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Sample records for south pantanal brazil

  1. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

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    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  2. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830 feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil, and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food resources abundance and diversity at the Miranda river gallery forest (Southern Pantanal. I also analyzed the relationships between Chaco chachalacas feeding activity and food resources abundance. This parameter (flowers and fruits exhibited significant seasonal differences of abundance in which flowers were plentiful at the end of the dry, while fruits were abundant during the early wet season. However, food resources diversity to Chaco chachalacas exhibited no seasonal difference. Their feeding activity paralleled the availability of food resources, so that when some items were massively available an enhanced number of Chaco chachalacas foraged in the gallery forest, particularly during the prolonged dry season when they extensively used flowers and Genipa americana fruits. In fact, the Chaco chachalaca feeding niche breadth value presented low values in this period, while high values were common in the rest of the year. The flexible diet of this cracid, potentially favors their year round presence in the gallery forest, mainly during the prolonged dry season when the propensity for famine might be high. Since the Chaco chachalaca is among the largest and most abundant canopy frugivores in the gallery forest, it may contribute to forest regeneration, an underscored role due to the impact of annual floods and meandering dynamics on tree loss.

  3. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission Investigação preliminar das espécies de culicídeos do Pantanal Sul brasileiro e sua potencial importância na transmissão de arbovírus

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    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.Regiões como o Pantanal brasileiro, que apresentam fatores como riqueza de fauna silvestre incluindo circulação de aves migratórias e condições ambientais e climáticas favoráveis à proliferação de artrópodes estão potencialmente sujeitas à circulação de arbovírus. Entretanto, poucos trabalhos foram realizados acerca da presença de arbovírus em potenciais vetores no Pantanal. Neste sentido o principal objetivo deste trabalho foi conduzir uma investigação preliminar para presença de arbovírus em amostragens de culicídeos capturados na Sub-região da Nhecolândia no Pantanal

  4. Sustainable management of natural forests in pantanal region, Brazil.

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    Patricia Póvoa de Mattos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region in Brazil has an area of 140,000 km², with approximately 30 % of natural forests distributed as deciduous, semideciduous, and forested savannas. The subregion of Nhecolandia represents 19 % of this area. There is constant concern about the sustainability of these forested areas, as there is a constant demand for wood for farm maintenance, mainly for making fence poles. The objective of this article is to indicate sustainable forest management practices in the Pantanal region of Nhecolandia. The methodology of this novel approach consisted of the recovery and organization of the available information to calculate the sustainable allowable cut per hectare, considering: cutting cycle, wood stock, periodic annual increment (PAI in percentage of volume from the commercial or interesting species and the stand structure. For forested savannas, the diameter at breast height (DBH of 529 trees per hectare were estimated as follows: 28 % with a DBH lower than 10 cm, 36 % from 10 to 20 cm, 21 % from 20 to 30 cm, 10 % from 30 to 40 cm and only 4 % greater than 40 cm. The estimated total volume per hectare was 84.2 m³ and the estimated basal area was 18.6 m². The forested areas of the Pantanal region present potential for sustainable use. However, due to regional characteristics and the lack of available information, an enhancement in research is recommended to establish a basic management guide to ensure its perpetuation for future generations.

  5. Helminths parasitizing larval fish from Pantanal, Brazil.

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    Lacerda, A C F; Santin, M; Takemoto, R M; Pavanelli, G C; Bialetzki, A; Tavernari, F C

    2009-03-01

    Fish larvae of 'corvinas' (Pachyurus bonariensis and Plagioscion ternetzi) from Sinhá Mariana Lagoon, Mato Grosso State, were collected from March 2000 to March 2004, in order to determine the parasitic fauna of fishes. Larvae from the two species were parasitized by the same endoparasites: Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larvae) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the mesentery and Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) paraguayensis (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in the stomach and the terminal portion of the intestine. Statistical analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the standard length of hosts and the abundance of acanthocephalans and nematodes, and that the prevalence of nematodes presented a significant positive correlation with the standard length of the two species of hosts, indicating the presence of a cumulative process of infection. The present study constitutes the first record of nematodes and acanthocephalans parasitizing larval fish, as well as the first record of endoparasites in fish larvae in Brazil. In addition, it lists a new locality and two species of hosts for Contracaecum sp. Type 2 (larva) and N. (N.) paraguayensis.

  6. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

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    Alex Pauvolid-Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV, eastern (EEEV, western (WEEV and Venezuelan (VEEV equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3% were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3% for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9% were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8% for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4% for EEEV, one (0.4% for WEEV and three (1.3% for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1% and three (3.4%, respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  7. Response of wild mammals to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal, Brazil

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    S. B. Mamede

    Full Text Available The Pantanal is a large savanna wetland (138,183 km² in Brazil, important for its wildlife, fed by tributaries of the upper Paraguay River, center of South America (Brazil, touching Bolivia and Paraguay. Uplands are plateaus (250-1,200 m high, 215,000 km² in Brazil and flatland is the Pantanal (80-150 m high, 147,574 km² in Brazil. Rivers are slow moving when they meet the flatland (slope 0.3-0.5 m/km east-west; 0.03-0.15 m/km north-south, periodically overflowing their banks, creating a complex seasonal habitat range. Recurrent shallow flooding occupies 80% of the Pantanal; during the dry season flooded areas dry up. Fluctuating water levels, nutrients and wildlife form a dynamic ecosystem. A flooding regime forms distinct sub-regions within the Pantanal. A mammal survey was carried out in the sub-region of the Rio Negro from April, 2003 through March, 2004 to study the diversity and abundance of terrestrial mammals during the dry and flooding seasons. A total of 36 species were observed in the field. The capybara Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris was the most frequent species, followed by the crab-eating-fox Cerdocyon thous and the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus. The highest abundance of species was observed during the dry season (August and September, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Animal abundance (in terms of observed individual frequencies varied during the dry and wet seasons and the seasonally flooded grassland was the most utilized habitat by mammals in the dry season.

  8. The Quaternary alluvial systems tract of the Pantanal Basin, Brazil

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    Mario Luis Assine

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Pantanal Basin is an active sedimentary basin in central-west Brazil that consists of a complex alluvial systems tract characterized by the interaction between different river systems developed in one of the largest wetlands in the world. The Paraguay River is the trunk river system that drains the water and part of the sediment load received from areas outside of the basin. Depositional styles vary considerably along the river profiles throughout the basin, with the development of entrenched meandering belts, anastomosing reaches, and floodplain ponds. Paleodrainage patterns are preserved on the surface of abandoned lobes of fluvial fans, which also exhibit many degradational channels. Here, we propose a novel classification scheme according to which the geomorphology, hydrological regime and sedimentary dynamics of these fluvial systems are determined by the geology and geomorphology of the source areas. In this way, the following systems are recognized and described: (I the Paraguay trunk-river plains; (II fluvial fans sourced by the tablelands catchment area; (III fluvial fans sourced by lowlands; and (IV fluvial interfans. We highlight the importance of considering the influences of source areas when interpreting contrasting styles of fluvial architectures in the rock record.

  9. Impacts of large herbivores on spinescence and abundance of palms in the Pantanal, Brazil

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    Göldel, Bastian; Cardoso, Andréa C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    South America harboured a rich megafauna for millions of years, but most of it was lost during the latest Pleistocene and early Holocene. However, human introduced livestock is a potential partial ecological replacement, with livestock having been present in many areas of the Brazilian Pantanal f...

  10. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

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    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metazoan endoparasites of Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil

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    Wagner Vicentin

    Full Text Available In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens ofPygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons:Procamallanus (Spirocamallanusinopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp.,Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp.,Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala, Leiperia gracile,Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 andSubtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.

  12. Flowers, fruits, and the abundance of the yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri at a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil Flores, frutos e abundância do periquito-de-asa-amarela (Brotogeris chiriri em uma mata ciliar do Pantanal Sul (Brasil

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Parakeets usually forage for massive and ephemeral plant resources at forest canopies. Fruit pulp is widely cited as a major food resource for these birds, which often eat seeds and nectar. In this study, I assessed flower and fruit production at a gallery forest in the Pantanal flood plain (Brazil in order to evaluate the relationship between food resource production and abundance of a common parakeet, Brotogeris chiriri. Also, I evaluated the relationship between food resource production and foraging activity. Parakeet abundance varied markedly along the year, coinciding with massive episodes of flower and fleshy fruit availability. Inga vera nectar, intensely used during the latter part of dry season, was by far the most exploited food item by parakeets when they were very abundant. The nectar comprised 34% of the parakeets' diet (N = 131 feeding records at the gallery forest, while fleshy fruits made up the rest. Parakeets principally exploited fruits of Cecropia pachystachya and Ficus luschnathiana, besides palm fruits and Inga vera arils. The consistent relationship between foraging activity and parakeet abundance, as well as the coincidence between fluctuations of these parameters and availability of major food resources, suggests that food availability mostly influenced B. chiriri occurrence in the gallery forest. Furthermore, I found no evidence for gallery forest use for roosting and/or breeding, in spite of the fact that such factors usually influence local parakeet abundance.Periquitos normalmente exploram recursos massivos e efêmeros no dossel das florestas tropicais. Dentre os itens alimentares mais utilizados está a polpa de frutos, embora sementes e néctar também sejam consumidos. Neste estudo, foi avaliada a produção de flores e frutos em uma mata ciliar do Pantanal (Brasil e sua relação com a abundância do periquito Brotogeris chiriri. Além disso, avaliaram-se as relações entre a produção de flores e frutos e o

  13. Hepatozoon caimani in Caiman crocodilus yacare (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae) from North Pantanal, Brazil.

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    Bouer, Andréa; André, Marcos Rogério; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Luzzi, Mayara de Cássia; Oliveira, Juliana Paula de; Rodrigues, Adriana Carlos; Varani, Alessandro de Melo; Miranda, Vitor Fernandes Oliveira de; Perles, Lívia; Werther, Karin; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2017-01-01

    Hepatozoon species are the most common intracellular hemoparasite found in reptiles. Hepatozoon caimani, whose vectors are Culex mosquitoes, has been detected in a high prevalence among caimans in Brazil by blood smears examinations. The present work aimed to detect and characterize the Hepatozoon spp. found in 33 caimans (24 free-ranging and 9 captive; 28 males and 5 females) (Caiman crocodilus yacare) sampled at Poconé, North Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using blood smears examinations and molecular techniques. Hepatozoon spp.-gametocytes were found in 70.8% (17/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of blood smears from free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA DNA was found in 79.2% (19/24) and 88.8% (8/9) of free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Comparative analysis of parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes showed that all analyzed features were significantly different (PHepatozoon spp. sequences detected in the present study together with H. caimani, recently detected in caimans in southern Pantanal.

  14. Hepatozoon caimani in Caiman crocodilus yacare (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae from North Pantanal, Brazil

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    Andréa Bouer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatozoon species are the most common intracellular hemoparasite found in reptiles. Hepatozoon caimani, whose vectors are Culex mosquitoes, has been detected in a high prevalence among caimans in Brazil by blood smears examinations. The present work aimed to detect and characterize the Hepatozoon spp. found in 33 caimans (24 free-ranging and 9 captive; 28 males and 5 females (Caiman crocodilus yacare sampled at Poconé, North Pantanal, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using blood smears examinations and molecular techniques. Hepatozoon spp.-gametocytes were found in 70.8% (17/24 and 88.8% (8/9 of blood smears from free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. 18S rRNA DNA was found in 79.2% (19/24 and 88.8% (8/9 of free-ranging and captive caimans, respectively. Comparative analysis of parasitized and non-parasitized erythrocytes showed that all analyzed features were significantly different (P<0.05 for both linear and area dimensions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences grouped the Hepatozoon spp. sequences detected in the present study together with H. caimani, recently detected in caimans in southern Pantanal.

  15. Camera traps as a tool for Carnivore conservation in a mosaic of Protected Areas in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil

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    Grasiela Porfirio

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although known globally for its biodiversity, only around 5% of the Brazilian Pantanal is protected. The Network for Protection and Conservation of Amolar Mountain Ridge is an informal initiative that legally protects over 2000 km2 of the Pantanal biome. Several camera-trapping surveys were carried out at Amolar Mountain Ridge from August 2011 to September 2013 in order to increase our knowledge of the species occurrence and its ecological requirements. The aims of this study were : 1 to inventory the carnivore species occurring within this network of protected areas; 2 to describe their activity patterns and 3 to discuss threats for those species' conservation in the region. We used the Kernel density method to describe the species' activity patterns. We obtained 764 records (from 12703 camera-days of eight carnivores, including endangered species in Brazil, such as the jaguar (Panthera onca, puma (Puma concolor, and ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, that were among the most frequently recorded by camera traps. The other species detected were the South America coati (Nasua nasua, the tayra (Eira barbara, the crab-eating raccoon (Procyon cancrivorus and the jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi. We provided information on activity patterns of the jaguar and puma, which exhibited cathemeral activity patterns, on the ocelot and crab-eating fox, which were mostly nocturnal, and on the Southern coati and jaguarundi, which were diurnal. Scansorial and species that occur naturally in low densities as the tayra and the crab-eating raccoon were difficult to be detected with the used camera trapping setting. However, due to the natural characteristics of the study area, camera trapping is among the most appropriate tools for providing data about carnivores and their prey. This information is essential to delineate conservation plans for Amolar Mountain Ridge.

  16. Abundance and frugivory of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco in a gallery forest in Brazil's Southern Pantanal

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco - the largest Ramphastidae - usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil, in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  17. Abundance and frugivory of the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forest in Brazil's southern Pantanal.

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    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2006-02-01

    Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco)--the largest Ramphastidae--usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil), in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource) and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity) on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  18. Morphofunctional diversity of equine of varied genetic compositions raised in the Pantanal biome of Brazil.

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    de Rezende, Marcos Paulo Gonçalves; de Souza, Julio Cesar; Carneiro, Paulo Luiz Souza; Bozzi, Riccardo; Jardim, Rodrigo Jose Delgado; Malhado, Carlos Henrique Mendes

    2018-06-01

    Evaluating phenotypic diversity makes it possible to identify discrepancies in aptitudes among animals of different genetic bases, which is an indicator of adaptive or selective differences between populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the morphofunctional diversity of 452 male and female adult equines (Arabian, Quarter Mile, Pantaneiro, and Criollo breeds, and undefined crossbreeds of horses and mules) raised in the Pantanal biome (Brazil). Linear measurements were performed to estimate conformation indexes. Initially, a discriminant analysis was performed, regardless of the animal's size, followed by factor analysis. The factors were characterized and used as new variables. The diversity among equines and their relationship with the factors were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The factors were classified according to their decreasing importance: balance, rusticity, and robustness for the measurement factors; and load, ability, conformation, and equilibrium for the index factors. The genetic groups of equines have well-defined morphofunctional characteristics. The main differences are based on the rusticity and ability typologies in relation to those based on performance. Equines introduced to the Pantanal biome presented a more robust and compact body with good conformation. As a result, these horses may have superior athletic performance during equestrian activities when compared to the Pantaneiro local breed. However, this biotype may represent less rusticity (less adaptive capacity). Therefore, the regional breed can be equal or better in equestrian activities than breeds introduced to the Pantanal biome. Thus, breeders may cross horses from local breeds as an alternative to those introduced. Undefined crossbred male equines presented a different profile from the Pantaneiro breed, which may indicate little use of crossbreeds in breeding.

  19. Genesis of textural contrasts in subsurface soil horizons in the Northern Pantanal-Brazil

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    Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region can be characterized as a quaternary floodplain with predominant sedimentation in the form of alluvial fans. In the geomorphologic and sedimentary evolution, the avulsion process is inherent to this depositional system and its dynamics, together with surface water floods, influence soil sedimentation on this plain. The knowledge and differentiation of these two events can contribute to a better understanding of the variability of soil properties and distribution under the influence of these sedimentation processes. Therefore, this study investigated the genesis of soils in the Northern Pantanal with textural contrasts in deeper horizons and their relationship with the depositional system dynamics. We analyzed four soil profiles in the region of Barão de Melgaço, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (RPPN SESC Pantanal. Two profiles were sampled near the Rio Cuiabá (AP1 and AP4 and two near the Rio São Lourenço (AP10 and AP11. In AP11, the horizons contrast in particle size between the profile basis and the surface. In AP1, AP4 and AP10, the horizons overlaying the sand layer have similar particle size properties, mainly in terms of sand distribution. In the first case, floods (surface water seem to have originated the horizons and layers with contrasting texture. In the second case, avulsion is the most pronounced process. Therefore, the two modes can form soils with contrasting texture that are discriminable by soil morphology, based on the distinct features associated to the specific sedimentation processes.

  20. Fish mercury concentration in the Alto Pantanal, Brazil: influence of season and water parameters.

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    Hylander, L D; Pinto, F N; Guimarães, J R; Meili, M; Oliveira, L J; de Castro e Silva, E

    2000-10-16

    The tropical flood plain Pantanal is one of the world's largest wetlands and a wildlife sanctuary. Mercury (Hg) emissions from some upstream gold mining areas and recent findings of high natural Hg levels in tropical oxisols motivated studies on the Hg cycle in the Pantanal. A survey was made on total Hg in the most consumed piscivorous fish species from rivers and floodplain lakes in the north (Cáceres and Barão de Melgaço) and in the south part of Alto Pantanal (around the confluence of the Cuiabá and Paraguai rivers). Samples were collected in both the rainy and dry seasons (March and August 1998) and included piranha (Serrasalmus spp.), and catfish (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, pintado, and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, cachara or surubim). There was only a small spatial variation in Hg concentration of the 185 analyzed fish samples from the 200 x 200 km large investigation area, and 90% contained total Hg concentration below the safety limit for regular fish consumption (500 ng g(-1)). Concentration above this limit was found in both Pseudoplatystoma and Serrasalmus samples from the Baia Siá Mariana, the only acid soft-water lake included in this study, during both the rainy and dry seasons. Concentration above this limit was also found in fish outside Baia Siá Mariana during the dry season, especially in Rio Cuiabá in the region of Barão de Melgaço. The seasonal effect may be connected with decreasing water volumes and changing habitat during the dry season. The results indicate that fertile women should restrict their consumption of piscivorous fishes from the Rio Cuiabá basin during the dry season. Measures should be implanted to avoid a further deterioration of fish Hg levels.

  1. Estimativa do coeficiente Priestley-Taylor em floresta monodominante Cambarazal no Pantanal Estimation of the Priestley-Taylor coefficient in the monospecific forest in northern Pantanal, Brazil

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    Luciana Sanches

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O coeficiente Priestley-Taylor (α foi calculado baseado na estimativa da evapotranspiração pelo método de Bowen para floresta monodominante Vochysia divergens no Pantanal, Brasil. A área em estudo estava localizada no noroeste do Pantanal a aproximadamente 160 km de Cuiabá, Mato Grossso, Brasil (16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''O. Medições micrometeorológicas contínuas, em uma torre a uma altura de 32 m de altura, foram feitas de janeiro a dezembro de 2007. A evapotranspiração variou de 2,50 mm dia-1 (estação seca a 4,10 mm dia-1 (estação úmida. O coeficiente Pristley-Taylor (α variou durante o ano com valores máximos e mínimos nas estações seca e úmida, respectivamente, com média anual de 0,65 ± 0,18 de acordo com o padrão climático da área em estudo em função do aumento do conteúdo de água no solo/lâmina d'água de inundação e/ou diminuição na demanda evaporativa. Com a determinação empírica das dimensões de α, as estimativas da evapotranspiração podem ser melhoradas para florestas de Vochysia divergens na planície de inundação do Pantanal.The Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α was calculated based on the Bowen method evapotranspiration estimative for Vochysia divergens monospecific forests in Pantanal, Brazil. The study area was located at the northeastern Pantanal, approximately 160 km from Cuiabá city, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (16º39'50''S; 56º47'50''W. Continuous micrometeorological flux measurements at a 32 m tower height were made from January to December of 2007. The evapotranspiration ranged from 2.26 mm day-1 (dry season to 4.50 mm day-1 (wet season. The average estimated α value ranged along the year from a maximum and a minimum during the dry and wet season respectively, with an annual average of 0.65±0.18 according to the weather pattern over the study area due to the increase of water content in soil/water flooding depth and/or decrease in evaporative demand. Based on empirical α values

  2. Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil Metazoários endoparasitos de Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brasil

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    Wagner Vicentin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea, Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda; e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. As últimas cinco espécies citadas são registradas pela primeira vez em S. marginatus.

  3. Amazon rainforest modulation of water security in the Pantanal wetland.

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    Bergier, Ivan; Assine, Mario L; McGlue, Michael M; Alho, Cleber J R; Silva, Aguinaldo; Guerreiro, Renato L; Carvalho, João C

    2018-04-01

    The Pantanal is a large wetland mainly located in Brazil, whose natural resources are important for local, regional and global economies. Many human activities in the region rely on Pantanal's ecosystem services including cattle breeding for beef production, professional and touristic fishing, and contemplative tourism. The conservation of natural resources and ecosystems services provided by the Pantanal wetland must consider strategies for water security. We explored precipitation data from 1926 to 2016 provided by a regional network of rain gauge stations managed by the Brazilian Government. A timeseries obtained by dividing the monthly accumulated-rainfall by the number of rainy days indicated a positive trend of the mean rate of rainy days (mm/day) for the studied period in all seasons. We assessed the linkage of Pantanal's rainfall patterns with large-scale climate data in South America provided by NOAA/ESRL from 1949 to 2016. Analysis of spatiotemporal correlation maps indicated that, in agreement with previous studies, the Amazon biome plays a significant role in controlling summer rainfall in the Pantanal. Based on these spatiotemporal maps, a multi-linear regression model was built to predict the mean rate of summer rainy days in Pantanal by 2100, relative to the 1961-1990 mean reference. We found that the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest has profound implications for water security and the conservation of Pantanal's ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the Siltation of River Taquari, Pantanal, Brazil, through 210Pb Geochronology of Floodplain Lake Sediments

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    Godoy José M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the 210Pb geochronology of seven bottom sediment cores, collected in three floodplain lakes located in the area of the middle Taquari River, Pantanal, Brazil. In five of them, a significant increase in the sediment mass deposition rate was observed, reflecting an increase of the sediment input to the Pantanal. Additionally, in order to validate the 210Pb results, the mercury content was determined for two sediment cores, showing that despite a constant concentration, the flux of Hg has increased due to an increase in the mass sedimentation rate. This increase can be attributed to the expansion of agricultural activity in the upper Taquari River during the last 25 years.

  5. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil

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    EK. Resende

    Full Text Available The "tucunaré", Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the "tucunaré" could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities.

  6. Rickettsia spp. among wild mammals and their respective ectoparasites in Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Costa, Francisco Borges; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia comprises obligatory intracellular bacteria, well known to cause zoonotic diseases around the world. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Rickettsia spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular and serological techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, serum, whole blood and/or spleen samples were collected from 31 coatis, 78 crab-eating foxes, seven ocelots, 42 dogs, 110 wild rodents, and 30 marsupials. Serum samples from canids, felids, rodents and marsupials were individually tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) in order to detect IgG antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia amblyommatis. DNA samples from mammals and ectoparasites were submitted to a multiplex qPCR assay in order to detect and quantify spotted fever group (SFG) and typhus group (TG) rickettsiae and Orientia tsutsugamushi. Positive samples in qPCR assays were submitted to conventional PCR assays targeting gltA, ompA, ompB and htrA genes, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. The ticks collected (1582) from animals belonged to the species Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma tigrinum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and Amblyomma auricularium. Overall, 27 (64.2%) dogs, 59 (75.6%) crab-eating foxes and six (85.7%) ocelots were seroreactive (titer≥64) to at least one Rickettsia species. For 17 (40.4%) dogs, 33 (42.3%) crab-eating foxes, and two (33.3%) ocelots, homologous reactions to R. amblyommatis or a closely related organism were suggested. One hundred and sixteen (23.5%) tick samples and one (1.2%) crab-eating fox blood sample showed positivity in qPCR assays for SFG Rickettsia spp. Among SFG Rickettsia-positive ticks samples, 93 (80.2%) belonged to A. parvum, 14 (12%) belonged to A. sculptum species, three (2.5%) belonged to A

  7. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish larvae in marginal lagoons of Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

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    Karina Keyla Tondato

    Full Text Available An analysis was made of the spatial and temporal distribution of the abundance and composition of fish larvae assemblies, aiming to ascertain correlations with biotic and abiotic factors in marginal lagoons of the Cuiabá River floodplain in Brazil's Pantanal wetlands. Samples were collected bimonthly in the pelagic region of the marginal lagoons (fourteen lagoons close to the littoral zone covered by aquatic macrophytes from December 2006 to April 2007. The captured individuals consisted of 2,739 larvae, represented predominantly by Triportheus spp. (Characidae, Parodontidae, Anostomidae, Characidae and Serrasalmidae. Larval density varied among the sample lagoons in December, but the biotic (zooplankton density and abiotic (water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, water transparency and lagoon depth factors did not significantly affect larval composition and abundance. Larvae were captured throughout the sample period, with the highest densities occurring in December and early January. Temporally, lagoon depth, water transparency and fluviometric level showed a negative correlation with larval density. Both the zooplankton and the larval density vary positively, responding likewise to the environmental conditions imposed by flooding. The highest larval density was also found to coincide with the first rains (early December, when the rainfall has not yet reached its peak.

  8. Nest plasticity of Cornitermes silvestrii (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae in response to flood pulse in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Tarik G. D. Plaza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest plasticity of Cornitermes silvestrii (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae in response to flood pulse in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world. Since many areas in Pantanal are flooded during part of the year, it is expected that plants and animals would have mechanisms for their survival during the flooded period. This study investigated the existence of differences in nest shape and inquilines of Cornitermes silvestrii in areas influenced by the flood pulse. We measured the volume, height, width, and height/width ratio of 32 nests in flooded areas and 27 in dry areas, and performed an one-way-Anova with the quasi-Poisson distribution to determine if there were differences in the nest measurements between the points. To analyze the relationship of nest inquilines to flood pulse and nest shape, we performed a regression with a Poisson distribution with the inquiline richness and flood pulse, and the above measurements. The nests of C. silvestrii in flooded areas were significantly higher than nests in dry areas, and had a larger height/width ratio. Colonies in periodically flooded areas would probably make a larger effort to extend their nests vertically, to maintain at least some portion of the structure out of the water and prevent the entire colony from being submerged. Neither the size of the nest nor the flood pulses influenced the assemblage of 11 species found in nests of C. silvestrii.

  9. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis infecting bats from Pantanal wetland, Brazil: First records for Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Ferreira, Eduardo; Pereira, Agnes Antônio Sampaio; Silveira, Maurício; Margonari, Carina; Marcon, Glaucia Elisete Barbosa; de Oliveira França, Adriana; Castro, Ludiele Souza; Bordignon, Marcelo Oscar; Fischer, Erich; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira

    2017-08-01

    In the New World genus Leishmania parasites are etiological agents of neglected zoonoses known as leishmaniasis. Its epidemiology is very complex due to the participation of several species of sand fly vectors and mammalian hosts, and man is an accidental host. Control is very difficult because of the different epidemiological patterns of transmission observed. Studies about Leishmania spp. infection in bats are so scarce, which represents a large gap in knowledge about the role of these animals in the transmission cycle of these pathogens, especially when considering that Chiroptera is one of the most abundant and diverse orders among mammals. Leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil are remarkably frequent, probably due to the abundance of its regional mastofauna. The recent record of L. braziliensis in bats from this state indicates the need to clarify the role of these mammals in the transmission cycle. In this study we evaluated the presence of Leishmania parasites in the skin of different species of bats, using PCR directed to Leishmania spp. kDNA for screening followed by PCR/RFLP analysis of the hsp70 gene for the identification of parasite species. Leishmania species identification was confirmed by PCR directed to the G6PD gene of L. braziliensis, followed by sequencing of the PCR product. Samples from 47 bats were processed, of which in three specimens (6.38%) was detected the presence of Leishmania sp. kDNA. PCR/RFLP and sequencing identified the species involved in the infection as L. braziliensis in all of them. This is the first report of Leishmania braziliensis in bats from Pantanal ecosystem and the first record of this species in Platyrrhinus lineatus and Artibeus planirostris, bats with a wide distribution in South America. These results reinforce the need to deepen the knowledge about the possibility of bats act as reservoirs of Leishmania spp. especially considering their ability of dispersion and occupation of anthropic environments

  10. Extreme emission of N2O from tropical wetland soil (Pantanal, South America)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Liengård; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleter, but the global budget of N(2)O remains unbalanced. Currently, ~25% of the global N(2)O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. Here we present...... the first study of soil N(2)O emission from the Pantanal indicating that this South American wetland may be a significant natural source of N(2)O. At three sites, we repeatedly measured in situ fluxes of N(2)O and sampled porewater nitrate [Formula: see text] during the low water season in 2008 and 2009....... In 2010, 10 sites were screened for in situ fluxes of N(2)O and soil [Formula: see text] content. The in situ fluxes of N(2)O were comparable to fluxes from heavily fertilized forests or agricultural soils. An important parameter affecting N(2)O emission rate was precipitation, inducing peak emissions...

  11. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae as a parasite of pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus and cattle in Brazil's Central Pantanal Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus como parasita de veado-campeiro (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus e do gado bovino no Pantanal Central do Brasil

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    Paulo Henrique Duarte Cançado

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Pantanal, domestic and wild animals share the same habitats; their parasites and environment interact in a complex and dynamic way. The Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is the most important cattle tick in Brazil. In the past two decades, some traditional management practices are being replaced with the aim of intensifying cattle production. Forested areas are being replaced by exotic pasture and ranch owners are replacing Nelore for European breeds. The pampas deer (Ozoctoceros bezoarticus is a medium-sized cervid that occurs in grasslands of South America. Between December 2005 and January 2007, we captured and collected ticks from 15 pampas deer and 172 bovines. The abundance, intensity, and prevalence of ticks found in cattle were lower than those in pampas deer (p No Pantanal Brasileiro, onde animais domésticos e selvagens compartilham os mesmos habitats; hospedeiros, parasitas e ambientes encontram-se em interação complexa e dinâmica. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus é o carrapato bovino mais importante no Brasil. Nas últimas duas décadas práticas de manejo vem sendo substituídas com objetivo de aumentar a produtividade. Áreas de florestas estão sendo substituídas por pastagens exóticas e os produtores começam a utilizar raças européias no lugar do Nelore. O veado-campeiro é um cervídeo que ocorre em áreas de campo na América do sul. Entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2007, foram coletados carrapatos de 20 veados-campeiros e 172 bovinos. Os valores de abundância, intensidade parasitária e prevalência de carrapatos no gado foram menores que os valores encontrados no veado-campeiro (p < 0,05, indicando que o veado-campeiro é mais susceptível que o bovino. O elevado número de fêmeas ingurgitadas coletadas, sua capacidade de ovipor e o percentual de eclosão indicam que a população veado-campeiro na região de estudo é suficiente para manter o R. (B. microplus, desta maneira participando na

  12. Vertical and time distribution of Diplopoda (Arthropoda: Myriapoda in a monodominant forest in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Leandro D. Battirola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study different sampling techniques for Diplopoda in soil, tree trunks and canopies were applied in an integrated way in the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This was done in order to assess the relationship within the fauna in each forest strata, as well as its richness and temporal distribution. In all these habitats there were a total of 1,354 diplopods, distributed in four taxonomic orders, with Polyxenida being predominant over Polydesmida, Spirostreptida and Spirobolida. The largest representation was found on the trunks of the Vochysia divergens (721 ind., intercepted by tree photoecletors, whereas in the canopies sampling reached only 65 specimens. In the edaphic stratum 568 diplopods were captured, most with the use of the Winkler extractor, followed by pitfall traps and soil photoecletors. In spite of being an important group in these environments, both in terms of richness and diversity, this was less than has been observed in other Neotropical areas. However, due to seasonal changes in the Pantanal the existence of a relationship between the soil and the tree fauna was found as well as different survival strategies observed during the flood period. Regarding vertical distribution, the greatest richness and variety of taxonomic groups was found in the forest's edaphic environment demonstrating its association mainly with this forest stratum.

  13. Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Marinêz Isaac Marques

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial arthropods from tree canopies in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study represents a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of arthropods associated to the canopy of Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae. Three trees individuals were sampled during two seasonal periods in this region: a by spraying one tree canopy during high water (February; b by fogging two tree canopies during low water (September/October. The 15,744 arthropods (183.2±38.9 individuals/m² obtained from all three trees (86 m² represented 20 taxonomic orders, 87.1% were Insecta, and 12.9% Arachnida. The dominant groups were Hymenoptera (48.5%; 88.9 individuals/m², mostly Formicidae (44.5%; 81.4 individuals/m², followed by Coleoptera (14.0%; 25.5 individuals/m² and Araneae (10.2%; 19.5 individuals/m², together representing 62.5% of the total catch. Fourteen (70% of all orders occurred on three trees. Dermaptera, Isoptera, Neuroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera were collected from only one tree. Of the total, 2,197 adult Coleoptera collected (25.5±11.3 individuals/m², 99% were assigned to 32 families and 256 morphospecies. Nitidulidae (17.9% of the total catch; 4.6 individuals/m², Anobiidae (16.7%; 4.3 individuals/m², Curculionidae (13.2%; 3.4 individuals/m² and Meloidae (11.4%; 2.9 individuals/m² dominated. The communitiy of adult Coleoptera on V. divergens indicated a dominance of herbivores (37.8% of the total catch, 127 spp. and predators (35.2%, 82 spp., followed by saprophages (16.2%, 32 spp. and fungivores (10.8%, 15 spp.. The influence of the flood pulse on the community of arboreal arthropods in V. divergens is indicated by the seasonal variation in evaluated groups, causing changes in their structure and composition.Artrópodes terrestres associados a copas de árvores no Pantanal de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Este estudo representa uma contribuição ao conhecimento da diversidade de artrópodes associados à copa de Vochysia

  14. Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Stela de Almeida Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variation in the composition of ant assemblages (Hymenoptera, Formicidae on trees in the Pantanal floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In this paper we investigate how seasonal flooding influences the composition of assemblages of ants foraging on trees in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During the flood in the Pantanal, a large area is covered by floods that are the main forces that regulate the pattern of diversity in these areas. However, the effects of such natural disturbances in the ant communities are poorly known. In this sense, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of temporal variation in assemblages of ants foraging on trees in the Pantanal of Miranda. Samples were collected during a year in two adjacent areas, one who suffered flooding during the wet period and another that did not suffer flooding throughout the year. In 10 sites for each evaluated habitat, five pitfall traps were installed at random in trees 25 m apart from each other. In the habitat with flooding, the highest richness was observed during the flooding period, while there was no significant change in richness in the area that does not suffer flooding. The diversity of species between the two evaluated habitats varied significantly during the two seasons. Most ants sampled belong to species that forage and nest in soil. This suggests that during the flood in flooded habitats, ants that did not migrate to higher areas without flooding adopt the strategy to search for resources in the tree canopy.

  15. Diet of the Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus (Wied, 1831 – Aves, Tyrannidae - in three habitats of the northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    MG Gaiotti

    Full Text Available The Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus is a medium-sized Tyrannidae widespread in South America. Despite its large distribution, there have been very few studies on its diet, especially in different habitats. This study presents data on diet variation in three habitats in the Pantanal wetlands in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The specimens were captured through a mist-netting programme between February 2000 and May 2010, in the Retiro Novo Farm, in the Poconé municipality. Birds were captured in three vegetation types: Landizal, Cambarazal and Cordilheira. Tartar emetic was used to obtain the regurgitation samples identified at order level. We captured 61 individuals (21, 26 and 14 in the above described habitats, respectively. Diet of C. fuscatus differed between the three habitats. Ants and beetles were the most relevant prey items either in numerical frequency (NF or in frequency of occurrence (OF, in terms of the overall diet (NF = 27.34% and 37.89%; OF = 36.06% and 75.4%, respectively. However, in Cordilheira, seeds and beetles dominated the NF (21.8% and 38.1%, respectively and OF (28.5% and 85.7%, respectively. Cnemotriccus fuscatus was found to have an omnivorous diet, although in Cambarazal, individuals preyed exclusively on arthropods. The present study provides an important contribution to the knowledge of the diet of a poorly studied Neotropical bird.

  16. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil

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    J. Ragusa-Netto

    Full Text Available Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species to Ara chloroptera (a large one. Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits, the annual floods (fleshy fruits, and the dry season (flowers. While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  17. Habitats, population densities, and social structure of capybaras (Hydrochaeris Hydrochaeris, Rodentia in the Pantanal, Brazil

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    Cleber J.R. Alho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 The Pantanal is the central portion of a sunken flat plain bordering the upper Paraguay river, with an area of 140,000 km². Seasonal floods begin in January and end in April. From May to October the land dries out and campos (grassland formations and scattered pools appear. (2 Typical capybara habitat in the Pantanal is composed of three components: the water, a patch of forest, and a grass field for foraging. Highest densities of capybaras (14 individuals/km² were found during the rainy season when the available space for capybaras was reduced due to the flooding. Areas without ponds or creeks presented low densities (from 0.38 to 0.84 capybaras/km². Group sizes ranged from 2 to 49 individuals (x = 9.48. (3 Reproduction occurred year-round and young of different ages were seen throughout the year. However, the principal recruitment of young to the population was observed in July-August. While the females took turns in caring for young of different ages, probably the offspring of mothers who are sisters in the same social groups, the males competed intensively with each other for access to breeding females. The male's reproductive success appears to be limited to the number of breeding females that males have access to in the social group.

  18. Molecular detection and identification of hemoparasites in pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus Linnaeus, 1758) from the Pantanal Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Júlia A G; Rabelo, Elida M L; Lacerda, Ana C R; Borges, Paulo A L; Tomás, Walfrido M; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Tomich, Renata G P; Ribeiro, Múcio F B

    2013-06-01

    Hemoparasites were surveyed in 60 free-living pampas deer Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the central area of the Pantanal, known as Nhecolândia, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, through the analysis of nested PCR assays and nucleotide sequencing. Blood samples were tested for Babesia/Theileria, Anaplasma spp., and Trypanosoma spp. using nPCR assays and sequencing of the 18S rRNA, msp4, ITS, and cathepsin L genes. The identity of each sequence was confirmed by comparison with sequences from GenBank using BLAST software. Forty-six (77%) pampas deer were positive for at least one hemoparasite, according to PCR assays. Co-infection occurred in 13 (22%) animals. Based on the sequencing results, 29 (48%) tested positive for A. marginale. Babesia/Theileria were detected in 23 (38%) samples, and according to the sequencing results 52% (12/23) of the samples were similar to T. cervi, 13% (3/23) were similar to Babesia bovis, and 9% (2/23) were similar to B. bigemina. No samples were amplified with the primers for T. vivax, while 11 (18%) were amplified with the ITS primers for T. evansi. The results showed pampas deer to be co-infected with several hemoparasites, including species that may cause serious disease in cattle. Pampas deer is an endangered species in Brazil, and the consequences of these infections to their health are poorly understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamics of Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae infestation on Nelore cattle in the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Antonio Thadeu M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available From June 1993 to May 1995, horn fly counts were conducted twice a month on untreated Nelore cattle raised extensively in the Pantanal. Horn fly population showed a bimodal fluctuation and peaks were observed every year after the beginning (November/December and at the end (May/June of the rainy season, which coincided with mid-late spring and mid-late fall, respectively. Horn flies were present on cattle throughout the year in at least 64% of the animals. Mean horn fly numbers on animals did not exceed 85 flies/cow during peaks and were under 35 flies/cow in most of the remaining periods. The highest infestations (population peaks were short and dropped suddenly within two weeks. Less than 15% of the animals in both herds could be considered as "fly-susceptible" - showing consistently higher infestations, or "fly-resistant" - showing consistently lower infestations.

  20. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State, Brazil Detecção molecular de Ehrlichia canis em cães do Pantanal do Mato Grosso, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Gabriela Ferreira dos Santos

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the presence of Ehrlichia DNA in the blood samples of 320 dogs from the urban and rural areas of the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal region, Mato Grosso state, by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, targeting the ehrlichial dsb gene. Risk factors for infection in dogs were also evaluated. Forty-eight (15%, 95% CI: 11.4-19.5% dogs were positive: 25 (15.6%, 95% CI: 10.4-22.2% from the urban area and 23 (14.4%, 95% CI: 9.3-20.8% from the rural area (P > 0.05. Partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products of 18 samples from the urban area and 16 samples from the rural area were 100% identical to E. canis from Brazil and the USA. This study reports the first E. canis molecular detection in dogs from the northern Pantanal region.O presente estudo avaliou a presença de DNA de Ehrlichia spp. em 320 cães das áreas urbana e rural do município de Poconé, região do Pantanal de Mato Grosso, pela PCR visando o gene dsb. Os fatores de risco para a infecção em cães também foram avaliados. Quarenta e oito (15%, IC 95%: 11,4-19,5% cães foram positivos, 25 (15,6%, IC 95%: 10,4-22,2% da área urbana e 23 (14,37%, 95% CI: 9,3-20,8% da área rural (P > 0,05. Sequências parciais de DNAs obtidos a partir de produtos da PCR de 18 amostras da área urbana e 16 da área rural foram 100% idênticas a E. canis do Brasil e EUA. Este estudo relata a primeira detecção molecular de E. canis em cães da região norte do Pantanal.

  1. Checklist das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, Brasil Checklist of the aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali Joana Pott

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available O Pantanal, por ser alagável, é ambiente favorável ao desenvolvimento de muitas plantas aquáticas. Para atender demandas de levantamentos florísticos regionais, fez-se a listagem das macrófitas aquáticas do Pantanal, com base em coletas depositadas nos Herbários CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e K (Kew. Até o momento, foram levantadas 242 espécies, distribuídas em 106 gêneros e 54 famílias. As famílias mais numerosas são Poaceae (22 espécies, Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae e Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae e Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae(11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, emnaceae, Malvaceae e Nymphaeaceae(8. A maioria das demais famílias apresentam uma ou duas espécies cada. Quanto à forma biológica, 39% são plantas emergentes, 28% anfíbias, 11,5% flutuantes fixas, 8% flutuantes livres, 8% submersas fixas, 3,8% submersas livres e 1,7% epífítas. Os principais gêneros em número de espécies são Nymphaea, Utricularia, Echinodorus, Ludwigia, Polygonum, Aeschynomene, Cyperus, Eleocharis e Bacopa.The Pantanal, being a wetland, is a favorable environment for the development of many aquatic plants. This list of aquatic macrophytes of the Pantanal was made based on field collections, deposited at Herbarium CPAP (EMBRAPA, COR (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, CH (Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso and K (Kew, to support regional floristic surveys. Until present, 242 species were listed, distributed within 106 genera and 54 families. The most numerous families were Poaceae (22 species Cyperaceae(17, Leguminosae and Scrophulariaceae(14, Alismataceae and Onagraceae(13, Pontederiaceae (11, Lentibulariaceae(10, Characeae(9, Lemnaceae, Malvaceae andNymphaeaceae(8. The majority of other families has one or two species each. The life form spectrum includes 39% emergent plants, 28% amphibious, 11,5% rooted floating, 8% free floating, 8% rooted submerged

  2. Hepatozoon caimani Carini, 1909 (Adeleina: Hepatozoidae) in wild population of Caiman yacare Daudin, 1801 (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae), Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Priscilla; Borghesan, Tarcilla Corrente; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Rolland; Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Paiva, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies showed infections of Hepatozoon caimani in wild populations of caimans in wide regions from Brazil; some of those demonstrated that trophic chain are linked to natural infections through paratenic hosts or by the direct ingestion of vectors. These studies life cycle of H. caimani contributed inestimably to the knowledge of transmission routes, yet but lack enhancement tools for better detail of parasite. This study reports the forms in the blood and tissues, and also partial molecular characterization of the H. caimani following part of the 18S rRNA region. In the southern Pantanal, there were sampling 39 adult caimans (Caiman yacare), where 31 (79.5%) were parasitized by H. caimani. Free gametocytes had an average intensity of 19.6% and intraerythrocytic forms 7.42%, in the blood smears. In stained smears of the liver and lungs of naturally infected caimans which were examined, monozoic and dizoic cysts were found in these tissues, generally next to the vessels. In the histopathology, meronts were observed in the wall of vessels from liver and kidney ducts. Blood samples were forwarded to PCR process and produced amplicons with about 600 and 900 bp, respectively, for the primers HEPF300/HEP900 and HEMO1/HEMO2. This was the first report of molecular confirmation of Hepatozoon in populations of naturally infected caimans of morphological detail of the gametocytes in scanning electron microscopy and histology of merogony in livers and kidneys of C. yacare.

  3. Evaluation of 137Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137 Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by 137 Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for 137 Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to 137 Cs soil and can be used in

  4. Helminth parasite communities of allopatric populations of the frog Leptodactylus podicipinus from Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, K M; da Silva, R J; Ferreira, V L

    2014-03-01

    Several factors may influence the structure of parasite communities in amphibian hosts. In this study, we describe the helminth parasites of three allopatric populations of the frog Leptodactylus podicipinus and test whether host size and sex were determinants of the structure and composition of the helminth communities. One hundred and twenty-three anurans were collected from three different study sites within the Pantanal wetlands and surveyed for helminth parasites. We found 14 helminth taxa: 7 species of nematodes, 4 species of trematodes, 1 species of cestodes, 1 species of acanthocephalan and one unidentified cyst. Host sex and size did not cause significant differences in helminth abundance or richness. The structure of helminth communities from the three study sites varied in terms of species composition, abundance and diversity. Six out of 14 helminth taxa were found in the three localities. Among those, the nematodes Cosmocerca podicipinus and Rhabdias sp., the trematode Catadiscus propinquus and the helminth cyst showed significant differences in mean abundances. We suggest that such differences found among the three component communities are driven by biotic and abiotic factors operating locally. Moreover, these differences stress the importance of local conditions, such as hydrologic characteristics and landscape composition, on helminth community structure.

  5. Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) frugivory and abundance in two habitats at South Pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    França, Leonardo Fernandes; Ragusa-Netto, Jose; Paiva, Luciana Vieira de

    2009-01-01

    Tucano Toco (Ramphastos toco) é um dos grandes frugívoros de dossel, tanto de florestas contínuas quanto ambientes semi-abertos. No Pantanal Sul o Tucano Toco é comum em paisagens que intercalam ambientes fechados e abertos. Neste estudo avaliamos a abundância de Tucano Toco em capões de mata e mata ciliar, bem como a produção e consumo de frutos carnosos durante a estação seca. Apenas seis espécies frutificaram em capões de mata, e cinco em mata ciliar. Nos capões de mata a maior abundância ...

  6. Diet and resource partitioning among anurans in irrigated rice fields in Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Piatti

    Full Text Available Artificial ponds or irrigated systems scattered throughout farmlands can offer important habitats for anurans and can be interesting sites for research on species resources use in a changing landscape. This study describes the diet and resource partitioning among anurans inhabiting irrigated rice fields in the Pantanal region. Twenty categories of prey were found in the stomachs of Leptodactylus chaquensis, L. elenae, L. podicipinus and Rhinella bergi, the most frequent being Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, larvae of Hexapoda, Hemiptera, Diptera and Orthoptera. The great differences found in the diet of these species in rice fields compared to other locations, according to available records in the literature, was the increased importance of Hemipitera and Orthoptera and the decrease in importance of Hymenoptera in the diet of leptodactylids. These differences might be attributed to changes in the availability of resources in response to habitat modification. Although diet composition was very similar among species, niche overlap was larger than expected by chance, suggesting that the competition for food resources is not, or has not been, a significant force in determining the structure of this frog community. Two non-exclusive hypotheses could be considered as a justification for this result: 1 the high niche overlap could result from resource availability, which is sufficient to satisfy all species without any strong competition; 2 or the high values of niche overlap could be a selective force driving species to compete, but there has not been enough time to express a significant divergence in the species diet because the study area is characterised as a dynamic habitat influenced by frequent and cyclical changes.

  7. Cyanobacteria enhance methylmercury production: a hypothesis tested in the periphyton of two lakes in the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Guimarães, Jean Remy D; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Da Silva, Carolina J; Díez, Sergi

    2013-07-01

    The toxic potential of mercury (Hg) in aquatic systems is due to the presence and production of methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies in tropical floodplain environments showed that periphyton associated with the roots of aquatic macrophytes produce MeHg. Periphyton communities are the first link in the food chain and one of the main MeHg sources in aquatic environments. The aim of this work was to test the hypotheses that the algal community structure affects potential methylation, and ecologically distinct communities with different algal and bacterial densities directly affect the formation of MeHg in the roots of macrophytes. To evaluate these, net MeHg production in the roots of Eichhornia crassipes in relation to the taxonomic structure of associated periphytic algae was evaluated. Macrophyte root samples were collected in the dry and flood season from two floodplain lakes in the Pantanal (Brazil). These lakes have different ecological conditions as a function of their lateral hydrological connectivity with the Paraguay River that is different during times of drought. Results indicated that MeHg production was higher in the flood season than in the dry season. MeHg production rates were higher in the disconnected lake in comparison to the connected lake during the dry season. MeHg production exhibited a strong positive co-variation with cyanobacteria abundance (R(2)=0.78; pcyanobacteria are associated with higher rates of methylation in aquatic systems. This suggests that cyanobacteria could be a proxy for sites of MeHg production in some natural aquatic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spatial heterogeneity of soils of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone

    OpenAIRE

    Lucena, Isabela Codolo de; Amorim, Ricardo Santos Silva; Lobo, Francisco de Almeida; Baldoni, Raquel Negrão; Matos, Dalva Maria da Silva

    2014-01-01

    In areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Brazil, the soil displays features which are inherent to the processes of soil formation, both of the Central Plateau and the Pantanal Plain. Given this premise, the area should be noteworthy for its high level of edaphic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to determine the physical, chemical and physico-hydric attributes that best explain the heterogeneity of soils in areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone, and to assess whether these attributes ...

  9. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  10. Hot moments of N2O transformation and emission in tropical soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon (Brazil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liengaard, Lars; Figueiredo, Viviane; Markfoged, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Tropical wetland soils emit large amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), especially following wetting of drained soil. We investigated seasonally drained wetland soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon, both with a natural high nitrate content and low pH. Here we report the effect of wetting on the produ......Tropical wetland soils emit large amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), especially following wetting of drained soil. We investigated seasonally drained wetland soils from the Pantanal and the Amazon, both with a natural high nitrate content and low pH. Here we report the effect of wetting...

  11. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Samiko Miyazaki ONUMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2% jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01. All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  12. Aves explorando flores de Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae durante a estação seca no Pantanal de Mato Grosso Exploitation of Erythrina fusca (Leguminosae, Fabaceae flowers by birds during the dry season in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Parrini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes têm evidenciado a importância de flores como recurso alimentar de diversas espécies de aves neotropicais. Este estudo teve o objetivo de listar espécies e descrever o comportamento das aves que se alimentaram de recursos florais de Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae no Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Para isso, foram acompanhadas aves que se alimentaram em 14 árvores floridas dessa espécie em um total de cerca de 25 horas de observação. Como resultados, 20 espécies de aves pertencentes a sete famílias taxonômicas foram observadas alimentando-se de recursos florais de E. fusca. Apesar de várias espécies de aves terem apresentado comportamentos destrutivos em maior proporção, algumas espécies, sobretudo das famílias Trochilidae e Icteridae, apresentaram estratégias alimentares compatíveis com o transporte de pólen. O cruzamento dos dados obtidos neste estudo com os da literatura indicam que a família Icteridae pode ter relevante papel na polinização dessa espécie vegetal.Recent studies reported the importance of flowers in the diet of many Neotropical bird species. In this paper we identify and describe the feeding behaviour of bird species that feed on flower resources of Erythrina fusca (Fabaceae in the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil. We recorded birds foraging in 14 flowered individuals of E. fusca during 25 hours of observation. We recorded 20 bird species belonging to seven families feeding on the flowers. Several of the observed behaviours were destructive, despite some species, especially the Trochilidae and Icteridae, showed feeding strategies that preserve the integrity of the flowers and are compatible with pollen transportation. The comparison of the data gathered in this study with the available literature indicates that the Icteridae may play an important role in pollination of this tree species.

  13. Young calves production in native, mixed or cultivated pastures in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Produção de bezerros jovens em pastagens nativas, mistas ou cultivadas no Pantanal Sul Mato-Grossense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Menezes Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The productive performance of 8, 9 and 10 month old calves raised, in pastures in the sub-area Nhecolândia.,was evaluated, in Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for young calves slaughter. Fifty four calves were used, 27 males and 27 females in a randomized block, with a 3x3 factorial design (three pastures and three slaughter ages. The pastures were 1-native grass pasture, composed by Axonopus purpusii, Andropogon bicornis and Elyonurus muticus, 2-cultivated pasture, composed by Brachiaria decumbens and B. humidicula, and 3-mixed, composed by native grass and cultivated pasture. There was significant interaction (P<.05 between slaughter age and pasture type. The animals with 8 and 10 months old that grew on mixed pastures presented higher slaughter weight (SW, higher average daily gain (ADG and carcass weight (CW, compared to animals in native or cultivated pastures. Animals in mixed pasture and slaughtered with 8 months old presented ADG of 0.83 kg/day, while animals maintained in native and cultivated pastures presented 0.65 and 0.59kg/day, respectively. For animals slaughtered with 9 months old, ADG were 0.55; 0.61 and 0.64 kg/day; and, for those slaughtered with 10 months, the averages were 0.48; 0.73 and 0.51kg/day, respectively, for native, mixed and cultivated pastures. The carcass yield was not influenced by slaughter age, for native and mixed pastures. There was not significant sex effect for any of the evaluated variables. The slaughter of male or female calves, raised in mixed or cultivated pastures, between 8 and 10 months old, is recommended for veal production.Avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo de bezerros abatidos aos oito, nove e dez meses de idade, criados em pastagens no Pantanal Sul mato-grossense, visando o abate de bezerros jovens. Utilizaram-se 54 bezerros, sendo 27 machos e 27 fêmeas provenientes da sub-região pantaneira Nhecolândia. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados por sexo, em esquema

  14. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isanete Geraldini Costa Bieski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD, located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%, Asteraceae (7.82% and Lamaceae (4.89% families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87, Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87, Solidago microglossa (1.80, Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73 and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50. The informant consensus factor (ICF ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78 having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77. The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems.

  15. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of the pantanal region (mato grosso, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems.

  16. Two new species of Pseudotelorchis (Digenea, Telorchiidae, parasites of the Caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare (Reptilia, Crocodylia from the Pantanal Mato-Grossense, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joäo B. Catto

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudotelorchis caimanis n. sp. and P. yacarei n. sp. are described based on specimens collected from Caiman crocodilus yacare (Daudin in the Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brazil. This is the first record of any species of Telorchiidae Stunkard, 1924, parasitizing crocodilians. Pseudotelorchis caimanis n. sp. differs from P. comapactus, the only species described in the genus with seminal receptacle, testes in tandem, and genital pore lateral to acetabulum. Pseudotelorchis yacarei n. sp. differs from the two other species for its body shape, for infecting the intestine instead of the uterus, by having regularly disposed instead of irregulary disposed uterine loops, and by having the vitelline glands disposed in longitudinal lateral lines instead of in lateral bunches.

  17. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs and wild mammals in southern Pantanal, Brazil with implications in the transmission route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Fernandes, Marina Pugnaghi; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Campos, João Bosco; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Battesti, Darci Barros; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-04-15

    Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated. DNA samples were submitted to PCR assays for Hepatozoon spp. targeting 18S rRNA gene. Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores (C. thous [91.02%], dogs [45.23%], N. nasua [41.9%] and L. pardalis [71.4%]) was found. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. canis, H. americanum and H. felis. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. macrurus marsupial to Hepatozoon from reptiles and amphibians suggest a possible transmission of those Hepatozoon species between hosts by ectoparasites or by predation. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals. Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles

  19. Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Tiago Ledesma Taira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae and their parasitoids on cultivated and wild hosts in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Information on frugivorous flies in cultivated or wild host plants and their parasitoids in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul is presented and discussed. Fruit fly samples were collected weekly in specific fruit trees, and McPhail® traps were installed in the same trees for a period of two years. The fruit flies infested ripe and unripe fruits of Averrhoa carambola L., Schoepfia sp., Psidium guajava L. and Pouteria torta (Mart. Radlk and mature fruits of Anacardium occidentale L. and Inga laurina (Sw. Willd. Nineteen fruit fly species were obtained with the combination of sampling methods (collecting fruits and trapping, nine of them obtained with both methods, five found only in fruits and five only in traps. This is the first record of Anastrepha striata Schiner in a species of Sapotaceae, as well as for A. castanea Norrbom and A. daciformes Bezzi in Schoepfia sp. (Olacaceae, and for A. distincta Greene in fruits of P. guajava in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Fruit collections simultaneously associated with capture of fruit flies by McPhail traps in the same host plants are essential to understand the diversity of fruit flies and their relationship with hosts and parasitoids. Species of Braconidae and Pteromalidae were recovered, where Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti was the most abundant parasitoid in larvae of tephritids infesting both cultivated and wild host fruits.

  20. Equine infectious anaemia in equids of Southern Pantanal, Brazil: seroprevalence and evaluation of the adoption of a control programme

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    Márcia F. Nogueira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The working equid population in Corumbá, Southern Pantanal, is very large and has a crucial role in the main economic activity of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, the beef cattle industry. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of equine infectious anaemia (EIA in working equids of ranches in the municipality of Corumbá, by the official agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID test, and evaluate the adoption of the Programme for the Prevention and Control of Equine Infectious Anaemia proposed by Embrapa Pantanal and official entities in the 1990s. From September to November 2009, forty ranches distributed through the area of the municipality were visited, and serum samples were obtained from 721 equines and 232 mules. According to previous publications and the present data, it was concluded that the prevalence of EIA in this population has increased from 18.17% to 38.60%, which represents at this time approximately 13,000 infected animals. There was no significant difference between the apparent prevalence of equines and mules. It was also verified that the control programme was not known by the greater part of the interviewed ranch owners, managers and foremen and, in their perception, EIA is not a primary threat to address. Among the studied variables, the serologic testing practice significantly reduced the risk for the presence of EIA seropositivity, as well as the separation of riding equipment and segregation of seropositives.

  1. Geomorphology and habitat diversity in the Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercante, M A; Rodrigues, S C; Ross, J L S

    2011-04-01

    The present study deals with the inter-relations in the relief which forms the Bacia do Alto Rio Paraguay (BAP) in mid-west Brazil. The overall aim is to discuss the relationship between relief forms and the biodiversity of the Pantanal. The BAP is a natural environmental system with contrasts in two of the compartments on which it is formed: the plateau, the most elevated compartment, highly transformed by human activities, and the plain which forms the Pantanal, which is more preserved and less transformed in relation to productive activities. The analysis was performed based on publications with a geomorphologic focus, examining the different relief units of the BAP and the dynamics of the revealing processes of landscape change which the Pantanal has undergone since the end of the Pleistocene.

  2. Performance in preweaning pure and crossbred calves in the Mato Grosso do Sul Pantanal region, Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Fabio Rafael Leão Fialho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purebred and crossbred calves (n = 3,871 were selected that were born in the sub-region of the Pantanal of Aquidauana (Brazil, derived from Nellore, Brangus, Wagyu, and ½ Brangus + ½ Nellore cows, which were artificially inseminated by bulls of the Aberdeen Angus, Red Angus, Brangus, Nellore, and Wagyubreeds. Parameters such as weaning weight, daily gain from birth to weaning, and the number of days to gain 160 kg, were assessed inthese calves and phenotypic correlations between the traits were evaluated. Data were analyzed using two statistical models. The first model included sire breed effects, the genetic group of the cow, sex, year of birth (AN, birth season (EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The second model included the genetic group of the calf, sex, AN, EN, and the interaction AN * EN. The genetic group of the cow and calf and the interaction AN * EN did not significantly affect body weight (p < 0.05. The average weaning weights of progeny were as follows: Aberdeen Angus bulls, 177.70 ± 3.28 kg; Red Angus, 180.31 ± 3.46 kg; Brangus, 181.48 ± 3.15 kg; Nellore, 175.43 ± 3.60 kg; and Wagyu, 173.16 ± 2.96 kg.

  3. Hook selectivity of the pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 in the Pantanal, the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available The Pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus is the most captured fish species in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, and since 1994, its maximum sustainable yield had already been exceeded. Its capture is carried out only by hooks, as mesh gears are forbidden either for professional or for recreational fishing. The aim of this study was to determine selectivity for different hook sizes used in P. mesopotamicus fishing and to verify which sizes capture only adults. Data were collected in the rivers Miranda, Aquidauana, and Vermelho, in January, March, and April 2002. Six longlines with eight hook sizes were used and we adopted the hook opening as a measure related to selectivity. Different hooks captured individuals of the same length and their medians were similar, evidencing the great overlap among sizes. Regression results showed no significant relationship between ln[c2 (l/c1 (l] and total length of captured individuals. In addition, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test also did not detect significant differences in the size of captured fish. Several hypotheses, such as the selectivity models, shape of selection curves, scarcity of large fishes, and behavior are used in order to explain the absence of hook selectivity for this species. Size of recruitment for this gear was 28 cm of total length, when individuals are still immature.

  4. Remote sensing analysis of depositional landforms in alluvial settings: Method development and application to the Taquari megafan, Pantanal (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Hiran; Assine, Mario Luis; McGlue, Michael Matthew

    2012-08-01

    Traditional Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) topographic datasets hold limited value in the geomorphic analysis of low-relief terrains. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a series of techniques designed to enhance digital elevation models (DEMs) of environments dominated by low-amplitude landforms, such as a fluvial megafan system. These techniques were validated through the study of a wide depositional tract composed of several megafans located within the Brazilian Pantanal. The Taquari megafan is the most remarkable of these features, covering an area of approximately 49,000 km2. To enhance the SRTM-DEM, the megafan global topography was calculated and found to be accurately represented by a second order polynomial. Simple subtraction of the global topography from altitude produced a new DEM product, which greatly enhanced low amplitude landforms within the Taquari megafan. A field campaign and optical satellite images were used to ground-truth features on the enhanced DEM, which consisted of both depositional (constructional) and erosional features. The results demonstrate that depositional lobes are the dominant landforms on the megafan. A model linking baselevel change, avulsion, clastic sedimentation, and erosion is proposed to explain the microtopographic features on the Taquari megafan surface. The study confirms the potential promise of enhanced DEMs for geomorphological research in alluvial settings.

  5. Injuries caused by the venomous catfish pintado and cachara (Pseudoplatystoma genus in fishermen of the Pantanal region in Brazil

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    GIULIANO N.R. DE AQUINO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: the fishing activity throughout the Upper Paraguay River Basin has huge financial and biological importance. This retrospective study investigated the occurrence of injuries caused by fish of the Pseudoplatystoma genus (spotted catfish or pintado and striped catfish or cachara in professional fishermen of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State. METHODS: we collected information through a questionnaire, showing that fishing is carried out by workers with low level of education, mainly adults or seniors with low financial gains. RESULTS: in Miranda town, 126 of 315 fishermen were interviewed and 38 individuals reported injuries (30.16%. In Corumbá town, 355 of 627 fishermen were interviewed, and 111 (56,61% reported injuries. The lacerated lesions were the most common, associate with edema, erythema, radiating pain to the root of the limb, paresthesias and local necrosis. More rarely, they reported the occurrence of fever, cardiac arrhythmias and cold sweating. These manifestations may be associated with late secondary infections or envenomations caused by the toxins in the stingers of the fish. Many questionable and inappropriate treatments are used, sometimes aggravating the injuries. CONCLUSIONS: the freshwater professional fishermen need guidance on first aid measures and prevention of accidents caused by these venomous fish.

  6. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

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    Renata Santos Tourinho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  7. Proterodiplostome Parasites (Digenea, Proterodiplostomidae of the Caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare (Reptilia, Crocodylia in the Pantanal mato-Grossense, Brazil, with the description of two new species

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    João B. Catto

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species are described from the caiman. Caiman crocodilus yacare. Proterodiplostomum breve n. sp. differs from all other species in the genus by the following chacacteristics: (1 the paraprostate gland is shorter and club-shaped; (2 the genital cone is, in average, eight times longer than that of P. medusae; (3 the genital atrium is larger and without pseudosuckers; (4 the oral sucker and pharynx are longer; and (5 there are larger numbers of papillae surrounding the tribocytic organ (40 against 20 in P. longum, 16 in p. tumidilum, 8 in P. ophidum, and 16-18 in P. medusae. Proterodiplostomum globulare n. sp. differs from all the other species in the fenus by the following characteristics: (1 from P. tumidilum, P. lomgum, P. medusae, and P. breve n. sp. for the absense of pseudosuckers or muscular bunches in the inferior wall of the genital atrium; (2 the shape of the paraprostate gland, which is globular and not cylindrical as in P. longum, P. tumidilum, P. medusae, and P. ophidum; (3 the size of the tribocytic organ 201-407 long, 183-495 wide, while is 138-270 long, 102-292 wide in P. medusae, and 138-270 long, 255 wide in P. ophidum; (4 the number of papillae in the tribocytic organ (18-20 in P. globulare and 16-18 in P. medusae, and 8 in P. ophidum. Specimens belonging to six other species of proterodiplostomes are recorded for the first time infecting the caiman, C. c. yacare in the Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brazil, namely: Proterodiplostomum medusae, P. tumidilum, Cystodiplostomum hollyi, Prolecithodiplostomum constrictum, Paradiplostomum abbreviatum, and Herpetodiplostomum caimancola.

  8. Trypanosoma vivax infection dynamics in a cattle herd maintained in a transition area between Pantanal lowlands and highlands of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Dinâmica de infecção de Trypanosoma vivax em rebanho bovino mantido numa área de transição entre o Pantanal e o planalto de Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Charles F. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma vivax outbreaks in beef cattle in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, causes relevant economical impact due to weight loss, abortion and mortality. Cattle moved from the Pantanal to adjacent areas of this ecosystem for breeding and fattening is a common feature. Therefore an epidemiological study on breeding cows in the transition area between Pantanal lowland and adjacent highlands of Mato Grosso do Sul was performed to determine the T. vivax infection dynamics and outbreak risk. Three experimental groups were formed: Group 1 consisted of cows parasitologically negative by the Woo test and in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for T. vivax antibody detection (Tv-ELISA-Ab; Group 2 parasitologically negative and positive in the Tv-ELISA-Ab; and in Group 3 cows were parasitologically positive and with positive reactions in the Tv-ELISA-Ab. During 24 months, the cows' dislodgment between the above established groups was monitored by Woo test and Tv-ELISA-Ab exams. The tabanid population was also monitored and the highest number occurred during the rainy season. Although parasitemias were detected only in the first four samplings of the experimental period, the cows could be considered as trypanotolerant, because no clinical signs were observed. Despite the higher T. vivax incidence during the dry season, no disease symptoms were seen. Even though T. vivax epidemiological situation in the herd was characterized as endemic with seasonal variation, the probability of outbreaks was null within the conditions of the study.Surtos de Trypanosoma vivax em bovinos de corte do Pantanal foram responsáveis por relevante impacto econômico, devido a perda de peso, abortos e mortalidade. Um manejo comum é o deslocamento de bovinos do Pantanal baixo para áreas adjacentes desse ecosistema para reprodução e engorda. Por essa razão, foi efetuado um estudo epidemiológico em rebanho de vacas movidas para uma área de transi

  9. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  10. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil; Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do pantanal de Mato Grosso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I., E-mail: fateca@gmail.com.b, E-mail: marinez@ufmt.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ecologia e Conservacao da Biodiversidade; Battirola, Leandro D., E-mail: ldbattirola@uol.com.b [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Sinop, MT (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Naturais, Humanas e Sociais; Lhano, Marcos G., E-mail: marcos@ufrb.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias, Ambientais e Biologicas

    2010-07-15

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  11. New species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps (Rodentia: Echimyidae) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Viana, Lúcio André; Santos, Filipe Martins; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; de Oliveira, Michel Angelo Constantino; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano

    2017-11-01

    The echimyid rodents Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps are among the most commonly recorded small mammals in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. These species play important ecological roles since they are the basis of the food chain of some predators and are parasitized by some pathogens. Knowledge of the eimerians that parasitize echimyid rodents in Brazil is absent, and only one report is available for South America. We therefore investigated parasitism by coccidians in the echimyids T. fosteri and C. laticeps in the Pantanal. Using morphological and morphometric features and associated statistical analyses, we describe five new eimerian species parasitizing T. fosteri (Eimeria nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria jansenae n. sp., and Eimeria fosteri n. sp.) and C. laticeps (E. nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria corumbaensis n. sp., and Eimeria laticeps n. sp.) in different types of infection associations. We document the developmental forms in the tissues, and describe lesions in the enteric tract of some infected animals. We also discuss some approaches regarding epidemiological and ecological data. Our results demonstrate that echimyid rodents in the Brazilian Pantanal are important hosts for the maintenance of enteric coccidia. Moreover, in some circumstances, this parasitism may threaten the health of the hosts.

  12. Caracterização fitofisionômica e levantamento florístico preliminar no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brasil Vegetation types and preliminary floristic survey in the Mortes-Araguaia Pantanal, Cocalinho, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Beatriz Schwantes Marimon

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo realizou-se no Pantanal dos Rios Mortes-Araguaia, extensa planície inundável localizada no municípo de Cocalinho, nordeste de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Efetuou-se uma caracterização fitofisionômica e um levantamento florístico preliminar da região. Foram selecionados três Sítios, com fitofisionomias representativas: proximidades do Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, foz do Rio das Mortes com o Araguaia (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W e porção mediana do Rio Cristalino (12° 52'S; 50° 49'W. O método de amostragem adotado foi o de levantamentos rápidos. Foram identificadas oito fitofisionomias: Mata Inundável, Caapão, Babaçual, Cerradão, Cerrado stricto sensu, Campo de Murunduns, Campo de Byrsonima orbignyana e Campo Cerrado de Vochysia rufa. Foram levantadas 248 espécies de árvores, arbustos, sub-arbustos e lianas, distribuídas em 158 gêneros e 62 famílias. As fitofisionomias apresentaram um padrão heterogêneo, sendo que nenhuma das espécies ocorreu em todas elas. Porém, Alibertia edulis (L. Rich. A. Rich., Andira cuyabensis Benth., Maprounea guianensis (Aubl. M. Arg., entre outras, ocorreram em seis das oito fitofisionomias. As famílias com maior riqueza foram: Caesalpiniaceae, Annonaceae e Myrtaceae. Ocorreram algumas semelhanças florísticas com o Pantanal do Rio Paraguai, porém, são necessários estudos mais aprofundados para confirmar. Os padrões de heterogeneidade fitofisionômica indicam que a área estudada necessita de medidas conservacionistas.This study was carried out in the Pantanal of the Mortes and Araguaia rivers, a flooded plain located in Cocalinho, northeastern Mato Grosso, Brazil. The objectives of this study were to conduct a preliminary survey of the flora and to characterize the vegetation types. Three representative sites were selected: one near Rio das Mortes (12° 37'S; 50° 55'W, one at the mouth of Araguaia and Mortes rivers (11° 54'S; 50° 48'W and one in the middle portion of

  13. Evaluation of {sup 137}Cs mobility in soil profiles from the Pantanal region, Brazil; Avaliacao da mobilidade do {sup 137}Cs em perfis de solos da regiao do Pantanal

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    Silva, Fernanda Leite da

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and pose a risk to human health. The release of radioactive materials through nuclear testing or nuclear accidents cause the deposition of radionuclides on the ground,· it may be leached by rain, transported to the sources of natural waters and absorbed by the soil fauna and flora, and thus enter the human food chain. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, we aimed to assess and map the vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs surface horizons of the soils from the Pantanal and propose mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario to optimize radiological protection of agricultural areas. Therefore, selected soil profiles located in the municipality of Jaraguari, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, and applied the conceptual model developed by Picanco Jr (2012), which was used in the reference values of the factor of soil-plant transfer (FT) for {sup 137}Cs in corn, related soil variables (pH, CTC and exchangeable K) and relevance of parameters and variations of amplitudes for each value range of FT. The application of this conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of soils to radioactive contamination generated maps vulnerability showing that the region is very heterogeneous as this criterion, showing low levels of vulnerability for most of the region and in some areas, extreme vulnerability. This result identified the Pantanal as one of the less vulnerable to the radioactive contamination, but the sparse areas of extreme vulnerability can lead to contamination of subsoil and a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. This conceptual model, which defines vulnerability classification, is a first step for the study and determination of a numerical index of vulnerability to {sup 137}Cs soil

  14. Functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7822

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    José Sabino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the structure of functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Six samples were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using D net (300 m mesh, sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample session. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, close using data from six collection sites, through which were analyzed absolute abundance, observed richness of families and the sampled specimens were also separated in functional groups. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta were registered, totaling 19,773 sampled insects. The largest number of families was categorized into predators functional group, with 34 families collected, followed by the collectors with 17, shredders-herbivores ten and scrapers eight.

  15. Extensive consumption of Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. (Bignoniaceae) nectar by parrots in a tecoma savanna in the southern Pantanal (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ragusa-Netto, J.

    2005-01-01

    Neotropical parrots forage for various food items such as seeds, fruit pulp, flowers, young leaves, and even arthropods. While foraging, many species wander over large areas that include both open and closed habitats. In this study, I examined parrot foraging activity during a brief synchronous and massive flowering in August 1998 in a tecoma savanna (dominated by Tabebuia aurea) in the southern Pantanal. Six parrot species, ranging from the small Brotogeris chiriri to the large Amazona aesti...

  16. The protected areas system in Brazil as a baseline condition for wetlands management and fish conservancy: the example of the Pantanal National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Carla N. M. Polaz; Fabio C. Ferreira; Miguel Petrere Júnior

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Considering the need for the Brazilian government to develop tools for environmental monitoring for biodiversity conservancy purposes in the national protected areas system, this paper focuses on determining reference site metrics (or baselines) for adapting the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) based on the fish assemblages in the Pantanal National Park (PNP). The habitats in the PNP were grouped into four categories: main rivers, corixos (channels connecting the floodplain), permanen...

  17. Achilles heel of a powerful invader: restrictions on distribution and disappearance of feral pigs from a protected area in Northern Pantanal, Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L.P. Cordeiro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a rare case of natural disappearance of feral pigs (Sus scrofa in an extensive area without using traditional methods of eradication programs. The study was conducted both in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH Sesc Pantanal and in an adjacent traditional private cattle ranch. In 1998, feral pigs were abundant and widely distributed in the PRNH. However, the feral pigs gradually disappeared from the area and currently, the absence of pigs in the PRNH contrasts with the adjacent cattle ranch where the species is abundant. To understand the current distribution of the species in the region we partitioned the effects of variation of feral pigs’ presence considering the habitat structure (local, landscape composition and the occurrence of potential predators. Additionally, we modeled the distributions of the species in Northern Pantanal, projecting into the past using the classes of vegetation cover before the PRNH implementation (year 1988. Our results show areas with more suitability for feral pigs in regions where the landscape is dominated by pastures and permeated by patches of Seasonal Dry Forest. The species tends to avoid predominantly forested areas. Additionally, we recorded that the environmental suitability decreases exponentially as the distance from water bodies increases. The disappearance of feral pigs in the PRNH area seems to be associated with changes in the landscape and vegetation structure after the removal of the cattle. In the Brazilian Pantanal, the feral pigs’ occurrence seems strongly conditioned to environmental changes associated to livestock activity.

  18. Achilles heel of a powerful invader: restrictions on distribution and disappearance of feral pigs from a protected area in Northern Pantanal, Western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Jose L P; Hofmann, Gabriel S; Fonseca, Carlos; Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion B

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on a rare case of natural disappearance of feral pigs ( Sus scrofa ) in an extensive area without using traditional methods of eradication programs. The study was conducted both in the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (PRNH) Sesc Pantanal and in an adjacent traditional private cattle ranch. In 1998, feral pigs were abundant and widely distributed in the PRNH. However, the feral pigs gradually disappeared from the area and currently, the absence of pigs in the PRNH contrasts with the adjacent cattle ranch where the species is abundant. To understand the current distribution of the species in the region we partitioned the effects of variation of feral pigs' presence considering the habitat structure (local), landscape composition and the occurrence of potential predators. Additionally, we modeled the distributions of the species in Northern Pantanal, projecting into the past using the classes of vegetation cover before the PRNH implementation (year 1988). Our results show areas with more suitability for feral pigs in regions where the landscape is dominated by pastures and permeated by patches of Seasonal Dry Forest. The species tends to avoid predominantly forested areas. Additionally, we recorded that the environmental suitability decreases exponentially as the distance from water bodies increases. The disappearance of feral pigs in the PRNH area seems to be associated with changes in the landscape and vegetation structure after the removal of the cattle. In the Brazilian Pantanal, the feral pigs' occurrence seems strongly conditioned to environmental changes associated to livestock activity.

  19. Comunidade de Carabidae (Coleoptera em manchas florestais no Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Carabid community (Coleoptera in forest patches in Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Letícia Vieira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi estudado o efeito do tamanho, susceptibilidade à inundação e complexidade vegetacional na estrutura de comunidade de Carabidae (Coleoptera em ilhas de vegetação arbórea (capões de mata no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, sub-regiões Miranda e Abobral. Os dados foram obtidos no período de outubro de 1998 a outubro de 1999 em seis capões de mata, através de 30 armadilhas de queda ("pitfall traps" instaladas por seis dias, mensalmente, no interior dos capões. Foram capturados 2.071 indivíduos, distribuídos em 64 espécies. Negrea scutellaris (Dejean, 1831 e uma espécie não-identificada de Lebiini foram as espécies mais abundantes (com 472 e 464 indivíduos, respectivamente. A distribuição gregária e o elevado número de espécies pouco abundantes encontrados pode refletir o padrão de disponibilidade de recursos das regiões tropicais. Entre as variáveis estudadas, apenas a complexidade vegetacional explicou a variação da riqueza de espécies nos capões de mata. A composição das espécies não foi explicada por nenhuma das variáveis avaliadas. Possivelmente a variação em tamanho e em complexidade vegetacional dos capões não seja tão evidente para demonstrar estas relações e a composição das espécies esteja variando mais em escala regional do que em escala local.This work addresses the effects of the size, flooding susceptibility and vegetation complexity on ground beetles community structure (Coleoptera, Carabidae in forest patches (capões in the sub-regions Miranda and Abobral of the Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Thirty pitfall traps were run for six days per month, in six forest patches between October 1998 and October 1999. A total of 2,071 individuals of 64 species were captured. Negrea scutellaris (Dejean, 1831 and an unidentified Lebiini were the most abundant species (472 and 464 individuals respectively. Gregarious distribution and great number of species of low abundance could

  20. Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the northern region of pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fatima R.J da; Marques, Marinez I.; Battirola, Leandro D.; Lhano, Marcos G.

    2010-01-01

    Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) has Eichhornia crassipes, E. azurea, Pontederia cordata and P. lanceolata (Pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. This grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes E. azurea and E. crassipes. This study, carried out from March, 2006 to February, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of C. aquaticum associated with E. azurea in Piuval bay, Pantanal of Pocone, MT, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. Monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the - Host - Insect Coevolution on Waterhyacinth - project. Adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. The population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. The nymphs from the fi rst stage predominated in August 2006 and the adults in September and October 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. The highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in July 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. The data suggest that C. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in Piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso. (author)

  1. Uranium and thorium series disequilibrium in quaternary carbonate deposits from the Serra da Bodoquena and Pantanal do Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul State, central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Brenha; Roque, Arnaldo; Boggiani, Paulo Cesar; Flexor, J.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Activities of gamma-ray emitting members of the uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) series were measured in a quaternary limestone deposit that outcrops in the southeastern Pantanal Matogrossense Basin and in quaternary tufas deposited at the drainage of the Serra da Bodoquena. It is a first step in a study of the mobilization of uranium and thorium series and its relation to surface hydrology, in a region where carbonate deposits are being continuously dissolved and reprecipitated. The obtained results show that all these deposits are characterized by very low concentrations of uranium and thorium. The 238 U/ 226 Ra and 228 Th/ 228 Ra activity ratios are significantly different than 1.0, indicating that both series are in radioactive disequilibrium. Although the Serra da Bodoquena deposits seem to be very recent, their very fine granulation and high porosity suggest that they behave as open systems for geochemical exchanges of uranium and thorium series members. The Pantanal do Miranda limestone has a radiocarbon age of 3900 yr BP. Since the thorium series is in disequilibrium it is also concluded that this deposit behaves as an open system for geochemical exchanges

  2. Índices bióticos para avaliação da qualidade ambiental em trechos do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Biotic indexes for the evaluation of environmental quality in stretches of the Correntoso river, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a estrutura da comunidade de insetos aquaticos, utilizando esta comunidade como indicadora da qualidade ambiental de um trecho do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Foram realizadas seis campanhas de coleta em diferentes periodos sazonais: vazante, seca e cheia. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando rede D com malha de 300 ƒÝm eesforco amostral de cinco lances de rede nas raizes dos bancos de macrofitas. Foram comparados tres ambientes (aberto, intermediario e fechado, por juncao dos dados obtidos de seis sitios de coleta. Foi analisada a riqueza, abundancia absoluta e relativa das familias de insetos amostrados e a avaliacao da qualidade da agua usando o indiceBMWP, indice BMWP-ASPT, indice IBF e indice de diversidade de Shannon-Wienner, com log2. Foram registradas 60 familias pertencentes a 12 ordens da Classe Insecta, totalizando 19.773 individuos coletados. Entre os indices aplicados, o indice BMWP foi o que melhor representou as condicoes do ambiente estudado.This work aimed to research the aquatic insect community structure using this community as a bioindicator of the environmental quality in a stretch of the Correntoso river, in Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Six collections were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using a 300 ƒÝm mesh D net sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, closed by adding the information from six collection sites. Family richness, absolute and relative abundance ofinsect samples and an evaluation of water quality were analyzed by using the BMWP index, BMWP-ASPT index, IBF index and Shannon diversity index, with log2. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta Class were recorded, totaling 19,773 individuals. Among the indexes applied, the BMWP index was the one that best

  3. Spatial heterogeneity of soils of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone

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    Isabela Codolo de Lucena

    Full Text Available In areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone in Brazil, the soil displays features which are inherent to the processes of soil formation, both of the Central Plateau and the Pantanal Plain. Given this premise, the area should be noteworthy for its high level of edaphic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to determine the physical, chemical and physico-hydric attributes that best explain the heterogeneity of soils in areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone, and to assess whether these attributes differ between the studied fragments and between the Cerrado soils of the Central Plateau and of the Pantanal Plain. One hundred and sixty soil samples were collected and 11 profiles described for five areas of the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone (15º43' S, 56º04' W. The following classes were identified: typic Concretionary Petric Plinthosol; typic Lithoplintic Petric Plinthosol; typic dystrophic Yellow Latosol; dystrophic Yellow Latosol with plinthite, the last three not yet having been described for this region. The chemical attributes CEC, M, OM, K, P, Mg, Ca and Mn explained 40.49% of the variability of the soils in the region under study, whether differing or not between the studied fragments. Spatial distribution of the attributes varied between random and aggregated, with the chemical attributes CEC, K, Ca and Mg being similar to soils of the Pantanal Plain. Whereas Al, P and Mn, as well as the hydric variables, were similar to the Plateau. On the other hand, the average organic matter content, pH, gravel and pebbles, were characteristic of both the Plateau and the Plain.

  4. Enteroparasites in Riverside Settlements in the Pantanal Wetlands Ecosystem

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    Patrícia Vieira da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasites are a major source of health problems in developing countries, where socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions contribute in maintaining the biological cycles of various parasites and facilitating their spread. The objective of this study, conducted in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, was to investigate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in riverside communities in the South Pantanal wetlands and conduct educational interventions focused on health and environmental preservation. Method. In total, 196 stool samples were tested for parasites using the merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration (MIFC technique and spontaneous sedimentation and educational activities were carried out. Results. Enteroparasite prevalence was 72% (65.6–78.2%; 95% CI. Of the 141 positive cases, monoparasitism was found in 34.7%, biparasitism in 23%, and polyparasitism in 14.3%. Entamoeba coli was the most frequent protozoan (70.2%. Among helminths, hookworms were the most prevalent. Enteroparasitosis prevalence did not differ for sex or place of abode but proved higher in individuals older than 10 years. Conclusion. The high positivity rate for enteroparasites found for the communities stems from lack of sanitation and poor personal and environmental hygiene habits, indicating that effective health policies and educational interventions are needed to reduce the current risk levels.

  5. Predação de morcegos por Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera no pantanal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Bat predation by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters (Mammalia, Chiroptera in pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Oscar Bordignon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi registrada a predação de Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 e Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 por Chrotopterus autitus (Peters, 1856 em uma caverna na morraria do Urucum em Corumbá, centro-oeste do Brasil. Os fragmentos de asas e um crânio encontrados sob o local de pouso de C. auritus junto às fezes, após comparados com material de coleção, mostraram que este morcego alimenta-se oportunamente de outras espécies de morcegos ocupantes do mesmo abrigo.The predation of Carollia perspiscillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and Peropterix macrotis (Wagner, 1843 by Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856 was registered in a cave at Urucum's mountains of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The wing fragments and cranium finded under feces deposites, in replace point of C. auritus, were comparated with colection reference material and revealed that C. auritus can eat occasionaly other bat species that inhabit in same roost.

  6. The protected areas system in Brazil as a baseline condition for wetlands management and fish conservancy: the example of the Pantanal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla N. M. Polaz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering the need for the Brazilian government to develop tools for environmental monitoring for biodiversity conservancy purposes in the national protected areas system, this paper focuses on determining reference site metrics (or baselines for adapting the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI based on the fish assemblages in the Pantanal National Park (PNP. The habitats in the PNP were grouped into four categories: main rivers, corixos (channels connecting the floodplain, permanent bays, and temporary bays. Fish samplings were performed at 12 points during the dry season (Oct-Nov 2010 and 2011. 146 fish species were identified from the total 18,954 individuals collected with standardized fishing gear. There was no association between the structure of the fish assemblage and categories, suggesting a theory on homogeneity of habitats. The final IBIPNP consists of nine metrics, most of them were framed in excellent class, some in fair, and none in poor. There was no significant difference in IBIPNP scores between the two sampled years. This approach provides a direct application for wetland management purposes.

  7. Fish associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana Lake system and Mutum River, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, E B; Da-Silva, C J

    2009-02-01

    On the left bank of the Cuibá River, one of the main tributaries of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso, are located the Chacororé and Sinhá Mariana Lakes and the Mutum River, the littoral regions of which are covered with aquatic macrophytes, dominated by the species Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea. To examine the ichthyofauna associated with this vegetation, in the year 2003, 3510 fish were collected, distributed among 83 species, and the limnological variables verified near the macrophyte stands where they were sampled. The most abundant and richest order was the Characiformes, followed by the Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes. Analysis of similarity showed a very low, or null, index that the limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide habitat sufficiently homogeneous to give. The limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide a sufficient habitat heterogeneity to give very low, or null, index values. Thus, environmental conservation measures should be more effective in promoting the conservation of the species, given the high levels of biological diversity found in the habitats studied.

  8. Organização celular dos testículos em Hylidae e Leptodactylidae, no Pantanal (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Cellular organization of the testes in Hylidae and Leptodactylidae, in the Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Ferreira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar a organização das células germinativas em diferentes estádios de diferenciação celular nos machos adultos de Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758 e Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Hylidae, e deLeptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 e L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Leptodactylidae, coletados no Pantanal e na serra da Bodoquena, no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os testículos foram retirados, fixados, desidratados em uma série alcoólica e incluídos em resina plástica do tipo methacrilato glicol (Historesin Leica®; cortados a 3 μm, corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados no microscópio de luz. Constatou-se que os indivíduos da família Hylidae apresentam, em todas as épocas do ano, presença de todas as células de linhagem germinativa da espermatogênese. Já os indivíduos da família Leptodactylidae apresentam todas as células da linhagem germinativa somente no período chuvoso. As variações das características na organização dos epitélios seminíferos, assim como da evidente diferença na quantidade de espermatozoides no interior dos túbulos, demonstram que os anuros estudados apresentam diferentes formas de desenvolvimento da espermatogênese ao longo do ano: de forma cíclica para os da família Hylidae e acíclica, com liberação explosiva de espermatozoides, para os da família Leptodactylidae.The objective of this work was to make a comparative analysis of germ cell organization at different stages of cellular differentiation inadult males of Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, P. paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758, and Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Hylidae; andLeptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 and L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Leptodactylidae, collected in the Pantanal and in

  9. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  10. Coleoptera (Insecta as forest fragmentation indicators in the Rio Negro sub-region of the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    S. Favero

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integrity of two forest fragments in Rio Negro Pantanal sub-region, using coleopterans as environmental indicators. The study was carried out at Santa Emilia Farm in the Rio Negro sub-region, municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul (19º 30' 18'' S and 55° 36' 45'' W. Two sites were selected, locally denominated as "cordilheiras" (narrow and elongated strands of elevated soil, one with low degree of anthropic disturbance (CL and the other, currently undergoing restoration process (TD. The sampling sites were determined using a GPS device. Ten pit-fall traps containing water and detergent were used for the specimens sampling, which were screened and identified. Abundance, richness, diversity and similarity were determined. Abundance was higher for CL (n = 277 than for TD (n = 251. The same was observed for the diversity indices, CL showed H' = 2.83 bit.individual-1 and TD = 2.48 bit.individual-1, confirming the interferences made for abundance. Specimens of ten families were captured in CL area and seven families in TD area, indicating higher richness in CL, when compared to TD. The linear correlation coefficient (p > 0.05 indicates that both areas are significantly different, showing similarity value of 66.7%. The data show that the structure and disturbance degree in the environment integrity influence the composition of beetles fauna, causing the increase of abundance, richness and diversity in anthropogenic environments undergoing the early stage of regeneration.

  11. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  12. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

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    Laurent Barbiero

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types, which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite, which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1 collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1 and Al (up to 7 mg L-1 are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described

  13. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  14. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

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    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  15. DESMATAMENTO NO BIOMA PANTANAL ATÉ O ANO 2002: RELAÇÕES COM A FITOFISIONOMIA E LIMITES MUNICIPAIS

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    Diego Luis Ferrari

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map and quantify the deforested area in the Brazilian Pantanal Biome until the year of 2002 and related to the main physiognomies and counties limits. The Pantanal Biome is located in Central-West Brazil, at the Upper Paraguay river basin (BAP which is part of the La Plata basin. It is covered by 16 Landsat-ETM+ satellite images and 20 topographic maps at the 1:250,000 scale. Initially a mosaic of the area was elaborated at a color composition of bands 3(B 4(G 5(R using ENVI-4.0 software. Afterwards the segmentation was applied to the data sets using the SRING software. Then, the Biome Pananal area was separated in 20 small projects according to the topographic maps at 1:250,000 scale from IBGE. The information on deforested areas and editing procedure of the polygons was done visually on the screen using SPRING 4.0 Software. The Physiognomic-Ecological System was used for the classification of the vegetation including new information when it was necessary. In the deforested interpretation process was considered the texture, color, standard, form and localization (geographic location and information colleted during the field survey. The deforestation maps were generated in the UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator projection and Datum SAD69 (South America Datum with Cartographic Exactness Standard (PEC compatible to 1:250,000. The minimum mapped area was around 40ha..

  16. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation Biodiversidade do Pantanal: resposta ao regime sazonal de enchente e à degradação ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal flooding is the most important ecological phenomenon in the Pantanal. Every year many parts of the biome change from terrestrial into aquatic habitats and vice-versa. The degree of inundation creates a range of major habitats. Flooding occupies about 80% of the whole Pantanal. In contrast, during the dry season, most of the flooded areas stay dry, when the water returns to the river beds or evaporates. The Pantanal is a large continental savanna wetland (147,574 km² in Brazil, touching Bolivia to the north and Paraguay to the south. The maze of fluctuating water levels, nutrients, and biota forms a dynamic ecosystem. The vegetation comprises 1,863 phanerogam plant species listed for the floodplain and 3,400 for the whole basin and 250 species of aquatic plants. The complex vegetation cover and seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna within the floodplain: 263 species of fish, 41 of amphibians, 113 of reptiles (177 for the basin, 463 of birds and 132 mammal species. Many endangered species occur, including jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758. Waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Analysis of the root causes of the threats to biodiversity indicated that deforestation (17% of the Pantanal and 63% of the surrounding uplands with modification and loss of natural habitats due to cattle ranching, unsustainable agriculture, mining, environmental contamination (including mercury, pesticides, urban sewage, non organized tourism, fire, disturbances at the upstream region modifying hydrological flow, erosion, weak implementation and enforcement of legislation are the major issues to face conservation action and sustainable use. Under an evolutionary focus, local biodiversity seems to be well adapted to seasonal shrinking and expansion of natural habitats due to flooding. However, the conversion of natural vegetation due to human occupation is a real threat to biodiversity.Inundação sazonal é o fen

  17. The applicability of the sediment deposition geochronology with 2'1'0PB as a tool in the sediment accumulation from the Taquari River, Pantanal, MS, Central region, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, J.M.; Padovani, C.R.; Vieira, L.M.; Pereira, J.C.A.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents 210 Pb geochronology of five bottom sediment cores from flood plain lakes of middle Taquari River, Pantanal, MS. In two cores of a same lake, an increase of the sediment deposition rate were observed, reflecting an increasing of the sediment input to the Pantanal. The main causes suggested for this increasing are climatic change, and the development of agriculture and cattle-raising in the watershed highlands, for the last 25 years. The results pointed too for the importance of a additional sample in the superior region of the middle Taquari River. (author)

  18. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  19. Brazil and the Vital South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Brasileiro, Conferencia Mundial de Energia . Recursos Fnergeticos do Brasil . Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Maio, 1970. Carvalho Filho, Milton X. As Con ferencios...Geopolhti~os en ef At,,1,nrco Sur (No other references ) Baker, P. Warren. "Next: A Resource War?" Soýa Powver, p 55, October 1980. Banco do Brasil ...Brazil, The Nevv Power Brasil . (No date Barbola, Luiz. "Itamnaraty may faz objecat." Jornal de BrasO Ric) de’ Janeiro, Bircizil. (No other ref-rence

  20. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  1. Ecosystem responses to biogeochemical fronts in the South Brazil Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandini, Frederico P.; Tura, Pedro M.; Santos, Pedro P. G. M.

    2018-05-01

    Here we described the general hydrography in the South Brazil Bight (23-28°S) with emphasis on frontal processes and their role in the structure and functioning of the regional shelf ecosystem. One of the key roles of fronts for ecosystem dynamics is the injection of nutrients into the euphotic zone increasing primary production. Frontal systems also affect plankton biodiversity and fisheries. Physical mechanisms behind frontogenesis in this region are similar in the analogous western side of oceanic basins; their magnitude and seasonal dynamics, however, may differ due to peculiarities in shelf morphology, wind field, tidal circulation and continental drainage. Here we provide a reassessment of earlier and recent ecological and hydrographic studies for a better evaluation of the spatial and temporal dynamics of fronts and their regional ecological implications. Albeit in a fragmented manner, we give a more detailed conceptual framework about the ecosystem responses to the complex frontal system in the South Brazil Bight.

  2. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  3. South-South REDD: A Brazil-Mozambique initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-06-15

    The South-South REDD initiative - that aims to help facilitate the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ for Mozambique based on sound baselines and monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), clear analysis of the causes of deforestation and degradation, and appropriate benefit sharing mechanisms in support of activities to address them - is now in its second year. Extensive national consultations have led to the development of a National Action Plan for REDD+ which is currently being used as the basis for developing the countries REDD-Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) for submission to the World Bank Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF). The National Action Plan for REDD+ seeks to create favourable conditions for the progressive reduction of the current rate of deforestation (0.58%) to 0.21% by 2025 and ultimately to zero, simultaneously reducing the rate of degradation and encouraging forest restoration to sequester 30 million tonnes of carbon by 2025.

  4. Organização celular dos testículos em Hylidae e Leptodactylidae, no Pantanal (Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3332 Cellular organization of the testes in Hylidae and Leptodactylidae, in the Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i4.3332

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Barbara dos Santos Rosa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar e comparar a organização das células germinativas em diferentes estádios de diferenciação celular nos machos adultos de Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, Pseudis paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758 e Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Hylidae, e de Leptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 e L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, pertencentes à família Leptodactylidae, coletados no Pantanal e na serra da Bodoquena, no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os testículos foram retirados, fixados, desidratados em uma série alcoólica e incluídos em resina plástica do tipo methacrilato glicol (Historesin Leica®; cortados a 3 µm, corados com azul de toluidina 1% e observados no microscópio de luz. Constatou-se que os indivíduos da família Hylidae apresentam, em todas as épocas do ano, presença de todas as células de linhagem germinativa da espermatogênese. Já os indivíduos da família Leptodactylidae apresentam todas as células da linhagem germinativa somente no período chuvoso. As variações das características na organização dos epitélios seminíferos, assim como da evidente diferença na quantidade de espermatozoides no interior dos túbulos, demonstram que os anuros estudados apresentam diferentes formas de desenvolvimento da espermatogênese ao longo do ano: de forma cíclica para os da família Hylidae e acíclica, com liberação explosiva de espermatozoides, para os da família LeptodactylidaeThe objective of this work was to make a comparative analysis of germ cell organization at different stages of cellular differentiation in adult males of Dendropsophus nanus (Boulenger, 1889, Pseudis limellum (Cope, 1862, P. paradoxa (Linnaeus, 1758, and Scinax acuminatus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Hylidae; and Leptodactylus chaquensis (Cei, 1950 and L. podicipinus (Cope, 1862, belonging to the family Leptodactylidae, collected in the Pantanal and in

  5. Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.V.; Genro, C.H.; Santos Silveira, R. de C. dos

    1989-01-01

    Tuberculosis and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in South Brazil. The authors studied the incidence of tuberculosis in South Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome from January 1985 to June 1988. During this period, tuberculosis occurred in 10.3% of acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients. The socioeconomic conditions and the incidence of disease in the population were not confirmed as a potential risk for tuberculosis infection. Chest radiographs revealed pulmonary infiltrates in six patients, hilar and/or mediastinal adenopathy in three, and pleural effusion in two. The two remaining patients had pulmonary consolidation associated with other features. None of these patients presented pulmonary cavitation or radiographic findings of typical reactivation of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author) [pt

  6. Fish associated with aquatic macrophytes in the Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana Lake system and Mutum River, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil Peixes associados a macrófitas aquáticas no sistema de baías Chacororé-Sinhá Mariana e rio Mutum, Pantanal - MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB. Pacheco

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On the left bank of the Cuibá River, one of the main tributaries of the Pantanal in Mato Grosso, are located the Chacororé and Sinhá Mariana Lakes and the Mutum River, the littoral regions of which are covered with aquatic macrophytes, dominated by the species Eichhornia crassipes and Eichhornia azurea. To examine the ichthyofauna associated with this vegetation, in the year 2003, 3510 fish were collected, distributed among 83 species, and the limnological variables verified near the macrophyte stands where they were sampled. The most abundant and richest order was the Characiformes, followed by the Gymnotiformes and Siluriformes. Analysis of similarity showed a very low, or null, index that the limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide habitat sufficiently homogeneous to give. The limnological conditions and morphology of the aquatic macrophyte species provide a sufficient habitat heterogeneity to give very low, or null, index values. Thus, environmental conservation measures should be more effective in promoting the conservation of the species, given the high levels of biological diversity found in the habitats studied.À margem esquerda do rio Cuiabá, um dos principais afluentes do Pantanal matogrossense, estão localizadas as baías Chacororé e Sinhá Mariana e o rio Mutum, cujas regiões litorâneas são cobertas por macrófitas aquáticas. Com o intuito de se verificar a ictiofauna associada a esta vegetação, no ano de 2003, foram coletados 3510 peixes distribuídos em 83 espécies e verificados os valores das variáveis limnológicas próximo aos bancos de macrófitas onde estes foram amostrados. A ordem mais abundante e de maior riqueza foi Characiformes, seguida por Gymnotiformes e Siluriformes. As condições limnológicas e a morfologia das espécies de macrófitas proporcionam heterogeneidade de hábitat suficiente para obtenção de valores dos índices de similaridade baixos ou mesmo

  7. Soil Redox Dynamics Vary with Landscape Position and Hydroperiod in the Pantanal Wetland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.; Pinto-jr, O.; Leite, N. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Pantanal wetland ecosystem of central South America is the largest tropical wetland complex in the world. Nevertheless, biogeochemistry in the Pantanal is quite limited. A unimodal precipitation regime averages approximately 1200 mm y-1 during the six-month rainy season, leading to seasonal flooding on much, but not all, of the landscape. We investigated the impact of landscape position and hydroperiod on soil redox potential (Eh) in four research locations in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso: two locations subject to flooding (a flooded forest and a flooded scrub forest) and two locations with infrequent surface flooding (tree islands known as cordilheiras). Redox sensors were installed at 10 cm and 30 cm depths at each of the four locations with half-hourly data recorded over all hydro-periods (dry season, rising water, flood and falling water). Here we summarize results to date in this ongoing study. Reducing conditions were observed in response to both precipitation events saturating soil from the surface downward, as well as in response to regional flooding dynamics that saturate soil from below. These are helping to guide design of a study on methane dynamics in the Pantanal wetland complex.

  8. The inflation-output nexus:empirical evidence from India, Brazil and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paresh Kumar Narayan; Seema Narayan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between output and inflation for India, Brazil, and South Africa using the EGARCH model. For India and South Africa, we find evidence for: (1) the Cukierman and Meltzer hypothesis that inflation volatility raises inflation; (2) the Friedman hypothesis that inflation raises inflation volatility; and (3) the Black hypothesis that output volatility raises output growth, and that output volatility reduces inflation. For Brazil, we do not find any evidence o...

  9. Biologia reprodutiva de Synallaxis albilora (aves: Furnariidae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso

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    Tatiana Colombo Rubio

    2008-01-01

    dezembro.Synallaxis albilora (White-lored Spinetail is a Neotropical ovenbird restricted to flooded areas in the Pantanal wetlands, central portion of South America. The aim of this work is to present a detailed description of its breeding biology (nests, eggs and nestlings in the locality of Pirizal, Municipality of Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Pantanal of Poconé, at Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Several other aspects of its natural history are also described such as brood size, incubation period, parental care, nest further use by other species, agonistic interactions and nest-site. In order to study nest site, hemispherical photographs of vegetation above and north of each nest were taken. The photos were analyzed to estimate the canopy openness. The use of this method is considered unpublished in ornithological studies. Sixty nests were found and monitored during the years 2001, 2002, 2005 and 2006. The nest of S. albilora is similar to a retort, being built with pieces of kindling and lined with leaves. Its exterior consists of larger pieces of kindling and thorns. Both sexes were observed engaged in nest construction. The eggs are pyriform, whitish and present opaque surface (average of 20.5 x 16.4 mm, 2.8 g. Brood size was 3.35 ± 0.4 eggs (n = 20. The youngs are similar to the adults. A single individual was recorded engaged in incubation. Incubation time was 15.3 ± 0.7 days and the fledging time was of 13.6 ± 1.1 days. Canopy openness above nests was less than at five meters north of nests (16.4 and 20.3%, respectively; p = 0.036, n = 18. These data suggest that S. albilora might exhibit a preference for more open canopy cover sites. Several groups were observed using old nests. Agonistic interactions were registered during the reproductive station. The reproductive period of this species extends from August to December.

  10. Consumer Market for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Dutra de Barcellos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the consumer market for functional foods (FF in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foods have been growing 10% per year, three times more than the market for conventional foods. Although this food category is considered mature in some developed markets (such as in Japan, in the Nordic countries and in the U.S, it is still unknown for many consumers, especially those located in developing countries. On the other hand, functional foods has been attracting the attention of multinationals and local food industries in Brazil, since innovation can significantly impact on their competitive advantages. Therefore, in this study, first we are going to identify the availability of functional food products in the local retail market, through observation techniques. Our aim is to confront consumers’ needs with local food companies’ market supply. Secondly, we investigate consumers’ motivations, attitudes and intention to buy functional foods, since the market demands a better understanding of this trend. A survey with 450 consumers was conducted and provided quantitative insights. Results indicate that the market for functional foods in Rio Grande do Sul is incipient, but it is developing fast. There are few local functional food products in the market, but those are attractive to consumers and indicate promising opportunities. The survey shows that interviewed consumers presented positive attitudes towards functional foods and enough purchasing power to buy it. Dieticians, nutritionists and other health professionals have high credibility and could help inform

  11. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1 to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2 the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3 the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant - for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare - for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened

  12. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jeske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%, Taenia spp. (6.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4% and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%. Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%, Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3% and Cystoisospora belli (4.4% were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient’s first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  13. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, S; Bianchi, T F; Moura, M Q; Baccega, B; Pinto, N B; Berne, M E A; Villela, M M

    2017-11-27

    Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals) were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%), Taenia spp. (6.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%). Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%), Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3%) and Cystoisospora belli (4.4%) were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient's first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  14. Macrófitas aquáticas de ilhas flutuantes (baceiros nas sub-regiões do Abobral e Miranda, Pantanal, MS, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of floating mats (" baceiros" in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Otávio Pivari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre as formas biológicas flutuante e epífita, relacionadas a macrófitas aquáticas, constitui o que se chama genericamente de ilha flutuante. Esta denominação é aplicada ao estabelecimento de uma ou mais epífitas sobre indivíduos vivos de espécies flutuantes, como sinônimo de camalotal ou, ainda, para se referir à vegetação flutuante que se desenvolve sobre um solo orgânico em decomposição (histossolo. Realizou-se o levantamento das espécies presentes em cinco baceiros nas sub-regiões pantaneiras do Abobral e Miranda e o estabelecimento das similaridades florísticas entre estes, a fim de evidenciar aspectos da dinâmica sucessional de ilhas flutuantes. Foram encontradas 66 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas epífitas, distribuídas em 27 famílias, sendo Cyperaceae e Poaceae as mais representativas. O número de espécies por baceiro variou de 7 a 39, sendo os táxons comuns a todos esses Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt. H. Hara e Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Palla, ao nível específico, e Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Onagraceae, Poaceae e Polygonaceae, com relação às famílias. Outras formas biológicas, além da epífita, foram encontradas associadas aos baceiros, ou ainda, se mostraram adaptadas às condições do histossolo, podendo ser consideradas " epífitas casuais" . Baceiros em estágios sucessionais mais próximos apresentam maior similaridade florística e, no geral, quanto mais avançada a sucessão natural, maior a riqueza específica.The association between floating and epiphytic biological forms, regarding aquatic macrophytes, creates what are called floating mats. This concept refers to the establishment of one or more epiphytes on live individuals of floating species, as a synonym of " camalotal," or applied to floating vegetation that grows on organic soil in decomposition (histosol. A checklist of species was made of five floating mats in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands and

  15. A conservation agenda for the Pantanal's biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R; Sabino, J

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal's biodiversity constitutes a valuable natural resource, in economic, cultural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific and educational terms. The vegetation plus the seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. Many endangered species occur in the region, and waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Losses of biodiversity and its associated natural habitats within the Pantanal occur as a result of unsustainable land use. Implementation of protected areas is only a part of the conservation strategy needed. We analyse biodiversity threats to the biome under seven major categories: 1) conversion of natural vegetation into pasture and agricultural crops, 2) destruction or degradation of habitat mainly due to wild fire, 3) overexploitation of species mainly by unsustainable fishing, 4) water pollution, 5) river flow modification with implantation of small hydroelectric plants, 6) unsustainable tourism, and 7) introduction of invasive exotic species.

  16. South America: Brazil leads the way in offshore drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-08-15

    Brazil has found more than 600 million barrels of oil in the Campos basin and made other strikes to the north, offshore Sergipe, Alagoas, and Rio Grande do Norte states. Argentina's government recently gave the state oil company (YPF) permission to prospect in the Falkland Islands area about 200 miles east of Argentina's southern tip. YPF also is expected to accelerate work offshore Tierra del Fuego next year. The nationalization of petroleum in Venezuela is discussed. Drilling activity has slowed to 67 percent of the level of 1974. The goal for 1975 is about 875 million barrels. Chile has revised its oil law to permit foreign companies to explore, develop and produce the country's resources via contracts. Despite spotty successes, Peru has not given up on the northeastern jungle area, just south of Ecuador's fields. Occidental Petroleum and Petroperu have been the only companies to find commercial oil in the four-year exploration period. Their reserves are put at 464 million barrels. Eighteen foreign companies signed 14 contracts covering more than 50,000 square miles in Bolivia since the country asked for outside help in 1972. Ecuador's output reached an all-time high of 244,000 bpd and then slowed down to a 27,000 bpd dribble when the Trans-Ecuador pipeline broke. The government decreed that production from the Texaco and Gulf fields in the Oriente must rise to 210,000 bopd and that the two companies must drill their unexplored and undeveloped acreage or lose it. Ecuador cut 43 cents from the price of oil by reducing the production tax. Colombia abolished all oil concessions this year in an attempt to stem steadily slipping production. Exploration activities in Uruguay and Paraguay are discussed. (MCW)

  17. Competitive intelligence in emerging economies: A comparative study between Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sewdass

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI has long been recognised as a strategic management tool that could enhance competitiveness. CI is expected to play an essential developmental role in emerging economies. The need to enhance companies’ competitiveness has grown rapidly. CI is essential, and will increasingly be a challenge in the years to come, especially for emerging economies. This article will compare CI activities in South Africa with CI activities in Brazil. Companies in these two countries have faced increased environmental uncertainty and increasingly there is a need to compete. A questionnaire survey methodology was used where questionnaires were administered to CI experts in organisations in South Africa and Brazil. The findings of the study revealed that only a limited number of organisations in Brazil and South Africa recognise the importance of a CI unit. It was also interesting to note that the CI function is more mature in South Africa than in Brazil. As Brazil and South Africa become more integrated into the global economy, it stands to reason that the global economy will have more of an impact on the countries’ economies. To this end it has become more crucial to monitor global events and trends and it is very important for both countries to develop a CI culture.

  18. GENOTYPE BY ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS IN Pinus taeda L. IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefano Paludzyszyn Filho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Genotype x environment interactions of stem volume were investigated by assessing the variation in 46 open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. families from first-generation cloned seed orchard in four genetic trials in the south and south-east Brazil. They were used to obtain least squares and restricted maximum likelihood (REML estimates of variance components. Familie-by- trial interaction effects were evaluated by adjusting the mixed univariate model that contained data of two and four places tested by the likelihood ratio test. Breeding values from local data (univarate procedure and predicted to the others sites (multivariate procedure were obtained from best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. The adjusted and average (obtained from local and predicted to other sites breeding values were used to select parents and trees. The interaction effects and the adjusting of the mixed models were statistically significant, respectively, by F test and by likelihood ratio test. The loss of potential gain, sustained by not selecting the best families by site was 3.2%. For parents, the loss in mean productivity by indirect selection was respectively 2.3%. In the individual tree selection for seedling seed orchard, no loss of potential gain was observed when selection was carried by average genetic breeding values. For clonal seed orchard with the selection of ten more greater genetic breeding values trees, the interaction cause a inflation of 2% in the average productivity. In this case, the selection by average breeding values was the best procedure and may prove to be a useful tool, in selection stem volume, when genotype x environment interaction is significant.

  19. Erosividade da chuva para o bioma Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Okamoto Machado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de dados pluviográficos na região do Pantanal fez com que muitos autores utilizassem equações de regressão obtidas em outras regiões do Brasil para calcular o Fator R da Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (USLE. O presente estudo define equações para a previsão da erosividade em região do bioma Pantanal, correlacionando a erosividade das chuvas calculada pelo índice EI30 e o coeficiente de chuva (Rc. A equação desenvolvida, do tipo potencial, apresenta consistência e correlação significativa com os dados observados, obtendo valor de coeficiente de determinação de 97%. Portanto, a equação de erosividade proposta pode ser utilizada para estimativa do fator R da USLE a partir dos dados mensais e anuais de precipitação da região e de outras regiões com características climáticas semelhantes.

  20. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VJ. Pott

    Full Text Available This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz Morrone & Zuloaga.

  1. WRITTEN FAITH: LITERARY ELEMENTS OF ITALIAN IMMIGRATION IN SOUTH BRAZIL

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    Maria Catarina Chitolina Zanini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present and analyze literary productions drawn up by descendants of Italian settlers in Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil and highlight how religiosity is a recurring theme present in this texts. This is a migration process that has more than a century and the writing activity proved to be a very usable tool in conservation (and construction of collectives or individuals memories for the contemporary generations.

  2. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB Pinho

    Full Text Available We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%, followed by Landi (9%, Cordilheira (6% and Carvoeiro (3% forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species than in dry (16 species forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5% and dry (70% forests, and were higher in the Landi (85% than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%. Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species

  3. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  4. A comprehensive assessment of agriculture in lowlands of south Brazil: characterization and comparison of current and alternative concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theisen, Giovani

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture in the lowlands of south Brazil is of strategic importance at the national level, since it supplies around 80% of the rice consumed by the Brazilian population. In Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state in Brazil, three million hectares of lowlands are ready for grain-based

  5. Geologic studies of Irati formation in South Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, V T

    1968-07-01

    Besides oil-shale deposits occurring in several states in Brazil, those of the Permian Irati Formation, lying nearly continuous for 1,700 km from the State of Sao Paulo to the Brazil-Uruguay frontier, are the most extensive and promising for commercial exploitation. Although the lacustrine origin Tertiary shales in the Paraiba Valley are about 35 m thick, and yield 4 to 13% of oil, and contain about 317,460,317 cu m (2 billion bbl) of oil, their high moisture content (about 35%) makes them less attractive for exploitation. In Rio Grande do Sul and S. Parana, the Irati Formation has 2 distinct beds of oil shale separated by nonbituminous shale and limestone. In N. Parana, in Santa Catarina, and Sao Paulo, oil shales in the Irati Formation are intercalated with nonbituminous shale, and dolomite or limestone. The oil shales are dark brown to black, finely laminated, fissile, and hard, but weather to a reddish brown regolith that in places is 10 m thick. They contain 2 to 14% of oil recoverable by destructive distillation; their density ranges from about 1.80 to 2.45, generally decreasing with increasing content of organic matter.

  6. Human consumption of a vagrant South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis (Carnivora: Otariidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis is one of the most widely distributed South American otariid species. In Brazil, during austral winter months specimens of A. australis are regularly found along the Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina coasts. Occasionally, vagrants have been recorded along the southeastern coast but rarely moves north of Rio de Janeiro, at 23°S. On 01 May 2015, fishermen noticed in the surf zone an unidentified large animal in Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Severely wounded, it was still alive when first spotted. Numerous shark bites were observed in the rostrum and flippers, the peduncle was severely lacerated and the intestines were protruding. The specimen was identified as an adult of South American Fur Seal based on the combination of the characteristic coloration of the pelage, head shape, body size, the relatively large eye size, and mainly due to the pronounced three cusped teeth in post canines. Fishermen decided to butcher the carcass and share the meat among their companions. The present record, however, is of special concern as human consumption South American Fur Seal seems to be unusual in Brazil. Pieces of meat were shared among fishermen. In addition, small pieces of blubber were used as bait in the local shark long-line fishery. Consumption of an injured and presumably weak marine mammal carcass points to an increasing risk of contact between potentially harmful viruses, bacteria and fungi and humans. This note represents an alert to public health specialists and wildlife authorities in Brazil. It calls the urgency of an outreach campaign advertising to the potential risks of ingesting bushmeat either from land or aquatic sources. 

  7. Colonial legacy as a source and a problem in South-South Cooperation: The Case of Brazil

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    Elena Borisovna Pavlova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify the key narratives of colonial legacy as nodal points in the articulation of the Brazilian agenda in the South-South cooperation. Brazil’s aspirations for regional leadership and attempts to increase its international prestige are analyzed in a constructivist framework. Most importantly, our theoretical reasoning departs from the constructivist take on the agent-structure debate, proposed by A. Wendt in 1987. This approach, firstly, helps to clarify the main difficulties which Brazil faced in Latin America and to examine Brazilian efforts to overcome colonial legacy in order to secure regional leadership, one of the principal goals of its foreign policy. Secondly, colonial legacy can be seen as an unconditional source for the geographical expansion of Brazil’s influence and the increasing the number if its allies by means of the South-South cooperation. Thirdly, we demonstrate the very complex relationship on the structural level between the BRICS project and the problem of colonial legacy. Using the example of Brazil as a state which, on the one hand, has not been able to overcome the postcolonial complex, and on the other, is actively performing political rituals aimed at demonstrating its increasing power, we can more clearly outline the possibilities and limitations inherent in the structure of contemporary international system. Finally, this research suggests that BRICS, a group that claims to articulate the principles of the new world order, more beneficial for the states of the South, has limited chances to succeed with that mission.

  8. Medical wastes management in the south of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E. da; Hoppe, A.E.; Ravanello, M.M.; Mello, N.

    2005-01-01

    In developing countries, solid wastes have not received sufficient attention. In many countries, hazardous and medical wastes are still handled and disposed together with domestic wastes, thus creating a great health risk to municipal workers, the public and the environment. Medical waste management has been evaluated at the Vacacai river basin in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of 91 healthcare facilities, including hospitals (21), health centers (48) and clinical laboratories (22) were surveyed to provide information about the management, segregation, generation, storage and disposal of medical wastes. The results about management aspects indicate that practices in most healthcare facilities do not comply with the principles stated in Brazilian legislation. All facilities demonstrated a priority on segregation of infectious-biological wastes. Average generation rates of total and infectious-biological wastes in the hospitals were estimated to be 3.245 and 0.570 kg/bed-day, respectively

  9. Genetic Pattern and Demographic History of Salminus brasiliensis: Population Expansion in the Pantanal Region during the Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia A. de Carvalho Mondin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene climate changes were major historical events that impacted South American biodiversity. Although the effects of such changes are well-documented for several biomes, it is poorly known how these climate shifts affected the biodiversity of the Pantanal floodplain. Fish are one of the most diverse groups in the Pantanal floodplains and can be taken as a suitable biological model for reconstructing paleoenvironmental scenarios. To identify the effects of Pleistocene climate changes on Pantanal’s ichthyofauna, we used genetic data from multiple populations of a top-predator long-distance migratory fish, Salminus brasiliensis. We specifically investigated whether Pleistocene climate changes affected the demography of this species. If this was the case, we expected to find changes in population size over time. Thus, we assessed the genetic diversity of S. brasiliensis to trace the demographic history of nine populations from the Upper Paraguay basin, which includes the Pantanal floodplain, that form a single genetic group, employing approximate Bayesian computation (ABC to test five scenarios: constant population, old expansion, old decline, old bottleneck following by recent expansion, and old expansion following by recent decline. Based on two mitochondrial DNA markers, our inferences from ABC analysis, the results of Bayesian skyline plot, the implications of star-like networks, and the patterns of genetic diversity (high haplotype diversity and low-to-moderate nucleotide diversity indicated a sudden population expansion. ABC allowed us to make strong quantitative inferences about the demographic history of S. brasiliensis. We estimated a small ancestral population size that underwent a drastic fivefold expansion, probably associated with the colonization of newly formed habitats. The estimated time of this expansion was consistent with a humid and warm phase as inferred by speleothem growth phases and travertine records during

  10. Pantanal of Cáceres: granulometric composition of bottom sediments in the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Roberto dos Santos Leandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to verify the granulometric composition of bottom sediments along the longitudinal profile of the Paraguay River between the outfall of the Cabaçal River and the city of Cáceres, Mato Grosso, comprised by the geographic coordinates 15°58’00’’ and 16°50’00’’ South Latitude and 57°40’00’’ and 57°44’00’’ West Longitude. Work activity was conducted to characterize the sites and sediments collection with Van Veen sediment sampler (seven samples; textural analysis of the sediments by the pipetting and sieving method (the method uses a combination of sieving and sedimentation. The Paraguay River exhibits a meandering style with two distinct periods (periodic flooding regime and drought that associated with of bottom sediments alternate processes of erosion, transport and deposition from the discernible changes in the complex landscaping. Thus, the concentration of sand in the bed load transported in the channel (five samples is related to environmental elements and land use. The fine sediments are transferred to the features (bays and ponds and flood plain; the intense fluvial dynamics and the course (alluvial deposition areas contribute to changes in channel and morphologic features (capacity transport and sediment depositions.

  11. Ethnopharmacological studies of antimicrobial remedies in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, G Coelho; Haas, A P S; von Poser, G L; Schapoval, E E S; Elisabetsky, E

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the antimicrobial evaluation of the species most commonly used in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), the southernmost state of Brazil, for treating conditions likely to be associated with microorganisms. A four-stage process of documentation and evaluation was conducted: (a). review of RS ethnobotanical studies; (b). analysis of traditional uses; (c). literature survey on phytochemical and pharmacological data; (d). microbiological screening of selected plants. From the 149 species initially identified, 49 were cited as being used for microbial associated conditions in at least two other regions in RS, and 18 were further selected for screening. The crude methanol extract of these 18 plants were evaluated against seven microorganisms using the diffusion agar test. Extracts from Chaptalia nutans, Cordia monosperma, Echinodorus grandiflorus, Eugenia uniflora, Leonurus sibiricus, Luehea divaricata, Malva sylvestris, Ocotea odorifera, Parapiptadenia rigida, Pluchea sagittalis, Psidium cattleyanum and Senna neglecta were active against at least one microorganism. Although preliminary, these results are useful for rationalizing the use of medicinal plants in established systems of traditional medicine in primary health care.

  12. The good multilateralists: Brazil and South Africa in the new area of multilateralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Mantzikos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article will examine two of the world’s emerging middle powers Brazil and South Africa, the rise and promulgation of their cooperative strategies to reform institutions such as the United Nations Security Council. The article tries to examine the instrumental nature of South African and Brazilian foreign policy within the framework of both countries’ commitment to multilateralism and if this has been rising as part of a new form of shallow multilateralism or a regenerated regionalism of the South. Moreover, with regards to recent crises in Honduras and Zimbabwe, we will try to offer a critical evaluation of both countries global standing and their effort to promote democratic values in regional and sub-regional levels.

  13. Solar ultraviolet radiation: properties, characteristics and amounts observed in Brazil and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures.

  14. Solar ultraviolet radiation: properties, characteristics and amounts observed in Brazil and South America*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial and harmful effects of human exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) are topics that arouse great interest not only among physicians and scientists, but also the general public and the media. Currently, discussions on vitamin D synthesis (beneficial effect) are confronted with the high and growing number of new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and other diseases of the skin and eyes (harmful effect) diagnosed each year in Brazil. However, the lack of scientific knowledge on the UV-R in Brazil and South America leads to adoption of protective measures based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, where the amounts of UV-R available at surface and the sun-exposure habits and characteristics of the population are significantly different from those observed in Brazil. In order to circumvent this problem, the Brazilian Society of Dermatology recently published the Brazilian Consensus of Photoprotection based on recent studies performed locally. The main goal of this article is to provide detailed educational information on the main properties and characteristics of UV-R and UV index in a simple language. It also provides: a) a summary of UV-R measurements recently performed in Brazil; b) a comparison with those performed in Europe; and, c) an evaluation to further clarify the assessment of potential harm and health effects owing to chronic exposures. PMID:26131858

  15. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorneles@biof.ufrj.br; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta [Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul, IBAMA, 88301-700 Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: gibteuthis@yahoo.com.br; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Populacoes Marinhas, UNIRIO, 22290-240 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauloascosta@uol.com.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: azevedo.alex@uol.com.br; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in {mu}g/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 {mu}g/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods.

  16. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in μg/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 μg/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods

  17. White grubs (Cyclocephala flavipennis damaging perennial winter pastures in the South Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gonçalves Duchini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cyclocephala flavipennis Arrow, 1914 (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae, popularly known as white grub, is an insect widely disseminated in the South Region of Brazil. Despite the frequent occurrence of this white grub in areas cultivated with winter cereals, it is generally not considered a pest, since it feeds on straw and dead plant material. However, in 2015 and 2016, this insect has been identified as the damage-causing agent in the perennial winter pastures in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Damage was observed in patches and caused reduction in root depth and mass, resulting in loss of vigor, accelerated senescence in aerial parts, and death of tillers in Festuca arundinacea Schreb. and Dactylis glomerata L. plants.

  18. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  19. China, India, South Africa, Brazil (BASIC): Crucial for the global environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The rising importance of the BASIC countries in a changing world Over the last decade the emerging economies have become increasingly important for the development of the global economy. This trend was reinforced by the global financial crisis which hit the developed economies the hardest, and after which the emerging economies emerged as crucial growth centres in the global economy. We are entering into a new era in global politics, and a broad process is currently taking place of restructuring global institutions and political processes to increasingly take into account the interests of the emerging economies. A global environmental crisis constitutes the backdrop for this change in global politics, as the current volume of production and consumption of the planets renewable resources (including the capacity to absorb greenhouse gas emissions) is beyond the planets regenerative capacity. The breakdown of the Doha Development Round in World Trade, the creation of the BRIC group and the G20, the emergence of the BASIC group of key emerging economies and the following developments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, all testify to the fact that China, India, South Africa and Brazil (BASIC) today have a decisive and increasing influence in world politics. With regards to the environment, this means that BASIC countries increasingly will set environmental standards in global markets as their economies to a greater extent come to represent global buying power, increasingly will influence to what extent environmental concerns are mainstreamed into international agreements (such as WTO) in general, and also will decide the scope and level of ambition and scope of international environmental agreements (as we see in UNFCCC). Among the emerging economies China, India, South Africa, and Brazil stand out as particularly important. China and India alone represent more than 35 per cent of the global population and are the most rapidly growing economies in the

  20. Hans Kelsen – The Reception of “Pure Theory” in South America, Particularly in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as ...

  1. Population structure and genetic diversity of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla: Myrmecophagidae, Pilosa in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila L. Clozato

    Full Text Available Abstract The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Pilosa, Linnaeus 1758 belongs to the mammalian order Pilosa and presents a large distribution along South America, occupying a great variety of habitats. It is listed in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as Vulnerable. Despite threatened, there is a lack of studies regarding its genetic variability. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure within remaining populations. We analyzed 77 individuals from seven different populations distributed in four biomes across Brazil: Cerrado, Pantanal, Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. We sequenced two mitochondrial markers (control region and Cyt-b and two nuclear markers (AMELY and RAG2. We found high genetic diversity within subpopulations from National Parks of Serra da Canastra and Emas, both within the Cerrado biome, with signs of population expansion. Besides, we found a notable population structure between populations from the Cerrado/Pantanal and Amazon Forest biomes. This data is a major contribution to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of the species and to future management actions concerning its conservation.

  2. Population structure and genetic diversity of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla: Myrmecophagidae, Pilosa) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clozato, Camila L; Miranda, Flávia R; Lara-Ruiz, Paula; Collevatti, Rosane G; Santos, Fabrício R

    2017-01-01

    The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Pilosa, Linnaeus 1758) belongs to the mammalian order Pilosa and presents a large distribution along South America, occupying a great variety of habitats. It is listed in the IUCN Red List of threatened species as Vulnerable. Despite threatened, there is a lack of studies regarding its genetic variability. The aim of this study was to examine the genetic diversity and patterns of genetic structure within remaining populations. We analyzed 77 individuals from seven different populations distributed in four biomes across Brazil: Cerrado, Pantanal, Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. We sequenced two mitochondrial markers (control region and Cyt-b) and two nuclear markers (AMELY and RAG2). We found high genetic diversity within subpopulations from National Parks of Serra da Canastra and Emas, both within the Cerrado biome, with signs of population expansion. Besides, we found a notable population structure between populations from the Cerrado/Pantanal and Amazon Forest biomes. This data is a major contribution to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of the species and to future management actions concerning its conservation.

  3. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in the extreme south of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Felipe Bortolotto; Roth, Paulo Ricardo de Oliveira; Christoff, Alexandre Uarth

    2011-01-01

    Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782) in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%), vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8%) and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%). We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which show...

  4. [Access to medicines prescribed for acute health conditions in adults in South and Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Cechin, Isabel Carolina Coelho Flores; Fassa, Anaclaudia Gastal; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Facchini, Luiz Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study within Brazil's Project for the Expansion and Consolidation of Family Health, 2005, with the objective of universal and free access to the medication prescribed in the last medical appointment for acute health problems and to estimate the degree to which access may have improved with inclusion of the medicines in prevailing policies and programs. The sample included 4,060 adults living in the area of primary health care units in 41 municipalities in South and Northeast Brazil. Access was greater in the South (83.2%) than in the Northeast (71%), and free access was similar (37%), with a greater share by the Family Health Program (FHP) when compared to the traditional model, especially in the Northeast. Some 60% of prescribed medicines and 50% of those on the National List of Essential Medicines (RENAME) were paid for. No variation was observed in the proportion of medicines present on the prevailing RENAME list and access. However, 40% of the medicines that were paid for can currently be obtained through the Popular Pharmacy Program. The latter program appears to emerge as a new way to guarantee access to medicines prescribed in the health system.

  5. Inequality and Fiscal Redistribution in Middle Income Countries: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Lustig

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the redistributive impact of fiscal policy for Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, Mexico, Peru and South Africa using comparable fiscal incidence analysis with data from around 2010. The largest redistributive effect is in South Africa and the smallest in Indonesia. Success in fiscal redistribution is driven primarily by redistributive effort (share of social spending to GDP in each country) and the extent to which transfers/subsidies are targeted to the poor and direct t...

  6. Natural infection of gastrointestinal nematodes in long-nosed armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 from Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Mato Grosso do Sul State, with the description of Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. (Molineidae: Anoplostrongylinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux Hoppe, Estevam G; do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio

    2007-03-15

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal helminth fauna of long-nosed armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus, from the Pantanal wetlands, Aquidauana sub-region, Aquidauana County, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Thirteen species of nematodes, comprising seven genera and four families, were recovered from their gastrointestinal tracts. The following descriptors of infection were determined: prevalence, variation of intensity, average intensity and abundance. Hadrostrongylus speciosum n. gen. et n. sp. is first described here.

  7. Performance of a rapid self-test for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in South Africa and Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Heidi E.; Lippman, Sheri A.; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H.; Young, Taryn; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Women participating in studies in Brazil (n = 695) and South Africa (n = 230) performed rapid point-of-care tests for Trichomonas vaginalis on self-collected vaginal swabs. Using PCR as the gold standard, rapid self-testing achieved high specificity (99.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.2 to

  8. Medicinal plants indicated for flu and colds in the South of Brazil

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    Marjoriê da Costa Mendieta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to know the medicinal plants used for flu and colds by farmers from the South of Rio Grande do Sul State and to compare it with scientific evidence. This descriptive study was conducted with 12 farmers living at Ilha dos Marinheiros, in the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We used descriptive analysis, comparing the results with the scientific literature. Thirteen plants were cited as used for cold and flu: Achyrocline satureioides, Allium sativum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Citrus limon, Citrus reticulata, Citrus sinensis, Gochnatia polymorpha, Illicium verum, Mentha piperita, Mikania sp., Ocimum selloi, Origanum majorana and Verbena sp. Results show popular knowledge meeting scientific evidence for most indications, seen that 84,6% of cited plants are in agreement with the literature. Thus, we emphasize the richness of popular knowledge, the need of its appreciation and constant approximation of health professionals to this knowledge, integrated with science.

  9. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  10. PRODUCT ADAPTATIONS IN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE FURNITURE SECTOR COMPANIES IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Mainieri de Ugalde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustaintability is deserving more attention from companies, not only in their market relations but also in their product development strategies, specially those related with brands and packaging. This study analyzed the product adaptations demanded on the exporting efforts of seven furniture companies of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in the South of Brazil. To do this a multiple case study was carried out involving in depth interviews, observation techniques and analysis of documents. The data collected were analyzed for content and categories were defined considering the literature on the subject and opinions of specialists. Main results showed that most companies do not have a defined and deliberated strategy to act in the international scenario and most adaptations were related to product, brands and packaging were made according to requests from importers and aimed, basically.

  11. Statistical Study of Corrosion Types in Constructions in South Region of Rio De Janeiro – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lacerda da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most difficult and troubling problems encountered in construction are those caused by corrosive processes. The corrosion processes are constituted by some material degradation, generally metallic material, by means of chemical or electrochemical actions of environment in which the material are and can or cannot be combined with mechanical stress. Corrosion is present in the materials in general. Their deterioration is caused by such physical-chemical interaction between the material and the corrosive environment where it causes major problems in several activities. In order to prevent material losses, anticorrosive techniques are used which include coatings, medium modification techniques, anodic and cathodic protection, and corrosion inhibitors such as the organic compounds use. This article analyses the statistical study of corrosion types in construction in south region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. HIV-1 epidemiology and circulating subtypes in the countryside of South Brazil

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    Carina Sperotto Librelotto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 has spread worldwide, with several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. Brazil has an incidence of 20.5 HIV-1/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients per 100,000 inhabitants; however, the Southernmost State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS has more than twice the number of HIV-1-infected people (41.3/100,000 inhabitants and a different pattern of subtype frequencies, as previously reported in studies conducted in the capital (Porto Alegre and its metropolitan region. This study examined HIV-1/AIDS epidemiological and molecular aspects in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. METHODS: Socio-demographic, clinical and risk behavioral characteristics were obtained from HIV-1-positive adult patients using a structured questionnaire. HIV-1 subtypes were determined by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing of the pol and env genes. RESULTS: The study sample included 149 (55% women patients with a mean age of 41.8 ± 11.9 years. Most (73.8% patients had a low education level and reported heterosexual practices as the most (91.9% probable transmission route. HIV-1 subtypes were detected in 26 patients: 18 (69.2% infected with subtype C, six (23.1% infected with subtype B and two (7.7% infected with BC recombinant forms. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the increasing number of HIV-1 subtype C infections in the countryside of South Brazil.

  13. The roles and training of primary care doctors: China, India, Brazil and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Robert; Almeida, Magda; Wong, William C W; Kumar, Raman; von Pressentin, Klaus B

    2015-12-04

    China, India, Brazil and South Africa contain 40% of the global population and are key emerging economies. All these countries have a policy commitment to universal health coverage with an emphasis on primary health care. The primary care doctor is a key part of the health workforce, and this article, which is based on two workshops at the 2014 Towards Unity For Health Conference in Fortaleza, Brazil, compares and reflects on the roles and training of primary care doctors in these four countries. Key themes to emerge were the need for the primary care doctor to function in support of a primary care team that provides community-orientated and first-contact care. This necessitates task-shifting and an openness to adapt one's role in line with the needs of the team and community. Beyond clinical competence, the primary care doctor may need to be a change agent, critical thinker, capability builder, collaborator and community advocate. Postgraduate training is important as well as up-skilling the existing workforce. There is a tension between training doctors to be community-orientated versus filling the procedural skills gaps at the facility level. In training, there is a need to plan postgraduate education at scale and reform the system to provide suitable incentives for doctors to choose this as a career path. Exposure should start at the undergraduate level. Learning outcomes should be socially accountable to the needs of the country and local communities, and graduates should be person-centred comprehensive generalists.

  14. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  15. Migration and reproductive biology of Mugil liza (Teleostei: Mugilidae) in south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, V M; Varela, A S; Schwingel, P R; Muelbert, J H; Vieira, J P

    2014-09-01

    The mullet Mugil liza occurs along the Atlantic coast of South America from Venezuela to Argentina, but 95% of the commercial catch is collected from south Brazil between São Paulo and Argentina. Mugil liza is a single spawner with oocyte development occurring synchronously in two groups. Spawning happens in marine areas and occurs after migration. The reproductive migration occurs from Argentina (38° S) to the southern Brazilian states (24-26° S) from April to July, with peak spawning in June between northern Santa Catarina and Paraná. The presence of hyaline oocytes was associated with high salinity and sea surface temperatures of 19-21° C, and followed the seasonal northward displacement of these oceanographic conditions. The average size at first maturity (Lm ) for both sexes was 408·3 mm total length, LT . Males (Lm  = 400·1) matured earlier than females (Lm  = 421·9 mm). Fecundity ranged from 818,992 to 2,869,767 oocytes (mean = 1,624,551) in fish that were between 426 and 660 mm LT . © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Performance of soy cultivars in the south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Batista

    2017-11-01

    behavior of 23 soy cultivars in the soil-climatic conditions of the south region of Minas Gerais State (MG, Brazil, in the municipality of Inconfidentes. The evaluated traits were grain yield, plant height, height of insertion of the first legume and lodging. The experiments were conducted on the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 harvests, adopting a randomized block design with three replicates and 23 treatments, which were constituted by the following cultivars: FAVORITA RR, BRS MG 760SRR, NA 5909 RG, NA 7200 RR, CD 2630, CD 250, NA 7620 RR, CD 2737, TMG 123, V-MAX RR, P 98Y11 RR, NS 7100 RR, BMX Potencia, Anta 82 RR, CD 237, V-TOP, TMG 1176 RR, TMG 1174 RR, TMG 1179 RR, TMG 1181 RR, BMX Força, Monsoy 7211 RR and BRS MG 780 RR. Of the studied cultivars, those that most stood out for the traits evaluated in the conditions of Inconfidentes (MG were TMG 1179 RR (48.6 bags of 60 kg ha-1, NA 7200 RR (45.6 bags, CD 2737 (41.1 bags, CD 237 (41 bags and BRS MG 760 SRR (40.6 bags, all of which displayed satisfactory conditions for mechanical harvesting, demonstrating the good performance of the crop in the south region of Minas Gerais State.

  17. Hans Kelsen – The Reception of “Pure Theory” in South America, Particularly in Brazil

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    Carlos Eduardo de Abreu Boucault

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the reception of « Pure theory of Law », of Hans Kelsen in some South-American countries, throughout institutional approaches and also the diffusion of this theory as well its acceptance by cultural agents who represented academic and professional law environment, in Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina and Brazil. The historical period of this study concerns the early times of 40 till our days. Although the reference of Kelsen’s thought about theory of law may appear as a constant feature on South-American jurists, mainly till the decade of 1980, actually we can identify real problems that claim for a falsehood about the guidelines of the pure theory of law and ambiguities in connection to theoretical issues within positivist traditions in face of authoritarian governments in Latin America.

  18. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Selma Samiko Miyazaki Onuma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9% showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7% for S. neurona, and seven (63.6% for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  19. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  20. First detection of natural infection of Aedes aegypti with Zika virus in Brazil and throughout South America

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    Anielly Ferreira-de-Brito

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV has caused a major epidemic in Brazil and several other American countries. ZIKV is an arbovirus whose natural vectors during epidemics have been poorly determined. In this study, 1,683 mosquitoes collected in the vicinity of ZIKV suspected cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 2015 to May 2016 were screened for natural infection by using molecular methods. Three pools of Aedes aegypti were found with the ZIKV genome, one of which had only one male. This finding supports the occurrence of vertical and/or venereal transmission of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti in nature. None of the examined Ae. albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was positive. This is the first report of natural infection by ZIKV in mosquitoes in Brazil and other South American countries. So far, Ae. aegypti is the only confirmed vector of ZIKV during the ongoing Pan-American epidemics.

  1. [Quality of life and related factors among climacteric women from south Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Dino R S; Saciloto, Bruno; Artico, Graziela R; Fontana, Sabrina K R

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life in climacteric and associated factor among women from Southeast Brazil. A cross-section study of 506 women aged between 45 and 60 years old attended at a university climacteric clinic from South Brazil from June to October 2002. Hysterectomized women, as well as hormonal therapy or hormonal contraceptive users were excluded. The quality of life was evaluated by the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. The average of the age among the studied women was 51.3 (+/- 4.5) years old. About 15.4% were premenopausal, 34.4% perimenopausal and 50.2% postmenopausal women. The quality of life showed up deteriorated among the studied women. The factors related with quality of life were: the educational level (p < 0.01), the confirmation of smoking in the last year (p < 0.01), regular physical activity (p < 0.01), the confirmation of previous co-morbidities (p < 0.01) and the menopausal status (p < 0.01). A higher educational level, as well as the confirmation of regular physical activity led to a significant increase on their life quality. Smoking and previous clinical co-morbidities were responsible for the lower scores of quality of life. The pre-menopause was associated with a higher life quality level if compared to peri and post menopause. No differences in relation to the scores of life were identified among the perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless the menopausal status showed up associated to the quality of life, the results of the study pointed out that the climacteric is not just influenced by biological factors, but also by psychosocial and cultural factors.

  2. Economic values for milk production and quality traits in south and southeast regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to calculate economic values for milk (MY, protein (PY and fat productions (FY and somatic cell count (SCC which could be used to compose an economic index to rank animals involved in an international genetic evaluation program of Holstein cattle used in the commercial dairy population in Brazil. The main milk production systems (MPS prevailing in the South and Southeast were defined based on the feeding management and production level of herds. To calculate feeding costs, energy requirements for the production of one kg of milk with the respective average protein and fat contents of each MPS were calculated. Feeding costs were obtained based on the regional prices of the diets' components. To calculate revenues, milk prices were obtained from the payment tables practiced by seven milk industries. Economic values were calculated from the marginal differences between revenues and costs, for the interest of maximizing the profit, assuming a fixed number of animals in the herd. The average economic values (R$ for MY, PY and FY were 0.51, 6.41 and 1.94, respectively. The economic impact of increasing the original SCC values in the individual records of cows in the population by 1% was -R$ 1.40 per cow, per year. Due to changes observed in the last years in the milk market in Brazil, selection for milk components became economically advantageous. As a result, the calculation of economic values and the proposition of an economic index based on these traits became feasible. Somatic cell count does have an economic impact on the final price of milk and consequently on the annual profit of herds. It has also been used in breeding programs as an indicator of mastitis resistance and should not be neglected in breeding programs of dairy cattle.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Betania Paiva Drumond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4 are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population.

  5. Assemblage of drosophilids (Diptera, Drosophilidae inhabiting flooded and nonflooded areas in the extreme South of Brazil

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    L.B. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Several studies on the potential use of drosophilid assemblages as bioindicator systems have been carried out in the last years. Nevertheless, the successful application of these organisms in these systems requires adequate filling of several knowledge gaps. In this sense, little is known about drosophilid assemblages in wetlands and flooded areas. The present study provides the first survey of drosophilid species inhabiting such environments in the extreme South of Brazil and compares general beta-diversity patterns between assemblages of flooded versus nonflooded areas. The specimens were collected with banana-baited traps, and the assemblages recovered in eight wetlands of the southernmost coast of Brazil were compared to those recovered from seven nonflooded areas of the Pampa and Atlantic Forest biomes. A total of 5028 and 2571 individuals encompassing 27 and 37 species were collected in the flooded and nonflooded areas, respectively. The differential species composition patterns presented between these areas was statistically supported, which seems to be related to the lower beta-diversity presented by swamps, especially in regard to dominance patterns. So, the open and climatically harsher environment provided by wetlands possibly constitutes a hostile environment for the entry and, mainly, for the persistence of several native Drosophilidae species, in contrast to some exotic and more plastic species (as Drosophila simulans and Zaprionus indianus. Since the diversity gradient of flooded areas does not seem to be related to the conservation status of the swamp, our results question the use of Drosophilidae species as bioindicators of environmental disturbance and antropic influence in wetlands.

  6. Social wasps (Polistinae from Pampa Biome: South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina and Uruguay

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    Alexandre Somavilla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study aimed to determine social wasps’ species from Pampa Biome. Were examined samples of social wasps from south-central of Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil, parts of Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé and La Pampa provinces (Argentina and in Uruguay maintained in the Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brazil, American Museum of Natural History (USA, Natural History Museum (London-United Kingdom and Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-France. Thirty species were recorded: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 and Protonectarina (01. Vespas sociais do Bioma Pampa: sul do Brasil, nordeste da Argentina e Uruguai. Resumo. Este estudo objetivou determinar as espécies de vespas sociais provenientes do Bioma Pampa. Foram examinadas vespas sociais provenientes de coletas da região centro-sul do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil, parte das províncias de Buenos Aires, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Cordoba, Santa Fé e La Pampa (Argentina e Uruguai depositadas na Coleção Entomológica de Santa Cruz do Sul (Santa Cruz do Sul-Brasil, American Museum of Natural History (Nova Iorque-USA, Natural History Museum (Londres-Reino Unido e Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris-França. Trinta espécies foram registradas: Agelaia (01, Brachygastra (01, Mischocyttarus (04, Polistes (15, Polybia (08 e Protonectarina (01.

  7. One or two nation projects? Discourse on inequalities and equality-related policies in South Africa and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leubolt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis contribution focuses on the social production and reproduction of social inequalities in Brazil and South Africa. It aims at interlinking different theoretical perspectives and applying them to a comparative analysis of inequality-related policies. Resorting to strategic-relational institutionalism, the historical heritage of discourse formation and the institutionalization of inequality regimes in the two countries to inform the analysis of the more recent conjuncture will be analysed. While South Africa is an example of formal racist discrimination, the Brazilian inequality regime worked on more informal patterns. The different historical heritage influences current foci of equality-related policies, which tend to be dominantly anti-racist in South Africa, while focusing on poverty reduction in Brazil during the recent years. The latter experience tended more towards a discourse of a ‘common interest’ and was better able to institutionalize policies to reduce income inequalities. South Africa is still discursively divided into ‘two nations’. Social uplifting for Africans linked to the governing parties was only partially accompanied by improved living conditions for the poor majority of Africans. Both countries are significantly structured by the respective historical heritage concerning both the creation and the reduction of inequalities. The Brazilian ‘one nation’ discourse was more successful in promoting equality-related policies than its ‘two nations’ counterpart in South Africa. Despite important improvements, both countries are now in critical junctures and societal contradictions are beginning to create new crisis tendencies.

  8. The politics of social policy: welfare expansion in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in comparative perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tillin, Louise; Duckett, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This introductory essay reviews the scholarship on the politics of social policy, and shows the contribution of the special issue to explaining expanded welfare commitments in Brazil, China, India and South Africa in the twenty first century. Much literature on welfare expansion in lower- and middle income contexts views it primarily as a policy corrective to the economic dislocations produced by global economic integration. This special issue focuses on the political factors that are critica...

  9. Aspects of sismo-tectonic stability in the South-Eastern region of Brazil of interest to geology of engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.; Hasui, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The occurence of earthquakes in Brazil, mainly in the South-eastern region, and its relationship with the geologic features has been discussed by many Authors since the beginning of this Century. It is difficult to define intraplate seismicity and to understand the actual epirogenic displacent, but the definition of the regional stability is important for enginnering purposes and have been considered through seismologic, morphotectonic and geologic criteria. (Author) [pt

  10. An analysis of the information technology discipline in archival sciences undergraduate courses of universities from the south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelma Camêlo Araujo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present article is part of a research conducted at universities of the south of Brazil that offers disciplines of Information Technology in Archival Sciences undergraduate courses. The research objective to identify through the educational project of these courses the subjects which have emphasis in the Information Technology, as well as to identify the teachers’ perception about the condition of these subjects in enabling the student for the challenges of the work market

  11. Large-Scale Ichthyoplankton and Water Mass Distribution along the South Brazil Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27′ and 34°51′S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients. PMID:24614798

  12. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

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    Luis Carlos Pinto de Macedo-Soares

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  13. Large-scale ichthyoplankton and water mass distribution along the South Brazil Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macedo-Soares, Luis Carlos Pinto; Garcia, Carlos Alberto Eiras; Freire, Andrea Santarosa; Muelbert, José Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Ichthyoplankton is an essential component of pelagic ecosystems, and environmental factors play an important role in determining its distribution. We have investigated simultaneous latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients in ichthyoplankton abundance to test the hypothesis that the large-scale distribution of fish larvae in the South Brazil Shelf is associated with water mass composition. Vertical plankton tows were collected between 21°27' and 34°51'S at 107 stations, in austral late spring and early summer seasons. Samples were taken with a conical-cylindrical plankton net from the depth of chlorophyll maxima to the surface in deep stations, or from 10 m from the bottom to the surface in shallow waters. Salinity and temperature were obtained with a CTD/rosette system, which provided seawater for chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentrations. The influence of water mass on larval fish species was studied using Indicator Species Analysis, whereas environmental effects on the distribution of larval fish species were analyzed by Distance-based Redundancy Analysis. Larval fish species were associated with specific water masses: in the north, Sardinella brasiliensis was found in Shelf Water; whereas in the south, Engraulis anchoita inhabited the Plata Plume Water. At the slope, Tropical Water was characterized by the bristlemouth Cyclothone acclinidens. The concurrent analysis showed the importance of both cross-shelf and latitudinal gradients on the large-scale distribution of larval fish species. Our findings reveal that ichthyoplankton composition and large-scale spatial distribution are determined by water mass composition in both latitudinal and cross-shelf gradients.

  14. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

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    Lucas Gaíva E Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1% with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5% and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV (61.7% were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region.

  15. Bridging the Atlantic : Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa, South–South Partnering for Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the Atlantic is a descriptive study of Brazil's involvement with counterparts in Sub-Saharan Africa through knowledge exchange, trade, and investments. The objective of the study is to understand these relations better with the intent to forge concrete and mutually beneficial partnerships between Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa. Brazil and Sub-Saharan Africa are natural partners, wi...

  16. Prenatal care: preparation for childbirth in primary healthcare in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mariana Faria; Teixeira, Érica Mairene Bocate; Silva, Márcia Aparecida Dos Santos; Corsi, Nathalia Maciel; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; Cardelli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel

    2018-03-12

    To evaluate the relationship between prenatal care and delivery guidelines In Primary Health Care. This is a cross-sectional study, with 358 puerperal women of a public maternity from the south of Brazil. The data collection was performed from July to October of 2013, with prenatal card data transcription and a structured interview. The data has been analyzed through the use of the Chi-square test (p≤0.05). The prenatal care had a high coverage (85,5%) and early start by 71,8% of the women, however, 52% of them did not receive orientation for the childbirth. There was a statistical association between receiving orientation for the childbirth and fewer visits (p=0.028), longer interval between the last prenatal visit and the childbirth (p=0.002), and the classification of the prenatal care as intermediate and inadequate (p=0.024). Despite of the ideal number of visits, the quality of care has been classified as intermediate or inadequate, besides that, precarious access to the orientation for the childbirth during the prenatal care has been evidenced.

  17. Daily birth numbers in Passo Fundo, South Brazil, 1997-1999: trends and periodicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikulecky

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Between October 6, 1997 and April 30, 1999, 5011 births (mean: 8.76 per day were registered in the city of Passo Fundo, South Brazil. The sequence of 572 daily birth numbers was not random (iteration test. Neyman distribution (m = ¥ showed the best fit. Clusters of days with higher birth numbers alternated with days with low numbers of births. Periodogram analysis revealed a significant periodicity of 6.98 days. The cosinor regression, testing 10 a priori supposed period lengths, found significant seasonality peaking in August-September and significantly highest birth numbers on Thursdays. Among the lunar and solar rotation cycles, the tropic lunar cycle and its 4th harmonic were most pronounced, in agreement with results concerning natality in Germany obtained by Svante Arrhenius in the 19th century. These findings confirm Derer-Halberg's concept of multiseptans. In addition to cycling, a significantly increasing linear trend with a daily increase of 0.0045 births was encountered. This documents a growth of the population in agreement with national statistical data.

  18. Emergence of biopharmaceutical innovators in China, India, Brazil, and South Africa as global competitors and collaborators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaie Rahim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biopharmaceutical innovation has had a profound health and economic impact globally. Developed countries have traditionally been the source of most innovations as well as the destination for the resulting economic and health benefits. As a result, most prior research on this sector has focused on developed countries. This paper seeks to fill the gap in research on emerging markets by analyzing factors that influence innovative activity in the indigenous biopharmaceutical sectors of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa. Using qualitative research methodologies, this paper a shows how biopharmaceutical innovation is taking place within the entrepreneurial sectors of these emerging markets, b identifies common challenges that indigenous entrepreneurs face, c highlights the key role played by the state, and d reveals that the transition to innovation by companies in the emerging markets is characterized by increased global integration. It suggests that biopharmaceutical innovators in emerging markets are capitalizing on opportunities to participate in the drug development value chain and thus developing capabilities and relationships for competing globally both with and against established companies headquartered in developed countries.

  19. Emergence of biopharmaceutical innovators in China, India, Brazil, and South Africa as global competitors and collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaie, Rahim; McGahan, Anita M; Frew, Sarah E; Daar, Abdallah S; Singer, Peter A

    2012-06-06

    Biopharmaceutical innovation has had a profound health and economic impact globally. Developed countries have traditionally been the source of most innovations as well as the destination for the resulting economic and health benefits. As a result, most prior research on this sector has focused on developed countries. This paper seeks to fill the gap in research on emerging markets by analyzing factors that influence innovative activity in the indigenous biopharmaceutical sectors of China, India, Brazil, and South Africa. Using qualitative research methodologies, this paper a) shows how biopharmaceutical innovation is taking place within the entrepreneurial sectors of these emerging markets, b) identifies common challenges that indigenous entrepreneurs face, c) highlights the key role played by the state, and d) reveals that the transition to innovation by companies in the emerging markets is characterized by increased global integration. It suggests that biopharmaceutical innovators in emerging markets are capitalizing on opportunities to participate in the drug development value chain and thus developing capabilities and relationships for competing globally both with and against established companies headquartered in developed countries.

  20. Essential Drugs Production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheir Ezziane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines.

  1. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  2. Food preservation experiment by irradiation in the south zone of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Foes, Altair D.R.; Vaniel, Ana P.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Jardim, Lisandra F.; Mesko, Marcia F.

    2000-01-01

    The south zone of the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized as an area of great food production as fruits, vegetables, meats, fish among others. In Brazil, the state RS is the producing greater of onion and peach. It was intended to study the use of the irradiation for the propose of preservation of peaches and onions, relating the diverse doses with the capacity of conservation of the peaches and retardation in the process of budding of onions. It was objective also to follow the changes in the properties of the peaches and onions radiated related to the physic-chemical and nutritional parameters, as well as determining the dose of radiation that is more efficient in the preservation and that provokes minor number of alterations in the sensorial and nutritional properties of these foods. In the process of preservation for irradiation the foods are submitted to a field of ionizing radiation in rigorously burst conditions in mode that the food receives the amount from necessary and enough energy for the intended handling. Different doses of gamma radiation of 60 Co had been used and the reached results show to the effectiveness of this technique in the preservation of studied foods

  3. Hospital Nurses' Competencies in Disaster Situations: A Qualitative Study in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sandra M; Witt, Regina R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction Hospital nurses play a key role in the aftermath of the occurrence of disasters and need specific competencies to work in these situations. From a global perspective, few models exist that focus on disaster nursing. This study aimed to identify hospital nurses' competencies in disaster situations. A qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study was developed using focus groups as a method of data collection. Three meetings were held from June through September 2012 with nurses who worked at a hospital used as reference for disaster situations in the South of Brazil. Thematic analysis of collected data generated the competencies. For statement standardization, a format consistent with a verb, a noun, and a complement was adopted. The group validated 17 competencies, which were organized according to the phases of emergency management described by the World Health Organization (WHO) and classified in domain areas of management, health care, communication, and education. The competencies identified in this study can contribute to the education and practice of nurses in the hospital ambience, strengthening its capacity to face disaster situations.

  4. Replication Study of Polymorphisms Associated With Brain Arteriovenous Malformation in a Population From South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscatto, André Cerutti; Ludwig, Fernanda S; Matte, Ursula S; Mota, Simone; Stefani, Marco A

    2016-02-24

    The aim of this study was to reproducibly determine if any of the polymorphisms were associated with the susceptibility to brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) or the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) presentation. We recruited 63 BAVM patients and 96 controls. The polymorphisms selected for evaluation were apolipoprotein E (APOE), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF 238G>A - rs361525), interleukin 1 beta (IL1B 511C>T - rs16944 and IL1B -31T>C - rs1143627), activin-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 IVS3-35A>G - rs2071219), endoglin (ENG 207G>A - rs11545664), and interleukin 6 (IL6 174G>C - rs1800795). In the single analysis, we observed statistically significant differences in the allele distributions for IL1B -31T>C (rs1143627) between the BAVM patients and control subjects (P = 0.02). There was a trend toward significance for the association between the IL1B 511C>T (rs16944) allele and BAVM risk (P = 0.07). In further logistic regression analysis, no polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of BAVM. No polymorphisms were associated with hemorrhage presentation according to both single and multivariable analyses. In our sample from a south Brazil population, we found no association between the risks of BAVM and ICH presentation with any of the selected polymorphisms.

  5. Essential drugs production in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS): opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezziane, Zoheir

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work is to elucidate various essential drugs in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries. It discusses the opportunities and challenges of the existing biotech infrastructure and the production of drugs and vaccines in member states of the BRICS. This research is based on a systematic literature review between the years 2000 and 2014 of documents retrieved from the databases Embase, PubMed/Medline, Global Health, and Google Scholar, and the websites of relevant international organizations, research institutions and philanthropic organizations. Findings vary from one member state to another. These include useful comparison between the BRICS countries in terms of pharmaceuticals expenditure versus total health expenditure, local manufacturing of drugs/vaccines using technology and know-how transferred from developed countries, and biotech entrepreneurial collaborations under the umbrella of the BRICS region. This study concludes by providing recommendations to support more of inter collaborations among the BRICS countries as well as between BRICS and many developing countries to shrink drug production costs. In addition, this collaboration would also culminate in reaching out to poor countries that are not able to provide their communities and patients with cost-effective essential medicines.

  6. Natural radioactivity in extreme south of Bahia, Brazil, using gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Oliveira, Arno H.; Silva, Mario R.S.; Penna, Rodrigo; Santos, Talita O.; Pereira, Claubia; Rocha, Zildete; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations activity of natural radionuclides in beach sand in extreme south of Bahia-Brazil was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in beach sand ranged from 14.5 to 8,318.4, 20.5 to 18,450.0, 15.4 to 3,109.0 Bq/kg, with a mean value of 1,078.2, 2,429.6, and 417.0 Bq/kg respectively. The values of radiation hazard indexes in sands of Alcobaca, Caraiva and Cumuruxatiba are higher than the limits preconized by Beretka and Mathew. The use of these sands may be not safe in building constructions. The results show that the absorbed dose rates range from 20.4-15,116.6 nGy/h with mean value of 1762.7. The highest value of gamma dose rates among the studied beaches was found in Cumuruxatiba (15,116.6 nGy/h). The annual effective dose varied between 0.028 and 18.539 mSv/year, with a mean of 2.162 mSv/year. Values of Alcobaca, Trancoso, Caraiva and Cumuruxatiba are higher than the worldwide average for outdoor annual effective dose, 0.07 mSv/year. (author)

  7. Bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera in restinga in the municipality of Jaguaruna, south of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate the diversity of bats in two forest fragments in an area of restinga in the municipality of Jaguaruna, south of Santa Catarina. We performed 18 nights of sampling between November 2006 and September 2008, using in each night’s collection five mist nets installed at ground level, open for six hours after sunset. The Shannon index of diversity (H’ and the expected richness (Jackkinife first order were calculated for the total sampled area. We captured 135 individuals belonging to nine species and two families (Phyllostomidae = 5; Vespertilionidae = 4. Sturnira lilium was the most abundant species (40% of the sample. The diversity index was 1.75 and the estimated richness was 9.94. The observed richness represents 21.5% of the bat fauna recorded in the restinga area of Brazil. The diversity index recorded is close to that observed in other studies on areas of restinga. Studies that provide data on richness and abundance of species in restingas are very important, given the lack of studies on this ecosystem, especially regarding bats and the anthropogenic pressure that they are suffering.

  8. Salting kinetics and salt diffusivities in farmed Pantanal caiman muscle Cinética de salga e difusividades de sal em carne de jacaré do Pantanal criado em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Regina Nicoletti Telis

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal Pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare farming, in Brazil, has been stimulated and among meat preservation techniques the salting process is a relatively simple and low-cost method. The objective of this work was to study the sodium chloride diffusion kinetics in farmed caiman muscle during salting. Limited volumes of brine were employed, with salting essays carried at 3, 4 and 5 brine/muscle ratios, at 15%, 20% and 25% w/w brine concentrations, and brine temperatures of 10, 15 and 20ºC. The analytical solution of second Fick's law considering one-dimensional diffusion through an infinite slab in contact with a well-stirred solution of limited volume was used to calculate effective salt diffusion coefficients and to predict the sodium chloride content in the fillets. A good agreement was obtained between the considered analytical model and experimental data. Salt diffusivities in fillets were found to be in the range of 0.47x10-10 to 9.62x10-10 m²/s.A criação de jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em cativeiro tem sido estimulada, e entre as técnicas de processamento de sua carne, a salga é um processo de conservação relativamente simples e de baixo custo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a cinética de difusão de cloreto de sódio em carne de jacaré do Pantanal criado em cativeiro, durante a salga úmida. Foram utilizados volumes limitados de salmoura e os experimentos foram realizados com relações salmoura/músculo de 3, 4 e 5, com concentrações de salmoura de 15%, 20% e 25% em peso e temperaturas de 10, 15 e 20ºC. A solução analítica da segunda lei de Fick, considerando difusão unidimensional em uma placa infinita em contato com uma solução bem agitada de volume limitado, foi utilizada para calcular os coeficientes de difusão efetivos de sal e estimar o conteúdo de cloreto de sódio nos filés. Obteve-se boa concordância entre o modelo analítico considerado e os dados experimentais. As

  9. Variação temporal e espacial de ovos e de larvas das espécies de interesse para a pesca na sub-bacia do rio Miranda, Pantanal, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314 Temporal and spatial variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in the sub-basin of Miranda River, Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshyiu Nakatani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a variação temporal de ovos e de larvas das principais espécies exploradas no Pantanal: Piaractus mesopotamicus; Prochilodus lineatus; Salminus maxillosus; Leporinus macrocephalus e Pseudoplatystoma spp., no rio Miranda. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de outubro a março, quinzenalmente, de 1996 a 1999. O rio foi dividido em trecho superior, médio e inferior, com 15 pontos de coleta. Foram utilizadas rede de plâncton cônico-cilindrica, com fluxômetro, e as amostras fixadas em formol 4%. Para a identificação, utilizaram-se características morfológicas e merísticas, grau de flexão da notocorda e elementos da nadadeira caudal. No primeiro período, foram capturadas 5.979 larvas e 1.075 ovos; no segundo, 108.912 larvas e 1.836 ovos; no terceiro, 13.465 larvas e 1.855 ovos. A ANOVA, entre os anos e trechos do rio, foi significativa (F= 6.5, p >0,05 no trecho médio, indicando que a reprodução ocorre do trecho médio para o superior, nos meses de novembro a janeiroThe aim of this study was to analyze temporal variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in Miranda river, Pantanal wetland (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus maxillosus, Leporinus macrocephalus, and Pseudoplatystoma spp., which were collected from October to March, biweekly, from 1996 to 1999. The river was divided into superior, medium and inferior sections, of 15 collection sites. Conical-cylindrical plankton net with a fluxometer and samples fixed in formol 4% were utilized. Morphological and meristic characteristics, notochord flexion degree and caudal fin elements were utilized for identification. A total of 5,979 larvae and 1,075 eggs were collected in the first period; 108,912 larvae and 1,836 eggs in the second; 13,465 larvae and 1,855 eggs in the third. Results showed that ANOVA, between the years and the river stretches, was significant (F = 6.5, p >0.05 in the medium section, which indicates that the

  10. On the occurrence of Holochilus chacarius (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae in Brazil, with taxonomic notes on Holochilus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Brandão

    2015-03-01

    ás state. Holochilus brasiliensis is restricted to eastern Brazil, with its northern record at the Atlantic Forest of south Bahia. Holochilus chacarius occurs in the Pantanal areas of the Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states. A new record extends the distribution of H. chacarius to the Cerrado biome at eastern Mato Grosso, confirming its presence in this biome.

  11. Toxoplasma gondii: prevalence and characterization of new genotypes in free-range chickens from south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fernando Emmanuel Gonçalves; Sasse, João Pedro; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Miura, Ana Carolina; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cardim, Sergio Tosi; Martins, Thais Agostinho; de Seixas, Mércia; Yamamura, Milton Issashi; Su, Chunlei; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that can infect all warm-blooded animals including humans. Recent studies showed that T. gondii strains from South America are genetically diverse. The present work aimed to determine T. gondii prevalence in free-ranging chicken in northwest Parana state in Brazil by two serological tests, to isolate the parasites from seropositive chickens and to genotype the isolates. Antibodies to T. gondii in 386 serum samples from 24 farms were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody assay (IFA) and modified agglutination test (MAT). Samples having titers ≥ 16 were considered positive for both tests. Among the 386 serum samples, 102 (26.4%) were positive for IFA, 64 (16.6%) were positive for MAT, 47 (12.2%) were positive in both tests, and 119 (30.8%) were positive in at least one of the two tests. Brain and pool of heart, lung, and liver from the 119 seropositive chickens were used for mouse bioassay to isolate the parasites. Thirty eight (31.9%) of these seropositive chickens were considered positives in mouse bioassay and 18 isolates were obtained. The isolates were characterized by 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers including SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2, alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Results of genotyping were compared with the genotypes in ToxoDB database. It revealed ten genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotypes #6 (n = 2), #19 (n = 1), #21 (n = 2), #111 (n = 2), #152 (n = 1), and #175 (n = 1) and four new types not described before. Our results confirmed a high genetic diversity of this parasite in southern Brazil and also showed that the use of two serological tests in combination can improve the chance of T. gondii isolation. More studies should be taken to determine the zoonotic potential of chickens in the transmission of T. gondii.

  12. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda from Southeast and South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Maldonado Júnior

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville. The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  13. First report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Metastrongylidae) in Achatina fulica (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from Southeast and South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Arnaldo; Simões, Raquel O; Oliveira, Ana Paula M; Motta, Esther M; Fernandez, Mônica A; Pereira, Zilene M; Monteiro, Simone S; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Thiengo, Silvana Carvalho

    2010-11-01

    The rat lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a worldwide-distributed zoonotic nematode that can cause human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of A. cantonensis from Achatina fulica from two Brazilian states: Rio de Janeiro (specifically the municipalities of Barra do Piraí, situated at the Paraiba River Valley region and São Gonçalo, situated at the edge of Guanabara Bay) and Santa Catarina (in municipality of Joinville). The lungworms were identified by comparing morphological and morphometrical data obtained from adult worms to values obtained from experimental infections of A. cantonensis from Pernambuco, Brazil, and Akita, Japan. Only a few minor morphological differences that were determined to represent intra-specific variation were observed. This report of A. cantonensis in South and Southeast Brazil, together with the recent report of the zoonosis and parasite-infected molluscs in Northeast Brazil, provide evidence of the wide distribution of A. cantonensis in the country. The need for efforts to better understand the role of A. fulica in the transmission of meningoencephalitis in Brazil and the surveillance of molluscs and rodents, particularly in ports, is emphasized.

  14. Pathogenic bacteria associated with oysters (Crassostrea brasiliana) and estuarine water along the south coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane A; Iaria, Sebastião T; Gelli, Dilma S; Rivera, Irma N G

    2007-08-01

    Oysters and estuarine water samples were collected monthly, from June 1998 to March 1999, in the Cananéia estuary, on the south coast of São Paulo, Brazil, and analyzed for bacterial hazards with and without depuration in filtered estuarine water. Aeromonas spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Vibrio cholerae O1, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus were counted in oyster samples using the most probable number (MPN) and their presence verified in the surrounding estuarine water samples. The presence of Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and fecal coliforms counts were determined in oysters and in water samples too. Sixty percent of water samples contained fecal coliforms ranging from 200 CFU/100 ml and 100%, 30%, 20% and 10% were positive for V. parahaemolyticus, Salmonella, Aeromonas, and V. vulnificus in 5 l of water samples, respectively. In oyster samples, the fecal coliforms concentration ranged from or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g in 40% of untreated and from oyster samples and their concentration varied from 3.6 to > or =2.4 x 10(3) MPN/g. For the untreated oyster samples 80%, 70%, and 10% were positive for V. vulnificus (oyster samples 60%, 30%, and 0% of them contained the same bacteria, respectively. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella spp., P. shigelloides, and V. cholerae O1 were not detected in any of the samples. Fecal indicators did not correlate with Vibrio presence (p>0.05), although the isolation of Aeromonas species had a positive correlation (p = 0.017). The results showed no correlation between temperature, salinity, and bacteria (p > 0.05). The comparison between bacterial concentration in treated and untreated oyster samples, showed that only Aeromonas was higher in untreated oyster samples (p = 0.039). This study contributes toward creating a more global understanding of food-borne bacterial pathogens. The presence and concentration of viable bacterial hazards in oysters and water surrounding areas was determined for the first time

  15. Climate change mitigation in developing countries. Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, W.; Secrest, T.J.; Logan, J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Schaeffer, R.; Szklo, A.S.; Schuler, M.E. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dadi, Zhou; Kejun, Zhang; Yuezhong, Zhu; Huaqing, Xu [China Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India); Tudela, F. [El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Davidson, O.; Mwakasonda, S.; Spalding-Fecher, R.; Winkler, H.; Mukheibir, P. [University of Cape Toen, Cape Town (South Africa); Alpan-Atamer, S. [MedConsult, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-10-15

    Greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries will likely surpass those from developed countries within the first half of this century, highlighting the need for developing country efforts to reduce the risk of climate change. While developing nations have been reluctant to accept binding emissions targets, asking that richer nations take action first, many are undertaking efforts that have significantly reduced the growth of their own greenhouse gas emissions. In most cases, climate mitigation is not the goal, but rather an outgrowth of efforts driven by economic, security, or local environmental concerns. This study attempts to document the climate mitigation resulting from such efforts in six key countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey) and to inform policy-making aimed at further mitigation in these and other developing nations. The six countries examined here reflect significant regional, economic, demographic, and energy resource diversity. They include the world's two most populous nations, a major oil exporter, Africa's largest greenhouse gas emitter, and the country with the largest expanse of tropical forest. While their circumstances vary widely, these countries share common concerns that have motivated actions resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions growth. Primary among these concerns are economic growth, energy security, and improved air quality. The analysis presented here demonstrates that actions taken by these countries to achieve these and other goals have reduced the growth of their combined annual greenhouse gas emissions over the past three decades by nearly 300 million tons a year. If not for these actions, the annual emissions of these six countries would likely be about 18 percent higher than they are today. To put these figures in perspective, if all developed countries were to meet the emission targets set by the Kyoto Protocol, they would have to reduce their emissions by an estimated 392

  16. [Pregnancy aspects related to intracranial hemorrhage in newborns of very low weight in South Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lisandra Radaelli; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Tartare, Bianca; Bonetti, Heloise Serafin

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between route of delivery and other aspects of pregnancy and the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage in newborns of very low weight at a teaching hospital in South Brazil. A case-control study was conducted. Medical records of all patients who were born weighing ≤ 1,500 g and who were submitted to transfontanellar ultrasonography were analyzed from January 2011 to September 2014. The cases were newborns with diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage, while newborns with regular exams were used as controls. Differences between groups were analyzed by the Student t test and by χ2 or Fisher exact tests, and association was determined using the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and α = 5%. A total of 222 newborns with birth weight ≤ 1,500 g were recorded; of these, 113 were submitted to transfontanellar ultrasonography and were included in the study. Sixty-nine (61.1%) newborns were diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhage (cases) and 44 (38.9%) showed no abnormal results (controls). Most cases had grade I hemorrhage (96.8%) originating from the germinative matrix (95.7%). The predominant route of delivery was caesarean section (81.2% of the cases and 72.7% of the controls). Five deaths were recorded (3 cases and 2 controls). Gestational age ranged from 24 to 37 weeks. Median birth weight was 1,205 g (range: 675-1,500 g). The median time of hospitalization was 52 days, ranging from 5 to 163 days. Grade I intracranial hemorrhage from the germinative matrix was the most frequent. No differences were found between cases and controls for the variables studied. The small number of infants submitted to transfontanellar ultrasonography limited the sample size and the results of the study.

  17. Age and growth of the Duckbill Catfish (Sorubim cf. lima in the Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. F. Penha

    Full Text Available The Duckbill Catfish, Sorubim lima, is a predator of large South American rivers. The age and growth of S. lima were studied based on the pectoral fin-spines of samples collected from the Cuiabá River, Pantanal. The samples were taken from commercial and experimental hook-and-line fishing. An analysis of the marginal increment suggests that the growth rings are formed once a year during the dry season, from July to September (ANOVA type I: F = 4.183; g.l. = 3 and 104; p = 0.008. The estimate of the parameters that describe von Bertalanffy's growth curve by nonlinear regression of the observed lengths in the age were: L¥ = 56.0 cm (fork length; k = 0.245 year-1; t o = -2.605 years. The animals were estimated to have a life span of 9.6 years. The findings indicate that the fork length is a good predictor of the age of individuals of this fish species.

  18. Soil health assessment and maintenance in Central and South Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil has evolved from a food insecure country in the early 1970´s into one of the most important food producers and exporters in the world. During the past 45 years, a science-based advanced tropical agriculture was developed throughout Brazil. Production has increased steadily and productivity ga...

  19. Metals and pesticides in commercial bivalve mollusc production areas in the North and South Bays, Santa Catarina (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R V; Garbossa, L H P; Campos, C J A; Vianna, L F de N; Vanz, A; Rupp, G S

    2016-04-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals were quantified in mussels Perna perna and Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas in 28 cultivation sites in the North and South Bays, SC (Brazil). Concentrations of pesticides were also quantified in these bivalve, water and sediment samples collected in 14 cultivation sites on four occasions in the period October 2012-October 2013. Pesticides were not detected in any of the mussel, oyster, water or sediment samples. The South Bay was found to be generally more contaminated with As while the North Bay showed higher concentrations of Ni. Concentrations of Pb and Cd were below the limit of detection of the method (0.5mg/kg) in all samples. Mussels accumulated more As and Ni than oysters, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Metal concentrations were below the maximum levels for foodstuffs specified in the Brazilian legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Balanço de radiação no Pantanal Sul Mato-grossense durante a estação seca Budget radiation on Pantanal wetland in Mato Grosso do Sul State during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luiz Leitão de Mesquita

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a análise das componentes do balanço de radiação à superfície sobre o Pantanal Sul Mato-grossense, a partir de medidas experimentais coletadas durante a estação seca, em setembro de 1999. Neste período, as componentes do balanço de radiação mostraram um ciclo diurno bem definido, associado à densidade de fluxo radiativo de onda curta de 850 Wm-2 ao meio dia. O albedo médio apresentou um comportamento quase especular, com valor mínimo de 0,16±0,02 para ângulos zenitais pequenos. Os valores de emissividade da superfície pantaneira, corrigida para temperatura radiativa de um corpo cinza, variaram entre 0,94 e 0,96. A partir das medidas diretas das densidades dos fluxos radiativos de ondas curtas e longas atmosféricas determinou-se os parâmetros ótimos empregados nas formulações propostas por Monteith e Unsworth (2008, Swinbank (1963 e Brutsaert (1975.This work analyses the surface radiation budget components observed over the Pantanal wetland located in the south part of Mato Grosso do Sul State, on September,1999 during the dry season. For this period, these components showed a well defined diurnal cycle, with the shortwave radiation fluxes showing a maximum of 850 Wm-2 at noon. The albedo presents a specular behavior with minimum equal to 0.16±0.02 for small zenithal angle. The land surface emissivity, corrected to a gray body radiative temperature, shows values between 0.94 and 0.96. Direct measurements of shortwave and long-wave density radiative fluxes were used to adjust the optimum parameters on the proposed Monteith and Unsworth (2008, Swinbank (1963 and Brutsaert (1975 formulations.

  1. Selection of common bean genotypes for the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone via mixed models and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Pereira, M I S; de Abreu, H K A; Sharon, T; de Melo, C L P; Ito, M A; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L

    2016-10-17

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is predominantly grown on small farms and lacks accurate genotype recommendations for specific micro-regions in Brazil. This contributes to a low national average yield. The aim of this study was to use the methods of the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values (HMRPGV) and the centroid, for selecting common bean genotypes with high yield, adaptability, and stability for the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone region in Brazil. We evaluated 11 common bean genotypes in three trials carried out in the dry season in Aquidauana in 2013, 2014, and 2015. A likelihood ratio test detected a significant interaction between genotype x year, contributing 54% to the total phenotypic variation in grain yield. The three genotypes selected by the joint analysis of genotypic values in all years (Carioca Precoce, BRS Notável, and CNFC 15875) were the same as those recommended by the HMRPGV method. Using the centroid method, genotypes BRS Notável and CNFC 15875 were considered ideal genotypes based on their high stability to unfavorable environments and high responsiveness to environmental improvement. We identified a high association between the methods of adaptability and stability used in this study. However, the use of centroid method provided a more accurate and precise recommendation of the behavior of the evaluated genotypes.

  2. Feeding habits of Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae in the extreme south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the Molina's hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina, 1782 in the extreme south of Brazil. We analyzed 60 stomachs of road-kills of C. chinga in the extreme south of Brazil. The contents revealed 808 prey parts, including invertebrates (frequency of occurrence - FO = 96.7% and relative abundance - RA = 94.7%, vertebrates (FO = 18.3% and RA = 2.8% and plants (FO = 31.7% and RA = 2.3%. We identified 18 kinds of food, including the invertebrate order Coleoptera which showed the highest FO (86.7% and RA (75.2%. Other important orders were Orthoptera (FO = 35% and RA = 10.4% and Araneae (FO = 41.7% and RA = 4%. The combination of occurrence and abundance of the preys consumed allowed classifying C. chinga as an omnivorous with a predominance of insects, especially Coleoptera, consuming other invertebrates, vertebrates and plants in smaller numbers. Behavioral and morphological adaptations of C. chinga favor the predation of insects, which are preys that offer low physical resistance and are available in all terrestrial environments.

  3. Thermochronology of the South American platform in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, through apatite fission tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello Saenz, C.A.; Hadler Neto, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Guedes, S.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.B.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio A, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The fission-track method (FTM) in apatite was applied to 45 samples collected in the Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira mountain range), the Serra do Mar (Mar mountain range), regions next to these mountain ranges and the coastal region between Ubatuba and Santos in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to study the thermochronology of the South American Platform in southeast Brazil and its influence on Santos and Campos basins. The data presented in this work complement the previously presented data on the same region (Tello Saenz et al., 2003. J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 15, 765-774) with 31 new samples analyzed. The weighted mean of the corrected ages from high Mantiqueira (around 1000m), (121+/-6)Ma, coincides with the South Atlantic opening. The fact that its thermal history starts at a relatively low temperature (∼80 deg. C) suggests that the age of ∼120Ma would be the formation age of Serra da Mantiqueira due to a rapid pulse, in which tracks had no time to be retained at the closure temperature, that is ∼120 deg. C. The Serra do Mar presents a more complicated thermal history, with several reactivations indicated by the changes in the slope of its cooling curve. The thermal histories obtained in the regions next to these mountain ranges are compatible with the results mentioned above. The Santos Basin has unconformities that agree with changes in the slope thermal histories of the studied region

  4. Influence of culture on contraceptive utilization among HIV-positive women in Brazil, Kenya, and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Laher, Fatima; Malta, Monica S; Bastos, Francisco I; Imbuki, Kennedy; Shaffer, Douglas N; Sinei, Samuel K; Gray, Glenda E

    2011-02-01

    Contraceptive choice and discontinuation are poorly understood among HIV-positive women, and HIV disease and culture may influence decisions. We assessed factors influencing contraceptive decision-making among HIV-positive women in three countries. This qualitative assessment of 108 HIV-positive women (36/site, selected by age and parity strata) was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Kericho, Kenya; and Soweto, South Africa. Freelist interviews assessed knowledge and attitudes towards contraception and were analyzed enumerating frequency and saliency of mentions. There was intersite consensus around list items but priority and themes varied. Site-specific factors influencing contraceptive choice were male partner wishes and fertility desire (Brazil), side-effects (South Africa), and impact on health and HIV progression (Kenya). Age, parity, and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) impacted some themes. Contraceptive use among HIV-positive women is substantially influenced by culture and other factors. Counseling efforts should consider individual factors in method selection and offer method variety to accommodate changing needs.

  5. The Dynamics of the Innovation System for Functional Foods in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pozzo, Daniele; Ferreira, Gabriela Cardozo; Lionello, Rafael Laitano

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the dynamics of the innovation system for functional foods (FF) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Functional food is any healthy food claimed to have a health-promoting or disease-preventing property beyond the basic function of supplying nutrients. Health has been named as the most significant trend and innovation driver in the global food and drinks market. Brazil is one of the leading countries in food production and consumption, and the market for functional foo...

  6. Novel viruses in salivary glands of mosquitoes from sylvatic Cerrado, Midwestern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Zelenski de Lara Pinto

    Full Text Available Viruses may represent the most diverse microorganisms on Earth. Novel viruses and variants continue to emerge. Mosquitoes are the most dangerous animals to humankind. This study aimed at identifying viral RNA diversity in salivary glands of mosquitoes captured in a sylvatic area of Cerrado at the Chapada dos Guimarães National Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil. In total, 66 Culicinae mosquitoes belonging to 16 species comprised 9 pools, subjected to viral RNA extraction, double-strand cDNA synthesis, random amplification and high-throughput sequencing, revealing the presence of seven insect-specific viruses, six of which represent new species of Rhabdoviridae (Lobeira virus, Chuviridae (Cumbaru and Croada viruses, Totiviridae (Murici virus and Partitiviridae (Araticum and Angico viruses. In addition, two mosquito pools presented Kaiowa virus sequences that had already been reported in South Pantanal, Brazil. These findings amplify the understanding of viral diversity in wild-type Culicinae. Insect-specific viruses may present a broader diversity than previously imagined and future studies may address their possible role in mosquito vector competence.

  7. South-South Development Cooperation and Soft Power. The case of Brazil's foreign policy and technical cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bry, Sandra

    's participation in development cooperation and how these international political ambitions influence the project model of its South-South Development Cooperation, called technical cooperation. This was done by investigating the manifestations of ‘soft power’ in Brazilian development cooperation activities...... of the agent's attractive actions without which a country's soft power is non-existent. Therefore this thesis maintains that soft power theory should shift its current analytical focus from the agent to the subject and enhance the analysis on the role of subject's perceptions in the creation of ‘soft...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain P8-1 Isolated from Wild Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) Feces on the South Coast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichula, Janira; Campos, Fabricio Souza; Pereira, Rebeca Inhoque; Cardoso, Leonardo Almansa; Wachholz, Guilherme Raffo; Pieta, Luiza; Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Moura, Tiane Martin; Tavares, Maurício; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes

    2016-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains have a ubiquitous nature that allows them to survive in different niches. Studies involving enterococci isolated from marine animals are scarce. Therefore, in this study, we report the complete genome sequence of E. faecalis strain P8-1 isolated from feces of a Magellanic penguin on the south coast of Brazil. PMID:26769928

  9. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Bianchini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment inParaná State, South Brazil (23"16'S and 51"01'W. The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng Harms (emergent species; Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species; Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq. Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species; Sorocea bonplandii (Baill. Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng. Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species. Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurredin specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.Visando contribuir para o conhecimento das estratégias devida de espécies em fragmentos florestais, foram determinadas as estruturas de tamanho e espacial de 13 espécies arbóreas do remanescente de floresta ciliar no Estado do Paraná, no Sul do Brasil (23"16'S e 51"01'W. Foram analisadas as espécies: Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. e Gallesia

  10. Diagnosis of Food Insecurity and Nutritional Statusof users of the popular restaurants in the Northeast and South of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwellen de Resende MORAES

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity occurs when the unmet nutritional needs cause psychological and physiological problems. Thinking about this panorama, this cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the relationship between food insecurity and overweight in the Northeast and South. We used a form to identify the socioeconomic and demographic variables, was also made the calculation of BMI, and applied the Brazilian Scale of Food and Nutritional Insecurity in two regions of Brazil where 807 people were interviewed and 503 in the Northeast region and 304 in the South region. The most prevalent share of family income in both regions was that between ½ to 1 minimum wage. The Northeast region had a higher prevalence of users in food insecurity over the southern region, also presented more socioeconomic differences as lower education and income per capita, a higher proportion of unemployed and users in Food Insecurity in relation to the South. This fact is explained by population have a higher proportion of unemployed and a lower per capita income, leading to reduced power of access to food. Regarding nutritional status, in both regions there was overweight. This data may be indicative of the accelerated process of nutritional transition that lives the Brazilian population.

  11. O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confecção de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil The use of the camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Pontederiaceae, for handicraft in the District of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Maria Bortolotto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, conhecida localmente como camalote, é uma planta aquática nativa da América do Sul, abundante no Pantanal. Os índios Guató usavam essa planta no Pantanal para a confecção de esteiras para dormir. Atualmente a comunidade não indígena do distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, está fazendo artesanato com essa planta. O processo foi ensinado por uma índia Guató (74 anos que manteve a tradição de trançar o camalote. O uso do camalote para a confecção de artesanato é descrito aqui. O método utilizado inclui entrevistas semi-estruturadas e observação participante. A extração do camalote é feita nos rios, corixos e lagoas da região. As folhas são cortadas e somente os pecíolos são transportados para casa, lavados em água corrente e colocados para secar ao sol. Depois de secos os pecíolos são trançados e costurados. A técnica original dos Guató consiste em costurar o artesanato com linhas confeccionadas com algodão (Gossypium sp. ou tucum (Bactris sp., atualmente substituídos por fios de nylon, em Albuquerque. O artesanato é vendido aos turistas.Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to South America, abundant in the Pantanal, Brazil. Guató Indians used it for making sleeping mats in the Pantanal. The non-Indian community of Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. An ancient Guató Indian 74 years old taught the process. The use of the camalote for handicraft in Albuquerque is described here. The methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. The extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. The leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. After dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. The Guató original technique consists of sewing the craft

  12. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  13. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  14. Choosing soil management systems for rice production on lowland soils in South Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, A.C.R.; Hoogmoed, W.B.

    2009-01-01

    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area of the state. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for flood-irrigated rice (Oriza

  15. Political Economy of Popular Journalism on Comparative Perspective: An Analysis on Tabloidization in Brazil, India and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Chagas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 1990s to the 2000s, a debate on an alleged "tabloidization" of the European press took academic research on journalism, especially since the works of Esser (1999 and Sparks & Tulloch (2000, which sought to conceptualize the term. The academic literature since then has dealt with the subject in different settings and contexts around the world (cf. PIONTEK, 2011; MOONEY, 2008; LIMA, 2009. In Brazil, however, there were few efforts in order to deepen the knowledge on tabloid genre. The main purpose of this article is to characterize the phenomenon as it appears in the Brazilian market, comparing the performance of tabloids to what authors like Wasserman (2010, Ogola & Rodny-Gumede (2014 and Ranganathan & Rodrigues (2010 have observed in countries like India and South Africa.

  16. Typical occupational accidents with employees of a university hospital in the south of Brazil: epidemiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sêcco, Iara Aparecida de Oliveira; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Shimizu, Denise Sayuri; Rúbio, Márcia Maria da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive epidemiologic study that aimed to analyze the typical occupational accidents notified by employees of a university hospital in the South of Brazil from 1997 to 2002, and to estimate their risk indicators. A total of 717 accidents were registered; 86% of them (616) were typical and presented an annual average risk coefficient of 6.0 per 100 employees. The groups that presented more risks for accidents were cooks, woodworkers and nursing auxiliaries, while hands were the most affected area. Regarding the accidents nature, the greatest risks involved biological material. Hence, it is necessary to orient personnel about the legal aspects of occupational accidents and review work processes, especially those related to employees who perform activities at greater risk of transmissible diseases like AIDS and hepatitis B and C.

  17. Sympatric and allopatric combinations of Lymnaea columella and Fasciola hepatica from southern and south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, L H L; Lima, W S; Guimaraes, M P

    2009-09-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica were carried out to test the effect of sympatric and allopatric combinations between parasite and host, by using snails and flukes from southern and south-eastern Brazil. Four groups of 50 snails were infected with four miracidia per snail: two groups in sympatric and two groups in allopatric combinations. Sympatric combinations between parasite and host were more efficient than allopatric ones when snails from Itajubá were used, but the opposite was observed in infections involving snails from Pelotas. The sympatric association between L. columella and F. hepatica from Itajubá was significantly higher than in the other combinations. We concluded that the host-parasite relationship between L. columnella and F. hepatica may vary according to the geographical origin of the snails and flukes involved.

  18. The female reproductive cycle of the neotropical snake Atractus pantostictus (Fernandes and Puorto, 1993) from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Resende, F C; Nascimento, L B

    2015-06-01

    Data on reproductive activity of fossorial species are limited because the specimens are difficult to be observed and captured. Here in, we present the reproductive cycle of female Atractus pantostictus, a fossorial neotropical species, and the sexual maturity of males and females in south-eastern Brazil. The female reproductive cycle of A. pantostictus is seasonal, with vitellogenic follicles being found from September to April and eggs in November, February, March and April with the number varying between two and four. Spermatozoa were found in the lumen of the glandular and non-glandular uterus in females collected during the rainy season. Sperm storage tubules were found in the posterior infundibulum of the females, where the storage of sperm occurs for a short time. The storage may occur because mating and ovulation are dissociated. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Illicit Cigarette Trade in Five South American Countries: A Gap Analysis for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraje, Guillermo

    2018-05-15

    Due to its nature, it is very hard to measure tobacco illicit trade in any product. In the case of Latin American countries, there is scant information on the magnitude and characteristics of this trade in the case of cigarettes. The goal of this article is to provide estimates on the evolution of the illicit cigarette trade in five South American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Gap analysis estimates for cigarette tax evasion/avoidance (a comparison on the evolution of the difference between registered cigarette sales and measured population consumption) is developed for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru. Nationally representative surveys, conducted regularly, are used to measure population consumption. Confidence intervals constructed by bootstrapping sample estimates are generated in order to statistically evaluate the evolution of the gap. Cigarette illicit trade has increased as a percentage of total sales in Brazil in recent years. In the case of Argentina, after a relative decrease between 2005 and 2009 it seems to have stabilized. There is no statistical evidence to argue that there has been an increase of cigarette illicit trade in Chile, Colombia and Peru, despite substantial price increases in Chile and tax increase in both Colombia and Peru. Using simple statistical methods, it is possible to assess the trend in tobacco illicit trend over time to better inform policy-makers. Getting reliable and regular population consumption surveys can also help to track tobacco illicit trade. Claims by tobacco industry of a positive association between price/tax changes and illicit trade are unsubstantiated. Evolution of cigarette illicit trade in five Latin American countries show different trajectories, not in line with tobacco industry estimates, which highlight the importance of producing solid, independent estimates. There are inexpensive methodologies that can provide estimates of the evolution of the relative importance of

  20. HIV/AIDS and admission to intensive care units: A comparison of India, Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantharuben Naidoo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In resource-constrained settings and in the context of HIV-infected patients requiring intensive care, value-laden decisions by critical care specialists are often made in the absence of explicit policies and guidelines. These are often based on individual practitioners’ knowledge and experience, which may be subject to bias. We reviewed published information on legislation and practices related to intensive care unit (ICU admission in India, Brazil and South Africa, to assess access to critical care services in the context of HIV. Each of these countries has legal instruments in place to provide their citizens with health services, but they differ in their provision of ICU care for HIV-infected persons. In Brazil, some ICUs have no admission criteria, and this decision vests solely on the ‘availability, and the knowledge and the experience’ of the most experienced ICU specialist at the institution. India has few regulatory mechanisms to ensure ICU care for critically ill patients including HIV-infected persons. SA has made concerted efforts towards non-discriminatory criteria for ICU admissions and, despite the shortage of ICU beds, HIV-infected patients have relatively greater access to this level of care than in other developing countries in Africa, such as Botswana. Policymakers and clinicians should devise explicit policy frameworks to govern ICU admissions in the context of HIV status. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:15-16. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.887

  1. South America Monsoon variability on millennial to multi-centennial time scale during the Holocene in central eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strikis, N. M.; Cruz, F. W.; Cheng, H.; Karmann, I.; Vuille, M.; Edwards, R.; Wang, X.; Paula, M. S.; Novello, V. F.; Auler, A.

    2011-12-01

    A paleoprecipitation reconstruction based on high resolution and well-dated speleothem oxygen isotope records shows that the monsoon precipitation over central eastern Brazil underwent to strong variations on millennial to multi-centennial time-scales during the Holocene. This new record indicates that abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation are correlated to Bond events 6, 5 and 4 and also with 8.2 ky event during the early and mid-Holocene, with a mean amplitude of 1.5 % (PDB). The pacing and structure of such events are general consistent with variations in solar activity suggested by atmospheric Δ14 C records. In the late-Holocene, abrupt events of increase in monsoon precipitation peaking at 3.2, 2.7 and 2.3 ky B.P. are approximately synchronous with periods of low solar minima. In this regard, the most prominent event occurred during the late Holocene occurred at ~2.7 ky B.P. In addition, these positive anomalies of the precipitation recorded in central eastern Brazil are also in good agreement with variations in Titicaca lake level. The good correspondence between the speleothem and marine records imply that the variations in the north Atlantic sea surface temperature is the main forcing for abrupt millennial to multi-centennial precipitations variation within the region under influence of South American Monsoon.

  2. 2003 assessment of PCDDs-PCDFs emissions from the Copesul/South Petrochemical complex located in southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, M.; Allard, J.L. [SNC-Lavalin Environment Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Rangel, C.M.P.; Ribeiro, C.; Dos Santos, S.T.F. [Companhia Petroquimica do Sul, Triunfo (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    COPESUL is the Raw Material and Utilities Central of the South Petrochemical Complex, this, being the most modern industrial facility of its type in Brazil, and the second largest naphtha cracker in the country. Responsible for more than 40% of Brazilian olefins production, it is also among the largest crackers (on the same site) in the world. The majority of COPESUL products are transformed by downstream industries of the Complex into thermoplastics resins, synthetic rubber, styrene and solvents that are widely used in the manufacturing of packing material (food, hygiene, cleaning), electronic appliances, medical and surgical supplies, toys and in the car industries, to be consumed in Brazil and foreign countries. At the request of the state of Rio Grande do Sul Environmental Protection Agency (Fundacao Estadual de Protecao Ambiental or FEPAM), an Environmental Assessment of Priority Pollutants (EAPP) was performed by Copesul at the end of the year 2003. EAPPs have been voluntarily performed at the Petrochemical Complex since 1986 on a basis of once every three year. It is now performed as a requirement which is part of the petrochemical plant operational license. Among the different (organic and inorganic) parameters tested, PCDDs-PCDFs remained a main concern to the local State Agency with regards to the Complex activities and of it's potential impact on the human health and the environment, despite the fact that the Complex does not use nor produce any organochlorinated product.

  3. Morphological diversity of cassava accessions of the south-central mesoregion of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, B W; Barelli, M A A; Hoogerheide, E S S; Corrêa, C L; Delforno, G I S; da Silva, C J

    2017-08-17

    Genetic variability of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Brazil is wide, being this the result of natural and cultural selection during pre- and post-domestication of the species in different environments. Given the number of species of the genus found in the region (38 of a total of 98 species), the central region of Brazil was defined as the primary center of cassava diversity. Therefore, genetic diversity characterization of cassava accessions is fundamental, both for farmers and for plant breeders, because it allows the organization of genetic resources and better utilization of available genetic diversity. This research aims to assess genetic divergence of cassava accessions from the south-central region of the State of Mato Grosso, based on multi-categorical morphological traits. For this purpose, 38 qualitative and quantitative morphological descriptors were used. Genetic diversity was expressed by the genetic similarity index, with subsequent clustering of accessions by the modified Tocher's procedure and UPGMA. Of 38 descriptors, only growth habit of stem showed no variability. Tocher and UPGMA methods were efficient and corroborated on group composition. Both methods were able to group accessions of different localities in distinct group consistency.

  4. Mammal occurrence and roadkill in two adjacent ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado in south-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton C. Cáceres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequencies of mammal roadkill in two adjacent biogeographic ecoregions (Atlantic Forest and Cerrado of Brazil. Mammals were recorded during a seven-year period and over 3,900 km of roads, in order to obtain data for frequencies of species in habitats (sites and frequencies of species killed by cars on roads. Sites (n = 80 within ecoregions (Cerrado, n = 57; Atlantic Forest, n = 23 were searched for records of mammals. Species surveyed in the entire region totaled 33, belonging to nine orders and 16 families. In the Cerrado, 31 species were recorded in habitats; of these, 25 were found dead on roads. In the Atlantic Forest ecoregions, however, we found 21 species in habitats, 16 of which were also found dead on roads. There was no overall significant difference between ecoregions for frequencies of occurrence in habitats or for roadkills, but there were differences between individual species. Hence, anteaters were mostly recorded in the Cerrado ecoregion, whereas caviomorph rodents tended to be more frequent in the Atlantic Forest ecoregion (seen mainly by roadkills. The greater number of species (overall and threatened and the greater abundance of species records in the Cerrado suggest that this ecoregion has a greater biodiversity and is better conserved than the Atlantic Forest ecoregion, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, south-western Brazil.

  5. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Veda e vermifugação como alternativas de manejo para desmama de bezerros Nelore em pastagem nativa do Pantanal Alternative management for weaned nelore calves in the Pantanal's native pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ROBSON BEZERRA SERENO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre março de 1992 e janeiro de 1993 realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito integrado da veda do pasto nativo com o controle estratégico de nematóides gastrintestinais no desempenho corporal de bezerros Nelore pós-desmame no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, MS, Brasil. Dois lotes de animais recém-desmamados aos nove meses foram colocados em invernadas contíguas de pastagens nativas com as mesmas características fisionômicas, que foram vedadas por três meses e meio; a invernada do lote controle foi previamente pastejada por vacas com bezerro ao pé para contaminação. O lote tratado permaneceu com níveis muito baixos de ovos por grama de fezes durante todo o período experimental, e no lote controle foram diminuindo no decorrer do ensaio, terminando semelhantes. No desenvolvimento corporal, observou-se menor perda de peso do lote tratado durante a estação seca e ganho de peso compensatório do lote controle na estação chuvosa subseqüente. Os pesos médios dos dois lotes no final do experimento foram semelhantes.The aim of this study was to investigate the integrated effects of native pastures sealing with strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes on body development of weaned Nellore calves, studied between March 1992 and January 1993 in the Pantanal region, Brazil. Two homogeneous groups of weanling calves were put on contiguous paddocks of native pastures with the same physiognomic characteristics and sealed for three and a half months. The paddock where the non-treated group was put, was previously used by cows that were rearing a calf for contamination of the pasture. The treated group remained with low levels of eggs per gram of feces (EGF during the whole experimental period. In the non-treated group, the EGF diminished during the assay, ending with similar levels of the treated group. On body development, it was observed a lower body weight loss of the treated group during the dry season and a

  7. Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Romero-Esquivel, Luis Guillermo; Segalla-Pizzolatti, Bruno; Luiz-Sens, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Bank filtration (BF) consists in obtaining drinking water from wells in alluvial aquifers or other unconsolidated deposits hydraulically connected with a surface water source. The possibility of applying this technique was evaluated in a pilot scale on the banks of the Lagoa do Peri lagoon, Brazil. Observation and grain size analysis showed that the bottom of the lagoon and the adjacent aquifer have sandy texture. In addition, tests of constant head permeameter, standpipe falling head and a p...

  8. Soil quality assessment of rice production systems in South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Brussaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil capacity to function, can be quantified by indicators based on physical, chemical and biological properties. Maintaining soil quality at a desirable level in the rice cropping system is a very complex issue due to the nature of the production systems used. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important agricultural activities in the region. The study presented here was conducted with the following objectives: (i) ...

  9. International competitivity, productive flexibility and social integration in the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenta, Margareth de Castro Afeche

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of the 80’s, Brazil, through an import replacement process, contrived to develop a modern and diversified industrial park. After the 90’s, the Brazilian State starts to play a significant role in the submission of the national economy to designs of international financial capital, by adopting fiscal, exchange and credit policies that resulted in the fragilization of the productive sector. The indiscriminate opening of the internal market to imported products and loss of entre...

  10. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by 137 Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  11. "Shark is the man!": ethnoknowledge of Brazil's South Bahia fishermen regarding shark behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Filho, Márcio Luiz Vargas; Schiavetti, Alexandre; Alarcon, Daniela Trigueirinho; Costa-Neto, Eraldo Medeiros

    2014-07-03

    Fishermen's knowledge is a source of indispensable information in decision-making processes related to efforts to stimulate the management and conservation of fishing resources, especially in developing countries. This study analyzed the knowledge of fishermen from three municipal areas of Bahia in northeast Brazil regarding the behavior repertoire of sharks and the possible influence that these perceptions may have on the inclination to preserve these animals. This is a pioneering study on the ethnobiological aspects of elasmobranchs in Brazil. Open, semi-structured interviews with shark fishing specialists were conducted between September 2011 and October 2012. The interviews addressed the fishermen's profile, fishing techniques and knowledge about sharks, focusing on the behaviours exhibited by sharks. The data were analysed with quantitative approach and conducted with the use of descriptive statistical techniques. Sixty-five fishermen were interviewed. They descend from the rafting subculture of Brazil's northeast, which has historically been disregarded by public policies addressing the management and conservation of fishing resources. The fishing fleet involved in shark fishing includes rafts, fishing boats and lobster boats equipped with fishing lines, gillnets, longlines and "esperas". The informers classified sharks' behaviour repertoire into 19 ethological categories, related especially to feeding, reproduction, and social and migratory behaviours. Because they identify sharks as predators, the detailed recognition of the behaviours exhibited is crucial both for an efficient catch and to avoid accidents. Therefore, this knowledge is doubly adaptive as it contributes to safer, more lucrative fishing. A feeling of respect for sharks predominates, since informers recognize the ecological role of these animals in marine ecosystems, attributing them the status of leader (or "the man") in the sea. This work demonstrates the complexity and robustness of

  12. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  13. Analysis of the landscape complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, C S; Gamarra, R M; Mioto, C L; Silva, N M; Conceição Filho, A P; Pott, A

    2018-05-01

    This is the first report on analysis of habitat complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal wetland. The Pantanal encompasses a peculiar mosaic of environments, being important to evaluate and monitor this area concerning conservation of biodiversity. Our objective was to indirectly measure the habitat complexity and heterogeneity of the mosaic forming the sub-regions of the Pantanal, by means of remote sensing. We obtained free images of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the sensor MODIS and calculated the mean value (complexity) and standard deviation (heterogeneity) for each sub-region in the years 2000, 2008 and 2015. The sub-regions of Poconé, Canoeira, Paraguai and Aquidauana presented the highest values of complexity (mean NDVI), between 0.69 and 0.64 in the evaluated years. The highest horizontal heterogeneity (NDVI standard deviation) was observed in the sub-region of Tuiuiú, with values of 0.19 in the years 2000 and 2015, and 0.21 in the year 2008. We concluded that the use of NDVI to estimate landscape parameters is an efficient tool for assessment and monitoring of the complexity and heterogeneity of the Pantanal habitats, applicable in other regions.

  14. Conserving the grassland Important Bird Areas (IBAs) of southern South America: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian S. Di Giacomo; Santiago Krapovickas

    2005-01-01

    In the southern part of South America, knowledge about bird species distribution is still not used as a tool for land use planning and conservation priority-setting. BirdLife International’s Important Bird Areas (IBA) Program is an appropriate vehicle for analyzing existing information about birds, and to generate new data where necessary. IBA inventories...

  15. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  16. [Microbial etiology and susceptibility of community urinary tract infections during pregnancy in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkel, Daniela Fraguas; Dallé, Jessica; Antonello, Vicente Sperb

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common conditions during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of germs and the antimicrobial susceptibility profile in urine culture isolates from pregnant patients treated at a tertiary maternity hospital in Porto Alegre, Brazil. A cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study was carried out at Hospital Fêmina, a leading institution in prenatal, birth and postnatal healthcare in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A total of 482 microbial community results were analyzed out of 1,558 positive urine cultures of pregnant women in all gestational ages treated at Fêmina Hospital between January 2007 and July 2013. The susceptibility pattern presented in this research shows that the choice for UTI treatment during pregnancy should be nitrofurantoin (for uncomplicated infections) or second-generation cephalosporins such as cefuroxime (for uncomplicated and complicated infections), over ampicillin, first-generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Empirical treatment for UTI in pregnancy should be started according to the susceptibility patterns described in the literature and re-analyzed after the results of the urine culture.

  17. Dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren: a population-based cross-sectional study in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luana Severo; Brusius, Carolina Doege; Damé-Teixeira, Nailê; Maltz, Marisa; Susin, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    To assess the epidemiology and risk indicators for dental erosion among 12-year-old schoolchildren in South Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using a representative sample of 12-year-old schoolchildren (n = 1,528). Dental erosion was recorded according to the Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) index. Parents answered questions on socio-economic status, brushing frequency and general health. Schoolchildren answered questions on dietary habits. Anthropometric data were collected. Statistical analysis included logistic and Poisson regression models. The prevalence of dental erosion was 15% [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.6-16.5], being mainly mild erosion. Boys [odds ratio (OR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.17-2.10], private school attendees (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.01-2.06) and schoolchildren reporting the daily consumption of soft drinks (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.17-21.71) were more likely to have at least one tooth with dental erosion. Gender [boys, rate ratio (RR) = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.28-2.17], type of school (private, RR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.53-2.35), the consumption of soft drinks (sometimes: RR = 5.27, 95% CI: 1.46-19.05; daily: RR = 6.82, 95% CI: 1.39-33.50) and the daily consumption of lemon (RR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-2.00) were significantly associated with the number of affected surfaces. The present study found a moderate prevalence of dental erosion among young schoolchildren, with mild erosion being the most prevalent condition. Socio demographic variables and dietary habits were associated with dental erosion in this population. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Impact of charcoal waste application on the soil organic matter content and composition of an Haplic Cambisol from South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Leal, Otávio; Pinheiro Dick, Deborah; Cylene Lombardi, Kátia; Gonçalves Maciel, Vanessa

    2014-05-01

    In some regions in Brazil, charcoal is usually applied to the soil with the purpose to improve its fertility and its organic carbon (SOC) content. In Brazil, the use of charcoal waste from steel industry with agronomic purposes represents also an alternative and sustainable fate for this material. In this context, the objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of Eucalyptus charcoal waste application on the SOC content and on the soil organic matter (SOM) composition. Increasing doses of charcoal (0, 10, 20 and 40 Mg ha-1) were applied to an Haplic Cambisol, in Irati, South-Brazil. Charcoal was initially applied on the soil surface, and then it was incorporated at 10 cm with a harrow. Soil undisturbed and disturbed samples (four replicates) were collected in September 2011 (1 y and 9 months) after charcoal incorporation. Four soil depths were evaluated (0-5, 5-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm) and each replicate was composed by three subsamples collected within each plot. The soil samples were air dried, passed through a 9.51 mm sieve and thereafter through a 2.00 mm sieve. The SOC content and total N were quantified by dry combustion. The SOM was concentrated with fluoridric acid 10% and then the SOM composition was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis along the soil profile. The main impact of charcoal application occurred at the 0-5 cm layer of the area treated with the highest dose: SOC content increased in 15.5 g kg-1 in comparison to the soil without charcoal application. The intermediary doses also increased the SOC content, but the differences were not significant. No differences for N content were found in this soil depth. Further results were observed in the 10-20 cm soil depth, where the highest dose increased the SOC content and N content. Furthermore, this treatment increased the recalcitrance of the SOM, mainly at the 0-5 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers. No differences between doses of charcoal application were found in the 20-30 cm soil depth, suggesting

  19. Abnormal evening vertical plasma drift and effects on ESF and EIA over Brazil-South Atlantic sector during the 30 October 2003 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, M. A.; de Paula, E. R.; Batista, I. S.; Reinisch, B. W.; Matsuoka, M. T.; Camargo, P. O.; Veliz, O.; Denardini, C. M.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Kherani, E. A.; de Siqueira, P. M.

    2008-07-01

    Equatorial F region vertical plasma drifts, spread F and anomaly responses, in the south American longitude sector during the superstorm of 30 October 2003, are analyzed using data from an array of instruments consisting of Digisondes, a VHF radar, GPS TEC and scintillation receivers in Brazil, and a Digisonde and a magnetometer in Jicamarca, Peru. Prompt penetrating eastward electric field of abnormally large intensity drove the F layer plasma up at a velocity ˜1200 ms-1 during post dusk hours in the eastern sector over Brazil. The equatorial anomaly was intensified and expanded poleward while the development of spread F/plasma bubble irregularities and GPS signal scintillations were weaker than their quiet time intensity. Significantly weaker F region response over Jicamarca presented a striking difference in the intensity of prompt penetration electric field between Peru and eastern longitudes of Brazil. The enhanced post dusk sector vertical drift over Brazil is attributed to electro-dynamics effects arising energetic particle precipitation in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). These extraordinary results and their longitudinal differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  20. CO2 emission reduction potential of large-scale energy efficiency measures in power generation from fossil fuels in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boehme, Benn J.; Krey, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We quantify the theoretical potential for energy-efficiency CDM projects using best available technology in coal, natural gas or oil fuelled power generation in China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and South Africa, looking at new power plants or retrofit measures. We then discuss the likelihood of the potential emission reductions materialising under CDM. Our results are very sensitive to choices of baseline and project efficiencies and the level of electricity generation from potential emission ...

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids in baked freshwater fish from south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, A D; Visentainer, J V; Matsushita, M; de Souza, N E

    1997-03-01

    Lipid and fatty acid levels in the edible flesh of 17 baked freshwater fish from Brazil's southern region were determined. Analyses of fatty acids methyl esters were performed by gas chromatography. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the predominant saturated fatty acid, accouting for 50-70% of total saturated acids. Linoleic acid (C18:2 omega 6), linolenic acid (C18:3 omega 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 omega 3) were the predominant polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA). The data revealed that species such as barbado, corvina, pintado, and truta were good sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that most freshwater fish examined were good sources of PUFA-omega 3.

  2. Geochemical evaluation of marginal basins in the south of Bahia state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaglianone, P.C.; Trindade, L.A.F.; Nascimento, M.M. do

    1987-01-01

    Geochemical analyses were performed on more than 700 rock samples and 4 oil samples, from Mucuri, Cumuruxatiba and Jequitinhonha basins, offshore Bahia state, Brazil. The methods employed in this study includes the evaluation of organic carbon contents, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, vitrinite reflectance, carbon isotopes, assessment of oils and extrats by liquid and gas chromatography and gas chromatography - spectrometry. Three main source rock systems have been identified in offshore Bahia: the Mucuri shales from Rio da Serra and Aratu Stages lower Neocomian related to a lacustrine fresh water environment; the Jiquia shales (Upper Neocomian) deposited in a lacustrine saline water environment, and the Alagoas Shales related to an evaporitic environment of Aptian age. (author) [pt

  3. Analysis of landscapes of the south coast in São Paulo State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Renê Lepiani; Oliveira, Regina Célia de

    2012-01-01

    The South Coast of São Paulo is structured in two main areas morphostructural: Atlantic Orogenic Belt and Cenozoic Sedimentary Basins. In this area are found various morphologies, that are in the form of trims topographic scarps, valleys carved, organization of major river network, the sharp convex tops in the Atlantic Forest domain extensive plain with the presence of unconsolidated deposits and important environmental systems, such as those related to mangroves. The landscape in which organ...

  4. Hydraulically Induced Seismicity in South-Eastern Brazil Linked to Water Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convers, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    While hydraulic stimulus on seismic activity is most commonly associated with hydraulic fracturing processes, we find in SE Brazil a rare case of seismicity influenced by hydraulic stimulation linked to seasonal rain and water wells in a farming area. These are thought to be the main factors influencing the seasonal seismicity activity in Jurupema, a farming town located in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. With temporary seismic station deployments during 2016 and 2017, we analyze the seismicity in this area, its temporal and spatial distribution, and its association with the drilling of ground water wells in this particular area. In a region where water wells are often drilled to provide irrigation for farming, these are often perforated down to about 100 m depth, penetrating below the uppermost sandstone rock layer ( 50 m) into a fractured basaltic rock layer, reaching the confined aquifer within it. While the wells are constantly pumped during the dry season, during the course of the rainy season (when these are not being used), a possible infiltration into the confined basaltic aquifer, from both the rainwater and the upper sandstone aquifer, adds changes to the pore pressure of the fractured rock, and modifies the tectonic pre-stress conditions, to facilitate stress release mechanisms in pre-existing faults and cracks. With our temporary seismic station deployments, we not only examine the seismicity in this region during both 2016 and 2017, but we additionally compare its characteristics to the nearby Bebedouro case in an apparent induced seismic case of analogous source, and seismic activity with magnitudes up to 2.9 occurring between 2005 and 2010.

  5. Preliminary chemical composition study of pre-colonial ceramics from Pantanal Sul Mato-Grossense by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felicissimo, M.P.; Munita, C.S.; Peixoto, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Trace element concentration of potsherds from two archaeological sites was measured by neutron activation analysis. The archaeological sites are located in the flood plains of Paraguay River in the heart of South America in a singular area of natural preservation called Pantanal. Archaeological studies in this region began in 1990, with the classification of c.a. 200 sites. These archaeological sites present a large amount of ceramic material not only on the surface but also along a depth profile, where the most antique dating is 2.640 B.P. Discriminant Analysis was applied in the data treatment in order to obtain more conclusive information. The measured elements were Na, Lu, U, Yb, La, Th, Cr, Cs, Sc, Rb, Fe, Eu, Ce, Hf, and Tb. The composition analysis results enable to attribute a significant distinction to potsherds coming from the archaeological site MSCP- 71 and MS-CP-61. Both sites were characterized as long term settlements of great importance to the study of the ancient population that inhabited this area. (author)

  6. Tectonothermal events of southeastern Brazil: Implications for consolidation of the South American platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackspacher, P.C.; Fetter, A.H; Dantas, E.L; Hadler Neto, J.C; Ribeiro, L.F.B; Tello, C.E.S

    2001-01-01

    The tectonothermal history of the South American Platform and it consolidation have to be analyzed considering different tectonic and stabilization stages. For that propose we have studied the Precambrian basement southwest of the city of Sao Paulo, which was consolidated and deformed during the Brasiliano Orogeny and later affected by Phanerozoic tectonics. Geological data from a northwest/southeast transect between Sao Roque and Jundiai - SP, were obtained through U/Pb, K/Ar and Ar/Ar mineral and whole rock studies. Metamorphic PT values, relation of brittle-ductile zone of felsic crustal rocks and fission track ages were also obtained. Such data were plotted on a temperature-time plot representing a preliminary overview of the geological evolution of this part of the South American platform. Recently dated highly deformed metaplutons from the Ribeira Belt suggest that convergence that preceded collision was underway by around 650 Ma. Low-grade (rarely reaching 4000 o C) metasediments and metavolcanics of the Sao Roque Group, interpreted to be a backarc basin that formed during active Brasiliano collision, yield a crystallization age of 627 Ma (Hackspacher et al., 2000). Syn-collisional granitoids with U/Pb zircon and monazite ages of 625 Ma (Janasi, 1999) provide more constraints on the timing of active collision. Temperatures of these calc-alkaline rocks can be considered around 650 o C. U/Pb zircon and monazite ages between 610 and 595 Ma obtained igneous bodies associated with transpressional tectonics place age constraints on the transition to a transpressional regime, with crystallization temperature around 580 o C. Related strike-slip shear zones in brittle-ductile transition, present K-Ar ages on biotite and hornblende between 600 and 580 Ma. The temperature interval for these greenschist grade shear zones is estimated between 450 and 300 o C. Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) near the Jundiuvira Shear Zone present a corrected Fission Track Age of 477

  7. Neolasioptera pantaneira, a new species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) associated with Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Catian, G; Leme, F M

    2017-03-01

    A new species of gall midge that induces stem galls on Aeschynomene denticulata (Fabaceae) is described based on material collected in Pantanal (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). This species is unique among the Brazilian congeners in having spatula with three convex teeth, cruciate, with defined anterolateral extensions, four lateral papillae on each side of the spatula, and three pairs of terminal papillae (larva), four-segmented palpi (adult), 17 flagellomeres (female), ovipositor about 11 times length of seventh tergite.

  8. Triple therapy in chronic hepatitis C: initial series in a public health program in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo R L; Fonseca, Carla Bortolin; Koch, Vivian W; Souza, Amanda M; Feltrin, Alberi A; Tovo, Cristiane Valle

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C has great impact on world's health. Current therapy for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus includes protease inhibitors boceprevir and telaprevir, associated to standard therapy - peginterferon alfa + ribavirin. There are no published data in Brazil on the results of this new therapy, and it is interesting an evaluation of what was accomplished up to this moment. Objectives To evaluate virologic response to triple therapy, as well as the safety profile and tolerability. This study is a clinical series of patients receiving triple therapy for C hepatitis in a single center of a Public Health System of South Brasil. Out of the 121 patients that initiated the triple therapy, the first patients that finished the treatment and evaluated the sustained virological response (24 weeks after the end of treatment) were included. Twenty four genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C monoinfected patients were included. Nineteen (79.2%) patients had been previously treated. Thirteen (54.2%) patients were cirrhotic. Nineteen (79.2%) patients completed the planned therapy. By the end of the treatment, 14 (58.3%) out of 24 patients had undetectable viral load. Sustained virologic response occurred in 12 (50.0%) out of 24 patients, 07 (58.3%) in telaprevir group and 05 (41.7%) in boceprevir group. Out of 24 patients under triple therapy, 58% (n=14) presented anemia. In conclusion, despite the small number of patients treated with triple therapy evaluated in the current study, it possibly reflects the population under this therapy in real-life.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  10. Population genetic relationships between Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties occurring sympatrically and allopatrically in different ecosystems in south-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Marcelo Mattos; Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido; Billot, Claire; Torres, Roseli Buzanelli; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Species delimitation can be problematic, and recently diverged taxa are sometimes viewed as the extremes of a species' continuum in response to environmental conditions. Using population genetic approaches, this study assessed the relationship between two Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties, which occur sympatrically and allopatrically in the landscape of south-east Brazil, where intermediate types are also found. In total, 376 individuals from nine populations in four different ecosystems were sampled, and nine microsatellite markers were used to assess the relative effects of the ecosystems and varieties on the distribution of genetic diversity among populations of this species. As a by-product of this study, several PCR products with more than two alleles were observed. The possibility that extra bands represent non-specific amplification or PCR artefacts was discarded by sequencing a sample of these bands. We suggest that (partial) genome duplication in C. sylvestris most probably explains this phenomenon, which may be a key factor in the differentiation of the two taxa, as it was markedly more frequent in one of the varieties. AMOVA indicated that approx. 22 % of the total genetic diversity was found between the two varieties. Bayesian analysis identified varieties and ecosystems as evolutionary units, rather than the individual populations sampled. The results are in agreement with field observations and support the recognition of two varieties, as well as documenting the occurrence of hybridization between them.

  11. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations. Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Fang [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the Plus Five countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the Basic Four (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries. (author)

  12. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  13. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S. J.G.; Holanda, J. N.F., [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  14. Microbiological quality assessment of sand and water from three selected beaches of South Coast, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, K C; Hachich, E M; Sato, M I Z; Di Bari, M; Coelho, M C L S; Matté, M H; Lamparelli, C C; Razzolini, M T P

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the sanitary quality of water, and wet and dry sand from three beaches located in the South Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil, selected taking into account the frequency of tourists and the water quality (good, fair and poor). Thirty-six water samples each of wet and dry sand and seawater were collected monthly over a period of one year and analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci), presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and dermatophytes. The results revealed FIB concentrations more elevated in dry sand followed by wet sand and water. P. aeruginosa and presumptive S. aureus were detected with a similar frequency in water and sand samples, but maximum concentrations and geometric means were higher in dry sand. C. albicans was detected only in water samples whereas the dermatophyte Microsporum sp. was isolated exclusively from dry and wet sand samples. This evaluation showed also that the environment had a significant influence on P. aeruginosa but not on presumptive S. aureus concentrations. According to threshold values proposed in the literature for E. coli and enterococci dry sand densities, none of the beaches would be considered of sufficient quality for recreational activities.

  15. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Fang

    2010-01-01

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  16. Paleomagnetism of volcanic rocks from the Northeast of Brazil and the time of the opening of the South Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, S.D.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the first part of this paper palaeomagnetic and rock magnetism investigations were developed in volcanic samples from the Northeast of Brazil. The age of the samples spans the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. To accomplish this task four areas were studied and a total of 495 samples from 58 sites were analysed. A portable drilling machine with 2.5 em core diameter was used to collect the samples. The orientation of the samples were obtained by means of a magnetic compass, and a clinometer. The analysis of the magnetic minerals of these samples was done by thermomagnetic curves and by X-ray diffraction. In most cases the magnetic phase in the rocks is mainly titanomagnetite with poor titanium content. Maghemite and sometimes hematite, usually a product of weathering, did not obscure the initial thermoremanent magnetization of these rocks. The second part of this paper deals with the determination of the time of the opening of the South Atlantic ocean by means of palaeomagnetic data. In this paper, however, instead of using the polar wandering paths of the continents (the usual method) statistical tests were applied that give the probability that a certain configuration for the two continents be consistent or not with the palaeomagnetic data for a chosen period. (author)

  17. Physical activity and screen time in children and adolescents in a medium size town in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Loch, Mathias Roberto

    2016-09-01

    To analyze the associations between sex and age with behaviour related to physical activity practice and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study with 480 (236 boys) subjects enrolled in a public school in the city of Londrina, in the south of Brazil, aged 8-17 years. Measures of physical activity, sports practice and screen times were obtained using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare variables between boys and girls. The Chi squared test was used for categorical analysis and Poisson regression was used to identify prevalence. Girls (69.6%; PR=1.05 [0.99-1.12]) spent more time with sedentary behaviour than boys (62.2%). Boys (80%; PR=0.95 [0.92-0.98]) were more physically active than girls (91%). Older students aged 13-17 showed a higher prevalence of physical inactivity (91.4%; PR=1.06 [1.02-1.10]) and time spent with sedentary behaviour of ≥2h/day (71.8%; PR=0.91 [0.85-0.97]) when compared to younger peers aged 8-12 (78.7 and 58.5%, respectively). The prevalence of physical inactivity was higher in girls. Older students spent more screen time in comparison to younger students. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. [Risk indicators associated with the consumption of illicit drugs by schoolchildren in a community in the south of Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Zanatta, Fabrício Batistin; Costenaro, Regina Santini; Rangel, Rosiane Filipin; Vidal, Janice; Kruel, Cristina Saling; de Mattos, Karen Mallo

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to identify the risk indicators associated with the consumption of illicit drugs by schoolchildren in public schools in a community in the south of Brazil. This is a non-experimental cross-sectional study conducted with 535 students of primary schoolchildren from six public schools. Data were collected using a questionnaire between October 2011 and March 2012. The results were presented by simple and relative distribution of frequency and odds ratio (OR) and the 95% reliability intervals were calculated to verify the association between the dependent and independent variables. Multivariate analysis was also performed using the question "have you ever used illicit drugs?" Univariate analysis revealed an association between family income, color, period in which the child studied, failure to pass annual tests, use of methods of prevention, smoking habit and knowing someone who uses drugs with the fact of having experimented with the use of illicit drugs. After multivariate analysis, the smoking habit was the only indicator significantly associated with the question of having made use of illicit drugs. The results indicate that the smoking habit is an important indicator of the predictive risk for the use of illicit drugs.

  19. Interactions between sedimentary evolution and prehistoric human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Paulo César Fonseca Giannini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the human occupation in the south-central coast of Santa Catarina State, in Brazil, the articulation between natural and anthropic processes modeled a strongly domesticated landscape, shaped by the massive construction of shell mounds of monumental dimensions and millenarian permanence. In the coastal plain between Passagem da Barra (Laguna District and Figueirinha Lake (Jaguaruna District, 76 sambaquis were mapped, 48 of which have been dated. Systematic site surveys and radiocarbon datings allowed identifying patterns of spatial distribution in sambaquis according to the sedimentary context at the time of construction, stratigraphy and age. Based on these criteria, the following groups were recognized: five geological-geomorphological contexts of location; three stratigraphic patterns; and four phases of sambaqui occupation in the area, based on site number and type of constructive pattern. The model for sedimentary evolution and time-space distribution of sambaquis shows that sites were built in already emerged areas and that inland sites, away from the lagoons, may have not be preserved or they are not exposed due to the continuous sedimentary filling that characterized this region after the maximum Holocene transgression. The crossing of data, here proposed, shows the importance of integral approaches between archaeology and geosciences for the study of landscape evolution.

  20. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

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    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  1. Stock market development and economic growth of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South African (BRICS Nations: An empirical research

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    Sunday Ogbeide

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BRICS connotes five main emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa are particularly distinguished as nations experiencing expanded market opportunities and countries discovered to be at stages of newly advanced economic development. This paper assesses the stock market development and economic growth in these BRICS nations. In doing this, quarterly time series data from 1994 to 2014 was sourced from World Bank Indicators. The Panel Generalized method based on the fixed effect estimation was employed to determine how stock market development affects the economic growth of BRICS. Diagnostic tests were conducted to ascertain the robustness and stability of the regression results after carrying out the unit root calculations. The findings reveal that stock market development exerts significant impact on the economic growth. The study further reveals that there was a positive correlation between stock market development indicators and BRICS’s economic growth. It is therefore proposed that the weaknesses of each of the BRICS member countries should be taken as policy focus and strategies necessary to strengthen them should be swiftly applied by their respective governments.

  2. Understanding developing country stances on post-2012 climate change negotiations: Comparative analysis of Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong Fang, E-mail: rongfang98@hotmail.co [Laboratory on International Law and Regulation, School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, San Diego, 92093 (United States); Center for Industrial Development and Environmental Governance, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    An essential issue in future climate negotiations is how to bring developing countries on board. This paper proposes and applies the two-level interest-based model to analyze the factors that affect the likely stances of the 'Plus Five' countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa) on international climate negotiations. This study finds mitigation capability to be a crucial factor which consists of at least such sub-factors as per capita income, energy endowment, and economic structure, while ecological vulnerability does not seem to play an important role which includes reductions in agricultural outputs, sea-level rise, climate-related natural disasters, and others. The paper proposes six options in an ascending order of stringency that the Plus Five are likely to adopt. The paper suggests that the 'Basic Four' (the Plus Five excluding Mexico), particularly China and India, are less likely to adopt a voluntary commitment to an emissions cap on the national economy in the near future than Mexico, which has the highest mitigation capability among all five. The Basic Four are likely to adopt more stringent climate polices with increasing mitigation capabilities, suggesting the importance of effective international financial and technology transfer mechanisms and further tighten emission reduction targets from developed countries.

  3. Waste electrical and electronic equipment management and Basel Convention compliance in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sadhan Kumar; Debnath, Biswajit; Baidya, Rahul; De, Debashree; Li, Jinhui; Ghosh, Sannidhya Kumar; Zheng, Lixia; Awasthi, Abhishek Kumar; Liubarskaia, Maria A; Ogola, Jason S; Tavares, André Neiva

    2016-08-01

    Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations account for one-quarter of the world's land area, having more than 40% of the world's population, and only one-quarter of the world gross national income. Hence the study and review of waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems in BRICS nations is of relevance. It has been observed from the literature that there are studies available comparing two or three country's waste electrical and electronic equipment status, while the study encompassing the BRICS nations considering in a single framework is scant. The purpose of this study is to analyse the existing waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems and status of compliance to Basel convention in the BRICS nations, noting possible lessons from matured systems, such as those in the European Union EU) and USA. The study introduced a novel framework for a waste electrical and electronic equipment management system that may be adopted in BRICS nations and revealed that BRICS countries have many similar types of challenges. The study also identified some significant gaps with respect to the management systems and trans-boundary movement of waste electrical and electronic equipment, which may attract researchers for further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Santa Fé Group, central Brazil: Implications for the late Paleozoic apparent polar wander path for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Daniele; Ernesto, Marcia; Rocha-Campos, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto

    2009-02-01

    Paleomagnetic and rockmagnetic data are reported for the Floresta Formation (Santa Fé Group) of the Sanfranciscana Basin, central Brazil. This formation represents the Permo-Carboniferous glacial record of the basin and comprises the Brocotó (diamictites and flow diamictites), Brejo do Arroz (red sandstones and shales with dropstones and invertebrate trails), and Lavado (red sandstones) members, which crop out near the cities of Santa Fé de Minas and Canabrava, Minas Gerais State. Both Brejo do Arroz and Lavado members were sampled in the vicinities of the two localities. Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations of 268 samples from 76 sites revealed reversed components of magnetization in all samples in accordance with the Permo-Carboniferous Reversed Superchron. The magnetic carriers are magnetite and hematite with both minerals exhibiting the same magnetization component, suggesting a primary origin for the remanence. We use the high-quality paleomagnetic pole for the Santa Fé Group (330.9°E 65.7°S; N = 60; α95 = 4.1°; k = 21) in a revised late Carboniferous to early Triassic apparent polar wander path for South America. On the basis of this result it is shown that an early Permian Pangea A-type fit is possible if better determined paleomagnetic poles become available.

  5. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

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    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  6. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  7. Determination of uranium and thorium activity concentrations using activation analysis in beach sands from extreme south Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Oliveira, Arno H.; Silva, Mario R.S.; Penna, Rodrigo; Santos, Talita O.; Pereira, Claubia; Rocha, Zildete; Menezes, Maria Angela B.C.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of natural radioactivity are the major cause of external exposure to gamma radiation. Thus, the determination of activity concentration of primordial radionuclides, such as 238 U and 232 Th, in soils, sand and rock is of basic importance to estimate the radiation levels to which man is directly or indirectly exposed. In order to study the process of specific activity of 238 U and 232 Th, beaches sands samples were collected from eight different locations in extreme south of Bahia state from Brazil. The samples have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses and for determination of thorium concentrations and delayed neutrons analysis for determination of uranium. The mean specific activity for 238 U and 232 Th was higher in Cumuruxatiba than in others locations studied. Alcobaca and Caraiva also presented high values. The concentrations of these radionuclides were compared with typical world values and Cumuruxatiba have specific activity higher than the others locations, 2,984 Bq/kg maximum value for 238 U and 1,8450 Bq/kg maximum value for 232 Th and activity concentrations in Cumuruxatiba are higher in black sand than in no black sand, suggesting presence of monazite.(author)

  8. Goals and means of a sustainable energy development in Brazil and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, J R [Secretariat of Science and Technology, Federal Government of Brazil (BR)

    1991-07-01

    The discussion presented in this paper deals with the amount of energy which will be necessary to guarantee South American development in a sustainable way. This issue must be considered as a compromise between the supply and demand market and significant efforts in energy planning will be necessary if a better future shall be expected for the population. We assume that 1.5 kW of energy per capita (commercial and non commercial) can be available in the region by the year 2010 and that such energy will be used with better efficiency than today. As a consequence, the average South-American's standard of living is equvalent to the standard of living of the average Western European citizen of the 1970's. Our energy forecast implies a small energy growth rate as compared with historical values for the region, but even so the amount of money required for this investment probably will not be available if a business-as-usual energy supply program will be followed. The possibility of some less cost-intensive opportunities to provide more energy will be discussed. (author).

  9. Brucella spp. in equines slaughtered in the south region of Brazil

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    R.F. Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bacteria of the genus Brucella are widespread in many countries. These microorganisms can infect humans and many wild and domestic animal species. These bacteria have zoonotic potential, and can cause economic and public health problems since they can be transmitted by direct contact with sick animals, through consumption of contaminated milk, raw meat and its derivatives (Soares et al., 2015. Brucellosis is considered a chronic evolving disease, unusual in horses, predominantly caused by Brucella abortus. However, it is not characterized by reproductive disorders in horses, but primarily by abscess in the cervical region, bursa, tendons, and joints. Transmission is likely to occur via ingestion of contaminated water and pastures, especially in areas endemic for bovine brucellosis (Ribeiro et al., 2008. The slaughterhouse is a strategic point for obtaining information about the animal and animal products, edible or not. This study investigated the presence of anti-Brucella spp. immunoglobulins in the serum samples from horses slaughtered in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil, to estimate the frequency of Brucella spp. antibodies and determine the spatial distribution of the cases.

  10. Metazoan parasites of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in Patos lagoon, extreme south of Brazil

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    Gabriela Lopes Rassier

    Full Text Available Abstract This study has evaluated the parasitic fauna of 79 pearl cichlids (Geophagus brasiliensis from the estuary of Patos Lagoon (31° 57' S and 52° 06' W, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during the months of May and June in 2011 and 2012. All the hosts analyzed were infected with at least one species of parasite. A total of eleven metazoa were identified in 459 specimens collected. The trematode Austrodiplostomum compactum (34.2% and ergasilids Ergasilus lizae (32.9% and Gauchergasilus lizae (32.9% were the most prevalent species. The trematodes Thometrema overstreeti and Posthodiplostomum sp. had significantly higher prevalence in fish longer than 20 cm. The sex of the host had no effect on parasite prevalence and abundance. Pearl cichlids are registered as a new host for the trematodes Lobatostoma sp., Homalometron pseudopallidum and Thometrema overstreeti, for the ergasilids Ergasilus lizae and Gauchergasilus euripedesi and for the argulid Argulus spinolosus. The crustacean E. lizae is recorded in Rio Grande do Sul for the first time.

  11. Araucaria growth response to solar and climate variability in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Alan; Klausner, Virginia; Rojahn da Silva, Iuri; Ojeda-González, Arian; Lorensi, Caren

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the Sun-Earth-climate relationship is studied using tree growth rings of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) O. Kuntze collected in the city of Passo Fundo, located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil. These samples were previously studied by Rigozo et al. (2008); however, their main interest was to search for the solar periodicities in the tree-ring width mean time series without interpreting the rest of the periodicities found. The question arises as to what are the drivers related to those periodicities. For this reason, the classical method of spectral analysis by iterative regression and wavelet methods are applied to find periodicities and trends present in each tree-ring growth, in Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and in annual mean temperature anomaly between the 24 and 44° S. In order to address the aforementioned question, this paper discusses the correlation between the growth rate of the tree rings with temperature and SOI. In each tree-ring growth series, periods between 2 and 7 years were found, possibly related to the El Niño/La Niña phenomena, and a ˜ 23-year period was found, which may be related to temperature variation. These novel results might represent the tree-ring growth response to local climate conditions during its lifetime, and to nonlinear coupling between the Sun and the local climate variability responsible to the regional climate variations.

  12. Checklist comparison and dominance patterns of the fish fauna at Taim Wetland, South Brazil

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    Alexandre M. Garcia

    Full Text Available Taim Hydrological System is a unique subtropical wetland in southern Brazil harboring an exceptional biological diversity. In 1978, an ecological reserve was established to protect part of this area from increasing anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Fishes have been poorly investigated in this system. Based on a multi-gear sampling study encompassing several years (2001-2005, and on comparisons with previous fish inventories, we provide an up-to-date species list of fishes occurring in the Taim Wetland. In addition, we made the first preliminary description of fish dominance patterns found in the main lakes of the system (Flores, Nicola, Jacaré and Mangueira. Checklist comparison resulted in 62 fish species distributed in 24 families, with Characidae (19 species and Cichlidae (7 showing the highest species richness. Six species are cited for the first time in the reserve: Trachelyopterus lucenai (Auchenipteridae, Hoplosternum littorale (Callichthyidae, Rineloricaria cadeae (Loricariidae, Eigenmannia trilineata (Sternopygidae, Odontesthes mirinensis and O. perugiae (Atherinopsidae. Apparently, the black catfish T. lucenai invaded the system in the last decade and became one of the dominant species in the pelagic waters. Although differences in gears hindered direct comparisons, differences in species composition and dominance patterns between shallow margins and pelagic waters of lakes seem to occur in the lakes. A more diverse assemblage dominated by small fishes ( 15 cm seemed to dominate in pelagic waters.

  13. Dioctophyme renale (Nematoda: Enoplida in domestic dogs and cats in the extreme south of Brazil

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    Josaine Cristina da Silva Rappeti

    Full Text Available Abstract Dioctophyme renale is a zoonotic nematode that parasites the kidneys of wild and domestic carnivores, and it has been reported frequently in Brazil. The aim here was to register the number of cases of dogs and cats diagnosed with dioctophymosis by necropsy (1981 to 2014 and ultrasound examination (2010 to 2015 in Pelotas-RS. In this context, a survey was conducted on dioctophymosis cases diagnosed at the Veterinary Pathology Laboratory (LPV and Veterinary Clinical Hospital (HCV of the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, and at a specialist veterinary imaging diagnostics clinic. In total, 95 cases were registered. The high series of the disease in dogs can be related to the presence of a large number of stray and semi-domestic dogs in the city, and also due to the ingestion of intermediate hosts of D. renale parasitized with the infective larvae. Thus, it can be concluded that Pelotas is a city with favorable conditions for the occurrence of dioctophymosis with high rate of disease in recent years.

  14. Post-diagnosis abortion in women living with HIV/Aids in the south of Brazil

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    Flávia Bulegon Pilecco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To understand how the HIV diagnosis combines with other factors that influence the decision to abort.Methodology: Data were collected during a crossover study of women aged between 18 and 49 years old and seen in public health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The life stories of 18 interviewees who had post-diagnosis abortion were reconstructed on a timeline, using information collected quantitatively.Results: The time between the diagnosis and abortion was 2 years or less for more than half of the women. For some, post-diagnosis abortion did not mean the end of reproductive life. The most frequent reason for terminating pregnancy was to be living with HIV; however, only some of the women who stated having this motivation did not have post-diagnosis children. Changing partners between pregnancies was a recurring finding; however, in most pregnancies that ended in abortion, the women lived with their partners.Discussion: The analysis of the reproductive trajectory of the women studied showed that there is no specific profile of the woman who aborts after receiving the HIV diagnosis. Although this diagnosis may be involved in the decision to terminate a pregnancy, it does not necessarily result in the end of a woman's reproductive trajectory. Thus, abortion should be understood within a diversity of decision-making processes and the specific moment of a woman's life story.

  15. Reproductive success of South American terns (Sterna hirundinacea from Cardos Islands, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil

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    Hélio A.A. Fracasso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 is a migratory seabird that breeds in the Pacific Coast (from Peru to Chile and along the Atlantic coast of South America from Espírito Santo (Brazil to Terra del Fuego (Argentina. This paper describes the reproductive success of South American Terns on Cardos Island, Florianopolis, Brazil in the breeding seasons of 2003, 2005 and 2006. The colony was formed in mid-May in 2003 and early April in other years, with the total number of nests ranging from 1,852 in 2006 to 2,486 in 2005. Hatching success was estimated at 76.39% in 2006, 62.73% in 2003 and 41.1% in 2005, the lowest value that could be attributed to predation by hawks Caracara plancus, lizards Tupinambis merianae and black vulture Coragyps atratus. The chicks hatched in July in 2003, and in June 2005 and 2006, and fledging success was 50.94%, 35.96 and 53.47% respectively. Cardos Island has been constantly used as a breeding site by South American Terns, and therefore represents an important area for conservation of this species. This success could be attributed to low pressure of Kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus, the main predator of seabirds along the Brazilian coast.Sterna hirundinacea (Lesson, 1831 é uma ave migratória que nidifica na costa do Pacífico (do Peru ao Chile e ao longo do Atlântico Sul do Espírito Santo (Brasil até a Terra do Fogo (Argentina. Este trabalho descreve o sucesso reprodutivo do trinta-réis do bico-vermelho na ilha dos Cardos, Florianópolis, Brasil, durante as temporadas reprodutivas de 2003, 2005 e 2006. A formação da colônia ocorreu em maio de 2003 e inicio de abril nos outros anos, com um total de ninhos variando entre 1.852 em 2006 a 2.486 em 2005. O sucesso de incubação foi estimado em 76,39% (2006, 62,73% (2003 e 41,1% em 2005, sendo que os menores valores puderam ser atribuídos a predação dos gaviões Caracara plancus, lagartos Tupinambis merianae e urubus Coragyps atratus. As primeiras eclosões foram

  16. Extreme storm surges in the south of Brazil: atmospheric conditions and shore erosion

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    Cláudia Klose Parise

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The region under study is regularly subject to the occurrence of storms associated with frontal systems and extratropical cyclones, since it is located near one of the cyclogenetic regions in South America. These storms can generate storm surges that cause anomalous high sea level rises on Cassino Beach. The use of reanalysis data along with an efficient technique for the location of the cyclone, using a vorticity threshold, has provided a new classification based upon the trajectories of events that produce positive sea level variation. Three patterns have been identified: 1 Cyclogenesis to the south of Argentina with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 47.5ºS and 57.5ºS; 2 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the east and a trajectory between 35ºS and 42.5ºS; and 3 Cyclogenesis to the south of Uruguay with displacement to the southeast and a trajectory between 35ºS and 57.5ºS. Maximum water level elevation above the mean sea level and beach erosion were associated, respectively, with winter and summer storms. Cassino beach displayed a seasonal morphological behavior, with short periods of episodic erosion associated with winter storm events followed by long periods of accretion characterized by the dominance of fair weather conditions.Marés meteorológicas que geram sobre-elevações do nível do mar são freqüentes na costa do Rio Grande do Sul e respondem às variações ocorridas na atmosfera. Torna-se importante, dessa maneira, definir padrões meteorológicos sinóticos responsáveis por gerar eventos de marés meteorológicas intensas na Praia do Cassino como objetivo desse trabalho. O uso de dados de reanálise associados a uma técnica eficiente de localização do ciclone, aplicando o conceito de vorticidade, permitiu definir uma nova classificação com base na trajetória de ciclones extratropicais responsáveis pela subida do nível do mar. Três padrões de trajetórias foram

  17. Hematological parameters and prevalence of anemia among free-living elderly in south Brazil

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    Vanessa Sgnaolin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the hematological parameters, the prevalence of anemia and the association between anemia and socioeconomic conditions in an elderly community-based population. METHODS: A population-based study was performed as part of the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly in Porto Alegre, Brazil (EMIPOA. An initial total of 1058 community residents aged 60 years and older were interviewed. Of these, 392 agreed to have a physical evaluation and a blood sample was taken from each. The hematological parameters analyzed in the blood samples included the hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and red cell distribution width (RDW. The association between the variables and the diagnosis of anemia was assessed using the chi-squared test and a multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of anemia was 12.8%. Anemia was present in 13.7% of women and in 10.4% of men. Normocytic normochromic anemia without anisocytosis was the most common type of anemia (46%. The assessment of erythrocyte morphology showed significant differences between anemic and non-anemic individuals (microcytosis = 12% vs. 1.5%, hypochromia = 40% vs. 8.8%, and anisocytosis = 26% vs. 7%. In the analysis of socioeconomic conditions, significant differences were found in respect to age and race. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia increases with age and is associated with race, microcytosis, hypochromia and anisocytosis. Anemia is not a condition that should be associated only with the aging process, as it may be due to pathological conditions that occur most frequently in this age group. As a result, a diagnosis of anemia warrants adequate clinical attention.

  18. Boundary between Soil and Saprolite in Alisols in the South of Brazil

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    Fabrício de Araújo Pedron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous studies conducted on the lower limit of soil and its contact with saprolite layers, a great deal of work is left to standardize identification and annotation of these variables in the field. In shallow soils, the appropriately noting these limits or contacts is essential for determining their behavior and potential use. The aims of this study were to identify and define the field contact and/or transition zone between soil and saprolite in profiles of an Alisol derived from fine sandstone and siltstone/claystone in subtropical southern Brazil and to subsequently validate the field observations through a multivariate analysis of laboratory analytical data. In the six Alisol profiles evaluated, the sequence of horizons found was A, Bt, C, and Cr, where C was considered part of the soil due to its pedogenetic structure, and Cr was considered saprolite due to its rock structure. The morphological properties that were determined in the field and that were different between the B and C horizons and the Cr layer were color, structure, texture, and fragments of saprolite. According to the test of means, the properties that support the inclusion of the C horizon as part of the soil are sand, clay, water-dispersible clay, silt/clay ratio, macroporosity, total porosity, resistance to penetration, cation exchange capacity, Fe extracted by DCB, Al, H+Al, and cation exchange capacity of clay. The properties that support the C horizon as a transition zone are silt, Ca, total organic C, and Fe extracted by ammonium oxalate. Discriminant analysis indicated differences among the three horizons evaluated.

  19. Capões como Ilhas para Artrópodes no Pantanal

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    Rodrigo Aranda

    2013-12-01

    Capons as Island for Arthropods in Pantanal Abstract. The configuration of habitat is one of the factors that influence the distribution of organisms. The Pantanal by presenting mosaic natural formations fit to test such claims. The present study aimed to evaluate the distance and size of riparian capons affect the community composition of arthropods tested the hypothesis that the higher and closer to the capon of riparian vegetation, the greater its diversity. We sampled six plots of 30 cm² in nine capons where the leaf-litter and soil were collected, placed in plastic bags and later sorted. There was a relationship between the composition of arthropod community in relation to distance and size indicating that the flood pulse of the last year significantly affected the community of soil arthropods in geldings. The monitoring of the processes of recolonization of the capons is suggested.

  20. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

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    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  1. First record of Annonaceae wood for the Neogene of South America, Amazon Basin, Brazil

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    Emilio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The relief of the regions of Manaus and Itacoatiara, Central Amazon, is supported by Neogene siliciclastic rocks, bounded at the base and top by lateritic paleosols and covered by quaternary sedimentary deposits from the Solimões-Amazon river system. This unit is informally assigned to the Novo Remanso Formation, consists of usually reddish and ferruginized sandstones, conglomerates and pelites, with few identified fossil records, a fact that has hindered its stratigraphic position, and the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the last phase of the Amazon Basin settling. This study describes, for the first time, the occurrence of fossil wood in outcroppings of the left bank of the Amazon River, where anatomical and morphological data has enabled its characterization to the species level. Thus, the data marks the record of the Annonaceae in South America, as well as the depositional processes related to incorporation of organic material in the sandy layer and the fossilization processes that allowed its preservation. In an unprecedented way, this study has described Duguetiaxylon amazonicum nov. gen and sp. and provided information on the anatomical and systematic character, as well as data on plant-insect interaction, and a better understanding of the family.

  2. Phenology of brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb.& Bonpl., Lecythidaceae in south of Roraima state

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    Helio Tonini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to study the phenological pattern of brasil-nut trees in natural forest located in the south of Roraima state, in order to relate the frequency of occurrence of phenophases with rainfall. For the phenological survey 20 adult trees (DBH > 50 cm were selected in a permanent sample plot of 9 ha. The phenological observations occurred fortnightly from February 2006 to February 2009, when data were collected on the presence or absence of events of flowering, fruiting, leaf flushing and leaf fall for each tree. The Index of population synchrony was used for estimating the synchrony of phenological events. The flowering of brasil-nut proved to be regular, annual, long and synchronous and was correlated with the reduction of rainfall. The fruiting was regular and synchronous, and dispersal was correlated with rainfall reduction. The phenological pattern of leaf flushing tended to vary yearly, being around the continual one in 2007 and bimodal in 2006 and 2008. It was noticed a higher proportion of trees falling leaves between August and October which characterizes a period of transition between the dry and the rainy time with sensitive reduction of rainfall.

  3. Stable isotopes (2H, 18O and 13C) in groundwaters from the northwestern portion of the Guarani Aquifer System (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastmans, Didier; Chang, Hung Kiang; Hutcheon, Ian

    2010-09-01

    The groundwater flow pattern of the western part of the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), Brazil, is characterized by three regional recharge areas in the north, and a potentiometric divide in the south, which trends north-south approximately. Groundwater flow is radial from these regional recharge areas toward the center of Paraná Sedimentary Basin and toward the western outcrop areas at the border of the Pantanal Matogrossense, because of the potentiometric divide. The isotopic composition of GAS groundwater leads to understanding the paleoclimatic conditions in the regional recharge areas. The δ18O and δ2H isotopic ratios of GAS groundwaters vary, respectively, from -9.1 to -4.8‰ V-SMOW and -58.4 to -21.7‰ V-SMOW. In the recharge zones, enriched δ18O values are observed, while in the confined zone lighter δ18O values are observed. These suggest that climatic conditions were 10°C cooler than the present during the recharge of these waters. The δ13C ratios in groundwater of GAS, in the study area, vary from -19.5 to -6.5‰ VPDB, increasing along the regional flow lines toward the confined zone. This variation is related to dissolution of carbonate cement in the sandstones.

  4. Soil CO2 concentrations and efflux dynamics of a tree island in the Pantanal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Pinto, Osvaldo B.; Johnson, Mark S.; Jassal, Rachhpal S.; Dalmagro, Higo J.; Leite, Nei K.; Speratti, Alicia B.; Krampe, Daniela; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2017-08-01

    The Pantanal is the largest tropical wetland on the planet, and yet little information is available on the biome's carbon cycle. We used an automatic station to measure soil CO2 concentrations and oxidation-reduction potential over the 2014 and 2015 flood cycles of a tree island in the Pantanal that is immune to inundation during the wetland's annual flooding. The soil CO2 concentration profile was then used to estimate soil CO2 efflux over the two periods. In 2014, subsurface soil saturation at 0.30 m depth created conditions in that layer that led to CO2 buildup close to 200,000 ppm and soil oxidation-reduction potential below -300 mV, conditions that were not repeated in 2015 due to annual variability in soil saturation at the site. Mean CO2 efflux over the 2015 flood cycle was 0.023 ± 0.103 mg CO2-C m-2 s-1 representing a total annual efflux of 593 ± 2690 mg CO2-C m-2 y-1. Unlike a nearby tree island site that experiences full inundation during the wet season, here the soil dried quickly following repeated rain events throughout the year, which led to the release of CO2 pulses from the soil. This study highlights not only the complexity and heterogeneity in the Pantanal's carbon balance based on differences in topography, flood cycles, and vegetation but also the challenges of applying the gradient method in the Pantanal due to deviations from steady state conditions.

  5. Impacts of climate change in the sugarcane production in the center-south macro-region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Pereira, V.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Koga-Vicente, A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the most important results of a Project developed over four years by a research network having 19 researchers and 45 students. The main objective of this Project was to generate alcohol production scenarios as support for the formulation of public policy applied to the adaptation of the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry to the possible climate changes. The study area was the center-south macro-region of Brazil, with the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, that is the main producer area of sugarcane in the world. The scenarios were developed using the HadGEM2-ES and Miroc5 models of CMIP5/IPCC and did not show significant differences between them and were very close to those obtained with the HadCM3 and Miroc3 models of the AR4/IPCC. The results considering the sugarcane varieties grown nowadays indicate that in a scenario with changes in precipitation and temperatures, the main producing region will not have a decrease in municipalities with low climatic risk. Also the expansion region (South of Goiás and North-West of São Paulo) may become of high climatic risk, becoming an area where the artificial irrigation will be demanded. The challenge related to the water use and availability that already exists nowadays will be yet more important in the future. The expansion of Brazilian sugarcane production is being much more based on the territorial extension, i.e. by increasing the production area, than by increasing the productivity. The increased mechanization of cane harvesting improves the air quality and reduces the incidence of respiratory diseases. It is extremely important that incentives to mechanization be extended to other regions of the country since the end of burning benefits the health of people living close to the sugarcane fields. This confirms the need for planning this sector, with the development of new varieties and new production technologies considering the possible future climate

  6. An assessment of progress towards universal health coverage in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, Robert; McIntyre, Diane; Travassos, Claudia; Shishkin, Sergey; Longde, Wang; Reddy, Srinath; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-12-13

    Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) represent almost half the world's population, and all five national governments recently committed to work nationally, regionally, and globally to ensure that universal health coverage (UHC) is achieved. This analysis reviews national efforts to achieve UHC. With a broad range of health indicators, life expectancy (ranging from 53 years to 73 years), and mortality rate in children younger than 5 years (ranging from 10·3 to 44·6 deaths per 1000 livebirths), a review of progress in each of the BRICS countries shows that each has some way to go before achieving UHC. The BRICS countries show substantial, and often similar, challenges in moving towards UHC. On the basis of a review of each country, the most pressing problems are: raising insufficient public spending; stewarding mixed private and public health systems; ensuring equity; meeting the demands for more human resources; managing changing demographics and disease burdens; and addressing the social determinants of health. Increases in public funding can be used to show how BRICS health ministries could accelerate progress to achieve UHC. Although all the BRICS countries have devoted increased resources to health, the biggest increase has been in China, which was probably facilitated by China's rapid economic growth. However, the BRICS country with the second highest economic growth, India, has had the least improvement in public funding for health. Future research to understand such different levels of prioritisation of the health sector in these countries could be useful. Similarly, the role of strategic purchasing in working with powerful private sectors, the effect of federal structures, and the implications of investment in primary health care as a foundation for UHC could be explored. These issues could serve as the basis on which BRICS countries focus their efforts to share ideas and strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of metals by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and evaluation of toxicity of a river impacted by coal mining in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, R M; Menezes, C T B; Pavei, P T; Peralba, M C R; Dos Santos, J H Z

    2009-04-30

    Metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb) concentrations in the region of Criciuma (Brazil), a region impacted by coal mining, were determined in water and sediments using total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Samples were collected from the Mãe Luzia River (south Brazil) at five different stations, from the source down to the river mouth (Ararangua estuary). Water and sediment toxicity were also evaluated using bioassays with Daphnia magna as the bioindicator. The metal present in the highest concentrations both in water (1.3-11 mg L(-1)) and in sediments (34-142 mg L(-1)) was iron. Results suggest an influence of coal mining on the aquatic receptors, showing a clear relationship between metal content (mostly Fe) and ecotoxicity.

  8. Productivity losses due to premature mortality from cancer in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS): A population-based comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison; Sharp, Linda; Hanly, Paul; Barchuk, Anton; Bray, Freddie; de Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Gupta, Prakash; Meheus, Filip; Qiao, You-Lin; Sitas, Freddy; Wang, Shao-Ming; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    Over two-thirds of the world's cancer deaths occur in economically developing countries; however, the societal costs of cancer have rarely been assessed in these settings. Our aim was to estimate the value of productivity lost in 2012 due to cancer-related premature mortality in the major developing economies of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). We applied an incidence-based method using the human capital approach. We used annual adult cancer deaths from GLOBOCAN2012 to estimate the years of productive life lost between cancer death and pensionable age in each country, valued using national and international data for wages, and workforce statistics. Sensitivity analyses examined various methodological assumptions. The total cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer mortality in the BRICS countries in 2012 was $46·3 billion, representing 0·33% of their combined gross domestic product. The largest total productivity loss was in China ($28 billion), while South Africa had the highest cost per cancer death ($101,000). Total productivity losses were greatest for lung cancer in Brazil, the Russian Federation and South Africa; liver cancer in China; and lip and oral cavity cancers in India. Locally-tailored strategies are required to reduce the economic burden of cancer in developing economies. Focussing on tobacco control, vaccination programs and cancer screening, combined with access to adequate treatment, could yield significant gains for both public health and economic performance of the BRICS countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  10. Integrating field sampling, geostatistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

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    J. Arieira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of efficient methodologies for mapping wetland vegetation is of key importance to wetland conservation. Here we propose the integration of a number of statistical techniques, in particular cluster analysis, universal kriging and error propagation modelling, to integrate observations from remote sensing and field sampling for mapping vegetation communities and estimating uncertainty. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relationship between remotely sensed data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were described using multiple linear regression models. There were then used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the mapping uncertainty. Cross-validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty derived from Monte Carlo simulations revealed significant spatial variation in classification, but this had little impact on the proportion and arrangement of the communities observed. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including a larger number of digital images as explanatory variables in the model. Comparison of the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, revealed that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. This mapping approach is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote-sensing images, providing a new basis to map wetland vegetation and allow its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  11. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it did affect the richness, number of individuals, success of some species, and seemed to shape the boundary of these forests as shown by the difference in the positioning of these species along the inundation gradient.

  12. Sightings of Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 (Cetacea in South-eastern Brazil

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    Ana Paula M. Di Beneditto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D' Orbigny, 1844 and Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 have typically coastal habits and are sympatric in South-eastern Brazil. The purpose of this work was to record sightings and describe aspects concerning the behaviour of both species in this region, between 1993 and 1998. The sightings were accomplished by cruises and from a fixed point. Information provided by fishermen were also considered. In general, P. blainvillei was observed in all seasons of the year, up to five nautical miles away from the coast, up to 15 m deep and the groups comprised up to five specimens. The most part of the groups of S. fluviatilis, were observed in autumm and winter times and comprised up to 10 specimens. In about half of the sightings, the presence of calves and/or juveniles was noted. The cooperative (group fishing was the foranging behaviour most frequently noted for S. fluviatilis.Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais & D’Orgigny, 1844 e Sotalia fluviatilis (Gervais, 1853 possuem hábitos tipicamente costeiros e são simpátricas no Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar avistagens e descrever aspectos relacionados ao comportamento de ambas as espécies na região, entre 1993 e 1998. As avistagens foram realizadas através de cruzeiros e ponto fixo. Informações fornecidas por pescadores também foram consideradas. Em geral, P. blainvillei foi observada em todas as estações do ano, a até cinco milhas náuticas de distância da linha da costa e 15 m de profundidade e, os grupos eram formados por até cinco espécimens. A maior parte dos grupos de S. fluviatilis foi observada no período de outono e inverno e, era formada por até 10 espécimens. Em metade das avistagens, a presença de filhotes e/ou juvenis foi verificada. A pesca cooperativa (em grupo foi o comportamento alimentar observado com maior freqüência para S. fluviatilis.

  13. Productive and Economic Responses in Grazing Dairy Cows to Grain Supplementation on Family Farms in the South of Brazil

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    Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado Filho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pasture-based dairy production has been a major source of income for most family farms in the south of Brazil. Increasing milk prices have spurred an increase in grain supplementation, which has been poorly implemented, resulting in low levels of efficiency. To evaluate the consequences of supplementation on milk production and composition, grazing behavior and economic return, the widely used grain management system (CC-commercial concentrate, containing 21% CP, offered at 1 kg per 3.7 L of milk was compared with an energy supplement (GC-ground corn, with 9.5% CP, offered at 0.4% of live weight. Ten Holstein cows were paired into two groups, and subjected to the two treatments in a crossover design. The cows remained in the same grazing group, and the grain supplement was offered individually at milking time and consumed completely. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 10 days for diet adaptation and four days for data collection; individual milk production and samples were collected to determine levels of fat, protein, lactose, carotenoids, vitamin A and N-urea. Grazing behavior was observed (scans every 5 min in the first 4 h after the morning milking, and chemical composition of hand plucked samples of forage were measured. The cost of the supplement and profitability per treatment were calculated. Cows supplemented with GC consumed herbage with higher crude protein (CP: 16.23 vs. 14.62%; p < 0.05, had higher biting rate (44.21 vs. 39.54 bites/min; p < 0.03 and grazing time (22.20 vs. 20.55 scans; p < 0.05 than when receiving CC. There were no differences in milk composition between treatments (p > 0.05. However, higher concentrations of β-carotene and total carotenoids were detected in the milk of cows at 70–164 days of lactation, compared to <70 days of lactation (p < 0.05. Milk production was higher (13.19 vs. 11.59 kg/day; p < 0.05 when cows consumed CC, but resulted in lower profitability compared to GC (US$ 4.39 vs. US$ 4

  14. Atributos de solos hidromórficos no Pantanal Norte Matogrossense Attributes of the hydromorphic soils in the Pantanal of North Matogrosso

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    Elaine de Arruda Oliveira Coringa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Os solos hidromórficos, comuns na Amazônia e no Pantanal, estão sujeitos à alternância natural de períodos de alagamento e secamento, que conduzem a uma formação e características diferenciadas. Estes solos guardam estreita relação com a natureza do material de origem e com os processos de deposição e sedimentação. O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar as características químicas, morfológicas e mineralógicas de três perfis de solos do Pantanal Norte Matogrossense (Planossolo, Plintossolo e Gleissolo, a fim de interpretar as relações entre suas propriedades e o ambiente em que foram formados. Os Planossolos e Gleissolos possuem maior fertilidade natural, evidenciada pelos valores expressivos de CTC (capacidade de troca de cátions e saturação por bases. Os menores teores de Fe2O3 do Planossolo estão relacionados com a redução e remoção do Fe durante sua gênese A mineralogia da fração areia dos solos é constituída principalmente de quartzo, nódulos e concreções de Fe e de Mn, e em menor grau, biotita, muscovita e traços de turmalina, magnetita, ilmenita, epídoto, zircão e rutilo. Os solos apresentaram perfil mineralógico semelhante na fração argila, constituído por caulinita, esmectita, ilita e interestratificados do tipo ilita-esmectita. A mineralogia da fração argila dos solos foi compatível com as diferenças químicas constatadas entre eles, pois o Planossolo apresentou argila de maior atividade relativa às esmectitas e interestratificados ilita/esmectita, com maior soma de bases trocáveis e CTC, enquanto o Plintossolo e o Gleissolo, cujo mineral predominante foi a caulinita, apresentaram baixo teor de bases trocáveis e menor CTC.The hydromorphic soils, common in the Amazon and the Pantanal, are subject to alternating periods of natural flooding and drying, leading to formation and differentiated characteristics. These soils are closely related to the nature of the sediments, a consequence of

  15. Capões como Ilhas para Artrópodes no Pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda, Rodrigo; Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul

    2013-01-01

    A configuração do habitat é um dos fatores que pode influenciar a distribuição dos organismos. O pantanal por apresentar mosaico natural de formações se enquadra para testar tais afirmações. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar se a distância e o tamanho de capões afetam a composição da comunidade de artrópodes testando a hipótese de que quanto maior e mais próximo o cap&atil...

  16. Comportamento e habitos alimentares de quatro especies de cichilidae (teleostei) no Pantanal Matogrossense

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Arruda Machado

    1983-01-01

    Resumo: Foram estudados o comportamento e o hábito alimentar de quatro espécies de Cichlidae, no Pantanal Matogrossense, Município de Poconé, Mato Grosso. As observações e coletas foram feitas entre o Km 9 e o Km 130 da Rodovia transpantaneira, nos anos de 1979 a 1983, em meses diversos (cobrindo épocas de seca e cheia), em lagoas, rios e corixos situados ao longo dessa rodovia. Astronotus ocellatus vive em pequenos grupos de 3 a 9 indivíduos, de dimensões semelhantes entre si. Alimenta-se, e...

  17. Using Remote Sensing and Random Forest to Assess the Conservation Status of Critical Cerrado Habitats in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    Jason Reynolds

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s Cerrado is a highly diverse ecosystem and it provides critical habitat for many species. Cerrado habitats have suffered significant degradation and decline over the past decades due to expansion of cash crops and livestock farming across South America. Approximately 1,800,000 km2 of the Cerrado remain in Brazil, but detailed maps and conservation assessments of the Cerrado are lacking. We developed a land cover classification for the Cerrado, focusing on the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, which may also be used to map critical habitat for endangered species. We used a Random Forest algorithm to perform a supervised classification on a set of Landsat 8 images. To determine habitat fragmentation for the Cerrado, we used Fragstats. A habitat connectivity analysis was performed using Linkage Mapper. Our final classification had an overall accuracy of 88%. Our classification produced higher accuracies (72% in predicting Cerrado than existing government maps. We found that remaining Cerrado habitats were severely fragmented. Four potential corridors were identified in the southwest of Mato Grosso do Sul, where large Cerrado patches are located. Only two large patches remain in Mato Grosso do Sul: one within the Kadiwéu Indian Reserve, and one near the southeastern edge of the Pantanal-dominated landscape. These results are alarming for rare species requiring larger tracts of habitat such as the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus.

  18. Distribuição e Densidade de Nasutitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae em Mata Ribeirinha do Rio Miranda, Pantanal Sul-Matogrossense, Brasil

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    Leandro Pereira Polatto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência da densidade arbórea e da borda sobre a quantidade e o volume nidal dos ninhos arborícolas de Nasutitermes sp., bem como, verificar a dependência do tamanho desses ninhos e a sua região de fixação em relação à arquitetura arbórea. A coleta de dados foi realizada em outubro de 2005, em um trecho da mata ribeirinha do rio Miranda no Pantanal Miranda-Abobral, sendo feita amostragem da quantidade e volume nidal dos ninhos arborícolas de Nasutitermes sp. e verificado a densidade de árvores de dossel através do método de amostragem por parcelas ao longo de um gradiente de profundidade na mata. Outros valores de arquitetura arbórea em que o ninho servia de abrigo também foram analisados, utilizando-se o coeficiente de correlação de Spearman, o teste de Kruskal-Wallis e o Qui-Quadrado. Dentre os resultados analisados, conclui-se que os ninhos arborícolas de Nasutitermes sp. não estão distribuídos ao acaso na mata. Mas sim, pode-se inferir que a quantidade e volume nidal, os locais de fixação, construção e desenvolvimento desses ninhos arborícolas na mata ribeirinha do rio Miranda sofrem interferência da estrutura arbórea da mata estudada. Nasutitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae Distribution and Density in Riverine Forest of the River Miranda, Pantanal Sul-Matogrossense, Brazil.Abstract. This work had as objectives to analyze the influence of the arboreal density and of the border on the amount and the volumetric mass of the arboreal nests of Nasutitermes sp., and to verify the dependence of the size of those nests and your fixation area in relation to the arboreal architecture. In October of 2005, in a space of the riverine forest of the river Miranda in the Pantanal of the Miranda-Abobral was accomplished the collection of data, being made sampling of the amount and volumetric mass of the arboreal nests of Nasutitermes sp., and verified the density of dossal

  19. Aspectos ecológicos da comunidade de Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida em copas da palmeira Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae no Pantanal de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Leandro Dênis Battirola

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Seis palmeiras de Attalea phalerata foram amostradas durante a fase aquática (cheia no Pantanal de Mato Grosso (fevereiro/2001, utilizando-se a metodologia de nebulização de copas "canopy fogging". Este estudo objetivou avaliar a composição, distribuição espacial, guildas comportamentais, biomassa e sazonalidade da comunidade de Araneae em copas dessa palmeira que forma adensamentos monodominantes, típicos nessa região. Um total de 1326 aranhas foram coletadas em 99 m² de área amostral (13,4 + 8,2 indivíduos/m², representando 20 famílias, sendo Salticidae e Araneidae as mais abundantes. A biomassa total de 704 aranhas em três palmeiras correspondeu a 0.6172 mg de peso seco (0,0123+ 0,04 mg/m². Dez guildas comportamentais demonstraram a coexistência de diferentes espécies em um mesmo habitat. Representantes de Salticidae, Oonopidae e Ctenidae dominaram entre as caçadoras, e Araneidae e Dictynidae, dentre as tecelãs. A análise de distribuição espacial demonstrou que a maior abundância de aranhas ocorreu na região central da copa, provavelmente devido à quantidade de recursos disponíveis nesse local. A comparação desses resultados com aqueles obtidos durante o período de seca, demonstra diferenças sazonais influenciadas pelo pulso de inundação, principalmente com relação à composição das famílias amostradas entre os períodos de seca e cheia.Ecological aspects of a community of Araneae (Arthropoda, Arachnida at the canopy of the palm Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Six palm trees of Attalea phalerata were sampled during the aquatic phase (high water in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001 using canopy fogging. The objective was to evaluate the composition, spatial distribution, behavioural guilds, biomass and seasonality of the community of Araneae at the crowns of these palm trees, which form monospecific stands that are typical of this region. A total

  20. Use of recent geoid models to estimate mean dynamic topography and geostrophic currents in South Atlantic and Brazil Malvinas confluence

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    Alexandre Bernardino Lopes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of geoid models to estimate the Mean Dynamic Topography was stimulated with the launching of the GRACE satellite system, since its models present unprecedented precision and space-time resolution. In the present study, besides the DNSC08 mean sea level model, the following geoid models were used with the objective of computing the MDTs: EGM96, EIGEN-5C and EGM2008. In the method adopted, geostrophic currents for the South Atlantic were computed based on the MDTs. In this study it was found that the degree and order of the geoid models affect the determination of TDM and currents directly. The presence of noise in the MDT requires the use of efficient filtering techniques, such as the filter based on Singular Spectrum Analysis, which presents significant advantages in relation to conventional filters. Geostrophic currents resulting from geoid models were compared with the HYCOM hydrodynamic numerical model. In conclusion, results show that MDTs and respective geostrophic currents calculated with EIGEN-5C and EGM2008 models are similar to the results of the numerical model, especially regarding the main large scale features such as boundary currents and the retroflection at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence.A utilização de modelos geoidais na determinação da Topografia Dinâmica Média foi impulsionada com o lançamento dos satélites do sistema GRACE, já que seus modelos apresentam precisão e resolução espacial e temporal sem precedentes. No presente trabalho, além do modelo de nível médio do mar DNSC08, foram utilizados os seguintes modelos geoidais com o objetivo de calcular as TDMs: EGM96, EIGEN-5C e EGM2008. No método adotado, foram calculadas as respectivas correntes geostróficas para o Atlântico Sul a partir das TDMs. O grau e ordem dos modelos geoidais influenciam diretamente na determinação da TDM e correntes. Neste trabalho verificou-se que presença de ruídos da TDM requer a utilização de técnicas de filtragem

  1. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Parana Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J. [Instituto de Geociencias, UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Holz, M. [Inst. de Geociencias, UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Willett, J.; Finkelman, R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Burger, H. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Geoinformatik, (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Parana Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Parana Basin. In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapua, Barro Branco and Treviso seams). Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39 m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapua seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapua seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8 vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8 vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5 vol% (Irapua seam). Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2 wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (> 50 wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  2. The floristic heterogeneity of the Pantanal and the occurrence of species with different adaptive strategies to water stress

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    E Scremin-Dias

    Full Text Available The Pantanal is characterised by a diversity of environments with areas ranging from periodic or permanent heavy flooding to areas with low flood levels, and even environments that never flood. Plant species which inhabit the floodplain are distributed in specific niches, with influence of various phytogeographic domains, including the Seasonal Semi-deciduous Forest, Amazon Rainforest, Cerrado and Chaco, as well rocky remnants, with a wide ecological span in their components. In intensely flooded areas, aquatic macrophytes are widely distributed, with their dynamics closely linked to time, depth and extent of flooding. Although the term "Pantanal" suggests a huge swamp-type wetland, water level variation during a seasonal cycle does not directly reach the root system of many plants. The landscape diversity of the Pantanal wetland is molded by the flood pulse, which interferes with the dynamics of plant communities. Therefore, the retraction and expansion of populations or communities is reflected in important ecological characteristics, considering the variety of morphological, anatomical and ecophysiological features of the species, whose phenotype is the result of a particular genotype. The present study discusses peculiar issues in the adaptation of species distributed in the Pantanal biome and underscores the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to obtain conclusive data on adaptive studies.

  3. Nascer no Brasil: the presence of a companion favors the use of best practices in delivery care in the South region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monguilhott, Juliana Jacques da Costa; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Freitas, Paulo Fontoura; d'Orsi, Eleonora

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the presence of a companion favors the use of best practices in the delivery care in the South region of Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional analysis of the longitudinal study Nascer no Brasil. We analyzed data from 2,070 women from the South region of Brazil who went into labor. The data were collected between February and August 2011, by interviews and medical records. We performed a bivariate and multivariate analysis, calculating the crude and adjusted prevalence ratios using Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS Most women had a companion during labor (51.7%), but few remained during delivery (39.4%) or cesarean section (34.8%). Less than half of the women had access to several recommended practices, while non-recommended practices continue to be performed. In the model adjusted for age, education level, source of payment for the delivery, parity, and score of the Brazilian Association of Market Research Institutes, the presence of a companion was statistically associated with a greater supply of liquids and food (aPR = 1.34), dietary prescription (aPR = 1.34), use of non-pharmacological methods for pain relief (aPR = 1.37), amniotomy (aPR = 1.10), epidural or spinal analgesia (aPR = 1.84), adoption of non-lithotomy position in the delivery (aPR = 1.77), stay in the same room during labor, delivery, and postpartum (aPR = 1.62), skin-to-skin contact in the delivery (aPR = 1.81) and cesarean section (PR = 2.43), as well as reduced use of the Kristeller maneuver (aPR = 0.67), trichotomy (aPR = 0.59), and enema (aPR = 0.49). CONCLUSIONS In the South region of Brazil, most women do not have access to the best practices in addition to undergoing several unnecessary interventions. The presence of a companion is associated with several beneficial practices and the reduction in some interventions, although other interventions are not impacted.

  4. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. in bat ectoparasites in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Amaral, Renan Bressianini; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Garcia, Amanda Barbosa; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2018-01-01

    The family Streblidae comprises a monophyletic group of Hippoboscoidea, hematophagous dipterans that parasitize bats. Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. have been reported in bats sampled in Europe, Africa, Asia, North, Central and South America. However, there are few reports on the Bartonella and Rickettsia bacteria infecting Hippoboscoidea flies and mites. While Spinturnicidae mites are ectoparasites found only in bats, those belonging to the family Macronyssidae comprise mites that also parasitize other mammal species. This study investigates the occurrence and assesses the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. found in Streblidae flies and Spinturnicidae and Macronyssidae mites collected from bats captured in Brazil. From May 2011 to April 2012 and September 2013 to December 2014, 400 Streblidae flies, 100 Macronyssidaes, and 100 Spinturnicidae mites were collected from bats captured in two sites in northeastern Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Forty (19.8%) out of 202 Streblidae flies were positive for Bartonella spp. in qPCR assays based on the nuoG gene. Among the flies positive for the bacterium, six (18%) were Paratrichobius longicrus, seven (29%) Strebla guajiro, two (40%) Aspidoptera phyllostomatis, five (11%) Aspidoptera falcata, one (10%) Trichobius anducei, one (25%) Megistopoda aranea, and 18 (32%) Trichobius joblingi, and collected from bats of the following species: Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Artibeus planirostris, Sturnira lilium, and Artibeus obscurus. Six sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG [n = 2], gltA [n = 2], rpoB [n = 1], ribC = 1]). The phylogenetic analysis based on gltA (750pb) gene showed that the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats and ectoparasites previously sampled in Latin America, including Brazil. Only one sample (0.49%) of the species Trichobius joblingi collected from a specimen of Carollia perspicillata was positive

  5. Carbon-14 dating of a mummy from 'Caverna da Babilonia', Rio Novo Country, south of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrao, M. da C.M.C.; Danon, J.; Poupeau, G.

    1985-01-01

    The vegetable fibers of a cloth wrapping a mummy of a woman, found in 'Caverna da Babilonia' (MG, Brazil), were dated with carbon-14. There is strong evidence that it is a pre-colombian mummym since the age of the sample is 600 + - 80 years (1σ). (C.L.B.) [pt

  6. Oil and natural gas prospects in South America: Can the petroleum industry pave the way for renewables in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, José; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre; Lucchesi, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    A large share of Brazil's current investments is concentrated in the development of petroleum resources in new frontiers. Perspectives for large offshore pre-salt fields are particularly good. However, challenges are also huge. On one hand, pre-salt resources development will draw vast amounts of economic and human resources and pose significant macroeconomic risks. On the other hand, the petroleum industry can generate multiplicative effects into the country's economy and, even more importantly, generate rents that can be diverted towards the promotion of renewable energy sources. This paper simulates the rent generation of Brazil's petroleum development up to 2030 according to: the country's current fiscal regime, projections of petroleum supply and a probability analysis of Brent price evolution, and assesses how these economic resources, if properly allocated, can pave the way for an increased use of renewables in Brazil. Findings show that an ambitious energy innovation program based on a target-oriented agency plus a program for solar development would cost less than half the minimum average annual petroleum rent free for investing in renewables between 2013 and 2030. The remaining budget could improve the security of ethanol fuel supply, by avoiding the negative impacts of sugar prices spikes on Brazil's ethanol production. - Highlights: • Nowadays, Brazil´s investments are concentrated in new frontier areas of the petroleum industry. • Rents from this industry can generate multiplicative effects into the country´s economy. • Part of these rents should be diverted to the promotion of renewable energy. • A major energy innovation program based on a target-oriented agency should be funded. • The security of ethanol fuel supply can be improved from these rents as well

  7. The international perception of scientific discourse about the climate threat by public in six countries: South Africa, Brazil, China, United States, France, India. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecher, Cedric; Dutreix, Nicolas; Buick, Rebecca; Ioualalen, Romain; Guyot, Paul; Campagne, Jean-Charles; Collomb, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic study, a web-based study, qualitative interviews, a quantitative field survey, a study of some results from the ScenaRio 2012 project, this investigation aimed at highlighting the perception that people of different countries and cultural backgrounds (South Africa, Brazil, China, United States, France, India) have from the scientific discourse on climate change threat. The authors first give an overview of the sources of scientific discourse on climate change (primary sources like scientific institutions, GIEC, secondary sources), then analyse how this discourse is relayed by the media (media operation principles, recent trends, Internet, messages and tools to communicate with public opinions). They analyse and comment the behaviour of the different public opinions, outline the determining factors of public opinions, the diversity of noticed profiles, and the behaviour of young generations. They also propose a comparison between countries and a synthesis of results for each country

  8. Potentially toxic metals in rivers upstream of Pantanal Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geizibel Campos de Magalhães

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuiabá (CBA and São Lourenço (SL rivers are considered strategic once they integrate regions, which are economically, socially and environmentally relevant for Brazil and the world. However, several activities developed in their watersheds may represent sources of metals and be a threat to the environmental quality. Thus, in this study we evaluated the spatial and temporal variability of potentially toxic metals in water and sediment and the relationship of their concentration with water quality parameters. Surface water samples were collected monthly in 15 points and bottom sediment in nine points distributed throughout both rivers from August 2012 to July 2013. Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in water by inducted coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe, Mn, Pb and Cr had high concentrations in water and sediment but only Pb and Cr represent environmental risk. Fe and Mn were in higher concentrations in at the upper points of SL River and Cu and Pb in the urban area of both rivers. Temporally, the metal concentrations were associated with precipitation variation. The observed correlations amongst metal concentrations indicate common sources. Thus, the metals occurrence and concentrations in water and sediment of both rivers showed a natural contribution, as a reflex of soil type associated to the region's precipitation regimen as well as the anthropic contribution due to agricultural and cattle breeding activities, and disposal of untreated urban effluents.

  9. First report of the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus in South America, infecting mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Paraíba River (NE, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Patricia Mirella; Vianna, Rogério Tubino; Guertler, Cristhiane; Ferreira, Liana Pinho; Santana, Lucas Nunes; Fernández-Boo, Sergio; Ramilo, Andrea; Cao, Asunción; Villalba, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The present work aimed to study the infection by Perkinsus sp. in the mangrove oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the estuary of the Paraíba River (Paraíba State, Brazil). Perkinsosis was detected by incubation of oyster gill pieces in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. The monthly prevalence values were all above 70%, thus infection was not likely to be a transient event. Perkinsus sp. parasites isolated from eight oysters were propagated in vitro. PCR-RFLP analysis of in vitro cultured cells as well as the sequences of the rDNA ITS region allowed the identification of the in vitro propagated parasites as Perkinsus marinus. Phylogenetic analyses using rDNA ITS region sequences strongly supported the Perkinsus sp. from Paraíba in a monophyletic group with P. marinus. Thus, the results confirmed the species affiliation of Paraíba Perkinsus sp. as P. marinus. This is the first report of P. marinus in Brazil and South America and the first report of P. marinus naturally infecting C. rhizophorae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tree species composition in areas of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil is consistent with a new system for classifying the vegetation of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vasconcellos Eisenlohr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rigorous and well-defined criteria for the classification of vegetation constitute a prerequisite for effective biodiversity conservation strategies. In 2009, a new classification system was proposed for vegetation types in extra-Andean tropical and subtropical South America. The new system expanded upon the criteria established in the existing Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics classification system. Here, we attempted to determine whether the tree species composition of the formations within the Atlantic Forest Biome of Brazil is consistent with this new classification system. We compiled floristic surveys of 394 sites in southeastern Brazil (between 15º and 25ºS; and between the Atlantic coast and 55ºW. To assess the floristic consistency of the vegetation types, we performed non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination analysis, followed by multifactorial ANOVA. The vegetation types, especially in terms of their thermal regimes, elevational belts and top-tier vegetation categories, were consistently discriminated in the first NMDS axis, and all assessed attributes showed at least one significant difference in the second axis. As was expected on the basis of the theoretical background, we found that tree species composition, in the areas of Atlantic Forest studied, was highly consistent with the new system of classification. Our findings not only help solidify the position of this new classification system but also contribute to expanding the knowledge of the patterns and underlying driving forces of the distribution of vegetation in the region.

  11. Sentir o “Paraíso” no Pantanal: reflexões sobre percepção e valoração ambientais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icléia A. de Vargas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analises the construction of the mith around the environment and the landscape of Pantanal. The mith is perceived as paradise’s model to be enjoyed for tourism activities. In this perspective, it unveils the mith of “Pantanal-Paradise” like the contradiction that emerges through expansion of tourism’s activities oriented for the market’s logical.

  12. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Priceless prices and marine food webs: Long-term patterns of change and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight as reflected by the seafood market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincinato, R. B. M.; Gasalla, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The lack of market variables in fishery systems (i.e., prices and quantities) has often been cited as one reason for the particular difficulty of understanding whole marine ecosystem change and its management under a broader ecosystem perspective. This paper shows the results of efforts to tackle this problem in the South Brazil Bight by compiling and analyzing in-depth an unprecedented 40-year database from the region’s largest wholesale seafood market, based in the megacity of São Paulo. Fishery landings and market values for the period 1968-2007 were analyzed primarily by updated trophic level classes and multispecies indicators including the (1) marine trophic index (MTI), (2) weighted price, and (3) log relative price index (LRPI) which relates prices and trophic levels. Moreover, an inferential analysis of major seafood category statistical trends in market prices and quantities and their positive and negative correlations was undertaken. In general, these market trends contributed substantially to identifying and clarifying the changes that occurred. Considerations of the behavior of demand, supply and markets are included. In particular, while the MTI did not support a “fishing down the marine food web” hypothesis, other indicators did show the continued scarcity of major high trophic level categories and fisheries target species. Overall, the results indicate that the analysis of fishery landings, or of certain other indicators alone, can mask real changes. Rather, a joint ecological-econometric analysis provides better evidence of the direction of ecosystem pressures and stock health. This method for detecting market changes across the food web may be particularly helpful for systems considered data-poor but where fish market data have been archived. This study further elucidates historical changes and fishing impacts in the South Brazil Bight ecosystem.

  14. Diptera, Drosophilidae: historical occurrence in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente, V. L. S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a literature review of Drosophilidae (Diptera species occurrence in Brazil. The number of speciesrecorded is 304, with Drosophila being the genus with the greatest number of species, followed by Zygothrica,Hirtodrosophila and Diathoneura, which belong to the Drosophilinae subfamily. Drosophila was shown to be the mostinvestigated taxon in the family, with the best resolved species distribution. The low number of records of species fromother genera indicates the paucity of studies specifically designed to investigate these species. Records of species forsome regions of the country like the north and northeast, as well as for some biomes like Caatinga, Pantanal and thePampas, are likewise rare. Apart from the banana bait, different collection methods may be necessary, like thecollection at other oviposition resources, the use of baits other than fermenting fruit, and the adoption of samplingapproaches that do not use baits.

  15. Trophic ecology of two piranha species, Pygocentrus nattereri and Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes, Characidae, in the floodplain of the Negro River, Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Silva Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate influence of hydrological variation, ontogeny and interspecific variation in the feeding activity and diet composition for P. nattereri and S. marginatus in floodplain of Negro River, South Pantanal. METHODS: The samples were taken with the use of gillnets and cast nets of different sizes, from October/2005 to August/2008. RESULTS: We sampled 748 specimens, 442 of P. nattereri and 306 of S. marginatus. We identified 31 items in the dry and 14 in the flood season for P. nattereri, and 29 items in the dry and eight in the flood season for S. marginatus. For both species, fish was the predominant food item in both seasons. The PERMANOVA results showed that the diet varied significantly between the two species (p<0.001, during ontogenetic development (p<0.001 and seasonally (p=0.024. The ancova results suggests that the intensity of food intake was higher in the dry season (p<0.001 for both species. The niche breadth varied only between studied species with S. marginatus presenting higher niche breadth than P. nattereri. CONCLUSION: Piranhas feed more during dry season, probably because in this period food is more varied and abundant, due to the concentration of fish in the main river channel. There were ontogenetic changes in the diet, with no feeding overlap between the two species, probably because of differences in preference for some items and differences in feeding behavior displayed during hunting attacks.

  16. Food habits of hypertensive and diabetics cared for in a Primary Health Care service in the South of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lena Azeredo de Lima; Fúlvio Borges Nedel; Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto; Julio Baldisserotto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the eating habits of hypertensive and diabetic individuals, classify their adequacy according to the Ministry of Health's Food Guide for the Brazilian Population and determine the association between adequate diet and the health problems under investigation. METHODS: Descriptive study from the baseline of a longitudinal study begun in 2011, with a sample of hypertensive and diabetic patients from a Primary Health Care facility in Southern Brazil, interviewed at home. RESUL...

  17. Prevalência de angina pectoris em Pelotas, RS Prevalence of angina pectoris in Pelotas, south of Brazil

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    Leonardo Alves

    2010-08-01

    -based, cross-sectional study featuring residents of the urban area in Pelotas, a city located in the south of Brazil, from October through December 2007. A two-stage cluster sampling - census tracts and households - was used. The prevalence of angina and possible angina was defined according to the Rose questionnaire. These conditions were assessed by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics: age, sex, skin color, economic status, and schooling. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires in interviews with the individuals in their homes. The non-respondent rate was 6.8%. RESULTS: The prevalence of angina among the 1,680 individuals taking part in the study was 8.2% (95% CI: 6.7 - 9.6, while that of possible angina came to 12.3% (95% CI: 10.6 - 14.0. The prevalence of angina and possible angina was higher among women, black/brown-skinned individuals, low economic class individuals and subjects with the low schooling. The prevalence of angina was higher among older individuals, while possible angina was found not to be associated with age. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of angina and possible angina was found to be high, affecting approximately 20% of the population in Pelotas.

  18. Nest structure and occurrence of three species of Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae in Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae in non-floodable and floodable pantanal areas Arquitetura de ninho e ocorrência de três espécies de Azteca (Hymenoptera, Formicidae em Cecropia pachystachya (Urticaceae em ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandro S. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Cecropia pachystachya trees were examined in non-floodable and floodable areas to investigate the association between C. pachystachya and Azteca ants in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The species Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica, and Azteca alfari were found nesting inside domatia of C. pachystachya. A. ovaticeps was the most frequent species in the trees in the floodable area, while A. isthmica and A. alfari, in the non-floodable area. A. ovaticeps and A. isthmica maintained more entrance/exit holes in comparison to A. alfari. All Azteca species maintained entrance/exit holes in the closest domatia to the apical area of the branch, due to proximity to Müllerian and pearl bodies, suggesting that these species of Azteca were influenced by their environment during evolution and became specialized. All internodal septa of each examined branch were perforated by ants, indicating the branches were inhabited by a single colony.Foram analisadas 30 plantas de Cecropia pachystachya em cada ambiente alagável e não alagável no Pantanal sul-mato-grossense, Brasil, com o objetivo de investigar a associação entre formigas Azteca e C. pachystachya. Foram encontradas as espécies Azteca ovaticeps, Azteca isthmica e Azteca alfari nidificando nas domáceas da planta. A. ovaticeps foi mais frequente em plantas de área alagável, enquanto A. isthmica e A. alfari em plantas em área não alagável. A. ovaticeps e A. isthmica apresentaram maior quantidade de orifícios de entrada/saída em relação à A. alfari e todas as espécies mantêm próximo da região apical do ramo, orifícios de entrada/saída nas domáceas, devido à proximidade com os corpúsculos müellerianos e pérola. Isto é, essas espécies de Azteca especializaram-se ao longo da evolução influenciadas pelo ambientes. Todos os septos internodais de cada ramo analisados apresentaram-se perfurados pelas formigas, sugerindo que os mesmos são habitados por uma única colônia.

  19. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Junqueira Maciel Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%, T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8% and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%; and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%, 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8% and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%, respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4% were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2% for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8% for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE. The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.

  20. Seroepidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp. among horses in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manoel Junqueira Maciel; Rosa, Marina Helena Figueredo; Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Garcia, Adriana de Mello; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos

    2016-06-07

    The present study used the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) to determine the seroprevalence of Sarcocystis neurona, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora spp., and evaluated the variables associated with these infections among 506 apparently healthy horses, reared in the south of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Among the horses, the true prevalence of S. neurona was 26% (95% CI: 22.0-30.4%), T. gondii 19.9% (95% CI: 15.5-24.8%) and Neospora spp. 23.9% (95% CI: 19.9-28.1%); and among the farms, 88.3% (95% CI: 74.4-91.6%), 71.6% (95% CI: 41-92.8%) and 85% (95% CI: 70.7-96.1%), respectively. Regarding mixed infection, 17 horses (3.4%) were seropositive for both S. neurona and T. gondii, 16 (3.2%) for T. gondii and Neospora spp. and 14 (2.8%) for S. neurona and Neospora spp. The associations between seropositivity and variables relating to the structure of the farm, management and health were analyzed using the logistic regression analysis, through the generalized estimating equations (GEE). The results suggest that the south of Minas Gerais is an enzootic area for S. neurona, T. gondii and Neospora spp. among horses, with prevalence of asymptomatic subclinical or chronic infections.

  1. Phanerozoic brittle tectonics in the South American Continental Platform, Southeast Brazil: new insights from fission track studies on apatite in reactivated fault zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Luiz Felipe Brandini; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello; Iunes, Pedro Jose; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Paulo, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    Apatite Fission Track Method (FTM) studies were performed on samples coming from two different fault domains in the Precambrian basement of southeast Brazil in order to evaluate subsequent Phanerozoic tectonic movements in that part of the South American Platform. The samples studied were collected along brittle faults in the Mantiqueira mountain range and in the Jundiai upland plain (Braganca Paulista and Extrema), approximately 100 km northeast of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results of paleostress analysis, as well as the presence of as pseudotachylyte material in the reactivated fault zones, indicates a rapid strain rate and high frictional temperature along these faults. The recognition of deformation related to this brittle tectonic regime is of key importance for the reconstruction of Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the South American Platform. The causal effects of these tectonic readjustments of cratonic rocks during the breakup of West-Gondwana during the Cretaceous and also in younger geological history, are some of the key parameters for understanding the Phanerozoic evolution of the Mantiqueira mountain range. Our FTM data shows the oldest regional thermal histories are recorded in the Jundiai upland plain beginning in the Upper Triassic (∼190 Ma) at 50 deg C, indicating a rapid cooling that is coincident with the tectonic subsidence of the Parana Basin and, probably, the uplift and preservation of Gondwana surface. These data also show slow linear heating (between 50 to 90 deg C) of the southeastern Brazilian margin up to the Lower Cretaceous (∼120 Ma). This phenomenon could either be related to migration of the Trindade plume, or extensional/compressional movements. At ∼120 Ma a structural inversion occurred and the previous slow linear heating was replaced by slow linear cooling (from 90 to 25 deg C) that has persisted up to the present time. Locally, in the younger fault domain, in the Mantiqueira Range near Extrema, fission tracks

  2. The metallogenic role of east-west fracture zones in South America with regard to the motion of lithospheric plates (with an example from Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutina, J.; Carter, William D.; Lopez, F.X.

    1978-01-01

    The role of east-west fracture zones in South America is discussed with regard to global fracturing and the motion of lithospheric plates. A set of major NW-trending lineaments has been derived which show a tendency to be spaced equidistantly and may correspond to a set of east-west fractures in the "pre-drift" position of the South American plate. Statistical analysis of linears in the ERTS-mosaics shows that NW-fractures are also among the most important ones in the Andes region, suggesting that the above major lineaments extend into the basement of the Andes. Some of the old major fractures, trending east-west in the present orientation of South America, are discussed and their NE orientation in the pre-drift position of the plate is considered. An example of structural control of ore deposition in the Brazilian Shield is presented, using the maps of the RADAM Project. It is concluded that the small tin-bearing granitic bodies concentrated in the region of Sao Felix do Xingu in the state of Para represent upper parts of an unexposed granitoid massif which is controlled by the intersection of a major east-west fracture zone probably represents westward extension of the Patos Lineament of the easternmost part of Brazil, connected with the east-west fracture zone of the Para state through the basement of the Maranhao Basin (Sineclise do Maranhao-Piaui). It is expected that the proposed "Patos-Para Lineament" extends further westward and may similarly control, at intersections with fractures of other trends, some mineralization centers in the western part of the state of Para and in the state of Amazonas.

  3. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil

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    R. RANVAUD

    Full Text Available Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods.

  4. Processamento da carne do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare

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    Romanelli Pedro Fernando

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo de algumas formas de processamento da carne de jacaré do pantanal como uma alternativa de consumo, de uma forma não convencional, da carne dessa espécie. Testa-se, ao mesmo tempo, a utilização de carne de cortes normalmente descartados tais como o tronco e os membros. Dessa forma relatam-se os seguintes processamentos: produtos de salsicharia não embutidos (tipo hambúrguer, carne em conserva (enlatado, carne curada e não cozida (defumada e produto curado e cozido (tipo apresuntado. Avalia-se a qualidade dos produtos através da análise sensorial e mede-se estatisticamente o grau de sua aceitação.

  5. Estudo do aproveitamento das vísceras do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare em farinha de carne Study of the utilization of the pantanal alligator's viscera for meat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando Romanelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a produção de farinha de carne a partir das vísceras do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare e o estudo das propriedades físico-químicas, bioquímicas e bacteriológicas da farinha elaborada. Essas características que servem de parâmetro de controle de qualidade, são normalmente exigidas na comercialização de farinhas de carne elaboradas a partir de vísceras e outros materiais de descarte para animais de consumo doméstico. Os resultados obtidos do pH, acidez solúvel, composição percentual dos componentes, dos minerais Ca e P, digestibilidade em pepsina, aspecto microbiológico (presença de "salmonela" e estabilidade avaliada pelo nº de TBARS da farinha mostram ser viável o uso das vísceras do jacaré do pantanal como fonte alternativa de nutrientes para incorporação nas formulações de ração animal .The present paper shidied study the production of the meat flour from the pantanal alligator's viscera as well as the physic-chemical, biochemical and microbiological proprieties of the obtained flour. These proprieties can be parameters of quality control and are normally demanded in the trade of meat flour made from viscera and other discharge animals for domestic use.The results obtained from pH, soluble acidity, components percentual composition, Ca and P minerals, digestibility in pepsin, the microbiological aspect (salmonella determination, and the stability to the meat flour according to the evaluation of the number of TBARS, demonstrate the use of the viscera of the pantanal alligator are feasible as alternate source of nutrients for the incorporation in the formulating of animal feed.

  6. Distribuição de caranguejos Trichodactylidae (Crustacea, Brachyura em alagados do Pantanal Mato-Grossense (Brasil e sua correlação com a proximidade do rio Cuiabá e cobertura vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ricardo da Rosa

    2009-01-01

    that works are mainly with carcinofauna of rivers and lakes. Pantanal is the biggest floodplain of the world, located in a sedimentary basin in the central portion of South America, with around 138 km² of area. There are two season, the rainy and dried, with the flooding period starting in January and finish in April. In this present paper, the distribution of the crabs is studied in temporarily flooded habitats between Cuiabá and São Lourenco Rivers, in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State, both tributary of the Paraguay River. The collect period was in rainy season, daily between 22/02/08 to 03/03/08. The environmental and animal data were collect using 20 plots with 25 m² each, and a siege net with 3 mm of mesh size and captured crabs with beach seine of the same mesh. The vegetation was removed and washed inside of the plots to extract the associated fauna. The habitats were differentiated according to the phytophisionomy, the availability of animal shelter, the type of the submerse plant structures and the distance of the Cuiabá River. The effect of these variables over abundance of crabs associated to the habitats was verified by Kruskall-Wallis test and by linear regression. The mean density of the crabs was 0,63 individuals/m² and the juvenile stage was predominant. It was sampled three of the most abundant species among the six Trichodactylidae species that occur in the region. The correlation was positive to the availability of submerse plant structures, specially grass cover, and negative to the distance of the river. These results show that migration and dispersion to the flooded areas reduces with the distance of the river and concentrates in native or exotic grasses. Probably for the crabs, the gramineae has same ecological role in the flooded areas as the macrophytes have in the perennial water bodies.

  7. Use of MODIS Images to Quantify the Radiation and Energy Balances in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Antônio H. de C. Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available MODIS images during the year 2012 were used for modelling of the radiation and energy balance components with the application of the SAFER algorithm (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving in the Brazilian Pantanal area. Pixels from the main sub-regions of Barão de Melgaço (BR, Paiaguás (PA and Nhecolândia (NH were extracted in order to process microclimatic comparisons. In general, the net radiation (Rn relied much more on the global solar radiation (RG levels than on water conditions and ecosystem types, in accordance with the low Rn standard deviation values. The fraction of the available energy used as latent heat flux (λE were, on average, 65, 50 and 49% for the BR, PA and NH sub-regions, respectively. Horizontal heat advection, identified by the negative values of sensible heat flux (H, made several pixels with λE values higher than those for Rn in the middle of the year. Taking the evaporative fraction (Ef as a surface moisture indicator, the Tree-Lined Savanna (TLS was considered the moister ecosystem class, with 58% of the available energy being used as λE, while the driest one was the modified ecosystem Anthropogenic Changes (AC, presenting a λE/Rn fraction of 0.46. According to the spatial and temporal consistencies, and after comparisons with other previous point and large-scale studies, the SAFER algorithm proved to have sensibility to quantify and compare the large-scale radiation and energy balance components in the different ecosystems of the Brazilian Pantanal. The algorithm is useful for monitoring the energy exchange dynamics among the different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem types throughout the seasons of the year.

  8. Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae in Brazilian Pantanal wetland

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    Fernando L. Sicuro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal. The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA. We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans.

  9. Evaluation of the mobility of 137CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M.; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F.; Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by 137 Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by 137 Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for 137 Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for 137 Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with 137 Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the mobility of {sup 137}CS in soil profiles of the Pantanal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernanda L. da; Ferreira, Ana C.M., E-mail: fleite@ird.gov.br, E-mail: anacris@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V.; Lapa, Celso F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel Vidal; Rendeiro, Nilson, E-mail: chpd@cnps.embrapa.br, E-mail: nilson.rendeiro@embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos; Picanco Junior, Pericles L., E-mail: pericles.picanco@gmail.com [Instituto BioAtlantica (IBIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive pollutants can cause impact on the environmental quality of soils and represent a risk to human health. Radioecological studies have shown that soils with low pH, low organic matter content and low fertility are more vulnerable to contamination by {sup 137}Cs, since the transfer to plants is high. In this study, some surface horizons of soils from Jaraguari, situated at Brazilian Pantanal were assessed in order to map their vulnerability to contamination by {sup 137}Cs. It was also proposed some mitigation measures adapted to the regional scenario in order to optimize radiological protection for rural areas. A conceptual model established to detect the vulnerability of radioactively contaminated soils was applied for soils located in the municipality of Jaraguari (Mato Grosso do Sul). This conceptual model was established based on the relationship between reference values of the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for {sup 137}Cs and critical pedological parameters for each radiovulnerability category (pH, CTC and exchangeable K). The application of this conceptual model to a soil data bank using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools generated vulnerability soils maps. This result identified that most of Pantanal soils presented very low radiovulnerability, but it was possible to detect some small areas presenting extreme radiovulnerability. It was possible to conclude that these small areas is not indicated for activities that presents a potential risk for {sup 137}Cs contamination and also it must receive priority actions for remediation in the case of accident, since a superficial contamination with {sup 137}Cs in these areas can lead to a contamination of subsoil and to a significant spread of contamination via groundwater. (author)

  11. Geoquímica de solos do pantanal norte, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine de Arruda Oliveira Coringa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A caracterização e análise geoquímica de solos permitem compreender os processos de migração, dispersão e concentração de elementos químicos no perfil, embasando a correlação dos atributos deles com as classes de solos formadas, o que possibilita inferências acerca das gêneses desses solos. Esta pesquisa teve por objetivos caracterizar e interpretar a composição geoquímica total de elementos maiores e menores em classes de solos representativas do Pantanal norte, na sub-região de Barão de Melgaço, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foram selecionados 20 perfis das principais classes de solos do Pantanal e analisadas amostras dos horizontes A e B (ou C quanto à concentração de óxidos totais por espectrometria de fluorescência de raios-X, além das caracterizações física, química e mineralógica. Os solos subdividiram-se em dois tipos geoquímicos: um composto por textura arenosa a franco-arenosa com teores relativamente elevados de SiO2 e predominância de caulinita e quartzo, com menor teor de bases e elementos-traço; e outro composto por textura mais argilosa, geoquimicamente heterogêneos e com teores significativos de minerais 2:1, Al2O3, óxidos de Fe e Mn, bases e elementos-traço.

  12. Flooded native pastures of the northern region of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso: biomass and primary productivity variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Pozer

    Full Text Available The Pantanal comprises a number of landscape units, submitted to a flood pulse with variable intensity or regularity. One of these units, the flooded plains, is important in cattle raising. This study was carried out in the northern portion of the Pantanal and presents data related to the productive dynamics of the flooded native pastures both protected from and exposed to cattle. The greatest total biomass values were for the protected pasture due to accumulated dead biomass. Net primary production presented smaller values at the flood-season start and increasing gradually beginning in the subsequent rainy season. However, consumption by cattle was also more intense during the months of greater precipitation. The effect of cattle in pastures is of fundamental importance to management since it prevents the dead biomass excess that increases fire risks.

  13. Contribuição à Caracterização do Pantanal de Paiaguás

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    Camila Leonardo Mioto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O Pantanal é uma das regiões de maior riqueza em biodiversidade do Brasil, abrangendo parte do território do Brasil, Paraguai e Bolívia. Apresenta características internas distintas que o subdividem em diversos Pantanais e, ao se pesquisar na literatura, podem ser encontradas diversas subdivisões, que variam em número de sub-regiões (10 a 18 Pantanais e em área total (133.465 a 168.000 km2 . Assim, objetivou-se neste trabalho contribuir para a delimitação do Pantanal do Paiaguás através de diferentes geotecnologias, priorizando-se a utilização de dados e SIGs livres e gratuitos, imagens de satélite (Landsat 8, modelos digitais de superfície e malha hidrográfica, além de um conjunto de lineamentos estruturais. Os critérios adotados na delimitação foram os aspectos relacionados à inundação, altimetria, hidrografia, vegetação e padrões geológico-estruturais. Como principal resultado obteve-se a delimitação do Pantanal do Paiaguás com 17.808 km², a qual difere dos demais limites encontrados na literatura, principalmente por não englobar dentro de si o Pantanal do Taquari e por terem sido utilizados materiais e metodologia diferentes dos trabalhos anteriores.

  14. An alternative rule for determining demand and energy supply based in marginal cost optimization from interconnected hydrothermal systems, focalizing the individualized plants, applied to the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Bond, P. de; Soares Filho, S.

    1989-01-01

    A methodology for determining optimal strategies of energy supply in the interconnected system from South and Southeast regions of Brazil is presented. The problem was modelled, having as principle the minimization of operation pluri annual cost. The dynamic restrictions of energy and peak flow, the dynamic configuration of hydrothermal park and the hydraulic operation restrictions are also considered. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Comparison of the rift and post-rift architecture of conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore Brazil and Angola/Namibia, South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozyk, Frank; Back, Stefan; Kukla, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a regional comparison between selected 2D seismic transects from large, conjugated salt and salt-free basins offshore southern Brazil (Campos Basin, Santos Basin, Pelotas Basin) and southwest Africa (Kwanza Basin, northern and southern Namibe Basin, Walvis Basin). Tectonic-stratigraphic interpretation of the main rift and post-rift units, free-air gravity data and flexural isostatic backstripping were used for a comprehensive basin-to-basin documentation of key mechanisms controlling the present-day differences in conjugated and neighbouring South Atlantic basins. A significant variation in the tectonic-sedimentary architecture along-strike at each margin and between the conjugated basins across the South Atlantic reflects major differences in (1) the structural configuration of each margin segment at transitional phase between rifting and breakup, as emphasized in the highly asymmetric settings of the large Santos salt basin and the conjugated, salt-free southern Namibe Basin, (2) the post-breakup subsidence and uplift history of the respective margin segment, which caused major differences for example between the Campos and Espirito Santo basins and the conjugated northern Namibe and Kwanza basins, (3) variations in the quantity and distribution of post-breakup margin sediments, which led to major differences in the subsidence history and the related present-day basin architecture, for example in the initially rather symmetric, siliciclastic Pelotas and Walvis basins, and (4) the deposition of Aptian evaporites in the large rift and sag basin provinces north of the Rio Grande Rise and Walvis Ridge, highly contrasting the siliciclastic basins along the margin segments south of the ridges. The resulting present-day architecture of the basins can be generally classified as (i) moderately symmetric, salt-free, and magma-rich in the northern part of the southern segment, (i) highly asymmetric, salt-bearing and magma-poor vs. salt-free and magma

  16. Vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil: a cross-sectional study on prevalence and association with vitamin D receptor gene variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Betânia R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with a multitude of disorders including diabetes, defective insulin secretion as well as rickets and poor bone health. Vitamin D is also a concern during childhood and adolescence and has been reported in girls from South Brazil. We determined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in girls from South Brazil and investigated whether the genotypic distribution of the BsmI, ApaI and TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene and their haplotypes were associated with vitamin D levels. Methods Cross-sectional study including 234 apparently healthy girls aged 7 to 18 years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of body mass index (BMI percentiles for age. Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were assessed. Participants were genotyped for ApaI (rs7975232, TaqI (rs731236, and BsmI (rs1544410 SNPs. Results The median and interquartile range (25-75% of BMI percentile was 62.0 (33.3 – 84.9. The frequency of overweight/obesity was 24.9%. Circulating levels of 25(OHD (≥ 30 ng/mL were adequate in 9.4%; insufficient in 54.3% (20–29 ng/mL; and deficient in 36.3% (vs. GA + AA, two-tailed Student’s t-test p vs. GT + TT, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.031 and TaqI (TT vs. TC + CC, two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.005 SNPs and the GGT haplotype (two-tailed Student’s t-test p = 0.036 were significantly associated with lower 25(OHD levels. Conclusions 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were highly prevalent in this sample. The BsmI, ApaI and TaqI wild variants of the VDR gene, as well as the GGT haplotype, were associated with lower vitamin D levels, suggesting that VDR gene polymorphisms could be linked to higher susceptibility to vitamin D deficiency in a sub-population of children and adolescents.

  17. Production and milk marketing strategies of small-scale dairy farmers in the South of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline dos Santos Neutzling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is a socio-economically relevant activity for many small-scale family farms in southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyse their production and marketing strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 199 farm households in Rio Grande do Sul State to collect information on farm assets and activities, and particularly on the contribution of milk sale to farm income. Through categorical principal component analysis and two-step clustering, farmers were classified into three types: farmers selling only milk (M; farmers selling cash crops and milk (CM; farmers selling cash crops and surplus milk (Cm. Cattle herd (heads and size of pasture land were larger on M farms (114 ±71.9; 51 ±49.4 ha than on CM (31 ±13.4; 9 ±8.9 ha and Cm (12 ±7.5; 5 ±8.1 ha farms. Livestock husbandry contributed 71, 59 and 16 % to family income on M, CM and Cm farms, respectively. Daily milk production of the individual cow depended on the area cultivated with fodder maize (ha per cow; p ≤ 0.001, on sale of milk to cooperatives or to private companies (p ≤ 0.01, on summer pasture area (ha per cow; p = 0.001 and on daily amount of concentrates offered (kg per cow; p ≤ 0.01. These results indicate that the area available for fodder cultivation is a key factor for milk production on small-scale dairy farms in southern Brazil, while concentrate feeding plays a less important role even for highly market-oriented farms. This must be accounted for when exploring options for strengthening the regional small-scale milk production, in which dairy cooperatives do play an important role.

  18. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  19. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-01-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 μg/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024–4.423 μg/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 μg/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 μg/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: ► Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. ► Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. ► Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. ► Mercury has been biomagnified in Pantanal and it is found in high concentrations in top

  20. Survival and development of reintroduced Cattleya intermedia plants related to abiotic factors and herbivory at the edge and in the interior of a forest fragment in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Endres Júnior

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biotic and abiotic factors, such as luminosity, temperature, air humidity, and herbivory, can affect the establishment of reintroduced plants in natural habitats. This study evaluated the effects of these factors on the survival and growth of Cattleya intermedia plants reintroduced into a forest fragment in South Brazil. Plants of C. intermedia were obtained from in vitro seed germination in asymbiotic culture. Eighty-eight plants were reintroduced at both the forest edge and forest interior. Plants with greater shoot heights and number of leaves and pseudobulbs suffered more damage from herbivores at the edge. There were no significant differences in morphometric parameters between damaged and non-damaged plants in the interior. Tenthecoris bicolor, Helionothrips errans, Ithomiola nepos, Molomea magna and Coleoptera larvae damaged C. intermedia. Luminosity was higher at the edge, while air humidity and temperature were the same in both environments. Herbivory associated with abiotic factors increased plant mortality in the interior, while abiotic factors were determinative of plant survival at the edge. Luminosity is important to the survival of reintroduced epiphytic orchids, and herbivory affects the success of reintroduction.

  1. Effusive silicic volcanism in the Paraná Magmatic Province, South Brazil: Physico-chemical conditions of storage and eruption and considerations on the rheological behavior during emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, L. A.; Giordano, D.; Janasi, V. A.; Guimarães, L. F.

    2018-04-01

    Expressive occurrences of effusive deposits were identified in silicic units from the Paraná Magmatic Province outcropping in a key area in south Brazil where three units with different compositions occur (Caxias do Sul dacites, CSd, Barros Cassal andesites to dacites, BCs, and Santa Maria rhyolites, SMr). Textural and chemical characteristics of phenocrysts, microphenocrysts and microlites suggest that crystallization started in a shallow magma chamber and continued during ascent to the surface. These magmas had an unique character (e.g., very high temperatures 1000 °C and low H2O contents 1-2 wt%), and formed several types of deposits that are clearly indicative of locally fed lava flows and had physical properties consistent with this mode of eruption (e.g., viscosities as low as 104.2 Pa·s at ca. 1000 °C for the CSd). The very low estimated H2O contents are a consequence of their petrogenesis (i.e., fractionation from tholeiitic basalts plus assimilation of crustal melts from water-poor granitic sources), and was probably a key factor influencing the non-explosive nature of these deposits. The comparatively higher viscosity calculated for the Santa Maria rhyolite (> 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than CSd) would make it a better candidate to generate expressive pyroclastic deposits, but this might be offset by its remarkably low H2O contents (≤ 1 wt%) and low discharge ratios.

  2. Characterization of non-calcareous 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil: applicability in wall tile manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, S.J.G.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: sidnei_rjsousa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: holanda@uenf.br [Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos - LAMAV-CCT, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    In this work the use of 'thin' red clay from south-eastern Brazil (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ) as raw material for the manufacture of wall tile was investigated. A wide range of characterization techniques was employed, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grain-size analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The wall tile body was prepared by the dry process. The tile pieces were uniaxially pressed and fired between 1080 - 1180 deg C using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density, and flexural strength. The development of the microstructure was followed by SEM and XRD analyses. It was found that the 'thin' red clay is kaolinitic type containing a substantial amount of quartz. The results also showed that the 'thin' red clay could be used in the manufacture of wall tiles, as they present properties compatible with those specified for class BIII of ISO 13006 standard. (author)

  3. Utilization and environmental availability of food outlets and overweight/obesity among schoolchildren in a city in the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elizabeth Nappi; Rossi, Camila Elizandra; das Neves, Janaina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2018-03-01

    Among the causes of obesity, environmental factors have also been studied, in addition to genetic, social, psychological, and hormonal factors. The distribution of food outlets, facilitating or hindering food acquisition, can promote body weight control by encouraging healthier food habits. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between environmental availability and utilization of food outlets and overweight/obesity in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren in Florianópolis, in the South of Brazil. A logistic regression analysis identified a positive association between overweight/obesity in 2195 schoolchildren and the presence of restaurants in the vicinity of their homes (buffer = 400 meters). Being a member of a family that utilizes public markets/greengrocers was also positively associated with overweight/obesity in the sample investigated. Identifying the distribution of these establishments in the vicinity of the homes of schoolchildren in middle-income countries is an important element in understanding the role played by the food environment in weight gain in a variety of different settings.

  4. First Record of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) on the Trinational Frontier (Brazil-Peru-Bolivia) of South-Western Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Diones Antonio; Molina, Silvia Maria Guerra; Pinto, Mara Cristina; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cesario, Manuel; Ortiz, Dennys Ghenry Samillan

    2017-09-01

    In South America, the main sand fly species involved in the transmission of Leishmania infantum chagasi (Cunha & Chagas, 1937), etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL), is Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912). The species has been recorded in Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Brazil, where it is recorded in 24 of the 27 Brazilian states, except Acre, Amazonas, and Santa Catarina. Collections were carried out for one year (April 2013 to March 2014) using modified CDC light traps in different environments in Assis Brasil municipality, state of Acre. Two males of Lu. longipalpis were found in peridomiciliary location in a peri-urban area. This is the first record of the species in Acre. This finding may be considered by the health agencies located in the trinational frontier, and new collections are needed to evaluate the real distribution of the species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Distribution of bovine fasciolosis and associated factors in south Espírito Santo, Brazil: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Vilhena Freire Martins

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution and factors associated with bovine fasciolosis in the south of Espírito Santo were updated and the prevalences of this disease and of snails of the genus Lymnaea in the municipality of Jerônimo Monteiro were calculated. In the first stage, fecal samples were collected from 10% of the herds of 115 farms in 23 municipalities and interviews were conducted with owners. Generalized linear mixed models were used. In the second stage, in Jerônimo Monteiro municipality, feces and mollusks were collected from all farms registered in the milk cooperatives in the region. The mollusks were identified and examined for infection by Fasciola hepatica. Fasciolosis was diagnosed in 18 (78% of the 23 municipalities. Of the 1157 fecal samples examined, 19.01% were positive for eggs of F. hepatica. The final model shows statistical evidence of associations between positive farms and previous cases of fasciolosis and concomitant grazing of cattle with other definitive hosts. In the evaluated farms from the studied municipality the prevalence of fasciolosis and Lymnaea was of 66.7% and 23.8%, respectively. Mollusks were found in flooded areas and the animals' drinking water troughs. The wide geographical distribution of bovine fasciolosis in the south of Espírito Santo requires control measures to prevent its expansion towards the north of this state and other places characterized as F. hepatica free-infection.

  6. Maternal perception of the occurrence of traumatic dental injuries in children: a cohort study of south Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereira; Amaral, Cassia Cardoso; Goettems, Marília Leão; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent mothers may have an inaccurate perception and awareness of dental trauma occurrence in children, which may influence whether or not they seek treatment. This study evaluated maternal perception of traumatic dental injury (TDI) occurrence and related factors in children, 24-36 months of age, of adolescent mothers from a cohort in the city of Pelotas/RS, Brazil. Clinical data from 508 children were collected through physical examination; demographic variables (including socio-economic status) and maternal perception of trauma occurrence were collected through interviews with the children's mothers. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. The prevalence of dental trauma was 12.6% (64). A total of 291 (57.9%) mothers reported that their child had hit his or her teeth/mouth at least once. Only 69 (24.8%) mothers who perceived a TDI sought care. The maternal perception of dental trauma experienced by children showed no relationship with diagnosis on clinical examination. Enamel fracture was the most prevalent type of trauma (71.6%), and the maxillary central incisors were the teeth most affected. Owing to lack of awareness about TDI, the adolescent mothers in this study sample did not seek treatment for their children. Awareness campaigns for parents and caregivers about the possible consequences of TDI and the importance of follow up after dental trauma are required. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Factors associated with post-diagnosis pregnancies in women living with HIV in the south of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barcellos Teixeira

    Full Text Available To analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV.Cross-sectional study with women of a reproductive age living with HIV/AIDS cared for in the public services of the city of Porto Alegre, in southern Brazil. The data was analyzed from a comparison between two groups: women with and women without pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the reasons of prevalence (RP.The occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of HIV is associated with a lower level of education (RP adjusted = 1.31; IC95%: 1.03-1.66, non-use of condoms in the first sexual intercourse (RP = 1.32; IC95%: 1.02-1.70, being 20 years old or less when diagnosed with HIV (RP = 3.48; IC95%: 2.02-6.01, and experience of violence related to the diagnosis of HIV (RP = 1.28; IC95%: 1.06-1.56.The occurrence of pregnancies after the diagnosis of infection by HIV does not indicate the exercise of the reproductive rights of the women living with HIV/AIDS because these pregnancies occurred in contexts of great vulnerability.

  8. Grain yield of soybean cultivars using different densities and sowing dates in a high-altitude region of south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Spader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the performance of soybean cultivars at different sowing dates and plant densities. Two experiments were carried out at FAPA (Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária [Agrarian Foundation for Agricultural and Cattle Research], located at 25?33’ S latitude, 51?29’ W longitude and with 1.100 meters of altitude in Guarapuava, PR [Paraná], Brazil, in two agricultural harvests (2010/2011 and 2011/2012. The experimental design was in randomized blocks and split plots, in which the sowing dates (10/20, 11/18 and 12/10 were allocated by plot, the densities (250, 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1 by subplot and the cultivars (BMX Energia, BMX Apolo, BMX Ativa, FPS Júpiter, V_Top, NS 6631, TMG 7161 and BRS Tordilha by sub-subplot. The agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components were evaluated. Sowing dates and plant densities affected the agronomic characteristics, grain yield and yield components of soybean. The best sowing dates for lodging-tolerant cultivars are 10/20 and 11/18, and the best densities are 350 and 450 thousand plants ha-1, while lodging-susceptible cultivars respond best for sowing dates of 11/18 and 12/10 and densities from 250 to 350 thousand plants ha-1.

  9. Food habits of hypertensive and diabetics cared for in a Primary Health Care service in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Azeredo de Lima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the eating habits of hypertensive and diabetic individuals, classify their adequacy according to the Ministry of Health's Food Guide for the Brazilian Population and determine the association between adequate diet and the health problems under investigation. METHODS: Descriptive study from the baseline of a longitudinal study begun in 2011, with a sample of hypertensive and diabetic patients from a Primary Health Care facility in Southern Brazil, interviewed at home. RESULTS: A total of 2,482 people were interviewed, of which 66.5% were hypertensive, 6.5% diabetic and 27.1% suffered from hypertension and diabetes. Of those interviewed, 29.6% had inadequate eating habits, 46.9% partially inadequate and 23.4% had adequate diets. Low fiber intake was identified along with high consumption of soda, sugar, salt and saturated fat. The most adequate diet was associated with poor health status and the prevalence of inadequate diet was 30.0% higher among those who were only hypertensive. CONCLUSION: According to Ministry of Health guidelines, the eating habits of diabetic and hypertensive subjects are inadequate. The association between adequate diet and the health problems studied indicated a delayed improvement in diet, suggesting an urgent need for preventive and effective interventions to promote healthy eating.

  10. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  11. Area Handbook Series: Brazil: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Encompassing almost half the South American conti- nent and bordering every South American country except Ecuador and Chile , Brazil ranks as the fifth largest...and agricultural projects related to the program was slowed. Expansion of the sugarcane acreage was less 184 Construction site, Aguas Claras mine near...Development-OECD) purchased 60 percent of Brazil’s exports. Among Brazil’s 10 largest export markets, only Argentina (US$718 million), Chile (US$363 million

  12. Feeding habits of capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, Linnaeus 1766, in the Ecological Reserve of Taim (ESEC - Taim - south of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia do Valle Borges

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine feeding habitats of capybaras in the ESEC-Taim (RS, Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Data were analyzed seasonally. In 172 samples analyzed, 17 species were identified, with predominance of Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis was the most frequent species in winter (38%, spring (32% and summer (26.5% and Paspalum disthichum in fall (31.5%. A observed increase in vegetation consumption during summer might be due to the food quality. Capybaras showed an opportunistic behavior in the winter and summer and a more selective behavior in spring and fall. Capybaras from the ESEC-Taim varied diet according to the season and alimentary availability.O principal objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os hábitos alimentares das capivaras na ESEC-Taim baseado na análise microhistologica de suas fezes. Os dados foram analisados sazonalmente. Em 172 amostras analisadas, foram identificadas 17 espécies, com predominância de Poaceae. Zizaniopsis bonariensis foi a espécie mais freqüente no inverno (38%, primavera (32% e verão (26,5% e Paspalum disthichum no outono (31,5%. O aumento no consumo da vegetação durante o verão pode ser explicado devido à qualidade da vegetação. As capivaras mostram um comportamento de oportunismo nas estações de inverno e verão e um comportamento mais seletivo na primavera e outono. Concluindo, as capivaras da ESEC-Taim variam sua dieta de acordo com a estação e a disponibilidade de comida.

  13. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 1- Parity of blood seeking Anopheles (Kerteszia in South-Eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Anopheles (Kerteszia were sampled fortnightly over a one-year period (August 1991 to July 1992 at Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. Indoor and outdoor collections were made on human bait at evening crepuscular period. The Polovodova technique for age grading was applied to 3,501 females of Anopheles cruzii and to 416 females of An. bellator. That sample represented 34.4% of the total number of mosquitoes collected. The most abundant species found was An. cruzii. However, An. bellator showed an endophagy that was almost three times greater than that of An. cruzii. The overall parous rate was 25.4% and uniparity was practically dominant one. A proportion of 26.9% of An. cruzii and 12.0% of An. bellator were found to be uniparous. Only three outdoor females of the former species (0.1% showed biparity. Parity of An. cruzii was higher in females caught outdoors than in those caught indoors. Nevertheless, 497 nulliparous females examined (417 cruzii and 80 bellator had ovaries that had advanced to Christophers and Mer stages III to V. These results imply that these females had already practised hematophagy. Relating these results to those from the parous females, a high statistical significance was found, leading to the conclusion that gonothophic discordance is a common pattern among these anophelines. Further, these results obtained with human bait catches strongly suggest that nearly 38.0% of these host-seeking females had already taken at least one previous blood-meal. So it is possible that enough time could thus be available for the plasmodian development in the vectors.

  14. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.E.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  15. Estrutura da comunidade de artrópodes de solo em diferentes fitofisionomias da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural – Sesc Pantanal, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Mudrek, Jessica Rhaiza; Centro Universitário de Várzea Grande (UNIVAG); Massoli Junior, Edson Viana; Centro Universitário de Várzea Grande (UNIVAG)

    2014-01-01

    As teias alimentares presentes na serrapilheira são de extrema importância para que haja a ciclagem dos nutrientes presentes no solo. A fauna de artrópodes de solo vem sendo estudada no Pantanal matogrossense para que ocorra identificação dos grupos, bem como sua riqueza e distribuição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a comunidade de artrópodes em duas fitofisionomias do Pantanal, além de verificar a relação da abundância e/ou riqueza da fauna com a altura da serrapilheira. O estudo fo...

  16. Variação da Cobertura do Solo no Pantanal de 2000 a 2015 por Sensoriamento Remoto com Software e Dados Gratuitos

    OpenAIRE

    Poliana Neves Peres; Camila Leonardo Mioto; José Marcato Junior; Antonio Conceição Paranhos Filho

    2016-01-01

    Devido à grande importância ambiental e diante do avanço das atividades agropastoris no Pantanal, o presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as modificações ocorridas na cobertura do solo na região, considerada uma das áreas mais ricas em biodiversidade do planeta. O trabalho justifica-se na relevância da preservação do Pantanal, já que este desempenha papel importantíssimo na manutenção de tal biodiversidade. Sendo a pecuária a base da economia local, e sabendo que é a atividad...

  17. LOW PREVALENCE OF BARRETT’S ESOPHAGUS IN A RISK AREA FOR ESOPHAGEAL CANCER IN SOUTH OF BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Michelon DE CARLI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Barrett’s esophagus a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing in most Western countries. Rio Grande do Sul (RS, the Southernmost state of Brazil has the highest rates of esophageal cancer with low prevalence of esophageal adenocarcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus among patients underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the last 5 years. METHODS: The records of patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between 2011 and 2015 were analyzed. Demographic data, GERD symptoms, endoscopic findings, extension and histological diagnosis of columnar epithelia of the esophagus were recorded. Significance among the variables was accessed by chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test with 95% CI. RESULTS: A total of 5996 patients underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the period were included. A total of 1769 (30% patients with GERD symptoms or esophagitis and 107 (1.8% with columnar lined esophagus were identified. Except for eight patients, the others with columnar lined esophagus had GERD symptoms or esophagitis. Barrett’s esophagus defined by the presence of intestinal metaplasia occurred in 47 patients; 20 (43% with segments over 3 cm and 27 (57% with segments shorter than 3 cm. The global prevalence of Barrett’s esophagus was 0.7% and in GERD patients 2.7%. The odds ratio for the occurrence of columnar lined esophagus in patients with GERD was 30 (95%CI=15.37-63.34. The odds ratio for the presence of intestinal metaplasia in long segments was 8 (95%CI=2.83-23.21. CONCLUSION: GERD patients had a risk 30-folds greater to present columnar lined esophagus than patients without GERD symptoms. Long segments of columnar lined esophagus, had a risk eight-folds higher to have Barrett’s esophagus than short segments. Barrett’s esophagus overall

  18. Habitat suitability of Anopheles vector species and association with human malaria in the Atlantic Forest in south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Ramos, Daniel Garkauskas; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2011-08-01

    Every year, autochthonous cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria occur in low-endemicity areas of Vale do Ribeira in the south-eastern part of the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, where Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles bellator are considered the primary vectors. However, other species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus of Anopheles (e.g., Anopheles marajoara) are abundant and may participate in the dynamics of malarial transmission in that region. The objectives of the present study were to assess the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to associate the presence of these species with malaria cases in the municipalities of the Vale do Ribeira. Potential habitat suitability modelling was applied to determine both the spatial distribution of An. cruzii, An. bellator and An. marajoara and to establish the density of each species. Poisson regression was utilized to associate malaria cases with estimated vector densities. As a result, An. cruzii was correlated with the forested slopes of the Serra do Mar, An. bellator with the coastal plain and An. marajoara with the deforested areas. Moreover, both An. marajoara and An. cruzii were positively associated with malaria cases. Considering that An. marajoara was demonstrated to be a primary vector of human Plasmodium in the rural areas of the state of Amapá, more attention should be given to the species in the deforested areas of the Atlantic Forest, where it might be a secondary vector.

  19. Management of fishing of the Broadband Anchovy (Anchoviella lepidentostole (Fowler, 1911, in south São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT. Mendonça

    Full Text Available The broadband anchovy (Anchoviella lepidentostole is one of the most important fishery resources for economic and social development of Iguape City and for the whole of the south coast of São Paulo state. Nowadays this activity involves over 2,500 fishermen. This paper aims to evaluate its fishing, and discuss how the activity is managed. In order to conduct this study, production data and catch per unit effort (CPUE data from the 1998-2000 period have been collected, and the characterisation of the activity has also been done. A decline in broadband anchovy abundance had been observed in the region up until 2004, when a new regulation was implemented, in an attempt to recover the resource, with the establishment of closed season fishing (defeso during the catch season, and adjustments in the employed fishing gear. The results have shown a recovery of the abundance of broadband anchovy throughout the 2005-2010 period, showing thus far that the measures taken for the maintenance of the resource have been successful. The activity has been managed through discussions involving people from the fishing sector in order to determine the controversial actions to be taken, that are hard to enforce. In order to achieve a more satisfactory resource management, it is necessary to keep the participatory process, with adaptive co-management, based on discussion among all the sectors involved (from government and society, and constant monitoring of the activity.

  20. Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban Violence Reduction and Citizen Security in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and ... The work will be conducted in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and South Africa, which are ... Minister Bibeau announces appointments of IDRC's President and new ...

  1. INDICADORES DE QUALIDADE EM UM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO-AMARELO SOB PASTAGEM EXTENSIVA NO PANTANAL MATOGROSSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRICIO TOMAZ RAMOS

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of land constitutes a growing concern for different managements and inappropriate agricultural practices. Despite the expansion of scientific knowledge on soil it appears that the use of indicators to estimate their quality, independently does not allow a proper evaluation for the diagnosis of imbalances in production systems. This research aimed to diagnose changes on important physical and microbiological indicators in a dystrophic Red-Yellow (Oxissol under extensive grazing conditions and native vegetation in the Brazilian Pantanal. The results showed significant deterioration in physical and microbiological environment anthropized with average reductions in indicators of 51.62%, 10.30%, 16.36%, for microbial carbon, basal respiration, percentage of wet aggregates, respectively, and increases for soil density, soil resistance to penetration, metabolic quotient of 184.68%, 142.18%, 88.31%, respectively. By inserting these results in a Qualigram allowed to obtain a quantitative index of soil quality under extensive grazing equal to -0.0814. Based on this index has qualified sustainable management of cumulative effects on pasture as a "system under collapse" compared to the native environment.

  2. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa of Brazilian Pantanal

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    SS Lessa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36 and enterococci (186 strains. Among Gram-negative (GN bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247 mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105, Escherichia coli (50, and Enterobacter spp. (40 and specimens not identified (7. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%. Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%, ampicillin (94% and tetracycline (90%, and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%, clindamycin (83%, and cotrimoxazole (54%. In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%, AMC (66% and AMP (60% and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%, AMP, TOB (98%, GEN, CLO (95%, CFO, CIP (93%. The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated.

  3. Complementary data on four methods for sampling free-living ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Vanessa do Nascimento Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2 traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.

  4. Efficacy of extracts from plants of the Brazilian Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus

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    Larissa Bezerra dos Santos

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the in vitro acaricidal activity of extracts from 21 plant species from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul. During stage I, a larval immersion test was performed using three extract concentrations (5%, 20%, and 40%. During stage II, we used only plants that showed over 95% efficiency at the 40% concentration in stage I in an amount sufficient for the adult immersion test. Aeschynomene denticulata, Angelonia hirta, Aspilia latissima, Caperonia castaneifolia, Centratherum punctatum, Crotalaria micans, Diodia kuntzei, Echinodorus paniculatus, Hyptis mutabilis, Lantana canescens, Melanthera latifolia, Ocotea diospyrifolia, Richardia grandiflora, Sebastiana hispida, Tocoyena formosa, Zanthoxylum rigidum, and Sesbania virgata (fruit extract showed acaricidal activity against the larval stage ofRhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus higher than 95% at a 40% (w/v concentration, while Hippocratea volubilis and Randia armatashowed moderate efficacy and Croton glandulosus andSenna obtusifolia had no effect. The M. latifolia, A. hirta, R. grandiflora, and A. latissima raw extracts were evaluated for their activity against adults, and only A. hirta showed an efficacy close to 90%. Eighteen extracts had an efficacy of up to 95% against larvae at a 40% concentration, seven extracts were effective at 20%, and only one (Sebastiana hispida was effective at a 5% concentration.

  5. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    KAUST Repository

    Dalla Costa, Elis R.; Vasconcelos, Sidra E. G.; Esteves, Leonardo S.; Gomes, Harrison M.; Gomes, Lia L.; Almeida da Silva, Pedro; Perdigã o, Joã o; Portugal, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; McNerney, Ruth; Pain, Arnab; Clark, Taane G.; Rastogi, Nalin; Unis, Gisela; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R.; Suffys, Philip Noel

    2015-01-01

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers.

  6. Use of side-scan sonar for estimations of Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 stocks in subtidal banks on the south coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.

  7. The role of remote wind forcing in the subinertial current variability in the central and northern parts of the South Brazil Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Marcelo; Castro, Belmiro Mendes

    2018-05-01

    Data analysis of continental shelf currents and coastal sea level, together with the application of a semi-analytical model, are used to estimate the importance of remote wind forcing on the subinertial variability of the current in the central and northern areas of the South Brazil Bight. Results from both the data analysis and from the semi-analytical model are robust in showing subinertial variability that propagates along-shelf leaving the coast to the left in accordance with theoretical studies of Continental Shelf Waves (CSW). Both the subinertial variability observed in along-shelf currents and sea level oscillations present different propagation speeds for the narrow northern part of the SBB ( 6-7 m/s) and the wide central SBB region ( 11 m/s), those estimates being in agreement with the modeled CSW propagation speed. On the inner and middle shelf, observed along-shelf subinertial currents show higher correlation coefficients with the winds located southward and earlier in time than with the local wind at the current meter mooring position and at the time of measurement. The inclusion of the remote (located southwestward) wind forcing improves the prediction of the subinertial currents when compared to the currents forced only by the local wind, since the along-shelf-modeled currents present correlation coefficients with observed along-shelf currents up to 20% higher on the inner and middle shelf when the remote wind is included. For most of the outer shelf, on the other hand, this is not observed since usually, the correlation between the currents and the synoptic winds is not statistically significant.

  8. Assessment and management of white mullet Mugil curema (Valencienne, 1836 (Mugilidae fisheries of the south coast of São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JT. Mendonça

    Full Text Available There is intense fishing activity, mainly artisanal, in the Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida Estuarine System. White mullet (Mugil curema is one of the local fishery resources and is usually caught with gillnets and fish traps. This study aimed to characterise the Mugil curema fisheries thereby underpinning the management of the species in the region. The study was developed with data collected from landings in the town of Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1995 to 2009. Production data, fishing effort and CPUE were used to assess the evolution of captures. The gillnets were characterised by interviewing fishermen from 16 communities in Cananéia. White mullet fishery has aroused the interest of fishermen in the region since the 80s and today it is one of the main products of artisanal estuarine fishery off the south coast of São Paulo. The major landings occur in the warmer months with fish traps and gillnets being the main fishing gear used. The largest catches occur in the spawning months of the species from October to April. The highest landings varied according to different fishing gear, showing differences primarily due to trade preferences and to the structure of the fishing gear. According to the index of abundance used in this study, the resource is overfished due to the progressive increase in fishing effort, so it is suggested that measures should be taken to control fishing effort, such as special fishing permits to catch white mullet, especially with gillnets. The current management measures neither meet the needs of fishermen nor the preservation of the resource, and must be reviewed in a participatory way with management agencies and the fishery sector, ensuring greater legitimacy and success in the sustainability of the activity.

  9. Assessment and management of white mullet Mugil curema (Valencienne, 1836) (Mugilidae) fisheries of the south coast of São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J T; Bonfante, T M

    2011-08-01

    There is intense fishing activity, mainly artisanal, in the Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida Estuarine System. White mullet (Mugil curema) is one of the local fishery resources and is usually caught with gillnets and fish traps. This study aimed to characterise the Mugil curema fisheries thereby underpinning the management of the species in the region. The study was developed with data collected from landings in the town of Cananéia, São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1995 to 2009. Production data, fishing effort and CPUE were used to assess the evolution of captures. The gillnets were characterised by interviewing fishermen from 16 communities in Cananéia. White mullet fishery has aroused the interest of fishermen in the region since the 80s and today it is one of the main products of artisanal estuarine fishery off the south coast of São Paulo. The major landings occur in the warmer months with fish traps and gillnets being the main fishing gear used. The largest catches occur in the spawning months of the species from October to April. The highest landings varied according to different fishing gear, showing differences primarily due to trade preferences and to the structure of the fishing gear. According to the index of abundance used in this study, the resource is overfished due to the progressive increase in fishing effort, so it is suggested that measures should be taken to control fishing effort, such as special fishing permits to catch white mullet, especially with gillnets. The current management measures neither meet the needs of fishermen nor the preservation of the resource, and must be reviewed in a participatory way with management agencies and the fishery sector, ensuring greater legitimacy and success in the sustainability of the activity.

  10. Milk quality and financial management at different scales of production on dairy farms located in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gomes Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between aspects related to financial management and scale of production with quality traits (total bacteria count - TBC; somatic cell count - SCC and composition (protein, fat, lactose, total solids, and non-fat solids of refrigerated bulk tank milk from 100 dairy farmers located in the south of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by application of a semi-structured questionnaire. Dairy farmers were categorized according to the daily milk production: small (lower than 150 L; medium (151 to 500 L; and large (higher than 501 L. Chi-square tests and identification of possible relative risks between financial aspects and current regulation standards (Normative Instruction No. 62 of December 29, 2011, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply associated to TBC (higher 300,000 CFU/mL and SCC (higher than 500,000 cells/mL means from bulk tank milk among different milk scales productions were performed. Bulk tanks milk composition met the legislation standards and had not differ between scales of production; however, SCC means within all scales, and TBC of small farmers had not attended the legislation standards and differences were identified (P ≤ 0.05. Regarding the financial management aspects, most farmers had no control over incomes, costs, nor calculated milk production cost, with decreased incidences as scale of production increased. Chi-square tests identified that producers that had no concern about milk quality payment bonuses had TBC means 2.95 times more likely (P ≤ 0.05 to be above the current regulations. Small dairy farmers had a greater negligence of the costs management and hygienic milk production as compared to medium and large farmers.

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage, Wrongly Identified as Mycobacterium pinnipedii (Spoligotype International Type 863 [SIT863]), Causing Active Tuberculosis in South Brazil

    KAUST Repository

    Dalla Costa, Elis R.

    2015-09-23

    We recently detected the spoligotype patterns of strains of Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, in sputum samples from nine cases with pulmonary tuberculosis residing in Porto Alegre, South Brazil. Because this species is rarely encountered in humans, we further characterized these nine isolates by additional genotyping techniques, including 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, verification of the loci TbD1, RD9, pks15/1, RDRio, and fbpC, the insertion of IS6110 at a site specific to the M. tuberculosis Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage, and whole-genome sequencing. The combined analysis of these markers revealed that the isolates are in fact M. tuberculosis and more specifically belong to the LAM genotype. Most of these isolates (n = 8) were shown to be multidrug resistant (MDR), which prompted us to perform partial sequencing of the rpoA, rpoB, rpoC, katG, and inhA genes. Seven isolates (77.8%) carried the S315T mutation in katG, and one of these (11%) also presented the C(−17)T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in inhA. Interestingly, six of the MDR isolates also presented an undescribed insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCA GAA CAA CCC) in codon 516 of rpoB. No putative compensatory mutation was found in either rpoA or rpoC. This is the first report of an M. tuberculosis LAM family strain with a convergent M. pinnipedii spoligotype. These spoligotypes are observed in genotype databases at a modest frequency, highlighting that care must be taken when identifying isolates in the M. tuberculosis complex on the basis of single genetic markers.

  12. Integrating internet GPS vehicle tracking data into a bottom-up vehicular emissions inventory and atmospheric simulation in South-East, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra Espinosa, S.; Ynoue, R.; Giannotti, M., , Dr

    2017-12-01

    It has been shown the importance of emissions inventories for air quality studies and environmental planning at local, regional (REAS), hemispheric (CLRTAP) and global (IPCC) scales. It has been shown also that vehicules are becoming the most important sources in urban centers. Several efforts has been made in order to model vehicular emissions to obtain more accurate emission factors based on Vehicular Specific Power (VPS) with IVE and MOVES based on VSP, MOBILE, VERSIT and COPERT based on average speed, or ARTEMIS and HBEFA based on traffic situations. However, little effort has been made to improve traffic activity data. In this study we are proposing using a novel approach to develop vehicular emissions inventory including point data from MAPLINK a company that feeds with traffic data to Google. This includes working and transforming massive amount of data to generate traffic flow and speeds. The region of study is the south east of Brazil including São Paulo metropolitan areas. To estimate vehicular emissions we are using the open source model VEIN available at https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vein. We generated hourly traffic between 2010-04-21 and 2010-10-22, totalizing 145 hours. This data consists GPS readings from vehicles with assurance policy, applications and other sources. This type data presents spacial bias meaning that only a part of the vehicles are tracked. We corrected this bias using the calculated speed as proxy of traffic flow using measurements of traffic flow and speed per lane made in São Paulo. Then we calibrated the total traffic estimating Fuel Consumption with VEIN and comparing Fuel Sales for the region. We estimated the hourly vehicular emissions and produced emission maps and data-bases. In addition, we simulated atmospheric simulations using WRF-Chem to identify which inventory produces better agreement with air pollutant observations. New technologies and big data provides opportunities to improve vehicular emissions

  13. HIV/AIDS: use of the ICF in Brazil and South Africa--comparative data from four cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myezwa, H; Buchalla, C M; Jelsma, J; Stewart, A

    2011-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious disease which can be associated with various activity limitations and participation restrictions. The aim of this paper was to describe how HIV affects the functioning and health of people within different environmental contexts, particularly with regard to access to medication. Four cross-sectional studies, three in South Africa and one in Brazil, had applied the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a classification instrument to participants living with HIV. Each group was at a different stage of the disease. Only two groups had had continuing access to antiretroviral therapy. The existence of these descriptive sets enabled comparison of the disability experienced by people living with HIV at different stages of the disease and with differing access to antiretroviral therapy. Common problems experienced in all groups related to weight maintenance, with two-thirds of the sample reporting problems in this area. Mental functions presented the most problems in all groups, with sleep (50%, 92/185), energy and drive (45%, 83/185), and emotional functions (49%, 90/185) being the most affected. In those on long-term therapy, body image affected 93% (39/42) and was a major problem. The other groups reported pain as a problem, and those with limited access to treatment also reported mobility problems. Cardiopulmonary functions were affected in all groups. Functional problems occurred in the areas of impairment and activity limitation in people at advanced stages of HIV, and more limitations occurred in the area of participation for those on antiretroviral treatment. The ICF provided a useful framework within which to describe the functioning of those with HIV and the impact of the environment. Given the wide spectrum of problems found, consideration could be given to a number of ICF core sets that are relevant to the different stages of HIV disease. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of

  14. Disparate compensation policies for research related injury in an era of multinational trials: a case study of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingarande, George Rugare; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2018-02-17

    Compensation for research related injuries is a subject that is increasingly gaining traction in developing countries which are burgeoning destinations of multi center research. However, the existence of disparate compensation rules violates the ethical principle of fairness. The current paper presents a comparison of the policies of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). A systematic search of good clinical practice guidelines was conducted employing search strategies modeled in line with the recommendations of ADPTE Collaboration (2007). The search focused on three main areas namely bibliographic data bases, clinical practice guidelines data bases and a restricted internet search. A manual search of references cited in relevant guideline documents was also conducted. The search terms, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and key words were developed for a PubMed platform and then adapted for all other data bases. The search terms were kept constant for each country with the only difference being the country name. The documents so obtained were subjected to systematic content analysis. The study revealed that there is vast panoply of regulations which exist on a continuum. On one extreme is India with comprehensive regulations that are codified into law, and on the other end there is China which does not have specific laws regulating research related injuries. There are a number of differences and similarities such as mandatory insurance requirements, existence of no fault compensation, compensable injuries and the role of research ethics committees. It is imperative to enact legislations that protect participants without stifling the research enterprise. There is need for consistency and ideally harmonization of such regulations at a global level. A model policy on compensation for research related injuries should borrow from the best aspects of the different country policies and should be informed by the cardinal ethics principles of autonomy, justice

  15. The Lagoa Real subalkaline granitic complex (south Bahia, Brazil): a source for uranium mineralizations associated with Na-Ca metasomatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruejol, P.; Cuney, M.; Poty, B.; Neto, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the central zone of the Sao Francisco Craton (South Bahia), the lower Proterozoic Lagoa Real granites and orthogneisses overthrust to the West the younger Urandi and Espinhaco metamorphic series, probably a late Brazilian event. This thrust is related to the regional metamorphism (amphibolite facies) of the Lagoa Real granites and induces a reverse HP metamorphism in the over thrusted series. Undeformed granites (sao Timoeto type) present two feldspars, perthitic orthoclase largely predominant over plagioclase (oligoclase ≥ albite), blue quartz, Fe-rich amphibole and biotite ± clinopyroxene assemblages, ilmenite ≥ magnetite, zircon, apatite, allanite and Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates. The crystallization of the granites begins at high temperature and under low fO 2 and P H2O conditions. Fractional crystallization of pyroxene and plagioclase leads to silica enrichment during magmatic differentiation. Increasing fO 2 and P H2O are observed during this evolution. Orthogneisses show strongly recrystallized paragenesis: equal abundance of non-perthitic microcline and plagioclase (oligoclase ≤ albite), quartz, more Al-rich amphibole and biotite, magnetite, sphene, zircon, allanite, Nb ± Ti-REE oxides and silicates, and ± apatite. HT Na and Ca metasomatism occurs 330 Ma later than granite emplacement and is synchronous with important uranium mineralizations. Major elements and trace-elements geochemistry of the granites and orthogneisses indicate subalkaline to alkaline typology. Incompatible behaviour of Th, REE, Y, Zr, Nb, and F points out a convergence with alkaline magmatism. CI, F, Th, Y, REE, NB enrichments and Ba, Sr depletions are also related to a late magmatic stage. U-Th-rich and metamict accessory minerals of the granites represent a favorabl source for the Lagoa Real uranium ore-deposits [pt

  16. Serosurvey of Leptospirainterrogans, Brucellaabortus and Chlamydophilaabortus infection in free-ranging giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia R. Miranda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:A serological survey for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans, Brucella abortus, and Chlamydophila abortus was conducted in 21 clinically healthy, free-ranging giant ant- eaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla from Parque Nacional das Emas (Goiás State, Brazil; n=6, Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra (Minas Gerais State, Brazil; n=9, and RPPN SESC Pantanal (Mato Grosso State, Brazil; n=6 between July 2001 and September 2006. Sera were screened for antibodies against 22 serovars of Leptospira interrogans with a microscopic agglutination test. Twelve tested positive for L. interrogansserovars sentot (n=5 in PN Emas, n=2 in PN Serra da Canastra, butembo (n=2 in PN Serra da Canastra, autumnalis, bataviae, and shermani/icterohaemorrhagiae(n=1 each in SESC PantanalOne adult female tested positive for B. abortus with the buffered plate antigen test. All sera were negative for C. abortususing the complement fixation text. This is the first report of pathogens that may interfere with the reproduction and population dynamics of free-ranging giant anteaters.

  17. MUDANÇAS AMBIENTAIS QUATERNÁRIAS NO MEGALEQUE FLUVIAL DO AQUIDAUANA, BORDA SUDESTE DO PANTANAL MATOGROSSENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Gregório, Eliézer Cece; Facincani, Edna Maria; Professora Dra. da FAENG/UFMS (Faculdade das Engenharias, Arquitetura e Urbanismo e Geografia da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul), Campus de Campo Grande/MS – Brasil – bloco 7A. Telefone: (67) 3345-7384. E-mail:; Amorim, Gustavo Marques e; Turismólogo - UFMS / Mestre e Doutor em Geociências - Geologia Regional - UNESP FUNDECT - Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul UFMS -Fundação Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul INFI - Instituto de Física - Laboratório de Modelagem Computacional Telefone: (67) 9126-7405 (67) 3345-7384

    2016-01-01

    O Megaleque do Aquidauana é um trato de sistemas deposicionais, em que o rio Paraguai é a drenagem principal, coletora das águas de diversos leques fluviais, constituindo de uma importante feição geomorfológica instalada na Borda Sudeste do Pantanal Mato-Grossense, com área de aproximadamente 3.783.48 km². No presente trabalho, utilizando dados orbitais e técnicas de interpretação visual de imagens a área foi compartimentada em três lobos deposicionais distintos denominados de antigo, pré-atu...

  18. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Henrique Oliveira Gomide

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O bioma Pantanal é reconhecido como uma das maiores extensões úmidas contínua do planeta, com fauna e flora de rara beleza e abundância. Estudos para acessar a diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA nesse ambiente são inexistentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência de FMA nas diferentes fitofisionomias do Pantanal da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram coletadas amostras de solo no período seco e chuvoso em um Neossolo Quartzarênico, em fitofisionomias sujeitas a distintos regimes de inundação: livres de inundação - Floresta Semidecídua (FS e Cerradão (CE; sujeitos à inundação ocasional - Campo limpo, predominando Elyonorus muticus (CLE e Cerrado (CC; e sujeitos à inundação sazonal - Campo limpo, predominando Andropogon spp. (CLA, borda de baias (BB e vazante/baixadas (VB. Culturas armadilhas foram estabelecidas com Brachiaria brizantha para recuperar espécies crípticas de FMA. De cada amostra de solo, foram realizadas a caracterização química do solo e extração dos esporos de FMA para determinar abundância, riqueza e identificação das espécies. Um total de 37 espécies de FMA, pertencentes a 10 gêneros e seis famílias foram detectadas nas duas estações de coleta. O número de esporos variou significativamente entre as fitofisionomias, e os maiores valores foram encontrados em CE e CLA. A maior riqueza específica foi detectada em CC (25 espécies seguida de VB e CE com 22 e 21 espécies, respectivamente. Os resultados deste estudo sugeriram que a diversidade dos FMA está relacionada com a heterogeneidade existente entre as fitofisionomias, e que características químicas do solo têm influência na estruturação das comunidades desses fungos. Considerando que o bioma Pantanal é um dos ecossistemas mais conservado do planeta, o levantamento de ocorrência de FMA realizado neste trabalho forneceu informações importantes para melhor conhecimento da biodiversidade das

  19. The Role of Social Research in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS in Brazil and South Africa, 1990s-2010s. An Assessment of the Socio-Political Context of Knowledge Production and Use

    OpenAIRE

    Katito, José

    2014-01-01

    The core argument of the present work is articulated in four points. First, social- science knowledge is crucial to understand and combat HIV/AIDS; second, integrated and engaged social-science is especially vital for such endeavor; third, integrated and engaged scholarship of HIV/AIDS has been prominent in Brazil (since 1990s) and South Africa (since 2000s); Fourth, Brazil’s earlier use of social- science knowledge in HIV/AIDS policy accounts for its success in tackling the epidemic, and S...

  20. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  1. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL -1 and 107-1038 µmol L -1 , respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  2. Habitats and trophic relationships of Chironomidae insect larvae from the Sepotuba River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakka, C M M; Grzybkowska, M; Pinha, G D; Takeda, A M

    2014-05-01

    Benthic habitats are linked by physical processes and are essential elements in assessing of the distribution dynamics of Chironomidae dipteran insects and their role in aquatic ecosystems. This work presents results of distribution patterns of chironomids larvae in 38 sites that are abundant in the study site, inhabiting the substrate of the main river channel, rapids, tributary brook, floodplain lakes and reservoir along the Sepotuba River from its mouth at the Paraguay River to the headwater region. A total of 1,247 larvae was registered. The most abundant taxa were Polypedilum (Tripodura) sp. (25.2%), Cricotopus sp.3 (23.0%) and Tanytarsus sp. (15.0%). Fissimentum desiccatum were found only in the reservoir; Fissimentum sp.2 and Tanytarsus cf. T. obiriciae sp.2 in floodplain lakes, and Goeldichironomus sp. in the main channel. The low diversity of the sites S06 and S35 is caused by the near-exclusive presence of the species Cricotopus sp.3, alone or together with one or another taxon (Tanytarsus sp., Djalmabatista sp.3). Collectors-filterers represent 16%, collectors-gatherers 15%, predators 11% and scrapers only 1%. The predators dominated in the secondary channel (±88 ind/m2), corresponding to 40% of the total of this group. Cryptochironomus sp.2 (34%) and Ablasbemyia gr. annulata (26%) were the most abundant among the predators. The differences along the river course are decisive for the formation of distinct or discontinuous communities and the limits become obvious though the interrelations between the populations in the community, as for instance, competition for food and habitats.

  3. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Barbiero, Laurent; Furian, Sonia M.; Rezende Filho, Ary T.

    2015-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  4. Fish stock assessment of piraputanga Brycon microlepis in the Cuiabá River basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. de F. MATEUS

    Full Text Available Fork length measurements of individuals of Brycon microlepis landed and commercialized at the Porto Market in Cuiabá, MT, from May-October 1996 to May-October 1997 were used to estimate growth and mortality parameters for this species. The average estimated populational parameters were: L¥ = 705 mm, k = 0.275 year--1, C = 0.775, WP = 0.465, Lc = 164 mm, M = 0.585 year--1, Z = 0.822 year--1, with F = 0.237 year--1. Yield per recruit analysis suggests that the stock is not yet overexploited.

  5. Fish stock assessment of piraputanga Brycon microlepis in the Cuiabá River Basin, Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, L A de F; Estupiñán, G M B

    2002-02-01

    Fork length measurements of individuals of Brycon microlepis landed and commercialized at the Porto Market in Cuiabá, MT, from May-October 1996 to May-October 1997 were used to estimate growth and mortality parameters for this species. The average estimated populational parameters were: L infinity = 705 mm, k = 0.275 year-1, C = 0.775, WP = 0.465, Lc = 164 mm, M = 0.585 year-1, Z = 0.822 year-1, with F = 0.237 year-1. Yield per recruit analysis suggests that the stock is not yet overexploited.

  6. Abundance and frugivory of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forest in Brazil's Southern Pantanal

    OpenAIRE

    Ragusa-Netto,J.

    2006-01-01

    Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) - the largest Ramphastidae - usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a galler...

  7. Comparison of different enrichment factors to assess the natural accumulation of trace elements in sediment cores from Nhecolandia Pantanal, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Levi F.; Damatto, Sandra R., E-mail: leyi@usp.br, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barbiero, Laurent, E-mail: barbiero@ltmg.obs.mip.fr [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Furian, Sonia M., E-mail: furian@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Geografia; Rezende Filho, Ary T., E-mail: ary.rezende@ufms.br [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), MS (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharias, Arquitetura e Urbanismo e Geografia

    2015-07-01

    Four sediment cores were collected at different lakes of salty water, commonly known as 'Salinas', in the Nhecolandia Wetland. In the collected cores, Salina A, Salina 6, Salina M and Salina V, the elements As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Rb, Sb, Se, U, Zn and rare earth elements Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. Aiming to verify the best criterion to evaluate the enrichment factor of minor and major elements in the sediment cores, three different calculations of the enrichment factor was employed. The first one, EF (Enrichment Factor), compares the normalized element concentrations with Upper Continental Crust normalized values, the second one, GNF (Geochemical Normalization Factor) compares the ratio between the element concentration and the normalizer with the depth in the sediment core; for these both factors the element Sc was used as a normalizer element. The third one factor, BEF (Base Enrichment Factor), compares the concentrations determined throughout the core with the results obtained in the base of it. With the results, it was possible to conclude that the best enrichment factor to evaluate the enhancement of elements in natural environments is the one that takes into account the core element concentration obtained in the base of it, BEF. (author)

  8. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  9. Effects of flooding on the spatial distribution of soil seed and spore banks of native grasslands of the Pantanal wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carla de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTo better understand the role that flooding plays in shaping plant communities of native floodable grasslands of the Pantanal and to characterize the spatial distribution of plants, we present the results of a survey of soil seed and spore banks using the seedling emergence method. We hypothesized that terrain subjected to the deepest and longest flooding should have higher propagule abundance and richness. The species composition and distribution of seeds and spores in the soil were assessed at five sites using three sampling positions at each according to inundation intensity. In each sample position 2cm-thick soil samples were collected in quadrats to a depth of 10cm. Litter was also collected as an independent layer. Sample monitoring in the greenhouse resulted in the emergence of 5489 seedlings, or 6353 propagules.m-2. Both the litter layer and the deepest soil layer had low abundances. A total of forty-four morphospecies (16 families were recorded. Both seedling abundance and species richness were concentrated in the more floodable center sections. Isoetes pedersenii, Eleocharis minima, Sagittaria guayanensis, Rotala mexicana, Eleocharis plicarhachis, and Panicum laxum were the most abundant species. The species composition and spatial distribution of the propagule bank suggests that flooding plays a crucial role in seasonal vegetation dynamics in Pantanal wetlands, mediated by the ability of the soil to host seeds and spores during dry season.

  10. Geotecnologias aplicadas à avaliação de parâmetros biofísicos do Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Guimarães Andrade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar parâmetros biofísicos de superfície do Bioma Pantanal com a aplicação de geotecnologias. Foram utilizados o algoritmo Sebal ("surface energy balance algorithm for land", imagens do sensor Modis ("moderate‑resolution imaging spectroradiometer" e o mapa de classes de uso e cobertura da terra. Os resultados obtidos para NDVI, temperatura da superfície, albedo, fluxo de calor sensível diário, saldo de radiação diário e evapotranspiração real diária foram consistentes com dados de literatura para os diferentes usos e cobertura da terra, e corroboram a eficiência da capacidade analítica e sinóptica das estimativas do Sebal. Tais resultados mostram o potencial de geotecnologias na implementação de modelos ou algoritmos voltados para a compreensão da dinâmica de processos biofísicos de interação solo‑planta‑atmosfera do Pantanal.

  11. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA, Democracy, Gender. Région: Brazil, South America, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of ... SOCIAL INEQUALITY, COOPERATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS ... d'examiner les liens de cause à effet entre la faiblesse de l'autorité d'État et ...

  12. Identificação de roedores silvestres como hospedeiros do Angiostrongylus costaricensis no sul do Brasil Identification of wild rodents as hosts of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Graeff-Teixeira

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Um número crescente de casos de angiostrongilíase abdominal tem sido detectado no sul do Brasil. O principal hospedeiro do Angiostrongylus costaricensis na América Central, o rato do algodão (Sigmodon hispidus, não ocorre na América do Sul, exceto no norte do Peru, Colômbia e Venezuela. Foram realizadas capturas na área endêmica do Rio Grande do Sul (RS, visando identificar hospedeiros para obtenção de vermes em laboratório e produção de antígeno. Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi constatada a infecção em roedores: Oryzomys nigripes e Oryzomys ratticeps. O. nigripes é um roedor silvestre de pequeno porte e parece ser o principal hospedeiro definitivo do A. costaricensis na região serrana do RS.Increasing number of human cases of abdominal angiostrongyliasis has been diagnosed in the south of Brazil. The main definitive host of Angiostrongylus costaricensis in Central America is the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus that does not occur in South America, except in the north of Colombia, Peru and Venezuela. Rodents were captured in the endemic area in Rio Grande do Sul (RS and definitive hosts were identified for the first time in Brazil: Oryzomys nigripes and Oryzomys ratticeps. O. nigripes is a small wild rodent and it appears to be the main definitive host of A. costaricensis in the highlands of RS, Brazil's southermost State.

  13. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  14. All projects related to Brazil | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the global level, male homicide rates are roughly double female rates for all age groups. ... Topic: URBAN POLICY, MARGINALITY, Poverty, VIOLENCE, SOCIAL ... Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, ...

  15. Crescimento econômico em economias emergentes selecionadas: Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China (BRIC e África do Sul Economic growth in selected emerging economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Vilela Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo investiga, do ponto de vista teórico e empírico, os principais determinantes das taxas de crescimento econômico para Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China (BRIC e África do Sul. Os resultados empíricos da análise de decomposição de variância (ADV para o crescimento do PIB real revelaram uma predominância do papel da taxa de investimento e da inflação para o crescimento econômico desses países, ainda que outros fatores, como a taxa de juros real (Brasil, Índia e África do Sul, a taxa de câmbio real efetiva (China e Índia, os fluxos de IDE (China e África do Sul e o crescimento populacional (Índia e Rússia tenham sido importantes, embora com uma contribuição menor em termos relativos.The paper investigates on theoretical and empirical grounds the main determinants of economic growth for Brazil, Russia, India, China (BRIC and South Africa. The empirical results from the variance decomposition analysis (VDA for the real GDP growth reveal a primary role played by the investment rate and inflation to explain economic growth in these countries, but other factors, such as the real interest rate (Brazil, India and South Africa, the real effective exchange rate (China and India, FDI flows (China and South Africa and population growth (India and Russia are also important, regardless of their lower relative contribution.

  16. ESTILOS FLUVIAIS E EVIDÊNCIAS DE MUDANÇAS AMBIENTAIS NA PLANÍCIE DO RIO MIRANDA, PANTANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Renato Merino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O rio Miranda é um importante afluente do rio Paraguai e tem grande parte de seu curso na planície do Pantanal. O rio tem sinuosidade média a alta, sendo do tipo meandrante na maior parte do seu percurso em domínio aluvial. Com base nos padrões do canal e da planície, três segmentos fluviais com diferentes estilos foram caracterizados e descritos. Ainda nos domínios do planalto, o rio forma um cinturão de meandros numa planície agradacional, que está confinada em vale no embasamento cristalino. O rio deixa de correr num cinturão de meandros ao adentrar no Pantanal, para formar um cordão composto por canal e diques marginais que se destaca pela elevação mais alta em relação à planície agradacional, que se torna mais larga ao deixar o vale confinado. Paleocinturões de meandros e grandes meandros abandonados com dimensões superiores às dos canais atuais, existentes nas planícies agradacionais, permitem interpretar importantes mudanças ambientais e paleohidrológicas ocorridas a partir do Pleistoceno tardio. No seu baixo curso o rio volta a correr num cinturão de meandros, porem inciso em depósitos aluviais mais antigos, o que denuncia a natureza degradacional da planície distal do rio. Esta planície é palco da ação erosiva de fluxos de águas em lençol durante as inundações e de incisão por rede de pequenos canais tributários que drenam a planície depois das cheias. A avulsão ocorrida na altura do Morro do Azeite desempenhou importante papel na configuração do traçado do canal atual do rio Miranda, deslocando em 20 km para norte sua foz no rio Paraguai.  Palavras Chave – Rio Miranda, Pantanal, rio meandrante

  17. Micro-structural and compositional variations of hydrothermal epidote-group minerals from a peralkaline granite, Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil, and their petrological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio R.F. Vlach

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidote-group minerals, together with albite, quartz, fluorite, Al-poor and Fe-rich phyllosilicates, zircon, and minor oxides and sulphides, are typical hydrothermal phases in peralkaline alkali-feldspar granites from the Corupá Pluton, Graciosa Province, South Brazil. The epidote-group minerals occur as single crystals and as aggregates filling in rock interstices and miarolitic cavities. They display complex recurrent zoning patterns with an internal zone of ferriallanite-(Ce, followed by allanite-(Ce, then epidote-ferriepidote, and an external zone with allanite-(Ce, with sharp limits, as shown in BSE and X-ray images. REE patterns show decreasing fractionation degrees of LREE over HREE from ferriallanite to epidote. The most external allanite is enriched in MREE. LA-ICP-MS data indicate that ferriallanite is enriched (>10-fold in Ti, Sr and Ga, and depleted in Mg, Rb, Th and Zr relative to the host granite. Allanite has lower Ga and Mn and higher Zr, Nb and U contents as compared to ferriallanite, while epidote is enriched in Sr, U and depleted in Pb, Zr, Hf, Ti and Ga. The formation of these minerals is related to the variable concentrations of HFSE, Ca, Al, Fe and F in fluids remaining from magmatic crystallization, in an oxidizing environment, close to the HM buffer. L-MREE were in part released by the alteration of chevkinite, their main primary repository in the host rocks.Minerais do grupo do epidoto, com albita, quartzo, fluorita, filossilicatos pobres em Al e ricos em Fe, zircão e quantidades menores de óxidos e sulfetos são fases hidrotermais típicas em álcali-feldpato granitos peralcalinos do Pluton Corupá, Província Graciosa, Sul do Brasil. Os minerais do grupo do epidoto ocorrem como cristais individuais ou agregados que preenchem interstícios e cavidades miarolíticas na rocha. Mostram zonamento complexo, recorrente, descrito por uma zona interna de ferriallanita-(Ce, seguida por allanita-(Ce, epidoto-ferriepidoto e uma

  18. A radio tracking study of home range and movements of the marsupial Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Mammalia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic forest of south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f

  19. Hepatozoon SPP. Infect Free-Ranging Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Metzger, Betina; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena; Paduan, Karina Dos Santos; Porfírio, Grasiela E O; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Neto, José Soares Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the presence of Hepatozoon spp. in jaguars ( Panthera onca ) and domestic animals in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, blood samples were collected from 30 jaguars, 129 domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris), and 22 domestic cats ( Felis catus ) for molecular tests. All of the jaguars from the Pantanal (n = 22) and Cerrado (n = 4) and 3 of 4 jaguars from the Amazon were positive for Hepatozoon spp. Domestic dogs (62.8%) and cats (31.8%) were also positive for the agent. Hepatozoon nucleotide sequences from jaguars and domestic cats grouped with other Hepatozoon felis, whereas Hepatozoon from domestic dogs showed high similarity to Hepatozoon canis. Different species of Amblyomma were identified as parasitizing the jaguars and may act as vectors for Hepatozoon spp. Jaguars from the 3 sites were healthy and did not seem to be threatened by the hemoparasite within its population or environments. Most likely, jaguars play an important role in the maintenance of Hepatozoon spp. in nature.

  20. Liquidambar para produção de madeira no sul e sudeste do Brasil Sweetgum for wood production in the South and Southeastern Brazil

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    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2011-03-01

    equilíbrio. Além disso, esta espécie tem  a capacidade de regenerar vigorosamente a partir das  touças e das raízes adventícias.
    Sweetgum is a North and Central American tree species well known for the healing gum since the times of the Aztec civilization. In the southern United States, this is the most widely planted broadleaf species for wood  production. It grows well on a variety of site conditions, including on alluvial soil prone to flooding. As a result  of the wide natural distribution, it shows important variations in phenology and growth traits. The more  northern provenances tend to shut down growth processes much earlier and resume them later than the southern sources. These variations reflect directly on  the growth patterns among seed sources. Experiments  in several sites have demonstrated its potential value for wood production in small wood lots in the South and Southeastern Brazil. The most southern seed sources  (Central American have proved to be far more  productive than the North Americans; the fastest  growing provenances have shown productivity similar to fast growing eucalypts, in the order of 40 m3/ha.yr. The  ood has multiple use including pulp, railway sleepers, sawn timber, furniture and firewood. It is  especially valued for use in veneer and plywood  industries. However, it must be dealt with cautiously because of its highly invasive nature. In Brazil, it  produces large amounts of seed with great chances to  germinate and to rapidly take over the site. One key  factor for this success is the absence of foraging agents  uch as birds and rodents which coexist in its  natural range. Moreover, this species regenerates vigorously from stumps as well as from adventitious  roots.

  1. Construction of arboreal nests by brown-nosed coatis, Nasua nasua (Carnivora: Procyonidae in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Natalie Olifiers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of arboreal nests is rare among mammals in the order Carnivora. However, coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua Storr, 1780 build arboreal nests that are used for resting or birthing. Here we describe Nasua nasua (Linnaeus, 1766 nests located during a telemetry study of coatis in the Brazilian Pantanal. Coati nests were all "bird-like", that is, open nests having a semispherical shape. Nests were constructed of twigs, branches, and lianas sometimes interlaced with leaves. Nest volume was 30-50 cm³ and average nest height was approximately 9.5 m. Nests were found in open "cerrado" vegetation, along forest edges, or in interior "cordilheiras" forest. The reasons why coatis build such nests are unclear, but may relate to inter or intraspecific competition for nesting sites, litter size, thermoregulation, and predation avoidance.

  2. Produção de mel nos biomas Amazônia, Cerrado e Pantanal, em Mato Grosso, no período de 2002 a 2011

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    Jennifer Oberger Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beekeeping is an economic activity that uses the natural environment without forest degradation and promotes the service of pollination of the species cultivated in an anthropic environment. The purpose of this study was to analyze honey production in Mato Grosso biomes of the Amazon, Cerrado (Bushlands and Pantanal (Swamplands from 2002 to 2011. Information on the production of honey by each municipality was obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics database (IBGE. The delimitation of the municipalities for each biome was defined according to IBGE. The production of honey was the greatest in the Amazon, with 46.88% of the State production and the participation of 58 municipalities from this biome; Cerrado (Bushlands produced 42% of the State’s honey with the participation of 50 producing municipalities, and Pantanal (Swamplands produced 10.82% of the honey with 8 municipalities. We conclude that the Mato Grosso biomes showed beekeeping potential, with greater productive capacity in Pantanal (Swamplands due to its higher productivity rate.

  3. Distribution of the species of Dipturus Rafinesque (Rajidae, Rajinae, Rajini off Brazil and first record of the Caribbean skate D. teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, in the Western South Atlantic

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    Ulisses Leite Gomes

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean skate Dipturus teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951 is recorded for the first time from Brazilian waters. The specimen was collected in the continental slope off Bahia State. With this record, four species of Dipturus Rafinesque, 1810 are known from Brazil: D. chilensis (Guichenot, 1848, D. leptocauda (Kreft & Stehmann, 1975, D. trachyderma (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975 and D. teevani (Bigelow & Schroeder, 1951. They are typical inhabitants of deep waters between the outer shelf edge (195-200m and the slope (more than 500m. Although morphologically conservative, the species of Dipturus can be distinguished from each other by the number of dorsal and nuchal thorns, the number of caudal thorns, dorsal and ventral spinulation and specific total length. An identification key for the species of Dipturus recorded from Brazil is presented.

  4. A new species of Psilocymbium with the description of the male and new records of P. lineatum at South Brazil (Araneae: Linyphiidae

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    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical genus Psilocymbium Millidge, 1991 can be recognized by the presence of a non-flagelliform, rigid and spiral shaped embolus, the absence of a cymbial basal excavation on the palp (males, and by having prolonged spermathecae on the epigynum and strong pedipalp setae (females. In this paper Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov., is described based on male and female specimens from the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Psilocymbium antonina sp. nov. is diagnosed by the following combination of characters: prominent tibial apophysis with gauged distal projection, acute dorsal cymbial apex and acute cymbial proximal region of the palp (male; fertilization ducts distant from each other and the coiled copulatory ducts of the female epigynum. The male of P. lineatum (Millidge, 1991 is described and recorded for the first time in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

  5. Spatiotemporal analysis of sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis at Pantanal, central South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Monaco, Neiva Zandonaide Nazario; de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Eguchi, Gabriel Utida; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pereira, Luciana Escalante; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2014-08-15

    Environmental changes caused by urbanization can cause alterations in the ecology and behavior of sandflies and in the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Geotechnological tools allow the analysis and recognition of spatiotemporal patterns by monitoring and mapping risk areas of this vector-borne disease. This study aims to describe the sandfly fauna in the municipality of Corumbá and to compare it with the data described in a three-year period from 1984 to 1986 by Galati. A further aim was to analyze the influence of environmental changes on the composition of the fauna. Captures were conducted weekly from April 2012 to March 2013, in intra and peridomicile areas with automatic light traps, from 6:00 pm to 6:00 am. The following indices were calculated for both periods analyzed: Standardized Index of Species Abundance (SISA), Shannon's diversity index (H) and Pielou's index (J). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was extracted from a remote sensing LANDSAT-5 image. In total, 7,370 specimens (6,169 males and 1,201 females) were collected, distributed among 12 species. Lutzomyia cruzi was the most frequent species (93,79%) and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index in both studies. The dominance of the species Lu. cruzi in the neighborhoods of Maria Leite and Centro was demonstrated by the low equitability index. The neighborhood of Cristo Redentor had the greatest diversity of sandflies in the present study and the second greatest in the study performed by Galati et al. (Rev Saúde Pública 31:378-390, 1997). Analyzing the satellite images and the NDVI from 1984 and 2010, the largest amount of dense vegetation was found in the neighborhood of Cristo Redentor. It was, therefore, possible to show how changes caused due to urbanization have affected the density and distribution of Lu. cruzi and other species over time. Moreover, the data suggest that different populations of sandflies adapt in different ways according to environmental conditions and the adaptation does not necessarily depends on the presence of high vegetation cover.

  6. Integrated assessment of chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in the lower stretch of the Sinos River Basin, in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Tamires Petry; Gustavo Marques da Costa; Tatiane Benvenuti; Marco Antônio Siqueira Rodrigues; Annette Droste

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in Novo Hamburgo (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) and investigated the relationship between the genetic damage observed in Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea and the chemical parameters analyzed. Water samplings were collected bimonthly from September 2012 to March 2013 from two sites, near the headspring (S1) and near the mouth (S2). Cuttings with flower buds were exposed to water from the sites and dist...

  7. Pesquisa de leptospiras e de anticorpos contra leptospiras em animais e humanos de propriedades rurais nos biomas brasileiros Pantanal e Caatinga

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    Felipe Jorge da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Leptospira and of seroreactivity against Leptospira was investigated in animals and humans from six farms located in two Brazilian biomes that have different geoclimatic conditions: Pantanal – municipalities of Miranda (MS, Itiquira (MT and Pocone (MT and Caatinga – municipalities of Sobradinho (BA, Garanhuns (PE and Sobral (BA. Blood and urine samples of wildlife, domestic animals and humans were collected at each property. The samples were collected from February to April 2012 in Caatinga and from July to September 2012 in Pantanal. The serological reactivity against Leptospira spp. was verified by microscopic agglutination technique (MAT made with a collection consisting by 24 antigens of Leptospira spp. The leptospires research was carried out by urine samples crop sown in Fletcher resources and Ellinghausen – McCullough – Johnson – Harris (EMJH. Crops with growth of leptospires were referred to the Leptospirosis Laboratory of the Institute of Pathobiology, National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Buenos Aires, Argentina and isolated Leptospira strains were genotyped with the technique of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA. The classification procedure employed the VNTR 4, 7, 9, 10, 19, 23, 31, LB4 and LB5, which discriminate strains of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii. In Pantanal, 17 wildlife, 65 domestic animals and two humans were examined. In Caatinga, seven wild animals were examined, along with 100 domestic animals and 26 humans. Of 84 blood samples tested in Pantanal, 47 (55.95% were positive and, of 133 in Caatinga, 59 (44.36% were reactant. By Fisher’s exact test, considering a 0.05 significance level, there was no difference between the proportions of serum reagent animals against Leptospira spp. in two biome reviews (p = 0.063. The predominant serovars in SAM reactions were: 1 Pantanal – Bratislava (wildlife, dogs and humans, Grippotyphosa (horses and cattle; 2

  8. Intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense Spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (Convolvulaceae poisoning of cattle in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Nadia A.B. Antoniassi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a intoxicação espontânea por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro em bovinos no Pantanal Matogrossense. As investigações iniciaram após a morte de 12 bovinos, de um rebanho de 500 animais, criados em uma extensa área intensamente infestada por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa com escassa disponibilidade de outra forragem. As mortes ocorreram entres os meses de junho e setembro de 2006. O quadro clínico foi caracterizado por emagrecimento e sinais neurológicos com dificuldade locomotora. Um bovino foi necropsiado sem que se observassem alterações macroscópicas significativas. Histologicamente havia tumefação e vacuolização celular, em neurônios, células acinares pancreáticas, tubulares renais e foliculares da tireóide. Bovinos com quadro clínico similar foram retirados da área invadida por I. carnea subsp. fistulosa e colocadas em áreas com pastagem nativa e de Brachiaria sp. e apresentaram melhora clínica após período de 15 dias.A spontaneous Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (canudo, algodoeiro poisoning of cattle in the county of Poconé, Brazilian Pantanal, is reported. The investigation began after 12 cattle had died from a flock of 500 animals maintained in an extensive area intensely infested by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa with scarce availability of other fodder plants. The deaths occurred from June to September of 2006. Clinical signs were loss of weight and neurological deficits with hypermetry and incoordination. No significant gross lesions were observed at postmortem examination of one bovine. Histological changes comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, cells of the thyroid, kidney and pancreas. Cattle with similar clinical picture, that had been removed from the area invaded by I. carnea subsp. fistulosa and placed into areas with native and Brachiaria sp. pasture, recovered clinically within 15 days.

  9. PIXE and PIGE analysis of pre-colonial pottery from Patanal - MS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felicissimo, M.P.; Rodrigues-Filho, U.P.; Peixoto, J.L.; Barbosa, M.S.; Demortier, G.; Pireaux, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    PIXE and PIGE were applied to investigate the pottery from two archaeological sites located near the Brazil-Bolivia border in Pantanal, an area of natural preservation. The region was inhabited by ancient Amerindian tribes long before the Latin America colonization period and a deep understanding of their environment, cultural attributes and interconnections can only be achieved based on the study of archaeological findings. Multivariate statistical procedures were used to determine similarities and correlations between the analyzed samples and to indicate possible sources of raw material provenience. The results showed that traces of Cr, Cu and Ti and Na/Si and Mg/Si counting ratios were important to distinguish sherds from the archaeological sites MS-CP-71 and MS-CP-61. (author)

  10. Distribution of chemical compartments of soil organic matter and c stocks of a cambisol from south Brazil as affected by Pinus afforestation

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    Henrique Cesar Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and stocks of soil organic matter (SOM compartments after Pinus monoculture introduction in a native pasture area of a Cambisol, Santa Catarina, Brazil, were investigated. Pinus introduction increased soil acidity, content of exchangeable Al+3 and diminished soil nutrients. Nevertheless, soil C stock increased in all humic fractions of the 0-5 cm layer after Pinus afforestation. In the subsurface, the vegetation change only promoted SOM redistribution from the NaOH-extractable humic substances to a less hydrophobic humin fraction. Under Pinus, soil organo-mineral interactions were relevant up to a 15 cm depth, while in pasture environment, this mechanism occurred mainly in the surface layer.

  11. Bases ósseas e musculares dos cortes comerciais do tronco de jacaré-do-Pantanal (Caimanyacare Daudin, 1802

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    Sandra I.S. Figueiredo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O consumo de carne de jacaré-do-Pantanal tornou-se uma tendência de mercado e uma cadeia produtiva em ascensão no Estado de Mato Grosso, sendo 28,40% da carne comercializada nos últimos quatro anos oriundos do tronco. Estudos evolutivos, morfofisiológicos, ontogenéticos e tecnológicos foram desenvolvidos, mas não há descrição da musculatura e bases ósseas dos cortes comerciais. Objetivou-se descrever os músculos e correspondentes bases ósseas dos cortes filé de lombo, filé mignon e aparas. Na descrição óssea, utilizaram-se seis carcaças desossadas de exemplares juvenis de jacaré-do-Pantanal, além de um exemplar adulto, obtido por doação após óbito, do Zoológico da UFMT. Os ossos foram macerados em água corrente, clareados e descritos. Para a descrição muscular, 24 exemplares juvenis foram abatidos e esfolados, conservados em freezer e descongelados quando utilizados, sem qualquer fixação. Após a evisceração, foram dissecados em ambos os antímeros. Os músculos semiespinhal, longuíssimo e iliocostal, fixados nas vértebras e costelas torácicas, lombares e sacrais, formam o filé de lombo. O corte aparas é constituído pelos músculos grande dorsal, serrátil, peitoral e abdominais (oblíquo externo, oblíquo interno, transverso e reto, cuja base óssea corresponde as costelas torácicas, lombares e sacrais, a gastrália, o esterno e o epipúbis. Por sua vez, o m. puboisquiofemoral interno cranial, localizado na região sublombar e o m. troncocaudal, da superfície ventral da pelve, compreendem o filé mignon.

  12. All projects related to south africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and inequality? ... URBAN POLICY, MARGINALITY, Poverty, VIOLENCE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, URBAN POPULATION, Gender. Region: Brazil, India, South Africa, United Kingdom.

  13. Assessment of knowledge of skin cancer prevention and its relation with sun exposure and photo protection amongst gym academy members on the south of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Mariana Rocha; Durães, Edson Souza Machado; Martignago, Beatriz Castellar de Faria; Blanco, Luiz Felipe de Oliveira; Fabris, Thiago Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most frequent neoplasia in several parts of the world and also in Brazil. There is evidence of an increase in morbidity and mortality from skin cancer. Although the incidence of skin cancer is increasing, it is estimated that 45% of all preventable cancers worldwide are skin neoplasias. Several studies have emphasized the need for campaigns to encourage sun protection. To assess the knowledge about skin cancer prevention and its association with sun exposure and photo protection in gym members. We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study during January to July 2009, including gym members of both sexes in the city of Criciuma. A self-administered questionnaire was used. The statistical analysis was conducted in a descriptive way in regards to the absolute and relative frequencies of the variables under study. Of the 317 questionnaires studied, 62% were from women and 38% from men. Skin types II and III predominated, and the average age was 27.6 years. 94.3% of the participants reported that they had heard about the risks of sun exposure, mostly in terms of skin cancer risk (80.8%). Most participants, especially women, reported some form of sun protective measure. The population studied, similar to that in other regions of Brazil and the world, is aware of the risks of excessive sun exposure and skin cancer prevention, but has not yet incorporated appropriate sun protection measures into their daily habits.

  14. Factors associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables in schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years of Florianópolis, South of Brazil

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    Carla Regina Galego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of the fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, and analyze the associated factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed food intake, socioeconomic, and biological data of 2,836 schoolchildren. The Chi-square test analyzed the dependent (fruit and vegetable intake and independent variables; the latter with p-value <0.20 were selected for logistic regression analysis. The level of significance was p<0.05. Results: Only 4.8% of the sample had adequate fruit and vegetable intake. The variables associated with adequate fruit and vegetable intake were school ownership status (private versus public, mother's education level, and family income per member. After adjustment only family income per capita remained associated with fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion: The fruit and vegetable intake of schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, is inadequate.

  15. Origin of mounds in the Pantanal wetlands: An integrated approach between geomorphology, pedogenesis, ecology and soil micromorphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calderari de Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available Vegetated mounds are an important geomorphological feature of the Pantanal, where the influence of floods dictates not only hydropedological processes, but also the distribution and ecology of the flora and fauna. This work aimed to identify factors and processes that influence the formation and spatial distribution of the mounds, which are commonly associated with termite activity. In order to characterize pedological processes, macro and micro morphological descriptions, satellite image interpretation, dating of the sandy sedimentary material using OSL and carbon dating using 14C AMS were carried out. This dating of the materials indicates that the sediments in which the soils were formed were deposited during the Pleistocene, while the carbonates are from the Holocene. The basin-like format of the laminar structures suggests that part of the more clayey material was deposited in lacustrine environments. The more humid climate in the Holocene intensified argilluviation, which at an advanced stage, led to a more pronounced textural gradient, reducing drainage and leading to ferrolysis and thickening of the E horizon. Besides pedogenic processes, more erosive flooding during the Holocene began reducing and rounding the landscape's more elevated structures (paleolevees. In the final stage, these structures were occupied by termites to shelter from flooding. Thereafter, the bio-cementation action of the termite nests has increased the resistance of the vegetated mounds to processes of erosion.

  16. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with roots of Eichhornia azuera (Swarts Kunth (Pontederiaceae in an oxbow lake in Pantanal, MS

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    Hugo Henrique L. Saulino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes play an important role in the community structure of aquatic systems. In this study, we examined the macroinvertebrate communities within 20 Eichhornia azurea roots in an oxbow lake in Pantanal (MS during dry season. Species abundance and richness were compared via linear regression, and the mean relative proportion of macroinvertebrates among root samples was determined. Macroinvertebrates were identified to the lowest practical taxonomic level, and root volume was measured using the volume displacement method. We identified 371 specimens, belonging to 31 families and 21 taxonomic groups. Chironomus sp. (Chironomidae, Slavinia sp. and Dero sp. (Naididae, all detritivores, were most the represented taxon. Regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between root volume and the abundance and richness of the macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences between species abundance and richness among different E. azuera root volumes, however we did observe a trend toward a positive correlation of both variables with increasing root volume. We suspect that greater root volumes should increase microhabitat availability, which could explain this observed trend. Our results indicate that E. azurea roots may play an important ecologic role (e.g., by providing shelter, food stock in lake macroinvertebrate communities.

  17. A new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Viana, Lúcio André; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Santos, Filipe Martins; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; do Carmo, Jéssica Soares; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; Maltezo, Taynara Rocha; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia

    2018-05-01

    Despite the great diversity of coccidians, to our knowledge, no coccidian infections have been described in Oecomys spp. In this context, we examined Oecomys mamorae Thomas (Rodentia: Cricetidae) from the Brazilian Pantanal for infections with enteric coccidia. Nine individuals were sampled, and one was found to be infected. The oöcysts were recovered through centrifugal flotation in sugar solution. Using morphological and morphometric features, we described a new species of Cystoisospora Frenkel, 1977. Sporulated oöcysts were ovoidal 20.0-29.1 × 16.4-23.2 (26.7 × 21.2) µm and contained two sporocysts, 12.9-19.1 × 9.4-13.9 (16.4 × 12.4) µm, each with four banana-shaped sporozoites. Polar granule and oöcyst residuum were both absent. We documented the developmental forms in the small intestine and described the histopathological lesions in the enteric tract. Our results indicate that the prevalence of Cystoisospora mamorae n. sp. in O. mamorae is low, and tissue damage in the enteric tract is mild, even in the presence of coccidian developmental stages.

  18. Origin of mounds in the Pantanal wetlands: An integrated approach between geomorphology, pedogenesis, ecology and soil micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Jairo Calderari; Beirigo, Raphael Moreira; Chiapini, Mariane; do Nascimento, Alexandre Ferreira; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Vegetated mounds are an important geomorphological feature of the Pantanal, where the influence of floods dictates not only hydropedological processes, but also the distribution and ecology of the flora and fauna. This work aimed to identify factors and processes that influence the formation and spatial distribution of the mounds, which are commonly associated with termite activity. In order to characterize pedological processes, macro and micro morphological descriptions, satellite image interpretation, dating of the sandy sedimentary material using OSL and carbon dating using 14C AMS were carried out. This dating of the materials indicates that the sediments in which the soils were formed were deposited during the Pleistocene, while the carbonates are from the Holocene. The basin-like format of the laminar structures suggests that part of the more clayey material was deposited in lacustrine environments. The more humid climate in the Holocene intensified argilluviation, which at an advanced stage, led to a more pronounced textural gradient, reducing drainage and leading to ferrolysis and thickening of the E horizon. Besides pedogenic processes, more erosive flooding during the Holocene began reducing and rounding the landscape's more elevated structures (paleolevees). In the final stage, these structures were occupied by termites to shelter from flooding. Thereafter, the bio-cementation action of the termite nests has increased the resistance of the vegetated mounds to processes of erosion.

  19. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of silicic rocks from quarries in the vicinity of São Marcos, Rio Grande do Sul, South Brazil: Implications for emplacement mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañón-Tapia, Edgardo; Raposo, M. Irene B.

    2018-04-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Large Igneous Province includes acid volcanic rocks that can be found throughout its extension. Several aspects concerning those rocks remain controversial, including their mechanism of emplacement and location of their eruptive sources. Opening of several quarries of dimension stone near the city of Sao Marcos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, offers a unique opportunity to study in detail the acid products. Here, we present the results of a study of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) completed in some rocks that had been interpreted as the roots of volcanic conduits. Our results, and reexamination of the textural features of the rocks, lead to a reinterpretation that suggests that these rocks were emplaced subaerially, and involved assimilation and remelting of clastic components of previous products. Due to the inferred conditions of emplacement, it is unlikely that the eruptive vents are located far from the area of study, therefore ruling out the long-travelled nature of these products.

  20. Pecuária Sustentável: Uma Alternativa Para a Conservação do Pantanal no Estado de Mato Grosso

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    Helibera Rita Ramos Capistrano de Aquino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O Pantanal é um importante bioma de Mato Grosso, cujas atividades antrópicas ameaçam seu equilíbrio natural, dentre elas o desenvolvimento da pecuária bovina expansiva e intensiva, com introdução de espécies de forrageiras exóticas, visando o aumento da produtividade. Este estudo objetivou, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, investigar a ameaça provocada pela expansão da pecuária bovina na região do pantanal Mato-grossense ao longo dos anos, assim como promover a discussão sobre alternativas viáveis para um modelo de desenvolvimento sustentável. A análise da expansão da atividade e revisão de estudos de viabilização do aproveitamento da vegetação nativa evidenciou que é possível minimizar os impactos negativos da pecuária bovina no Pantanal através do pastoreio aliado ao aproveitamento da pastagem nativa, a suplementação alimentar e o manejo adequado. Assim como a utilização de rebanho proveniente de melhoramento genético que se adapte às condições ambientais e a implementação de políticas públicas sobre a importância da conservação da biodiversidade no planejamento e construção de programas de incentivos.

  1. Estrutura da comunidade de artrópodes de solo em diferentes fitofisionomias da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural – Sesc Pantanal, Brasil

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    Jessica Rhaiza Mudrek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As teias alimentares presentes na serrapilheira são de extrema importância para que haja a ciclagem dos nutrientes presentes no solo. A fauna de artrópodes de solo vem sendo estudada no Pantanal matogrossense para que ocorra identificação dos grupos, bem como sua riqueza e distribuição. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a comunidade de artrópodes em duas fitofisionomias do Pantanal, além de verificar a relação da abundância e/ou riqueza da fauna com a altura da serrapilheira. O estudo foi realizado em Abril de 2012, na RPPN Sesc Pantanal, no município de Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brasil. Foram instaladas dez armadilhas de queda (pitfalls dentro de duas parcelas de 50x50 m, com fitofisionomias distintas, Cerrado sensu stricto e Floresta semidecidual. A serrapilheira foi mensurada por meio de fita métrica (raio de 30cm. O material foi encaminhado ao laboratório de zoologia, triados e identificados. Para realização da análise de variância e correlação dos artrópodes com serrapilheira foi utilizado o programa Systat 10. Houve diferença significativa na riqueza entre as duas fitofisionomias, por sua vez para a abundância não foi significativa. Não houve correlação entre a altura de serrapilheira e a riqueza/abundância de artrópodes. As ordens mais abundantes corroboram com outros trabalhados, porém seriam necessárias amostragens mais longas para uma lista mais completa das ordens identificadas.

  2. Bases ósseas e musculares do corte comercial de pescoço de jacaré-do-pantanal (Caimanyacare Daudin, 1802

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    Sandra I.S. Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O jacaré-do-pantanal (Caiman yacare é uma espécie abundante no ecossistema do Pantanal. Sua exploração comercial está regulamentada desde 1990 e se tornou um agronegócio em expansão. Para atender essa demanda, uma unidade processadora instalada em Mato Grosso, vem comercializando carne de jacaré em diferentes cortes, entre os quais o filé de dorso, oriundo do pescoço, nos últimos quatro anos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi descrever os músculos e correspondentes bases ósseas desse corte. Para a descrição de ossos, utilizaram-se seis carcaças desossadas de exemplares juvenis de jacaré-do-pantanal, além de um exemplar adulto obtido após morte do animal, por doação, do Zoológico da UFMT. Os ossos foram macerados em água corrente, clareados com solução de água oxigenada a 10 volumes, e seus detalhes anatômicos foram descritos. Para descrever o músculo, 24 exemplares juvenis foram obtidos após abate e esfola, conservados em freezer e descongelados quando utilizados, sem qualquer fixação. Após a evisceração, foram dissecados em ambos os antímeros, para verificação de simetria de ocorrência, fixações musculares, relacões de sintopia, forma e arquitetura muscular. Verificou-se que a coluna cervical em C. yacare apresenta nove vértebras cervicais (VC, associadas com as respectivas costelas, que servem de base principal ao filé de dorso, que é constituído pela musculatura cervical, exceto os músculos intertransversais cervicais e intercostais cervicais externos.

  3. Monitoramento contínuo do potencial redox e de variáveis complementares em ambiente hipersazonal no Pantanal Norte

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    Indira Ashant Martins Messias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A análise conjunta do potencial redox com outras variáveis pode ser útil para o entendimento da dinâmica dos solos hidromórficos, ao longo de todo o ciclo hidrológico a que o Pantanal está submetido. Neste trabalho, foram estudados o potencial redox e algumas variáveis do solo (CO2, O2, temperatura, umidade e potencial matricial pelo monitoramento contínuo e ininterrupto. Para isso, foram realizadas determinações nas profundidades de 10 e 30 cm num Planossolo Háplico alítico gleissólico, na fitofisionomia Cerrado sensu stricto. O trabalho foi realizado de fevereiro de 2010 a julho de 2011 na RPPN (Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural/Sistema Nacional de Unidades de Conservação - SNUC, Estância Ecológica SESC (Serviço Social do Comércio Pantanal, município de Barão de Melgaço, nordeste do Pantanal de Mato Grosso. Os valores do potencial redox variaram de 636 mV (enchente a -341 mV (cheia, caracterizando ambiente anaeróbico na estação da cheia e ambiente oxidado nas demais estações do ciclo hidrológico, o que indica que o potencial redox é ferramenta versátil para compreender as reações de oxirredução nos solos hidromórficos do Pantanal mato-grossense, pois os valores diminuíram quando o teor de umidade era elevado. Além disto, o estudo evidenciou também que o monitoramento contínuo de variáveis complementares pode ser importante por permitir análise mais aprofundada das condições de hipersazonalidade, em que esses solos estão submetidos. Neste contexto, o potencial matricial e a umidade foram as variáveis de maior importância para explicar a variação do conjunto de dados obtidos ao longo do ciclo hidrológico, o que indica que esses parâmetros físicos são determinantes nos processos biológicos desse solo tropical com hipersazonalidade hídrica.

  4. Abundância e exploração de frutos por tucano toco (Ramphastos toco) em uma mata ciliar no Pantanal Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Ragusa Netto, José

    2006-01-01

    Dentre as espécies de tucanos, a maior delas, tucano toco (Ramphastos toco), é singular, uma vez que é muito comum em ambientes semi-abertos e/ou com manchas de florestas. As matas ciliares são citadas como ambientes em que essa espécie é comum. No entanto, os fatores relacionados com a ocorrência de R. toco, nesse tipo de vegetação, são desconhecidos. Estudei a abundância do tucano toco na mata ciliar do rio Miranda (Pantanal Sul), bem como a oferta de frutos carnosos, com o propósito de ava...

  5. Recognition of Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Neogene tectonic reactivation through apatite fission-track analysis in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil: association with the opening of the south Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello Saenz, C. A.; Hackspacher, P. C.; Hadler Neto, J. C.; Iunes, P. J.; Guedes, S.; Ribeiro, L. F. B.; Paulo, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Apatite fission-track analysis was used for the determination of thermal histories and ages in Precambrian areas of southeast Brazil. Together with geological and geomorphologic information, these ages enable us to quantify the thermal histories and timing of Mesozoic and Cenozoic epirogenic and tectonic processes. The collected samples are from different geomorphologic blocks: the high Mantiqueira mountain range (HMMR) with altitude above 1000 m, the low Mantiqueira mountain range (LMMR) under 1000 m, the Serra do Mar mountain range (SMMR), the Jundiaí and Atlantic Plateaus, and the coastline, all of which have distinct thermal histories. During the Aptian (˜120 Ma), there was an uplift of the HMMR, coincident with opening of the south Atlantic Ocean. Its thermal history indicates heating (from ˜60 to ˜80 °C) until the Paleocene, when rocks currently exposed in the LMMR reached temperatures of ˜100 °C. In this period, the Serra do Mar rift system and the Japi erosion surface were formed. The relief records the latter. During the Late Cretaceous, the SMMR was uplifted and probably linked to its origin; in the Tertiary, it experienced heating from ˜60 to ˜90 °C, then cooling that extends to the present. The SMMR, LMMR, and HMMR were reactivated mainly in the Paleocene, and the coastline during the Paleogene. These processes are reflected in the sedimentary sequences and discordances of the interior and continental margin basins.

  6. First documented record of Holochilus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 and Calomys laucha (G. Fischer, 1814 in the state of Santa Catarina, south Brazil

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    Felipe Bortolotto Peters

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the richness of small mammals in the Brazilian South Region are recent and point out the need for using varied methods. This way, this paper contributes to knowledge on the fauna of small sigmodontinae rodents in Santa Catarina, including Holochilus brasiliensis and Calomys laucha in the list of species with confirmed occurrence in this state. The records of H. brasiliensis refer to Laguna (n = 2 and Timbe do Sul (n = 1. In turn, C. laucha presents 23 records from Capinzal. The entire material is represented by skull fragments from owl pellets samples collected from nests and feeding perches of the Tyto alba.

  7. Biogeographic links between southern Atlantic Forest and western South America: Rediscovery, re-description, and phylogenetic relationships of two rare montane anole lizards from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prates, Ivan; Melo-Sampaio, Paulo Roberto; Drummond, Leandro de Oliveira; Teixeira, Mauro; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut; Carnaval, Ana Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Data on species ranges and phylogenetic relationships are key in historical biogeographical inference. In South America, our understanding of the evolutionary processes that underlie biodiversity patterns varies greatly across regions. Little is known, for instance, about the drivers of high endemism in the southern montane region of the Atlantic Rainforest. In this region, former biogeographic connections with other South American ecosystems have been invoked to explain the phylogenetic affinities of a number of endemic taxa. This may also be the case of the montane anole lizards Anolis nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus, known from few specimens collected more than 40years ago. We combine new genetic data with published sequences of species in the Dactyloa clade of Anolis to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of A. nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus, as well as estimate divergence times from their closest relatives. Based on newly sampled and previously overlooked specimens, we provide a taxonomic re-description of those two taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered six main clades within Dactyloa, five of which were previously referred to as species series (aequatorialis, heterodermus, latifrons, punctatus, roquet). A sixth clade clustered A. nasofrontalis and A. pseudotigrinus with A. dissimilis from western Amazonia, A. calimae from the Andes, A. neblininus from the Guiana Shield, and two undescribed Andean taxa. We therefore define a sixth species series within Dactyloa: the neblininus series. Close phylogenetic relationships between highly disjunct, narrowly-distributed anoles suggest that patches of suitable habitat connected the southern Atlantic Forest to western South America during the Miocene, in agreement with the age of former connections between the central Andes and the Brazilian Shield as a result of Andean orogeny. The data also support the view of recurrent evolution (or loss) of a twig anole-like phenotype in mainland anoles, in

  8. Neosporosis in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D P

    2005-01-20

    This work gathers reports about Neospora-infections in South America. Neospora-infections have been reported from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. Evidence of exposure to N. caninum was mentioned in cattle, goats, sheep, dogs, cats, water buffaloes, alpacas, llamas, South American opossums, wolves and other wild canids. No antibodies were found in horses. Interesting epidemiological and pathological data were described. Two isolations were performed from dogs, one from cattle, and recently five from water buffaloes. Since the cattle industry is important in South America and reproductive losses caused by Neospora-infection have been identified, more investigations are needed in order to understand its epidemiology and control the disease.

  9. Índices reprodutivos do rebanho Nelore da fazenda Nhumirim, Pantanal da Nhecolândia=Reproductive rates of Nellore herd at Nhumirim farm, Nhecolândia Pantanal

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    Paulo Bahiense Ferraz Filho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se taxas de prenhez de vacas da raça Nelore das categorias nulíparas, primíparas e multíparas, a partir de dados de quatro estações de inseminações de uma fazenda com sistema extensivo de cria, com pastagens nativas típicas do Pantanal. As probabilidades de ocorrência de prenhez foram calculadas por meio de um modelo que incluiu os efeitos de peso final, escore de condição corporal inicial, escore de condição corporal final e ganho médio diário. As taxas de prenhez foram analisadas pelo teste de qui-quadrado e as análises estatísticas foram realizadas por meio de modelos lineares generalizados, empregando-se a função de distribuição binomial e a função de regressão logística. As taxas de prenhez foram 35,29; 40,98; 74,14 e 52% para as estações de inseminações de 2005/2006, de 2006/2007, de 2007/2008 e de 2008/2009, respectivamente. As categorias nulíparas, primíparas e multíparas, apresentaram as médias das taxas de prenhez de 84, 43 e 47%, respectivamente. Os efeitos de peso final, escore de condição corporal inicial, escore de condição corporal final e ganho médio diário foram significativos. As probabilidades de prenhez são elevadas com maior peso ao final (exceto para as nulíparas, com maior escore inicial e final e com maior ganho médio diário. The pregnancy rates of nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous Nellore cows were evaluated from data from four insemination stations at a farm with extensive cow-calf system, based on native pastures typical of the Pantanal. Pregnancy probabilities were calculated by a model that included the effects of final weight, initial and final body condition scores, and average daily daily gain. The pregnancy rates were analyzed by chi-square test and statistical analyses were carried out through generalized linear models, using a binomial distribution function and the logistic regression function. The pregnancy rates were 35.28, 40.98, 74.14 and 52

  10. Qualidade da Dieta Selecionada por Bovinos na Sub-Região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal Quality of the Diet Selected by Cattle in the Nhecolândia Sub-Region, Pantanal

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    Sandra Aparecida Santos

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o estudo determinar o valor nutritivo da dieta selecionada por vacas de cria, numa área característica da sub-região da Nhecolândia, Pantanal, durante dois anos hidrológicos (outubro de 1997 a setembro de 1999. Mensalmente foram colhidas manualmente amostras das partes das principais forrageiras selecionadas por bovinos, identificadas por meio de observação direta, para análise de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e lignina (LIG. A digestibilidade da matéria orgânica (DMO da dieta foi avaliada em amostras fecais com o uso da espectrofotometria de reflectância no infravermelho proximal (NIRS. Houve efeito interativo de ano e época para todos os constituintes químicos analisados na dieta. O valor nutritivo da dieta selecionada por bovinos diminuiu no período de abril a junho, em ambos os anos estudados. As vacas apresentaram uma melhor condição corporal de setembro a março do ano hidrológico 1998/99, no qual a dieta apresentou valores médios de 60,4% de digestibilidade, 10% de PB; 40,20% de FDA; 71% de FDN e 6,0% de lignina, considerada adequada para obtenção de um desempenho reprodutivo satisfatório. Portanto, o valor nutritivo da dieta selecionada por bovinos na sub-região da Nhecolândia depende especialmente da intensidade e distribuição das chuvas, responsáveis pela maior ou menor presença de água nas unidades mais baixas, que possuem forrageiras de melhor qualidade.The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of the diet by cows grazing in natural pastures, in a typical area of Nhecolândia sub-region, Pantanal, during two hydrological years: from October 1997 to September 1999. Grazed forage species samples, representative of the animals' diet, were collected manually in each month. All forage samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and lignin (LIG. Near infrared

  11. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondônia, Brazil

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    S. Germer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughfall volumes and incident rainfall were measured between 23 August and 2 December 2004 as well as from 6 January to 15 April 2005 for individual rain events of differing intensities and magnitudes in an open tropical rainforest in Rondônia, Brazil. Temporal patterns of throughfall spatial variability were examined. Estimated interception was compared to modeled interception obtained by applying the revised Gash model in order to identify sources of throughfall variability in open tropical rainforests. Gross precipitation of 97 events amounted to 1309 mm, 89±5.6% (S.E. of which reached the forest floor as throughfall. The redistribution of water within the canopy was highly variable in time, which we attribute to the high density of babassu palms (Orbignya phalerata, their seasonal leaf growth, and their conducive morphology. We identified a 10-min rainfall intensity threshold of 30 mmh-1 above which interception was highly variable. This variability is amplified by funneling and shading effects of palms. This interaction between a rainfall variable and vegetation characteristics is relevant for understanding the hydrology of all tropical rainforests with a high palm density.

  12. Prevalência, distribuição geográfica e sazonal de protozoários e mixozoários parasitos de jaú (Zungaro jahu no Pantanal Matogrossense

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    Edson A. Adriano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo realizado no Pantanal Matogrossense, avaliou a prevalência, a distribuição geográfica e sazonal de protozoários e mixozoários parasitos de jaú (Zungaro jahu. Os peixes foram capturados no Sul do Pantanal, na região dos rios Aquidauana, Miranda e Paraguai, em 2001, 2002 e 2003, na região Central (Parque Nacional do Pantanal - PARNA Pantanal em 2003, 2004, 2005 e 2008, e na região Norte (rios Cuiabá e Manso, no município de Nobres em 2003, 2004 e 2005. Foi identificado Trichodina sp. parasitando pele e brânquias de jaú nas três regiões estudadas. Ocorrência de Epistylis sp. na pele e Cryptobia sp. nas brânquias foram restritas às coletas da região Central, enquanto Ichthyophthirius multifiliis foi identificado parasitando a pele nas três regiões estudadas. Também foi observada a ocorrência de mixozoários, Myxobolus cordeiroi parasitando vários órgãos e Henneguya sp. parasitando brânquias de jaú das três regiões estudadas.

  13. Acompanhamento das alterações post-mortem (Glicólise no músculo do jacaré do pantanal (Caiman crocodilus yacare Post-mortem alterations (Glycolysis of pantanal alligator's (Caiman crocodilus yacare muscle

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    Sebastião Roberto Taboga

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se avaliações químicas, histológicas e medidas de pH ao longo do tempo da degradação do glicogênio no músculo longissumus dorsi do jacaré. A metabolização do glicogênio muscular durou em torno de 50 horas, situando-se o pH muscular inicial entre 6,6 e 6,7 e estabilizando-se, depois de 36 a 48 horas, em torno de 5,5-5,6. Oitenta a 85% do glicogênio inicial foi metabolizado nas primeiras 20-25 horas pós-abate. Histologicamente o teste do PAS revelou, ao longo do tempo de armazenamento refrigerado, um decréscimo dos grânulos de glicogênio.This paper presents a study of glycogen degradation in longissimus dorsi muscle of pantanal alligator. Glycogen concentration and muscle pH measurements were assessed. Glycolysis took about 50 hours to complete. Initial muscle pH value were in the limits of 6.6 and 6.7 and after 36 hours they dropped to 5.5-5.6. On the first 20-25 hours postmortem 80-85% of inicial glycogen was metabolized. Through histologycal PAS test it was observed during cold storage a decrease on the number of glycogen granules. On the first 20-25 hours postmortem 80-85% of inicial glycogen was metabolized.

  14. Ocorrência e diversidade de bactérias diazotróficas associadas a gramíneas forrageiras do Pantanal Sul Matogrossense Occurrence and diversity of diazotrophic bacteria associated to forage grasses of the Pantanal in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Marivaine da Silva Brasil

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e a diversidade genética de bactérias fixadoras de N2 associadas às gramíneas nativas Elyonurus muticus (capim carona e Axonopus purpusii (capim mimoso e à gramínea exótica Brachiaria humidicola (braquiária que formam as pastagens na região da Nhecolândia. As coletas das plantas e solo foram feitas nos períodos de seca e de cheia para determinar a população de bactérias diazotróficas. Identificaram-se Azospirillum brasilense, A. lipoferum, A. amazonense, Herbaspirillum spp., Burkholderia spp. em amostras de solo, raízes e folhas das três espécies forrageiras. As populações dessas bactérias foram menores na época da cheia em comparação com a época da seca. A diversidade genética das bactérias isoladas foi avaliada por meio da técnica de análise de restrição do DNA ribossomal amplificado (ARDRA. Os isolados foram divididos em cinco grupos genotípicos distintos. Os isolados de A. brasilense e A. lipoferum apresentaram cerca de 50 % de similaridade, enquanto A. amazonense formou um grupo a parte, com apenas 25 % de similaridade em relação ao grupo das espécies do gênero. As bactérias do gênero Herbaspirillum formaram um grupo isolado com apenas 25 % de similaridade em relação ao gênero Azospirillum. O quinto grupo foi formado por apenas um isolado com 25 % de similaridade em relação aos demais.This study was carried out to verify the occurrence and genetic diversity of diazotrophic bacteria associated to the native graminaceus plants Elyonurus muticus (Carona grass and Axonopus purpusii (Mimoso grass and the exotic Brachiaria humidicola (Brachiaria that form the pastures in the Nhecolândia region of the Pantanal in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The plants were harvested in the dry and rainy seasons and the diazotrophic bacteria populations in the soil and on roots and leaves of the three grasses were determined. Strains belonging to the

  15. All projects related to Brazil | Page 6 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Brazil, South America, Colombia, Haiti, North and Central America, Mexico. Program: Governance ... Open Data for Public Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Project ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: ...

  16. All projects related to Brazil | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Haiti, North and Central America ... NETWORKS, ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Economic integration, REGIONAL ... Land Use, Biofuels and Rural Development in the La Plata Basin (Latin America).

  17. All projects related to Brazil | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Program: Maternal and Child Health ... Program: Employment and Growth ... Research on Innovation Systems and Social Inclusion in Emerging Economies ... Region: Argentina, South America, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, North and Central America.

  18. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  19. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    WM. Ramos

    Full Text Available This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face and gallery forest (western face areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  20. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  1. Studies on mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and anthropic environment: 10- survey of adult behaviour of Culex nigripalpus and other species of Culex (Culex in South-Eastern Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of adult behaviour of Culex (Culex species was carried out from August 1992 through December 1993 in a human modified (anthropic environment in the Ribeira Valley, S.Paulo State, Brazil. Culex nigripalpus dominated the catches at several sites and it's tendency to increase in the anthropic environment became quite clear. Nevertheless no high level of synanthropy was demonstrated. So it seems that the mosquito may have a restricted role in natural arbovirus cycles. Nonetheless, Cx. nigripalpus must be considered a potential vector of arboviruses, especially St. Louis encephalitis virus outside dwellings.São relatados os resultados obtidos mediante coletas regulares de adultos de Culex (Culex em ambientes antrópico do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil, no período de agosto de 1992 a dezembro de 1993. Pôde-se evidenciar a dominancia de Culex nigripalpus nas várias coletas efetuadas. Revelou-se claramente a preferência por parte desse mosquito em aumentar sua densidade no ambiente antrópico. Todavia, sua freqüência ao domicílio mostrou-se baixa, revelando fraco grau de sinantropia. Assim sendo, seu papel vetor de arbovirus parece restringir-se à participação no ciclo natural desses agentes infecciosos. Contudo, pode-se considerá-lo como vetor potencial no meio extradomiciliar. Nesse particular, seu papel pode não ser negligenciável, especialmente no que tange à possibilidade de transmissão de encefalite de S.Luís, cujo agente já foi assinalado na região.

  2. Integrated assessment of chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in the lower stretch of the Sinos River Basin, in South Brazil

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    Camila Tamires Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in Novo Hamburgo (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and investigated the relationship between the genetic damage observed in Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea and the chemical parameters analyzed. Water samplings were collected bimonthly from September 2012 to March 2013 from two sites, near the headspring (S1 and near the mouth (S2. Cuttings with flower buds were exposed to water from the sites and distilled water (negative control. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in pollen mother cells. The chemical parameters analyzed were pH, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand (DBO5, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus (TP and the trace elements cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc. In all samplings, the MCN frequencies observed in buds exposed to water from both sites were significantly higher (S1: 2.48 to 3.38, S2: 3.24 to 5.19 than those observed in the respective negative controls (1.33 to 1.62. The TP was above the legal limit throughout the monitored period and DBO5 presented concentrations higher than those established by legislation in two months at S1 and three months at S2. The principal component analysis showed a relationship between MCN frequency, DBO5 and TP, pointing to the negative influence of pollutants present in water on the bioindicator species and reinforcing the importance of considering the environmental factors in an integrated way in water-body monitoring programs.

  3. Picoplankton Bloom in Global South? A High Fraction of Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria in Metagenomes from a Coastal Bay (Arraial do Cabo--Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Ferrera, Isabel; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2016-02-01

    Marine habitats harbor a great diversity of microorganism from the three domains of life, only a small fraction of which can be cultivated. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular for addressing microbial diversity without culture, serving as sensitive and relatively unbiased methods for identifying and cataloging the diversity of nucleic acid sequences derived from organisms in environmental samples. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (AAP) play important roles in carbon and energy cycling in aquatic systems. In oceans, those bacteria are widely distributed; however, their abundance and importance are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to estimate abundance and diversity of AAPs in metagenomes from an upwelling affected coastal bay in Arraial do Cabo, Brazil, using in silico screening for the anoxygenic photosynthesis core genes. Metagenomes from the Global Ocean Sample Expedition (GOS) were screened for comparative purposes. AAPs were highly abundant in the free-living bacterial fraction from Arraial do Cabo: 23.88% of total bacterial cells, compared with 15% in the GOS dataset. Of the ten most AAP abundant samples from GOS, eight were collected close to the Equator where solar irradiation is high year-round. We were able to assign most retrieved sequences to phylo-groups, with a particularly high abundance of Roseobacter in Arraial do Cabo samples. The high abundance of AAP in this tropical bay may be related to the upwelling phenomenon and subsequent picoplankton bloom. These results suggest a link between upwelling and light abundance and demonstrate AAP even in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical environments. Longitudinal studies in the Arraial do Cabo region are warranted to understand the dynamics of AAP at different locations and seasons, and the ecological role of these unique bacteria for biogeochemical and energy cycling in the ocean.

  4. Albedo do Solo abaixo do Dossel em Área de Vochysia divergens Pohl no Norte do Pantanal

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    Jonathan Willian Zangeski Novais

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisou o albedo do solo (αsolo abaixo do dossel considerando duas etapas no ciclo hidrológico, a primeira em que o solo estava inundado e a segunda em que o solo estava coberto por serrapilheira acumulada sobre o solo em área inundável de Vochysia divergens Pohl no Pantanal, Brasil. Os valores de αsolo foram calculados pela relação entre as radiação solar global refletida e a incidente medidas abaixo do dossel por meio de estações meteorológicas. A inundação da área ocorreu durante fevereiro a junho e posteriormente houve um aumento gradativo de serrapilheira acumulada sobre o solo. O αsolo variou sazonalmente com maiores valores durante o período seco em que houve um aumento de aproximadamente 42% do αsolo em relação ao período com inundação. Análises de correlação cruzada entre o αsolo e precipitação, umidade do solo e a serrapilheira acumulada sobre o solo explicam em parte a influência direta e/ou indireta sobre o αsolo. A precipitação não influenciou diretamente sobre o αsolo do mês atual, enquanto que a umidade do solo influenciou diretamente sobre o αsolo no mês atual e nos seguintes meses, e a serrapilheira acumulada do solo correlacionou-se positivamente com o αsolo indicando influência direta no mês atual.

  5. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

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    Natalie Olifiers

    Full Text Available Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This

  6. MUDANÇAS PALEO-HIDROLÓGICAS NA PLANÍCIE DO RIO PARAGUAI, QUATERNÁRIO DO PANTANAL

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    Hudson de Azevedo Macedo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O Paraguai é o rio-tronco do trato de sistemas deposicionais do Pantanal. Com base em dados de sensores remotos e verificação de campo, foi realizado mapeamento geomorfológico da planície do rio Paraguai no trecho entre as confluências dos rios Cuiabá e Miranda, onde foram reconhecidas formas deposicionais atuais e antigas. A análise das associações de formas permitiu estabelecer proposta de evolução geomorfológica para a área, mas os eventos carecem ainda de datação precisa por métodos geocronológicos. Uma rede de drenagem abandonada multicanais está parcialmente preservada na planície, sendo composta por formas de canais com diques marginais que evidenciam período de menor descarga fluvial, provavelmente do Pleistoceno tardio ao Holoceno inferior. Um sistema constituído por paleocinturões de meandros trunca a paleorrede de drenagem multicanais, registrando aumento na umidade e na descarga fluvial. Sob essas condições o rio Paraguai construiu um sistema composto por cinturões de meandros com direção aproximada norte-sul no Holoceno inferior/médio. Agradação dos cinturões favoreceu importante evento de avulsão, com a mudança do curso do rio Paraguai para o cinturão de meandros atual no Holoceno superior. As gerações de formas identificadas e mapeadas resultaram num padrão de sobreposição de diferentes estilos fluviais, que registram significativas mudanças hidrológicas na planície desde o Pleistoceno tardio.

  7. Intoxicação espontânea por Senna obtusifolia em bovinos no Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense

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    Amanda Q. de Carvalho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação por Senna obtusifolia em bovinos no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, na região do Pantanal. Em um lote de 313 novilhas, 165 adoeceram e morreram (coeficientes de morbidade de 52,7% e de letalidade de 100%. Os bovinos permaneceram no piquete infestado pela planta por 37 dias. Os sinais clínicos consistiram em relutância em movimentar-se, andar trôpego (incoordenação, decúbito esternal permanente, diminuição do tônus de língua, estado comportamental em alerta, mioglobinúria caracterizada por urina castanho-escuro e fezes ressecadas com ou sem muco (ocasionalmente diarreicas com estrias de sangue. As principais alterações macroscópicas observadas nos 12 bovinos necropsiados estavam nos músculos esqueléticos dos membros pélvicos e foram caracterizadas por graus variáveis de palidez nos grupos musculares. Histologicamente, a lesão mais relevante encontrada foi degeneração e necrose segmentar multifocal nos músculos estriados esqueléticos (miopatia degenerativa tóxica multifocal polifásica. O diagnóstico da intoxicação baseou-se na epidemiologia (massa de forragem e de planta tóxica, análise da lotação do piquete e análise da precipitação pluviométrica, no quadro clínico dos animais e nos achados de necropsia e histopatologia.

  8. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  9. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  10. Serology for brucellosis in free-ranging crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous and brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua from Brazilian Pantanal

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    Elaine Maria Seles Dorneles

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A serological survey in free-ranging crab-eating foxes (Canidae: Cerdocyon thous and brown-nosed coatis (Procyonidae: Nasua nasua was performed in the Nhecolândia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal to evaluate the presence of anti-smooth Brucella antibodies on those wild populations. The detection of anti-smooth Brucella antibodies was performed by the Rose Bengal Test (RBT as screening test and the Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA as a confirmatory test. The frequency of smooth Brucella seropositive animals were 13.2% (5/38, 95% CI: 4.4% - 28.1% for crab-eating foxes and 8.8% (3/34, 95% CI: 1.9% -23.7% for brown-nosed coatis. No association was found between seropositivity for brucellosis and gender or age. The results of this study suggest exposure to or infection of crab-eating fox and brown-nosed coati from the Brazilian Pantanal by Brucella spp

  11. Clinical features of multiple sclerosis in the south of Brazil: a partial analysis Características clínicas da esclerose múltipla no sul do Brasil: uma análise parcial

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    Alessandro Finkelsztejn

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are no published studies on the characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS patients from the south of Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical features of a series of MS patients and to compare to other Brazilian series. METHOD: Retrospective study with 67 patients followed in The MS Reference Center - RS, Brazil during the year of 2008. We analyzed demographic and clinical data. RESULTS: Most were women (74.6%, the general average age was 43.5 years old, and the general average EDSS score was 4.1. Of those patients, 81.8% had relapsing-remitting MS. Sexual dysfunction prevalence was 31.1% in men and 68.9% in women (pNão há dados publicados sobre as características clínicas da esclerose múltipla (EM no estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS. OBJETIVO: Identificar e comparar as características clínicas de uma série de pacientes com EM no RS com as de outras séries nacionais. MÉTODO: Foram coletados e avaliados dados demográficos e clínicos de 67 pacientes atendidos em nosso centro. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio de mulheres (74,6%, idade média geral foi de 43,5 anos e EDSS médio de 4,1. O tipo surto-remissão correpondeu a 81,8%. A prevalência de disfunção sexual foi de 31,1% nos homens e 68,9% nas mulheres (p<0,01. Encontrou-se correlação de 0,444 (p<0,05 entre depressão e EDSS. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo demonstrou uma amostra semelhante às demais amostras brasileiras, apresentando, adicionalmente, elevada prevalência de sintomas sexuais e a estreita associação entre depressão e o grau de incapacidade.

  12. Histologia, histoquímica e histometria do intestino de jacaré-do-Pantanal criado em cativeiro

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    Victor M. Aleixo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de jacaré-do-Pantanal tem se consolidado no estado de Mato Grosso como atividade alternativa e legal para as propriedades rurais na área de ocorrência natural da espécie, coibindo a caça predatória e colaborando na preservação da espécie. A racionalização do processo produtivo na criação de jacaré é uma ação relativamente nova, que permite obter pele de melhor qualidade e de utilização integral, diferentemente daquelas oriundas de animais da natureza. Considerando a importância dos intestinos como sede dos principais eventos relacionados à obtenção de nutrientes para o metabolismo corpóreo, este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar qualitativa e quantitativamente a mucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso de jacaré-do-Pantanal jovens. Para a caracterização ao microscópio óptico da estrutura da parede intestinal e da histometria da mucosa foram coletadas amostras intestinais de 16 animais, sendo três deles também destinados ao estudo histoquímico. As amostras foram obtidas de cinco regiões, sendo quatro do intestino delgado e uma do intestino grosso. Elas foram fixadas em solução de Bouin, processadas de acordo com técnicas preconizadas para inclusão em parafina. Cortes histológicos semi-seriados (quatro micrômetros foram obtidos e o material foi desparafinizado, hidratado e corado pela hematoxilina-eosina para a descrição geral e estudo histométrico, que consistiu da mensuração da freqüência das vilosidades intestinais; dos comprimentos do epitélio e da lâmina própria da mucosa e da espessura da mucosa. Na análise estatística foi empregada a análise de variância e Teste de Tukey. Para o estudo histoquímico foram utilizadas a reação ao ácido periódico de Schiff, alcian blue pH 1,0 contrastado com hematoxilina e alcian blue pH 2,5 conjugado ao ácido periódico de Schiff. Para a descrição das estruturas histológicas foi empregada a terminologia disponível na Nomina

  13. Genetic divergence in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, F A; Corrêa, A M; Teodoro, P E; Lopes, K V; Corrêa, C C G

    2017-03-30

    Evaluating genetic diversity among genotypes is important for providing parameters for the identification of superior genotypes, because the choice of parents that form segregating populations is crucial. Our objectives were to i) evaluate agronomic performance; ii) compare clustering methods; iii) ascertain the relative contributions of the variables evaluated; and iv) identify the most promising hybrids to produce superior segregating populations. The trial was conducted in 2015 at the State University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We used a randomized block design with three replications, and recorded the days to emergence, days to flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, weight of 100 grains, and productivity. The genetic diversity of the genotypes was determined by cluster analysis using two dissimilarity measures: the Euclidean distance and the standardized mean Mahalanobis distance using the Ward hierarchical method. The genotypes 'CNFC 10762', 'IAC Dawn', and 'BRS Style' had the highest grain yields, and clusters that were based on the Euclidean distance differed from those based on the Mahalanobis distance, the second being more precise. The yield grain character has greater relevance to the dispute. Hybrids with a high heterotic effect can be obtained by crossing 'IAC Alvorada' with 'CNFC 10762', 'IAC Alvorada' with 'CNFC 10764', and 'BRS Style' with 'IAC Alvorada'.

  14. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Gizela Melina; Rodrigues, Robson Andrade; Marcondes, Sandriely Fernanda; Soares, Priscilla; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs) associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g) and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g), from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer). The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm), 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm) and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm), respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, Pcyst diameter (r=0.62, Pnematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  15. Anuran trypanosomes: phylogenetic evidence for new clades in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Ferreira, Juliana I G; da Costa, Andrea P; Ramirez, Diego; Roldan, Jairo A M; Saraiva, Danilo; da S Founier, Gislene F R; Sue, Ana; Zambelli, Erick R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Verdade, Vanessa K; Gennari, Solange M; Marcili, Arlei

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosomes of anurans and fish are grouped into the Aquatic Clade which includes species isolated from fish, amphibians, turtles and platypus, usually transmitted by leeches and phlebotomine sand flies. Trypanosomes from Brazilian frogs are grouped within the Aquatic Clade with other anuran trypanosome species, where there seems to be coevolutionary patterns with vertebrate hosts and association to Brazilian biomes (Atlantic Forest, Pantanal and Amazonia Rainforest). We characterised the anuran trypanosomes from two different areas of the Cerrado biome and examined their phylogenetic relationships based on the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 112 anurans of six species was analysed and trypanosome prevalence evaluated through haemoculture was found to be 7% (8 positive frogs). However, only three isolates (2.7%) from two anuran species were recovered and cryopreserved. Analysis including SSU rDNA sequences from previous studies segregated the anuran trypanosomes into six groups, the previously reported An01 to An04, and An05 and An06 reported herein. Clade An05 comprises the isolates from Leptodactylus latrans (Steffen) and Pristimantis sp. captured in the Cerrado biome and Trypanosoma chattoni Mathis & Leger, 1911. The inclusion of new isolates in the phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for a new group (An06) of parasites from phlebotomine hosts. Our results indicate that the diversity of trypanosome species is underestimated since studies conducted in Brazil and other regions of the world are still few.

  16. Structure Of Conduits Of The Acidic Volcanism And Related Deposits In The Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province, São Marcos Region, South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, L. F.; De Campos, C. P.; Lima, E. F. D.; Janasi, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Voluminous acidic volcanics from the Paraná-Etendeka Magmatic Province crop out in the southern part of Brazil. The conduits responsible for the feeding of this intermediate/acid volcanism are preserved and well exposed in the São Marcos region (Lima et al. 2012; Geologia USP 12:49-64). Conduits are aligned along a NW-SE trend and have thicknesses up to 1 km. These structures are often characterized by mixing between dacitic and rhyodacitic magmas, with intercalation between two major zones: 1) reddish or grayish vitrophiricdacite/rhyodacite, sub-divided in massive or vesiculated; 2) reddish or grayish vitrophiric fragmented dacite/rhyodacite composed of bubble-rich angular to rounded blocks. Such fragments commonly deform coeval to the flow. A third zone dominated by filaments depicts a chaotic stretching-and-folding process from the mixture of the acid magmas. We used classical field measurements of flow structures and recognized main flow directions in these feeder-dikes. They follow two preferential directions: NW, ranging from N272° to N 355°, and NE, varying from N20° to N85°. These directions are indicative of a transtensive fissural system, which seems to be related to conjugated fractures. Evidence of an important fragmentation process in the conduits point towards the presence of related products in this region, thus rheomorphic deposits such as those observed elsewhere (e.g. Uruguay and Namibia) are expected to occur. Possible vestiges of these deposits could be represented by restricted outcrops of lens-shaped and banded hipohyaline, occasionally bubble-rich, dacites. The presence of continuous pseudotachylitic levels, tightly folded bands with horizontal axial planes together with local deformed bubble-rich pumice-like lens could be indicative of remelting and rheomorphism of previous vulcanoclastic material. Coulees and compound (lobed) dacitic lava flows, reaching up to 5-8 meters length, occur as the uppermost deposits and correspond to the

  17. Morphological and morphometric features of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus liver in the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Gizela Melina Galindo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric measures and morphological aspects of nematode-cysts in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, and the presence of melanomacrophage centers (MMCs associated with the periphery of cysts and in the liver parenchyma. Adult specimens, 34 female (123.1 ± 43.9g and 45 male (135.5 ± 43.4g, from Paraguay River, Corumbá, Brazil, were used. The number of nematode-cysts was determined in 79 livers and 25 of them randomly selected for histopathological analysis and morphometric measures of nematode-cysts (mean diameter, thickness of collagen layer, and cyst-wall layer. The percentage of cysts with MMCs on the periphery and density in the liver parenchyma was estimated. The average number of macroscopic cysts was of 48.7 ± 2.78. Granulomatous reaction was observed surrounding the cysts. Diameter, collagen layer and cyst-wall measurements were 293.0 ± 75.18 (µm, 17.72 ± 6.01 (µm and 12.21 ± 9.51 (µm, respectively. The number of nematode-cysts was correlated with hepatosomatic index, (r=0.26, P<0.05. Collagen layer was correlated with cyst diameter (r=0.62, P<0.01. Pericystic and parenchymatous MMCs were moderately (r=0.48 and highly (r=0.90 correlated with nematode-cysts number. Morphological characteristics of hepatic tissue and cysts-nematodes measures suggest that G. inaequilabiatus acts as a paratenic host to nematodes in the larval stage.

  18. Thermo chronology by the fission track method of a passive marge (Ponta Grossa dome in south-eastern Brazil) and within a collision chain (external zone of the alpine arch in France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros Vignol Lelarge, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dating method by counting fission tracks on apatite (this rock is a geo-thermometer sensitive to weak temperature changes below 150 Celsius degrees) is an efficient tool for the thermal history of rocks. We have used this method in 2 different geological contexts: the Ponta Grossa dome in south-eastern Brazil and the alpine mountain in France. This dating method is based on the fact that some rocks like mica keep fossil remains of the passage of the fission products emitted during the simultaneous fission of uranium 238 present in the rock. This method requires the irradiation in a slow neutron flux of the sample because the initial quantity of uranium is unknown. The age t of the sample is given by the formula: t=(1/l 1 )*ln[1+(r s /r i )*(l 2 /l 1 )*F*σ*I] where: l 1 is the alpha decay constant of U 238 ; l 2 is the simultaneous fission decay constant of U 238 , r s is the number of fission tracks in the sample before the irradiation; r i is the number of fission tracks induced by the irradiation; F is the thermal neutron flux; σ is the thermal fission cross-section of U 235 ; and I is the isotopic rate U 235 /U 238 . This document is divided into 4 chapters. The first chapter presents the general principle of the method, the mechanisms capable of producing fission tracks and the techniques used to make these tracks visible with an optical microscope. The second chapter deals with the conditions of the irradiation and the calibration of the method. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the applications to the 2 geological contexts. (A.C.)

  19. Beyond rhetoric: South-South collaboration for REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nhantumbo, Isilda; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-11-15

    Global debates about reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promoting conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) emphasise the need for strategies to build on existing knowledge. In one example of South-South collaboration to do just this, IIED has helped facilitate a Mozambique-Brazil partnership to share expertise and create a unique REDD+ working group. The initiative provides key lessons for other countries contemplating South-South collaboration on REDD+, including the need for charismatic champions, continuity in government representation, and integration across sectors.

  20. Seasonal variation of nutrients and hydrological conditions in the State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS and adjacent continental shelf areas (South Atlantic Ocean - Brazil

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    Elisabete de Santis Braga

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine parks constitute important areas for the conservation of marine life and the genetic heritage around the world. The creation of such marine parks must be accompanied by careful measures to guarantee the coexistence of natural biota and human activities in these systems. The State Marine Park of Laje de Santos (SMPLS is so close to an industrial pole and urban area that its creation and maintenance is an example for humanity. However, no program has yet been installed for the monitoring of its biotic and abiotic water parameters. Thus, the objective of this study is to provide hydrological and hydrochemical parameters with emphasis on dissolved nutrients to establish a starting point for the monitoring of these waters. The presence of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW in the marine park during the spring and summer sampling periods was evidenced by the observation of low temperatures ( 7.00 µmol L-1, while the concentration of N-ammonium (maximum 9.86 µmol L-1 demonstrated a rapid regeneration of the organic matter, mainly in the euphotic zone. Analysis of the data from summer periods revealed an annual difference, showing January 2014 to be drier than January 2015, which influenced the availability of some nutrients and the standard distribution of hydrochemical parameters in this region. The results of the distribution of hydrochemical parameters in the marine park confirms the preserved conditions of the seawater around the Laje de Santos, demonstrated by the excellent water quality, concluding the need to implant monitoring actions based on these reference data to preserve this important reserve of marine life.

  1. A connection between the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano (Brazil/Uruguay) and Gariep (Namibia/South Africa) orogenic belts – evidence from a reconnaissance provenance study •

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.; Frimmel, H.; Nutman, A.; Preciozzi, F.; Jacob, J.

    2005-01-01

    A provenance study of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic successions in the stratigraphically and tectonically lowermost and uppermost parts of the Pan-African Gariep Belt (Stinkfontein Subgroup and Oranjemund Group, respectively) in southwestern Africa, as well as in the Rocha Group of the Punta del Este Terrane (Dom Feliciano Belt) in Uruguay, revealed that the Oranjemund and Rocha Groups can be correlated and most likely formed in the same basin. Thus the Rocha Group is considered to represent the fill of the westernmost part of a re-activated Vendian Gariep Basin. The lower parts of the Oranjemund and Rocha Groups reflect erosion of mafic rocks, whereas the upper parts are derived from a predominantly felsic source area. Oceanic islands of within-plate geochemistry in the immediate vicinity were the most likely source of the mafic input into the lower part of the Oranjemund Group, with most of the other sediments derived from a passive continental margin, i.e. the western margin of the Kalahari Craton. Age spectra obtained by U-Pb SHRIMP analyses of detrital zircon grains from the Stinkfontein Subgroup (Port Nolloth Group), the Oranjemund Group and the Rocha Group are very similar, except for a lack of the youngest age group around 600 Ma in the Stinkfontein Subgroup. In all three units, zircon grains of 1000 – 1200 Ma dominate, with a further peak in the age distribution between 1700 and 2000 Ma. These ages compare well with the pre-Gariep basement geology in southwestern Africa, where the former age range corresponds to magmatic and high-grade metamorphic activity in the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt and the latter to an extensive Palaeoproterozoic Andean-type volcanic arc (Richtersveld Terrane). Comparable ages are conspicuously absent in the basement of the Rio de la Plata Craton in South America. Derivation of the Rocha Group sediments from a similar source as the contemporaneous Oranjemund Group sediments is therefore suggested. The most likely source of