curves for muscle relaxants spiked into human plasma equally showed good linearities in the nanogram per milliliter order range. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was as low as 0.1-2 ng/mL. The method gave satisfactory recovery rates, accuracy, and precision for quality control samples spiked with muscle relaxants. To further validate the present method, 250 mg of chlorphenesin carbamate was orally administered to a healthy male volunteer, and the concentrations of chlorphenesin carbamate in plasma were measured 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after dosing; their concentrations in human plasma were between 0.62 and 2.44 μg/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing simultaneous analysis of over more than two central-acting muscle relaxants by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This has been realized by the capability of our instrument for simultaneous multiple reaction monitoring of the target compounds in both positive and negative ionization modes. Therefore, the present method seems very useful in forensic and clinical toxicology and pharmacokinetic studies.

  1. [Germinoma responsible for central diabetes insipidus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoto, N; Strivay, M

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old woman who presented with sudden onset of polydipsia and polyuria. A diagnosis of diabetes insipidus was confirmed and the MRI showed a pituitary stalk enlargement. The patient was treated with Minirin. Two years later, she developed a panhypopituitarism. The MRI showed an intrasellar mass with an enlargement of the pituitary gland. A biopsy confirmed a germinoma. The patient was treated with radiotherapy with a partial response as only a part of the mass disappeared. This case highlights the importance of the clinical and radiological follow-up of central diabetes insipidus, especially when it is of unknown origin. The differential diagnosis will be reviewed.

  2. Ultrasonography of hydronephrosis and renal masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Weon; Kim, Chong Gun; Kim, Yeon Jin; Rhee, Byung Chull

    1984-01-01

    We have analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 55 cases of hydronephrosis and 34 cases of renal masses. The results are as follows: 1. 55 cases of hydronephrosis revealed renal enlargement in 55 cases, separation of central echo complex in 27 cases, multiple anechoic areas radiating from the center in 25 cases and dilated renal pelvis in 24 cases. 2. Among the masses in 34 cases, simple renal cyst were 15 cases, polycystic kidney in 8 cases, hypernephroma in 8 cases, Wilm's tumor in 2 cases and agiomyolipoma in 1 case. 3. Simple renal cyst revealed single in 14 cases (93%) and well defined anechoic mass with posterior enhancement in all cases. 4. Polycystic kidney revealed bilateral irregular shaped renal enlargement and multiple anechoic cysts throughout the kidney. 2 cases (25%) involved liver. 5. 6 cases (75%) of hypernephroma revealed ill defined moderately echogenic mass without posterior enhancement. 6. All cases of Wilm's tumor revealed well defined large mixed echogenic mass in right kidney. 7. Angiomyolipoma revealed bilateral dense echogenic mass with large hemorrhage cyst in right kidney. 8. The ultrasonography is useful noninvasive diagnostic modality of evaluation of renal masses and hydronephrosis.

  3. VERY LARGE TELESCOPE KINEMATICS FOR OMEGA CENTAURI: FURTHER SUPPORT FOR A CENTRAL BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyola, Eva; Gebhardt, Karl; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Luetzgendorf, Nora; Jalali, Behrang; De Zeeuw, P. Tim; Baumgardt, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster ω Centauri is a prime candidate for hosting an intermediate-mass black hole. Recent measurements lead to contradictory conclusions on this issue. We use VLT-FLAMES to obtain new integrated spectra for the central region of ω Centauri. We combine these data with existing measurements of the radial velocity dispersion profile taking into account a new derived center from kinematics and two different centers from the literature. The data support previous measurements performed for a smaller field of view and show a discrepancy with the results from a large proper motion data set. We see a rise in the radial velocity dispersion in the central region to 22.8 ± 1.2 km s -1 , which provides a strong sign for a central black hole. Isotropic dynamical models for ω Centauri imply black hole masses ranging from 3.0 x 10 4 to 5.2 x 10 4 M sun depending on the center. The best-fitted mass is (4.7 ± 1.0) x 10 4 M sun .

  4. Galactic conformity and central/satellite quenching, from the satellite profiles of M* galaxies at 0.4 < z < 1.9 in the UKIDSS UDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, W. G.; Conselice, C. J.; Mortlock, A.; Foucaud, S.; Simpson, C.

    2015-08-01

    We explore the redshift evolution of a curious correlation between the star formation properties of central galaxies and their satellites (`galactic conformity') at intermediate to high redshift (0.4 9.7, around central galaxies at the characteristic Schechter function mass, M ˜ M*. We fit the radial profiles of satellite number densities with simple power laws, finding slopes in the range -1.1 to -1.4 for mass-selected satellites, and -1.3 to -1.6 for passive satellites. We confirm the tendency for passive satellites to be preferentially located around passive central galaxies at 3σ significance and show that it exists to at least z ˜ 2. Meanwhile, the quenched fraction of satellites around star-forming galaxies is consistent with field galaxies of equal stellar masses. We find no convincing evidence for a redshift-dependent evolution of these trends. One simple interpretation of these results is that only passive central galaxies occupy an environment that is capable of independently shutting off star formation in satellite galaxies. By examining the satellites of higher stellar mass star-forming galaxies (log(M*/M⊙) > 11), we conclude that the origin of galactic conformity is unlikely to be exclusively due to the host dark matter halo mass. A halo-mass-independent correlation could be established by either formation bias or a more physical connection between central and satellite star formation histories. For the latter, we argue that a star formation (or active galactic nucleus) related outburst event from the central galaxy could establish a hot halo environment which is then capable of quenching both central and satellite galaxies.

  5. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  6. Determining the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMPS)'s Role in the Increased Flux of CO2 in the end-Triassic Mass Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, P. S.; Bachan, A.; Stanford School of Earth Sciences Department of Paleobiology

    2011-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest flood basalt provinces known. Its empacement coincided with a period of major plant and animal extinctions-the end-Triassic mass extinction. It is postulated that the release of large amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere from the volcanics was one of the causes of this mass extinction. However,the magnitude of impact on ocean chemistry, and timescales involved remain unclear. To determine CAMP's role in this increased flux of CO2, we studied the geochemistry of samples of rock from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in northern Italy. Specifically, by observing the ratios of carbon isotopes 12 and 13 in the organic carbon found in these limestone sedimentary rocks, we could determine the ratio of carbonate to organic burial fluxes globally. We drilled limestone rocks from two different sections in the Southern Alps-- Pozzo Glaciale and Val Adrara. Once they were drilled to a fine powder-like form, we acidified the CaCO3 with HCl to isolate the organic carbon. Then, the organic matter was cleaned to rid the acid, and eventually was placed into tin foil to be placed into the Elemental Analyzer, which determined the percent Carbon in each sample. We tested about 200 samples, and placed them into the Mass Spectrometer machine to determine the isotopic ratios of C12 and C13. According to the data, there was a positive excursion for both sample sets, which means that there was an increase in the amount of C13 in the organic matter. The duration of this excursion was at least a few hundred thousand years. This suggests a protracted increase in the burial flux of organic carbon globally, which is consistent with the hypothesized volcanically driven increase in CO2. This further bolsters the contention that CAMP was responsible, in part, for this mass extinction. By studying the earth's recovery from increased carbon fluxes in the past, we can predict the recovery path that our anthropogenically

  7. Renal mass anatomic characteristics and perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivian, Matvey; Ulusoy, Said; Abern, Michael; Wandel, Ayelet; Sidi, A Ami; Tsivian, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Anatomic parameters determining renal mass complexity have been used in a number of proposed scoring systems despite lack of a critical analysis of their independent contributions. We sought to assess the independent contribution of anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Preoperative imaging studies were reviewed for 147 consecutive patients undergoing LPN for a single renal mass. Renal mass anatomy was recorded: Size, growth pattern (endo-/meso-/exophytic), centrality (central/hilar/peripheral), anterior/posterior, lateral/medial, polar location. Multivariable models were used to determine associations of anatomic parameters with warm ischemia time (WIT), operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), intra- and postoperative complications, as well as renal function. All models were adjusted for the learning curve and relevant confounders. Median (range) tumor size was 3.3 cm (1.5-11 cm); 52% were central and 14% hilar. While 44% were exophytic, 23% and 33% were mesophytic and endophytic, respectively. Anatomic parameters did not uniformly predict perioperative outcomes. WIT was associated with tumor size (P=0.068), centrality (central, P=0.016; hilar, P=0.073), and endophytic growth pattern (P=0.017). OT was only associated with tumor size (Panatomic parameter predicted EBL. Tumor centrality increased the odds of overall and intraoperative complications, without reaching statistical significance. Postoperative renal function was not associated with any of the anatomic parameters considered after adjustment for baseline function and WIT. Learning curve, considered as a confounder, was independently associated with reduced WIT and OT as well as reduced odds of intraoperative complications. This study provides a detailed analysis of the independent impact of renal mass anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes. Our findings suggest diverse independent contributions of the anatomic parameters to the

  8. Central nervous system leukemia and lymphoma: computed tomographic manifestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Libshitz, H.I.; Wallace, S.; Hayman, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in the brain were identified in 31 of 405 patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Abnormalities included neoplastic masses (15), hemorrhage (nine), abscess (two), other brain tumors (four), and methotrexate leukoencephalopathy (one). CT was normal in 374 patients including 148 with meningeal disease diagnosed by cerebrospinal fluid cytologic examination. Prior to treatment, malignant masses were isodense or of greater density with varying amounts of edema. Increase in size or number of the masses indicated worsening. Response to radiation and chemotherapy was manifested by development of a central low density region with an enhancing rim. CT findings correlated with clinical and cerebrospinal fluid findings. The differential diagnosis of the various abnormalities is considered

  9. SPATIALLY RESOLVED KINEMATICS OF THE CENTRAL REGIONS OF M83: HIDDEN MASS SIGNATURES AND THE ROLE OF SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piqueras Lopez, J.; Colina, L. [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC (Spain); Davies, R.; Orban de Xivry, G., E-mail: piqueraslj@cab.inta-csic.es [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2012-06-10

    The barred grand-design spiral M83 (NGC 5236) is one of the most studied galaxies given its proximity, orientation, and particular complexity. Nonetheless, many aspects of the central regions remain controversial, conveying our limited understanding of the inner gas and stellar kinematics, and ultimately of the nucleus evolution. In this work, we present AO VLT-SINFONI data of its central {approx}235 Multiplication-Sign 140 pc with an unprecedented spatial resolution of {approx}0.2 arcsec, corresponding to {approx}4 pc. We have focused our study on the distribution and kinematics of the stars and the ionized and molecular gas by studying the Pa{alpha} and Br{gamma} emission in detail, the H{sub 2} 1-0S(1) line at 2.122 {mu}m, and the [Fe II] line at 1.644 {mu}m, together with the CO absorption bands at 2.293 {mu}m and 2.323 {mu}m. Our results reveal a complex situation where the gas and stellar kinematics are totally unrelated. Supernova explosions play an important role in shaping the gas kinematics, dominated by shocks and inflows at scales of tens of parsecs that make them unsuitable to derive general dynamical properties. We propose that the location of the nucleus of M83 is unlikely to be related to the off-center 'optical nucleus'. The study of the stellar kinematics reveals that the optical nucleus is a gravitationally bound massive star cluster with M{sub dyn} = (1.1 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, formed by a past starburst. The kinematic and photometric analysis of the cluster yield that the stellar content of the cluster is well described by an intermediate age population of log T(yr) = 8.0 {+-} 0.4, with a mass of M* {approx_equal} (7.8 {+-} 2.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }.

  10. White dwarf stars exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaschitz, Roman

    2018-01-01

    The effect of nonlinear ultra-relativistic electron dispersion on the mass-radius relation of high-mass white dwarfs is studied. The dispersion is described by a permeability tensor in the Dirac equation, generated by the ionized high-density stellar matter, which constitutes the neutralizing background of the nearly degenerate electron plasma. The electron dispersion results in a stable mass-radius relation for high-mass white dwarfs, in contrast to a mass limit in the case of vacuum permeabilities. In the ultra-relativistic regime, the dispersion relation is a power law whose amplitude and scaling exponent is inferred from mass and radius estimates of two high-mass white dwarfs, Sirius B and LHS 4033. Evidence for the existence of super-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs is provided by several Type Ia supernovae (e.g., SN 2013cv, SN 2003fg, SN 2007if and SN 2009dc), whose mass ejecta exceed the Chandrasekhar limit by up to a factor of two. The dispersive mass-radius relation is used to estimate the radii, central densities, Fermi temperatures, bulk and compression moduli and sound velocities of their white dwarf progenitors.

  11. Mass Spectrometric Analyses Reveal a Central Role for Ubiquitylation in Remodeling the Arabidopsis Proteome during Photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hernández, Victor; Kim, Do-Young; Stankey, Robert J; Scalf, Mark; Smith, Lloyd M; Vierstra, Richard D

    2017-06-05

    The switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis is a key developmental transition in the life of seed plants. While much of the underpinning proteome remodeling is driven by light-induced changes in gene expression, the proteolytic removal of specific proteins by the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system is also likely paramount. Through mass spectrometric analysis of ubiquitylated proteins affinity-purified from etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings before and after red-light irradiation, we identified a number of influential proteins whose ubiquitylation status is modified during this switch. We observed a substantial enrichment for proteins involved in auxin, abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroid signaling, peroxisome function, disease resistance, protein phosphorylation and light perception, including the phytochrome (Phy) A and phototropin photoreceptors. Soon after red-light treatment, PhyA becomes the dominant ubiquitylated species, with ubiquitin attachment sites mapped to six lysines. A PhyA mutant protected from ubiquitin addition at these sites is substantially more stable in planta upon photoconversion to Pfr and is hyperactive in driving photomorphogenesis. However, light still stimulates ubiquitylation and degradation of this mutant, implying that other attachment sites and/or proteolytic pathways exist. Collectively, we expand the catalog of ubiquitylation targets in Arabidopsis and show that this post-translational modification is central to the rewiring of plants for photoautotrophic growth. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rheumatologic services in Central Asian countries: current state of development of rheumatology in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omurzakova, Nazgul A; Yamano, Yoshihisa; Saatova, Guli M; Shukurova, Surayo M; Mirzakhanova, Mavliuda I; Kydyralieva, Ryskul B; Jumagulova, Aynagul S; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M; Seisenbaev, Askar Sh; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Rheumatologic and public health services of Central Asia's republics have suffered hugely as a result of social and economic declines following the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and transition of these republics to market economies. Between 1990 and 2000 there was a mass outflow of highly skilled rheumatologists and teachers and researchers in rheumatology to countries abroad, leading to significant deprivation of rheumatological service in Central Asian countries. During this time, there was continued growth of various rheumatic diseases (RDs) including rheumatic fever, and musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders. The medical and social burden of RDs imposed on society was strongly underestimated until recent times. There is an urgent need to define the epidemiology of RDs and their impact on the quality of life of people afflicted by these conditions, and to improve the diagnostics and treatment of these conditions.

  13. Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation alters central leptin signalling, increases food intake, and decreases bone mass in 1 year old rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Rani J; Li, Jing; Tang, Hee Man; Pontiggia, Laura; D'mello, Anil P

    2016-04-01

    The effects of perinatal nutrition on offspring physiology have mostly been examined in young adult animals. Aging constitutes a risk factor for the progressive loss of metabolic flexibility and development of disease. Few studies have examined whether the phenotype programmed by perinatal nutrition persists in aging offspring. Persistence of detrimental phenotypes and their accumulative metabolic effects are important for disease causality. This study determined the effects of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation on food consumption, central leptin sensitivity, bone health, and susceptibility to high fat diet-induced adiposity in 1-year-old male offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats received either a control or a protein restricted diet throughout pregnancy and lactation and pups were weaned onto laboratory chow. One-year-old low protein (LP) offspring exhibited hyperphagia. The inability of an intraperitoneal (i.p.) leptin injection to reduce food intake indicated that the hyperphagia was mediated by decreased central leptin sensitivity. Hyperphagia was accompanied by lower body weight suggesting increased energy expenditure in LP offspring. Bone density and bone mineral content that are negatively regulated by leptin acting via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), were decreased in LP offspring. LP offspring did not exhibit increased susceptibility to high fat diet induced metabolic effects or adiposity. The results presented here indicate that the programming effects of perinatal protein restriction are mediated by specific decreases in central leptin signalling to pathways involved in the regulation of food intake along with possible enhancement of different CNS leptin signalling pathways acting via the SNS to regulate bone mass and energy expenditure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  15. Reconsideration of mass-distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass-distribution model proposed by Kuzmin and Veltmann (1973 is revisited. It is subdivided into two models which have a common case. Only one of them is subject of the present study. The study is focused on the relation between the density ratio (the central one to that corresponding to the core radius and the total-mass fraction within the core radius. The latter one is an increasing function of the former one, but it cannot exceed one quarter, which takes place when the density ratio tends to infinity. Therefore, the model is extended by representing the density as a sum of two components. The extension results into possibility of having a correspondence between the infinite density ratio and 100% total-mass fraction. The number of parameters in the extended model exceeds that of the original model. Due to this, in the extended model, the correspondence between the density ratio and total-mass fraction is no longer one-to-one; several values of the total-mass fraction can correspond to the same value for the density ratio. In this way, the extended model could explain the contingency of having two, or more, groups of real stellar systems (subsystems in the diagram total-mass fraction versus density ratio. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176011: Dynamics and Kinematics of Celestial Bodies and Systems

  16. Overweight Without Central Obesity, Cardiovascular Risk, and All-Cause Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Liu, Chen; Chen, Yili; He, Jiangui; Dong, Yugang

    2018-04-12

    To assess the association of overweight without central obesity with risks of mortality. We included 14,299 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (from October 18, 1988, through October 15, 1994). According to their body mass index and waist circumference, participants were categorized into 7 anthropometric groups. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relation of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, or hypercholesterolemia) and 10-year cardiovascular risk to anthropometric groups. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of all-cause mortality, and competing-risks regression models were used for calculating cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Compared with those with normal body mass index and waist circumference, overweight men without central obesity were more likely to have all 3 cardiovascular risk factors and a high cardiovascular risk, whereas women in this anthropometric group were more likely to have hypercholesterolemia. In proportional hazards models, overweight without central obesity was associated with lower all-cause mortality among men in the population with cardiovascular risk factors (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89; P=.004) and the general population (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.87; P=.001), whereas results of these comparisons among women were not significant (P>.05). In competing risk analyses, overweight men without central obesity had a lower risk of noncardiovascular mortality, but not cardiovascular mortality. Although overweight without central obesity was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and a high cardiovascular risk among men, men in this anthropometric group had a lower mortality risk. Copyright © 2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Disk Model with Central Bulge for Galaxy M94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalocha, J.; Bratek, L.; Kutschera, M.

    2010-01-01

    A global disk model for spiral galaxies is modified by adding a spherical component to the galactic center to account for the presence of a central spherical bulge. It is verified whether such modification could be substantial for predictions of total mass and of its distribution in spiral galaxy M94. (authors)

  18. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BH ∼>10 8 M sun ) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L 2 O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH -σ * relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ * seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH -σ * relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH -σ * relation in this low-mass regime.

  19. Angular (Gothic) aortic arch leads to enhanced systolic wave reflection, central aortic stiffness, and increased left ventricular mass late after aortic coarctation repair: evaluation with magnetic resonance flow mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Phalla; Celermajer, David S; Raisky, Olivier; Jolivet, Odile; Buyens, Fanny; Herment, Alain; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Mousseaux, Elie

    2008-01-01

    We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby a particular deformity of the aortic arch, an angulated Gothic shape, might lead to hypertension late after anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation. Fifty-five normotensive patients with anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation and either a Gothic (angulated) or a Romanesque (smooth and rounded) arch were studied with magnetic resonance angiography and flow mapping in both the ascending and descending aortas. Systolic waveforms, central aortic stiffness, and pulse velocity were measured. We hypothesized that arch angulation would result in enhanced systolic wave reflection with loss of energy across the aortic arch, as well as increased central aortic stiffness. Twenty patients were found to have a Gothic, and 35 a Romanesque, arch. Patients with a Gothic arch showed markedly augmented systolic wave reflection (12 +/- 6 vs 5 +/- 0.3 mL, P Gothic arch (5.6 +/- 1.1 vs 4.1 +/- 1 m/s, P Gothic aortic arch is associated with increased systolic wave reflection, as well as increased central aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass index. These findings explain (at least in part) the association between this pattern of arch geometry and late hypertension at rest and on exercise in subjects after coarctation repair.

  20. Spiral Galaxy Central Bulge Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to, for the first time in a century, scientifically analyze the ``rotation curves'' (sic) of the central bulges of scores of spiral galaxies. I commenced with a methodological, rational, geometrical, arithmetic, and statistical examination--none of them carried through before--of the radial velocity data. The requirement for such a thorough treatment is the paucity of data typically available for the central bulge: fewer than 10 observations and frequently only five. The most must be made of these. A consequence of this logical handling is the discovery of a unique model for the central bulge volume mass density resting on the positive slope, linear, rise of its tangential speed of revolution curve and hence--for the first time--a reliable mass estimate. The deduction comes from a known physics-based, mathematically valid, derivation (not assertion). It rests on the full (not partial) equations of motion plus Poisson's equation. Following that is a prediction for the gravitational potential energy and thence the gravitational force. From this comes a forecast for the tangential speed of revolution curve. It was analyzed in a fashion identical to that of the data thereby closing the circle and demonstrating internal self-consistency. This is a hallmark of a scientific method-informed approach to an experimental problem. Multiple plots of the relevant quantities and measures of goodness of fit will be shown. Astronomy related

  1. Anatomy and evolution of database search engines-a central component of mass spectrometry based proteomic workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Kenneth; Raeder, Helge; Berven, Frode S; Martens, Lennart; Barsnes, Harald; Vaudel, Marc

    2017-09-13

    Sequence database search engines are bioinformatics algorithms that identify peptides from tandem mass spectra using a reference protein sequence database. Two decades of development, notably driven by advances in mass spectrometry, have provided scientists with more than 30 published search engines, each with its own properties. In this review, we present the common paradigm behind the different implementations, and its limitations for modern mass spectrometry datasets. We also detail how the search engines attempt to alleviate these limitations, and provide an overview of the different software frameworks available to the researcher. Finally, we highlight alternative approaches for the identification of proteomic mass spectrometry datasets, either as a replacement for, or as a complement to, sequence database search engines. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Uptake of mass drug administration programme for schistosomiasis control in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Tuhebwe

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination in Uganda through the Mass Drug Administration (MDA programme. Praziquantel has been distributed using community resource persons in fixed sites and house-to-house visits; however the uptake is still below target coverage. In 2011/2012 MDA exercise, uptake stood at 50% yet WHO target coverage is 75% at community level. We assessed the uptake of MDA and the associated factors in Koome Islands, Central Uganda.In March 2013, we conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in 15 randomly selected villages. We interviewed a total of 615 respondents aged 18 years and above using semi structured questionnaires and five key informants were also purposively selected. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done. MDA uptake was defined as self reported swallowing of praziquantel during the last (2012 MDA campaign. We conducted key informant interviews with Ministry of Health, district health personnel and community health workers.Self reported uptake of praziquantel was 44.7% (275/615, 95% confidence interval (CI 40.8-48.7%. Of the 275 community members who said they had swallowed praziquantel, 142 (51.6% reported that they had developed side effects. Uptake of MDA was more likely if the respondent was knowledgeable about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.22-2.81 and reported to have received health education from the health personnel (AOR 5.95, 95% CI 3.67-9.65. Service delivery challenges such as drug shortages and community health worker attrition also influenced MDA in Koome Islands.Uptake of MDA for schistosomiasis control in Koome was sub optimal. Lack of knowledge about schistosomiasis transmission and prevention, inadequate health education and drug shortages are some of the major factors associated with low uptake. These could be addressed through routine health education and systematic drug supply for the

  3. Quantifying Freshwater Mass Balance in the Central Tibetan Plateau by Integrating Satellite Remote Sensing, Altimetry, and Gravimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsin Tseng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tibetan Plateau (TP has been observed by satellite optical remote sensing, altimetry, and gravimetry for a variety of geophysical parameters, including water storage change. However, each of these sensors has its respective limitation in the parameters observed, accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution. Here, we utilized an integrated approach to combine remote sensing imagery, digital elevation model, and satellite radar and laser altimetry data, to quantify freshwater storage change in a twin lake system named Chibuzhang Co and Dorsoidong Co in the central TP, and compared that with independent observations including mass changes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE data. Our results show that this twin lake, located within the Tanggula glacier system, remained almost steady during 1973–2000. However, Dorsoidong Co has experienced a significant lake level rise since 2000, especially during 2000–2005, that resulted in the plausible connection between the two lakes. The contemporary increasing lake level signal at a rate of 0.89 ± 0.05 cm·yr−1, in a 2° by 2° grid equivalent water height since 2002, is higher than the GRACE observed trend at 0.41 ± 0.17 cm·yr−1 during the same time span. Finally, a down-turning trend or inter-annual variability shown in the GRACE signal is observed after 2012, while the lake level is still rising at a consistent rate.

  4. Globular Cluster Candidates for Hosting a Central Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Eva

    2009-07-01

    We are continuing our study of the dynamical properties of globular clusters and we propose to obtain surface brightness profiles for high concentration clusters. Our results to date show that the distribution of central surface brightness slopes do not conform to standard models. This has important implications for how they form and evolve, and suggest the possible presence of central intermediate-mass black holes. From our previous archival proposals {AR-9542 and AR-10315}, we find that many high concentration globular clusters do not have flat cores or steep central cusps, instead they show weak cusps. Numerical simulations suggest that clusters with weak cusps may harbor intermediate-mass black holes and we have one confirmation of this connection with omega Centauri. This cluster shows a shallow cusp in its surface brightness profile, while kinematical measurements suggest the presence of a black hole in its center. Our goal is to extend these studies to a sample containing 85% of the Galactic globular clusters with concentrations higher than 1.7 and look for objects departing from isothermal behavior. The ACS globular cluster survey {GO-10775} provides enough objects to have an excellent coverage of a wide range of galactic clusters, but it contains only a couple of the ones with high concentration. The proposed sample consists of clusters whose light profile can only be adequately measured from space-based imaging. This would take us close to completeness for the high concentration cases and therefore provide a more complete list of candidates for containing a central black hole. The dataset will also be combined with our existing kinematic measurements and enhanced with future kinematic studies to perform detailed dynamical modeling.

  5. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  6. Mass Distribution in Rotating Thin-Disk Galaxies According to Newtonian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Feng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate computational method is presented for determining the mass distribution in a mature spiral galaxy from a given rotation curve by applying Newtonian dynamics for an axisymmetrically rotating thin disk of finite size with or without a central spherical bulge. The governing integral equation for mass distribution is transformed via a boundary-element method into a linear algebra matrix equation that can be solved numerically for rotation curves with a wide range of shapes. To illustrate the effectiveness of this computational method, mass distributions in several mature spiral galaxies are determined from their measured rotation curves. All the surface mass density profiles predicted by our model exhibit approximately a common exponential law of decay, quantitatively consistent with the observed surface brightness distributions. When a central spherical bulge is present, the mass distribution in the galaxy is altered in such a way that the periphery mass density is reduced, while more mass appears toward the galactic center. By extending the computational domain beyond the galactic edge, we can determine the rotation velocity outside the cut-off radius, which appears to continuously decrease and to gradually approach the Keplerian rotation velocity out over twice the cut-off radius. An examination of circular orbit stability suggests that galaxies with flat or rising rotation velocities are more stable than those with declining rotation velocities especially in the region near the galactic edge. Our results demonstrate the fact that Newtonian dynamics can be adequate for describing the observed rotation behavior of mature spiral galaxies.

  7. Comparison of production of large mass and of large transverse momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, C.

    1976-01-01

    The production in the central region of particles of different mass (π, K, D, rho, phi, psi) and of varying transverse momenta are related using a simple approach to multiparticle production. (Auth.)

  8. AutoLens: Automated Modeling of a Strong Lens's Light, Mass and Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J. W.; Dye, S.; Massey, Richard J.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents AutoLens, the first entirely automated modeling suite for the analysis of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. AutoLens simultaneously models the lens galaxy's light and mass whilst reconstructing the extended source galaxy on an adaptive pixel-grid. The method's approach to source-plane discretization is amorphous, adapting its clustering and regularization to the intrinsic properties of the lensed source. The lens's light is fitted using a superposition of Sersic functions, allowing AutoLens to cleanly deblend its light from the source. Single component mass models representing the lens's total mass density profile are demonstrated, which in conjunction with light modeling can detect central images using a centrally cored profile. Decomposed mass modeling is also shown, which can fully decouple a lens's light and dark matter and determine whether the two component are geometrically aligned. The complexity of the light and mass models are automatically chosen via Bayesian model comparison. These steps form AutoLens's automated analysis pipeline, such that all results in this work are generated without any user-intervention. This is rigorously tested on a large suite of simulated images, assessing its performance on a broad range of lens profiles, source morphologies and lensing geometries. The method's performance is excellent, with accurate light, mass and source profiles inferred for data sets representative of both existing Hubble imaging and future Euclid wide-field observations.

  9. Association of Central Adiposity With Adverse Cardiac Mechanics: Findings from the HyperGEN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Senthil; Martinez, Eva E.; Aguilar, Frank G.; Kim, Kwang-Youn A.; Peng, Jie; Sha, Jin; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Arnett, Donna K.; Shah, Sanjiv J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Central obesity, defined by increased waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) events, including heart failure. However, the pathophysiological link between central obesity and adverse CV outcomes remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that central obesity and larger WHR are independently associated with worse cardiac mechanics (reduced left ventricular [LV] strain and systolic [s’] and early diastolic [e’] tissue velocities). Methods and Results We performed speckle-tracking analysis of echocardiograms from participants in the HyperGEN study, a population- and family-based epidemiologic study (N=2181). Multiple indices of systolic and diastolic cardiac mechanics were measured. We evaluated the association between central obesity and cardiac mechanics using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed effects models to account for relatedness among participants. The mean age of the cohort was 51±14 years, 58% were female, and 47% were African-American. Mean body-mass index (BMI) was 30.8±7.1 kg/m2, WC 102±17 cm, WHR 0.91±0.08, and 80% had central obesity based on WC and WHR criteria. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, including age, sex, race, physical activity, BMI, heart rate, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, anti-hypertensive medication use, glomerular filtration rate, LV mass index, wall motion abnormalities, and ejection fraction, central obesity and WHR remained associated with worse global longitudinal strain, early diastolic strain rate, s’ velocity, and e’ velocity (P mechanics. PMID:27307550

  10. Central Production of Two-Pseudoscalar Final States at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander Austregesilo

    2013-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS which focused on light-quark meson spectroscopy during the data-taking periods in 2008 and 2009. The central exclusive production of glueball candidates is studied with a 190GeV/c proton beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. We select centrally produced systems with two pseudo-scalar mesons in the final state. The decay of this system is decomposed in terms of partial waves, with particular attention paid to the inherent mathematical ambiguities of the amplitude analysis. We show that simple parametrisation are able to describe the mass dependence of the fit results with sensible Breit-Wigner parameters.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF RACKET INERTIA TENSOR ON ELBOW LOADINGS AND RACKET BEHAVIOR FOR CENTRAL AND ECCENTRIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the inertia tensors of tennis rackets and their influence on the elbow swing torques in a forehand motion, the loadings transmitted to the elbow from central and eccentric impacts, and the racket acceleration responses from central and eccentric impacts. Inertia tensors of various rackets with similar mass and mass center location were determined by an inertia pendulum and were found to vary considerably in all three orthogonal directions. Tennis swing mechanics and impact analyses were performed using a computer model comprised of a full-body model of a human, a parametric model of the racket, and an impact function. The swing mechanics analysis of a forehand motion determined that inertia values had a moderate linear effect on the pronation-supination elbow torques required to twist the racket, and a minor effect on the flexion-extension and valgus-varus torques. The impact analysis found that mass center inertia values had a considerable effect on the transmitted torques for both longitudinal and latitudinal eccentric impacts and significantly affected all elbow torque components. Racket acceleration responses to central and eccentric impacts were measured experimentally and found to be notably sensitive to impact location and mass center inertia values

  12. Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at √ sNN=2.76 TeV with ALICE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelev, B.I.; Adam, J.; Bjelogrlic, S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355079615; de Rooij, R. S.; Dubla, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355502488; Grelli, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/326052577; La Pointe, S.L.; Lodato, D.F.; Luparello, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355080400; Mischke, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325781435; Nooren, G.J.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07051349X; Peitzmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833959; Poljak, N.; Reicher, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32823219X; Snellings, R.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/165585781; Thomas, D; van Leeuwen, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250599171; Veldhoen, M; Verweij, M.; Yang, H.; Zhou, Y.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-01-01

    This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb-Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density,

  13. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dunlea, E. J.; Roberts, G. C.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Zhou, J.

    2009-09-01

    Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF) as 0.34-0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47-0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(-1/3), within measurement uncertainty (~20%). The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0-0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as -0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust). Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  14. Mass-Accretion effects on white dwarf interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canal, R.; Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Labay, J.; Mochkovitch, R.

    1986-01-01

    There is observational evidence of the presence of young neutron stars in old binary systems. A likely explanation is that those neutron stars were produced in the collapse of old C+O white dwarfs. Old white dwarfs being cold and at least partially solid, accretion-induced mass growth should finally lead in a number of cases, to their collapse rather than to their explosion. We show in detail how mass accretion on initially solid white dwarfs can leave central solid cores when dynamical instability sets in. We also study the different effects of the existence of such cores on the outcome of the competition between thermonuclear explosion and gravitational collapse

  15. A Photo-Ionization Method for Black Hole Mass Estimation in Quasars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziani Paola

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the masses of the central compact object believed to power all active galactic nuclei is relevant to our understanding of their evolution and of their inner workings. Keys to present-day mass estimates are: (1 the assumption of line broadening due to virial motion of the emitting gas, (2 an estimate of the distance of broad-line emitting gas from the central compact object, and (3 a measure of the AGN luminosity. We discuss the merits and the limitations of an alternative method based on estimates of physical conditions in the broad line emitting region derived from an appropriate multi-component analysis of emission line profiles. This ‘photo-ionization method’, applied to UV intermediate-ionization lines appears to be promising for at least a sizable population of high-z quasars.

  16. First measurement of jet mass in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Acharya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the first measurement of jet mass in Pb–Pb and p–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV and sNN=5.02 TeV, respectively. Both the jet energy and the jet mass are expected to be sensitive to jet quenching in the hot Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD matter created in nuclear collisions at collider energies. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-kT jet algorithm and resolution parameter R=0.4. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range |ηjet|<0.5 and in three intervals of transverse momentum between 60 GeV/c and 120 GeV/c. The measurement of the jet mass in central Pb–Pb collisions is compared to the jet mass as measured in p–Pb reference collisions, to vacuum event generators, and to models including jet quenching. It is observed that the jet mass in central Pb–Pb collisions is consistent within uncertainties with p–Pb reference measurements. Furthermore, the measured jet mass in Pb–Pb collisions is not reproduced by the quenching models considered in this letter and is found to be consistent with PYTHIA expectations within systematic uncertainties.

  17. First measurement of jet mass in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; An, M.; Andrei, C.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biro, G.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buitron, S. A. I.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, S.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovská, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Conti, C.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; de Souza, R. D.; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; di Ruzza, B.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Gay Ducati, M. B.; Germain, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grion, N.; Gronefeld, J. M.; Grosa, F.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grosso, R.; Gruber, L.; Grull, F. R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbär, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Hornung, S.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jercic, M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, S.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Lehner, S.; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Mohisin Khan, M.; Montes, E.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Münning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Naik, B.; Nair, R.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Natal da Luz, H.; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Negrao de Oliveira, R. A.; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Šefčík, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, S.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vázquez Doce, O.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Vértesi, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Alice Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This letter presents the first measurement of jet mass in Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions at √{sNN } = 2.76 TeV and √{sNN } = 5.02 TeV, respectively. Both the jet energy and the jet mass are expected to be sensitive to jet quenching in the hot Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) matter created in nuclear collisions at collider energies. Jets are reconstructed from charged particles using the anti-kT jet algorithm and resolution parameter R = 0.4. The jets are measured in the pseudorapidity range |ηjet | < 0.5 and in three intervals of transverse momentum between 60 GeV/c and 120 GeV/c. The measurement of the jet mass in central Pb-Pb collisions is compared to the jet mass as measured in p-Pb reference collisions, to vacuum event generators, and to models including jet quenching. It is observed that the jet mass in central Pb-Pb collisions is consistent within uncertainties with p-Pb reference measurements. Furthermore, the measured jet mass in Pb-Pb collisions is not reproduced by the quenching models considered in this letter and is found to be consistent with PYTHIA expectations within systematic uncertainties.

  18. Y chromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weale, Michael E; Weiss, Deborah A; Jager, Rolf F; Bradman, Neil; Thomas, Mark G

    2002-07-01

    British history contains several periods of major cultural change. It remains controversial as to how much these periods coincided with substantial immigration from continental Europe, even for those that occurred most recently. In this study, we examine genetic data for evidence of male immigration at particular times into Central England and North Wales. To do this, we used 12 biallelic polymorphisms and six microsatellite markers to define high-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes in a sample of 313 males from seven towns located along an east-west transect from East Anglia to North Wales. The Central English towns were genetically very similar, whereas the two North Welsh towns differed significantly both from each other and from the Central English towns. When we compared our data with an additional 177 samples collected in Friesland and Norway, we found that the Central English and Frisian samples were statistically indistinguishable. Using novel population genetic models that incorporate both mass migration and continuous gene flow, we conclude that these striking patterns are best explained by a substantial migration of Anglo-Saxon Y chromosomes into Central England (contributing 50%-100% to the gene pool at that time) but not into North Wales.

  19. Motor Proficiency and Body Mass Index of Preschool Children: In Relation to Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mülazimoglu-Balli, Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between motor proficiency and body mass index and to assess the socioeconomic status differences in motor proficiency and body mass index of preschool children. Sixty preschool children in the different socioeconomic status areas of central Denizli in Turkey participated in the study. The…

  20. Co-evolution of elliptical galaxies and their central black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciotti, I.

    2009-01-01

    After the discovery that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous at the center of stellar spheroids and that their mass M BH , in the range 10 6 M-10 9 M, is tightly related to global properties of the host stellar system, the idea of the co-evolution of elliptical galaxies and of their SMBHs has become a central topic of modern astrophysics. Here, I summarize some consequences that can be derived from the galaxy Scaling Laws (SLs) and present a coherent scenario for the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies and their central SMBHs, focusing in particular on the establishment and maintenance of their SLs. In particular, after a first observationally based part, the discussion focuses on the physical interpretation of the Fundamental Plane. Then, two important processes in principle able to destroy the galaxy and SMBH SLs, namely galaxy merging and cooling flows, are analyzed. Arguments supporting the necessity to clearly distinguish between the origin and maintenance of the different SLs, and the unavoidable occurrence of SMBH feedback on the galaxy ISM in the late stages of galaxy evolution (when elliptical galaxies are sometimes considered as dead, red objects), are then presented. At the end of the paper I will discuss some implications of the recent discovery of super-dense ellipticals in the distant Universe. In particular, I will argue that, if confirmed, these new observations would lead to the conclusion that at early epochs a relation between the stellar mass of the galaxy and the mass of the central SMBH should hold, consistent with the present day Magorrian relation, while the proportionality coefficient between M BH and the scale of velocity dispersion of the hosting spheroids should be significantly smaller than that at the present epoch

  1. Pathway confirmation and flux analysis of central metabolic pathways in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yinjie; Pingitore, Francesco; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Phan, Richard; Hazen, Terry C.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2007-01-01

    Flux distribution in central metabolic pathways of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was examined using 13C tracer experiments. Consistent with the current genome annotation and independent evidence from enzyme activity assays, the isotopomer results from both GC-MS and Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) indicate the lack of oxidatively functional TCA cycle and an incomplete pentose phosphate pathway. Results from this study suggest that fluxes through both pathways are limited to biosynthesis. The data also indicate that >80 percent of the lactate was converted to acetate and the reactions involved are the primary route of energy production (NAD(P)H and ATP production). Independent of the TCA cycle, direct cleavage of acetyl-CoA to CO and 5,10-methyl-THF also leads to production of NADH and ATP. Although the genome annotation implicates a ferredoxin-dependent oxoglutarate synthase, isotopic evidence does not support flux through this reaction in either the oxidative or reductive mode; therefore, the TCA cycle is incomplete. FT-ICR MS was used to locate the labeled carbon distribution in aspartate and glutamate and confirmed the presence of an atypical enzyme for citrate formation suggested in previous reports (the citrate synthesized by this enzyme is the isotopic antipode of the citrate synthesized by the (S)-citrate synthase). These findings enable a better understanding of the relation between genome annotation and actual metabolic pathways in D. vulgaris, and also demonstrate FT-ICR MS as a powerful tool for isotopomer analysis, overcoming problems in both GC-MS and NMR spectroscopy

  2. A black-hole mass measurement from molecular gas kinematics in NGC4526.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy A; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Sarzi, Marc; Blitz, Leo

    2013-02-21

    The masses of the supermassive black holes found in galaxy bulges are correlated with a multitude of galaxy properties, leading to suggestions that galaxies and black holes may evolve together. The number of reliably measured black-hole masses is small, and the number of methods for measuring them is limited, holding back attempts to understand this co-evolution. Directly measuring black-hole masses is currently possible with stellar kinematics (in early-type galaxies), ionized-gas kinematics (in some spiral and early-type galaxies) and in rare objects that have central maser emission. Here we report that by modelling the effect of a black hole on the kinematics of molecular gas it is possible to fit interferometric observations of CO emission and thereby accurately estimate black-hole masses. We study the dynamics of the gas in the early-type galaxy NGC 4526, and obtain a best fit that requires the presence of a central dark object of 4.5(+4.2)(-3.1) × 10(8) solar masses (3σ confidence limit). With the next-generation millimetre-wavelength interferometers these observations could be reproduced in galaxies out to 75 megaparsecs in less than 5 hours of observing time. The use of molecular gas as a kinematic tracer should thus allow one to estimate black-hole masses in hundreds of galaxies in the local Universe, many more than are accessible with current techniques.

  3. Mass loss from red giants - A simple evolutionary model for NGC 7027

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1984-01-01

    NGC 7027 is a young planetary nebula with the remnants of a red giant circumstellar envelope surrounding the central, ionized region. By comparing the outer molecular envelope with the inner ionized material, it is argued that the mass loss rate has decreased by at least a factor of 3, and more probably by about a factor of 10, during the past 1000 years. From this result, it is argued that the luminosity of the central star has also decreased substantially during the same time, consistent with models for the rapid evolution of stars just after they evolve off the asymptotic giant branch. In this picture, the distance to NGC 7027 is less than 1300 pc. NGC 7027 was the last (and best) example of a star where apparently the momentum in the outflowing mass /M(dot)v/ is considerably greater than the momentum in the radiation field (L/c). With the above description of this object, the evidence is now strong that quite often the mass lost from late-type giants is ultimately driven to infinity by radiation pressure on grains. If M(dot)v is as large as L/c for asymptotic branch stars, then it is expected that the total amount of mass lost during this stage of evolution is of the same magnitude as the initial mass of the star, and therefore this mass loss can profoundly affect the star's ultimate fate.

  4. Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...

  5. The cosmic baryon cycle and galaxy mass assembly in the FIRE simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2017-10-01

    We use cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the baryon cycle and galaxy mass assembly for central galaxies in the halo mass range Mhalo ˜ 1010-1013 M⊙. By tracing cosmic inflows, galactic outflows, gas recycling and merger histories, we quantify the contribution of physically distinct sources of material to galaxy growth. We show that in situ star formation fuelled by fresh accretion dominates the early growth of galaxies of all masses, while the re-accretion of gas previously ejected in galactic winds often dominates the gas supply for a large portion of every galaxy's evolution. Externally processed material contributes increasingly to the growth of central galaxies at lower redshifts. This includes stars formed ex situ and gas delivered by mergers, as well as smooth intergalactic transfer of gas from other galaxies, an important but previously underappreciated growth mode. By z = 0, wind transfer, I.e. the exchange of gas between galaxies via winds, can dominate gas accretion on to ˜L* galaxies over fresh accretion and standard wind recycling. Galaxies of all masses re-accrete ≳50 per cent of the gas ejected in winds and recurrent recycling is common. The total mass deposited in the intergalactic medium per unit stellar mass formed increases in lower mass galaxies. Re-accretion of wind ejecta occurs over a broad range of time-scales, with median recycling times (˜100-350 Myr) shorter than previously found. Wind recycling typically occurs at the scale radius of the halo, independent of halo mass and redshift, suggesting a characteristic recycling zone around galaxies that scales with the size of the inner halo and the galaxy's stellar component.

  6. Wolf-Rayet stars in the central region of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Graefener, Goetz; Oskinova, Lidia; Zinnecker, Hans

    2004-09-01

    We propose to take mid-IR spectra of two Wolf-Rayet stars in the inner part of our Galaxy, within 30pc projected distance from the central Black Hole. Massive stars dominate the central galactic region by their mass-loss and ionizing radiation. A quantitative analysis of this stellar inventory is essential for understanding the energy, momentum and mass budget, for instance with respect to the feeding of the central black hole. Our group developed a highly advanced model code for the expanding atmospheres of WR stars. Recently we extended the spectrum synthesis to IR wavelengths. These models will be applied for the analysis of the Spitzer IRS data. The proposed mid-IR observations will provide a wide spectral range with many lines which are needed to determine the stellar parameters, such as stellar luminosity, effective temperature, mass-loss rate and chemical composition. Near-IR spectra of the program stars are available and will augment the analysis. The capability of our code to reproduce the observed mid-IR spectrum of a WN star has been demonstrated. The two targets we selected are sufficiently isolated, while the Galactic center cluster is too crowded for the size of Spitzer's spectrograph slit. As estimated from the K-band spectra, one of the stars (WR102ka) is of very late subtype (WN9), while the other star (WR102c) has the early subtype WN6. Hence they represent different stages in the evolutionary sequence of massive stars, the late-WN just having entered the Wolf-Rayet phase and the early WN being further evolved. We expect that the parameters of massive stars in the inner galaxy differ from the usual Galactic population. One reason is that higher metallicity should lead to stronger mass-loss, which affects the stellar evolution. The Spitzer IRS, with its high sensitivity, provides a unique opportunity to study representative members of the stellar population in the vicinity of the Galactic center.

  7. Galaxy Detection in 2MASS: Global Expectations and Results from Several Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, T.; Jarrett, T.

    1995-01-01

    An alogorithm has been developed and used to find galaxies in the 2MASS data. It uses the central surface brightness and measured size to discriminate galaxies from the much larger stellar population.

  8. Mass communication and development: impact depends on strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wete, F N

    1988-01-01

    Development scholars are moving toward an emphasis on noneconomic factors (social values, social advancement, equality, individual freedom) and their interactions with labor, capital, and technology. People are now conceptualized as the agents of change, and they in turn must be convinced of the need for change. This new approach implies a need for a review of the role of mass communication in development. A central question is whether development makes possible mass communication development or do improved mass communication facilities--and the resulting increase in the flow of information--make possible economic and social development. Although there have undoubtedly been incidents in which self-serving politicians have used mass communication to oppress the masses, the mass media has the potential to be a powerful force in the education of the society, the sharing of consciousness, the creation of nationhood, and the promotion of socioeconomic development. Mass communication is, for example, vital in the development approach that accords importance to self-sufficiency at the village level. The mass media can be used in such cases to transmit information of a background nature to a group or community about their expressed needs and to disseminate innovations that may need these needs. In the final analysis, mass media's role in development depends on the media's messages reaching the target audiences. This underscores the importance of analyzing in advance who will be the recipients of a mass media campaign and encouraging community involvement in communications planning.

  9. Multifragmentation in central Kr+Au collisions at 60 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, O.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Laville, J.L.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Le Brun, C.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Paulot, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Horn, D.

    1994-01-01

    We studied multifragmentation reaction kinetics, and tried to analyse whether the disassembly process is simultaneous or sequential. We performed central Kr+Au collisions at 60 MeV/u. After a careful selection of central events by requiring identical parallel and transverse center-of-mass velocity distribution, events have been compared with two computer simulations: standard statistical prescriptions with sequential emission of fragments, and Lopez-Randrup formalism assuming a simultaneous emission of fragments. A good agreement with simultaneous model leads us to the conclusion that booth simulations (prompt and simultaneous fragment emission) match the disassembly process. (D.L.). 14 refs., 2 figs

  10. Mass models for disk and halo components in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.

    1987-01-01

    The mass distribution in spiral galaxies is investigated by means of numerical simulations, summarizing the results reported by Athanassoula et al. (1986). Details of the modeling technique employed are given, including bulge-disk decomposition; computation of bulge and disk rotation curves (assuming constant mass/light ratios for each); and determination (for spherical symmetry) of the total halo mass out to the optical radius, the concentration indices, the halo-density power law, the core radius, the central density, and the velocity dispersion. Also discussed are the procedures for incorporating galactic gas and checking the spiral structure extent. It is found that structural constraints limit disk mass/light ratios to a range of 0.3 dex, and that the most likely models are maximum-disk models with m = 1 disturbances inhibited. 19 references

  11. An intermediate-mass black hole in the darf galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  12. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  13. Evidence linking coronal mass ejections with interplanetary magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1983-12-01

    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking. Six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients

  14. Mass Schooling for Socialist Transformation in Cuba and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.; Williams, Jo

    2009-01-01

    In contemporary contexts of Education for All and emphases on national educational performance, mass education globally continues to be strongly informed by human capital thinking, and by notions of developing future world citizens and workers for the international economy. In this paper, our central focus is on the ongoing educational project of…

  15. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  16. RESOLVE AND ECO: THE HALO MASS-DEPENDENT SHAPE OF GALAXY STELLAR AND BARYONIC MASS FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, 141 Chapman Hall CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A., E-mail: keckert@physics.unc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-06-20

    In this work, we present galaxy stellar and baryonic (stars plus cold gas) mass functions (SMF and BMF) and their halo mass dependence for two volume-limited data sets. The first, RESOLVE-B, coincides with the Stripe 82 footprint and is extremely complete down to baryonic mass M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 9.1} M {sub ⊙}, probing the gas-rich dwarf regime below M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}. The second, ECO, covers a ∼40× larger volume (containing RESOLVE-A) and is complete to M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 9.4} M {sub ⊙}. To construct the SMF and BMF we implement a new “cross-bin sampling” technique with Monte Carlo sampling from the full likelihood distributions of stellar or baryonic mass. Our SMFs exhibit the “plateau” feature starting below M {sub star} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} that has been described in prior work. However, the BMF fills in this feature and rises as a straight power law below ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, as gas-dominated galaxies become the majority of the population. Nonetheless, the low-mass slope of the BMF is not as steep as that of the theoretical dark matter halo MF. Moreover, we assign group halo masses by abundance matching, finding that the SMF and BMF, separated into four physically motivated halo mass regimes, reveal complex structure underlying the simple shape of the overall MFs. In particular, the satellite MFs are depressed below the central galaxy MF “humps” in groups with mass <10{sup 13.5} M {sub ⊙} yet rise steeply in clusters. Our results suggest that satellite destruction and stripping are active from the point of nascent group formation. We show that the key role of groups in shaping MFs enables reconstruction of a given survey’s SMF or BMF based on its group halo mass distribution.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from the Central-Himalaya region: Distribution, sources, and risks to humans and wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bi, X.; Luo, J.; Gao, J.; Xu, L.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, K.Y.; Romesh, J.P.; Giesy, S.; Kang, J.; de Boer, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Central Himalayas are not only a natural boundary between China and Nepal but also a natural barrier for transport of air masses from South Asia. In this study, 99 samples of surface soil were collected from five regions of Nepal on the southern side of the Central Himalayas, and 65 samples of

  18. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the spatial distribution of star formation and its dependence on mass, structure, and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Ashley; Wake, David; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Masters, Karen; Thomas, Daniel; Westfall, Kyle; Wild, Vivienne

    2018-05-01

    We study the spatially resolved star formation of 1494 galaxies in the SDSS-IV MaNGA Survey. Star formation rates (SFRs) are calculated using a two-step process, using H α in star-forming regions and Dn4000 in regions identified as active galactic nucleus/low-ionization (nuclear) emission region [AGN/LI(N)ER] or lineless. The roles of secular and environmental quenching processes are investigated by studying the dependence of the radial profiles of specific star formation rate on stellar mass, galaxy structure, and environment. We report on the existence of `centrally suppressed' galaxies, which have suppressed Specific Star Formation Rate (SSFR) in their cores compared to their discs. The profiles of centrally suppressed and unsuppressed galaxies are distributed in a bimodal way. Galaxies with high stellar mass and core velocity dispersion are found to be much more likely to be centrally suppressed than low-mass galaxies, and we show that this is related to morphology and the presence of AGN/LI(N)ER like emission. Centrally suppressed galaxies also display lower star formation at all radii compared to unsuppressed galaxies. The profiles of central and satellite galaxies are also compared, and we find that satellite galaxies experience lower specific star formation rates at all radii than central galaxies. This uniform suppression could be a signal of the stripping of hot halo gas in the process known as strangulation. We find that satellites are not more likely to be suppressed in their cores than centrals, indicating that the core suppression is an entirely internal process. We find no correlation between the local environment density and the profiles of star formation rate surface density.

  19. Prevalence and associated factors of glaucoma in rural central India. The Central India Eye and Medical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Nangia

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of glaucoma in rural Central India. METHODS: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study is a population-based study performed in a rural region of Central India. The study included 4711 subjects (aged 30+ years. A detailed ophthalmic and medical examination was performed. Glaucoma was defined by glaucomatous optic disc morphology, and in a second step, by the criteria of the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology (ISGEO. RESULTS: Optic disc photographs were available for 4570 (97.0% subjects. Glaucoma was detected in 122 subjects (51 unilateral (2.67% (95%CI: 2.20, 3.14. Glaucoma prevalence for the age groups of 30-39yrs, 40-49yrs, 50-59yrs, 60-69yrs, 70-79yrs, and 80+ years was 0.54% (95%CI: 0.11, 0.98, 1.03% (95%CI: 0.49, 1.57, 1.40% (95%CI: 0.58, 2.23, 6.62% (95%CI: 4.92, 8.31, 8.71% (95%CI: 5.55, 11.75, and 14.3% (95%CI: 4.13, 24.4, respectively. In multivariable analysis, glaucoma was associated with higher age (P<0.001, lower body mass index (P = 0.025, lower blood hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.03, higher intraocular pressure (P<0.001, disc hemorrhages (P<0.001, higher prevalence of myopic retinopathy (P<0.001, lower level of education (P = 0.03, longer axial length (P<0.001, thinner retinal nerve fiber layer (P<0.001, higher vertical cup/disc diameter ratio (P<0.001, and narrow anterior chamber angle (P = 0.02. Ratio of open-angle glaucoma to angle-closure glaucoma was 7.7:1 (1.93% (95%CI: 1.64, 2.22 to 0.24% (95%CI: 0.14, 0.34. Using the ISGEO criteria, glaucoma prevalence was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3, 3.3 with a less clear association with older age. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma prevalence in remote rural Central India is comparable to other regions. Associated factors were older age, lower body mass index, lower blood concentration of hemoglobin, lower level of education, higher intraocular pressure, disc hemorrhage, myopic retinopathy, and longer axial

  20. The Central Nervous System and Bone Metabolism: An Evolving Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Paul; Rosen, Cliff

    2017-05-01

    Our understanding of the control of skeletal metabolism has undergone a dynamic shift in the last two decades, primarily driven by our understanding of energy metabolism. Evidence demonstrating that leptin not only influences bone cells directly, but that it also plays a pivotal role in controlling bone mass centrally, opened up an investigative process that has changed the way in which skeletal metabolism is now perceived. Other central regulators of bone metabolism have since been identified including neuropeptide Y (NPY), serotonin, endocannabinoids, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), adiponectin, melatonin and neuromedin U, controlling osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation, proliferation and function. The sympathetic nervous system was originally identified as the predominant efferent pathway mediating central signalling to control skeleton metabolism, in part regulated through circadian genes. More recent evidence points to a role of the parasympathetic nervous system in the control of skeletal metabolism either through muscarinic influence of sympathetic nerves in the brain or directly via nicotinic receptors on osteoclasts, thus providing evidence for broader autonomic skeletal regulation. Sensory innervation of bone has also received focus again widening our understanding of the complex neuronal regulation of bone mass. Whilst scientific advance in this field of bone metabolism has been rapid, progress is still required to understand how these model systems work in relation to the multiple confounders influencing skeletal metabolism, and the relative balance in these neuronal systems required for skeletal growth and development in childhood and maintaining skeletal integrity in adulthood.

  1. Central obesity and survival in subjects with coronary artery disease: a systematic review of the literature and collaborative analysis with individual subject data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Thais; Goel, Kashish; Corrêa de Sá, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.......The aim of this study was to examine the association of central (waist circumference [WC] and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) and total obesity (body mass index [BMI]) measures with mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients....

  2. CT findings of palpable neck masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Mo; Seok, Eul Hye; Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Won Kyun

    1994-01-01

    We performed this study to assess the value of CT in the differential diagnosis of palpable neck masses in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of the palpable neck masses in 30 children. The masses were proved histopathologically and classified into cystic, solid, and inflammatory mass and their CT findings were analyzed. Twelve cases were cystic masses, 4 were solid masses, and 14 were inflammatory lesions. Cystic masses included cystic lymphangiomas (n=6), branchial cleft cysts (n=3), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2), and ranula (n=1). Cystic lymphangiomas showed insinuating appearances into adjacent structures and 4 cases occurred in the posterior cervical space. All branchial cleft cysts were round cystic masses with smooth wall and displaced the submandibular gland anteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. Two thyroglossal duct cysts occurred centrally adjacent to the hyoid bone and 1 ranula in the submental area. Solid masses were juvenile hemangioma, pleomorphic adenoma in submandibular gland, neurilemmoma, and fibromatosis colli. Juvenile hemangioma showed well-enhancing mass with indistinct margin and the other solid masses had well-defined margin with their characteristic location. Inflammatory lesions were abscess (n=4), deep neck infections with lymphadenopathy (n=4), submandibular gland inflammation (n=3), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3) and they showed strand-like enhancement in adjacent subcutaneous tissues. Tuberculous lymphadenitis had multiple lymph node enlargement with internal low attenuation areas and showed less surrounding strand-like enhancement than suppurative lymphadenopathies. Most neck masses in infants and children were of congenital or inflammatory origin. CT is useful for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass, because it can differentiate various forms of neck masses and is able to reveal the relationship of the masses to the adjacent structures with their characteristic location

  3. CT findings of palpable neck masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Mo; Seok, Eul Hye; Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    We performed this study to assess the value of CT in the differential diagnosis of palpable neck masses in children. We retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of the palpable neck masses in 30 children. The masses were proved histopathologically and classified into cystic, solid, and inflammatory mass and their CT findings were analyzed. Twelve cases were cystic masses, 4 were solid masses, and 14 were inflammatory lesions. Cystic masses included cystic lymphangiomas (n=6), branchial cleft cysts (n=3), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2), and ranula (n=1). Cystic lymphangiomas showed insinuating appearances into adjacent structures and 4 cases occurred in the posterior cervical space. All branchial cleft cysts were round cystic masses with smooth wall and displaced the submandibular gland anteriorly and the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. Two thyroglossal duct cysts occurred centrally adjacent to the hyoid bone and 1 ranula in the submental area. Solid masses were juvenile hemangioma, pleomorphic adenoma in submandibular gland, neurilemmoma, and fibromatosis colli. Juvenile hemangioma showed well-enhancing mass with indistinct margin and the other solid masses had well-defined margin with their characteristic location. Inflammatory lesions were abscess (n=4), deep neck infections with lymphadenopathy (n=4), submandibular gland inflammation (n=3), and tuberculous lymphadenitis (n=3) and they showed strand-like enhancement in adjacent subcutaneous tissues. Tuberculous lymphadenitis had multiple lymph node enlargement with internal low attenuation areas and showed less surrounding strand-like enhancement than suppurative lymphadenopathies. Most neck masses in infants and children were of congenital or inflammatory origin. CT is useful for the evaluation of the child presenting with a neck mass, because it can differentiate various forms of neck masses and is able to reveal the relationship of the masses to the adjacent structures with their characteristic location.

  4. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  5. Higgs mass implications on the stability of the electroweak vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Miro, Joan; Giudice, Gian F; Isidori, Gino; Riotto, Antonio; Strumia, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We update instability and metastability bounds of the Standard Model electroweak vacuum in view of the recent ATLAS and CMS Higgs results. For a Higgs mass in the range 124--126 GeV, and for the current central values of the top mass and strong coupling constant, the Higgs potential develops an instability around $10^{11}$ GeV, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe. However, taking into account theoretical and experimental errors, stability up to the Planck scale cannot be excluded. Stability at finite temperature implies an upper bound on the reheat temperature after inflation, which depends critically on the precise values of the Higgs and top masses. A Higgs mass in the range 124--126 GeV is compatible with very high values of the reheating temperature, without conflict with mechanisms of baryogenesis such as leptogenesis. We derive an upper bound on the mass of heavy right-handed neutrinos by requiring that their Yukawa couplings do not destabilize the Higgs potential.

  6. Steroid Profiling by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry for Adrenal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Matthew, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to measure steroid hormone concentrations in blood and urine specimens is central to the diagnosis and proper treatment of adrenal diseases. The traditional approach has been to assay each steroid hormone, precursor, or metabolite using individual aliquots of serum, each with a separate immunoassay. For complex diseases, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and adrenocortical cancer, in which the assay of several steroids is essential for management, this approach is time consuming and costly, in addition to using large amounts of serum. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry profiling of steroid metabolites in urine has been employed for many years but only in a small number of specialized laboratories and suffers from slow throughput. The advent of commercial high-performance liquid chromatography instruments coupled to tandem mass spectrometers offers the potential for medium- to high-throughput profiling of serum steroids using small quantities of sample. Here, we review the physical principles of mass spectrometry, the instrumentation used for these techniques, the terminology used in this field and applications to steroid analysis. PMID:22170384

  7. Mass Media Use by College Students during Hurricane Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of studies on how college students prepare for the threat of natural disasters. This study surveyed college students' preferences in mass media use prior to an approaching hurricane. The convenience sample (n = 76) were from a university located in the hurricane-prone area of the central Gulf of Mexico coast. Interestingly,…

  8. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  9. C II forbidden-line 158 micron mapping in Sagittarius A Rotation curve and mass distribution in the galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugten, J. B.; Genzel, R.; Crawford, M. K.; Townes, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Based on data obtained with the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91.4 cm telescope, the 158-micron fine structure line emission of C(+) is mapped near the galactic center. The strongest emission comes from a 10-pc FWHM diameter disk centered on Sgr A West whose dominant motion is rotation. Extended C(+) emission is also found from the +50 km/s galactic center molecular cloud, and a second cloud at v(LSR) of about -35 km/s. The rotation curve and mass distribution within 10 pc of the galactic center are derived, and the C(+) profiles show a drop-off of rotation velocity between 2 and 10 pc. A mass model is suggested with 2-4 million solar masses in a central point mass, and a M/L ratio of the central stellar cluster of 0.5 solar masses/solar luminosities, suggesting a large abundance of giants and relatively recent star formation in the center.

  10. Measurement of jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at 5.02 TeV using ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yongsun; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The mass of inclusive jets in lead-lead and proton-proton collisions at psNN = 5.02 TeV is reported using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurement of the jet structure in proton-proton collisions is sensitive to the angular and momentum correlations of the jet fragments. It can be used to study modifications of jets in heavy ion collisions where it provides complementary information to previously measured jet fragmentation functions. The mass scaled by the jet transverse momentum of anti-kt R = 0.4 jets is measured as a function of centrality and jet transverse momentum in Pb+Pb collisions and compared to measurements at the same collision energy in proton-proton collisions. The nuclear modification factor is evaluated as a function of the jet mass divided by its transverse momentum as a function of the jet transverse momentum and centrality. No significant dependence of the nuclear modification factor on the mass is observed.

  11. THE BLACK HOLE MASS, STELLAR MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIO, AND DARK HALO IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebhardt, Karl; Thomas, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We model the dynamical structure of M87 (NGC4486) using high spatial resolution long-slit observations of stellar light in the central regions, two-dimensional stellar light kinematics out to half of the effective radius, and globular cluster velocities out to eight effective radii. We simultaneously fit for four parameters: black hole mass, dark halo core radius, dark halo circular velocity, and stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio. We find a black hole mass of 6.4(±0.5) x 10 9 M sun (the uncertainty is 68% confidence marginalized over the other parameters). The stellar M/L V = 6.3 ± 0.8. The best-fit dark halo core radius is 14 ± 2 kpc, assuming a cored logarithmic potential. The best-fit dark halo circular velocity is 715 ± 15 km s -1 . Our black hole mass is over a factor of 2 larger than previous stellar dynamical measures, and our derived stellar M/L ratio is two times lower than previous dynamical measures. When we do not include a dark halo, we measure a black hole mass and stellar M/L ratio that is consistent with previous measures, implying that the major difference is in the model assumptions. The stellar M/L ratio from our models is very similar to that derived from stellar population models of M87. The reason for the difference in the black hole mass is because we allow the M/L ratio to change with radius. The dark halo is degenerate with the stellar M/L ratio, which is subsequently degenerate with the black hole mass. We argue that dynamical models of galaxies that do not include the contribution from a dark halo may produce a biased result for the black hole mass. This bias is especially large for a galaxy with a shallow light profile such as M87, and may not be as severe in galaxies with steeper light profiles unless they have a large stellar population change with radius.

  12. [Mass maritime casualty incidents in German waters: structures and resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castan, J; Paschen, H-R; Wirtz, S; Dörges, V; Wenderoth, S; Peters, J; Blunk, Y; Bielstein, A; Kerner, T

    2012-07-01

    The Central Command for Maritime Emergencies was founded in Germany in 2003 triggered by the fire on board of the cargo ship "Pallas" in 1998. Its mission is to coordinate and direct measures at or above state level in maritime emergency situations in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. A special task in this case is to provide firefighting and medical care. To face these challenges at sea emergency doctors and firemen have been specially trained. This form of organization provides a concept to counter mass casualty incidents and peril situations at sea. Since the foundation of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies there have been 5 operations for firefighting units and 4 for medical response teams. Assignments and structure of the Central Command for Maritime Emergencies are unique in Europe.

  13. Simulations of Ar gas-puff Z-pinch radiation sources with double shells and central jets on the Z generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangri, V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Giuliani, J. L.; Thornhill, J. W.; Velikovich, A. L.; Apruzese, J. P.; Ouart, N. D.; Dasgupta, A.; Jones, B.; Jennings, C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations using the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium Mach2-Tabular Collisional-Radiative Equilibrium code in (r, z) geometry are performed for two pairs of recent Ar gas-puff Z-pinch experiments on the refurbished Z generator with an 8 cm diameter nozzle. One pair of shots had an outer-to-inner shell mass ratio of 1:1.6 and a second pair had a ratio of 1:1. In each pair, one of the shots had a central jet. The experimental trends in the Ar K-shell yield and power are reproduced in the calculations. However, the K-shell yield and power are significantly lower than the other three shots for the case of a double-shell puff of 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet configuration. Further simulations of a hypothetical experiment with the same relative density profile of this configuration, but higher total mass, show that the coupled energy from the generator and the K-shell yield can be increased to levels achieved in the other three configurations, but not the K-shell power. Based on various measures of effective plasma radius, the compression in the 1:1 mass ratio and no central jet case is found to be less because the plasma inside the magnetic piston is hotter and of lower density. Because of the reduced density, and the reduced radiation cooling (which is proportional to the square of the density), the core plasma is hotter. Consequently, for the 1:1 outer-to-inner shell mass ratio, the load mass controls the yield and the center jet controls the power.

  14. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar to halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the DES science veri cation archive, the CFHTLenS and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we nd a stellar to halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster, Naab & White (2013) for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we nd that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this nding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high density environments.

  15. The Role Of Environment In Stellar Mass Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    In this talk I give a brief summary of methods to measure galaxy environment. I then discuss the dependence of stellar population properties on environmental density: it turns out that the latter are driven by galaxy mass, and galaxy environment only plays a secondary role, mostly at late times in low-mass galaxies. I show that this evidence has now been extended to stellar population gradients using the IFU survey SDSS/MaNGA that again turn out to be independent of environment, including central-satellite classification. Finally I present results from the DES, where the dependence of the stellar mass function with redshift and environmental density is explored. It is found that the fraction of massive galaxies is larger in high density environments than in low density environments. The low density and high density components converge with increasing redshift up to z 1.0 where the shapes of the mass function components are indistinguishable. This study shows how high density structures build up around massive galaxies through cosmic time, which sets new valuable constraints on galaxy formation models.

  16. Models of mass segregation at the Galactic Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Marc; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    We study the process of mass segregation through 2-body relaxation in galactic nuclei with a central massive black hole (MBH). This study has bearing on a variety of astrophysical questions, from the distribution of X-ray binaries at the Galactic centre, to tidal disruptions of main- sequence and giant stars, to inspirals of compact objects into the MBH, an important category of events for the future space borne gravitational wave interferometer LISA. In relatively small galactic nuclei, typical hosts of MBHs with masses in the range 10 4 - 10 7 M o-dot , the relaxation induces the formation of a steep density cusp around the MBH and strong mass segregation. Using a spherical stellar dynamical Monte-Carlo code, we simulate the long-term relaxational evolution of galactic nucleus models with a spectrum of stellar masses. Our focus is the concentration of stellar black holes to the immediate vicinity of the MBH. Special attention is given to models developed to match the conditions in the Milky Way nucleus

  17. Central upwind scheme for a compressible two-phase flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Munshoor; Saleem, M Rehan; Zia, Saqib; Qamar, Shamsul

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a compressible two-phase reduced five-equation flow model is numerically investigated. The model is non-conservative and the governing equations consist of two equations describing the conservation of mass, one for overall momentum and one for total energy. The fifth equation is the energy equation for one of the two phases and it includes source term on the right-hand side which represents the energy exchange between two fluids in the form of mechanical and thermodynamical work. For the numerical approximation of the model a high resolution central upwind scheme is implemented. This is a non-oscillatory upwind biased finite volume scheme which does not require a Riemann solver at each time step. Few numerical case studies of two-phase flows are presented. For validation and comparison, the same model is also solved by using kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) and staggered central schemes. It was found that central upwind scheme produces comparable results to the KFVS scheme.

  18. Central upwind scheme for a compressible two-phase flow model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munshoor Ahmed

    Full Text Available In this article, a compressible two-phase reduced five-equation flow model is numerically investigated. The model is non-conservative and the governing equations consist of two equations describing the conservation of mass, one for overall momentum and one for total energy. The fifth equation is the energy equation for one of the two phases and it includes source term on the right-hand side which represents the energy exchange between two fluids in the form of mechanical and thermodynamical work. For the numerical approximation of the model a high resolution central upwind scheme is implemented. This is a non-oscillatory upwind biased finite volume scheme which does not require a Riemann solver at each time step. Few numerical case studies of two-phase flows are presented. For validation and comparison, the same model is also solved by using kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS and staggered central schemes. It was found that central upwind scheme produces comparable results to the KFVS scheme.

  19. Subcortical heterotopia appearing as huge midline mass in the newborn brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Kimura, Sachiko; Ochi, Satoko; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who showed a huge midline mass in the brain at prenatal assessment. After birth, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a conglomerate mass with an infolded microgyrus at the midline, which was suspected as a midline brain-in-brain malformation. MRI also showed incomplete cleavage of his frontal cortex and thalamus, consistent with lobar holoprosencephaly. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy of the mass on the second day of life. The mass consisted of normal central nervous tissue with gray and white matter, representing a heterotopic brain. The malformation was considered to be a subcortical heterotopia. With maturity, focal signal changes and decreased cerebral perfusion became clear on brain imaging, suggesting secondary glial degeneration. Coincident with these MRI abnormalities, the child developed psychomotor retardation and severe epilepsy focused on the side of the intracranial mass.

  20. BANYAN. IX. The Initial Mass Function and Planetary-mass Object Space Density of the TW HYA Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Donaldson, Jessica K.; Lépine, Sébastien; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Looper, Dagny; Boucher, Anne; Beletsky, Yuri; Camnasio, Sara; Brunette, Charles; Arboit, Geneviève

    2017-02-01

    A determination of the initial mass function (IMF) of the current, incomplete census of the 10 Myr-old TW Hya association (TWA) is presented. This census is built from a literature compilation supplemented with new spectra and 17 new radial velocities from ongoing membership surveys, as well as a reanalysis of Hipparcos data that confirmed HR 4334 (A2 Vn) as a member. Although the dominant uncertainty in the IMF remains census incompleteness, a detailed statistical treatment is carried out to make the IMF determination independent of binning while accounting for small number statistics. The currently known high-likelihood members are fitted by a log-normal distribution with a central mass of {0.21}-0.06+0.11 M ⊙ and a characteristic width of {0.8}-0.1+0.2 dex in the 12 M Jup-2 M ⊙ range, whereas a Salpeter power law with α ={2.2}-0.5+1.1 best describes the IMF slope in the 0.1-2 M ⊙ range. This characteristic width is higher than other young associations, which may be due to incompleteness in the current census of low-mass TWA stars. A tentative overpopulation of isolated planetary-mass members similar to 2MASS J11472421-2040204 and 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is identified: this indicates that there might be as many as {10}-5+13 similar members of TWA with hot-start model-dependent masses estimated at ˜5-7 M Jup, most of which would be too faint to be detected in 2MASS. Our new radial velocity measurements corroborate the membership of 2MASS J11472421-2040204, and secure TWA 28 (M8.5 γ), TWA 29 (M9.5 γ), and TWA 33 (M4.5 e) as members. The discovery of 2MASS J09553336-0208403, a young L7-type interloper unrelated to TWA, is also presented.

  1. Massive stars evolution with mass-loss. 20-100 M(sun) models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiosi, C; Sreenivasan, S R [Calgary Univ., Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Nasi, E [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1978-02-01

    The evolution of stars with initial masses 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 M(sun) and Population I chemical composition (X = 0.700, Z = 0.02) is calculated, taking into account mass-loss due to stellar winds, from the main sequence up to the early stages of central He-burning. This study incorporates mass-loss rates predicted by the theory of Castor et al. (1975) for the early type phases and a novel way of treating mass-loss rates due to acoustic energy flux driven winds in the later stages analogous to the work of Fusi-Pecci and Renzini (1975a). The results are presented in terms of evolutionary tracks, isochrones, loci of constant mass-loss rates and loci of constant mass in the HR diagram. The effects of mass-loss on the internal structure of the models as well as on the occurrence of semiconvection are also investigated. A detailed comparison of the theoretical predictions and observational results is made and possible implications for O, Of, Wolf-Rayet stars and red supergiants are brought out.

  2. Intracranial mass lesions in HIV-positive patients – the Kwazulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Neurological disease heralds the development of AIDS in 10 - 20% of HIV-seropositive individuals. In over half of these cases the presentation will be that of an intracranial mass lesion (IML). In developed countries toxoplasmosis is the most frequent cause of IML in a positive patient, followed by primary central ...

  3. Current perspective on the pathogenesis of central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardello, Stefano; Malattia, Clara; Scagnelli, Paola; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2005-07-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a heterogeneous condition characterised by polyuria and polydipsia caused by a lack of secretion of vasopressin, its physiological suppression following excessive water intake, or kidney resistance to its action. The clinical and laboratory diagnosis is confirmed by standard tests, but recent advances in molecular biology and imaging techniques have shed new light on the pathophysiology of this disease. In many patients, central diabetes insipidus is caused by a germinoma or craniopharyngioma; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and sarcoidosis of the central nervous system; local inflammatory, autoimmune or vascular diseases; trauma from surgery or accident; and, rarely, genetic defects in vasopressin biosynthesis inherited as autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive traits. Thirty to fifty percent of cases are considered idiopathic. Tumour-associated central diabetes insipidus is uncommon in children younger than 5 years old. Biopsy of enlarged pituitary stalk should be reserved for patients with hypothalamic-pituitary mass and progressive thickening of the pituitary stalk since spontaneous recovery may occur. Molecular biology in selected patients may identify those with apparently idiopathic diabetes insipidus carrying the vasopressin-neurophysin II gene mutation.

  4. Forward-central jet correlations in pp collisions at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel

    2014-03-01

    The azimuthal correlation between central and forward jets has been measured in proton-proton collisions at the LHC recorded with the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Both jets were required to have a minimum transverse momentum of 35 GeV. The forward jet was reconstructed in the hadronic forward calorimeter within the pseudo-rapidity range 3.2 T >20 GeV in the pseudo rapidity interval between the forward and the central jet is required, while in the second sub-sample events containing such jets are explicitly vetoed. Furthermore, observables describing additional jets outside of the pseudo-rapidity interval spanned by the dijet system are measured. Most of the results are found to be well described by DGLAP-based Monte Carlo event generators.

  5. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  6. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcibíades Bustamante

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  7. Value of three-dimensional volume rendering images in the assessment of the centrality index for preoperative planning in patients with renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, C; Magno, C; Silipigni, S; Cantisani, V; Mucciardi, G; Sottile, F; Inferrera, A; Mazziotti, S; Ascenti, G

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the precision of the centrality index (CI) measurement on three-dimensional (3D) volume rendering technique (VRT) images in patients with renal masses, compared to its standard measurement on axial images. Sixty-five patients with renal lesions underwent contrast-enhanced multidetector (MD) computed tomography (CT) for preoperative imaging. Two readers calculated the CI on two-dimensional axial images and on VRT images, measuring it in the plane that the tumour and centre of the kidney were lying in. Correlation and agreement of interobserver measurements and inter-method results were calculated using intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients and the Bland-Altman method. Time saving was also calculated. The correlation coefficients were r=0.99 (ppresent study showed that VRT and axial images produce almost identical values of CI, with the advantages of greater ease of execution and a time saving of almost 50% for 3D VRT images. In addition, VRT provides an integrated perspective that can better assist surgeons in clinical decision making and in operative planning, suggesting this technique as a possible standard method for CI measurement. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On-line satellite/central computer facility of the Multiparticle Argo Spectrometer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.W.; Fisher, G.P.; Hien, N.C.; Larson, G.P.; Thorndike, A.M.; Turkot, F.; von Lindern, L.; Clifford, T.S.; Ficenec, J.R.; Trower, W.P.

    1974-09-01

    An on-line satellite/central computer facility has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory as part of the Multiparticle Argo Spectrometer System (MASS). This facility consisting of a PDP-9 and a CDC-6600, has been successfully used in study of proton-proton interactions at 28.5 GeV/c. (U.S.)

  9. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  10. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  11. Correlations Between Central Massive Objects And Their Host Galaxies: From Bulgeless Spirals to Ellipticals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuexing; Haiman, Zoltán; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2006-01-01

    Recent observations by Ferrarese et al. (2006) and Wehner et al. (2006) reveal that a majority of galaxies contain a central massive object (CMO), either a supermassive black hole (SMBH) or a compact stellar nucleus, regardless of the galaxy mass or morphological type, and that there is a tight relation between the masses of CMOs and those of the host galaxies. Several recent studies show that feedback from black holes can successfully explain the $\\msigma$ correlation in massive elliptical g...

  12. EFFECTS OF BIASES IN VIRIAL MASS ESTIMATION ON COSMIC SYNCHRONIZATION OF QUASAR ACCRETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work using virial mass estimates and the quasar mass-luminosity plane has yielded several new puzzles regarding quasar accretion, including a sub-Eddington boundary (SEB) on most quasar accretion, near-independence of the accretion rate from properties of the host galaxy, and a cosmic synchronization of accretion among black holes of a common mass. We consider how these puzzles might change if virial mass estimation turns out to have a systematic bias. As examples, we consider two recent claims of mass-dependent biases in Mg II masses. Under any such correction, the surprising cosmic synchronization of quasar accretion rates and independence from the host galaxy remain. The slope and location of the SEB are very sensitive to biases in virial mass estimation, and various mass calibrations appear to favor different possible physical explanations for feedback between the central black hole and its environment. The alternative mass estimators considered do not simply remove puzzling quasar behavior, but rather replace it with new puzzles that may be more difficult to solve than those using current virial mass estimators and the Shen et al. catalog.

  13. Adiposity in Children and CVD Risk: ApoB48 Has a Stronger Association With Central Fat Than Classic Lipid Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Michaelann S; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie; Levy, Emile; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Tremblay, Angelo; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease begins in childhood and while progression is multifactorial, obesity in early life is an important risk factor for its development. To determine whether fasting apoB48 remnant lipoproteins (relative to classic lipid markers), is elevated with increasing central adiposity over time in a cohort of Canadian children with a family history of obesity. Data were drawn from the ongoing prospective cohort of 630 Caucasian families in Québec, Canada, recruited to assess determinants and effects of childhood obesity (Québec Adiposity and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth [QUALITY]cohort). Children who attended baseline and first followup clinic visits (n =570; age 9.6 y). Trunk fat mass was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Central fat mass index was calculated as CFMI = trunk fat mass/height(2) (kg/m(2)) and groups created (CFMI children who transitioned from lower- to moderate-CFMI groups (ΔapoB48 = 1.5 μg/mL). For every 1 kg/m(2) increase in central adiposity over the 2-y period, an increase in apoB48 was 14-fold greater among children with lower baseline CFMI, compared with higher CFMI. Increased fasting concentrations of apoB48 may be representative of changes in adiposity at lower levels of central fat (early periods of risk).

  14. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  15. Target dependence of central rapidity Λ production in sulfur-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV/c per nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, E.; Barnes, P.D.; Blaes, R.; Braun, H.; Brom, J.M.; Castano, B.; Cherney, M.; Cohler, M.; Cruz, B. de la; Diebold, G.E.; Fernandez, C.; Franklin, G.; Garabatos, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Geist, W.M.; Greiner, D.; Gruhn, C.; Hafidouni, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huss, D.; Jacquot, J.L.; Jones, P.G.; Kuipers, J.P.M.; Ladrem, M.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Liko, D.; Lopez-Ponte, S.; Lovhoiden, G.; MacNaughton, J.; Maher, C.J.; Michalon, A.; Michalon-Mentzer, M.E.; Mosquera, J.; Natkaniec, Z.; Nelson, J.M.; Neuhofer, G.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Plo, M.; Porth, P.; Powell, B.; Quinn, B.; Ramil, A.; Riester, J.L.; Rohringer, H.; Sakrejda, G.; Sakrejda, I.; Thorsteinsen, T.; Traxler, J.; Voltolini, C.; Yanez, A.; Yepes, P.; Zybert, R.

    1992-01-01

    Central rapidity Λ production has been measured in sulfur collisions with Cu, Ag, and Pb at 200 GeV/c per nucleon. Lambdas produced in these collisions were identified by their charged decays recorded by a time projection chamber. The Λ yields are compared as a function of target mass. For each target, the yields are reported as a function of Λ transverse kinetic energy and zero degree energy (a measure of collision centrality). In each system, the data exceed predictions of the VENUS size-2(4.02) model of sulfur-nucleus collisions. The observed excesses show no obvious variation with collision centrality from moderate to highly central collisions

  16. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.

    1986-12-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references.

  17. Relation between initial and minimum final white dwarf mass for Population I stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, I.; Dantona, F.; CNR, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale, Frascati; Roma, Osservatorio Astronomico, Rome, Italy)

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary paths for Population I stars having initial masses 1, 2.5, 3, 4, and 5 solar masses were computed from the homogeneous main sequence to the onset of the first major thermal pulse to evaluate the minimum mass and the chemical stratification of the remnant white dwarf (WD) associated with each parent mass. The helium flash phase was followed in detail for a 2.5 solar masses star, whereas for the 1 solar mass star the flash was bypassed, and the models at the beginning of the steady central helium burning phase were obtained by means of a scaling procedure upon the properly computed total and core masses. The results show that for a parent ranging between 1-3 solar masses the core mass at the first thermal pulse ranges only from 0.64-0.69 solar mass. If some very fast mass-loss mechanism is triggered in connection with the early stages of the thermal pulse phase, as suggested by the observed deficiency of asymptotic giant branch stars, the relation between final and initial mass is almost flat at least up to an initial mass of 3 solar masses, and the mass spectrum of the WDs is narrow and heavily peaked around 0.65 solar mass. 53 references

  18. Higgs mass implications on the stability of the electroweak vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias-Miro, Joan [IFAE and Dep. de Fisica, Univ. Aut. de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Espinosa, Jose R. [IFAE and Dep. de Fisica, Univ. Aut. de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Giudice, Gian F. [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Isidori, Gino, E-mail: gino.isidori@lnf.infn.it [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, Frascati (Italy); Riotto, Antonio [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa and INFN (Italy); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia)

    2012-03-19

    We update instability and metastability bounds of the Standard Model electroweak vacuum in view of the recent ATLAS and CMS Higgs results. For a Higgs mass in the range 124-126 GeV, and for the current central values of the top mass and strong coupling constant, the Higgs potential develops an instability around 10{sup 11} GeV, with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe. However, taking into account theoretical and experimental errors, stability up to the Planck scale cannot be excluded. Stability at finite temperature implies an upper bound on the reheat temperature after inflation, which depends critically on the precise values of the Higgs and top masses. A Higgs mass in the range 124-126 GeV is compatible with very high values of the reheating temperature, without conflict with mechanisms of baryogenesis such as leptogenesis. We derive an upper bound on the mass of heavy right-handed neutrinos by requiring that their Yukawa couplings do not destabilize the Higgs potential.

  19. THE CENTRAL BLUE STRAGGLER POPULATION IN FOUR OUTER-HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccari, Giacomo; Luetzgendorf, Nora [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Olczak, Christoph [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (ARI), Zentrum fuer Astronomie Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 1214, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Carraro, Giovanni; Boffin, Henri M. J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Stetson, Peter B. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sollima, Antonio [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 data, we have performed a comparative study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) populations in the central regions of the globular clusters (GCs) AM 1, Eridanus, Palomar 3, and Palomar 4. Located at distances R{sub GC} > 50 kpc from the Galactic center, these are (together with Palomar 14 and NGC 2419) the most distant clusters in the halo. We determine their color-magnitude diagrams and centers of gravity. The four clusters turn out to have similar ages (10.5-11 Gyr), significantly smaller than those of the inner-halo globulars, and similar metallicities. By exploiting wide-field ground-based data, we build the most extended radial density profiles from resolved star counts ever published for these systems. These are well reproduced by isotropic King models of relatively low concentration. BSSs appear to be significantly more centrally segregated than red giants in all GCs, in agreement with the estimated core and half-mass relaxation times which are smaller than the cluster ages. Assuming that this is a signature of mass segregation, we conclude that AM 1 and Eridanus are slightly dynamically more evolved than Pal 3 and Pal 4.

  20. Comparison between the fragmentation processes in central Pb + Ag and Pb + Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouault, B.; Royer, G.; Sebille, F.; Haddad, F.; Lecolley, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The fragmentation processes of a medium mass system and of a very massive one formed in central collisions are compared within the Landau-Vlasov model taking into account both the isospin dependence and the two-body residual interactions. The simulations predict the formation of a roughly ellipsoidal source in the central Pb + Ag reactions while, for the Pb + Au system, the fragmentation occurs from an hollow source, the configuration of which being intermediate between bubble-like and toroidal shapes. This difference shapes explain and allow to reproduce semi-quantitatively the two different profiles of the experimental kinetic energy spectra. (authors)

  1. Heat-flow properties of systems with alternate masses or alternate on-site potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Emmanuel; Santana, Leonardo M.; Ávila, Ricardo

    2011-07-01

    We address a central issue of phononics: the search of properties or mechanisms to manage the heat flow in reliable materials. We analytically study standard and simple systems modeling the heat flow in solids, namely, the harmonic, self-consistent harmonic and also anharmonic chains of oscillators, and we show an interesting insulating effect: While in the homogeneous models the heat flow decays as the inverse of the particle mass, in the chain with alternate masses it decays as the inverse of the square of the mass difference, that is, it decays essentially as the mass ratio (between the smaller and the larger one) for a large mass difference. A similar effect holds if we alternate on-site potentials instead of particle masses. The existence of such behavior in these different systems, including anharmonic models, indicates that it is a ubiquitous phenomenon with applications in the heat flow control.

  2. High-Q micromechanical resonators for mass sensing in dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappura, Kirsi; Pekko, Panu; Seppä, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    Single crystal silicon-based micromechanical resonators are developed for mass sensing in dissipative media. The design aspects and preliminary characterization of the resonators are presented. For the suggested designs, quality factors of about 20 000 are typically measured in air at atmospheric pressure and 1000–2000 in contact with liquid. The performance is based on a wine-glass-type lateral bulk acoustic mode excited in a rectangular resonator plate. The mode essentially eliminates the radiation of acoustic energy into the sample media leaving viscous drag as the dominant fluid-based dissipation mechanism in the system. For a mass loading distributed over the central areas of the resonator a sensitivity of 27 ppm ng −1 is measured exhibiting good agreement with the results of the finite element method-based simulations. It is also shown that the mass sensitivity can be somewhat enhanced, not only by the proper distribution of the loaded mass, but also by introducing shallow barrier structures on the resonator

  3. Radial distributions of surface mass density and mass-to-luminosity ratio in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2018-03-01

    We present radial profiles of the surface mass density (SMD) in spiral galaxies directly calculated using rotation curves of two approximations of flat-disk (SMD-F) and spherical mass distribution (SMD-S). The SMDs are combined with surface brightness using photometric data to derive radial variations of the mass-to-luminosity ratio (ML). It is found that the ML generally has a central peak or a plateau, and decreases to a local minimum at R ˜ 0.1-0.2 h, where R is the radius and h is the scale radius of optical disk. The ML, then, increases rapidly until ˜0.5 h, and is followed by gradual rise till ˜2 h, remaining at around ˜2 [M_{⊙} L^{-1}_{⊙}] in the w1 band (infrared λ3.4 μm) and ˜ 10 [M_⊙ L_⊙ ^{-1}] in the r band (λ6200-7500 Å). Beyond this radius, the ML increases steeply with approaching the observed edges at R ˜ 5 h, attaining to as high values as ˜20 in w1 and ˜ 10^2 [M_⊙ L_⊙ ^{-1}] in the r band, which are indicative of dominant dark matter. The general properties of the ML distributions will be useful for constraining cosmological formation models of spiral galaxies.

  4. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...

  5. Rapid mass segregation in small stellar clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Mario; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on small-to-intermediate N-body systems that are, initially, distributed uniformly in space and dynamically `cool' (virial ratios Q=2T/|Ω| below ˜0.3). In this work, we study the mass segregation that emerges after the initial violent dynamical evolution. At this scope, we ran a set of high precision N-body simulations of isolated clusters by means of HiGPUs, our direct summation N-body code. After the collapse, the system shows a clear mass segregation. This (quick) mass segregation occurs in two phases: the first shows up in clumps originated by sub-fragmentation before the deep overall collapse; this segregation is partly erased during the deep collapse to re-emerge, abruptly, during the second phase, that follows the first bounce of the system. In this second stage, the proper clock to measure the rate of segregation is the dynamical time after virialization, which (for cold and cool systems) may be significantly different from the crossing time evaluated from initial conditions. This result is obtained for isolated clusters composed of stars of two different masses (in the ratio mh/ml=2), at varying their number ratio, and is confirmed also in presence of a massive central object (simulating a black hole of stellar size). Actually, in stellar systems starting their dynamical evolution from cool conditions, the fast mass segregation adds to the following, slow, secular segregation which is collisionally induced. The violent mass segregation is an effect persistent over the whole range of N (128 ≤ N ≤1,024) investigated, and is an interesting feature on the astronomical-observational side, too. The semi-steady state reached after virialization corresponds to a mass segregated distribution function rather than that of equipartition of kinetic energy per unit mass as it should result from violent relaxation.

  6. Prospects for detection of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters using integrated-light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, R.; Trenti, M.; Bianchini, P.; Askar, A.; Giersz, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-06-01

    The detection of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has so far been controversial. In order to characterize the effectiveness of integrated-light spectroscopy through integral field units, we analyse realistic mock data generated from state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of GCs with a central IMBH, considering different setups and conditions varying IMBH mass, cluster distance and accuracy in determination of the centre. The mock observations are modelled with isotropic Jeans models to assess the success rate in identifying the IMBH presence, which we find to be primarily dependent on IMBH mass. However, even for an IMBH of considerable mass (3 per cent of the total GC mass), the analysis does not yield conclusive results in one out of five cases, because of shot noise due to bright stars close to the IMBH line of sight. This stochastic variability in the modelling outcome grows with decreasing BH mass, with approximately three failures out of four for IMBHs with 0.1 per cent of total GC mass. Finally, we find that our analysis is generally unable to exclude at 68 per cent confidence an IMBH with mass of 103 M⊙ in snapshots without a central BH. Interestingly, our results are not sensitive to GC distance within 5-20 kpc, nor to misidentification of the GC centre by less than 2 arcsec (<20 per cent of the core radius). These findings highlight the value of ground-based integral field spectroscopy for large GC surveys, where systematic failures can be accounted for, but stress the importance of discrete kinematic measurements that are less affected by stochasticity induced by bright stars.

  7. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water

  8. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  9. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  10. Psychosis in primary angiitis of the central nervous system involving bilateral thalami: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangha; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a rare inflammatory disease restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), with unusual clinical presentation mimicking schizophrenia. Case report. A 45-year-old male presented with alteration of consciousness and confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed a mass-like enhancing lesion involving bilateral thalami, and biopsy revealed findings compatible with PACNS. The patient was treated with corticosteroids. Psychotic symptoms crystallized over the initial 2 months after the diagnosis and persisted for over a year. Severity of his symptoms improved with gradual normalization of the radiologic findings and antipsychotic medication. Our case highlights the importance of considering PACNS as a differential diagnosis of a tumor-like mass lesion in the CNS and the significance of thalamic involvement in the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms including delusions and hallucinations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Light Scalar Mesons in Central Production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A.

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS that studies the spectrum of light-quark hadrons. In 2009, it collected a large dataset using a $190\\,$GeV$/c$ positive hadron beam impinging on a liquid-hydrogen target in order to measure the central exclusive production of light scalar mesons. One of the goals is the search for so-called glueballs, which are hypothetical meson-like objects without valence-quark content. We study the decay of neutral resonances by selecting centrally produced pion pairs from the COMPASS dataset. The angular distributions of the two pseudoscalar mesons are decomposed in terms of partial waves, where particular attention is paid to the inherent mathematical ambiguities. The large dataset allows us to perform a detailed analysis in bins of the two squared four-momentum transfers carried by the exchange particles in the reaction. Possible parameterisations of the mass dependence of the partial-wave amplitudes in terms of resonances are also discussed.

  12. The modernizing bias of human rights: stories of mass killings and genocide in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekern, Stener

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses selected cases of mass killings and genocide during the civil wars in El Salvador and Guatemala in the 1980s and the way in which the truth commissions in both countries reframed locally grounded narratives to fit the state-centred language of human rights. Redefining wrongdoings as human rights violations produces stories that communicate poorly with local worldviews because the 'truths' that human rights language proposes disregard local realities and transform local conflicts into a type of 'modern', nationwide struggles. Thus, while the concept of genocide might capture well the horrendous nature of a mass killing, it will also ethnify the conflict. Comparisons between local readings and human rights-based reinterpretations reveal a 'modernizing' or 'Westernizing' bias of international law; the article argues for more awareness about such effects in analysis as well as in policy-making.

  13. Dietary patterns are associated with general and central obesity in elderly living in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lucelia Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: dietary pattern evaluation is often used in order to determine wheter a diet is healthy, as well as to predict the onset of diseases. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns, and to examine their associations with general (body mass index and central (waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity in community-living elderly in a Brazilian city. Methods: this cross-sectional study included 126 elderly subjects aged 60 or older (57.1% females and mean age 74.2 ± 6.46 years. Anthropometric variables, weight, height, waist (WC and hip (HC circumferences, were measured. Body mass index (BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were calculated. Answers to a Food Frequency Questionnaire were interpreted by Principal Component Analysis in order to identify dietary patterns. Results: five dietary patterns were identified and named as prudent (fruit, vegetables and meat, sweets and fats (pastries, sugary foods, fatty foods, whole milk, typical Brazilian (fried eggs, cooked beans, beef, candy, string beans, fried cassava, Mediterranean (fruit, vegetables, olive oil and nuts and traditional meal (rice and beans. Moderate and high adherences to the Mediterranean pattern were protective factors to general and central obesity (WHR. High adherence to prudent was also protective to central obesity (WC. Conclusion: adherences to the dietary patterns prudent and Mediterranean were protective factors to general and central obesity in elderly.

  14. The origin and crust/mantle mass balance of Central Andean ignimbrite magmatism constrained by oxygen and strontium isotopes and erupted volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freymuth, Heye; Brandmeier, Melanie; Wörner, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Volcanism during the Neogene in the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) of the Andes produced (1) stratovolcanoes, (2) rhyodacitic to rhyolitic ignimbrites which reach volumes of generally less than 300 km3 and (3) large-volume monotonous dacitic ignimbrites of up to several thousand cubic kilometres. We present models for the origin of these magma types using O and Sr isotopes to constrain crust/mantle proportions for the large-volume ignimbrites and explore the relationship to the evolution of the Andean crust. Oxygen isotope ratios were measured on phenocrysts in order to avoid the effects of secondary alteration. Our results show a complete overlap in the Sr-O isotope compositions of lavas from stratovolcanoes and low-volume rhyolitic ignimbrites as well as older (>9 Ma) large-volume dacitic ignimbrites. This suggests that the mass balance of crustal and mantle components are largely similar. By contrast, younger (estimated the volume of these ignimbrite deposits throughout the Central Andes during the Neogene and examined the spatiotemporal pattern of so-called ignimbrite flare-ups. We observe a N-S migration of maximum ages of the onset of large-volume "ignimbrite pulses" through time: Major pulses occurred at 19-24 Ma (e.g. Oxaya, Nazca Group), 13-14 Ma (e.g. Huaylillas and Altos de Pica ignimbrites) and 70 km3 Ma-1 km-1 (assuming plutonic/volcanic ratios of 1:5) which are additional to, but within the order of, the arc background magmatic flux. Comparing our results to average shortening rates observed in the Andes, we observe a "lag-time" with large-volume eruptions occurring after accelerated shortening. A similar delay exists between the ignimbrite pulses and the subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge. This is consistent with the idea that large-volume ignimbrite eruptions occurred in the wake of the N-S passage of the ridge after slab steepening has allowed hot asthenospheric mantle to ascend into and cause the melting of the mantle wedge. In our model, the

  15. Maser Emission Associated with Young High Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Khaled Abdalla Edris

    In this work the maser emission has been used to study the very early stage evolution of the young stars. The maser emission of OH molecule was searched for towards a sample of high mass protostellar objects using the Nançay and GBT telescopes. The sample of objects searched was selected to contain very young forming high mass stars. The results of this survey have been compared with previous H2O and CH3OH masers observations. Then MERLIN has been used to map the OH as well as H2O and CH3OH masers towards one of these sources in high angular resolution. The survey detected OH maser emission towards 63 objects with 37 new detections. There are 56 star forming regions and 7 OH/IR candidates. The detection of OH masers towards 26% of a sample of 217 sources should remove any doubt about the existence of OH maser emission towards these objects of this early evolutionary stage. Nearly half of the detected sources have OH fluxes rates and velocity range support the spatial association of OH and class II CH3OH masers as suggested by Caswell et al. [1995] and modelled by Cragg et al. [2002]. IRAS20126+4104 was mapped in the OH, water and methanol masers using MERLIN. The 1665-MHz OH, 22-GHz H2O and 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers are detected and all originate very close to the central source. The OH and methanol masers appear to trace part of the circumstellar disk around the central source. The positions and velocities of the OH masers are consistent with Keplerian rotation around a central mass of ˜5Msun. The water masers are offset from the OH and CH3OH masers and have significantly changed since they were last observed, but still appear to be associated outflow from the source. All the OH masers components are circular polarized, in some cases reaching 100 percent while some OH components also have low levels of linear polarization. We identified one Zeeman pair and the splitting of this pair indicate the presence of a magnetic field of strength ˜11 mG within ˜0.5" (850 AU

  16. The Role of the Mass Media in the Nigerian Electoral Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses generally on the role of the mass media in Nigerian electoral process as it pertains to overall development of Nigeria. The background is the recognition of the central role of the media in political and social affairs as a natural outcome of its unlimited communicative strength and outreach. The statement of ...

  17. Mediastinal mass: an unusual presentation of coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Umer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an endemic fungal disease, found mainly in the southwesternUnited States, northwestern Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinicalmanifestations vary depending upon both the extent of infection and the immune statusof the host. Pneumonia is the most common clinical presentation, and it rarely involvesthe central nervous system, skin, and bones. Patients with coccidioidomycosis usuallyrespond well to therapy if diagnosed and treated promptly. Here we report a rare caseof coccidioidomycosis infection in an immunocompromised host who presented with amediastinal mass.

  18. Variaciones de un glaciar de montaña en los Andes de Chile central en las últimas dos décadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIATIONS D’UN GLACIER DE MONTAGNE DANS LES ANDES DU CHILI CENTRAL AU COURS DES DEUX DERNIÈRES DÉCENNIES. Les résultats du bilan de masse du glacier Echaurren Norte sont présentés. Il s’agit d’un glacier de montagne de 0,4 km2 situé dans les Andes du Chili central, à 50 km à l’est de Santiago, à une altitude moyenne de 3 750 m. Ce programme de la Direction Générale d’Eaux du Chili a permis de recueillir régulièrement une information sur les bilans de masse pendant 18 ans, entre les années 1975 et 1993. C’est le seul registre de bilan de masse d’un glacier au Chili. L’ablation pendant la période de fonte a été de 252 cm d’eau en moyenne annuelle, avec une accumulation hivernale moyenne de 280 cm d’eau. Le bilan net est positif pour la période, mais on observe une grande variation interannuelle. Le bilan positif du glacier Echaurren Norte contraste avec le recul généralisé des autres glaciers du Chili central. Se presentan resultados del balance de masa del glaciar Echaurren Norte, un glaciar de montaña de 0,4 km2 ubicado a una altitud media de 3 750 m.s.n.m., en los Andes de Chile central, 50 km al este de Santiago. Los datos, recolectados como parte de un programa regular de la Dirección General de Aguas, Chile, cubren un período de 18 años, desde 1975 a 1993 y constituyen el único registro de balance de masa de un glaciar en Chile. La ablación durante el período de deshielo fue de 252 cm eq. en agua anuales en promedio, con una acumulación invernal promedio de 280 cm eq. en agua. El balance neto para el período es positivo, pero existe una gran variación interanual. El balance positivo del glaciar Echaurren Norte contrasta con el retroceso generalizado en otros glaciares de Chile central. VARIATIONS OF A MOUNTAIN GLACIER IN THE CENTRAL CHILEAN ANDES DURING THE LAST TWENTY YEARS. Mass balance results for Echaurren Norte Glacier are presented. This mountain glacier, with an area of 0,4 km2, is located at

  19. The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio of the Sculptor dwarf galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandroff, T. E.; Da Costa, G. S.

    1986-01-01

    The radial velocity, velocity dispersion, and mass-to-light ratio for 16 K giants in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy are calculated. Spectra at the Ca II triplet are analyzed using cross-correlation techniques in order to obtain the mean velocity of + 107.4 + or - 2.0 km/s. The dimensional velocity dispersion estimated as 6.3 (+1.1, -1.3) km/s is combined with the calculated core radius and observed central surface brightness to produce a mass-to-light ratio of 6.0 in solar units. It is noted that the data indicate that the Sculptor contains a large amount of mass not found in globular clusters, and the mass is either in the form of remnant stars or low-mass dwarfs.

  20. Production of φ mesons in central Si + Au collisions at 14.6 A·GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufeng

    1993-01-01

    The production of φ mesons from, central Si + Au collisions has been measured by E859 at the BNL-AGS by selecting events with identified K + K - pairs. The values for the mass and width of the φ obtained from the invariant mass of the kaon pairs are consistent with those of the Particle Data Book. Preliminary results for the invariant 1/2πm T d 2 n/dm T dy distribution and dN/dy are presented

  1. MR findings of primary central nervous system lymphoma in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftci, E.; Erden, I.; Akyar, S.

    1998-01-01

    MR imaging of a rare case of primary central nervous system lymphoma in a 12-year-old boy with headache and seizure is presented. MR imaging showed a mass lesion located in the corpus callosum. Diagnosis was made by stereotactic biopsy. The patient was treated with radiotherapy. Early control MR imaging showed a decrease in tumor size but after 12 months an increase in tumor size was detected. (orig.)

  2. Physical conditions, dynamics and mass distribution in the center of the galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Townes, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations of the central 10 pc of the Galaxy, and conclusions on energetics, dynamics, and mass distribution derived from X and gamma ray measurements and from infrared and microwave studies, especially from spectroscopy, high resolution imaging, and interferometry are reviewed. Evidence for and against a massive black hole is analyzed.

  3. Orden monetario y bancos centrales Monetary order and Central Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aglietta Michel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el enfoque evolucionista e institucionalista de la economía de las convenciones francesa, este trabajo analiza el surgimiento histórico de la banca central y la creación institucional del 'arte de la banca central'. El artículo estudia los modelos formales del orden monetario, la banca libre y la banca central, y analiza los eventos históricos que llevaron a que el Banco de Inglaterra inventara el arte de manejar los bancos centrales en conjunción con el aprendizaje colectivo e institucional que lo hizo posible. Aglietta muestra que la banca central no es una creación del Estado sino una creación institucional endógena al sistema de mercado.With the evolutionist and institutionalist focus of the economics of the French conventions, this paper analyzes the historical rise of the central bank and the institutional creation of the 'art of the central bank'. The article studies formal models of the monetary order, free banking and the central bank, and analyzes the historie events that led to the Bank of England inventing the art of managing the central banks, in conjunction with the collective and institutional learning that made it possible. Aglietta shows that the central bank is not a creation of the State, but rather aninstitutional creation endogenous to the market system.

  4. Mass profile and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 galaxy cluster LCDCS 0504

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Biviano, A.; Adami, C.; Limousin, M.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Mamon, G. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Gavazzi, R.; Cypriano, E. S.; Durret, F.; Clowe, D.; LeBrun, V.; Allam, S.; Basa, S.; Benoist, C.; Cappi, A.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Johnston, D.; Jullo, E.; Just, D.; Kubo, J. M.; Márquez, I.; Marshall, P.; Martinet, N.; Maurogordato, S.; Mazure, A.; Murphy, K. J.; Plana, H.; Rostagni, F.; Russeil, D.; Schirmer, M.; Schrabback, T.; Slezak, E.; Tucker, D.; Zaritsky, D.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Constraints on the mass distribution in high-redshift clusters of galaxies are currently not very strong. Aims: We aim to constrain the mass profile, M(r), and dynamical status of the z ~ 0.8 LCDCS 0504 cluster of galaxies that is characterized by prominent giant gravitational arcs near its center. Methods: Our analysis is based on deep X-ray, optical, and infrared imaging as well as optical spectroscopy, collected with various instruments, which we complemented with archival data. We modeled the mass distribution of the cluster with three different mass density profiles, whose parameters were constrained by the strong lensing features of the inner cluster region, by the X-ray emission from the intracluster medium, and by the kinematics of 71 cluster members. Results: We obtain consistent M(r) determinations from three methods based on kinematics (dispersion-kurtosis, caustics, and MAMPOSSt), out to the cluster virial radius, ≃1.3 Mpc and beyond. The mass profile inferred by the strong lensing analysis in the central cluster region is slightly higher than, but still consistent with, the kinematics estimate. On the other hand, the X-ray based M(r) is significantly lower than the kinematics and strong lensing estimates. Theoretical predictions from ΛCDM cosmology for the concentration-mass relation agree with our observational results, when taking into account the uncertainties in the observational and theoretical estimates. There appears to be a central deficit in the intracluster gas mass fraction compared with nearby clusters. Conclusions: Despite the relaxed appearance of this cluster, the determinations of its mass profile by different probes show substantial discrepancies, the origin of which remains to be determined. The extension of a dynamical analysis similar to that of other clusters of the DAFT/FADA survey with multiwavelength data of sufficient quality will allow shedding light on the possible systematics that affect the determination of mass

  5. The Regional Centrality of Vietnam’s Central Highlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salemink, Oscar

    2018-01-01

    strategic value turned it into a battleground among various Vietnamese parties, France, and the United States. It was here that the outcome of the Indochina wars was determined, but at a terrible price for the local population. After the adoption of economic reforms in reunified Vietnam the Central......Vietnam’s Central Highlands—or Tây Nguyên—area is usually described as remote, backward, and primitive, but this region has played a central role in the history of the surrounding states and the wider East and Southeast Asia region. Far from isolated, the Central Highlands engaged in trade...... various rivalrous polities now known as Vietnam, Champa, Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand, the area occupied a strategic position in the wider mainland Southeast Asia region. With the emergence of a unified, neo-Confucianist Vietnamese state the region lost its centrality until the late colonial era, when its...

  6. A PMT mass testing facility for the JUNO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietzsch, Alexander; Alsheimer, Isabell; Blum, David; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Sterr, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Bein, Bosse; Bick, Daniel; Ebert, Joachim; Hagner, Caren; Rebber, Henning; Steppat, Lisa; Wonsak, Bjoern [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) experiment will be one of the big neutrino oscillation experiments starting in the next years. The main goal of JUNO is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. To detect the sub-dominant effects in the oscillation pattern which depend on the mass hierarchy, the JUNO detector is planned with almost 20 kt fiducial volume, high light yield and energy resolution of better than 3%. In order to reach this, roughly 17000 newly developed high QE PMTs for the central detector, and additionally 2000 for the veto will be used. Each PMT has to be tested and characterized before it will be mounted in the experiment. This talk gives an overview on our plans and strategy for the mass test of all PMTs, and on the current status of the experimental test setup and next steps. The testing facility is developed in a cooperation between the Physical Institutes in Tuebingen and Hamburg within the JUNO collaboration.

  7. Measurements of mass-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in central p + Au, d + Au, and 3He + Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Alfred, M.; Andrieux, V.; Apadula, N.; Asano, H.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bagoly, A.; Bai, M.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bathe, S.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belmont, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Blau, D. S.; Boer, M.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Bumazhnov, V.; Campbell, S.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cervantes, R.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Chujo, T.; Citron, Z.; Connors, M.; Cronin, N.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Danley, T. W.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Dixit, D.; Do, J. H.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Fan, W.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fokin, S. L.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fukuda, Y.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Goto, Y.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Guragain, H.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; He, X.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hill, J. C.; Hill, K.; Hodges, A.; Hollis, R. S.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Imai, K.; Imrek, J.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Ji, Z.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Johnson, B. M.; Jorjadze, V.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kanda, S.; Kang, J. H.; Kapukchyan, D.; Karthas, S.; Kawall, D.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, M. H.; Kimelman, B.; Kincses, D.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Komkov, B.; Kotov, D.; Kudo, S.; Kurgyis, B.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Lacey, R.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leung, Y. H.; Lewis, N. A.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Lim, S. H.; Liu, M. X.; Loggins, V.-R.; Lökös, S.; Lovasz, K.; Lynch, D.; Majoros, T.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Masuda, H.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Metzger, W. J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mihalik, D. E.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J. T.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morrison, D. P.; Morrow, S. I.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagai, K.; Nagashima, K.; Nagashima, T.; Nagle, J. L.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novák, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ottino, G. J.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, M.; Peng, J.-C.; Peng, W.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perezlara, C. E.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Phipps, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Pun, A.; Purschke, M. L.; Radzevich, P. V.; Rak, J.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richford, D.; Rinn, T.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Runchey, J.; Safonov, A. S.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, K.; Sato, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seidl, R.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shioya, T.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Skoby, M. J.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Stankus, P. W.; Stepanov, M.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takeda, A.; Taketani, A.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnai, G.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Tomášek, M.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Ueda, Y.; Ujvari, B.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Carson, S.; Velkovska, J.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vukman, N.; Wang, X. R.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; White, A. S.; Wong, C. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xu, C.; Xu, Q.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamamoto, H.; Yanovich, A.; Yin, P.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zharko, S.; Zhou, S.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements of the transverse-momentum dependence of elliptic flow v2 for identified pions and (anti)protons at midrapidity (|η |<0.35 ), in 0%-5% central p +Au and 3He+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV. When taken together with previously published measurements in d +Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV, the results cover a broad range of small-collision-system multiplicities and intrinsic initial geometries. We observe a clear mass-dependent splitting of v2(pT) in d +Au and 3He+Au collisions, just as in large nucleus-nucleus (A +A ) collisions, and a smaller splitting in p +Au collisions. Both hydrodynamic and transport model calculations successfully describe the data at low pT (<1.5 GeV /c ), but fail to describe various features at higher pT. In all systems, the v2 values follow an approximate quark-number scaling as a function of the hadron transverse kinetic energy per constituent quark (K ET/nq ), which was also seen previously in A +A collisions.

  8. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; Shetye, S.; Maya, M.V.; Mangala, K.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    . (Position of Fig 1.) 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Water masses in the area of observation You and Tomczak (1993) has reviewed the water masses in the Indian Ocean identified by the earlier workers ( Sverdrup et al. 1942; Mamalev, 1975; and Shcherbinin... at 200 m at 5° S in the meridional region of our observations and flows down to 800 m to the north and termed as Indian central water (ICW) (You and Tomczak, 1993). (position of Fig.2) 3.2. Seasonal variability of water masses The seasonal...

  9. Star clusters containing massive, central black holes: evolution calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchant, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation presents a detailed, two-dimensional simulations of star cluster evolution. A Monte-Carlo method is adapted to simulate the development with time of isolated star clusters. Clusters which evolve on relaxation timescales with and without central black holes are treated. The method is flexible and rugged, rather than highly accurate. It treats the boundary conditions of stellar evaporation and tidal disruption by a central black hole in a precise, stochastic fashion. Dynamical cloning and renormalization and the use of a time-step adjustment algorithm enhance the feasibility of the method which simulates systems with wide ranges of intrinsic length and time scales. First, the method is applied to follow the development and core collapse of an initial Plummer-model cluster without a central black hole. Agreement of these results for early times with the results of previous authors serves as a verification of this method. Three calculations of cluster re-expansion, each beginning with the insertion of a black hole at the center of a highly collapsed cluster core is presented. Each case is characterized by a different value of initial black hole mass or black hole accretion efficiency for the consumption of debris from disrupted stars. It is found that for the special cases examined here substantial, but not catastrophic, growth of the central black hole may accompany core re-expansion. Also, the observability of the evolutionary phases associated with core collapse and re-expansion, constraints on x-ray sources which could be associated with growing black holes, and the observable signature of the cusp of stars surrounding a central black hole are discussed

  10. Correlation between the Total Gravitating Mass of Groups and Clusters and the Supermassive Black Hole Mass of Brightest Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) residing in the brightest cluster galaxies are over-massive relative to the stellar bulge mass or central stellar velocity dispersion of their host galaxies. As BHs residing at the bottom of the galaxy cluster’s potential well may undergo physical processes that are driven by the large-scale characteristics of the galaxy clusters, it is possible that the growth of these BHs is (indirectly) governed by the properties of their host clusters. In this work, we explore the connection between the mass of BHs residing in the brightest group/cluster galaxies (BGGs/BCGs) and the virial temperature, and hence total gravitating mass, of galaxy groups/clusters. To this end, we investigate a sample of 17 BGGs/BCGs with dynamical BH mass measurements and utilize XMM-Newton X-ray observations to measure the virial temperatures and infer the {M}500 mass of the galaxy groups/clusters. We find that the {M}{BH}{--}{kT} relation is significantly tighter and exhibits smaller scatter than the {M}{BH}{--}{M}{bulge} relations. The best-fitting power-law relations are {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ )=0.20+1.74{{log}}10({kT}/1 {keV}) and {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ ) = -0.80+1.72{{log}}10({M}{bulge}/{10}11 {M}ȯ ). Thus, the BH mass of BGGs/BCGs may be set by physical processes that are governed by the properties of the host galaxy group/cluster. These results are confronted with the Horizon-AGN simulation, which reproduces the observed relations well, albeit the simulated relations exhibit notably smaller scatter.

  11. A computational model to generate simulated three-dimensional breast masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisternes, Luis de; Brankov, Jovan G.; Zysk, Adam M.; Wernick, Miles N., E-mail: wernick@iit.edu [Medical Imaging Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Schmidt, Robert A. [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Nishikawa, Robert M. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To develop algorithms for creating realistic three-dimensional (3D) simulated breast masses and embedding them within actual clinical mammograms. The proposed techniques yield high-resolution simulated breast masses having randomized shapes, with user-defined mass type, size, location, and shape characteristics. Methods: The authors describe a method of producing 3D digital simulations of breast masses and a technique for embedding these simulated masses within actual digitized mammograms. Simulated 3D breast masses were generated by using a modified stochastic Gaussian random sphere model to generate a central tumor mass, and an iterative fractal branching algorithm to add complex spicule structures. The simulated masses were embedded within actual digitized mammograms. The authors evaluated the realism of the resulting hybrid phantoms by generating corresponding left- and right-breast image pairs, consisting of one breast image containing a real mass, and the opposite breast image of the same patient containing a similar simulated mass. The authors then used computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods and expert radiologist readers to determine whether significant differences can be observed between the real and hybrid images. Results: The authors found no statistically significant difference between the CAD features obtained from the real and simulated images of masses with either spiculated or nonspiculated margins. Likewise, the authors found that expert human readers performed very poorly in discriminating their hybrid images from real mammograms. Conclusions: The authors’ proposed method permits the realistic simulation of 3D breast masses having user-defined characteristics, enabling the creation of a large set of hybrid breast images containing a well-characterized mass, embedded within real breast background. The computational nature of the model makes it suitable for detectability studies, evaluation of computer aided diagnosis algorithms, and

  12. A computational model to generate simulated three-dimensional breast masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisternes, Luis de; Brankov, Jovan G.; Zysk, Adam M.; Wernick, Miles N.; Schmidt, Robert A.; Nishikawa, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop algorithms for creating realistic three-dimensional (3D) simulated breast masses and embedding them within actual clinical mammograms. The proposed techniques yield high-resolution simulated breast masses having randomized shapes, with user-defined mass type, size, location, and shape characteristics. Methods: The authors describe a method of producing 3D digital simulations of breast masses and a technique for embedding these simulated masses within actual digitized mammograms. Simulated 3D breast masses were generated by using a modified stochastic Gaussian random sphere model to generate a central tumor mass, and an iterative fractal branching algorithm to add complex spicule structures. The simulated masses were embedded within actual digitized mammograms. The authors evaluated the realism of the resulting hybrid phantoms by generating corresponding left- and right-breast image pairs, consisting of one breast image containing a real mass, and the opposite breast image of the same patient containing a similar simulated mass. The authors then used computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) methods and expert radiologist readers to determine whether significant differences can be observed between the real and hybrid images. Results: The authors found no statistically significant difference between the CAD features obtained from the real and simulated images of masses with either spiculated or nonspiculated margins. Likewise, the authors found that expert human readers performed very poorly in discriminating their hybrid images from real mammograms. Conclusions: The authors’ proposed method permits the realistic simulation of 3D breast masses having user-defined characteristics, enabling the creation of a large set of hybrid breast images containing a well-characterized mass, embedded within real breast background. The computational nature of the model makes it suitable for detectability studies, evaluation of computer aided diagnosis algorithms, and

  13. Deciphering the contrasting climatic trends between the central Himalaya and Karakoram with 36 years of WRF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jesse; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Cannon, Forest

    2018-02-01

    Glaciers over the central Himalaya have retreated at particularly rapid rates in recent decades, while glacier mass in the Karakoram appears stable. To address the meteorological factors associated with this contrast, 36 years of Climate Forecast System Reanalyses (CFSR) are dynamically downscaled from 1979 to 2015 with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over High Mountain Asia at convection permitting grid spacing (6.7 km). In all seasons, CFSR shows an anti-cyclonic warming trend over the majority of High Mountain Asia, but distinctive differences are observed between the central Himalaya and Karakoram in winter and summer. In winter and summer, the central Himalaya has been under the influence of an anti-cyclonic trend, which in summer the downscaling shows has reduced cloud cover, leading to significant warming and reduced snowfall in recent years. Contrastingly, the Karakoram has been near the boundary between large-scale cyclonic and anti-cyclonic trends and has not experienced significant snowfall or temperature changes in winter or summer, despite significant trends in summer of increasing cloud cover and decreasing shortwave radiation. This downscaling does not identify any trends over glaciers in closer neighboring regions to the Karakoram (e.g., Hindu Kush and the western Himalaya) where glaciers have retreated as over the central Himalaya, indicating that there are other factors driving glacier mass balance that this downscaling is unable to capture. While this study does not fully explain the Karakoram anomaly, the identified trends detail important meteorological contributions to the observed differences between central Himalaya and Karakoram glacier evolution in recent decades.

  14. Value of body mass index in the diagnosis of obesity according to DEXA in well-controlled RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Winniczuk, Nina; Vega-Morales, David; García-Hernandez, Pedro A; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Garza-Elizondo, Mario A; Arana-Guajardo, Ana C

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has an indirect effect on body composition. Body mass index (BMI) is not a valid predictor of body fat in RA patients. To evaluate the accuracy of BMI in identifying obesity diagnosed according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in well-controlled RA patients. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study. We used 3 different cutoffs for obesity as determined by DXA: >35% total fat, >40% total fat, and >35% central fat mass (central obesity). One hundred one patients were included. We found that 35% total fat corresponded to a BMI of 24kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 75% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.917); 40% total fat to a BMI of 25kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 39% (AUC 0.822); and 35% central fat mass to a BMI of 22kg/m 2 , with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 84% (AUC 0.951). Obesity according to DXA was underdiagnosed when the classic BMI cutoffs were used in well-controlled RA patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Calculations of mass and moment of inertia for neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moelnvik, T.; Oestgaard, E.

    1985-01-01

    Masses and moments of inertia for slowly-rotating neutron stars are calculated from the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations and various equations of state for neutron-star matter. We have also obtained pressure and density as a function of the distance from the centre of the star. Generally, two different equations of state are applied for particle densities n>0.47 fm -3 and n -3 . The maximum mass is, in our calculations for all equations of state except for the unrealistic non-relativistic ideal Fermi gas, given by 1.50 Msub(sun) 44 gxcm 2 45 gxcm 2 , which also seem to agree very well with 'experimental results'. The radius of the star corresponding to maximum mass and maximum moment of inertia is given by 8.2 km< R<10.0 km, but a smaller central density rhosub(c) will give a larger radius. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the Merits of International Service-Learning in Developing Professionalism in Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, Phillip; Sturgill, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed how an international service-learning course affected mass communication students' knowledge of professionalism. Using written reflections and focus group transcripts from four courses that took place in Central America, we observed that placing students in immersive environments, where they are able to work on authentic…

  17. Large scale electromechanical transistor with application in mass sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-07

    Nanomechanical transistor (NMT) has evolved from the single electron transistor, a device that operates by shuttling electrons with a self-excited central conductor. The unfavoured aspects of the NMT are the complexity of the fabrication process and its signal processing unit, which could potentially be overcome by designing much larger devices. This paper reports a new design of large scale electromechanical transistor (LSEMT), still taking advantage of the principle of shuttling electrons. However, because of the large size, nonlinear electrostatic forces induced by the transistor itself are not sufficient to drive the mechanical member into vibration—an external force has to be used. In this paper, a LSEMT device is modelled, and its new application in mass sensing is postulated using two coupled mechanical cantilevers, with one of them being embedded in the transistor. The sensor is capable of detecting added mass using the eigenstate shifts method by reading the change of electrical current from the transistor, which has much higher sensitivity than conventional eigenfrequency shift approach used in classical cantilever based mass sensors. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the mass sensor.

  18. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...

  19. A CLUSTER IN THE MAKING: ALMA REVEALS THE INITIAL CONDITIONS FOR HIGH-MASS CLUSTER FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Contreras, Y.; Longmore, S. N.; Bastian, N.; Jackson, J. M.; Alves, J. F.; Bally, J.; Foster, J. B.; Garay, G.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Testi, L.; Walsh, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    G0.253+0.016 is a molecular clump that appears to be on the verge of forming a high-mass cluster: its extremely low dust temperature, high mass, and high density, combined with its lack of prevalent star formation, make it an excellent candidate for an Arches-like cluster in a very early stage of formation. Here we present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array observations of its small-scale (∼0.07 pc) 3 mm dust continuum and molecular line emission from 17 different species that probe a range of distinct physical and chemical conditions. The data reveal a complex network of emission features with a complicated velocity structure: there is emission on all spatial scales, the morphology of which ranges from small, compact regions to extended, filamentary structures that are seen in both emission and absorption. The dust column density is well traced by molecules with higher excitation energies and critical densities, consistent with a clump that has a denser interior. A statistical analysis supports the idea that turbulence shapes the observed gas structure within G0.253+0.016. We find a clear break in the turbulent power spectrum derived from the optically thin dust continuum emission at a spatial scale of ∼0.1 pc, which may correspond to the spatial scale at which gravity has overcome the thermal pressure. We suggest that G0.253+0.016 is on the verge of forming a cluster from hierarchical, filamentary structures that arise from a highly turbulent medium. Although the stellar distribution within high-mass Arches-like clusters is compact, centrally condensed, and smooth, the observed gas distribution within G0.253+0.016 is extended, with no high-mass central concentration, and has a complex, hierarchical structure. If this clump gives rise to a high-mass cluster and its stars are formed from this initially hierarchical gas structure, then the resulting cluster must evolve into a centrally condensed structure via a dynamical process

  20. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E. Yup; Lee, Jae Kyu; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Phil Wook

    2003-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  1. Improved vibration-based energy harvesting by annular mass configuration of piezoelectric circular diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yangyiwei; Li, Yuanbo; Guo, Yaqian; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Yang, Tongqing

    2018-03-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting using piezoelectric circular diaphragms (PCDs) with a structure featuring the central mass (C-mass) configuration has drawn much attention in recent decades. In this work, we propose a new configuration with the annular proof mass (A-mass) where an improved energy harvesting is promised. The numerical analysis was employed using the circuit-coupled piezoelectric simulation, and the experimental validation was implemented using PCDs with the even-width annular electrodes. Samples with the different mass configurations as well as structural parameters ϖ 1 and ϖ 2, which indicate the ratio between the inner boundary radius and piezoelectric ceramic radius as well as the ratio between outer boundary radius and the substrate radius, respectively, were prepared and tested. The impedance-matched output power of full-electrode PCDs was also collected, and some distinct improvement was measured on samples with the certain structural parameters. The power increases from 14.1 mW to 19.0 mW after changing the configuration from C-mass to A-mass with the same parameters (ϖ 1, ϖ 2) = (0.16, 0.9), showing the considerable improvement in energy harvesting by using A-mass configuration.

  2. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL 0.5 pc OF THE GALAXY. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Do, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Matthews, K., E-mail: jlu@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tuan.do@uci.edu, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: kym@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way plays host to a massive, young cluster that may have formed in one of the most inhospitable environments in the Galaxy. We present new measurements of the global properties of this cluster, including the initial mass function (IMF), age, and cluster mass. These results are based on Keck laser-guide-star adaptive optics observations used to identify the young stars and measure their Kp-band luminosity function as presented in Do et al. A Bayesian inference methodology is developed to simultaneously fit the global properties of the cluster utilizing the observations and extensive simulations of synthetic star clusters. We find that the slope of the mass function for this cluster is {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2, which is steeper than previously reported, but still flatter than the traditional Salpeter slope of 2.35. The age of the cluster is between 2.5 and 5.8 Myr with 95% confidence, which is a younger age than typically adopted but consistent within the uncertainties of past measurements. The exact age of the cluster is difficult to determine since our results show two distinct age solutions (3.9 Myr and 2.8 Myr) due to model degeneracies in the relative number of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. The total cluster mass is between 14,000 and 37,000 M {sub Sun} above 1 M {sub Sun} and it is necessary to include multiple star systems in order to fit the observed luminosity function and the number of observed Wolf-Rayet stars. The new IMF slope measurement is now consistent with X-ray observations indicating a factor of 10 fewer X-ray emitting pre-main-sequence stars than expected when compared with a Salpeter IMF. The young cluster at the Galactic center is one of the few definitive examples of an IMF that deviates significantly from the near-universal IMFs found in the solar neighborhood.

  3. UA2 central calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    The UA2 central calorimeter measured the energy of individual particles created in proton-antiproton collisions. Accurate calibration allowed the W and Z masses to be measured with a precision of about 1%. The calorimeter had 24 slices like this one, each weighing 4 tons. The slices were arranged like orange segments around the collision point. Incoming particles produced showers of secondary particles in the layers of heavy material. These showers passed through the layers of plastic scintillator, generating light which was taken by light guides (green) to the data collection electronics. The amount of light was proportional to the energy of the original particle. The inner 23 cm of lead and plastic sandwiches measured electrons and photons; the outer 80 cm of iron and plastic sandwiches measured strongly interacting hadrons. The detector was calibrated by injecting light through optical fibres or by placing a radioactive source in the tube on the bottom edge.

  4. Peculiar early-type galaxies with central star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Chong; Gu Qiusheng

    2012-01-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are very important for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. Recent observations suggest that ETGs are not simply old stellar spheroids as we previously thought. Widespread recent star formation, cool gas and dust have been detected in a substantial fraction of ETGs. We make use of the radial profiles of g — r color and the concentration index from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database to pick out 31 peculiar ETGs with central blue cores. By analyzing the photometric and spectroscopic data, we suggest that the blue cores are caused by star formation activities rather than the central weak active galactic nucleus. From the results of stellar population synthesis, we find that the stellar population of the blue cores is relatively young, spreading from several Myr to less than one Gyr. In 14 galaxies with H I observations, we find that the average gas fraction of these galaxies is about 0.55. The bluer galaxies show a higher gas fraction, and the total star formation rate (SFR) correlates very well with the H I gas mass. The star formation history of these ETGs is affected by the environment, e.g. in the denser environment the H I gas is less and the total SFR is lower. We also discuss the origin of the central star formation of these early-type galaxies.

  5. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  6. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z -score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all P resistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z -scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z -scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  7. Forward-central jet correlations in pp collisions at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro Miguel

    2014-03-15

    The azimuthal correlation between central and forward jets has been measured in proton-proton collisions at the LHC recorded with the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. Both jets were required to have a minimum transverse momentum of 35 GeV. The forward jet was reconstructed in the hadronic forward calorimeter within the pseudo-rapidity range 3.2< vertical stroke η vertical stroke < 4.7, while the central jet was limited to vertical stroke η vertical stroke < 2.8. The measurement is performed inclusively and also differentially for different separations in pseudo-rapidity, the largest separation allowed by the CMS detector being Δη=7.5 units. The analysis is carried out for inclusive dijet events which is then divided into two sub-samples. In one of these sub-samples, an additional jet with p{sub T}>20 GeV in the pseudo rapidity interval between the forward and the central jet is required, while in the second sub-sample events containing such jets are explicitly vetoed. Furthermore, observables describing additional jets outside of the pseudo-rapidity interval spanned by the dijet system are measured. Most of the results are found to be well described by DGLAP-based Monte Carlo event generators.

  8. Caught in the rhythm. I. How satellites settle into a plane around their central galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, C.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Devriendt, J.; Chisari, N. E.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The anisotropic distribution of satellites around the central galaxy of their host halo is both well-documented in observations and predicted by the ΛCDM model. However its amplitude, direction and possible biases associated to the specific dynamics of such satellite galaxies are still highly debated. Aims: Using the cosmological hydrodynamics simulation Horizon-AGN, we aim to quantify the anisotropy of the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies relative to their central counterpart and explore its connexion to the local cosmic web, in the redshift range between 0.3 and 0.8. Methods: Haloes and galaxies were identified and their kinematics computed using their dark matter and stellar particles respectively. Sub-haloes were discarded and galaxies lying within 5 Rvir of a given halo are matched to it. The filamentary structure of the cosmic web was extracted from the density field - smoothed over a 3 h-1 Mpc typical scale - as a network of contiguous segments. We then investigated the distribution function of relevant angles, most importantly the angle α between the central-to-satellite separation vector and the group's nearest filament, aside with the angle between this same separation and the central minor axis. This allowed us to explore the correlations between filamentary infall, intra-cluster inspiralling and the resulting distribution of satellites around their central counterpart. Results: We find that, on average, satellites tend to be located on the galactic plane of the central object. This effect is detected for central galaxies with a stellar mass larger than 1010 M⊙ and found to be strongest for red passive galaxies, while blue galaxies exhibit a weaker trend. For galaxies with a minor axis parallel to the direction of the nearest filament, we find that the coplanarity is stronger in the vicinity of the central galaxy, and decreases when moving towards the outskirts of the host halo. By contrast, the spatial distribution of satellite

  9. The distribution of mass for spiral galaxies in clusters and in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, D.A.; Whitmore, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between the mass distributions of spiral galaxies in clusters and in the field using Burstein's mass-type methodology. Both the H-alpha emission-line rotation curves and more extended H I rotation curves are used. The fitting technique for determining mass types used by Burstein and coworkers has been replaced by an objective chi-sq method. Mass types are shown to be a function of both the Hubble type and luminosity, contrary to earlier results. The present data show a difference in the distribution of mass types for spiral galaxies in the field and in clusters, in the sense that mass type I galaxies, where the inner and outer velocity gradients are similar, are generally found in the field rather than in clusters. This can be understood in terms of the results of Whitmore, Forbes, and Rubin (1988), who find that the rotation curves of galaxies in the central region of clusters are generally failing, while the outer galaxies in a cluster and field galaxies tend to have flat or rising rotation curves. 15 refs

  10. Rapidity and centrality dependence of proton and anti-proton production from 197Au+197Au collisions at √(sNN) = 130 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhaskar, P.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Corral, M.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Ganti, M.S.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Grosnick, D.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gupta, A.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Konstantinov, A.S.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the rapidity and centrality dependence of proton and anti-proton transverse mass distributions from 197 Au + 197 Au collisions at √s NN = 130 GeV as measured by the STAR experiment at RHIC. Our results are from the rapidity and transverse momentum range of |y| t < 1.00 GeV/c. For both protons and anti-protons, transverse mass distributions become more convex from peripheral to central collisions demonstrating characteristics of collective expansion. The measured rapidity distributions and the mean transverse momenta versus rapidity are flat within |y| < 0.5. Comparisons of our data with results from model calculations indicate that in order to obtain a consistent picture of the proton(anti-proton) yields and transverse mass distributions the possibility of pre-hadronic collective expansion may have to be taken into account

  11. Observation and study of centrally produced pion clusters in 28.5-GeV/c p-p interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, A.R.; Harvey, E.H.; Larson, G.P.; Collins, G.B.; Ficenec, J.R.; Stringfellow, B.C.; Trower, W.P.; Gutay, L.J.; Laasanen, A.; Willmann, R.B.; Anderson, E.W.; Fisher, G.P.; Lazuras, E.; von Lindern, L.; Ramanauskas, A.; Schubelin, P.; Thorndike, A.M.; Turkot, F.

    1976-01-01

    A double-arm spectrometer is used to identify a pion cluster produced in central p-p collisions at 28.5 GeV/c. Cluster properties studied are angular momentum, quantum statistics, multiplicity, and effective mass. There is some speculation on the production mechanism

  12. Central diffraction in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7TeV with ALICE at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidt, Felix [Physikalisches Institut, Im Neuenheimer Feld 226, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A double-gap topology is used for filtering central-diffractive events from a protonproton minimum-bias data sample at a centre-of-mass energy Central diffraction in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s) = 7TeV. This topology is defined by particle activity in the ALICE central barrel and absence of particle activity outside. The fraction of events satisfying the double-gap requirement R{sub DG} is found to be 7.63{+-}0.02(st at.){+-}0.87(syst.) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}. The background of this double-gap fraction is estimated by studying the contributions of non-diffractive, single-and double-diffractive dissociation processes as modelled by Monte Carlo event generators, and is found to be about 10%.

  13. Central diffraction in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 7TeV with ALICE at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidt, Felix

    2013-01-01

    A double-gap topology is used for filtering central-diffractive events from a protonproton minimum-bias data sample at a centre-of-mass energy Central diffraction in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 7TeV. This topology is defined by particle activity in the ALICE central barrel and absence of particle activity outside. The fraction of events satisfying the double-gap requirement R DG is found to be 7.63±0.02(st at.)±0.87(syst.)×10 −4 . The background of this double-gap fraction is estimated by studying the contributions of non-diffractive, single-and double-diffractive dissociation processes as modelled by Monte Carlo event generators, and is found to be about 10%.

  14. Virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma advancing to central precocious puberty after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Yang, Eu Jeen; Cho, Dong Hyu; Hwang, Pyung Han; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2015-05-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) in pediatric and adolescent patients is rare, and it is associated with various clinical symptoms. We introduce the case of an 8-year-old boy with ACC who presented with peripheral precocious puberty at his first visit. He displayed penis enlargement with pubic hair and facial acne. His serum adrenal androgen levels were elevated, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a right suprarenal mass. After complete surgical resection, the histological diagnosis was ACC. Two months after surgical removal of the mass, he subsequently developed central precocious puberty. He was treated with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to delay further pubertal progression. In patients with functioning ACC and surgical removal, clinical follow-up and hormonal marker examination for the secondary effects of excessive hormone secretion may be a useful option at least every 2 or 3 months after surgery.

  15. Effects of maternal characteristics and climatic variation on birth masses of Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence birth mass of mammals provides insights to nutritional trade-offs made by females to optimize their reproduction, growth, and survival. I evaluated variation in birth mass of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in central Alaska relative to maternal characteristics (age, body mass, cohort, and nutritional condition as influenced by winter severity) during 11 years with substantial variation in winter snowfall. Snowfall during gestation was the predominant factor explaining variation in birth masses, influencing birth mass inversely and through interactions with maternal age and lactation status. Maternal age effects were noted for females ≤ 5 years old, declining in magnitude with each successive age class. Birth mass as a proportion of autumn maternal mass was inversely related to winter snowfall, even though there was no decrease in masses of adult females in late winter associated with severe winters. I found no evidence of a hypothesized intergenerational effect of lower birth masses for offspring of females born after severe winters. Caribou produce relatively small offspring but provide exceptional lactation support for those that survive. Conservative maternal investment before parturition may represent an optimal reproductive strategy given that caribou experience stochastic variation in winter severity during gestation, uncertainty of environmental conditions surrounding the birth season, and intense predation on neonates.

  16. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarto, D D; Fong, H H S; Tan, G T; Zhang, H J; Ma, C Y; Franzblau, S G; Gyllenhaal, C; Riley, M C; Kadushin, M R; Pezzuto, J M; Xuan, L T; Hiep, N T; Hung, N V; Vu, B M; Loc, P K; Dac, L X; Binh, L T; Chien, N Q; Hai, N V; Bich, T Q; Cuong, N M; Southavong, B; Sydara, K; Bouamanivong, S; Ly, H M; Thuy, Tran Van; Rose, W C; Dietzman, G R

    2005-08-22

    Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology has contributed to the discovery of many important plant-derived drugs. Field explorations to seek and document indigenous/traditional medical knowledge (IMK/TMK), and/or the biodiversity with which the IMK/TMK is attached, and its conversion into a commercialized product is known as bioprospecting or biodiversity prospecting. When performed in a large-scale operation, the effort is referred to as mass bioprospecting. Experiences from the mass bioprospecting efforts undertaken by the United States National Cancer Institute, the National Cooperative Drug Discovery Groups (NCDDG) and the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups (ICBG) programs demonstrate that mass bioprospecting is a complex process, involving expertise from diverse areas of human endeavors, but central to it is the Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) that recognizes issues on genetic access, prior informed consent, intellectual property and the sharing of benefits that may arise as a result of the effort. Future mass bioprospecting endeavors must take heed of the lessons learned from past and present experiences in the planning for a successful mass bioprospecting venture.

  17. Rock mass characterization for Copenhagen Metro using face logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Louise; Galsgaard, Jens; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    An extension of the existing Metro in central Copenhagen is currently under construction. We present a comparison of the different field logging techniques available from a large number of borehole logs and face logs carried out during the construction in cooperation with the constructor and client......, describing rock mass characteristics using detailed face logging with geological description and recording of induration and fracturing, giving a field RQD value during excavation, combined with televiewer logs, when available, has shown to be a valuable tool for rock mass characterization compared......’s representatives, which illustrate and approve the applied methods. The new ‘Cityringen’ Metro will consist of two 16 km single track tunnels, with 17 stations and 3 construction and ventilation shafts. The geological ground conditions are dominated by glacial and postglacial deposits overlying Paleocene Greensand...

  18. Comprehensive and accurate tracking of carbon origin of LC-tandem mass spectrometry collisional fragments for 13C-MFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappelmann, Jannick; Klein, Bianca; Geilenkirchen, Petra; Noack, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the benefit of measuring positionally resolved 13 C-labeling enrichment from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) collisional fragments for improved precision of 13 C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ( 13 C-MFA) has become evident. However, the usage of positional labeling information for 13 C-MFA faces two challenges: (1) The mass spectrometric acquisition of a large number of potentially interfering mass transitions may hamper accuracy and sensitivity. (2) The positional identity of carbon atoms of product ions needs to be known. The present contribution addresses the latter challenge by deducing the maximal positional labeling information contained in LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra of product anions of central metabolism as well as product cations of amino acids. For this purpose, we draw on accurate mass spectrometry, selectively labeled standards, and published fragmentation pathways to structurally annotate all dominant mass peaks of a large collection of metabolites, some of which with a complete fragmentation pathway. Compiling all available information, we arrive at the most detailed map of carbon atom fate of LC-ESI-MS/MS collisional fragments yet, comprising 170 intense and structurally annotated product ions with unique carbon origin from 76 precursor ions of 72 metabolites. Our 13 C-data proof that heuristic fragmentation rules often fail to yield correct fragment structures and we expose common pitfalls in the structural annotation of product ions. We show that the positionally resolved 13 C-label information contained in the product ions that we structurally annotated allows to infer the entire isotopomer distribution of several central metabolism intermediates, which is experimentally demonstrated for malate using quadrupole-time-of-flight MS technology. Finally, the inclusion of the label information from a subset of these fragments improves flux precision in a Corynebacterium glutamicum model of the central carbon metabolism.

  19. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E. Yup; Lee, Jae Kyu; Kim, Chan Kyo; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Phil Wook [Armed Forces Capital Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  20. DAGMARITA SHHREZAENSIS N. SP. GLOBIVALVULINID FORAMINIFER, (WUCHIAPINGIAN, LATE PERMIAN, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARVIN MOHTAT-AGHAI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the course of an investigation on the major mass extintion event near the P/T boundary, in the vicinity of Shahreza (South Isfahan in Iran, a stratigraphically significant new species of foraminifera (Dagmarita shahreaensis n. sp. has been discovered in the Wuchiapingian/Dzhulfian (Late Permian of central Iran (Hambast Formation. This new species is described and emplaced in the phylogeny of the globivalvulinid foraminifera, which evolved rapidly during the Middle/Late Permian. 

  1. Central exclusive $J/\\psi$ and $\\chi_c$ production at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, S

    2013-01-01

    Central exclusive $J/\\psi$ and $\\chi_c$ meson production has been measured in decays to dimuons with the LHCb detector, in data corresponding to 36 pb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity from $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 TeV proton-proton collisions. Cross-section measurements for $J/\\psi$, $\\psi$ (2S) and $\\chi_{c0,c1,c2}$ production are presented, and the $J/\\psi$ photoproduction cross-section is measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and compared to measurements made at HERA.

  2. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, V.; Moore, I.; Nadel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance

  3. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  4. Slovenian National Landslide DataBase – A promising approach to slope mass movement prevention plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Ribičič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian territory is, geologically speaking, very diverse and mainly composed of sediments or sedimentary rocks. Slope mass movements occur almost in all parts of the country. In the Alpine carbonate areas of the northern part of Slovenia rock falls, rock slides and even debris flows can be triggered.In the mountainous regions of central Slovenia composed from different clastic rocks, large soil landslides are quite usual, and in the young soil sediments of eastern part of Slovenia there is a large density of small soil landslides.The damage caused by slope mass movements is high, but still no common strategy and regulations to tackle this unwanted event, especially from the aspect of prevention, have been developed. One of the first steps towards an effective strategy of struggling against landslides and other slope mass movements is a central landslide database, where (ideally all known landslide occurrences would be reported, and described in as much detail as possible. At the end of the project of National Landslide Database construction which ended in May 2005 there were more than 6600 registered landslides, of which almost half occurred at a known location and were accompanied with the main characteristic descriptions.The erected database is a chance for Slovenia to once and for all start a solid slope mass movement prevention plan. The only part which is missing and which is the most important one is adopting a legal act that will legalise the obligation of reporting slope mass movement events to the database.

  5. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF THE CLIMATE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AROUND DIFFERENT MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E., E-mail: kadoya@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tajika@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Faculty of Science Bldg. 1 #711, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-07-10

    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO{sub 2} degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.

  6. EVOLUTIONARY TRACKS OF THE CLIMATE OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS AROUND DIFFERENT MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, S.; Tajika, E.

    2016-01-01

    The climatic evolution of the Earth depends strongly on the evolution of the insolation from the Sun and the amount of the greenhouse gasses, especially CO_2 in the atmosphere. Here, we investigate the evolution of the climate of hypothetical Earths around stars whose masses are different from the solar mass with a luminosity evolution model of the stars, a mantle degassing model coupled with a parameterized convection model of the planetary interiors, and an energy balance climate model of the planetary surface. In the habitable zone (HZ), the climate of the planets is initially warm or hot, depending on the orbital semimajor axes. We found that, in the inner HZ, the climate of the planets becomes hotter with time owing to the increase in the luminosity of the central stars, while, in the outer HZ, it becomes colder and eventually globally ice-covered owing to the decrease in the CO_2 degassing rate of the planets. The orbital condition for maintaining the warm climate similar to the present Earth becomes very limited, and more interestingly, the planet orbiting in the outer HZ becomes globally ice-covered after a certain critical age (∼3 Gyr for the hypothetical Earth with standard parameters), irrespective of the mass of the central star. This is because the critical age depends on the evolution of the planets and planetary factors, rather than on the stellar mass. The habitability of the Earth-like planet is shown to be limited with age even though it is orbiting within the HZ.

  7. The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędraś, Marek; Brona, Anna; Jóźków, Paweł

    : Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass. Withdrawal from AAS may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.

  8. Water mass distributions and transports for the 2014 GEOVIDE cruise in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ibáñez, Maribel I.; Pérez, Fiz F.; Lherminier, Pascale; Zunino, Patricia; Mercier, Herlé; Tréguer, Paul

    2018-04-01

    We present the distribution of water masses along the GEOTRACES-GA01 section during the GEOVIDE cruise, which crossed the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean and the Labrador Sea in the summer of 2014. The water mass structure resulting from an extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP) analysis provides the framework for interpreting the observed distributions of trace elements and their isotopes. Central Waters and Subpolar Mode Waters (SPMW) dominated the upper part of the GEOTRACES-GA01 section. At intermediate depths, the dominant water mass was Labrador Sea Water, while the deep parts of the section were filled by Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and North-East Atlantic Deep Water. We also evaluate the water mass volume transports across the 2014 OVIDE line (Portugal to Greenland section) by combining the water mass fractions resulting from the eOMP analysis with the absolute geostrophic velocity field estimated through a box inverse model. This allowed us to assess the relative contribution of each water mass to the transport across the section. Finally, we discuss the changes in the distribution and transport of water masses between the 2014 OVIDE line and the 2002-2010 mean state. At the upper and intermediate water levels, colder end-members of the water masses replaced the warmer ones in 2014 with respect to 2002-2010, in agreement with the long-term cooling of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre that started in the mid-2000s. Below 2000 dbar, ISOW increased its contribution in 2014 with respect to 2002-2010, with the increase being consistent with other estimates of ISOW transports along 58-59° N. We also observed an increase in SPMW in the East Greenland Irminger Current in 2014 with respect to 2002-2010, which supports the recent deep convection events in the Irminger Sea. From the assessment of the relative water mass contribution to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) across the OVIDE line, we conclude that the larger AMOC intensity in

  9. A density cusp of quiescent X-ray binaries in the central parsec of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Bauer, Franz E.; Berkowitz, Michael E.; Hong, Jaesub; Hord, Benjamin J.

    2018-04-01

    The existence of a ‘density cusp’—a localized increase in number—of stellar-mass black holes near a supermassive black hole is a fundamental prediction of galactic stellar dynamics. The best place to detect such a cusp is in the Galactic Centre, where the nearest supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, resides. As many as 20,000 black holes are predicted to settle into the central parsec of the Galaxy as a result of dynamical friction; however, so far no density cusp of black holes has been detected. Low-mass X-ray binary systems that contain a stellar-mass black hole are natural tracers of isolated black holes. Here we report observations of a dozen quiescent X-ray binaries in a density cusp within one parsec of Sagittarius A*. The lower-energy emission spectra that we observed in these binaries is distinct from the higher-energy spectra associated with the population of accreting white dwarfs that dominates the central eight parsecs of the Galaxy. The properties of these X-ray binaries, in particular their spatial distribution and luminosity function, suggest the existence of hundreds of binary systems in the central parsec of the Galaxy and many more isolated black holes. We cannot rule out a contribution to the observed emission from a population (of up to about one-half the number of X-ray binaries) of rotationally powered, millisecond pulsars. The spatial distribution of the binary systems is a relic of their formation history, either in the stellar disk around Sagittarius A* (ref. 7) or through in-fall from globular clusters, and constrains the number density of sources in the modelling of gravitational waves from massive stellar remnants, such as neutron stars and black holes.

  10. Offender and offense characteristics of a nonrandom sample of mass murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, A G; Meloy, J R; Richards, T C

    1999-01-01

    A nonrandom sample (N = 30) of mass murderers in the United States and Canada during the past 50 years was studied. Data suggest that such individuals are single or divorced males in their fourth decade of life with various Axis I paranoid and/or depressive conditions and Axis II personality traits and disorders, usually Clusters A and B. The mass murder is precipitated by a major loss related to employment or relationship. A warrior mentality suffuses the planning and attack behavior of the subject, and greater deaths and higher casualty rates are significantly more likely if the perpetrator is psychotic at the time of the offense. Alcohol plays a very minor role. A large proportion of subjects will convey their central motivation in a psychological abstract, a phrase or sentence yelled with great emotion at the beginning of the mass murder; but in our study sample, only 20 percent directly threatened their victims before the offense. Death by suicide or at the hands of others is the usual outcome for the mass murderer.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF THE BODY MASS INDEXES ON THE DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES IN SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milomir Trivun

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 39 tested male students of the Faculty of Physical Education at the University in East Sarajevo, who were 22 years +-6 months old in 2007/08 academic year, there has been done the research on the effects of the body mass indexes on the different sections in swimming. The results gained using the measures of the central tendencies and regression analysis showed the different effects of the body mass indexes in swimming. The results were in the relation with stylistic ways of moving at 50m and 100m swimming the crawl.

  12. M*/L gradients driven by IMF variation: large impact on dynamical stellar mass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M.; Sheth, R. K.; Dominguez-Sanchez, H.; Fischer, J.-L.; Chae, K.-H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Shankar, F.

    2018-06-01

    Within a galaxy the stellar mass-to-light ratio ϒ* is not constant. Recent studies of spatially resolved kinematics of nearby early-type galaxies suggest that allowing for a variable initial mass function (IMF) returns significantly larger ϒ* gradients than if the IMF is held fixed. We show that ignoring such IMF-driven ϒ* gradients can have dramatic effect on dynamical (M_*^dyn), though stellar population (M_*^SP) based estimates of early-type galaxy stellar masses are also affected. This is because M_*^dyn is usually calibrated using the velocity dispersion measured in the central regions (e.g. Re/8) where stars are expected to dominate the mass (i.e. the dark matter fraction is small). On the other hand, M_*^SP is often computed from larger apertures (e.g. using a mean ϒ* estimated from colours). If ϒ* is greater in the central regions, then ignoring the gradient can overestimate M_*^dyn by as much as a factor of two for the most massive galaxies. Large ϒ*-gradients have four main consequences: First, M_*^dyn cannot be estimated independently of stellar population synthesis models. Secondly, if there is a lower limit to ϒ* and gradients are unknown, then requiring M_*^dyn=M_*^SP constrains them. Thirdly, if gradients are stronger in more massive galaxies, then accounting for this reduces the slope of the correlation between M_*^dyn/M_*^SP of a galaxy with its velocity dispersion. In particular, IMF-driven gradients bring M_*^dyn and M_*^SP into agreement, not by shifting M_*^SP upwards by invoking constant bottom-heavy IMFs, as advocated by a number of recent studies, but by revising M_*^dyn estimates in the literature downwards. Fourthly, accounting for ϒ* gradients changes the high-mass slope of the stellar mass function φ (M_*^dyn), and reduces the associated stellar mass density. These conclusions potentially impact estimates of the need for feedback and adiabatic contraction, so our results highlight the importance of measuring ϒ* gradients in

  13. Measurements of the $W$ Boson Mass with the D0 Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes de Sa, Rafael [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In the first part, we describe what is the W boson mass in the context of the Standard Model. We discuss the prominent role this physical observable plays in the determination of the internal self consistency of the Electroweak Sector. We review measurements and calculation of the W boson mass done in past and argue about the importance and feasibility of improving the experimental determination. We give a description of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and the D0 detector, highlighting the relevant parts for the measurement described in this Dissertation. In the second part, we give a detailed description of a measurement of the W boson mass using the D0 Central Calorimeter. The measurement uses 1.68 x 106 candidates from W → en decays, corresponding to 4.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected from 2006 to 2009. We measure the mass using the transverse mass, electron transverse momentum, and missing transverse energy distributions. The transverse mass and electron transverse momentum measurements are the most precise and are combined to give MW = 80.367 ± 0.013(stat) ± 0.023 (syst) GeV = 80.367 ± 0.026 GeV. This is combined with an earlier D0 result determined using an independent 1 fb-1 data sample, also with central electrons only, to give MW = 80.375± 0.023 GeV. The uncertainty in the measurement is dominated by the determination of the calorimeter electron energy scale, the W sample size, the knowledge of the parton distribution function. In the third part, we discuss methods of reducing the dominant uncertainties in the W boson mass measurements. We show that introducing electrons detected in the End Calorimeters greatly reduce the measurement systematic uncertainty, especially the on related to the parton distribution functions. We describe a precise calibration of the End Calorimeter using Z → ee events corresponding to 4.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The calibration is an important

  14. CT and MRI analysis of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatang; Lang Senyang; Pu Chuanqiang; Zhu Ruyuan; Wang Dianjun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT and MRI imaging features of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease and to enhance knowledge and differential diagnostic ability for central nervous system Rosai-Doffman disease. Methods: The CT and MRI imaging appearances in 4 cases of pathologically proven Rosai-Dorfman disease were retrospectively evaluated and the literature of central nervous system Rosai- Dorfman disease were reviewed. Results: Two cases had cranial CT scans, 4 cases had cranial MRI scans. On CT scans, cerebral edema was demonstrated in one case and the other case was normal. MRI scans showed the lesions were solitary in saddle area in 3 cases, and multiple in anterior cranial fossa in 1 case. The lesions exhibited iso- to hypointensity on both T 1 WI and T 2 WI images. Following intravenous injection of contrast medium, ring-like enhancement was seen in 2 cases and homogeneous enhancement in 1 case. Nodular enhancement was seen in the case of multiple lesions in the anterior cranial fossa. All lesions were dural-based. Conclusions: In patients with fever, headache, elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and a polyclonal increase in γ-globulins, the possibility of central nervous system Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered when single or multiple dural-based mass lesions, especially in sellar region, were identified by CT and MRI. (authors)

  15. MR imaging of a ruptured intraspinal dermoid tumour with fat droplets in the central spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadag, D.; Karaguelle, A.T.; Erden, A.; Erden, I.

    2002-01-01

    We report a patient with intramedullary ruptured spinal dermoid tumour. The MR imaging revealed an intramedullary lumbar mass heterogenous in intensity in all sequences. Fat droplets were observed in the subarachnoid space as well as in the dilated central spinal canal. Fat droplets in the subarachnoid space are frequently seen in the rupture of intraspinal dermoid tumours; however, fat droplets within the central canal is quite rare and was unexpected. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in the determination of spinal pathologies before they become large enough to cause severe symptoms and/or morbidity. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Searches for high-mass supersymmetry using masses of large-radius jets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Results are reported from two searches for supersymmetric particles in final states with multiple jets, including several b-tagged jets, with and without large missing transverse momentum. The data sample corresponds to 2.3 fb − 1 (2.7 fb − 1 without missing transverse momentum) of pp collisions recorded by the CMS experiment at √ s = 13 TeV. The searches focus on processes with massive, high multiplicity final states, such as gluino pair production with the gluino decaying to top quarks and a neutralino, and gluino pair production with R-parity violating gluino decay to top, bottom and strange quarks. Both searches use the quantity M J , the sum of the masses of the large-radius jets, to discriminate between signal and background, establish control regions for other discriminating variables, and as a central piece of the background estimation. The observed event yields are consistent with the standard model expectations, and the results are interpreted in terms of limits on simplified supersymmetric mo...

  17. Centrality determination of Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahn, Sang Un; Ahn, Sul-Ah; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Arend, Andreas; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Asryan, Andzhey; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Francesco; Blanco, F; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boccioli, Marco; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caballero Orduna, Diego; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carlin Filho, Nelson; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castillo Hernandez, Juan Francisco; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crescio, Elisabetta; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Das, Kushal; Dash, Sadhana; Dash, Ajay Kumar; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; De Marco, Nora; Denes, Ervin; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deppman, Airton; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Di Bari, Domenico; Dietel, Thomas; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floratos, Emmanuel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Gargiulo, Corrado; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Gros, Philippe; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Ramni; Gupta, Anik; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Han, Byounghee; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hippolyte, Boris; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Innocenti, Pier Giorgio; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Rudolf; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kaidalov, Alexei; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khan, Kamal Hussain; Khan, Palash; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Taesoo; Kim, Do Won; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kliemant, Michael; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kompaniets, Mikhail; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kvaerno, Henning; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; La Rocca, Paola; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Legrand, Iosif; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon, Hermes; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Ma, Ke; Madagodahettige-Don, Dilan Minthaka; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Mangotra, Lalit Kumar; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martashvili, Irakli; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mizuno, Sanshiro; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Ochirov, Alexander; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Ostrowski, Piotr Krystian; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozawa, Kyoichiro; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Pastircak, Blahoslav; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Planinic, Mirko; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pocheptsov, Timur; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polak, Karel; Polichtchouk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puddu, Giovanna; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Sudhir; Raniwala, Rashmi; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schuster, Tim; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Sharma, Rohni; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Tinku; Sinha, Bikash; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Symons, Timothy; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Ter-Minasyan, Astkhik; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Tlusty, David; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Toscano, Luca; Trubnikov, Victor; Truesdale, David Christopher; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Haitao; Zhou, You; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, Daicui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianlin; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-10-15

    This publication describes the methods used to measure the centrality of inelastic Pb–Pb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per colliding nucleon pair with ALICE. The centrality is a key parameter in the study of the properties of QCD matter at extreme temperature and energy density, because it is directly related to the initial overlap region of the colliding nuclei. Geometrical properties of the collision, such as the number of participating nucleons and number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, are deduced from a Glauber model with a sharp impact parameter selection, and shown to be consistent with those extracted from the data. The centrality determination provides a tool to compare ALICE measurements with those of other experiments and with theoretical calculations.

  18. Central and peripheral fat and subclinical vascular damage in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Francesco; Rossi, Andrea P; Cazzadori, Marco; Comellato, Gabriele; Mazzali, Gloria; Gozzoli, Maria Paola; Grison, Elisa; Zamboni, Mauro

    2013-05-01

    the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between fat distribution and arterial compliance in a group of elderly women, in particular to test a possible independent role of abdominal fat mass and peripheral fat mass on subclinical vascular damage, defined by a pulse wave velocity (PWV) >12 m/s. in 96 women with age range 60-80 years (68.65 ± 4.98 years) and BMI range from 18.8 to 41.2 kg/m(2) (27.07 ± 4.61 kg/m(2)), we evaluated the body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral (PWVcf) and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWVcr). significant associations were found between PWVcf, age, waist circumference, BMI and trunk fat assessed by DXA, as well as TG and HDL cholesterol. After adjustment for the total fat mass a negative statistically significant association between PWVcf and leg fat mass was shown. In multiple regression analyses the mean arterial pressure, trunk fat mass and leg fat mass were significant predictors of vascular damage with OR, respectively, of 1.06 (CI: 1.01-1.11), 1.25 (CI: 1.06-1.48) and 0.73 (CI: 0.53-0.99). the results of this study show, in a sample of apparently healthy elderly women, that central and peripheral adiposity are independent predictors, with an opposite effect on subclinical vascular damage, confirming and strengthening the protective role of the gluteal-femoral fat on cardiovascular risk even in elderly.

  19. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  20. SALPETER NORMALIZATION OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Shravan; Cappellari, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key parameter for studying galaxy evolution. Here we measure the IMF mass normalization for a sample of 68 field galaxies in the redshift range 0.7-0.9 within the Extended Groth Strip. To do this we derive the total (stellar + dark matter) mass-to-light [(M/L)] ratio using axisymmetric dynamical models. Within the region where we have kinematics (about one half-light radius), the models assume (1) that mass follows light, implying negligible differences between the slope of the stellar and total density profiles, (2) constant velocity anisotropy (β z ≡1−σ z 2 /σ R 2 =0.2), and (3) that galaxies are seen at the average inclination for random orientations (i.e., i = 60°, where i = 90° represents edge-on). The dynamical models are based on anisotropic Jeans equations, constrained by Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and the central velocity dispersion of the galaxies, extracted from good-quality spectra taken by the DEEP2 survey. The population (M/L) are derived from full-spectrum fitting of the same spectra with a grid of simple stellar population models. Recent dynamical modeling results from the ATLAS 3D project and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution indicate that the dark matter fraction within the central regions of our galaxies should be small. This suggests that our derived total (M/L) should closely approximate the stellar M/L. Our comparison of the dynamical (M/L) and the population (M/L) then implies that for galaxies with stellar mass M * ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , the average normalization of the IMF is consistent with a Salpeter slope, with a substantial scatter. This is similar to what is found within a similar mass range for nearby galaxies

  1. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of LMC/M33-mass dwarf galaxies in the EAGLE simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shi; Cautun, Marius; Deason, Alis J.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the population of dwarf galaxies with stellar masses similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and M33 in the EAGLE galaxy formation simulation. In the field, galaxies reside in haloes with stellar-to-halo mass ratios of 1.03^{+0.50}_{-0.31}× 10^{-2} (68% confidence level); systems like the LMC, which have an SMC-mass satellite, reside in haloes about 1.3 times more massive, which suggests an LMC halo mass at infall, M_{200}=3.4^{+1.8}_{-1.2}× 10^{11}{ M_⊙ } (68% confidence level). The colour distribution of dwarfs is bimodal, with the red galaxies (g - r > 0.6) being mostly satellites. The fraction of red LMC-mass dwarfs is 15% for centrals, and for satellites this fraction increases rapidly with host mass: from 10% for satellites of Milky Way (MW)-mass haloes to nearly 90% for satellites of groups and clusters. The quenching timescale, defined as the time after infall when half of the satellites have acquired red colours, decreases with host mass from >5 Gyrs for MW-mass hosts to 2.5 Gyrs for cluster mass hosts. The satellites of MW-mass haloes have higher star formation rates and bluer colours than field galaxies. This is due to enhanced star formation triggered by gas compression shortly after accretion. Both the LMC and M33 have enhanced recent star formation that could be a manifestation of this process. After infall into their MW-mass hosts, the g - r colours of LMC-mass dwarfs become bluer for the first 2 Gyrs, after which they rapidly redden. LMC-mass dwarfs fell into their MW-mass hosts only relatively recently, with more than half having an infall time of less than 3.5 Gyrs.

  3. Age of depositional and weathering events in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Lucy Gomes; Soares, Emílio Alberto do Amaral; Riccomini, Claudio; Tatumi, Sonia Hatsue; Yee, Marcio

    2017-08-01

    In the last three decades, several studies have been devoted to understanding the role of Late Pleistocene-Holocene climate changes in the Amazonia lowlands environment. However, most of these studies used data obtained from sedimentary deposits (lakes, swamps, and colluvium) located away from the central plain or on the edges of the Amazonia region. This article integrates optically stimulated luminescence and accelerated mass spectrometry 14C ages with sedimentological and geomorphological data obtained during this study or compiled from the literature for fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the central alluvial plain of the Solimões-Amazon River. The age data allow us to present a chronological framework for the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits and conclude that (i) the dryness of the LGM in central Amazonia lowlands is recorded by the formation of fluvial terraces and their weathering to pedogenic hematite between 25.3 ka and 17.7 ka; (ii) floodplain deposition was contemporaneous with terrace weathering and occurred in a context of decreased water volume in fluvial channels, lowering of river base level and sea level, and isostatic rebound of the continent; and (iii) lateral and mid-channel fluvial bars in the Solimões-Amazon River have a minimum age of 11.5 ± 1.5 ka, and their deposition responded to increased precipitation at the beginning of the Holocene.

  4. Principles and applications of a research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, J.E.; Risby, T.H.; Jurs, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    A research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system for a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been developed based on a centrally located departmental computer facility. An overview of the hardware and software system is presented, emphasizing the important aspects of on-line computer data acquisition and control and the design philosophy used in the development of the system. The application of the system is demonstrated by the g.c.-m.s. analysis of a mixture of four transition metal β-diketonates (Al, Cr, Rh, and Ru tris-1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate). This anaysis involved vacuum gas chromatography with a support-coated open tubular column and detection of the eluent by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate the data system capabilities and indicate the utility of the combined methodologies. (Auth.)

  5. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting as a presacral mass: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradnya S Bhadarge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs are a group of highly malignant small round cell tumor (SRCT of neuroectodermal origin. They exhibit a great diversity in their clinical manifestations and pathologic similarities with other SRCTs. PNET commonly occurs in the central nervous system, head and neck region, paravertebral region, pelvis, and lower extremities. PNET presenting as a presacral mass is very rare. We present a case of 65-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of mass was carried out. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of PNET. The rarity of PNET at presacral region prompted the description of this case.

  6. Measurement of the centrality dependence of $J/{\\psi}$ yields and observation of Z production in lead-lead collisions with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, M.D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; 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Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosendahl, P.L.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L.P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rottlander, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rust, D.R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N.C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schoning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skinnari, L.A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T.J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stillings, J.A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-07-16

    Using the ATLAS detector, a centrality-dependent suppression has been observed in the yield of $J/{\\psi}$ mesons produced in the collisions of lead ions at the Large Hadron Collider. In a sample of minimum-bias lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre of mass energy $\\surd sNN$ = 2.76 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 6.7 ${\\mu}b^{-1}$, $J/{\\psi}$ mesons are reconstructed via their decays to ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ pairs. The measured $J/{\\psi}$ yield, normalized to the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions, is found to significantly decrease from peripheral to central collisions. The centrality dependence is found to be qualitatively similar to the trends observed at previous, lower energy experiments. The same sample is used to reconstruct Z bosons in the ${\\mu}+{\\mu}-$ final state, and a total of 38 candidates are selected in the mass window of 66 to 116 GeV. The relative Z yields as a function of centrality are also presented, although no conclusion can be inferred about their s...

  7. Estimate of regional groundwater recharge rate in the Central Haouz Plain, Morocco, using the chloride mass balance method and a geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait El Mekki, Ouassil; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Hanich, Lahoucine

    2017-07-01

    Located in the extreme northwest of Africa, the Kingdom of Morocco is increasingly affected by drought. Much of the country is characterised by an arid to semi-arid climate and the demand for water is considerably higher than the supply, particularly on the Haouz Plain in the centre of the country. The expansion of agriculture and tourism, in addition to industrial development and mining, have exacerbated the stress on water supplies resulting in drought. It is therefore necessary to adopt careful management practices to preserve the sustainability of the water resources in this region. The aquifer recharge rate in the piedmont region that links the High Atlas and the Central Haouz Plain was estimated using the chloride mass balance hydrochemical method, which is based on the relationship between the chloride concentrations in groundwater and rainwater. The addition of a geographical information system made it possible to estimate the recharge rate over the whole 400 km2 of the study area. The results are presented in the form of a map showing the spatialized recharge rate, which ranges from 13 to 100 mm/year and the recharge percentage of the total rainfall varies from 3 to 25 % for the hydrological year 2011-2012. This approach will enable the validation of empirical models covering areas >6200 km2, such as the Haouz nappe.

  8. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  9. Galactic spiral arms formed by central explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havnes, O.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations have been made of spiral arm formation due to central explosions in a nucleus surrounded by a disc containing most of the galactic mass with the purpose of obtaining estimates on lifetimes of arms and the requirements on the energy involved in the process. The ejected gas is taken to be a few percent, or less, of the central nucleus and is ejected with velocities of the order of 1000 km s -1 . The gas, considered to be in forms of blobs, moves under the gravitational force from the disc and the nucleus and the drag force by the gas in the disc. The orbits of the blobs evolve towards the circular orbits of the disc due to this drag force and the velocities in the arms will therefore, after some time, approach those of a normal rotation curve. A relatively open structure will last 8 years. Stable ring structures with longer lifetimes may be formed by some explosions. With an energy of approximately 5 x 10 57 erg in the initial gas-blob motion and a duration of the explosion of approximately 10 7 years, the energy output in such explosions has to be > 10 43 erg s -1 . (Auth.)

  10. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.

  11. Mass conflict and care in war affected areas. In search of assessment and psychosocial intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in this thesis is focused on the relevance of psychosocial programs in areas of mass violence. Central questions are: how to assess needs in terms of psychosocial health, how to best address those needs, and what is the effectiveness of these mental health interventions? Our findings in

  12. Challenges ahead for mass spectrometry and proteomics applications in epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Benedikt M

    2010-02-01

    Inheritance of biological information to future generations depends on the replication of DNA and the Mendelian principle of distribution of genes. In addition, external and environmental factors can influence traits that can be propagated to offspring, but the molecular details of this are only beginning to be understood. The discoveries of DNA methylation and post-translational modifications on chromatin and histones provided entry points for regulating gene expression, an area now defined as epigenetics and epigenomics. Mass spectrometry turned out to be instrumental in uncovering molecular details involved in these processes. The central role of histone post-translational modifications in epigenetics related biological processes has revitalized mass spectrometry based investigations. In this special report, current approaches and future challenges that lay ahead due to the enormous complexity are discussed.

  13. Top quark and Higgs boson masses: Interplay between infared and ultraviolet physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, B.; Wimmer, M.

    1996-05-01

    We review recent efforts to explore the information on masses of heavy matter particles, notable of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as encoded at the quantum level in the renormalization group equations. The standard model (SM) and the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) are considered in parallel throughout. First, the question is addressed to which extent the infrared physics of the ''top-down'' renormalization group flow is independent of the ultraviolet physics. The central issues are (i) infrared attractive fixed point values for the top and the Higgs mass, the most outstanding one being m t =O (190 GeV) sin β in the MSSM, (ii) infrared attractive relations between parameters, the most prominent ones being an infrared fixed top-Higgs mass relation in the SM, leading to m H =O (156 GeV) for the experimental top mass, and an infrared fixed relation between the top mass and the parameter tan β in the MSSM, and (iii) a systematical analytical assessment of their respective strengths of attraction. The triviality and vacuum stability bounds on the Higgs and top masses in the SM as well as the upper bound on the mass of the lightest Higgs boson in the MSSM are reviewed. The mathematical backbone for all these features, the rich structure of infrared attractive fixed points, lines, surfaces,.. in the corresponding multiparameter space, is made transparent

  14. Aerosol composition and sources in the central Arctic Ocean during ASCOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R. Y.-W.; Leck, C.; Graus, M.; Müller, M.; Paatero, J.; Burkhart, J. F.; Stohl, A.; Orr, L. H.; Hayden, K.; Li, S.-M.; Hansel, A.; Tjernström, M.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of submicron aerosol chemical composition were made over the central Arctic Ocean from 5 August to 8 September 2008 as a part of the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). The median levels of sulphate and organics for the entire study were 0.051 and 0.055 μ g m-3, respectively. Positive matrix factorisation was performed on the entire mass spectral time series and this enabled marine biogenic and continental sources of particles to be separated. These factors accounted for 33% and 36% of the sampled ambient aerosol mass, respectively, and they were both predominantly composed of sulphate, with 47% of the sulphate apportioned to marine biogenic sources and 48% to continental sources, by mass. Within the marine biogenic factor, the ratio of methane sulphonate to sulphate was 0.25 ± 0.02, consistent with values reported in the literature. The organic component of the continental factor was more oxidised than that of the marine biogenic factor, suggesting that it had a longer photochemical lifetime than the organics in the marine biogenic factor. The remaining ambient aerosol mass was apportioned to an organic-rich factor that could have arisen from a combination of marine and continental sources. In particular, given that the factor does not correlate with common tracers of continental influence, we cannot rule out that the organic factor arises from a primary marine source.

  15. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  16. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Flajšman

    Full Text Available We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults, hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea, although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  17. Dermatomycosis in three central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) associated with Nannizziopsis chlamydospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Ukaj, Silvana; Loncaric, Igor; Spergser, Joachim; Richter, Barbara; Hochleithner, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Chronic dermatomycosis was identified in 3 central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), held as companion animals by the same owner. Clinical signs of dermatomycosis included subcutaneous masses as well as crusty, erosive, and ulcerative skin lesions. The facial region was affected in 2 of the 3 cases. Masses were surgically excised, and histology confirmed necrotizing and granulomatous inflammatory processes associated with fungal hyphae. Two of the bearded dragons were euthanized because of their deteriorating condition. In both cases, postmortem histology confirmed systemic fungal infections despite treatment of 1 animal with itraconazole. In the third bearded dragon, therapy with voriconazole at 10 mg/kg was initially effective, but mycotic lesions reappeared 15 months later. Nannizziopsis chlamydospora was identified by PCR and subsequent DNA sequencing in 2 of these cases. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kioumehr, F.; Dadsetan, M.R.; Rooholamini, S.A.; Au, A.

    1994-02-01

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  19. Centrally necrotizing breast carcinoma: a rare histological subtype, which was cause of misdiagnosis in an evident clinical local recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernanz Fernando

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Centrally necrotizing carcinoma is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma, which is characterized by an extensive central necrotic zone accounting for at least 70% of the cross-sectional area of the neoplasm. This central necrotic zone, in turn, is surrounded by a narrow rim of proliferative viable tumor cells. We report an unusual clinical situation in which a patient whose evident breast mass suggested an ipsilateral local recurrence and for which numerous attempts to confirm the histological diagnosis had failed. The patient was treated with a radical mastectomy based on clinical suspicion of breast cancer recurrence after an undesirable delay. In this case, the narrow rim of viable malignant tissue had a thickness of 0.5 to 8 mm, and the centrally necrotizing carcinoma had a central zone with a predominance of fibrosis. The special features of this case led to a misdiagnosis and to an evident clinical local recurrence.

  20. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level...... and could be part of a risk assessment. The study site was Risby Landfill, an old unlined landfill located in a clay till setting on central Zealand, Denmark. The contaminant mass discharge was determined for three common leachate indicators: chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium. For instance......, the mass discharge of chloride from the landfill was 9.4ton/year and the mass discharge of chloride to the deep limestone aquifer was 1.4ton/year. This resulted in elevated concentrations of leachate indicators (chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium) in the groundwater. The mass discharge...

  1. Precision measurement of the mass and width of the W boson at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Sarah Alam

    2009-01-01

    A precision measurement of the mass and width of the W boson is presented. The W bosons are produced in proton antiproton collisions occurring at a centre of mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron accelerator. The data used for the analyses is collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and corresponds to an average integrated luminosity of 350 pb -1 for the W width analysis for the electron and muon channels and an average integrated luminosity of 2350 pb -1 for the W mass analysis. The mass and width of the W boson is extracted by fitting to the transverse mass distribution, with the peak of the distribution being most sensitive to the mass and the tail of the distribution sensitive to the width. The W width measurement in the electron and muon channels is combined to give a final result of 2032 ± 73 MeV. The systematic uncertainty on the W mass from the recoil of the W boson against the initial state gluon radiation is discussed. A systematic study of the recoil in Z → e + e - events where one electron is reconstructed in the central calorimeter and the other in the plug calorimeter and its effect on the W mass is presented for the first time in this thesis.

  2. Search for quark compositeness with the dijet centrality ratio in pp collisions at √s=7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Obraztsov, S; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Andreev, V; Azarkin, M; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Krpic, D; Milosevic, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Maestre, J Alcaraz; Arce, P; Battilana, C; Calvo, E; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Colino, N; De La Cruz, B; Pardos, C Diez; Bedoya, C Fernandez; Ramos, J P Fernández; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Lopez, O Gonzalez; Lopez, S Goy; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Merino, G; Pelayo, J Puerta; Redondo, I; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Willmott, C; Albajar, C; Codispoti, G; de Trocóniz, J F; Cuevas, J; Menendez, J Fernandez; Folgueras, S; Caballero, I Gonzalez; Iglesias, L Lloret; Garcia, J M Vizan; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Llatas, M Chamizo; Chuang, S H; Campderros, J Duarte; Felcini, M; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Sanchez, J Gonzalez; Suarez, R Gonzalez; Jorda, C; Pardo, P Lobelle; Virto, A Lopez; Marco, J; Marco, R; Rivero, C Martinez; Matorras, F; Gomez, J Piedra; Rodrigo, T; Jimeno, A Ruiz; Scodellaro, L; Sanudo, M Sobron; Vila, I; Cortabitarte, R Vilar; Abbaneo, D; Auffray, E; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bell, A J; Benedetti, D; Bernet, C; Bialas, W; Bloch, P; Bocci, A; Bolognesi, S; Breuker, H; Brona, G; Bunkowski, K; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cerminara, G; Christiansen, T; Perez, J A Coarasa; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; D'Enterria, D; Dahms, T; De Roeck, A; Elliott-Peisert, A; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gennai, S; Georgiou, G; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Glege, F; Garrido, R Gomez-Reino; Gouzevitch, M; Gowdy, S; Guiducci, L; Hansen, M; Harvey, J; Hegeman, J; Hegner, B; Henderson, C; Hoffmann, H F; Honma, A; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Karavakis, E; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; 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Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Sawley, M-C; Stieger, B; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Urscheler, C; Wallny, R; Weber, M; Wehrli, L; Weng, J; Aguiló, E; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; De Visscher, S; Favaro, C; Rikova, M Ivova; Jaeger, A; Mejias, B Millan; Regenfus, C; Robmann, P; Rommerskirchen, T; Schmidt, A; Snoek, H; Wilke, L; Chang, Y H; Chen, K H; Chen, W T; Dutta, S; Go, A; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Liu, M H; Liu, Z K; Lu, Y J; Wu, J H; Yu, S S; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chang, Y H; Chang, Y W; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y; Kao, K Y; Lei, Y J; Lu, R-S; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Wang, M; Wei, J T; Adiguzel, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Demir, Z; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gökbulut, G; Güler, Y; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Karaman, T; Topaksu, A Kayis; Nart, A; Onengüt, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatöz, A; Sogut, K; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Uzun, D; Vergili, L N; Vergili, M; Zorbilmez, C; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; 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    2010-12-31

    A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at √s=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb(-1) collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the standard model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

  3. Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in $pp$ Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2010-12-01

    A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 inverse picobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the Standard Model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

  4. Despina Hatzifotiadou: ALICE Master Class 3 - Theory: strangeness enhancement; centrality of lead-lead collisions; efficiency, yield, background etc

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This is the 3rd of 4 short online videos. It explains what is: strangeness enhancement; centrality of lead-lead collisions; efficiency, yield, background etc. More details and related links on this indico event page. In more detail: What is Physics Master Classes Students after morning lectures, run programmes in the afternoon to do measurements. These tutorials are about how to use the software required to do these measurements. Background info and examples  Looking for strange particles with ALICE http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/Public/MasterCL/MasterClassWebpage.html Introduction to first part of the exercise : what are strange particles, V0 decays, invariant mass. Demonstration of the software for the 1st part of the exercise - visual identification of V0s Introduction to second part of the exercise : strangeness enhancement; centrality of lead-lead collisions; explanation of efficiency, yield, background etc Demonstration of the software for the 2nd part of the exercise - invariant mass spectr...

  5. Search for Quark Compositeness with the Dijet Centrality Ratio in pp Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hartl, Christian; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Benucci, Leonardo; Ceard, Ludivine; De Wolf, Eddi A.; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Adler, Volker; Beauceron, Stephanie; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Joris; Maes, Michael; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Marinov, Andrey; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Demin, Pavel; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Ferreira Dias, Marco Andre; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Novaes, Sergio F.; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dyulendarova, Milena; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Marinova, Evelina; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Yang, Min; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Fereos, Reginos; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A.; Rykaczewski, Hans; Abdel-basit, Ahmed; Assran, Yasser; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Kannike, Kristjan; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Klem, Jukka; Kortelainen, Matti J.; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Besson, Auguste; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Falkiewicz, Anna; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Xiao, Hong; Roinishvili, Vladimir; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Hof, Carsten; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Masetti, Gianni; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Parenti, Andrea; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Srivastava, Ajay Kumar; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Wolf, Roger; Bauer, Julia; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; Daeuwel, Daniel; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Neuland, Maike Brigitte; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Piparo, Danilo; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Renz, Manuel; Sabellek, Andreas; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A.; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Debreczeni, Gergely; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Laszlo, Andras; Sikler, Ferenc; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Sharma, Richa; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jas Bir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chauhan, Sushil; Choudhary, Brajesh C.; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Kumar, Ashok; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kataria, Sushil Kumar; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Suggisetti, Praveenkumar; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Dimitrov, Anton; Fedele, Francesca; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Genta, Chiara; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Tancini, Valentina; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cimmino, Anna; De Cosa, Annapaola; De Gruttola, Michele; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Noli, Pasquale; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bellato, Marco; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gonella, Franco; Gresele, Ambra; Gulmini, Michele; Kaminskiy, Alexandre; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Santocchia, Attilio; Servoli, Leonello; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Volpe, Roberta; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Organtini, Giovanni; Palma, Alessandro; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Trocino, Daniele; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ambroglini, Filippo; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz Burelo, Eduard; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A.; Allfrey, Philip; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H.; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R.; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Sá Martins, Pedro; Mini, Giuliano; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Raposo, Luis; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Silva, Pedro; Soares, David; Varela, Joao; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr., Michael; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Bondar, Nikolai; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Shreyber, Irina; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V.; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M.; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Beaudette, Florian; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Breuker, Horst; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cano, Eric; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Covarelli, Roberto; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; Dahms, Torsten; De Roeck, Albert; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Gennai, Simone; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Henderson, Conor; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lourenco, Carlos; Macpherson, Alick; Maki, Tuula; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stöckli, Fabian; Stoye, Markus; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Caminada, Lea; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hervé, Alain; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nardulli, Alessandro; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguiló, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jaeger, Andreas; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Wilke, Lotte; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Chen, Wan-Ting; Dutta, Suchandra; Go, Apollo; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Ming-Hsiung; Liu, Zong-kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wei, Jui-Te; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Demir, Zahide; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gökbulut, Gül; Güler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Nart, Alisah; Önengüt, Gülsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatöz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Halu, Arda; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bell, Peter; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Heath, Greg P.; Heath, Helen F.; Huckvale, Benedickt; Jackson, James; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M.; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Smith, Vincent J.; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W.; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M.; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David J.A.; Coughlan, John A.; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Kennedy, Bruce W.; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R.; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R.; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Clough, Andrew; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St. John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Esen, Selda; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Cebra, Daniel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Shen, Benjamin C.; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G.; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Muelmenstaedt, Johannes; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Witherell, Michael; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Kcira, Dorian; Litvine, Vladimir; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B.; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Terentyev, Nikolay; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T.; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Blekman, Freya; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Fields, Laura Johanna; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Henriksson, Kristofer; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Liu, Yao; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Riley, Daniel; Ryd, Anders; Saelim, Michael; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar A.T.; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Demarteau, Marcel; Eartly, David P.; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hahn, Alan; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M.; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; James, Eric; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Limon, Peter; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; McCauley, Thomas; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Popescu, Sorina; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J.; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D.; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Kim, Bockjoo; Klimenko, Sergey; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Petterson, Maureen; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F.; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M.; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Cankocak, Kerem; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Radicci, Valeria; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Bandurin, Dmitry; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G.; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C.; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Jeremy; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cole, Perrie; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Lundstedt, Carl; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R.; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Zennamo, Joseph; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Kaadze, Ketino; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Warchol, Jadwiga; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E.; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F.; Gecse, Zoltan; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Laasanen, Alvin T.; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Meier, Michael; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Potamianos, Karolos; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank J.M.; Liu, Jinghua H.; Morales, Jafet; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Asaadi, Jonathan; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Nguyen, Chi Nhan; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Buehler, Marc; Conetti, Sergio; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Patel, Tushita; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Liu, Jie; Lomidze, David; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Parker, William; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H.; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2010-01-01

    A search for quark compositeness in the form of quark contact interactions, based on hadronic jet pairs (dijets) produced in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s)=7 TeV, is described. The data sample of the study corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 inverse picobarns collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The dijet centrality ratio, which quantifies the angular distribution of the dijets, is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the dijet system and is found to agree with the predictions of the Standard Model. A statistical analysis of the data provides a lower limit on the energy scale of quark contact interactions. The sensitivity of the analysis is such that the expected limit is 2.9 TeV; because the observed value of the centrality ratio at high invariant mass is below the expectation, the observed limit is 4.0 TeV at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Do protostellar fountains shape the regional core mass function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin-Zeng; Huang Ya-Fang; Carlos Mallamaci Claudio; César Podestà Ricardo; Actis Vicente Eloy; Maria Pacheco Ana

    2013-01-01

    The emerging massive binary system associated with AFGL 961 signifies the latest generation of massive star and cluster formation in the Rosette Molecular Complex. We present the detection of a compact cluster of dusty cores toward the AFGL 961 region based on continuum imaging at 1.3 mm by the Submillimeter Array. The binary components of AFGL 961 are associated with the most intensive millimeter emission cores or envelopes, confirming that they are indeed in an early stage of evolution. The other massive cores, however, are found to congregate in the close vicinity of the central high-mass protostellar binary. They have no apparent infrared counterparts and are, in particular, well aligned transverse to the bipolar molecular outflows originating from AFGL 961. This provides evidence for a likely triggered origin of the massive cores. All 40 individual cores with masses ranging between 0.6 and 15 Msun were detected above a 3 σ level of 3.6 mJy beam −1 (or 0.4 Msun), based on which we derive a total core mass of 107 Msun in the AFGL 961 region. As compared to the stellar initial mass function, a shallow slope of 1.8 is, however, derived from the best fit to the mass spectrum of the millimeter cores with a prestellar and/or protostellar origin. The flatter core mass distribution in the AFGL 961 region is attributed here to dynamic perturbations from the massive molecular outflows that originated from the massive protostellar binary, which may have altered the otherwise more quiescent conditions of core or star formation, enhanced the formation of more massive cores and, as a result, influenced the core mass distribution in its close vicinity.

  7. Compact Starburst Galaxies with Fast Outflows: Spatially Resolved Stellar Mass Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sophia; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar; Lipscomb, Charles; Ohene, Senyo; Rines, Josh; Moustakas, John; Sell, Paul; Tremonti, Christy; Coil, Alison; Rudnick, Gregory; Hickox, Ryan C.; Geach, James; Kepley, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    Powerful galactic winds driven by stellar feedback and black hole accretion are thought to play an important role in regulating star formation in galaxies. In particular, strong stellar feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, radiation pressure, and cosmic rays is required by simulations of star-forming galaxies to prevent the vast majority of baryons from cooling and collapsing to form stars. However, it remains unclear whether these stellar processes play a significant role in expelling gas and shutting down star formation in massive progenitors of quiescent galaxies. What are the limits of stellar feedback? We present multi-band photometry with HST/WFC3 (F475W, F814W, F160W) for a dozen compact starburst galaxies at z~0.6 with half-light radii that suggest incredibly large central escape velocities. These massive galaxies are driving fast (>1000 km/s) outflows that have been previously attributed to stellar feedback associated with the compact (r~100 pc) starburst. But how compact is the stellar mass? In the context of the stellar feedback hypothesis, it is unclear whether these fast outflows are being driven at velocities comparable to the escape velocity of an incredibly dense stellar system (as predicted by some models of radiation-pressure winds) or at velocities that exceed the central escape velocity by large factor. Our spatially resolved measurements with HST show that the stellar mass is more extended than the light, and this requires that the physical mechanism responsible for driving the winds must be able to launch gas at velocities that are factors of 5-10 beyond the central escape velocity.

  8. Data acquisition and processing system for a mass-spectrometer's site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, A.V.; Loginov, N.D.; Marusev, V.I.; Sviridova, Yu.F.; Temnoeva, T.A.; Fedorov, Yu.D.

    1986-01-01

    A two-level measuring-calculating system (MCS) has been developed; BESM-6 computer is used as a central computer at the upper level, at the lower - a terminal computer of the RPT type (Videoton, Hungary). MCS is designed for: the experimental data acquisition in the RPT immediate memory from several (up to five) mass spectrometers; communication of data accumulated in BESM-6 through a communication link; mathematical processing by BESM-6 and obtaining results at the mass spectrometer region. Simultaneous and independent recording of data from a mass spectrometer group as well as communication of data accumulated in BESM-6 without disturbance of RPT operating mode are provided with specially developed programs executed in RPT under OC RPS control. BESM-6 software is based on basic possibilities of OC RPS with respect to work with terminals. Received data is entered the archive in the form of variable length files by means of direct access programs; such archive organization permits to use the data for subsequent analysis and processing with the help of programs using any level languages

  9. Duration of and decoupling between carbon isotope excursions during the end-Triassic mass extinction and Central Atlantic Magmatic Province emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Joyce A.; West, A. Joshua; Corsetti, Frank A.; Berelson, William M.; Rollins, Nick E.; Rosas, Silvia; Bottjer, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from marine strata occur globally in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) during the break up of Pangea. As is typical in deep time, the timing and duration of these isotopic excursions has remained elusive, hampering attempts to link carbon cycle perturbations to specific processes. Here, we report δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic strata near Levanto, Peru, where intercalated dated ash beds permit temporal calibration of the carbon isotope record. Both δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg exhibit a broad positive excursion through the latest Triassic into the earliest Jurassic. The first order positive excursion in δ13Corg is interrupted by a negative shift noted in many sections around the world coincident with the extinction horizon. Our data indicate that the negative excursion lasts 85 ± 25 kyrs, longer than inferred by previous studies based on cyclostratigraphy. A 260 ± 80 kyr positive δ13Corg shift follows, during which the first Jurassic ammonites appear. The overall excursion culminates in a return to pre-perturbation carbon isotopic values over the next 1090 ± 70 kyrs. Via chronologic, isotopic, and biostratigraphic correlation to other successions, we find that δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg return to pre-perturbation values as CAMP volcanism ceases and in association with the recovery of pelagic and benthic biota. However, the initiation of the carbon isotope excursion at Levanto predates the well-dated CAMP sills from North America, indicating that CAMP may have started earlier than thought based on these exposures, or that the onset of carbon cycle perturbations was not related to CAMP.

  10. Lipidomic mass spectrometry and its application in neuroscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mabel; Enriquez-Algeciras; Sanjoy; K; Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    Central and peripheral nervous systems are lipid rich tissues. Lipids, in the context of lipid-protein complexes, surround neurons and provide electrical insulation for transmission of signals allowing neurons to remain embedded within a conducting environment. Lipids play a key role in vesicle formation and fusion in synapses. They provide means of rapid signaling, cell motility and migration for astrocytes and other cell types that surround and play supporting roles neurons. Unlike many other signaling molecules, lipids are capable of multiple signaling events based on the different fragments generated from a single precursor during each event. Lipidomics, until recently suffered from two major disadvantages:(1) level of expertise required an overwhelming amount of chemical detail to correctly identify a vast number of different lipids which could be close in their chemical reactivity; and(2) high amount of purified compounds needed by analytical techniques to determine their structures. Advances in mass spectrometry have enabled overcoming these two limitations. Mass spectrometry offers a great degree of simplicity in identification and quantification of lipids directly extracted from complex biological mixtures. Mass spectrometers can be regarded to as mass analyzers. There are those that separate and analyze the product ion fragments in space(spatial) and those which separate product ions in time in the same space(temporal). Databases and standardized instrument parameters have further aided the capabilities of the spatial instruments while recent advances in bioinformatics have made the identification and quantification possible using temporal instruments.

  11. Is banking supervision central to central banking?

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell

    1997-01-01

    Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...

  12. Comparing Monte Carlo acceptance/efficiency for tt-bar single lepton events with central and plug electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, M.

    2005-01-01

    The tt-bar production using MC events with one charged lepton (electron), neutrino and jets from pp-bar collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV was investigated. The aim of this work was to compare the rate of events in central (|η|<1.1) and plug (1.1<|η|<2.8) region. (author)

  13. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Hochberg, F.H.; Shaeffer, P.

    2000-01-01

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  14. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: formation of a central stellar disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panamarev, Taras; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Meiron, Yohai; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer; Omarov, Chingis; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil

    2018-05-01

    We perform high-resolution direct N-body simulations to study the effect of an accretion disc on stellar dynamics in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We show that the interaction of the nuclear stellar cluster (NSC) with the gaseous accretion disc (AD) leads to formation of a stellar disc in the central part of the NSC. The accretion of stars from the stellar disc on to the super-massive black hole is balanced by the capture of stars from the NSC into the stellar disc, yielding a stationary density profile. We derive the migration time through the AD to be 3 per cent of the half-mass relaxation time of the NSC. The mass and size of the stellar disc are 0.7 per cent of the mass and 5 per cent of the influence radius of the super-massive black hole. An AD lifetime shorter than the migration time would result in a less massive nuclear stellar disc. The detection of such a stellar disc could point to past activity of the hosting galactic nucleus.

  15. Inhibition of central de novo ceramide synthesis restores insulin signaling in hypothalamus and enhances β-cell function of obese Zucker rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Campana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypothalamic lipotoxicity has been shown to induce central insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis; nevertheless, elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we aimed to determine the role of de novo ceramide synthesis in hypothalamus on the onset of central insulin resistance and the dysregulation of glucose homeostasis induced by obesity. Methods: Hypothalamic GT1-7 neuronal cells were treated with palmitate. De novo ceramide synthesis was inhibited either by pharmacological (myriocin or molecular (si-Serine Palmitoyl Transferase 2, siSPT2 approaches. Obese Zucker rats (OZR were intracerebroventricularly infused with myriocin to inhibit de novo ceramide synthesis. Insulin resistance was determined by quantification of Akt phosphorylation. Ceramide levels were quantified either by a radioactive kinase assay or by mass spectrometry analysis. Glucose homeostasis were evaluated in myriocin-treated OZR. Basal and glucose-stimulated parasympathetic tonus was recorded in OZR. Insulin secretion from islets and β-cell mass was also determined. Results: We show that palmitate impaired insulin signaling and increased ceramide levels in hypothalamic neuronal GT1-7 cells. In addition, the use of deuterated palmitic acid demonstrated that palmitate activated several enzymes of the de novo ceramide synthesis pathway in hypothalamic cells. Importantly, myriocin and siSPT2 treatment restored insulin signaling in palmitate-treated GT1-7 cells. Protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor or a dominant-negative PKCζ also counteracted palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, attenuating the increase in levels of hypothalamic ceramides with intracerebroventricular infusion of myriocin in OZR improved their hypothalamic insulin-sensitivity. Importantly, central myriocin treatment partially restored glucose tolerance in OZR. This latter effect is related to the restoration of glucose-stimulated insulin

  16. A CANDIDATE PLANETARY-MASS OBJECT WITH A PHOTOEVAPORATING DISK IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Min; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Apai, Dániel [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Pascucci, Ilaria [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Manara, Carlo Felice [Scientific Support Office, Directorate of Science, European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2016-12-20

    In this work, we report the discovery of a candidate planetary-mass object with a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk, Proplyd 133-353, which is near the massive star θ {sup 1} Ori C at the center of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). The object was known to have extended emission pointing away from θ {sup 1} Ori C, indicating ongoing external photoevaporation. Our near-infrared spectroscopic data and the location on the H–R diagram suggest that the central source of Proplyd 133-353 is substellar (∼M9.5) and has a mass probably less than 13 Jupiter mass and an age younger than 0.5 Myr. Proplyd 133-353 shows a similar ratio of X-ray luminosity to stellar luminosity to other young stars in the ONC with a similar stellar luminosity and has a similar proper motion to the mean one of confirmed ONC members. We propose that Proplyd 133-353 formed in a very low-mass dusty cloud or an evaporating gas globule near θ {sup 1} Ori C as a second generation of star formation, which can explain both its young age and the presence of its disk.

  17. Measurement of the Hadronic Mass Spectrum in B to Xulnu Decaysand Determination of the b-Quark Mass at the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackmann, Kerstin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-06-26

    I present preliminary results of the measurement of the hadronic mass spectrum and its first three spectral moments in inclusive charmless semileptonic B-meson decays. The truncated hadronic mass moments are used for the first determination of the b-quark mass and the nonperturbative parameters μπ2 and ρD3 in this B-meson decay channel. The study is based on 383 x 106 B$\\bar{B}$ decays collected with the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+e- storage rings, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The first, second central, and third central hadronic mass moment with a cut on the hadronic mass mX2 < 6.4GeV2 and the lepton momentum p* > 1 GeV are measured to be: M1 = (1.96 ± 0.34stat ± 0.53syst) GeV2; U2 = (1.92 ± 0.59stat ± 0.87syst) GeV4; and U3 = (1.79 ± 0.62stat ± 0.78syst) GeV6; with correlation coefficients ρ12 = 0.99, ρ23 = 0.94, and ρ13 = 0.88, respectively. Using Heavy Quark Effective Theory-based predictions in the kinetic scheme we extract: mb = (4.60 ± 0.13stat ± 0.19syst ± 0.10theo GeV); μπ2 = (0.40 ± 0.14stat ± 0.20syst ± 0.04theo) GeV2; ρD3 = (0.10 ± 0.02stat ± 0.02syst ± 0.07theo) GeV3; at μ = 1 GeV, with correlation coefficients ρmbμπ2 = -0.99, ρ μπ2ρD3 = 0.57, and ρmbρD3 = -0.59. The results are in good agreement with earlier determinations in inclusive charmed semileptonic and radiative penguin B-meson decays and have a

  18. Water mass distributions and transports for the 2014 GEOVIDE cruise in the North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García-Ibáñez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the distribution of water masses along the GEOTRACES-GA01 section during the GEOVIDE cruise, which crossed the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean and the Labrador Sea in the summer of 2014. The water mass structure resulting from an extended optimum multiparameter (eOMP analysis provides the framework for interpreting the observed distributions of trace elements and their isotopes. Central Waters and Subpolar Mode Waters (SPMW dominated the upper part of the GEOTRACES-GA01 section. At intermediate depths, the dominant water mass was Labrador Sea Water, while the deep parts of the section were filled by Iceland–Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW and North-East Atlantic Deep Water. We also evaluate the water mass volume transports across the 2014 OVIDE line (Portugal to Greenland section by combining the water mass fractions resulting from the eOMP analysis with the absolute geostrophic velocity field estimated through a box inverse model. This allowed us to assess the relative contribution of each water mass to the transport across the section. Finally, we discuss the changes in the distribution and transport of water masses between the 2014 OVIDE line and the 2002–2010 mean state. At the upper and intermediate water levels, colder end-members of the water masses replaced the warmer ones in 2014 with respect to 2002–2010, in agreement with the long-term cooling of the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre that started in the mid-2000s. Below 2000 dbar, ISOW increased its contribution in 2014 with respect to 2002–2010, with the increase being consistent with other estimates of ISOW transports along 58–59° N. We also observed an increase in SPMW in the East Greenland Irminger Current in 2014 with respect to 2002–2010, which supports the recent deep convection events in the Irminger Sea. From the assessment of the relative water mass contribution to the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC across the OVIDE line, we conclude

  19. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Macintosh

    Full Text Available Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD. Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the

  20. Early Life Conditions and Physiological Stress following the Transition to Farming in Central/Southeast Europe: Skeletal Growth Impairment and 6000 Years of Gradual Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Alison A.; Pinhasi, Ron; Stock, Jay T.

    2016-01-01

    Early life conditions play an important role in determining adult body size. In particular, childhood malnutrition and disease can elicit growth delays and affect adult body size if severe or prolonged enough. In the earliest stages of farming, skeletal growth impairment and small adult body size are often documented relative to hunter-gatherer groups, though this pattern is regionally variable. In Central/Southeast Europe, it is unclear how early life stress, growth history, and adult body size were impacted by the introduction of agriculture and ensuing long-term demographic, social, and behavioral change. The current study assesses this impact through the reconstruction and analysis of mean stature, body mass, limb proportion indices, and sexual dimorphism among 407 skeletally mature men and women from foraging and farming populations spanning the Late Mesolithic through Early Medieval periods in Central/Southeast Europe (~7100 calBC to 850 AD). Results document significantly reduced mean stature, body mass, and crural index in Neolithic agriculturalists relative both to Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fishers and to later farming populations. This indication of relative growth impairment in the Neolithic, particularly among women, is supported by existing evidence of high developmental stress, intensive physical activity, and variable access to animal protein in these early agricultural populations. Among subsequent agriculturalists, temporal increases in mean stature, body mass, and crural index were more pronounced among Central European women, driving declines in the magnitude of sexual dimorphism through time. Overall, results suggest that the transition to agriculture in Central/Southeast Europe was challenging for early farming populations, but was followed by gradual amelioration across thousands of years, particularly among Central European women. This sex difference may be indicative, in part, of greater temporal variation in the social status afforded

  1. Transitional Disks Associated with Intermediate-Mass Stars: Results of the SEEDS YSO Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; McElwain, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are where planets form, grow, and migrate to produce the diversity of exoplanet systems we observe in mature systems. Disks where this process has advanced to the stage of gap opening, and in some cases central cavity formation, have been termed pre-transitional and transitional disks in the hope that they represent intermediate steps toward planetary system formation. Recent reviews have focussed on disks where the star is of solar or sub-solar mass. In contrast to the sub-millimeter where cleared central cavities predominate, at H-band some T Tauri star transitional disks resemble primordial disks in having no indication of clearing, some show a break in the radial surface brightness profile at the inner edge of the outer disk, while others have partially to fully cleared gaps or central cavities. Recently, the Meeus Group I Herbig stars, intermediate-mass PMS stars with IR spectral energy distributions often interpreted as flared disks, have been proposed to have transitional and pre-transitional disks similar to those associated with solar-mass PMS stars, based on thermal-IR imaging, and sub-millimeter interferometry. We have investigated their appearance in scattered light as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS), obtaining H-band polarimetric imagery of 10 intermediate-mass stars with Meeus Group I disks. Augmented by other disks with imagery in the literature, the sample is now sufficiently large to explore how these disks are similar to and differ from T Tauri star disks. The disk morphologies seen in the Tauri disks are also found for the intermediate-mass star disks, but additional phenomena are found; a hallmark of these disks is remarkable individuality and diversity which does not simply correlate with disk mass or stellar properties, including age, including spiral arms in remnant envelopes, arms in the disk, asymmetrically and potentially variably shadowed outer disks, gaps, and one disk

  2. Hydatid disease of the Central Nervous System: imaging characteristics and general features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbassioun, K.; Amirjamshidi, A.; Sabouri Deylamie, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings. Secondary involvement due to hematogenous dissemination may be seen in almost any locations, e.g., lung, kidney, spleen, bone and central nervous system. Objectives: To review the different aspects of hydatidosis of the central nervous system briefly and discuss the pathognomonic features and rare varieties of radiological findings useful in preoperative diagnosis of the disease in the human central nervous system. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, the records of almost 100 cases of central nervous system hydatidosis were analyzed . The available images were reviewed by independent observers, either a radiologist or a neurosurgeon, and reported separately. Results: In skull x-ray films, nonspecific changes denoted increased intracranial pressure, skull asymmetry and curvilinear calcification in rare instances. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the round or oval, well-defined cystic mass with an attenuation or signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, with no associated perifocal edema, and no contrast enhancement as the pathognomonic findings of brain hydatidosis. Similar findings were detected in hydatid cysts involving the orbit, spinal column and spinal cord with some variations. Such findings as mild perifocal edema, non homogenous contrast enhancement, non-uniform shapes, calcification and multiplicity or septations have been the atypical radiological findings. Conclusion: In endemic areas, familiarity with typical and atypical radiological manifestations of hydatid disease of the central nervous system, will be helpful in making prompt and correct preoperative diagnosis leading to a better surgical outcome

  3. Monte Carlo study of particle production in diffractive proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV with the very forward detector combined with central information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qi-Dong [Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya (Japan); Itow, Yoshitaka; Sako, Takashi [Nagoya University, Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Menjo, Hiroaki [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Very forward (VF) detectors in hadron colliders, having unique sensitivity to diffractive processes, can be a powerful tool for studying diffractive dissociation by combining them with central detectors. Several Monte Carlo simulation samples in p-p collisions at √(s) = 13 TeV were analyzed, and different nondiffractive and diffractive contributions were clarified through differential cross sections of forward neutral particles. Diffraction selection criteria in the VF-triggered-event samples were determined by using the central track information. The corresponding selection applicable in real experiments has ∼ 100% purity and 30-70% efficiency. Consequently, the central information enables classification of the forward productions into diffraction and nondiffraction categories; in particular, most of the surviving events from the selection belong to low-mass diffraction events at log{sub 10}(ξ{sub x}) < -5.5. Therefore, the combined method can uniquely access the low-mass diffraction regime experimentally. (orig.)

  4. Temperature distribution, porosity migration and formation of the central void in cylindrical fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, R.M.; Roberty, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    The porosity - and temperature distribution in cylindrical fuels rods, were studied by numerical resolution of mass-and energy equation, as well as determining the evolution of the central void radii. The finite difference method with implicit formulation for heat conduction equation and explicit formulation for continuity equation, was used. The Nichols model was used in the determination of the constitutive equation of the porous migration velocity. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Centralized vs decentralized lunar power system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kenneth; Harty, Richard B.; Perronne, Gerald E.

    1991-09-01

    Three power-system options are considered with respect to utilization on a lunar base: the fully centralized option, the fully decentralized option, and a hybrid comprising features of the first two options. Power source, power conditioning, and power transmission are considered separately, and each architecture option is examined with ac and dc distribution, high and low voltage transmission, and buried and suspended cables. Assessments are made on the basis of mass, technological complexity, cost, reliability, and installation complexity, however, a preferred power-system architecture is not proposed. Preferred options include transmission based on ac, transmission voltages of 2000-7000 V with buried high-voltage lines and suspended low-voltage lines. Assessments of the total cost associated with the installations are required to determine the most suitable power system.

  6. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M NC , correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M NC = (2.11 ± 0.31)log (σ/54) + (6.63 ± 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M NC ∝M 0.55±0.15 Gal,dyn ; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  7. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  8. Measurement of the groomed jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at ${\\sqrt {\\smash [b]{s_{_{\\mathrm {NN}}}}}} = $ 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Ambrogi, Federico; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Flechl, Martin; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Krammer, Natascha; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Madlener, Thomas; Mikulec, Ivan; Rad, Navid; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Spanring, Markus; Spitzbart, Daniel; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wittmann, Johannes; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Zarucki, Mateusz; Chekhovsky, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; De Wolf, Eddi A; Di Croce, Davide; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Pieters, Maxim; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; De Bruyn, Isabelle; De Clercq, Jarne; Deroover, Kevin; Flouris, Giannis; Lontkovskyi, Denys; Lowette, Steven; Marchesini, Ivan; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Beghin, Diego; Bilin, Bugra; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Dorney, Brian; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Lenzi, Thomas; Luetic, Jelena; Postiau, Nicolas; Starling, Elizabeth; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Wang, Qun; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Roskas, Christos; Trocino, Daniele; Tytgat, Michael; Verbeke, Willem; Vermassen, Basile; Vit, Martina; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caputo, Claudio; David, Pieter; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Saggio, Alessia; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Zobec, Joze; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Correia Silva, Gilson; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Coelho, Eduardo; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Melo De Almeida, Miqueias; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Sanchez Rosas, Luis Junior; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Thiel, Mauricio; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Calligaris, Luigi; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Misheva, Milena; Rodozov, Mircho; Shopova, Mariana; Sultanov, Georgi; Dimitrov, Anton; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Gao, Xuyang; Yuan, Li; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Levin, Andrew; Li, Jing; Li, Linwei; Li, Qiang; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Wang, Yi; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Segura Delgado, Manuel Alejandro; Courbon, Benoit; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Starodumov, Andrei; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Kolosova, Marina; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Ayala, Edy; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Salama, Elsayed; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, Alexandra; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Ehataht, Karl; Kadastik, Mario; Raidal, Martti; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Kirschenmann, Henning; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Havukainen, Joona; Heikkilä, Jaana Kristiina; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Laurila, Santeri; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Siikonen, Hannu; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Leloup, Clément; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Negro, Giulia; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Titov, Maksym; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Amendola, Chiara; Antropov, Iurii; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Kucher, Inna; Lobanov, Artur; Martin Blanco, Javier; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Pigard, Philipp; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Stahl Leiton, Andre Govinda; Zabi, Alexandre; Zghiche, Amina; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Jansová, Markéta; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Tonon, Nicolas; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chanon, Nicolas; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Finco, Linda; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Grenier, Gérald; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lattaud, Hugues; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Viret, Sébastien; Zhang, Sijing; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Lomidze, David; Autermann, Christian; Feld, Lutz; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Preuten, Marius; Rauch, Max Philip; Schomakers, Christian; Schulz, Johannes; Teroerde, Marius; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Albert, Andreas; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Ghosh, Saranya; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Keller, Henning; Knutzen, Simon; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Schmidt, Alexander; Teyssier, Daniel; Flügge, Günter; Hlushchenko, Olena; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Müller, Thomas; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Roy, Dennis; Sert, Hale; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Arndt, Till; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Babounikau, Illia; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Bermúdez Martínez, Armando; Bertsche, David; Bin Anuar, Afiq Aizuddin; Borras, Kerstin; Botta, Valeria; Campbell, Alan; Connor, Patrick; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Danilov, Vladyslav; De Wit, Adinda; Defranchis, Matteo Maria; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Damiani, Daniela; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eichhorn, Thomas; Elwood, Adam; Eren, Engin; Gallo, Elisabetta; Geiser, Achim; Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gunnellini, Paolo; Guthoff, Moritz; Haranko, Mykyta; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Keaveney, James; Kleinwort, Claus; Knolle, Joscha; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Lelek, Aleksandra; Lenz, Teresa; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Meyer, Mareike; Missiroli, Marino; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Myronenko, Volodymyr; Pflitsch, Svenja Karen; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Savitskyi, Mykola; Saxena, Pooja; Schütze, Paul; Schwanenberger, Christian; Shevchenko, Rostyslav; Singh, Akshansh; Tholen, Heiner; Turkot, Oleksii; Vagnerini, Antonio; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wen, Yiwen; Wichmann, Katarzyna; Wissing, Christoph; Zenaiev, Oleksandr; Aggleton, Robin; Bein, Samuel; Benato, Lisa; Benecke, Anna; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Dreyer, Torben; Garutti, Erika; Gonzalez, Daniel; Haller, Johannes; Hinzmann, Andreas; Karavdina, Anastasia; Kasieczka, Gregor; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Kurz, Simon; Kutzner, Viktor; Lange, Johannes; Marconi, Daniele; Multhaup, Jens; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Perieanu, Adrian; Reimers, Arne; Rieger, Oliver; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Sonneveld, Jory; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Stöver, Marc; Troendle, Daniel; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Akbiyik, Melike; Barth, Christian; Baselga, Marta; Baur, Sebastian; Butz, Erik; Caspart, René; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; El Morabit, Karim; Faltermann, Nils; Freund, Benedikt; Giffels, Manuel; Harrendorf, Marco Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Kassel, Florian; Katkov, Igor; Kudella, Simon; Mildner, Hannes; Mitra, Soureek; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Schröder, Matthias; Shvetsov, Ivan; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Paspalaki, Garyfallia; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Karathanasis, George; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kontaxakis, Pantelis; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Papavergou, Ioanna; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Vellidis, Konstantinos; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Papakrivopoulos, Ioannis; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Gianneios, Paraskevas; Katsoulis, Panagiotis; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Mallios, Stavros; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Triantis, Frixos A; Tsitsonis, Dimitrios; Bartók, Márton; Csanad, Mate; Filipovic, Nicolas; Major, Péter; Nagy, Marton Imre; Pasztor, Gabriella; Surányi, Olivér; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Hunyadi, Ádám; Sikler, Ferenc; Vámi, Tamás Álmos; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Makovec, Alajos; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Tiwari, Praveen Chandra; Bahinipati, Seema; Kar, Chandiprasad; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chauhan, Sushil; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Rajat; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Amandeep; Kaur, Manjit; Kaur, Sandeep; Kumar, Ramandeep; Kumari, Priyanka; Lohan, Manisha; Mehta, Ankita; Sandeep, Kaur; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Gola, Mohit; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ashok; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Priyanka, Priyanka; Ranjan, Kirti; Shah, Aashaq; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Bhardwaj, Rishika; Bharti, Monika; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Bhowmik, Debabrata; Dey, Sourav; Dutt, Suneel; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Mondal, Kuntal; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Roy, Ashim; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Saha, Gourab; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Bipen; Thakur, Shalini; Behera, Prafulla Kumar; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Bhat, Muzamil Ahmad; Dugad, Shashikant; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Ravindra Kumar Verma, Ravindra; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhattacharya, Soham; Chatterjee, Suman; Das, Pallabi; Guchait, Monoranjan; Jain, Sandhya; Karmakar, Saikat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Sarkar, Tanmay; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Hegde, Vinay; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Pandey, Shubham; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Chenarani, Shirin; Eskandari Tadavani, Esmaeel; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Di Florio, Adriano; Errico, Filippo; Fiore, Luigi; Gelmi, Andrea; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Ince, Merve; Lezki, Samet; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Sharma, Archana; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Borgonovi, Lisa; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Ciocca, Claudia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Iemmi, Fabio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Albergo, Sebastiano; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Latino, Giuseppe; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Russo, Lorenzo; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Strom, Derek; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Ravera, Fabio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Beschi, Andrea; Brianza, Luca; Brivio, Francesco; Ciriolo, Vincenzo; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malberti, Martina; Malvezzi, Sandra; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Zuolo, Davide; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Fabozzi, Francesco; Fienga, Francesco; Galati, Giuliana; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Khan, Wajid Ali; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Voevodina, Elena; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Bragagnolo, Alberto; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Hoh, Siew Yan; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lujan, Paul; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Ronchese, Paolo; Rossin, Roberto; Simonetto, Franco; Tiko, Andres; Torassa, Ezio; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Ressegotti, Martina; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Cecchi, Claudia; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Manoni, Elisa; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Mariani, Valentina; Menichelli, Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Boccali, Tommaso; Borrello, Laura; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fedi, Giacomo; Fiori, Francesco; Giannini, Leonardo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Manca, Elisabetta; Mandorli, Giulio; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Cipriani, Marco; Daci, Nadir; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Longo, Egidio; Marzocchi, Badder; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Cenna, Francesca; Cometti, Simona; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Demaria, Natale; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Monteno, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Shchelina, Ksenia; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Soldi, Dario; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Vazzoler, Federico; Zanetti, Anna; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Jeongeun; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Moon, Chang-Seong; Oh, Young Do; Sekmen, Sezen; Son, Dong-Chul; Yang, Yu Chul; Kim, Hyunchul; Moon, Dong Ho; Oh, Geonhee; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Tae Jeong; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Ha, Seungkyu; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Youngkwon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Kim, Hyunsoo; Almond, John; Kim, Junho; Kim, Jae Sung; Lee, Haneol; Lee, Kyeongpil; Nam, Kyungwook; Oh, Sung Bin; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Seo, Seon-hee; Yang, Unki; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Yu, Geum Bong; Jeon, Dajeong; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Choi, Young-Il; Hwang, Chanwook; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Duran-Osuna, Cecilia; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Ramirez-Sanchez, Gabriel; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Rabadán-Trejo, Raúl Iraq; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Reyes-Almanza, Rogelio; Ramírez García, Mateo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Eysermans, Jan; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Bheesette, Srinidhi; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Saddique, Asif; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Pyskir, Andrzej; Walczak, Marek; Araujo, Mariana; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Galinhas, Bruno; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Seixas, Joao; Strong, Giles; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavine, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sosnov, Dmitry; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stepennov, Anton; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Aushev, Tagir; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Parygin, Pavel; Philippov, Dmitry; Polikarpov, Sergey; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Rusakov, Sergey V; Terkulov, Adel; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Dimova, Tatyana; Kardapoltsev, Leonid; Shtol, Dmitry; Skovpen, Yuri; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Elumakhov, Dmitry; Godizov, Anton; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Mandrik, Petr; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitskii, Sergei; Sobol, Andrei; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Babaev, Anton; Baidali, Sergei; Okhotnikov, Vitalii; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Dordevic, Milos; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Álvarez Fernández, Adrian; Bachiller, Irene; Barrio Luna, Mar; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cerrada, Marcos; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Moran, Dermot; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Triossi, Andrea; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Erice, Carlos; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; González Fernández, Juan Rodrigo; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Rodríguez Bouza, Víctor; Sanchez Cruz, Sergio; Vischia, Pietro; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chazin Quero, Barbara; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Fernández Manteca, Pedro José; García Alonso, Andrea; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Prieels, Cédric; Rodrigo, Teresa; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Akgun, Bora; Auffray, Etiennette; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Bianco, Michele; Bocci, Andrea; Botta, Cristina; Brondolin, Erica; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Yi; Cucciati, Giacomo; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Roeck, Albert; Deelen, Nikkie; Dobson, Marc; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Everaerts, Pieter; Fallavollita, Francesco; Fasanella, Daniele; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gilbert, Andrew; Gill, Karl; Glege, Frank; Guilbaud, Maxime; Gulhan, Doga; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jafari, Abideh; Janot, Patrick; Karacheban, Olena; Kieseler, Jan; Kornmayer, Andreas; Krammer, Manfred; Lange, Clemens; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Meijers, Frans; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pantaleo, Felice; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuel; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pitters, Florian Michael; Rabady, Dinyar; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Selvaggi, Michele; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Stakia, Anna; Steggemann, Jan; Tosi, Mia; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veckalns, Viesturs; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Caminada, Lea; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Rohe, Tilman; Wiederkehr, Stephan Albert; Backhaus, Malte; Bäni, Lukas; Berger, Pirmin; Chernyavskaya, Nadezda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dorfer, Christian; Grab, Christoph; Heidegger, Constantin; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Klijnsma, Thomas; Lustermann, Werner; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marionneau, Matthieu; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Micheli, Francesco; Musella, Pasquale; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pata, Joosep; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, Gaël; Perrozzi, Luca; Pigazzini, Simone; Quittnat, Milena; Ruini, Daniele; Sanz Becerra, Diego Alejandro; Schönenberger, Myriam; Shchutska, Lesya; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Vesterbacka Olsson, Minna Leonora; Wallny, Rainer; Zhu, De Hua; Aarrestad, Thea Klaeboe; Amsler, Claude; Brzhechko, Danyyl; Canelli, Maria Florencia; De Cosa, Annapaola; Del Burgo, Riccardo; Donato, Silvio; Galloni, Camilla; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Neutelings, Izaak; Pinna, Deborah; Rauco, Giorgia; Robmann, Peter; Salerno, Daniel; Schweiger, Korbinian; Seitz, Claudia; Takahashi, Yuta; Zucchetta, Alberto; Chang, Yu-Hsiang; Cheng, Kai-yu; Doan, Thi Hien; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kumar, Arun; Li, You-ying; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Paganis, Efstathios; Psallidas, Andreas; Steen, Arnaud; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Bat, Ayse; Boran, Fatma; Cerci, Salim; Damarseckin, Serdal; Demiroglu, Zuhal Seyma; Dolek, Furkan; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Guler, Yalcin; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Isik, Candan; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kara, Ozgun; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Kiminsu, Ugur; Oglakci, Mehmet; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Tok, Ufuk Guney; Turkcapar, Semra; Zorbakir, Ibrahim Soner; Zorbilmez, Caglar; Isildak, Bora; Karapinar, Guler; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Atakisi, Ismail Okan; Gülmez, Erhan; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Tekten, Sevgi; Yetkin, Elif Asli; Agaras, Merve Nazlim; Atay, Serhat; Cakir, Altan; Cankocak, Kerem; Komurcu, Yildiray; Sen, Sercan; Grynyov, Boris; Levchuk, Leonid; Ball, Fionn; Beck, Lana; Brooke, James John; Burns, Douglas; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Davignon, Olivier; Flacher, Henning; Goldstein, Joel; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Penning, Bjoern; Sakuma, Tai; Smith, Dominic; Smith, Vincent J; Taylor, Joseph; Titterton, Alexander; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cieri, Davide; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Linacre, Jacob; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Williams, Thomas; Womersley, William John; Auzinger, Georg; Bainbridge, Robert; Bloch, Philippe; Borg, Johan; Breeze, Shane; Buchmuller, Oliver; Bundock, Aaron; Casasso, Stefano; Colling, David; Corpe, Louie; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Di Maria, Riccardo; Haddad, Yacine; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; James, Thomas; Komm, Matthias; Laner, Christian; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Martelli, Arabella; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Palladino, Vito; Pesaresi, Mark; Richards, Alexander; Rose, Andrew; Scott, Edward; Seez, Christopher; Shtipliyski, Antoni; Singh, Gurpreet; Stoye, Markus; Strebler, Thomas; Summers, Sioni; Tapper, Alexander; Uchida, Kirika; Virdee, Tejinder; Wardle, Nicholas; Winterbottom, Daniel; Wright, Jack; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Mackay, Catherine Kirsty; Morton, Alexander; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Zahid, Sema; Call, Kenneth; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Madrid, Christopher; Mcmaster, Brooks; Pastika, Nathaniel; Smith, Caleb; Bartek, Rachel; Dominguez, Aaron; Buccilli, Andrew; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; West, Christopher; Arcaro, Daniel; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Benelli, Gabriele; Coubez, Xavier; Cutts, David; Hadley, Mary; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Hogan, Julie Managan; Kwok, Ka Hei Martin; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Lee, Jangbae; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Usai, Emanuele; Yu, David; Band, Reyer; Brainerd, Christopher; Breedon, Richard; Burns, Dustin; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Flores, Chad; Funk, Garrett; Ko, Winston; Kukral, Ota; Lander, Richard; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Shalhout, Shalhout; Shi, Mengyao; Stolp, Dustin; Taylor, Devin; Tos, Kyle; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Zhangqier; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Bachtis, Michail; Bravo, Cameron; Cousins, Robert; Dasgupta, Abhigyan; Florent, Alice; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Mccoll, Nickolas; Regnard, Simon; Saltzberg, David; Schnaible, Christian; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Bouvier, Elvire; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Gary, J William; Ghiasi Shirazi, Seyyed Mohammad Amin; Hanson, Gail; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Paneva, Mirena Ivova; Si, Weinan; Wang, Long; Wei, Hua; Wimpenny, Stephen; Yates, Brent; Branson, James G; Cittolin, Sergio; Derdzinski, Mark; Gerosa, Raffaele; Gilbert, Dylan; Hashemi, Bobak; Holzner, André; Klein, Daniel; Kole, Gouranga; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Letts, James; Masciovecchio, Mario; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Tadel, Matevz; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Wood, John; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Zevi Della Porta, Giovanni; Amin, Nick; Bhandari, Rohan; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Citron, Matthew; Dishaw, Adam; Dutta, Valentina; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Gouskos, Loukas; Heller, Ryan; Incandela, Joe; Ovcharova, Ana; Qu, Huilin; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; Suarez, Indara; Wang, Sicheng; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Anderson, Dustin; Bornheim, Adolf; Lawhorn, Jay Mathew; Newman, Harvey B; Nguyen, Thong; Spiropulu, Maria; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhang, Zhicai; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Andrews, Michael Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Mudholkar, Tanmay; Paulini, Manfred; Sun, Menglei; Vorobiev, Igor; Weinberg, Marc; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Jensen, Frank; Johnson, Andrew; Krohn, Michael; Leontsinis, Stefanos; MacDonald, Emily; Mulholland, Troy; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chaves, Jorge; Cheng, Yangyang; Chu, Jennifer; Datta, Abhisek; Mcdermott, Kevin; Mirman, Nathan; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Quach, Dan; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Ryd, Anders; Skinnari, Louise; Soffi, Livia; Tan, Shao Min; Tao, Zhengcheng; Thom, Julia; Tucker, Jordan; Wittich, Peter; Zientek, Margaret; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Alyari, Maral; Apollinari, Giorgio; Apresyan, Artur; Apyan, Aram; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Canepa, Anadi; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cremonesi, Matteo; Duarte, Javier; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Freeman, Jim; Gecse, Zoltan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Pena, Cristian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Ristori, Luciano; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Schneider, Basil; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strait, James; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Cadamuro, Luca; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Field, Richard D; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Joshi, Bhargav Madhusudan; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Shi, Kun; Sperka, David; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Joshi, Yagya Raj; Linn, Stephan; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Kolberg, Ted; Martinez, German; Perry, Thomas; Prosper, Harrison; Saha, Anirban; Schiber, Catherine; Sharma, Varun; Yohay, Rachel; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Noonan, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehdi; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Cavanaugh, Richard; Chen, Xuan; Dittmer, Susan; Evdokimov, Olga; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hangal, Dhanush Anil; Hofman, David Jonathan; Jung, Kurt; Kamin, Jason; Mills, Corrinne; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Tonjes, Marguerite; Varelas, Nikos; Wang, Hui; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Jingyu; Alhusseini, Mohammad; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Blumenfeld, Barry; Cocoros, Alice; Eminizer, Nicholas; Fehling, David; Feng, Lei; Gritsan, Andrei; Hung, Wai Ting; Maksimovic, Petar; Roskes, Jeffrey; Sarica, Ulascan; Swartz, Morris; Xiao, Meng; You, Can; Al-bataineh, Ayman; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Boren, Samuel; Bowen, James; Bylinkin, Alexander; Castle, James; Khalil, Sadia; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Majumder, Devdatta; Mcbrayer, William; Murray, Michael; Rogan, Christopher; Sanders, Stephen; Schmitz, Erich; Tapia Takaki, Daniel; Wang, Quan; Duric, Senka; Ivanov, Andrew; Kaadze, Ketino; Kim, Doyeong; Maravin, Yurii; Mendis, Dalath Rachitha; Mitchell, Tyler; Modak, Atanu; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Baron, Owen; Belloni, Alberto; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Feng, Yongbin; Ferraioli, Charles; Hadley, Nicholas John; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kellogg, Richard G; Kunkle, Joshua; Mignerey, Alice; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shin, Young Ho; Skuja, Andris; Tonwar, Suresh C; Wong, Kak; Abercrombie, Daniel; Allen, Brandon; Azzolini, Virginia; Baty, Austin; Bauer, Gerry; Bi, Ran; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Demiragli, Zeynep; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Harris, Philip; Hsu, Dylan; Hu, Miao; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lee, Yen-Jie; Luckey, Paul David; Maier, Benedikt; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Velicanu, Dragos; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zhaozhong, Shi; Benvenuti, Alberto; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Evans, Andrew; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Turkewitz, Jared; Wadud, Mohammad Abrar; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Claes, Daniel R; Fangmeier, Caleb; Golf, Frank; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Kravchenko, Ilya; Monroy, Jose; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Mclean, Christine; Nguyen, Duong; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Barberis, Emanuela; Freer, Chad; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Morse, David Michael; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Wamorkar, Tanvi; Wang, Bingran; Wisecarver, Andrew; Wood, Darien; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Charaf, Otman; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; Velasco, Mayda; Bucci, Rachael; Dev, Nabarun; Hildreth, Michael; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Li, Wenzhao; Loukas, Nikitas; Marinelli, Nancy; Meng, Fanbo; Mueller, Charles; Musienko, Yuri; Planer, Michael; Reinsvold, Allison; Ruchti, Randy; Siddireddy, Prasanna; Smith, Geoffrey; Taroni, Silvia; Wayne, Mitchell; Wightman, Andrew; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Alimena, Juliette; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Francis, Brian; Hart, Andrew; Hill, Christopher; Ji, Weifeng; Ling, Ta-Yung; Luo, Wuming; Winer, Brian L; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Cooperstein, Stephane; Elmer, Peter; Hardenbrook, Joshua; Higginbotham, Samuel; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Lange, David; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Luo, Jingyu; Marlow, Daniel; Mei, Kelvin; Ojalvo, Isabel; Olsen, James; Palmer, Christopher; Piroué, Pierre; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Malik, Sudhir; Norberg, Scarlet; Barker, Anthony; Barnes, Virgil E; Das, Souvik; Gutay, Laszlo; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Andreas Werner; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Peng, Cheng-Chieh; Qiu, Hao; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Sun, Jian; Wang, Fuqiang; Xiao, Rui; Xie, Wei; Cheng, Tongguang; Dolen, James; Parashar, Neeti; Chen, Zhenyu; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Freed, Sarah; Geurts, Frank JM; Kilpatrick, Matthew; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Roberts, Jay; Rorie, Jamal; Shi, Wei; Tu, Zhoudunming; Zabel, James; Zhang, Aobo; Bodek, Arie; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Duh, Yi-ting; Dulemba, Joseph Lynn; Fallon, Colin; Ferbel, Thomas; Galanti, Mario; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Han, Jiyeon; Hindrichs, Otto; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Lo, Kin Ho; Tan, Ping; Taus, Rhys; Verzetti, Mauro; Agapitos, Antonis; Chou, John Paul; Gershtein, Yuri; Gómez Espinosa, Tirso Alejandro; Halkiadakis, Eva; Heindl, Maximilian; Hughes, Elliot; Kaplan, Steven; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, Raghav; Kyriacou, Savvas; Lath, Amitabh; Montalvo, Roy; Nash, Kevin; Osherson, Marc; Saka, Halil; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Sheffield, David; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Delannoy, Andrés G; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Luo, Sifu; Mueller, Ryan; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Safonov, Alexei; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; De Guio, Federico; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Mengke, Tielige; Muthumuni, Samila; Peltola, Timo; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Padeken, Klaas; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Verweij, Marta; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Hirosky, Robert; Joyce, Matthew; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Poudyal, Nabin; Sturdy, Jared; Thapa, Prakash; Zaleski, Shawn; Brodski, Michael; Buchanan, James; Caillol, Cécile; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Hussain, Usama; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Ruggles, Tyler; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Woods, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of the groomed jet mass in PbPb and pp collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC is presented. Jet grooming is a recursive procedure which sequentially removes soft constituents of a jet until a pair of hard subjets is found. The resulting groomed jets can be used to study modifications to the parton shower evolution in the presence of the hot and dense medium created in heavy ion collisions. Predictions of groomed jet properties from the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ event generators agree with the measurements in pp collisions. When comparing the results from the most central PbPb collisions to pp data, a hint of an increase of jets with large jet mass is observed, which could originate from additional medium-induced radiation at a large angle from the jet axis. However, no modification of the groomed mass of the core of the jet is observed for all PbPb centrality classes. The PbPb results are also compared to predictions from the JEWEL and QPYTHI...

  9. Radiocarbon dating with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has two great advantages over conventional dating: 1) much smaller samples can be handled and 2) counting time is significantly shorter. Three examples are given for Holocene-age material from east-central Ellesmere Island. The results demonstrate the potential use of this technique as a powerful research tool in studies of Quaternary chronology. Individual fragments of marine shells as small as 0.1 g have been dated successfully at the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. In the case of an aquatic moss from a lake sediment core, an increment 0.5 cm thick could be used instead of a 5 cm-thick slice, thus allowing a much more precise estimate of the onset of organic sedimentation

  10. Flat choroidal melanoma masquerading as central serous chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Patrick Higgins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several mimickers of choroidal melanoma. We report a patient with recent family stress who developed blurred vision to 20/50 OD and was found to have unilateral central serous chorioretinopathy and a coincidental choroidal nevus. After 1 year without resolution of the subretinal fluid, the patient was referred for our opinion. On examination, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. The left eye was normal. Evaluation of the right eye showed a small, pigmented submacular choroidal lesion measuring 4 mm Χ 3 mm. Ultrasonography documented an isoechoic mass measuring 1.71 mm in thickness. Optical coherence tomography showed subretinal fluid with shaggy photoreceptors and hyper-reflective material within the subretinal fluid, likely indicative of lipofuscin within macrophages. Autofluorescence revealed orange pigment overlying the lesion. These features were strongly suggestive of small choroidal melanoma with five risk factors for tumor growth. Treatment with Iodine-125 plaque brachytherapy was performed on the patient. The readers should keep in mind that choroidal melanoma can manifest as a tiny choroidal mass with related multimodal imaging features of subretinal fluid and orange pigment.

  11. UNDERSTANDING BLACK HOLE MASS ASSEMBLY VIA ACCRETION AND MERGERS AT LATE TIMES IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-01-01

    Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ , increasing to 4% at M *, bul ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , and in the cluster it is 4% at M *, bul = 10 10 M ☉ and 23% at 10 12 M ☉ . We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3%. Quantifying the growth due to mergers at these late times

  12. District element modelling of the rock mass response to glaciation at Finnsjoen, central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengren, L.; Stephansson, O.

    1990-12-01

    Six rock mechanics models of a cross section of the Finnsjoen test site have been simulated by means of distinct element analysis and the computer code UDEC. The rock mass response to glaciation, deglaciation, isostatic movements and water pressure from an ice lake have been simulated. Four of the models use a boundary condition with boundary elements at the bottom and sides of the model. This gives a state of stress inside the model which agrees well with the analytical solution where the horizontal and vertical stresses are almost similar. Roller boundaries were applied to two models. This boundary condition cause zero lateral displacement at the model boundaries and the horizontal stress are always less than the vertical stress. Isostatic movements were simulated in one model. Two different geometries of fracture Zone 2 were simulated. Results from modelling the two different geometries show minor changes in stresses, displacements and failure of fracture zones. Under normal pore pressure conditions in the rock mass the weight of the ice load increases the vertical stresses in the models differ depending on the boundary condition. An ice thickness of 3 km and 1 km and an ice wedge of 1 km thickness covering half the top surface of the model have been simulated. For each loading sequence of the six models a complete set of data about normal stress, stress profiles along selected sections, displacements and failure of fracture zones are presented. Based on the results of this study a protection zone of about 100 m width from the outer boundary of stress discontinuity to the repository location is suggested. This value is based on the result that the stress disturbance diminishes at this distance from the outer boundary of the discontinuity. (25 refs.) (authors)

  13. THE MASS DISTRIBUTION OF STELLAR-MASS BLACK HOLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farr, Will M.; Sravan, Niharika; Kalogera, Vicky; Cantrell, Andrew; Kreidberg, Laura; Bailyn, Charles D.; Mandel, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Bayesian analysis of the mass distribution of stellar-mass black holes using the observed masses of 15 low-mass X-ray binary systems undergoing Roche lobe overflow and 5 high-mass, wind-fed X-ray binary systems. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo calculations, we model the mass distribution both parametrically—as a power law, exponential, Gaussian, combination of two Gaussians, or log-normal distribution—and non-parametrically—as histograms with varying numbers of bins. We provide confidence bounds on the shape of the mass distribution in the context of each model and compare the models with each other by calculating their relative Bayesian evidence as supported by the measurements, taking into account the number of degrees of freedom of each model. The mass distribution of the low-mass systems is best fit by a power law, while the distribution of the combined sample is best fit by the exponential model. This difference indicates that the low-mass subsample is not consistent with being drawn from the distribution of the combined population. We examine the existence of a 'gap' between the most massive neutron stars and the least massive black holes by considering the value, M 1% , of the 1% quantile from each black hole mass distribution as the lower bound of black hole masses. Our analysis generates posterior distributions for M 1% ; the best model (the power law) fitted to the low-mass systems has a distribution of lower bounds with M 1% >4.3 M sun with 90% confidence, while the best model (the exponential) fitted to all 20 systems has M 1% >4.5 M sun with 90% confidence. We conclude that our sample of black hole masses provides strong evidence of a gap between the maximum neutron star mass and the lower bound on black hole masses. Our results on the low-mass sample are in qualitative agreement with those of Ozel et al., although our broad model selection analysis more reliably reveals the best-fit quantitative description of the underlying mass

  14. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roddick, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A·Mass 1/2 + B·(Mass) p where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs

  15. The black hole mass of NGC 4151. II. Stellar dynamical measurement from near-infrared integral field spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Valluri, Monica; Brown, Jonathan S.; McGregor, Peter J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Bentz, Misty C.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a revised measurement of the mass of the central black hole (M BH ) in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. The new stellar dynamical mass measurement is derived by applying an axisymmetric orbit-superposition code to near-infrared integral field data obtained using adaptive optics with the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS). When our models attempt to fit both the NIFS kinematics and additional low spatial resolution kinematics, our results depend sensitively on how χ 2 is computed—probably a consequence of complex bar kinematics that manifest immediately outside the nuclear region. The most robust results are obtained when only the high spatial resolution kinematic constraints in the nuclear region are included in the fit. Our best estimates for the black hole mass and H-band mass-to-light ratio are M BH ∼ 3.76 ± 1.15 × 10 7 M ☉ (1σ error) and Y H ∼ 0.34 ± 0.03 M ☉ /L ☉ (3σ error), respectively (the quoted errors reflect the model uncertainties). Our black hole mass measurement is consistent with estimates from both reverberation mapping (3.57 −0.37 +0.45 ×10 7 M ⊙ ) and gas kinematics (3.0 −2.2 +0.75 ×10 7 M ⊙ ; 1σ errors), and our best-fit mass-to-light ratio is consistent with the photometric estimate of Y H = 0.4 ± 0.2 M ☉ /L ☉ . The NIFS kinematics give a central bulge velocity dispersion σ c = 116 ± 3 km s –1 , bringing this object slightly closer to the M BH -σ relation for quiescent galaxies. Although NGC 4151 is one of only a few Seyfert 1 galaxies in which it is possible to obtain a direct dynamical black hole mass measurement—and thus, an independent calibration of the reverberation mapping mass scale—the complex bar kinematics makes it less than ideally suited for this purpose.

  16. Tachykinin-1 in the central nervous system regulates adiposity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Chitrang; Shan, Xiaoye; Tung, Yi-Chun Loraine; Kabra, Dhiraj; Holland, Jenna; Amburgy, Sarah; Heppner, Kristy; Kirchner, Henriette; Yeo, Giles S H; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-05-01

    Ghrelin is a circulating hormone that targets the central nervous system to regulate feeding and adiposity. The best-characterized neural system that mediates the effects of ghrelin on energy balance involves the activation of neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide neurons, expressed exclusively in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. However, ghrelin receptors are expressed in other neuronal populations involved in the control of energy balance. We combined laser capture microdissection of several nuclei of the central nervous system expressing the ghrelin receptor (GH secretagoge receptor) with microarray gene expression analysis to identify additional neuronal systems involved in the control of central nervous system-ghrelin action. We identified tachykinin-1 (Tac1) as a gene negatively regulated by ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, we identified neuropeptide k as the TAC1-derived peptide with more prominent activity, inducing negative energy balance when delivered directly into the brain. Conversely, loss of Tac1 expression enhances the effectiveness of ghrelin promoting fat mass gain both in male and in female mice and increases the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity in ovariectomized mice. Taken together, our data demonstrate a role TAC1 in the control energy balance by regulating the levels of adiposity in response to ghrelin administration and to changes in the status of the gonadal function.

  17. Mass loading and episodic variation of molecular markers in PM2.5 aerosols over a rural area in eastern central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, Jayant; Deshmukh, Dhananjay K.; Deb, Manas K.; Tsai, Ying I.; Sopajaree, Khajornsak

    2015-09-01

    The impact of biomass burning in atmospheric aerosols load is poorly known. We investigated the impact of biomass burning through molecular markers on the concentration of PM2.5 aerosol samples collected from a rural site in eastern central India during three episodic periods from October to November 2011. The collected PM2.5 samples were chemically quantified for potassium as well as sugars and dicarboxylic acids using ion chromatography. Levoglucosan and glucose were found as the most abundant sugar compounds and sugar-alcohols showed the predominance of mannitol whereas oxalic acid was the most abundant diacid followed by maleic acid in PM2.5 aerosols. Substantially enhanced concentrations of K+ as well as levoglucosan and glucose were observed in eastern central India. Analysis of the source specific molecular markers and ratios of sugars and diacids infer that combustion of biomass was the major emission sources of organic compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosols over eastern central India. We applied Spearman correlation analysis and principal component analysis to further investigate the sources of measured sugars and diacids. The concentrations of K+ and levoglucosan were significantly correlated with sugars and diacids that verifying their common sources from biomass burning emission. This study demonstrates that biomass burning for domestic heating and cooking purposes and agricultural activities significantly influence the air quality of eastern central India during the investigation period. The obtained data in this research is helpful for the global scientific community to assessments and remedial of air quality parameters in rural areas of developing countries under similar atmospheric circumstances.

  18. Set-up and calibration of an outdoor nozzle-type rainfall simulator for soil erosion studies at the Masse experimental station (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Todisco, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    This contribution describes the technical characteristics and the preliminary calibration of a rainfall simulator recently installed by the Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences (Perugia University) at the Masse experimental station located 20 km south of Perugia, in the region of Umbria (central Italy). The site includes some USLE plots of different length λ = 11 and 22 m and width w = 2, 4 and 8 m, oriented parallel to a 16 % slope and kept free of vegetation by frequent ploughing. Since 2008, the station enabled to collect data from more than 80 erosive events, that were mainly used to investigate the relationship between rainfall characteristics and soil loss. The relevant soil loss variability that characterizes erosive storm events with similar overall characteristics (duration and/or depth) can be explained by the different rainfall profile of erosive storms and by the different antecedent soil aggregate stability. To analyse in more detail these aspects, recently, the Masse experimental station has been equipped with a semi-portable rainfall simulator placed over two micro-plots of 1x1 m each, having the same topographic and pedologic conditions of the adjacent USLE plots. The rainfall simulator consists of four full-cone spray nozzles for each micro-plot, placed at the angles of a 0.18-m square, centred over the plot at a height of 2.7 m above the ground. The operating pressure is regulated by pressure regulating valves and checked by pressure gauges mounted in correspondence of each nozzle. An electronic control unit regulates the start and stop of the inlet solenoid valves. A range of rainfall intensities can be achieved, by activating different combinations of nozzles (15 different intensities) also during the same simulation trial. The particular design of the plots allows to collect separately the runoff volume deriving from the plots and the water volume fallen outside of the plot. In this way it is possible to derive, by

  19. Enhancing the rate of tidal disruptions of stars by a self-gravitating disc around a massive central black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubr L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We further study the idea that a self-gravitating accretion disc around a supermassive black hole can increase the rate of gradual orbital decay of stellar trajectories (and hence tidal disruption events by setting some stars on eccentric trajectories. Cooperation between the gravitational field of the disc and the dissipative environment can provide a mechanism explaining the origin of stars that become bound tightly to the central black hole. We examine this process as a function of the black hole mass and conclude that it is most efficient for intermediate central masses of the order of ∼ 104Mʘ. Members of the cluster experience the stage of orbital decay via collisions with an accretion disc and by other dissipative processes, such as tidal effects, dynamical friction and the emission of gravitational waves. Our attention is concentrated on the region of gravitational dominance of the central body. Mutual interaction between stars and the surrounding environment establishes a non-spherical shape and anisotropy of the nuclear cluster. In some cases, the stellar sub-system acquires ring-type geometry. Stars of the nuclear cluster undergo a tidal disruption event as they plunge below the tidal radius of the supermassive black hole.

  20. System, centrality, and transverse mass dependence of two-pion correlation radii in heavy ion collisions at 11.6A and 14.6A GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahle, L.; Baker, M.D.; Cianciolo, V.; Costales, J.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Heintzelman, G.; Judd, E.; Kehoe, W.L.; Ledoux, R.J.; Morrison, D.P.; Morse, R.J.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Parsons, C.G.; Rothschild, P.; Soltz, R.A.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Sung, T.W.; Vutsadakis, V.; Woodruff, D.

    2002-01-01

    Two-pion correlation functions are analyzed at midrapidity for three systems (14.6A GeV/c Si+Al, Si+Au, and 11.6A GeV/c Au+Au), seven distinct centrality conditions, and different k T bins in the range 0.1-0.5 GeV/c. Source reference frames are determined from fits to the Yano-Koonin source parametrization. Bertsch-Pratt radius parameters are shown to scale linearly with both number of projectile and total participants as obtained from a Glauber model calculation. A finite lifetime parameter that increases linearly with system/centrality is also reported. The m T dependences of the Bertsch-Pratt radii for the central Si+Au and central Au+Au systems differ only by an overall normalization factor given by the measured system/centrality dependence

  1. Efficient mass calibration of magnetic sector mass spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roddick, J C

    1997-12-31

    Magnetic sector mass spectrometers used for automatic acquisition of precise isotopic data are usually controlled with Hall probes and software that uses polynomial equations to define and calibrate the mass-field relations required for mass focusing. This procedure requires a number of reference masses and careful tuning to define and maintain an accurate mass calibration. A simplified equation is presented and applied to several different magnetically controlled mass spectrometers. The equation accounts for nonlinearity in typical Hall probe controlled mass-field relations, reduces calibration to a linear fitting procedure, and is sufficiently accurate to permit calibration over a mass range of 2 to 200 amu with only two defining masses. Procedures developed can quickly correct for normal drift in calibrations and compensate for drift during isotopic analysis over a limited mass range such as a single element. The equation is: Field A{center_dot}Mass{sup 1/2} + B{center_dot}(Mass){sup p} where A, B, and p are constants. The power value p has a characteristic value for a Hall probe/controller and is insensitive to changing conditions, thus reducing calibration to a linear regression to determine optimum A and B. (author). 1 ref., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Dynamics of the ice mass in Antarctica in the time of warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The modern age of global warming affect the general state of the Antarctic ice sheet and its mass balance. Studies of the Southern polar region of the Earth during the International Geophysical Year  (1957–1958 called the assumption of growth in the modern ice mass in East Antarctica. However, with the development of new methods, this conclusion has been questioned. At the turn of the century the study of global processes Earth started to use the satellite radar or laser altimetry and satellite gravimetry, which allows determining change of different masses on the Earth, including ice bodies. From the beginning of the XXI century, these methods have been used to calculate the continental ice balance. In our study, we analyze different data of recent years, supporting the earlier conclusion on continued growth of the ice mass in East Antarctica. How‑ ever, in West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula, on the contrary, there is increased loss of ice, leveling the increased income of ice mass of in the Central Antarctica. So all in all in the modern era of global warm‑ ing, the ice mass in Antarctica appears to be decreasing despite some growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Fluctuations of land ice mass reflect in the sea level variations, but in comparison with the scale of the Ant‑ arctic ice sheet its contribution to sea‑level rise is not so significant. The main reason for this is that the mass accumulation in East Antarctica with significant probability prevails over the ice outflow.

  3. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  4. Multiplicity and Pseudorapidity Distributions from $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at Center-of-Mass Energy 1.8-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Charles Cameron [Purdue U.

    1991-12-01

    Charged-particle multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions produced in protonantiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1.8 TeV and measured in the Central Tracking Chamber are discussed. The data were taken using a minimum bias trigger at E-735 at Fermi lab.

  5. Association of central serotonin transporter availability and body mass index in healthy Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Swen; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke; Zientek, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Serotonin-mediated mechanisms, in particular via the serotonin transporter (SERT), are thought to have an effect on food intake and play an important role in the pathophysiology of obesity. However, imaging studies that examined the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and SERT...... are sparse and provided contradictory results. The aim of this study was to further test the association between SERT and BMI in a large cohort of healthy subjects. METHODS: 127 subjects of the ENC DAT database (58 females, age 52 ± 18 years, range 20-83, BMI 25.2 ± 3.8 kg/m(2), range 18.2-41.1) were...... associated in the thalamus, but not in the midbrain. In the ROI-analysis, the interaction between gender and BMI showed a trend with higher correlation coefficient for men in the midbrain albeit not significant (0.033SBRm(2)/kg, p=0.1). CONCLUSIONS: The data are in agreement with previous PET findings...

  6. Tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard Alejo, Julio S; Rodriguez Herrera, Ernesto; Tablada, Ricardo Hodelin; Romero Garcia, Lazaro I.

    2010-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study of 8 patients with tumors of the central nervous system in the first year of life was carried out. They were diagnosed in the Southern Children Hospital of Santiago de Cuba from 1987 to 2008, 5 of them (62,5%) had died when the present article was made. The treatments indicated in this case are the resection of the tumor mass, the most radical surgery depending on its size and localization, as well as the chemotherapy according to the tissular type

  7. Thermo-mechanical analysis of FG nanobeam with attached tip mass: an exact solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Jafari, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Present disquisition proposes an analytical solution method for exploring the vibration characteristics of a cantilever functionally graded nanobeam with a concentrated mass exposed to thermal loading for the first time. Thermo-mechanical properties of FGM nanobeam are supposed to change through the thickness direction of beam based on the rule of power-law (P-FGM). The small-scale effect is taken into consideration based on nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen. Linear temperature rise (LTR) through thickness direction is studied. Existence of centralized mass in the free end of nanobeam influences the mechanical and physical properties. Timoshenko beam theory is employed to derive the nonlocal governing equations and boundary conditions of FGM beam attached with a tip mass under temperature field via Hamilton's principle. An exact solution procedure is exploited to achieve the non-dimensional frequency of FG nanobeam exposed to temperature field with a tip mass. A parametric study is led to assess the efficacy of temperature changes, tip mass, small scale, beam thickness, power-law exponent, slenderness and thermal loading on the natural frequencies of FG cantilever nanobeam with a point mass at the free end. It is concluded that these parameters play remarkable roles on the dynamic behavior of FG nanobeam subjected to LTR with a tip mass. The results for simpler states are confirmed with known data in the literature. Presented numerical results can serve as benchmarks for future thermo-mechanical analyses of FG nanobeam with tip mass.

  8. Energy dependence of acceptance-corrected dielectron excess mass spectrum at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at sNN=19.6 and 200 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Adamczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance-corrected dielectron excess mass spectra, where the known hadronic sources have been subtracted from the inclusive dielectron mass spectra, are reported for the first time at mid-rapidity |yee|<1 in minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at sNN=19.6 and 200 GeV. The excess mass spectra are consistently described by a model calculation with a broadened ρ spectral function for Mee<1.1 GeV/c2. The integrated dielectron excess yield at sNN=19.6 GeV for 0.4central collisions is higher than that at sNN=17.3 GeV and increases from peripheral to central collisions. These measurements indicate that the lifetime of the hot, dense medium created in central Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV is longer than those in peripheral collisions and at lower energies.

  9. The two young star disks in the central parsec of the Galaxy: properties, dynamics, and formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paumard, T; Genzel, R; Martins, F; Nayakshin, S; Beloborodov, A M; Levin, Y; Trippe, S; Eisenhauer, F; Ott, T; Gillessen, S; Abuter, R; Cuadra, J; Alexander, T; Sternberg, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the definite spectroscopic identification of ≅ 40 OB supergiants, giants and main sequence stars in the central parsec of the Galaxy. Detection of their absorption lines have become possible with the high spatial and spectral resolution and sensitivity of the adaptive optics integral Held spectrometer SPIFFI/SINFONI on the ESO VLT. Several of these OB stars appear to be helium and nitrogen rich. Almost all of the ≅80 massive stars now known in the central parsec (central arcsecond excluded) reside in one of two somewhat thick ((|/R) ≅ 0.14) rotating disks. These stellar disks have fairly sharp inner edges (R ≅ 1'') and surface density profiles that scale as R -2 . We do not detect any OB stars outside the central 0.5 pc. The majority of the stars in the clockwise system appear to be on almost circular orbits, whereas most of those in the 'counter-clockwise' disk appear to be on eccentric orbits. Based on its stellar surface density distribution and dynamics we propose that IRS 13E is an extremely dense cluster (ρ core ∼> 3 x 10 8 M o-dot pc -3 ), which has formed in the counter-clockwise disk. The stellar contents of both systems are remarkably similar, indicating a common age of ≅ 6±2 Myr. The K-band luminosity function of the massive stars suggests a top-heavy mass function and limits the total stellar mass contained in both disks to ≅ 1.5 x 10 4 M o-dot . Our data strongly favor in situ star formation from dense gas accretion disks for the two stellar disks. This conclusion is very clear for the clockwise disk and highly plausible for the counter-clockwise system

  10. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  11. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  12. Screening halogenated environmental contaminants in biota based on isotopic pattern and mass defect provided by high resolution mass spectrometry profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cariou, Ronan, E-mail: laberca@oniris-nantes.fr; Omer, Elsa; Léon, Alexis; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2016-09-14

    In the present work, we addressed the question of global seeking/screening organohalogenated compounds in a large panel of complex biological matrices, with a particular focus on unknown chemicals that may be considered as potential emerging hazards. A fishing strategy was developed based on untargeted profiling among full scan acquisition datasets provided by high resolution mass spectrometry. Since large datasets arise from such profiling, filtering useful information stands as a central question. In this way, we took advantage of the exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. Indeed, our workflow involved an innovative Visual Basic for Applications script aiming at pairing features according to this mass difference, in order to point out potential organohalogenated clusters, preceded by an automated peak picking step based on the centWave function (xcms package of open access R programming environment). Then, H/Cl-scale mass defect plots were used to visualize the datasets before and after filtering. The filtering script was successfully applied to a dataset generated upon liquid chromatography coupled to ESI(−)-HRMS measurement from one eel muscle extract, allowing for realistic manual investigations of filtered clusters. Starting from 9789 initial obtained features, 1994 features were paired in 589 clusters. Hexabromocyclododecane, chlorinated paraffin series and various other compounds have been identified or tentatively identified, allowing thus broad screening of organohalogenated compounds in this extract. Although realistic, manual review of paired clusters remains time consuming and much effort should be devoted to automation. - Highlights: • We address the screening of halogenated compounds in large Full Scan HRMS datasets. • The workflow involves peak picking, pairing script and review of paired features. • The pairing script is based on exact mass differences between Cl and Br isotopes. • H/Cl scale mass defect plots are used to

  13. Influence of concentration and hydrodynamic factors in sorption of iodine by anion-exchangers of the mass-transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.V.; Smirnov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the joint influence of hydrodynamic and concentration factors in sorption of iodine by AV-17-8 and anion exchange resins on the mass-transfer coefficient is the subject of this report. The method of central composite rotatable experimental design was used for quantitative assessment and derivation of the appropriate equations. The investigation yielded the necessary regression equations satisfactorily describing the influence of all the factors in the mass-transfer coefficient. the optimal mass-transfer conditions were determined. On the basis of the values obtained, recommendations are made on the optimal hydrodynamic conditions of operation of equipment with pneumatic circulation of the ion-exchanger

  14. Connecting Dirac and Majorana neutrino mass matrices in the minimal left-right symmetric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemevšek, Miha; Senjanović, Goran; Tello, Vladimir

    2013-04-12

    Probing the origin of neutrino mass by disentangling the seesaw mechanism is one of the central issues of particle physics. We address it in the minimal left-right symmetric model and show how the knowledge of light and heavy neutrino masses and mixings suffices to determine their Dirac Yukawa couplings. This in turn allows one to make predictions for a number of high and low energy phenomena, such as decays of heavy neutrinos, neutrinoless double beta decay, electric dipole moments of charged leptons, and neutrino transition moments. We also discuss a way of reconstructing the neutrino Dirac Yukawa couplings at colliders such as the LHC.

  15. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Roberta E. Martin; Raul Tupayachi; Ruth Emerson; Paola Martinez; Felipe Sinca; George V.N. Powell; S. Joseph Wright; Ariel E. Lugo

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific...

  16. Production of φ mesons in central Si+Au collisions at 14.6 A·GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufeng

    1993-01-01

    The production of φ mesons from central Si+Au collisions has been measured by E859 at the BNL-AGS by selecting events with identified K + K - pairs. The values for the mass and width of the φ obtained from the invariant mass of the kaon pairs are consistent with those of the Particle Data Book. Preliminary results for the invariant 1/2πm T d 2 n/dm T dy distribution and dn/dy are presented. The inverse slope parameter for an exponential m T fit to the m T spectrum is 171±18 MeV. An analysis of the ratio of the φ signal to the combinatoric background in the K + K - invariant mass distribution provides a rough estimate of the size of the reaction region, which is found to be consistent with the E859 interferometry measurements

  17. D meson elliptic flow in non-central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, B.; Adamova, D.; Adare, A.M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A.G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Masoodi, A.Ahmad; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S.U.; Ahn, S.A.; Aimo, I.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshauser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I.C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T.C.; Aysto, J.; Azmi, M.D.; Bach, M.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y.W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Ban, J.; Baral, R.C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnafoldi, G.G.; Barnby, L.S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P.C.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I.G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N.K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A.A.E.; Bertens, R.A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bottger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Boggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossu, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T.A.; Browning, T.A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G.E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Diaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J.F.; Casula, E.A.R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J.L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D.D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C.H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M.E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormier, T.M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M.R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M.E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Alaniz, E.Cruz; Albino, R.Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dang, R.; Danu, A.; Das, S.; Das, K.; Das, I.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Dash, A.; De, S.; de Barros, G.O.V.; De Caro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Denes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; Erasmo, G.D.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M.A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Donigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A.K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A.K.; Elia, D.; Elwood, B.G.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H.A.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernandez Tellez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M.A.S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F.M.; Fiore, E.M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhoje, J.J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D.R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glassel, P.; Goerlich, L.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E.G.; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L.K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, S.; Grigoryan, A.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J.F.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, O.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B.H.; Hanratty, L.D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J.W.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S.T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B.A.; Hetland, K.F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hrivnacova, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T.J.; Hwang, D.S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P.G.; Innocenti, G.M.; Ionita, C.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P.M.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H.J.; Janik, M.A.; Jayarathna, P.H.S.Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D.M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R.T.; Jones, P.G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A.B.; Kalcher, S.; Kalinak, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J.H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, S.A.; Khan, M.M.; Khan, K.H.; Khan, P.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, J.H.; Kim, D.W.; Kim, T.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, J.S.; Kim, D.J.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bosing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M.L.; Knospe, A.G.; Kohler, M.K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Kralik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravcakova, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucera, V.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P.G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kushpil, V.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M.J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladron de Guevara, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S.L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S.C.; Lee, G.R.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lemmon, R.C.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; Leon, H.; Leoncino, M.; Leon Monzon, I.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M.A.; Ljunggren, H.M.; Lodato, D.F.; Loenne, P.I.; Loggins, V.R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K.K.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lovhoiden, G.; Lu, X.G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, R.; Ma, K.; Madagodahettige-Don, D.M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G.V.; Margotti, A.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N.A.; Blanco, J.Martin; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, M.I.; Martinez Garcia, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazumder, R.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Perez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A.N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montano Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D.A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Muller, H.; Munhoz, M.G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B.K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T.K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B.S.; Nilsson, M.S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.K.; Oh, S.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A.C.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S.K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Park, W.J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D.I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Perez Lara, C.E.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D.B.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P.L.M.; Poghosyan, M.G.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospisil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S.K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C.A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Rasanen, S.S.; Rascanu, B.T.; Rathee, D.; Rauch, W.; Rauf, A.W.; Razazi, V.; Read, K.F.; Real, J.S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R.J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A.R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R.A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rivetti, A.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A.J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P.K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C.A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H.R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Scott, P.A.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T.B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.J.M.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B.K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J.H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Subieta Vasquez, M.A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T.J.M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tangaro, M.A.; J.Tapia Takaki, D.; Peloni, A.Tarantola; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Minasyan, A.Ter; Terrevoli, C.; Thader, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A.R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T.S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urciuoli, G.M.; Usai, G.L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Van Hoorne, J.W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Volkl, M.A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, V.; Wang, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J.P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M.C.S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C.G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.K.; Yoon, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-01-01

    Azimuthally anisotropic distributions of $D^0, D^+$ and $D^{*+}$ mesons were studied in the central rapidity region (|y| < 0.8) in Pb-Pb collisions at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV per nucleon-nucleon collision, with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The second Fourier coefficient $\

  18. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of Parachute Finite Mass Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinglong Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parachute inflation is coupled with sophisticated fluid-structure interaction (FSI and flight mechanic behaviors in a finite mass situation. During opening, the canopy often experiences the largest deformation and loading. To predict the opening phase of a parachute, a computational FSI model for the inflation of a parachute, with slots on its canopy fabric, is developed using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Euler coupling penalty method. In a finite mass situation, the fluid around the parachute typically has an unsteady flow; therefore, a more complex opening phase and FSI dynamics of a parachute are investigated. Navier-Stokes (N-S equations for uncompressible flow are solved using an explicit central difference method. The three-dimensional visualization of canopy deformation as well as the evolution of dropping velocity and overload is obtained and compared with the experimental results. This technique could be further applied in the airdrop test of a parachute for true prediction of the inflation characteristics.

  19. Outsourcing central banking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas

    2005-01-01

    The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....

  20. Isothermal Bondi Accretion in Jaffe and Hernquist Galaxies with a Central Black Hole: Fully Analytical Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia, E-mail: luca.ciotti@unibo.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, via Piero Gobetti 93/2, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-10-10

    One of the most active fields of research of modern-day astrophysics is that of massive black hole formation and coevolution with the host galaxy. In these investigations, ranging from cosmological simulations, to semi-analytical modeling, to observational studies, the Bondi solution for accretion on a central point-mass is widely adopted. In this work we generalize the classical Bondi accretion theory to take into account the effects of the gravitational potential of the host galaxy, and of radiation pressure in the optically thin limit. Then, we present the fully analytical solution, in terms of the Lambert–Euler W -function, for isothermal accretion in Jaffe and Hernquist galaxies with a central black hole. The flow structure is found to be sensitive to the shape of the mass profile of the host galaxy. These results and the formulae that are provided, most importantly, the one for the critical accretion parameter, allow for a direct evaluation of all flow properties, and are then useful for the abovementioned studies. As an application, we examine the departure from the true mass accretion rate of estimates obtained using the gas properties at various distances from the black hole, under the hypothesis of classical Bondi accretion. An overestimate is obtained from regions close to the black hole, and an underestimate outside a few Bondi radii; the exact position of the transition between the two kinds of departure depends on the galaxy model.

  1. Centrality and Transverse Momentum Dependence of Elliptic Flow of Multistrange Hadrons and ϕ Meson in Au +Au Collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Averichev, G. S.; Bairathi, V.; Banerjee, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Horvat, S.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, L.; Kycia, R. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, Z. M.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; Meehan, K.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Peterson, A.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roy, A.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, D.; Smirnov, N.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, X.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, N.; Szelezniak, M. A.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xin, K.; Xu, N.; Xu, Z.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, H.; Yang, Q.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, S.; Yang, C.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present high precision measurements of elliptic flow near midrapidity (|y |<1.0 ) for multistrange hadrons and ϕ meson as a function of centrality and transverse momentum in Au +Au collisions at center of mass energy √{sN N}=200 GeV . We observe that the transverse momentum dependence of ϕ and Ω v2 is similar to that of π and p , respectively, which may indicate that the heavier strange quark flows as strongly as the lighter up and down quarks. This observation constitutes a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. Number of constituent quark scaling is found to hold within statistical uncertainty for both 0%-30% and 30%-80% collision centrality. There is an indication of the breakdown of previously observed mass ordering between ϕ and proton v2 at low transverse momentum in the 0%-30% centrality range, possibly indicating late hadronic interactions affecting the proton v2.

  2. NIDDK Central Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIDDK Central Repository stores biosamples, genetic and other data collected in designated NIDDK-funded clinical studies. The purpose of the NIDDK Central...

  3. Neck Circumference Positively Related with Central Obesity and Overweight in Turkish University Students: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, İsmail; Tunçkale, Aydın

    2016-06-01

    According to the World Health Organization, central obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide. Neck circumference is a relatively new method of differentiating between normal and abnormal fat distribution. The aim of this study is to determine the association between neck circumference and central obesity in young Turkish male and female university students. A community of university students based cross-sectional study was conducted on 319 males and 838 females and investigated the association between neck circumference and other anthropometric variables by gender. In male subjects, the neck circumference revealed a positive correlation with the body mass index (r=0.684, pobesity, is also applicable to university students. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  4. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning