WorldWideScience

Sample records for south korean farmers

  1. A South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seo-Hang

    1992-01-01

    Recognizing the recent changes in international environment security structures suited for specific situations should be conceived. In order to achieve the way to regional security in North-East Asia the outstanding issue left over from the cold war, divided Korean peninsula, and other subregional disputes have to be solved. In building confidence between the two countries the recently adopted security related accords ('The Agreement on Reconciliation, Non-aggression and Exchange and Cooperation between the South and the North' and the 'Joint declaration on the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula') provide a framework for improvements of relations

  2. Adaptation in South Korean Society of North Korean Elite Defectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Nicolas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the adaptation of North Korean elite defectors who fled from North Korea. Data used for the purpose of this article came from surveys of North Korean defectors conducted in the late 2000’s. Findings of the realized research indicate that the majority of senior defectors are experiencing less psychological and material issues when adjusting to society than regular North Korean defectors. The paper will proceed in three steps: explaining the notion of defectors, outlining their background, and focusing on their adaptation in South. Although defectors as a whole has emerged as of the most research group as a minority in South Korea, the so-called senior defectors have hardly been spotlighted. Basically North Korean senior defectors are supposed to strengthen the anti-Kim movement and legitimize the power of the South Korean government and the image of South Korea abroad. What has to be enlightened upon is the fact that North Korean senior defectors partially disagree with the integration policy of South Korean authorities. A major research question emerges: How are the experience of elite defectors localized in South Korea? How do their specific identities impact their opinion within the South Korean society? The aim of the article is also to categorize senior defectors and to provide in a single document a list of senior North Korea defectors based abroad. This kind of information is only available for Korean speaking readers. I wanted to make it accessible to the Englishspeaking community.

  3. Financial Restraints in the South Korean Miracle

    OpenAIRE

    Panicos O Demetriades; Kul B Luintel

    2000-01-01

    We provide novel empirical evidence on the effects of financial restraints on South Korean financial development. The evidence is linked to a simple model of the Korean banking system that encapsulates its cartelised nature, which predicts a positive association between financial development and (i) the degree of state control over the banking system, (ii) mild repression of lending rates. The model also predicts that in the presence of lending rate controls, increases in the level of the adm...

  4. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Hyeseon; Min, Kyungdoo; Youn, Kanwoo; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Kyungran; Kim, Hyocher; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers' Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50-59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46-1.60), 60-69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39-1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86-2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required.

  5. South Korean historical drama : gender, nation and the heritage industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Yun Mi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic version excludes material for which permission has not been granted by the rights holder From the dynamic landscape of contemporary South Korean cinema, one trend that stands out is the palpable revival of the historical drama (known as the ‘sageuk’ in Korean). Since the early 2000s, expensive, visually striking, and successful costumed pieces have been showcased to the audience. Now rivalling the other mainstream genres such as gangster action, romantic comedy, and the Korean b...

  6. Theories and Messages in South Korean Antismoking Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Hong; Aikat, Debashis Deb; Jung, Eun Hwa

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated antismoking advertisements in South Korean television by drawing upon a Health Communication article by Cohen, Shumate, and Gold (2007) and on Gold, Cohen, and Shumate's (2008) typology. This study examined the theories and messages in South Korean antismoking advertisements. First, South Korean antismoking advertisements primarily targeted adults. In addition, the advertisements for adults normally used statistical evidence, whereas those for adolescents often used testimonial evidence. In terms of the type of performance, narration was often used in advertisements for both adults and adolescents. Second, the most prevalent persuasive health message used social norms, whereas the most prevalent affective appeal used fear appeals. Third, antismoking advertisements in South Korea mentioned more benefits of not smoking than barriers to not smoking. This study also identified the message difference in the U.S. and South Korean antismoking advertisements.

  7. Educational Fever and South Korean Higher Education

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    Jeong-Kyu Lee

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influence of educational fever on the development of the Republic of Korea education and economy in the context of the cultural history of this country. In order to examine this study, the author explains the concept of educational fever and discusses the relation between Confucianism and education zeal. Educational fever and human capitalization in South Korean higher education are analyzed from a comparative viewpoint. The study evaluates the effects and problems of education fever this country’s current higher education, and it concludes that Koreans’ educational fever has been a core factor by which to achieve the development of the national economy as well as the rapid expansion of higher education.

  8. Characteristics of suicidal attempts among farmers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, farming as an industry is considered a high-risk occupation for suicides. Certain states in India like Karnataka have a suicide rate higher than the national average, and this is generally attributed to the farmers' suicide. Aims: The aim is to study the characteristics of suicidal attempts among the farmer community in South India, with special emphasis on gender differences, modes used, and the immediate precipitant causes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, case register-based, explorative-descriptive study of 426 consecutive medicolegal case files of patients whose stated occupation was farming and who were admitted as cases of deliberate self-harm or suicide attempt to a rural tertiary care hospital in rural South India. Results: Out of the 426 farmers who attempted suicide, majority were male (355, 83.3%, in the age group of 21–40 years (318, 75%, married (358, 84%, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status (268, 62.9%. About 54% of them had attempted suicide by consuming pesticides (230. Surprisingly, 183 (43% and 86 (20.2% reported the immediate precipitant as being relationship issues and marital conflict, respectively, and only 100 (23.5% attributed it to financial reasons. Females were significantly associated with a past history of suicidal attempt while males tended to abuse alcohol before an attempt more frequently. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning was the most common mode for attempting suicide among the farmers. Contrary to public perception and other studies, relationship, and marital issues, not financial reasons were found to be the most common immediate precipitant for the attempters in our study.

  9. Victimization by Bullying and Physical Symptoms among South Korean Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between victimization by bullying and physical symptoms among South Korean school children. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of 2006 schoolchildren across South Korea aged 9-17 years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations between victimization by…

  10. Nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia: South Korean perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo-Hang Lee

    1995-01-01

    Under new circumstances, that is after the end of the Cold War, the current security situation in Northeast Asia and Korean peninsula is reviewed. The South Korean Non-proliferation policy and its strong commitment to the NPT is embodied in the following: treaty commitments; government officials' statements; presidential declarations; North/South joint declarations; and domestic laws and regulations.Korea has made efforts towards denuclearisation of Korean peninsula. Its nuclear policy is based on peaceful uses of nuclear energy and on maintaining a strong commitment to the NPT. The ultimate goal of its policy is to deter North Korea from developing nuclear weapons and thus secure a nuclear-free Korean peninsula. This could lay foundation for the ultimate creation of region-wide nuclear-free zone in Northeast Asia

  11. Acceleration and Information: Managing South Korean Online Gaming Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rea, Stephen Campbell

    2015-01-01

    This ethnography explores the practical experiences and institutional entanglements of online games, gaming, and gamers in contemporary South Korean culture and society. Korean online gaming culture is encountered at numerous sites and scales of experience, from the virtual worlds of online games, to the offline spaces where gaming happens, to societal practices and discourses around the management of online gaming and gamers backed by competing institutional interests. Online gaming is conte...

  12. Special Theory of Relativity in South Korean High School Textbooks and New Teaching Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jinyeong

    2016-01-01

    South Korean high school students are being taught Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. In this article, I examine the portrayal of this theory in South Korean high school physics textbooks and discuss an alternative method used to solve the analyzed problems. This examination of how these South Korean textbooks present this theory has…

  13. Factors related to job satisfaction among South Korean dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Chung, Jae-Kyun; Choi, Youn-Hee; Sohn, Woosung; Song, Keun-Bae

    2006-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the level and distribution of job satisfaction and to explore work environment factors associated with job satisfaction of South Korean dentists. A stratified systematic random sample of 1029 dentists was selected from the 10 357 registered dentists in the Korean Dental Association. They were surveyed via a self-administered mail questionnaire. Job satisfaction was measured by a modified version of the Dentist Satisfaction Survey. The response rate was 62.2%. The mean score of overall job satisfaction among South Korean dentists was 3.2 out of 5. In terms of work environment factors, the most satisfying aspect was patient relations (3.7) and the least satisfying aspect was personal time (2.8). Multiple regression analysis identified a model including patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training that accounted for 35% of variation in overall job satisfaction. The majority of the variance was explained by patient relations. This study suggests that patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training are important work environment factors for job satisfaction among South Korean dentists. The findings of this study will be helpful to policy makers to design plans to increase the level of job satisfaction among South Korean dentists.

  14. Organizational Support for Action Learning in South Korean Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Egan, Toby

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the impact of organizational support on employee learning and performance and (2) to elaborate on the context of organizational support for action learning in South Korean organizations. For this inquiry, two central questions were posed: What are employee reactions to organizational support for action…

  15. Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Tonami, Aki

    to resources. Aki Tonami, researcher at the Nordic Institute for Asian Studies and Anders Riel Müller of the Danish Institute for International Studies seek to nuance the discussion and demystify Japanese and Korean environmental aid. Through a historical analysis of the historical trajectories...

  16. South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The Union of South Africa's military involvement in the Korean War was an exercise in political maneuvering as opposed to one of any great military significance.1 South Africa's new right wing ...

  17. Factors Affecting Aggression in South Korean Middle School Students

    OpenAIRE

    MiJeong Park, PhD, RN; Jihea Choi, PhD, RN, CPNP; Seung-Joo Lim, PhD, RN

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using...

  18. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. 500.554 Section 500.554 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.554 Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin. (a) Except as... importation of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin goods sent as gifts to...

  19. AN AUTOPSY OF THE SOUTH KOREAN MARKET: DYNAMICS AND CONTRADICTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Il Lee

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The most dynamic feature of the South Korean economy in the late 20th century is the emergence of the country as a major destination for foreign investors. However, because the market has been closed to outsiders, for almost two decades, except for certain industries, Korea is as yet an unknown entity among the global business community. This acts as a deterrent to market entry. It is evident that among the economic and business literature there has been limited emphasis on the cultural and other complications such as the position and influence of the chaebol (a group of mostly family owned conglomerates in Korea that exists for foreign businesses in the Republic of Korea. This paper attempts to crystallize some of the key cultural issues, examine their relevance and highlight some consequences of the lack of understanding of these cultural issues for the world's leading multinational corporations wishing to enter the Korean market.

  20. The politics of China studies in South Korea: A critical examination of South Korean historiography of modern China since 1945

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongyoun HWANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that the South Korean scholarship on modem Chinese history since 1945 can be characterized as apolitical with its objectivism,positivism,liberalism,and anti-communist nationalism.This characteristic is a product of not only the Cold War and the military regimes of South Korea but also the political orientation and stance of the senior historians who played an initial and decisive role in determining the goal,direc tion,and research methods of South Korean studies concerning modem China.The SouthKorean perspective they promoted usually meant the study of liberal,apolitical topics in Chinese history from a nationalist perspective without any political/ideological influences.The utility of modern Chinese history has mainly lain in helping to construct an anti-socialist,modern Korean nation-state through modernization.South Korean historians of modem China,the paper argues,have not been able to induce a meaningful,broad discussion of critical historical issues in modem China as they might pertain to South Korean society,thus failing to utilize them to help challenge and transform the undemocratic South Korean society and regimes.Hence,the future success of new academic undertakings since the 1990s by South Korean historians will be determined by whether or not they are able to make a radical break from the previous scholarship,in particular,from its objectivism and nationalism.

  1. Financial Liberalisation and the South Korean Financial Crisis: Some Qualitative Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Amess; Panicos Demetriades

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a novel analysis of the South Korean financial crisis drawing on the findings of a unique survey of IMF/World Bank officials and South Korean economists. The survey reveals that over-optimism and inadequate recognition of financial risks inadvertently led to excessive risk taking by Korean financial intermediaries. It also indicates that the sources of over-optimistic assessments of East Asian economies, including Korea, were mainly to be found outside East Asia, including...

  2. Designing a Community-Based Dance Programme for North Korean Female Refugees in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Ah; Park, Hyun-Jung; Han, Seok Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a community-based dance programme designed for North Korean female defectors in South Korea, with the aim of promoting their physical, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. We set up four research objectives: to look into social contexts of North Korean female refugees in South Korea, to identify the women's desire…

  3. Individualism, Collectivism, Client Expression, and Counselor Effectiveness among South Korean International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Seok

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how individualism, collectivism, and counselor emphasis of client expression (cognition vs. emotion) are related to perceived counselor effectiveness among South Korean international students. Data were collected through mail surveys from 127 South Korean international students attending a Midwestern university. As…

  4. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. The Intimacy of Distance: South Korean Cinema and the Conditions of Capitalist Individuation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jisung Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In The Intimacy of Distance, I reconceive the historical experience of capitalism's globalization through the vantage point of South Korean cinema. According to world leaders' discursive construction of South Korea, South Korea is a site of "progress" that proves the superiority of the free market capitalist system for "developing" the so-called "Third World." Challenging this contention, my dissertation demonstrates how recent South Korean cinema made between 1998 and the first decade of the...

  6. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  7. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  8. “Breaking the Dam to Reunify our Country”: Alternate Histories of the Korean War in Contemporary South Korean Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes three contemporary South Korean films that (represent alternate histories of the Korean War: 2009 Lost Memories (2009 Rosŭt’ŭmemorichŭ (Lee Simyung (I Simyŏng, 2002, Welcome to Dongmakgol (Welk’ŏm t’u Tongmakkol (Park Kwang-hyun (Pak Kwanghyŏn, 2005, and Joint Security Area (Park Chan-wook, 2000. Despite focusing on different eras of history, I argue that they rewrite dominant narratives of the Korean War (Cold War logics of anticommunism v. communism and instead focus on North Korean- South Korean friendships/collaborations. Each film also presents similar situations in which a group of disparate “heroes” (made up of unified Koreans band together to circumvent the circumstances of division. This article analyzes historical conditions that influence the emergence of these similarly-themed films as well as film content in order to further think through memorial legacies of the Korean War, as well as to take seriously the radical possibilities of a different future that each film presents.

  9. Symptoms experienced during menopausal transition: Korean women in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok

    2003-10-01

    This article reports on cultural influences on symptoms experienced during menopausal transition of Korean women in South Korea and Korean immigrant women in the United States. Data from independent studies of two groups of Korean women were triangulated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The analysis indicated that Korean women in South Korea tended to report more symptoms than Korean immigrant women in the United States. Types and severity of prevalent symptoms were also found to be different between the two groups. The findings suggest that recent introduction of menopausal industries in South Korea and contextual influences on Korean women's work and immigration in the United States would be the reason for differences. Based on the findings, implications for future research are proposed.

  10. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  11. Cervical spondylosis in South West Nigerian farmers and female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Plain cervical radiograph were obtained in all farmers and female traders above 45 years of age who ... Those who met the radiological diagnostic criteria were enlisted in the study. The ... Cervical spondylosis is a degenerative disease of ... Table 1 shows the commonly found musculoskeletal.

  12. Livelihood Diversification for Smallholder Tobacco Farmers in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... increased rapidly and often at the expense of traditional food crops and livestock activities. ... Researchers will compare tobacco and non-tobacco farmers in terms of ... While this project aims to replace one cash crop with another, a recently ...

  13. Accessibility of women farmers to agricultural information in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the women farmers were accessible to technical information on improved seeds (x = 2.59), storage methods (x = 2.44), but poor access to operating farm machinery (x =0.49) and weather forecast (x =0.68). With regard to economic information they were accessible to market locations (x =2.40), but had low ...

  14. Partnerships to promote mental health of NSW farmers: the New South Wales Farmers Blueprint for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragar, Lyn; Kelly, Brian; Peters, Mal; Henderson, Amanda; Tonna, Anne

    2008-06-01

    To describe the process and outcome of development of a framework for planning and implementation of a range of interventions aimed at improving the mental health and wellbeing of farmers and farm families in New South Wales (NSW). In response to a major drought in New South Wales (NSW), key agencies were invited to participate in a longer-term collaborative program aimed at improving the mental health and well-being of the people on NSW farms. These agencies became the NSW Farmers Mental Health Network. The Australian National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention & Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000 proposed a population health approach base encompassing the range of risk and protective factors that determine mental health at the individual, family and community and society levels. It incorporated three traditional areas of health activity into programs aimed at achieving improved mental health for the Australian population - mental health promotion, prevention activities and early intervention. Although the farming population was not identified as a priority population, research has identified this population to be at high risk of suicide, and of having difficulty in coping with the range of pressures associated with life and work in this industry. Participants were agencies providing services across rural NSW in the fields of farmer and country women's organisations, financial counselling services, government departments of primary industries and health, mental health advisory and support services, charitable organisations and others. The NSW Farmers Blueprint for Mental Health (http://www.aghealth.org.au/blueprint) was developed to be 'a simplified summary of key issues that need to be addressed, and the major actions that we can be confident will be effective in achieving our purpose'. It has identified 'steps' along 'pathways to breakdown' from the range of known mental health and suicide risk factors that are relevant to the NSW farming population

  15. Sexual Debut and Mental Health Among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sik

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the negative influence of sexual debut during adolescence on mental health outcomes. This article contributes to this literature by investigating whether sexual debut has negative effects on mental health among South Korean adolescents and whether the timing of adolescent sexual debut matters. Drawing on longitudinal data from a nationally representative survey, we first predicted mental health outcomes at one year after high school graduation using first sexual intercourse that had occurred before the outcomes were measured. In a second statistical model, adolescent sexual debut was defined as first coitus that had occurred before high school graduation. Sexual debut was associated with an increase in problematic aggressive behaviors for both genders. In contrast, only girls experienced a rise in depressive symptoms after becoming sexually active. For girls, having sex before high school graduation was correlated with worse mental health outcomes to the extent that sexual debut even enhanced the risk of suicidal ideation. We concluded that the negative effects of sexual activity among South Korean adolescents are attributable mainly to the sexually conservative atmosphere and gendered sexuality in that country.

  16. Women in South Korean Politics: A Long Road to Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hermanns

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reasons for the increase in female representation in South Korean politics in the early 21st century. It is not a direct outcome of Korea’s democratisation process but a result of attitudinal change as well as the efforts of women’s organisations. The Korean experience shows that female representation in parliaments is not the only way to influence politics and policies on women’s issues. This paper starts with a general discussion of democratic procedures that influence female representation before looking at their application in South Korea. Coinciding with procedural changes, societal transformation paved the way for the advancement of women in the public sphere. Women’s organisations play an important role in promoting gender equality and women’s policies, especially since the late 1990s after they started to engage with the state. Their efforts included the introduction of quotas that allowed more women to enter formal elective politics, more than doubling the number of successful women in the 2004 parliamentary elections. Further steps are needed, however, to ensure sustainable and irreversible progress.

  17. An Overview on the South Korean Scientific Production in the Field of Chemistry (1993–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Magnone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present review seeks to take stock of the South Korean publication activity on the field of chemistry by analyzing systematically all chemistry-related scholarly communications collected in the Web of Science (WOS database published by at least one Korean author or Korean institute- or university-affiliated author from 1993 to 2012. The studied parameters included the growth in number of the communications, as well as the language-, document-, category-, source-, organization-, and collaboration-wise distribution of the South Korean communications. A total of 5660 communications on chemistry were found to be published by South Korean researchers during the aforementioned period of time, and South Korea was the 15th country (1.77% in the world in terms of informational communication activity in chemistry.

  18. South Korean Development Cooperation in Africa: The Legacy of a Developmental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kalinowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the legacy of the South Korean developmental state influences the way the country conducts its development cooperation (DC policies. We argue that institutions of the developmental state remain instrumental in structuring South Korea’s cooperation with the developing world. Two country case studies of South Korean DC and investment projects in Mozambique and Rwanda show that state initiative and a strong state–business partnership are defining elements of South Korean DC. At the same time, both cases show substantial differences when it comes to type of project, type of state–business partnership in the South Korean approach, degree of project ownership by the recipient country, and quality of governance in the recipient countries.

  19. Differences in the relationship between traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms among North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Jun, Jin Yong

    2017-11-01

    North Korean adolescent defectors experience adaptation difficulties along with a wide range of psychosocial problems, but no study has yet examined their Internet addiction symptoms. We compared early traumatic experiences, self-esteem, negative cognition, and Internet addiction symptoms, as well as the relationships between these variables, between North Korean adolescent defectors and South Korean adolescents. Fifty-six North Korean adolescent defectors and 112 age- and sex- matched South Korean adolescents participated. The analyses examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, with negative automatic thoughts or low self-esteem as mediators of these relations. North Korean adolescent defectors tended to have higher levels of negative automatic thoughts and more severe Internet addiction symptoms, as well as better self-esteem, than did South Korean adolescents. Furthermore, only among North Korean adolescent defectors, traumatic experiences were positively associated with Internet addition symptoms via increasing negative automatic thoughts. North Korean adolescent defectors are more susceptible to Internet addiction, negative cognitions, and early traumatic experiences compared to South Korean adolescents. However, the cross-sectional design of this study precludes consideration of the causality of these relationships. Interventions aiming to correct negative cognitions and increase self-esteem may be helpful for North Korean adolescent defectors with problematic Internet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Coping with drought risk: empirical analysis of farmers' drought adaption in the south-west Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duinen, Rianne; Filatova, Tatiana; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change projections show that periods of droughts are likely to increase, causing decreasing water availability, salinization, and consequently farm income loss in the south-west Netherlands. Adaptation is the key to decrease a farmer's drought vulnerability and to secure the agricultural

  1. Predicting South Korean University Students' Happiness through Social Support and Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adversity and coping experiences of 198 South Korean university students and takes a cultural lens in understanding how social and individual factors shape their happiness. Hierarchical linear regression analyses suggest that Korean students' perceptions of social support significantly predicted their happiness,…

  2. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p decision-making competency (r = -.25, p emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Climate change induced occupational stress and reported morbidity among cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Samuel Oyekale

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Climate change is one of the major development hurdles in many developing countries. The health outcome of farm households are related to climate change, which is related to several external and internal health-related issues, such as management of occupational stressors. This study seeks, inter alia, to determine the climate related occupational stress and factors influencing reported sick times among cocoa farmers. Material and Method. Data were collected from selected cocoa farmers in South-Western Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Negative Binomial regression were used for data analyses. Results. The results showed that cocoa farmers were ageing, and that the majority had cultivating cocoa for most of their years of farming. Cocoa was the primary crop for the majority of the farmers, while 92.00% of the farmers in Osun state owned the cultivated cocoa farms. The forms of reported climate change induced occupational stresses were increase in pest infestation (74.5% in Ekiti state, difficulties in weed control (82.1% in Ekiti state, missing regular times scheduled for spraying cocoa pods (45.7% in Ondo state, inability to spray cocoa effectively (58.5% in Ondo state, and reduction in cocoa yield (71.7% in Ekiti state. The Negative Binomial regression results showed that the age of farmers (0.0103, their education (-0.0226, years of cocoa farming (-0.0112, malaria infection (0.4901, missed spraying (0.5061, re-spraying of cocoa (0.2630, reduction in cocoa yield (0.20154, contact with extension (0.2411 and residence in Ondo state (-0.2311 were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. Climate change influences the farm operations of cocoa farmers with resultant occupational stresses. Efforts to assist cocoa farmers should include, among others, provision of weather forecasts and some form of insurance.

  4. Digging Deeper: A Case Study of Farmer Conceptualization of Ecosystem Services in the American South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Courtney E; Quinn, John E; Halfacre, Angela C

    2015-10-01

    The interest in improved environmental sustainability of agriculture via biodiversity provides an opportunity for placed-based research on the conceptualization and articulation of ecosystem services. Yet, few studies have explored how farmers conceptualize the relationship between their farm and nature and by extension ecosystem services. Examining how farmers in the Southern Piedmont of South Carolina discuss and explain the role of nature on their farm, we create a detail-rich picture of how they perceive ecosystem services and their contributions to the agroeconomy. Using 34 semi-structured interviews, we developed a detail-rich qualitative portrait of these farmers' conceptualizations of ecosystem services. Farmers' conceptualization of four ecosystem services: provisioning, supporting, regulating, and cultural are discussed, as well as articulation of disservices. Results of interviews show that most interviewees expressed a basic understanding of the relationship between nature and agriculture and many articulated benefits provided by nature to their farm. Farmers referred indirectly to most services, though they did not attribute services to biodiversity or ecological function. While farmers have a general understanding and appreciation of nature, they lack knowledge on specific ways biodiversity benefits their farm. This lack of knowledge may ultimately limit farmer decision-making and land management to utilize ecosystem services for environmental and economic benefits. These results suggest that additional communication with farmers about ecosystem services is needed as our understanding of these benefits increases. This change may require collaboration between conservation biology professionals and extension and agriculture professionals to extended successful biomass provisioning services to other ecosystem services.

  5. Growth status of Korean orphans raised in the affluent West: anthropometric trend, multivariate determinants, and descriptive comparison with their North and South Korean peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwekendiek, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the trend in height among adult Korean orphans who were adopted in early life into affluent Western nations. Final heights of 148 females were analyzed based on a Korean government survey conducted in 2008. Height of the orphans was descriptively compared against final heights of South and North Koreans. Furthermore, statistical determinants of orphan height were investigated in multivariate regressions. Mean height of Korean orphans was 160.44 cm (SD 5.89), which was higher than that of South Koreans at 158.83 cm (SD 5.01). Both Korean orphans and South Koreans were taller than North Koreans at 155.30 cm (SD 4.94). However, height of Korean orphans stagnated at around 160-161 cm while those of North and South Koreans improved over time. In the regression analysis, the socioeconomic status of the adoptive family was statistically significant in all models, while dummies for the adoptive nations and age at adoption were insignificant. This study shows that the mean final height of women experiencing extreme environmental improvements in early-life is capped at 160-161 cm, tentatively suggesting that social stress factors in the host nation or early-life factors in the birth nation might have offset some of the environmental enrichment effects achieved through intercountry adoption.

  6. The stranded individualizer under compressed modernity: South Korean women in individualization without individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung-Sup, Chang; Min-Young, Song

    2010-09-01

    South Korean families have functioned as a highly effective receptacle for the country's highly compressed conditions of modernity and late modernity. It is as much due to the success of South Korean families as an engine of compressed modernity as due to their failure that they have become functionally overloaded and socially risk-ridden. Such familial burdens and risks are particularly onerous to South Korean women because of the fundamentally gender-based structure of family relations and duties that has in part been recycled from the Confucian past and in part manufactured under industrial capitalism. Under these complicated conditions, South Korean women have had to dramatically restructure their family relations and duties as well as their individual life choices. Furthermore, under the most recent condition of what Beck calls second modernity, other institutions of modernity, such as the state, industrial economy, firms, unions, schools, and welfare systems, have become increasingly ineffective in helping to alleviate such (gender-based) familial burdens and dilemmas. As a result South Korean women have experienced dramatic changes in marriage patterns, fertility, family relations, etc. South Korean women's individualization has thereby taken place primarily as a matter of practicality rather than ideational change. A brief analysis of the situation in the neighbouring societies of Japan and Taiwan reinforces the conclusion that individualization without individualism, particularly among women, is a region-wide phenomenon in East Asia. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2010.

  7. Increasing gender equality among small millet farmers in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Gender equality among small millet. More than 1,600 women were involved in testing small millet varieties. One reason for the decline in small millet cultivation is the drudgery involved in their processing, a task that traditionally falls to women. The Revalorizing small millets in South Asia (RESMISA) project ...

  8. Experience curve analysis on South Korean nuclear technology and comparative analysis with South Korean renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Chang, Hyun Joon

    2012-01-01

    Increasing awareness on environmental damage and climate change has induced many nations to engage in green growth. South Korea, as one of the largest consumers of energy, is no exception and has shown its determination to pursue green growth in the future. In order to do so, South Korea plans to substitute fossil fuel with alternative sources in electricity generation. However, the key constraint to green growth is the high cost faced by renewable electricity generation. Fortunately, nuclear energy can serve as an economic alternative to fossil fuel. To achieve CO 2 emission reduction and faster economic growth, it is wise to analyze prospects of alternatives using experience curve framework. The results and industry background are consistent for nuclear technology, and the results suggest that nuclear should serve as the main substitute. Consideration of policy risk inherent in renewable also strengthens the argument. Renewable technologies, on the other hand, showed overstated learning capacity that is partially inconsistent with technological background. Nevertheless, the renewable (photovoltaic and fuel cell) should help nuclear marginally in substituting fossil fuel in South Korea's Electricity Generation. - Highlights: ► Progress ratios of renewable energy show great prospect. ► The policy risk is inherent in renewable and may overestimate its prospect. ► Nuclear sources are economic and less affected by policy risk. ► Fuel cell and photovoltaic should help nuclear marginally in green growth.

  9. A study of South Korean casino employees and gambling problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Kyung; Labrie, Richard A; Rhee, Hak Seung; Shaffer, Howard J

    2008-05-01

    Casino employees are exposed to disproportionately high levels of gambling, drinking and smoking compared to other occupations. Because of their occupation, they have the opportunity to detect and prevent pathological gambling (PG). To identify differences in the mental health status and social attitudes towards PG among casino workers in South Korea depending upon whether they report any gambling problems. Data were collected from 388 full-time casino employees. This data provided information about the prevalence of gambling problems, alcohol and tobacco use and depression. Employees were grouped according to their scores on the Korean version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and those employees who gambled without experiencing any gambling problems (Group NP: SOGS = 0) and those who reported any gambling problems (Group P: SOGS > 0) were compared. An exploratory factor analyses identified the domains of casino employee social attitudes towards gambling. Employees who reported gambling problems (Group P) reported a higher prevalence of smoking, alcohol problems and depression (P casino employees with gambling problems.

  10. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Farmer data sourcing. The case study of the spatial soil information maps in South Tyrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg; Thalheimer, Martin; Hafner, Hansjörg; La Cecilia, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    Nord-Italian region South Tyrol is Europe's largest apple growing area exporting ca. 15% in Europe and 2% worldwide. Vineyards represent ca. 1% of Italian production. In order to deliver high quality food, most of the farmers in South Tyrol follow sustainable farming practices. One of the key practice is the sustainable soil management, where farmers collect regularly (each 5 years) soil samples and send for analyses to improve cultivation management, yield and finally profitability. However, such data generally remain inaccessible. On this regard, in South Tyrol, private interests and the public administration have established a long tradition of collaboration with the local farming industry. This has granted to the collection of large spatial and temporal database of soil analyses along all the cultivated areas. Thanks to this best practice, information on soil properties are centralized and geocoded. The large dataset consist mainly in soil information of texture, humus content, pH and microelements availability such as, K, Mg, Bor, Mn, Cu Zn. This data was finally spatialized by mean of geostatistical methods and several high-resolution digital maps were created. In this contribution, we present the best practice where farmers data source soil information in South Tyrol. Show the capability of a large spatial-temporal geocoded soil dataset to reproduce detailed digital soil property maps and to assess long-term changes in soil properties. Finally, implication and potential application are discussed.

  12. Farmers perceptions on climate change in lowland and highland vegetable production centers of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiyoga, W.

    2018-02-01

    A survey was carried out in South Sulawesi, Indonesia interviewing 220 vegetable farmers. It was aimed at examining the vegetable farmers’ perception of climate change and assessing the consistency of farmers’ perception with available time series meteorological data. Results suggest that meteorological data analysis is in agreement with farmers’ perception regarding faster start, longer ending, and longer duration of rainy season. Further data analysis supports the claim of most farmers who perceive the occurrence of increasing air temperature, changing or shifting of the hottest and coldest month. Most respondents also suggest that climate change has affected vegetable farm yield and profitability. Other respondents even predict that climate change may affect the quality of life of their future descendants. Meanwhile, significant number of farmers is quite optimistic that they can cope with climate change problems through adaptation strategy. However, the attitude of farmers towards climate change is mostly negative as compared to positive or neutral feeling. Informative and educational campaign should be continuously carried out to encourage farmers in developing positive attitude or positive thinking towards climate change. Positive attitude may eventually lead to constructive behavior in selecting and implementing adaptation options.

  13. ANALYSIS OF INCOME INEQUALITIES AND FOOD SECURITY AMONG FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnanna M. AGWU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed income inequalities and food security status of farmers in South Eastern Nigeria, using Abia State. Specifically, the study accessed the income inequalities of the farmers; determine the food security status of the farmers; estimate the factors that influence food security among the farmers in the study area. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the selection of location and 180 respondents used for the study. The study employed Gini-coefficient, food security index and multiple regressions in the analysis of the data collected. Result shows that Gini coefficient value was 0.67, showing that there was high income inequality in the study area. Majority of the respondents, constituting about 68.57 percent were food insecurity in the study area. The regression results showed that age of the household head, educational attainment of the household head and monthly income of the head were the major determinants of food security status in the study area. The study recommends that government policies targeted at farmers should be strengthened, in order to bridge the gap in farmers’ income. Government should also create opportunities for small scale businesses to flourish in ural areas. This will provide the people the much needed income, amongst other things.

  14. A study of mental health literacy among North Korean refugees in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Yu, Sieun; Park, Hyunchun; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. The North Korean refugees' mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees' knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees' mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  15. A Study of Mental Health Literacy Among North Korean Refugees in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Won Noh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses and treatments and analyze the factors affecting this knowledge. Methods: Subjects were selected via a snowball sampling method, and the survey outcomes of 152 North Korean refugee participants were analyzed. The factors affecting knowledge of mental illnesses were analyzed via a regression analysis by constructing a multivariate model with mental illness knowledge score as the dependent variable. Results: The North Korean refugees’ mental illness scores ranged from 3 to 24 points, with an average score of 13.0. Regarding the factors that influence mental illness knowledge, the subjects with South Korean spouses and those who had spent more time in South Korea had higher knowledge scores. Furthermore, the subjects who considered the mental health of North Korean refugees to be a serious issue revealed lower knowledge scores than those who did not believe it was a serious issue. The subjects who visit psychiatric clinics showed higher knowledge scores than those who do not. The South Korean subjects who had at least a college education exhibited higher scores than did those without advanced education. The subjects who are satisfied with life in South Korea manifested a higher mental illness knowledge score than those who are not. Conclusions: This study is significant as being the first study to ever measure and evaluate the level of North Korean refugees’ knowledge of mental illnesses. In addition, the evaluations of North Korean refugees’ mental illness knowledge and influencing factors while residing in South Korea created basic data that formed the foundation of an effort to enhance mental health literacy and provide proper mental health services. The results of this study can be utilized to solve mental health problems that might frequently occur during the unification process of North and South Korea in the future.

  16. Different Types of Liberalization and Jobs in South Korean Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Hwang Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of several factors indicating economic openness- imported intermediate goods, total imports, IFDI (inward foreign direct investment, and foreign ownership-on regular, irregular jobs and the ratio of irregular employment to regular employment. Findings revealed that imported intermediate inputs and IFDI affected neither regular nor irregular job figures. However, an increase in total imports led to a decrease in the number of irregular jobs without affecting regular full time jobs, leading to a decrease in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. On the other hand, changes in foreign ownership structure had a contrary effect, that is, a decrease in the number of regular jobs and an increase in irregular ones, and, thus, an increase in the ratio of irregular jobs to regular jobs. Overall results showed that a rise in imports results in depressed overall employment, irregular employment in particular, while more IFDI results in more irregular jobs replacing regular ones, effectively exacerbating job insecurity. The implication of this analysis is that greater economic openness may have a negative impact on the South Korean labor market overall.

  17. Factors associated with self-rated health among North Korean defectors residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Yu, Shieun; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-09-26

    The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea has increased recently. The health status of refugees is a significant factor in determining their success in resettlement; therefore, this study examined both the self-rated health status of North Korean defectors who have settled in South Korea and the factors associated with their self-rated health status. This study utilized data gained from face-to-face interviews with 500 North Korean defectors who arrived in South Korea in 2007. The interviews were structured and conducted by 'Yonsei University Research Team for North Korean defectors'. A stepwise multivariable linear regression was performed to determine the factors associated with their self-rated health status. North Korean defectors who were female, elderly, or had low annual household income, disability or chronic diseases reported lower health status. However, self-rated health status was higher among those who had settled in South Korea for 18 months or more, who were satisfied with government support or their current life, and who had experienced more traumatic events in North Korea. Government policies and refugee assistance programs should consider and reflect the factors relevant to the health status of North Korean defectors.

  18. Misery in Dark Shadows behind the High Achievement Scores in South Korean Schooling: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonjung; Kristjánsson, Kristján; Walker, David I.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores some of the hidden background behind the highly praised school results in South Korea. An ethnographic case study is used to cast light on how schooling is actually experienced by South Korean students. Two main results are reported from these data. First, evidence is presented of damaging "cultural elements" such…

  19. Elusive Images of the Other: A Postcolonial Analysis of South Korean World History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Chun; Moon, Seungho; Joo, Jaehong

    2013-01-01

    South Korean educators and curriculum scholars have attempted to challenge Eurocentric points of view in history education. Despite these efforts, the dominant textbooks and teaching practices in South Korea continue to project colonial epistemologies. This article argues that postcolonial inquiry into knowledge production can help expand the…

  20. South Korean Mothers' Beliefs regarding Aggression and Social Withdrawal in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa, S. L.; Park, Sung-Yun

    2006-01-01

    South Korean mothers' reactions to preschoolers' aggression and social withdrawal were examined within a cultural framework. With recent social, political, and cultural changes in South Korea, there appears to be a conflict between traditional values and the Confucian heritage on one hand, and Western influence on the other. Mothers (N=81) of…

  1. Trends of Empirical Research in South Korean Mental Health Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; Lee, Eun Jung

    2017-01-01

    Since the introduction of evidence-based practice in South Korea, it has gained significant attention for its potential to promote the efficacy of social work services and to integrate knowledge and practice in mental health social work. In order to see how empirical research in South Korean mental health social work has changed, we examined…

  2. Simple yet Complicated: U.S. History Represented in South Korean History Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun; Suh, Yonghee

    2013-01-01

    Framing history/social studies textbooks as a social construction designed to create a public memory of a national history and history of the Other, we investigated how U.S. history is represented in South Korea's social studies textbooks and what images and ideas of the United States are encouraged for South Korean students to take. To answer…

  3. U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

  4. Farmers' perceptions of goat kid mortality under communal farming in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayi, Mhlangabezi; Maphosa, Viola; Fayemi, Olutope Peter; Mapfumo, Lizwell

    2014-10-01

    Rearing of goats under communal farming conditions is characterised by high kid mortality and low weaning percentages. A survey was conducted to determine farmers' perceptions on the causes of kid mortality during summer under the communal farming system in Nkonkobe Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This was done by administering questionnaires to a total of 162 respondents in 14 villages around Nkonkobe Local Municipality. The study showed that majority of farmers (75 %) keep flock sizes of less than 10 goats and kids, and this indicates that goat production in Nkonkobe Local Municipality is suppressed. According to the farmers, diseases (89 %), endo-parasites (72 %) and ecto-parasites (68 %) were perceived as the major causes of kid mortality. Other causes reported include starvation (15 %), extreme weather conditions (28 %), abortion (7 %), theft (35 %), diarrhoea (43 %), accidents (10 %) and wounds (9 %). The low number of goats could be attributed to high mortalities. It was also found that all causes reported by farmers played a role in high kid mortality in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. However, the causes which require more emphasis to formulate extension support were tick-borne diseases and parasites. This study provided baseline information on possible causes of kid mortalities in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. There is, however, a need to conduct further studies to determine actual causes of high kid mortalities so as to develop preventive strategies that would minimize kid mortality for good economic returns.

  5. South Korean alcohol free associations: negative expectancy not predicting drinks per occasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Benjamin J; Graham, Deborah; Cottrell, David; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Cultural and biological particulars existing in East Asian countries are likely to mediate differences in the alcohol consumption experience. Despite this no research to date has directly explored the alcohol free association or expectancy of any East Asian nations. The current research aims to provide a set of South Korean alcohol expectancies. Two hundred and thirty-seven South Koreans participated in an alcohol free association test and completed a demographic survey. The results both confirmed and contradicted areas of past alcohol expectancy research. There appears to be differences in associates with high probability of recall and alcohol expectancy, where negative, negative sedating and sedating expectancy categories were not found to be predictors of South Korean drinker level. The results suggest that South Koreans have a more even level of negative expectancy across all drinker categories, possibly due to a combination of linguistic, cultural and biological difference found among this population. The results provide a list of South Korean alcohol free association norms for future alcohol research in the region, with the results also underlining the need for alcohol free association tests among East Asian nations. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Face consciousness among South Korean women: a culture-specific extension of objectification theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si Yeon; Seo, Young Seok; Baek, Keun Young

    2014-01-01

    This study tested key tenets of objectification theory with South Korean women and explored the roles of sexually objectifying media and culture-specific standards of beauty in body image and eating disorder symptoms. Two pilot studies with South Korean college women (n = 40, n = 30) revealed that facial characteristics such as size and shape represent a discrete variable among culture-specific standards of beauty for South Korean women. Results with a sample of 562 South Korean college women indicated that media exposure had significant positive indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms through the mediating roles of internalization, body surveillance, and face surveillance. Internalization of cultural standards of beauty had significant positive direct relations with body surveillance and face surveillance and had both direct and indirect relations with body shame and eating disorder symptoms. Body and face surveillances had significant positive direct relations with body shame and had indirect relations with eating disorder symptoms. Finally, body shame mediated the links from internalization and surveillance variables to eating disorder symptoms. The results support the applicability of objectification theory as it relates to South Korean women and point to the significance of culture-specific standards of beauty within that framework. These findings could contribute to the broader field of multicultural body image research, with potential implications for therapist practices and training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Helping Peers Seek Professional Treatment for Depression among Young South Koreans: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hae; Choi, Jung Ah; Park, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to understand factors that influence whether young South Koreans help peers with depression to seek professional counseling services. The structural equation modeling on the survey data collected from 191 South Korean students suggests that subjective norms and behavioral…

  8. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships. 500.559 Section 500.559 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole...

  9. A Comparative Study of information searching behavior of elite saffron farmers with that of normal saffron farmers in South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    somaye zadehrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is one of export products which has a competitive advantage in Iran and saffron farmers need proper information in order to improve the quality of their agricultural performance. Thus, addressing and identification of their information behavior components, sources, and strategies as well as the challenges and problems would help the authorities to make proper policies and decisions. The present research has been conducted in order to compare elite saffron farmers’ information-searching behavior with that of normal saffron farmers in the South Khorasan province. The study population comprised of all the saffron farmers of South Khorasan province (N =17387. Using Morgan formula and cluster sampling, 375 people were selected for the purpose of this study. The results showed that saffron onion (M=3.58 of 5, pesticides and fertilizers (M=3.56 and farmland worker (3.54 were the main components of saffron farmers’ information-searching of the two groups, respectively. The sources of information for both groups included reference to past experience (M=2.68 of 5, neighboring saffron farmers (M=2.67, contact with informants (2.64 and other family members (M=2.64. The information available in local language (M=4 of 5, by native people (M=3.98, clear and intelligible information (M=3.98 and low cost (M=3.82 were among the main criteria that affect the behavior of the two groups in the use of information sources.  Also they are confronted with common problems such as lack of attention to the needs of farmers (M=3.57 of 5, and insufficient number of technical experts (M=3.42. It was also found that there was no significant relationship between information searching behavior of elite and normal saffron farmers and their performance (r= -0.08, p= 0.133. Regarding the “lack of attention to the needs of farmers by technical experts” as the most major problem, South Khorasan Organization of Agricultural Extension is advised to design and implement

  10. South Africa and the Korean War, the Politics of Involvement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOELLE

    majority as her major security threat. .... International reaction to the North Korean invasion was swift and resulted in a UN Security Council ..... 'Branding an Aggressor: The Commonwealth, the United Nations and Chinese Intervention in the.

  11. Farmers' perceptions of health in the Riverland region of South Australia: 'If it's broke, fix it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawolle, Tessa A; Sadauskas, David; van Kessel, Gisela; Dollman, James

    2016-10-01

    To explore perceptions of health among South Australian farmers. Descriptive qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews. Two rural towns in the Riverland region of South Australia. Fifteen adults involved in farming within the Riverland region of South Australia, from a variety of farming industries; age range 23-70 years old; 53% male, 47% female. Perceptions and definitions of health. Participants described an ecological understanding of health across individual, farm, and community domains. Participants perceived health as being able to function and complete farm work. Participants reported that farm work helped to maintain fitness, but the multiple stress and hazards associated with farming had a significant influence on health. Participants described how health was influenced by community activities and social support from friends and families. Women were reported to take a lead role in health. Health providers can frame interventions to resonate with the perceptions of health held by people, shaped and formed by the context of farming. Further research is needed to explore farmers' perceptions of health in different locations, from different industries and from a range of age groups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  12. Modelling in support of decision-making for South African extensive beef farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Meyer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study it is shown that it is possible to build a decision support system for the use of South African extensive beef farmers. Initially models for the key variables which affect extensive beef farmers are developed. These key variables include rainfall, beef, veal and weaner prices and the condition of the veld. This last key variable is monitored using the voluntary lick intake of the cattle and is modelled in terms of rainfall and stocking intensity. Particular attention is paid to the interrelationships between the key variables and to the distribution of modelling errors. The next stage of the study concerns the use of these models as a decision-support tool for extensive beef farmers. It is shown that Monte Carlo simulations and dynamic programming analyses can use these models to suggest how gross margins can be increased. At the same time these methods can be used to monitor the effect of management decisions on mean lick intake and, hence, the effect of these decisions on the condition of the veld. In particular the decisions of "what stocking intensity", "what cattle system", "when to sell" and "when to make a change" are addressed.

  13. Information-seeking behaviour and adoption of organic farming practices among vegetable farmers in South Western Nigeria / Sijuwade Adebukola Adebayo

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Sijuwade Adebukola

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed information-seeking behaviour and adoption of organic .farming practices among vegetable farmers in South-Western Nigeria. This is based on the fact that conventional intensive agricultural systems have side-effects which compromise food production in terms of quality and safety. As a result many are now stating that conventional agriculture represents an unsuitable long-term option. Specifically, the study identified the personal characteristics of the farmers, profile or...

  14. Barriers and Incentives to Potential Adoption of Biofuels Crops by Smallholder Farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge; Mushunje, Abbyssinia; Taruvinga, Amon

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify barriers and incentives that influence the potential adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. The study utilized a semi-structured questionnaire to record responses from 129 smallholder farmers that were identified through a snowballing sampling technique. The respondents were from the Oliver Tambo and Chris Hani District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A Heckman two-step model was applied to analyze the dat...

  15. Strategies for building trust with farmers: the case of Bt maize in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, South Africa became the first African country to approve commercial production of subsistence genetically modified (GM maize. The introduction of GM crop technology is often met with skepticism by stakeholders including farmers. The involvement of the private sector in this process can further breed mistrust or misperceptions. To examine these issues more closely, the objective of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the public-private partnership (PPP arrangement involved in the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize in South Africa. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech PPPs. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, documents, reports and research articles was conducted to generate insights into the challenges to, and practices for, building trust among the partners and with the public. Results The findings of this study are organized into four main lessons on trust building. First, as the end users of GM technology, farmers must be engaged from the start of the project through field demonstrations and educational activities. Second, an effective technology (i.e., the seed is key to the success of an agbiotech PPP. Third, open communication and full disclosure between private sector companies and government regulatory bodies will build trust and facilitate the regulatory processes. Fourth, enforcing good agronomic practices, including appropriate management of the refuge areas, will serve the interests of both the farmers and the seed companies. Conclusions Trust has proven to be a critical factor determining the success of the Bt maize project in South Africa. Distrust of the private sector and of GM technology were cited as major barriers to building trust. The trust-building practices described in this case study have often

  16. Factor structure and correlates of the acceptance of cosmetic surgery scale among South Korean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Hwang, Choon-Sup; Jung, Jaehee

    2012-02-01

    Research on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery has focused on relatively affluent Western samples, to the exclusion of non-Western samples and any potential cross-cultural differences. While rates of cosmetic surgery in South Korea have risen sharply in the past decade, mirroring rates in other East Asian nations, little is known about attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in the Korean population. To examine the factor structure and correlates of a Korean adaptation of the previously-published Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale (ACSS). South Korean university students (N = 267) completed the ACSS, as well as included Korean translations of measures for actual vs. ideal body weight discrepancy, body appreciation, sociocultural attitudes toward appearance, and demographics. The Korean ACSS reduced to a two-factor solution, mirroring results among other non-Western samples, although a one-factor solution was deemed more plausible. Compared to men, women had significantly higher total scores, suggesting that they were more accepting of cosmetic surgery. A multiple regression showed that, after controlling for the effects of participant sex, the only significant predictor of acceptance of cosmetic surgery was general body appreciation, suggesting that some may view cosmetic surgery as a means of enhancing their body image. The results reveal important global information for plastic surgeons-not only on the treatment of non-Western patients but on the South Korean market, in which the cosmetic surgery industry remains unregulated. Given the popularity and acceptance of cosmetic surgery in South Korea, there is an urgent need for regulatory intervention to ensure patient safety and satisfaction.

  17. Prevalence and impacts of low back pain among peasant farmers in South-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Abidemi Tella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A relationship between low back pain (LBP and poor postures has been previously established with a high prevalence observed in many occupations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LBP, associated risk factors and impacts on farmers in South-West Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and four farmers completed a 36-item closed-ended questionnaire which was translated to Yoruba language with content validity and back translation done afterwards. The questionnaire sought information on demographic data, 12-month prevalence, severity, history, causes and management of LBP, and its impacts on farm activities and the activities of daily living. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data was summarized using descriptive statistics of mean, range, frequency, standard deviation, percentage. Chi2 and Mann-Whitney-U test were used to find association between variables. The level of significance was set at α = 0.05. Results: The 12-month prevalence of LBP among the respondents was 74.4%. Low back pain was described as moderate in 53.4%. Prolonged bending (51.3% was the most related risk factor. A considerable proportion (65.9% of the respondents were unable to continue some of the previously enjoyed activities. Males had significantly higher (p < 0.05 prevalence, recurrence and duration of LBP than the females. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of LBP among farmers in South-West Nigeria. Age, sex and years of involvement in farming have a significant influence on the prevalence of LBP.

  18. Teaching the USA in South Korean Secondary Classrooms: The Curriculum of "the Superior Other"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Won-Pyo; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    By examining teacher interviews and student survey data through the lens of multiculturalism and post-colonialism, this study investigates how the USA is taught in secondary school social studies in South Korea. Specifically, the study examines the teachers' goals, the representation of the USA in Korean textbooks and its influence on the…

  19. Sustainable Internationalization in South Korean Higher Education: Languages and Cultures in a Foreign Professor's Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun-Young

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, recruiting foreign professors (FPs) has become a noticeable trend at South Korean higher education institutions (HEIs) as they attempt to internationalize. However, little scholarly attention has been paid to the question of what is actually happening in classrooms as a result of this rapid influx of FPs and the associated…

  20. Social Cognitive Predictors of Academic Interests and Goals in South Korean Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Seo, Young Seok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in a cross-cultural setting by examining the relationships between the social cognitive variables of South Korean engineering students and their engineering interests and major choice goals across university type and gender. Participants (N =…

  1. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and Correlations with Family Factors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…

  2. Factors Associated with South Korean Early Childhood Educators' Observed Behavior Support Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Stormont, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This study was an exploratory study of 34 South Korean early childhood educators' strategies for addressing behavior problems in natural settings. Factors related to teachers' strategy implementation were also explored. Four specific teacher behaviors were observed: precorrection, behavioral-specific praise, redirection, and reprimand/punishment.…

  3. The Promise of English: Linguistic Capital and the Neoliberal Worker in the South Korean Job Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph Sung-Yul

    2011-01-01

    English is often assumed to be a key to material success and social inclusion, and this belief commonly works to justify the global dominance of English, glossing over and rationalizing broader social inequalities. This paper extends the discussion of this fallacy of "the promise of English" to the domain of the South Korean job market,…

  4. Temperament, Parenting, and South Korean Early Adolescents' Physical Aggression: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the growth pattern in physical aggression over a five-year period among South Korean early adolescents and the effects of temperament (anger/frustration and emotion regulation) and parenting (harsh parenting and parental monitoring) on early adolescents' physical aggression. Design: A five-year longitudinal design…

  5. Effects of Fundamental Frequency and Duration Variation on the Perception of South Kyungsang Korean Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung-Eun

    2013-01-01

    The perception of lexical tones is addressed through research on South Kyungsang Korean, spoken in the southeastern part of Korea. Based on an earlier production study (Chang, 2008a, 2008b), a categorization experiment was conducted to determine the perceptually salient aspects of the perceptual nature of a high tone and a rising tone. The…

  6. South Korean Higher Education Internationalization Policies: Perceptions and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John D.; Cho, Young Ha

    2012-01-01

    Our study investigates how Korean universities are designing and implementing internationalization policies to meet the demands of globalization. Relying upon globalization theory we reveal how power is embedded within these internationalization efforts. Indeed, we accept the notion that the United States is the world's superpower and therefore…

  7. Korea's "Model Minority": A Case Study of an American-Korean Bilingual Student's Challenges Learning English in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary South Korean society, there is a strong emphasis on cultural homogeneity and, simultaneously, the development of English proficiency as a human resource. Since language is inextricably linked to identity, bilingual learners from English speaking countries may feel pressure to conform to Korean cultural and linguistic norms, leading…

  8. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  9. Swamp land optimization in supporting food security and enhancing farmers welfare in South Sumatra Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwenita; Hutapea, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Swamp land in Indonesia spread in Sumatra, Kalimantan and West Papua. In Sumatra the largest swamp land area is located in South Sumatera Province. Unfortunately only few of the areas have been utilized due to its fragility, in which farmers could only cultivate rice on it once a year. The purpose of this paper is to develop a feasible farming pattern in swamp land to help farmers and practitioners in optimizing it by managing its water level. Shallow and mid swamp land can be cultivated using rotation model of crops (rice, corn, cassava), horticulture (cucumber, long beans, watermelon etc), fish farming (catfish, snake head fish, tilapia), and duck farming, whereas submergence tolerant rice varieties can be cultivated alternating with fish farming in deep swamp land. This study shows that such swamp land management is financially feasible showing by its positive NPV value, BCR value is above 1.00, and IRR value is greater than the interest rate. Therefore, implementation of this farming pattern is expected to increase farmers’ income and household food supply as well as village food supply.

  10. Poor farmers and lords of the land migrations to south Antioquia, Colombia 1800-1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeiro Valencia Llano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the process of colonization in the south border of the department of Antioquia and in the territories that belonged to Cauca and Tolima. The migration of poor farmers and entrepreneurial colonization that established societies to control, monopolize and exploit vacant lands, are analyzed as well as the disagreements aroused between colonists, natives and large states owners. In the Civil War environment (1840-1900, entrepreneur landowners were focused on sugar cane farming, the business of arriería or transporting goods using pack animals, the sale of cheap liquor and lastly, the production of coffee. The foundation of the department of Caldas was based on this economy.

  11. The Subak in Diaspora: Balinese Farmers and the Subak in South Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Dik

    2011-02-01

    The subak has a long history as an irrigators' institution on Bali. It has also spread across Indonesia along with Balinese farmers who were resettled by colonial and post-colonial governments or who have migrated spontaneously since colonial times. While subaks have been much researched in Bali itself, little is known about subaks outside Bali. Luwu District in South Sulawesi is one of the areas where thousands of Balinese families settled in the last four decades. Based on research in this transmigration area, this paper analyzes the emergence and development of the subak in relation to the development of irrigation infrastructure of a state-built irrigation system. A comparison between two Balinese settlements in the same system shows that differences in infrastructural and managerial conditions and arrangements between parts of the irrigation system were major determinants of the institutional space allowed for the subak and ways in which the subaks developed.

  12. Analysis of scientific papers included in the sciences citation index expanded written by South korean plastic surgeons: 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ju Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Jeon, Byung-Joon; Lim, So-Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap Sung; Shin, Myoung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyze scientific papers published by South Korean plastic surgeons in journals included in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE), and to evaluate the publication and research activities of Korean plastic surgeon. We conducted a survey of SCIE papers in the field of plastic surgery published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010 using Web of Science software. We further analyzed these results according to the number of publications per year, journals, institution, and type of papers. We also compared the total number of citations to published scientific papers. We analyzed the rank of South Korea among other countries in representative journals. Overall, 667 papers were published by South Korean authors between 2001 and 2010. The number of publications increased dramatically from 2003 (n=31) to 2010 (n=139). Subsequently, the ten most productive Korean medical colleges were identified. All published papers received 2,311 citations and the citation to paper ratio was 3.49. The rank of Korea among other countries in terms of the number of published papers remained in the top 10 during the recent 10 years. Publication output of Korean plastic surgeon over the last 10 years showed a remarkable growth in terms of quantity and quality. Currently, Korea is among the top six countries in representative plastic surgery journals. Korean plastic surgeons have played a central role in this progress, and it is anticipated that they will continue to do so in the future.

  13. The Digital Political Communication of South Korean Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hermanns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social media have been credited with the potential to reinvigorate democracy by offering new avenues of political participation and communication between citi-zens and politicians. The results of empirical studies, however, call for caution, as many politi-cians refrain from fully exploring the interactive potential of new media. This case study focus-es on the web presence of Korean parliamentarians, using basic statistical analyses to explore the use of ICT as a means of political communication. It finds that Korean parliamentarians are less active online, treating ICT mainly as another channel for information distribution. It is thus concluded that ICT is not revolutionizing politics but reinforcing existing patterns of communi-cation that leave a gap between citizens and representatives. This paper was previously submit-ted to CeDem Asia 2016. The literature review and the methodology section have been expand-ed, and additional statistical data as well as further findings on Twitter were added.

  14. Comparative evaluation of different offshore wind turbine installation vessels for Korean west–south wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Ahn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate various means of wind power turbines installation in the Korean west–south wind farm (Test bed 100 MW, Demonstrate site 400 MW. We presented the marine environment of the southwest offshore wind farm in order to decide the appropriate installation vessel to be used in this site. The various vessels would be WTIV (Wind turbine installation vessel, jack-up barge, or floating crane … etc. We analyzed the installation cost of offshore wind turbine and the transportation duration for each vessel. The analysis results showed the most suitable installation means for offshore wind turbine in the Korean west–south wind farm.

  15. The influence of South Korean energy policy on OPEC oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansoori, Ali

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is the fifth top oil importer worldwide with 64% of its oil coming from OPEC member countries. Over the last 30 years, South Korea accounted for a rapid increase in energy use. This in turn led South Korea to be totally dependent on oil imports. Due to this increase, South Korea has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system which could potentially impact its dependence on OPEC oil import. External and internal factors have forced South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. These targets would be achieved by reducing its energy intensity and utilizing electricity and renewable energies in order to reduce its dependence on oil consumption. “Low Carbon, Green Growth” is one policy along with many other energy policies developed by South Korea for reducing greenhouse gases, thus this policy is receiving a remarkable attention today. These national policies along with other international ones are needed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and promote other green initiatives. This study puts emphasis on these policies as well as uses them to predict the future energy profile of South Korea and how these policies will impact on oil imports from OPEC member countries. - Highlights: • Analyze energy policy of South Korea and its energy profiles. • Study the factors that affect South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. • Analyze the implications of South Korean energy policy on oil imports from OPEC. • South Korea will continue importing oil from OPEC countries for the next decade

  16. Contingent feasibility for forest carbon credit: evidence from South Korean firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, TaeWoo; Koo, Ja-Choon; Cho, Dong-Sung; Youn, Yeo-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Under the Kyoto Protocol, a global governmental response to climate change, protocol signatories make an effort to cut their greenhouse gas emissions. South Korea is not included in the list of Annex I countries; yet, South Korea is the seventh highest emitter of CO2. The South Korean government has enacted various institutional policies to encourage greenhouse gas reductions. While previous studies have focused on the guidance that reflects the stance of suppliers in the carbon market, this study focuses on South Korean firms' actual demand for forest carbon credits. By applying the contingent valuation method, we estimated domestic firms' willingness to pay for forest carbon credits. We then applied a rank-ordered logistic regression to confirm whether the rank of forest carbon credits, as compared to any other carbon credit, is influenced by a firm's characteristics. The results showed that Korean firms are willing to pay 5.45 USD/tCO2 and 7.77 USD/tCO2 for forest carbon credits in domestic and overseas forest carbon projects, respectively. Therefore, the introduction of forest carbon credits in the Korean carbon market seems reasonable. Analysis of the priority rankings of forest carbon credits, however, demonstrated that forestry projects were least likely to be ranked by firms as their first priority. Although relative preferences for forest carbon credits were influenced by individual firms' characteristics such as prior experience of environmental CSR related activities and whether the firm established an emissions reduction plan, the impact of perceived behavior control, whether the firm was included in the emissions target management scheme on forest carbon credits was negligible. Therefore, forest carbon credits are not a feasible solution without strong government support or institutional instruments. The results of this study are expected to provide policy makers with realistic approaches to formulate climatic change-related policies. Copyright © 2014

  17. Adapting to Climate Change: Lessons from Farmers and Peri-Urban Fringe Residents in South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on results from two major research projects conducted in South Australia. The first investigates adaptation to climate change in two of the state’s major grain and sheep farming regions, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The second uses a postal questionnaire and an internet-based survey of residents in the peri-urban fringes of Adelaide, the state capital, to examine knowledge of and attitudes to climate change and resulting adaptations, especially in the context of increasing risk of wildfires. The research on adaptation to climate change in agriculture focused on formal institutions (e.g., government agencies and communities of practice (e.g., farm systems groups. Both groups noted that farmers autonomously adapt to various risks, including those induced by climate variability. The types and levels of adaptation varied among individuals partly because of barriers to adaptation, which included limited communication and engagement processes established between formal institutions and communities of practice. The paper discusses possibilities for more effective transfers of knowledge and information on climate change among formal institutions, communities of practice, trusted individual advisors and farmers. Research in the peri-urban fringe revealed that actions taken by individuals to mitigate and/or adapt to climate change were linked to the nature of environmental values held (or ecological worldview and place attachment. Individuals with a strong place attachment to the study area (the Adelaide Hills who possessed knowledge of and/or beliefs in climate change were most likely to take mitigating actions. This was also linked to previous experience of major risk from wildfires. The paper concludes by discussing prospects for developing co-management for reducing the impact of climate change across multiple groups in rural and peri-urban areas.

  18. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  19. Use of Traditional Weather/Climate Knowledge by Farmers in the South-Western Free State of South Africa: Agrometeorological Learning by Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugulethu Zuma-Netshiukhwi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The variety of natural indicators, associated with weather forecasting and climate prediction, as used by farmers in the South-Western Free State province of South Africa, is described. Most farmers in this area were not familiar with the application of weather forecasts/climate predictions for agricultural production, or with other science-based agrometeorological products. They relied almost fully on their experience and traditional knowledge for farming decision making. The indicators for traditional knowledge are demonstrated here in broad terms, relying on the stories and indications from observations and years of experience of their use by the farmers. These means of engagement with the natural environment, are skills not well understood by most scientists, but useful to the farmers. They range from the constellation of stars, animal behavior, cloud cover and type, blossoming of certain indigenous trees, appearance and disappearance of reptiles, to migration of bird species and many others. It is suggested that some short-term traditional forecasts/predictions may be successfully merged with science-based climate predictions. The traditional knowledge and its use, reported on in this paper, is what scientists learned from farmers. Berkes was right that scholars have wasted too much time and effort on a science versus traditional knowledge debate; we should reframe it instead as a science and traditional knowledge dialogue and partnership. The complications of a changing climate make this even more necessary.

  20. Trajectories of Japanese and South Korean Environmental Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonami, Aki; Müller, Anders Riel

    2014-01-01

    Environmental aid has become a major component of development aid. We analyzed the contingent characters of environmental aid of Japan and South Korea using the definition of Williams, which regards aid policy as donor driven and autobiographical of the donor agencies and societies from which...... they sprang. Both Japan and South Korea consider environmental aid as an important tool of their diplomacy. A combination of a moral obligation and domestic, international, political, and economic interests underpin both countries’ environmental aid policy. Seen from the stated policies and practices, both...... countries use accounts of their past as once- developing countries trying to catch up in their aid narrative. In this manner, the environmental aid of Japan and South Korea is autobiographic, reflecting their interpretation of their own development history and position in global politics....

  1. Gender differences in chewing discomfort in older South Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-J; Kim, C-B; Ahn, Y-H; Chung, W-G; Kim, N-H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in chewing discomfort among elderly Koreans. This study used data from 56 616 (weighted sample: 5 638 394) subjects aged over 65 years who participated in the 2011 Community Health Survey in Korea. Of them, 23 059 (weighted sample: 2 368 200, 42.0%) were men and 33 357 (weighted sample: 3 270 194, 58.0%) were women. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and hierarchical logistic regression analyses, with SPSS 20.0. Chewing discomfort was set as the dependent variable, and independent variables were divided into socio-economic factors (place of residence, age, education, monthly household income, basic living security stipend, private insurance, economic activity, living arrangements), general health factors (hypertension, diabetes) and oral health factors (tooth defects, denture use, subjective periodontal health status). A greater proportion of women (50.2%) than men (42.6%) exhibited chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort (P chewing discomfort than their male counterparts. The factors associated with chewing also differ by gender. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Change of South Korean Adult Education in Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jung

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of adult education in South Korea from postwar modernization to the current globalized environment. Notes that adult higher education is increasingly formalized and institutionalized, with expanded credentialism, inequality, and government intervention and a weakening connection between adult education and social…

  3. Illicit Drug Use Among South Korean Offenders: Assessing the Generality of Social Learning Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2015-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, illicit drug use has become a problem in Korean society. This trend is likely due to the rapid globalization and expansion that occurred with the Internet revolution, which led to greater numbers of people socially learning about drug culture. The current study attempts to uncover criminogenic causality of such social learning about drug use by studying adult felony drug offenders in South Korea. The data used for the study were obtained from self-reported surveys, originally collected by the Korean Institution of Criminology (KIC). The final sample comprised 1,452 felony offenders convicted of illicit drug use, and their responses were analyzed with a set of multiple logistic regression tests. The current study found supportive evidence for the generalizability of social learning theory from the sample of the South Korean adult drug offenders. We argue that the current study provides additional empirical evidence that supports the generalizability of social learning theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattaa, A F; Lindberg, A L E

    2006-03-01

    Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  5. The improvement of nuclear safety regulation : American, European, Japanese, and South Korean experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun

    2005-01-01

    Key concepts in South Korean nuclear safety regulation are safety and risk. Nuclear regulation in South Korea has required reactor designs and safeguards that reduce the risk of a major accident to less than one in a million reactor-years-a risk supposedly low enough to be acceptable. To data, in South Korean nuclear safety regulation has involved the establishment of many technical standards to enable administration enforcement. In scientific lawsuits in which the legal issue is the validity of specialized technical standards that are used for judge whether a particular nuclear power plant is to be licensed, the concept of uncertainty law is often raised with regard to what extent the examination and judgement by the judicial power affects a discretion made by the administrative office. In other words, the safety standards for nuclear power plants has been adapted as a form of the scientific technical standards widely under the idea of uncertainty law. Thus, the improvement of nuclear safety regulation in South Korea seems to depend on the rational lawmaking and a reasonable, judicial examination of the scientific standards on nuclear safety

  6. Contributors to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses working rotating shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hye-Sun; Lee, Bokim

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers have rapidly increased in South Korea; however, there is no published research exploring shift work tolerance among South Korean workers. This study aimed to investigate factors related to shift work tolerance in South Korean nurses. The sample comprised of 660 nurses who worked shifts in a large hospital in South Korea. A structured questionnaire included following comprehensive variables: demographic (age and number of children), individual (morningness and self-esteem), psychosocial (social support and job stress), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, physical activity, and BMI), and working condition factors (number of night shifts and working hours). Shift work tolerance was measured in terms of insomnia, fatigue, and depression. The results of hierarchical regressions indicate that all variables, except for three, number of children, BMI, and working hours, were related to at least one of the symptoms associated with shift work tolerance. Based on these results, we offer some practical implications to help improve shift work tolerance of workers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Farm Work-Related Injuries and Risk Factors in South Korean Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyocher; Räsänen, Kimmo; Chae, Hyeseon; Kim, Kyungsu; Kim, Kyungran; Lee, Kyungsuk

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is known to be a risk-filled industry in South Korea, as it is worldwide. The aims of this study were to identify the magnitude of farm work-related injuries and evaluate the association between injury and possible risk factors. Farmers, including farm members (N = 16,160), were surveyed. After excluding 7 subjects with missing data in questions about injury, 16,153 farmer responses were used for the analysis. Of the 16,153 farmers, 3.6% answered having at least one farm work-related injury requiring outpatient treatment or hospitalization during 2012. The proportion of injured men (4.3%) was 1.5 times higher than women (2.9%). From an age perspective, the proportion was 1.3% of those aged 49 or below, 2.7% of those aged 50-59, 4.2% of those aged 60-69, 4.2% of those aged 70-79, and 3.1% of those aged 80 or above. We used a multivariate logistic regression analysis with a stepwise model (forward) for risk factors (gender, age, farm ownership, farm type, work years in agriculture, work months during 2012, night work experience, and work experience under the influence of alcohol). The increased risk of farm work-related injuries significantly remained associated with age, farm ownership, and experience of night work. Further studies should be conducted to consistently identify injury characteristics, especially for old farmers, considering the crop cultivation in Asian countries.

  8. Farmers' participation in knowledge circulation and the promotion of agroecological methods in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of widespread agrarian distress in rural India, finding ways to secure livelihood sustainability of small farmers have become urgent concerns. Agroecological methods (AEMs) are considered by some to be effective in solving structural problems with farmers' production processes

  9. Breast Cancer Epidemiology of the Working-Age Female Population Reveals Significant Implications for the South Korean Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Park, Won; Yu, Jonghan; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the economic loss due to the diagnosis of breast cancer within the female South Korean working-age population. A population-based cost analysis was performed for cancer-related diagnoses between 1999 and 2014, using respective public government funded databases. Among the five most common cancers, breast cancer mortality was strongly associated with the growth in gross domestic product between 1999 and 2014 (R=0.98). In the female population, breast cancer represented the greatest productivity loss among all cancers, which was a consequence of the peak in the incidence of breast cancer during mid-working age in the working-age population, in addition to being the most common and fastest growing cancer among South Korean women. Our study shows that breast cancer not only represents a significant disease burden for individual patients, but also contributes a real, nonnegligible loss in productivity in the South Korean economy.

  10. Bullying Among South Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Association With Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ilhong; Kim, Seung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence rates of physical, verbal, relational, property, and cyber bullying among a sample of South Korean middle school students. Associations between bullying and a list of psychopathological symptoms were also examined. Finally, whether a link between bullying and psychopathological symptoms is modified by the level of parental attachment was examined. Results show that, contrary to Western studies, girls were more likely than boys to be involved in school bullying. Significant interaction effects between parental attachment and bully/victim status on depression were also discovered.

  11. How the South Korean energy program has been saving the US nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorrock, T.

    1982-01-01

    The view is given that the US government financed South Korea's nuclear program at taxpayer expense. Westinghouse Electric Co., which supplied the equipment for Korea's reactors, was said to be the taxpayers' beneficiary. US participation was justified on grounds of commercial benefits to US companies, fuel suppliers, and world prestige as a promoter of peaceful nuclear applications and assistance to developing countries. The Export-Import Bank provided funding after strong urging by the US Embassy in Korea and Westinghouse. The author states that pressure was also put on the Korean government to award contracts to US suppliers. The negotiations have spanned periods of unrest in Korea

  12. Health Behavior and Factors Associated with Depression in North Korean Adolescent Defectors in South Korea: The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Joung; Yu, Seon Yeong; Kim, Sunyoung; Won, Chang Won; Choi, Hyunrim; Kim, Byung Sung

    2017-09-01

    The number of North Korean adolescent defectors entering South Korea has been increasing. The health behavior, including mental health-related behavior, and factors associated with depression in North Korean adolescent defectors residing in South Korea were investigated. Data obtained from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (2011-2014) dataset were utilized. In total, 206 North Korean adolescent defectors were selected, and for the control group, 618 matched South Korean adolescents were selected. Frequency analysis was used to determine the place of birth and nationality of the parents, chi-square tests were used to compare the general characteristics of the North and South Korean subjects, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to compare the health behavior of the two sets of subjects. To determine the factors associated with depression in the North Korean subjects, a logistic regression was performed. The North Korean adolescents reported higher current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 4.35), current drinking (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.99), and drug use rates (aOR, 10.99; 95% CI, 4.04 to 29.88) than did the South Korean adolescents. The factors associated with depression in the North Korean adolescents were current smoking (aOR, 6.99; 95% CI, 1.62 to 30.06), lifetime drinking experience (aOR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 18.75), and perceived stress (aOR, 4.74; 95% CI, 1.74 to 12.90). There were differences in health behavior between the North and South Korean adolescents. A specialized approach for North Korean adolescent defectors is required to promote proper health behavior and adaptation to South Korean society.

  13. Farmers' perceptions towards agroforestry systems in North and South Kordofanstates, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in North and South Kordofan States with objectives of to identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, to characterize major tree species in different agroforestry system, to prioritize major constraints on agroforestry systems in the region, and to study the current status of gum Arabic trees and their contribution on farmers livelihood. Data were collected through community meeting, individual interviews and direct field observation. The common agroforestry systems in the region are scatter trees on farm land, followed by wind breaks and boundary planting. The important trees in the study area are Acacia senegal83%, followed by Fadherbia albida 46%, Ziziphus spina- christia43% and Balanites aegyptiaca 41%. The most important field crops that cultivated in agroforestry system are groundnuts, millet, sorghum, sesame and roselle. The environmental benefits of trees in farm which was identified by the respondents include protection of farm against wind erosion, improvement of the soil properties, improvement of the micro-climate and providing a source for income which was indicated by the majority of respondents. Across all sites 93% of respondents showed that gum Arabic have a significant contribution to their family income. The study recommended that a multi-purpose tree species such as Acacia senegal should be maintained for amelioration of soils fertility and increase crop productivity in the fragile ecosystems such as that of the study sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12624 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 53-67

  14. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  15. Single-kernel analysis of fumonisins and other fungal metabolites in maize from South African subsistence farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Sørensen, S.M.; Sulyok, M.

    2011-01-01

    Fumonisins are important Fusarium mycotoxins mainly found in maize and derived products. This study analysed maize from five subsistence farmers in the former Transkei region of South Africa. Farmers had sorted kernels into good and mouldy quality. A total of 400 kernels from 10 batches were...... analysed; of these 100 were visually characterised as uninfected and 300 as infected. Of the 400 kernels, 15% were contaminated with 1.84-1428 mg kg(-1) fumonisins, and 4% (n = 15) had a fumonisin content above 100 mg kg(-1). None of the visually uninfected maize had detectable amounts of fumonisins....... The total fumonisin concentration was 0.28-1.1 mg kg(-1) for good-quality batches and 0.03-6.2 mg kg(-1) for mouldy-quality batches. The high fumonisin content in the batches was apparently caused by a small number (4%) of highly contaminated kernels, and removal of these reduced the average fumonisin...

  16. Comparative Analysis of On- and Off-Grid Electrification: The Case of Two South Korean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s main industry is the manufacturing industry, and it requires stable energy. Korea heavily relies on importing oils to produce energy, thus efficient energy management is critical. This is why many renewable and smart energy policies and infrastructure planning are being set up currently. Supplying reliable and sustainable renewable energy to remote areas has especially been questioned; therefore, adopting sustainable and clean energy based on renewable resources cannot be delayed any more. This research examines the most economically, technologically and environmentally suitable energy grid of two South Korean Islands. Several hybrid energy system configurations that analyze and identify the optimal grid-connected and grid-independent hybrid power generation systems are simulated in this study. According to the results of the study, the optimal regionally detached power generation system was the wind-PV-battery-converter hybrid system. At the end of this paper, implications and limitations are discussed.

  17. Affective variables, parental involvement and competence among South Korean high school learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Morris

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between various affective variables and two measures of competence in English, for 190 South Korean high school students. A 55-item questionnaire was used to measure attitudes (Attitudes toward English Speakers and their Communities and Attitudes toward the English-speaking Culture, motivation (Motivational Intensity, Desire to Learn and Attitudes toward the Learning of English, amotivation, parental involvement (Active Parental Encouragement, Passive Parental Encouragement and Parental Pressure, parental disinterest and students’ competence in L2 (English- EXAM and English-SELF. Pearson product-moment coefficients indicate that active and passive forms of parental encouragement correlate with motivationto learn, as conceptualized by Gardner (1985, 2010, as well as with parental pressure, which suggests that South Korean students report undergoing forms of pressure when their parents actively or passively encourage them. Furthermore, the obtained correlations of the active and passive forms of encouragement with different variables suggest that the two forms represent two distinct concepts. While parental disinterest correlated negatively with motivational variables, parental pressure correlated only with motivational intensity, and only weakly. Therefore, parental pressure seems not to interact significantly with participants’ attitudes, motivation and competence. Multiple linear regression analyses confirm the importance of motivation to learn for students' L2 competence.

  18. Cranes and Crops: Investigating Farmer Tolerances toward Crop Damage by Threatened Blue Cranes ( Anthropoides paradiseus) in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velden, Julia L.; Smith, Tanya; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Cape population of Blue Cranes ( Anthropoides paradiseus) in South Africa is of great importance as the largest population throughout its range. However, Blue Cranes are strongly associated with agricultural lands in the Western Cape, and therefore may come into conflict with farmers who perceive them as damaging to crops. We investigated the viability of this population by exploring farmer attitudes toward crane damage in two regions of the Western Cape, the Swartland and Overberg, using semi-structured interviews. Perceptions of cranes differed widely between regions: farmers in the Swartland perceived crane flocks to be particularly damaging to the feed crop sweet lupin (65 % of farmers reported some level of damage by cranes), and 40 % of these farmers perceived cranes as more problematic than other common bird pests. Farmers in the Overberg did not perceive cranes as highly damaging, although there was concern about cranes eating feed at sheep troughs. Farmers who had experienced large flocks on their farms and farmers who ranked cranes as more problematic than other bird pests more often perceived cranes to be damaging to their livelihoods. Biographical variables and crop profiles could not be related to the perception of damage, indicating the complexity of this human-wildlife conflict. Farmers' need for management alternatives was related to the perceived severity of damage. These results highlight the need for location-specific management solutions to crop damage by cranes, and contribute to the management of this vulnerable species.

  19. 浅谈韩国饮食文化%A Brief Talk on South Korean Catering Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴英爱

    2011-01-01

    韩国的饮食文化具有主辅食界限分明、重视餐桌礼仪、泡菜文化发达、大酱工艺讲究、香料使用频繁等特点,这些特点与韩国饮食文化的变迁史具有紧密的联系,并形成了韩国饮食文化中特殊的摆桌习俗。%South Korean catering culture is characterized by well-defined complementary foods,high value on table manners,developed Kimchi culture,particular care to soy sauce and frequent use of spices,which are all closely associated with the development history of South Korean catering culture,giving birth to the unique Korean table setting customs.

  20. Asian Values and Democratic Citizenship: Exploring Attitudes among South Korean Eighth Graders Using Data from the ICCS Asian Regional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ryan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 2009 IEA International Civic and Citizenship Study Asian Regional Module, this secondary analysis explores the relationship between traditional Asian values and democratic citizenship. Findings identify two dimensions of Asian values: Asian civic values and obedience to authority. Among South Korean students, Asian civic…

  1. How Do South Korean Female Executives' Definitions of Career Success Differ from Those of Male Executives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo; Park, Jiwon; Han, Soo Jeoung; Ju, Boreum; You, Jieun; Ju, Ahreum; Park, Chan Kyun; Park, Hye Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare South Korean female executives' definitions of career success with those of male executives, identify their career development strategies for success and provide implications for research and practice. Two research questions guiding our inquiry included: How do female executives' definitions of…

  2. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

  3. Effects of South Korean High School Students' Motivation to Learn Science and Technology on Their Concern Related to Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunsang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the gender difference among South Korean high school students in science learning motivation, technology learning motivation, and concern related engineering, as well as the correlation between these factors. It also verified effects of the sub-factors of science learning motivation and technology learning motivation on…

  4. Research for South Korea international Arbitration Court for resolving, in case commercial dispute between Russian and Korean companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Taewook

    2012-01-01

    In the article – the introduction of South Korea Commercial Arbitration System (for ADR) and International Arbitration Court. When a dispute ari­ses between Russian and Korean companies, for resolving, can be selected the International Arbitration Court of Russia, Korea, or other countries. Therefore, here enumerated about the International Arbitration Court of the Republic of Korea.

  5. The Promotion of Environmental Management in the South Korean Health Sector—Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryool Kim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the comprehensiveness and urgency of environmental challenges, every stakeholder needs to be engaged in reducing environmental impacts. The healthcare sector has rarely been studied, despite its intense effects on the environment, particularly through generating various forms of hazardous waste and intensively consuming energy and water. Many healthcare facilities exist in South Korea, and every citizen frequently visits hospitals thanks to the convenient system. To reduce the environmental impacts of the healthcare sector, the South Korean government has implemented various policy measures aimed at promoting environmental management in that sector. This study evaluated the eco-efficiencies of 21 hospitals from 2012 to 2015 using data envelopment assessment (DEA, used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP to analyze hospital staff members’ answers to a questionnaire asking about the relative importance and performance of individual environmental management tasks, and also identified environmental management tasks that should be prioritized by building an importance-performance analysis (IPA matrix using those questionnaire responses. This study found that eco-efficiencies have improved during the period, and that mandatory policy measures were more effective than voluntary agreements for improving eco-efficiency. This implies that rigorous reporting and monitoring should be implemented along with any voluntary agreement. In addition, this study found that the top priorities are “establishment of vision and strategy for environmental management” and “organization of task team for environmental management and task assignment”. This shows the necessity of additional policy measures, such as training or consulting to promote the priorities. In addition to policy recommendations for diffusing environmental management in the South Korean healthcare sector, the methodological approach sheds light for researchers interested in

  6. The subak in diaspora: Balinese farmers and the subak in South Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.

    2011-01-01

    The subak has a long history as an irrigators’ institution on Bali. It has also spread across Indonesia along with Balinese farmers who were resettled by colonial and post-colonial governments or who have migrated spontaneously since colonial times. While subaks have been much researched in Bali

  7. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Park, Keeho

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep). The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  8. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk; Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure

  9. Happiness and health behaviors in South Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon Kye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations between happiness and a wide range of health behaviors in South Korean adolescents. METHODS: Study data were derived from the ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey administered from June to July 2013. In addition to happiness levels, the questionnaire included items on sociodemographics and health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of happiness were associated with not smoking or drinking, eating breakfast, eating fruits daily, vegetable consumption, participating in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day, avoiding sedentary behavior, and hours of sleep. Additionally, sex differences were found in relationships between happiness and eating fruit daily, participation in physical activity, and sedentary behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These results encourage public health professionals to consider the psychological aspects of adolescent life in working to improve their health behaviors and outcomes.

  10. Preliminary study on tsunami vulnerability assessment in south coast of Korean Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Byung Il; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyumin; Jun, Kyoung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The potential impact on the coast by the Nankai trough earthquake has been reviewed in 2003 by the Japanese government. However, the magnitude-9.0 earthquake that occurred in March 2011, the Japanese government has decided to re-evaluation the event and extensive studies revealed that the occurrence of a magnitude-9.0 earthquake in the Nankai Trough. In this revealed result, the tsunami waves have been estimated approximately 50% bigger than previous results. A simulation of the tsunami that would be caused by an earthquake in the Nankai Trough was conducted to determine the effect on the Korean coast. The tsunami waves are simulated to propagate southeastward, diffract clockwise south of Kyushu and head for Cheju Island and the southern coast of Korea. The detailed coastal structures are not included in this research because the computational cost. Further simulation studies are underway to take into account coastal structure.

  11. A Test of an Integrative Model Using Social Factors and Personality Traits: Prediction on the Delinquency of South Korean Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung; Park, Woong-Sub

    2017-08-01

    To more fully comprehend juvenile delinquency, it is necessary to take an integrative approach, with consideration of both personality traits of social risk factors. Many scholars argue the necessity and strength of integrative approach on the ground that juvenile delinquency is an outcome of interplay of individual and social factors. The present study examines the general applicability of an integrative model of personal traits and social risk factors to youth delinquency in the South Korean context. The empirical results show that the delinquency predictors in the current South Korean sample are closely aligned to Loeber and Farrington's theoretical propositions and that found in Western nations. Perhaps this is because South Korea has undergone rapid Westernization for the last decades. Because the correlates in this sample and Western theoretical propositions and studies overlap, an integrative model of personality trait and social risk factors is indeed generally applicable to South Korea. This finding also depicts the extent of Westernization in the South Korean society at least among adolescents. Limitations of the present study and directions for the future study are discussed.

  12. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  13. Distortions in farmer prices since 1950s: South Africa in international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Kym; de Nicola, Francesca; Jara, Esteban; Kurzweil, Marianne; Sandri, Damiano; Valenzuela, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    For decades, earnings from farming in many low-income countries have been depressed by a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, as well as by governments of richer countries favoring their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth. They also add to inequality and poverty in developing countries, since most of the world's billion poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Over the past two decades numerous developi...

  14. A Predictive Model on North Korean Refugees' Adaptation to South Korean Society: Resilience in Response to Psychological Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Hee Lim, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that resilience can be improved through self-efficacy. It was the most significant factor decreasing psychological trauma and increasing resilience. Therefore, we need to develop programs for self-efficacy. The results also provide basic data for policy making for North Korean refugees.

  15. Farmer’s welfare in Telang’s integrated independent city: lesson learned from migrant and local farmers in tidal land, South Sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, D.; Zahri, I.; Wildayana, E.; Maryadi; Hamzah, M.; Yulius

    2018-02-01

    Telang’s Independent Integrated City development is a model of tidal agricultural development through technological innovation to improve farmers’ welfare. In this area, the diversity of origin of population is also suspected to have an impact on the achievement of success. The purpose of this study is to analyze and prove the hypothesis that farmers are able to prosper in tidal land by Telang’s Independent Integrated City Program based on migrant and local farmers disaggregation. The research was conducted at Tanjung Lago District Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra. The research method is survey with stratified simple random sampling. Data is processed by mathematics and statistics. Telang’s Independent Integrated City is an area of rice production center development and rice industry. Since 2008, farmers have implemented rice cultivation innovations by the twice-cropping index. This program by utilization of tidal land proved that farmers have a great chance of success. Farmers have succeeded in breaking the myth that has been growing in the food agriculture sector, that farmers cannot prosper only with food crops. Both Farmer’s income has been above the necessities of life. Judging by the diversity of origin of population, the income of migrant is higher than local farmers.

  16. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity.

  17. Single-kernel analysis of fumonisins and other fungal metabolites in maize from South African subsistence farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, J M; Sørensen, S M; Sulyok, M; van der Westhuizen, L; Shephard, G S; Frisvad, J C; Thrane, U; Krska, R; Nielsen, K F

    2011-12-01

    Fumonisins are important Fusarium mycotoxins mainly found in maize and derived products. This study analysed maize from five subsistence farmers in the former Transkei region of South Africa. Farmers had sorted kernels into good and mouldy quality. A total of 400 kernels from 10 batches were analysed; of these 100 were visually characterised as uninfected and 300 as infected. Of the 400 kernels, 15% were contaminated with 1.84-1428 mg kg(-1) fumonisins, and 4% (n=15) had a fumonisin content above 100 mg kg(-1). None of the visually uninfected maize had detectable amounts of fumonisins. The total fumonisin concentration was 0.28-1.1 mg kg(-1) for good-quality batches and 0.03-6.2 mg kg(-1) for mouldy-quality batches. The high fumonisin content in the batches was apparently caused by a small number (4%) of highly contaminated kernels, and removal of these reduced the average fumonisin content by 71%. Of the 400 kernels, 80 were screened for 186 microbial metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, detecting 17 other fungal metabolites, including fusaric acid, equisetin, fusaproliferin, beauvericin, cyclosporins, agroclavine, chanoclavine, rugulosin and emodin. Fusaric acid in samples without fumonisins indicated the possibility of using non-toxinogenic Fusaria as biocontrol agents to reduce fumonisin exposure, as done for Aspergillus flavus. This is the first report of mycotoxin profiling in single naturally infected maize kernels. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  18. Side effect experiences of South Korean women in their twenties and thirties after facial plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Young A Kim,1 Hyang-In Cho Chung2 1Department of Nursing, Jeju National University College of Nursing, Jeju-si, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nursing, Chonnam National University College of Nursing, Gwangju, Republic of Korea Background: Rates of plastic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, especially for the women in South Korea.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of South Korean women in their twenties and thirties with facial plastic surgery (FPS side effects.Participants and methods: Seven women who have suffered from FPS side effects participated in this study. Data were collected from July to September 2015 through individual in-depth interviews using open-ended questions and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method, which is a Husserlian phenomenological approach.Results: Six themes, and 25 subthemes, were found. Major themes were “choosing FPS to gain a new self”, “facing an unintended self”, “trying to accept a changed self”, “making efforts to overcome the situation”, “coming to know a new world”, and “pursuing a new lifestyle”.Conclusion: This study raises social awareness on the risk of plastic surgery side effects, which could prevent unnecessary plastic surgery. It also suggests the need for a deeper understanding of women’s biopsychosocial suffering from plastic surgery side effects. Keywords: cosmetic surgery, aesthetic plastic surgery, qualitative research, interview 

  19. Distortions in farmer prices since the 1950s: South Africa in international perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson; Francesca de Nicola; Esteban Jara; Marianne Kurzweil; Damiano Sandri; Ernesto Valenzuela

    2007-01-01

    For decades, earnings from farming in many low-income countries have been depressed by a pro-urban bias in own-country policies, as well as by governments of richer countries favoring their farmers with import barriers and subsidies. Both sets of policies reduce national and global economic growth. They also add to inequality and poverty in developing countries, since most of the worldÂ’s billion poorest people depend on farming for their livelihood. Over the past two decades numerous develop...

  20. The work-life balance and psychosocial well-being of South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Won; Suh, Chunhui; Lee, Chae Kwan; Son, Byung Chul

    2018-01-01

    It is challenging to balance work and life, and little attention has been paid to the work-life balance and psychosocial well-being of South Koreans. We assessed the association between work-life balance and psychosocial well-being among paid Korean workers. This study was based on data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey. We evaluated only paid workers, which constituted 30,649 of the total of 50,007 subjects surveyed. Poor work-life balance was defined based on the goodness of fit between working hours and social commitments. Well-being was measured using the World Health Organization WHO-5 index. Poisson regression with robust variances was used to calculate the estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) with confidence intervals. Poor work-life balance was associated with poor psychosocial well-being (PR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.28) even after adjusting for work-related and individual characteristics. Poor well-being was associated with low-level job autonomy (PR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09), working for ≥53 h per week (PR = 1.10; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14), blue-collar status (PR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.21), low-level support at work (PR = 1.32; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.36), age ≥ 50 years (PR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.26), the female gender (95% CI PR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), and cohabitation (living with somebody) (PR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). Good well-being was associated with high-intensity work (PR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99), being the secondary earner in a household (PR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85), and higher income (PR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.79). Work-life balance was associated with psychosocial well-being after adjusting for both work-related and individual characteristics.

  1. Age-friendly environments and life satisfaction among South Korean elders: person-environment fit perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sojung; Lee, Sangchul

    2017-07-01

    Drawing on the person-environment (P-E) fit perspective, this study examined the role of environment on the well-being of vulnerable older adults in a non-western context. Using the indicators from the World Health Organization's (WHO) framework for age friendly cities (ACF), we examined life satisfaction among South Korean older adults, exploring the extent to which multidimensional environmental characteristics are associated with low socioeconomic status (SES). Using the regionally representative data from the Seoul City-wide needs assessment of middle- and old-aged adults, an analytic sample (N = 1657) focused on community-living individuals aged 65 and older. Multilevel regression models examined interaction between SES subgroups and varying aspects of the environment (i.e. physical, social, and service environment) as related to life satisfaction. Consistent with the environmental docility hypothesis, members of the most vulnerable subgroup in the Korean context - older adults who are living alone and poor - are more likely to have higher life satisfaction when they have higher levels of support in physical and social environments. Interestingly, a higher level of support in the service environment was related to lower life satisfaction for this subgroup. This study provides an empirical foundation for efforts to identify age-friendly environmental characteristics as modifiable environmental resources that can improve older adults' psychological well-being. As the first attempt to use WHO ACF indicators within the P-E fit perspective in a non-Western context, our study provides a foundation for designing support services or programs that effectively meet the needs of vulnerable older adults.

  2. South Korean military service promotes smoking: a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Ayers, John W; Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2012-03-01

    The South Korean (SK) government monopolizes the tobacco industry and is accused of pushing smoking on captive military personnel. However, estimating the association between military service and smoking is difficult, since military service is required for all SK men and the few civilian waivers are usually based on smoking determinants, e.g., social status. Using a quasi-experimental design we validly estimate the association between military service and smoking. Military service was assigned by immigration patterns to the United States, instead of an experimenter, by comparing Korean Americans who happened to immigrate before or after the age(s) of mandated service. Smoking promotion in the military was also described among SK veterans, to identify the probable mechanisms for veterans' smoking tendencies. Veterans were 15% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4 to 27] more likely to ever-puff and 10% (95% CI, 0 to 23) more likely to ever-smoke cigarettes, compared to a similar group of civilians. Among veterans, 92% (95% CI, 89 to 95) recalled cigarettes were free, 30% (95% CI, 25 to 35) recalled smokers were given more work breaks and 38% (95% CI, 32 to 43) felt explicit "social pressure" to smoke. Free cigarettes was the strongest mechanism for veterans' smoking tendencies, e.g., veterans recalling free cigarette distribution were 16% (95% CI, 1 to 37) more likely to ever-smoke than veterans not recalling. These patterns suggest military service is strongly associated with smoking, and differences between veterans and civilians smoking may carry over long after military service. Given military service remains entirely in government purview, actively changing military smoking policies may prove most efficacious. This highlights the importance of recent bans on military cigarette distribution, but policies eliminating other smoking encouragements described by veterans are necessary and could effectively reduce the smoking prevalence by as much as 10% in SK.

  3. Correlates of Domestic Violence Victimization Among North Korean Refugee Women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2018-07-01

    Although many North Korean (NK) refugee women are victims of domestic violence (DV) in North Korea, face sexual exploitation during migration, and remain at risk of DV while adapting to life in South Korea, there is no empirical evidence about risk factors for DV in this population. To fill this gap, this study examined whether gender role beliefs, child abuse history, and sociocultural adaptation were associated with past-year physical, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse, and whether they were associated with multiple forms of abuse. We also explored whether these associations were similar or different across different types of DV among NK refugee women. A sample of 180 ever-married NK refugee women in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence was used for analysis. Physical abuse was associated with more traditional gender role beliefs; emotional abuse and multiple forms of abuse were associated with lower levels of sociocultural adaptation; and sexual and economic abuse were associated with an increased likelihood of childhood abuse and poor sociocultural adaptation. Our study findings underscore the importance of assisting NK refugee women to be better adapted to the new culture in a practical way, because better sociocultural adaptation might protect them from experiencing various types of abuse. At the same time, findings of this study highlight the need for empowering NK refugee women who report physical abuse by educating their rights and altering their traditional beliefs of gender roles, and screening of childhood abuse and providing culturally sensitive psychotherapy to those who report sexual or economic abuse. Moreover, we suggest future studies to examine correlates of different forms of abuse separately because they can inform culturally tailored interventions for abused NK refugee women. To prevent further victimization, educational programs should be provided to NK refugee women at an early stage of resettlement in South Korea.

  4. The role of organizational culture in policy mobilities – the case of South Korean climate change adaptation policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schäfer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of policies as mobile and mutable knowledge is the key feature of the recent debate on policy mobilities. Policy mobility studies have focused on the movement and translation of policies as well as on the impact of mobile policies on policy-making processes and governed spaces. Given that policy mobilities have mainly been examined in comparable institutional contexts, the current debate has neglected the role of organizational culture in the translation of policies. Organizational culture is understood as a set of shared assumptions that guide what happens in organizations by defining appropriate practices of policy making. The case study, South Korean adaptation policy, illustrates that organizational culture has a significant impact on the translation of mobile adaptation policy. Besides the claim to consider organizational culture more prominently in the field of policy mobility studies, this paper illustrates the translation process of adaptation policy in the South Korean political system. The practices in South Korean political institutions dealing with climate change adaptation are highly characterized by the avoidance of risks. The propensity to avoid risks leads policy makers to focus on technical solutions to climate change adaptation and to neglect the participation of civil society.

  5. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium in South Korea: A 10-year population-based Korean cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Hyungtaek Rim

    Full Text Available Although numerous population-based studies have reported the prevalences and risk factors for pterygium, information regarding the incidence of pterygium is scarce. This population-based cohort study aimed to evaluate the South Korean incidence and prevalence of pterygium. We retrospectively obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 1,116,364 South Koreans in the Korea National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC. The associated sociodemographic factors were evaluated using multivariable Cox regression analysis, and the hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated. Pterygium was defined based on the Korean Classification of Diseases code, and surgically removed pterygium was defined as cases that required surgical removal. We identified 21,465 pterygium cases and 8,338 surgically removed pterygium cases during the study period. The overall incidences were 2.1 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 0.8 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. Among subjects who were ≥40 years old, the incidences were 4.3 per 1,000 person-years for pterygium and 1.7 per 1,000 person-years for surgically removed pterygium. The overall prevalences were 1.9% for pterygium and 0.6% for surgically removed pterygium, and the prevalences increased to 3.8% for pterygium and 1.4% for surgically removed pterygium among subjects who were ≥40 years old. The incidences of pterygium decreased according to year. The incidence and prevalence of pterygium were highest among 60-79-year-old individuals. Increasing age, female sex, and living in a relatively rural area were associated with increased risks of pterygium and surgically removed pterygium in the multivariable Cox regression analysis. Our analyses of South Korean national insurance claims data revealed a decreasing trend in the incidence of pterygium during the study period.

  6. Trace Gas Measurements Along the South Korean Coast Aboard the Jangmok During KOCOA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Flynn, J. H., III

    2017-12-01

    The University of Houston deployed four instruments aboard the Jangmok during the KOrean Coastal water Ocean & Atmosphere (KOCOA) project to quantify O3, NOx, CO, and SO2 along the South Korea coast. The study explores influences of China pollution transport, estimation of the East Asia O3 background, comparisons with ground, ship, and airborne based measurements, and potential source regions along the coast. The Jangmok sailed from May 20 to June 5, 2016 from Ulsan on the east coast traversing along the southern coast to Bigeum in the west. The ship docked each night and measurements were collected only while the vessel was at sea. Sampling was divided into three profiles: anchored, drifting, and transits. Measurements while anchored and drifting provide good temporal data in a small area while transit data provide spatial coverage. The combination of sampling profiles give a better understanding of pollutants over the open water around southern Korea. A few case studies address pollutant transport from China, exploration of the relatively high East Asia O3 background, and coastal emissions along the Jangmok route and ports. The KOCOA project was conducted at the same time as the KORUS project, which provides a number of measurement platforms to compare observations. The Onnuri vessel was sailing as part of the KORUS-OC, while KORUS-AQ included a number of NIER monitoring sites and aircraft measurements. While a number of factors limited close proximity measurements with the other platforms, comparisons were explored where applicable.

  7. Validation of the Athens Insomnia Scale for screening insomnia in South Korean firefighters and rescue workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Jeon, Yujin; Ma, Jiyoung; Choi, Yera; Ban, Soonhyun; Lee, Sooyeon; Lee, Bora; Im, Jooyeon Jamie; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E; Lim, Jae-Ho; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2015-10-01

    Sleep problems are a major cause of occupational stress in firefighters and rescue workers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) among South Korean firefighters and rescue workers. Structured clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires were administered to 221 firefighters and rescue workers. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Short-Form 36-item Health Survey (SF36), and Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) were used to examine convergent and divergent validity. Test-retest reliability was calculated from a subsample (n = 24). Analysis of internal consistency, factor analysis, and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis were conducted. Cronbach's alpha was 0.88. The mean item-total correlation coefficient was 0.73. The test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC = 0.94). Significant correlations of the AIS with the PSQI, ISI, ESS, and SF36 confirmed convergent validity. Nonsignificant associations of the AIS with the AUDIT-C and socioeconomic status showed divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure. For groups with different symptom severity, group-specific cutoff scores which may improve positive predictive values were suggested. The AIS may be a useful tool with good reliability and validity for screening insomnia symptoms in firefighters and rescue workers.

  8. Television viewing, reading, physical activity and brain development among young South Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Young; Spence, John C; Carson, Valerie

    2017-07-01

    To examine associations between television (TV) viewing, reading, physical activity (PA), and participation in these behaviors with caregivers, and cognitive and linguistic development among young South Korean children aged 0-5 years. Cross-sectional study. Findings are based on 1870 children in the Korea Children and Youth Survey. All measures were questionnaire-derived. Children who participated in PA for 1-3h/week and for >3h/week were more likely to show high cognitive development (OR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.06-2.00 and OR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.11-2.23; referent: 3h/day were associated with increased odds of high cognitive development (weekdays: OR=1.89, 95%CI: 1.32-2.41 and OR=2.47, 95%CI: 1.29-4.73; weekends: OR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.39-2.54 and OR=3.34, 95%CI: 1.70-6.55; referent: development (OR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.07-1.94); referent: development than those who engaged in these behaviors 1-2 times/week. Findings support emerging evidence that PA and specific types of sedentary behavior have positive impacts on brain development during early childhood. Furthermore, engaging in different types of behavior more frequently with caregivers, regardless of type, may be important for brain development. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association between overweight/obesity and academic performance in South Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyuck; So, Wi-Young

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic performance and obesity/overweight among South Korean adolescents. Our data set included 72,399 adolescents in grades 7-12 who had participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) in 2009. We assessed the association between academic performance and body mass index (BMI), using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, parents' education level, economic status, mental stress experienced, sleep duration, frequency of muscle-strengthening exercises, smoking and drinking behaviour, and vigorous and moderate physical activity (PA). For boys, being overweight (compared with being of normal weight) had a significantly greater odds of poor academic performance (OR=1.182, 95% Cl 1.052-1.329, p=0.005). Obese boys had 1.182 (1.048-1.332, p=0.006), 1.461 (1.294-1.648, pperformance, respectively. In the analysis for girls, overweight girls had 1.314 (1.124-1.536, pacademic performance, respectively. Finally, obese girls had 1.374 (1.098-1.718, p=0.005), 1.672 (1.339-2.089, pacademic performance, respectively. Thus, overweight/obesity was negatively associated with academic performance in both boys and girls. The results of this study indicate that adolescents would benefit from weight management to prevent obesity and, possibly, improve academic performance.

  10. Fusarium spp. and levels of fumonisins in maize produced by subsistence farmers in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium spp. produce fumonisins - mycotoxins that are of importance to maize production in South Africa. Fumonisins have been associated with human oesophageal cancer and cause various diseases in animals that are of concern to the animal feed industry. Maize samples, collected from subsistence

  11. The Securitisation of Refugee Flows and the Schooling of Refugees: Examining the Cases of North Koreans in South Korea and Iraqis in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…

  12. Self-Esteem and Delinquency in South Korean Adolescents: Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungeun; Lee, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the inter-related development of self-esteem and delinquency across three years. Participants were 3449 Korean high school adolescents (age M = 15.8, SD = 0.42, 1725 boys, 1724 girls) from Korea Youth Panel Study (KYPS), in 2005-2007, nationally representative of Korean adolescents. Latent growth modeling was employed for…

  13. Postcolonial Reflection on the Christian Mission: The Case of North Korean Refugees in China and South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Ji Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to challenge the dominant narrative of Christian service providers working for North Korean refugees’ welfare, and to articulate the perspectives of non-Christian aid recipients, especially North Korean refugees in China and South Korea. Drawing upon postcolonialism, I will unpack dysfunctions of Christian missions and ministries while relating them to anthropological insights and ethnographic research data. As a Christian scholar, I attempt to invite Christian leaders and field workers to engage in critical reflections on their goals, dispositions, and strategies in relating to the culturally, politically, and economically marginalized. This paper is aimed to offer opportunities for Christian missionaries to critique their colonial models and to reclaim their missions that decolonize both missionaries and the missionized.

  14. Rum Corps to IXL: Services to Pastoralists and Farmers in New South Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Bruce Robinson

    1990-01-01

    By 1850, New South Wales (NSW) appeared to have entered a period of long term economic stability which was almost entirely dependent on the production of fine wool. The prospects of such a future vanished with the discovery of large quantities of alluvial gold in 1851. The population of the colony almost doubled, increasing from 179,000 in 1851 to 351,000 in 1861 (Vamplew 1987, p. 26).

  15. An equilibrium displacement approach to analyzing the effects of tariff reduction on farmers' profits: The Korea-Chile FTA's effects on Korean grape producers

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Byeong-il; Im, Jeong-bin

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops an equilibrium displacement model (EDM) to evaluate the impacts of a free trade agreement (FTA) on the profits of individual farmers. The parameters representing the share of profit within revenue and the elasticity of cost with respect to quantity in the cost function play key roles in assessing the change in individual farmers' profit. The application of the developed EDM to assess the impacts of the Korea-Chile FTA indicates that this FTA has little impact on the...

  16. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ok Cho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST and suicidal attempts (SA with the level of physical activity (PA among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA, moderate PA (MPA, and low PA (LPA and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation.

  17. Managing anthelmintic resistance in small ruminant livestock of resource-poor farmers in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Vatta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal parasitism is one of the most important disease complexes of sheep and goats impacting on the resource-poor livestock farmer. Of the responsible nematodes, Haemonchus contortus, a blood-sucking worm of the abomasum, poses possibly the greatest threat. Over the past several decades, the worm has been controlled through the use of anthelmintics, but the emergence of anthelmintic resistance has threatened this chemotherapeutic approach. In Africa, the overall prevalence of anthelmintic resistance has not been extensively investigated, particularly within the resource-poor farming sector, but resistance has been reported from at least 14 countries with most of the reports emanating from Kenya and South Africa and the majority concerning H. contortus. While levels of resistance under commercial sheep farming systems in South Africa is considered to be amongst the worst in the world, resistance has also been reported from the resource-poor farming sector. Increases in productivity and reproduction of livestock and the development of markets for sale of animals are seen by international funding bodies as a way out of poverty for communities that keep livestock. This must lead to the greater need for parasite control. At such times, the risk of levels of anthelmintic resistance escalating is much greater and there is therefore a need to look at alternatives to their use. Proposed strategies include the appropriate, but judicious use of anthelmintics by application of the FAMACHA(c system and the use of alternatives to anthelmintics such as strategic nutrient supplementation. It is also very clear that there is a strong demand for knowledge about animal diseases, including helminthosis, and their effective management in the resource-poor livestock farming communities. This is an important challenge to meet.

  18. Sitting Time and Obesity or Abdominal Obesity in Older South Koreans: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Kyung-Do; Choi, Mankyu; Kim, Yang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We examined relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status in elderly people. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013, and 1565 participants were included in the study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine relationships between sitting time and obesity or abdominal obesity according to sex and socioeconomic status. Sitting time was positively correlated with body mass index in men and women and waist circumference in men. When considering socioeconomic factors, men who sat for 5 hours or longer and fell within the lowest income were more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity relative to men who sat for 5 hours or shorter and earned higher incomes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.80 [1.14-2.84] and 1.63 [1.02-2.61] respectively), and women who sat for 5 hours or longer and fell within the lowest educational level were more likely to have obesity relative to women who sat for 5 hours or less and were educated to a higher level (1.24 [1.01-1.85]). Strategies to reduce sedentary behavior would help to prevent obesity in older men who earn low incomes and women with lower levels of educational attainment.

  19. Exporting the Saemaul spirit: South Korea’s Knowledge Sharing Program and the ‘rendering technical’ of Korean development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucette, Jamie; Müller, Anders Riel

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a critical intervention into South Korea’s recent effort to promote its 1970s authoritarian-era rural modernization program, Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), as the ‘iconic’ model of its international development assistance. To better understand how this movement has...... been represented, this article examines the policy narratives that have been produced by the Korean government’s Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) and circulated through multiple development cooperation initiatives. These narratives portray Saemaul as the key to Korea’s developmental success: a mental...... questions about the ‘brand’ of development assistance that has been built upon it....

  20. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-01

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  1. North Korean nuclear negotiation drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jai Bok

    1995-06-15

    This book reports negotiation on North Korean nuclear among South Korea, North Korea and U. S. It includes an account about international issues on North Korean nuclear activities, a new aspect on the problems of North Korean nuclear, pressure on North Korea and startup for dialogue trying to solve problems by communication, investigation by IAEA, IAEA resolution and high tension on Korean peninsula with North Korean nuclear.

  2. Work–Life Imbalance and Musculoskeletal Disorders among South Korean Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Mee Kim; Sung-il Cho

    2017-01-01

    Employed workers often have family responsibilities such as childcare or homemaking. This dual burden may increase work-related health problems, particularly if there are conflicts between work and family responsibilities. This study assessed whether difficulty in work–life balance is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among Korean employees. Data from the population-based Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2011, including 28,640 male and 21,392 female workers, were used. Men an...

  3. Life is beautiful: gay representation, moral panics, and South Korean television drama beyond Hallyu

    OpenAIRE

    Glynn, Basil; Kim, Jeongmee

    2017-01-01

    Critical attention on Korean popular culture, particularly outside of Korea, has focused upon the Hallyu cultural phenomenon at the expense of sectors of the Korean creative industries that have sought to actively engage with their social and cultural environment and challenge the status quo. Politically charged, countercultural or just distinctive and/or original, non-Hallyu cultural artifacts have been and continue to be born out of a desire to be creative, to comment on or to create social...

  4. Low transferrin saturation is associated with impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance in the South Korean adults: the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R J; Moon, J D

    2015-05-01

    The associations of transferrin saturation with diabetes have not been well evaluated and conflicting results have been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine the association of iron indices (serum ferritin and transferrin saturation) with risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2413 individuals (1150 men and 1263 women) aged 20-50 years who participated in the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were free of diabetes, malignancy, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, anaemia, pregnancy and menopause. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured as the outcomes. Impaired fasting glucose was more prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest serum ferritin quartile among men (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.24) after adjustment for multiple covariates. Following the same adjustment, impaired fasting glucose was less prevalent in the highest compared with the lowest transferrin saturation quartile among men (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.25-0.80) and women (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.14-0.77). Moreover, a higher ferritin level was significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR after adjusting for confounders in men. Lower transferrin saturation was also significantly associated with higher insulin levels and HOMA-IR in both sexes. Lower transferrin saturations were associated with an increased risk of impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance among general South Korean population. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  5. Do Working Hours and Type of Work Affect Obesity in South Korean Female Workers? Analysis of the Korean Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Kang, Mo-Yeol; Bae, Kyu-Jung; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity and the female labor participation rate have been rapidly increasing in South Korea. To examine the relationship between these factors, we investigated the association between timing and type of work and obesity in the Korean female working population. Data collected by the 2008 Community Health Survey (CHS) were analyzed using a complex, stratified, multistage, probability cluster sampling method. Descriptive analysis of relevant variables was performed using the chi-square test, and work-related variables by work type were identified using multivariate logistic regression. The relationship between long working hours, night/shift work, and body-mass index in female workers and explanatory, stratifying, and dependent variables and covariates was analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. A total of 42,234 CHS participants were eligible for study inclusion. Among both manual and nonmanual workers, working less than 40 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.31 and aOR 1.29; 95% CI 1.09-0.52, respectively) or more than 60 (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.30 and aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.57, respectively) hours per week was significantly associated with obesity after controlling for covariates. However, working type (day or night/shift) was significantly associated with obesity only in nonmanual workers (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.42). When we controlled working type in the model, manual workers who work more than 60 hours show higher likelihood of being obese (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18). Working fewer (60) hours per week is significantly associated with obesity in the Korean female working population, regardless of the type of work. The type of work (day vs. night/shift work) was significantly associated with obesity only in only nonmanual workers.

  6. Different Shades of Green: Comparative Study on Nature Relatedness and Ecologic Consciousness among South Korean, Swiss, and Czech Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Y. Barthelmess

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How concerned are today’s students about environmental issues? Do they sense urgency for change towards a more environmentally compatible life? Who should act and what impact does one’s individual action have? And last but not least, does ecological consciousness and action go together with a sense of nature relatedness?More than 1600 South Korean, Swiss, and Czech students have participated in this comparative survey. Nearly all of them affirm that ecological considerations influence their daily behavior. Whereas most of them see the main agent of change in themselves, the impact of one’s individual action, however, is seen differently along the East and West cultural divide. Also when it comes to one’s personal sense of closeness to nature, we can observe an East West cultural variation. On average the South Koreans reveal a greater closeness towards nature than Swiss and Czech students, this despite the fact that they have the largest percentage in urban background, and consequently reveal the least physical familiarity with the natural world.In our effort to interpret these results, we have included a discussion about the diverging cultural background of the three sample groups. While they all agree on the urgency of the issue and the necessity of a more pro-environmental change, depending on their culture their ideas about the right means to introduce a change in behavior differ.

  7. Does Gender Matter in Explaining Delinquency and Suicidal Thoughts? An Examination of General Strain Theory in South Korean Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the potential extension of general strain theory (GST) by applying the hypotheses proposed by Broidy and Agnew to a sample of South Korean youths. Specifically, this study examines whether particular forms of strain and stressors have differential effects across genders on various deviant outcomes, delinquency, and suicidal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses using longitudinal data of 3,125 South Korean youths revealed mixed support for the GST proposition. Females experienced a higher level of both anger and depression than males. However, the experience of negative emotions is partly gendered in general. This study also found that different negative emotions and strain/stress factors are important and demonstrate gendered pathways in the case of delinquency. However, it also revealed that similar types of strains and stressors and negative emotions were significant and positive for suicidal thoughts for both males and females. Furthermore, a model examining the impacts of conditioning variables on suicidal thoughts highlighted that depression is particularly important in females. These findings indicate that various types of deviant outcomes and strain-stressors provide a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender.

  8. The relationship between nonstandard working and mental health in a representative sample of the South Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho; Muntaner, Carles; Khang, Young-Ho; Paek, Domyung; Cho, Sung-Il

    2006-08-01

    In light of escalating job insecurity due to increasing numbers of nonstandard workers, this study examined the association between nonstandard employment and mental health among South Korean workers. We analyzed a representative weighted sample of 2086 men and 1194 women aged 20-64 years, using data from the 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nonstandard employment included part-time work, temporary work, and daily work. Mental health was measured with indicators of self-reported depression and suicidal ideation. Based on age-adjusted prevalence of mental health, nonstandard employees were more likely to be mentally ill compared to standard employees. Furthermore, nonstandard work status was associated with poor mental health after adjusting for socioeconomic position (education, occupational class, and income) and health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise). However, the pattern of the relationship between nonstandard work and mental health differed by gender. Female gender was significantly associated with poor mental health. Although males tended to report more suicidal ideation, this difference was not statistically significant. Considering the increasing prevalence of nonstandard working conditions in South Korea, the results call for more longitudinal research on the mental health effects of nonstandard work.

  9. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  10. Extending a structural model of somatization to South Koreans: Cultural values, somatization tendency, and the presentation of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaolu; Min, Seongho; Sun, Jiahong; Kim, Se Joo; Ahn, Joung-Sook; Peng, Yunshi; Noh, Samuel; Ryder, Andrew G

    2015-05-01

    Somatization refers to the tendency to emphasize somatic symptoms when experiencing a psychiatric disturbance. This tendency has been widely reported in patients from East Asian cultural contexts suffering from depression. Recent research in two Chinese samples have demonstrated that the local cultural script for depression, involving two aspects-the experience and expression of distress (EED) and conceptualization and communication of distress (CCD)-can be evoked to help explain somatization. Given the beliefs and practices broadly shared across Chinese and South Korean cultural contexts, the current study seeks to replicate this explanatory model in South Koreans. Our sample included 209 psychiatric outpatients from Seoul and Wonju, South Korea. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess somatization tendency, adherence to traditional values, and psychological and somatic symptoms of depression. Results from SEM showed that the EED and CCD factors of somatization tendency were differently associated with cultural values and somatic symptoms, replicating our previous findings in Chinese outpatients. The reliance on a brief self-report measure of somatization tendency, not originally designed to assess separate EED and CCD factors, highlights the need for measurement tools for the assessment of cultural scripts in cross-cultural depression research. The replication of the Chinese structural model of somatization in South Korea lends empirical support to the view that somatization can be understood as the consequence of specific cultural scripts. These scripts involve the experience and expression of distress as well as culturally meaningful ways in which this distress is conceptualized and communicated to others. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Survey of farmer knowledge and attitudes to endemic disease management in South Australia, with a focus on bovine viral diarrhoea (bovine pestivirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyon, S R; Anderson, M L; Reichel, M P

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to establish the attitudes of South Australian cattle farmers towards endemic animal disease prevention and control, with a particular focus on the awareness of and attitudes towards bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). This cross-sectional postal survey involved mailing a questionnaire to all South Australian cattle owners with 35 or more head of cattle. Worms and lice were the most common animal disease concerns. Less than half of responding farmers were adequately vaccinating their herds against clostridial diseases, but 53.0% stated that they utilised quarantine procedures. Less than 20% of respondents had actively taken part in BVD educational opportunities, or had vaccinated or tested their herd for BVD; less than 20% of respondents were actively involved in any systematic control of Johne's disease. Overall, farmers' actual knowledge of BVD was lower than their perceived understanding, although their interest in BVD and its control was high. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination, quarantine and participation in systematic control schemes were used by a minority of respondents. The results suggest that respondents acknowledge BVD as an important and relevant disease, despite many believing it was not a problem in their herd. Interest in BVD appears to be high and it is likely that an education program would be well received. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  12. Racism, Equity, and Quality of Education for International Students in South Korean Higher Education Institutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Hee KIM

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to understand equity issues of international students' learning in Korean higher education institutions by engaging with the issue of racism and identifies how international students in Korea reshape their learning trajectory and how we could provide equitable and quality education for international students.Espousing a qualitative case study design,six students from different background were interviewed to examine features of perceived institutional racism based on their learning experience in Korea.Major findings showed that internationalization has not been fulfilled in terms of engaging with international students although Korean government and higher education institutions have developed relevant policy to attract international students.This study indicates that Korean universities need to reconstruct their social,cultural,and institutional systems to embrace equity,diversity and inclusiveness to empower international students' capacity.

  13. South Korean University Students' Perceptions of Different English Varieties and Their Contribution to the Learning of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon; Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2017-01-01

    This study explored South Korean university students' perceptions of different English varieties and their speakers, student attitudes towards the learning of English and its varieties, and the role of these attitudinal variables in the learning of English as a foreign language. One-hundred-one students who were enrolled in four sections of a…

  14. U.S. and South Korean Cooperation in the World Nuclear Energy Market: Major Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    system and other major components. • Samsung C&T Corporation. Plant construction. • Hyundai Engineering and Construction. Plant construction...market. Other countries that have been mentioned in the news media include Vietnam, Malaysia , Thailand, and Middle East neighbors of the UAE.25 A Korean

  15. What drives farmers to make top-down or bottom-up adaptation to climate change and fluctuations? A comparative study on 3 cases of apple farming in Japan and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers' characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers' cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers' cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy.

  16. Relationship between delivery history and health-related quality of life in menopausal South Korean women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong In; Han, Kyung-do; Kim, Sa Jin; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Jae Eun; Lee, Hae Nam

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the association between childbirth history and health-related quality of life (QOL) in menopausal South Korean women. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) for 4277 menopausal women aged over 50. We used the EuroQol index to measure health-related QOL. The relationship between delivery history and health-related QOL in menopausal South Korean women was analyzed. After adjustment for age (model 1), women who were younger at their first delivery and who had a greater number of deliveries had a significantly higher risk of problems with mobility, self-care, usual activities and pain or discomfort; the risk of anxiety or depression was not increased. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, use of alcohol, exercise, income, education, marital status, metabolic syndrome and stress (model 2), women who were younger at their first delivery and who had a greater number of deliveries had a significantly higher risk of problems with mobility, self-care and pain or discomfort. Age at last delivery was not significantly associated with health-related QOL in either model. South Korean women who were younger at their first delivery and who had more deliveries appear to be at increased risk of health-related QOL problems after menopause. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Ju; Im, Eun-Ok

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a situation-specific theory for explaining health-related quality of life (QOL) among older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. To develop a situation-specific theory, three sources were considered: (a) the conceptual model of health promotion and QOL for people with chronic and disabling conditions (an existing theory related to the QOL in patients with chronic diseases); (b) a literature review using multiple databases including Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, PsycINFO, and two Korean databases; and (c) findings from our structural equation modeling study on health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. The proposed situation-specific theory is constructed with six major concepts including barriers, resources, perceptual factors, psychosocial factors, health-promoting behaviors, and health-related QOL. The theory also provides the interrelationships among concepts. Health care providers and nurses could incorporate the proposed situation-specific theory into development of diabetes education programs for improving health-related QOL in older South Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Analysis of Relationship of Confucianism and South Korean Modernization%浅析儒学与韩国现代化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗宏

    2012-01-01

    韩国是一个具有传奇般的民族奋斗史和社会人文特色的国家,历尽侵淫而不灭,战后从日本铁蹄下解脱又经内战浩劫,在短时间内从世界上最贫困的地区变为亚洲的强势国家.其中儒家理论在韩国现代化过程中所发挥的作用,值得我们学习.%Korea is a nation with a legendary history of struggle and social cultural characteristics. It has suffered invasion from Japan and the civil war. However, it changed form the poorest regions of the world into Asia strong country in a short time. Confucianism plays an important role in its modernization development of South Korean, which is worth our study.

  19. South Korean carbon black business: The market share of the foreign-affiliated firm occupies 60%; Gaishi shea 1kyo 6wari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    Entering of the foreign capital by the business bribery happens one after another in the South Korean carbon blacks business world. German Gegsa followed the matter that the business of LG chemistry was purchased last November, and rice Colombia, chemicals purchased a business from the brocade Lake petrochemistry, too. Though a domestic manufacturer 4 companies almost monopolized it, share of the foreign capital enterprise which occupies it in the gross domestic product ability by the a series of bribery was beyond 60% in the South Korean carbon blacks market at once. It has South Korea seen with foreign capital two companies with the thing, which strengthens a business in Asia in the position, and foreign capital two companies will put an offensive on the Japanese market. (translated by NEDO)

  20. Governance, marketing and innovations in Beninese pineapple supply chains : a survey of smallholder farmers in South Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arinloye, D.D.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to identify an innovative approach that could overcome market quality and price information asymmetry issues in pineapple supply chain in Benin. Two case studies were conducted in Benin and Ghana, with an in-depth survey of 219 farmers in Benin. The study mapped

  1. How farmers cope : case studies of decision-making in six farm households in south of Malang, East Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahab, S.A.

    1996-01-01


    This thesis is about decision-making in six farm households in East Java. The research carried out uses the case study approach and focuses on the intellectual locus of the actors who took decisions. The indigenous knowledge and the way it is generated and used by farmers when they make

  2. Reducing the Incidence of Acute Pesticide Poisoning by Educating Farmers on Integrated Pest Management in South India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mancini, F.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; O'Malley, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field

  3. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  4. Stress and premenstrual symptoms among Korean women studying in the U.S. and South Korea: A longitudinal web-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yaelim; Im, Eun-Ok

    2017-07-01

    Premenstrual symptoms have been reported to be highly correlated with levels of perceived stress; however, the magnitude of the relationship remains unclear. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships among perceived stress, acculturative stress, and premenstrual symptoms. The study used a 10-week longitudinal web-based design. A total of 98 female Korean international students studying in the U.S. and 89 Korean domestic students studying in South Korea were recruited using convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted between November 2014 and February 2015. The participants completed 10 weekly web-based surveys. Data were analyzed through descriptive analyses, linear multivariable mixed model regressions, t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regressions. The levels of both perceived stress and menstrual-related symptoms were higher during the premenstrual phase in Korean international students than in domestic students (p Korean international students, perceived stress (β = 0.30; p Korean domestic students, a history of sexual abuse was the strongest related factor (β = -0.28; p < .001). Because stress is a potentially modifiable factor, understanding its relationship to premenstrual symptoms can contribute to relieving these symptoms.

  5. Korean Affairs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-20

    Pyongyang station, the South Korean delegation boarded 16 Mercedes Benz sedans and seven buses, then headed for the Koryo Hotel. The South Korean...money-making, loudly advertising "relief of hungry children, "relief of the destitute" and "programme for the rebirth of narcotic addicts. It was with... market are twin pains these days. When they convert what they earned on the bearish stock exchange into dol- lars, their returns show minus gains

  6. Deforestation and the Social Impacts of Soy for Biodiesel: Perspectives of Farmers in the South Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelson Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of soy for human and animal food has been growing rapidly in Brazil in the last thirty years, and the recent emergence of a biodiesel market in Brazil has stimulated this further. Soy occupies large parts of the Cerrado biome and has now reached the Amazon, and concerns have been raised about both the environmental and social impacts of this. This study combined data from literature with interview surveys in three areas in the soy belt: Sorriso, in the Cerrado; Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta, in the transitional zone between the Cerrado and the Amazon biome, and Santarém, which is fully in the Amazon biome, to understand these impacts from the perspective of the soy farmers, the other farmers, and the laborers. From the literature it is clear that at least 80% of the direct deforestation is due to clearance for cattle rearing, and we estimate that 13-18% is due to soy, although less than 6% can be attributed to biodiesel, since most soy is used for other products. In the Amazon biome, the Forest Law, the Soy Moratorium, improved monitoring and the general unsuitability of the land have combined to keep soy cultivation at a low level so far despite the construction of a port at Santarém, which makes this area much more accessible. In the site in the transition area little soybean is cultivated due to unsuitable configuration of land and to transportation costs. In the Cerrado, however, soy has proved itself to be a viable alternative to timber, as well as replacing grazing, which is most likely causing indirect deforestation elsewhere, although this effect could not be measured in this study. More than half of the soy farmers interviewed claimed to have converted grazing land as opposed to forest, although grazing land often contains some secondary forest as well as grassland. In the transition areas, the expectation of farmers is that when transport costs fall due to road improvements, soy will be cultivated in an integrated

  7. Korean Screen Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Screen Cultures sets out to redress this imbalance with a broad selection of essays spanning both North and South as well as different methodological approaches, from ethnographic and audience studies to cultural materialist readings. The first section of the book, «The South», highlights popular media...... new approaches to Korean popular culture beyond national borders and includes work on K-pop and Korean television drama. This book is a vital addition to existing scholarship on Korean popular culture, offering a unique view by providing an imaginary unification of the two Koreas negotiated through...

  8. Assessing the links between punitive parenting, peer deviance, social isolation and bullying perpetration and victimization in South Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Kim, Dong Ha; Piquero, Alex R

    2017-11-01

    Children who are abused at home are at an increased risk of bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. Within that context, the purpose of the present study was to test Agnew's general strain theory and the peer deviancy training hypothesis by utilizing structural equation modeling to empirically examine pathways linking punitive parenting to bullying perpetration and bullying victimization. This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, potential mediating linkages between punitive parenting and bullying perpetration and bullying victimization were examined, including socially withdrawn behavior and deviant peer affiliation. Second, these relationships were considered in a longitudinal sample of South Korean adolescents, which is a novel examination given that parenting in South Korea is guided largely by Confucianism which reinforces parental control, restrictiveness, and a punitive nature. Results indicate that: (1) punitive parenting is directly related to bullying perpetration but not bullying victimization; (2) punitive parenting was found to have indirect effects only on bullying perpetration; (3) deviant peer affiliation increased the likelihood of bullying perpetration and victimization; and (4) socially withdrawn behavior only affected bullying perpetration via its effect on deviant peer affiliation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Work–Life Imbalance and Musculoskeletal Disorders among South Korean Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mee

    2017-01-01

    Employed workers often have family responsibilities such as childcare or homemaking. This dual burden may increase work-related health problems, particularly if there are conflicts between work and family responsibilities. This study assessed whether difficulty in work–life balance is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among Korean employees. Data from the population-based Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2011, including 28,640 male and 21,392 female workers, were used. Men and women were analyzed separately to investigate gender differences. MSD were defined as pain in the back, neck, shoulder, or extremities during the past year. Self-assessed difficulty in work–life balance was defined as a work–life conflict (WLC). Adjustments for physical factors, as well as other occupational and socio-demographic variables, were made using multiple logistic regression analysis. Interaction terms including WLCs and key covariates were also incorporated. WLC was significantly associated with increased frequency of MSD in both men (OR: 1.49) and women (OR: 1.50). There were significant interaction effects between WLC and some key covariates (job stress for men and job stress, work hours, physical demand, and frequent overtime work for women). We suggest that having the flexibility to coordinate work and family life is important to prevent MSD among employees. PMID:29104228

  10. Work–Life Imbalance and Musculoskeletal Disorders among South Korean Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Mee Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Employed workers often have family responsibilities such as childcare or homemaking. This dual burden may increase work-related health problems, particularly if there are conflicts between work and family responsibilities. This study assessed whether difficulty in work–life balance is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD among Korean employees. Data from the population-based Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2011, including 28,640 male and 21,392 female workers, were used. Men and women were analyzed separately to investigate gender differences. MSD were defined as pain in the back, neck, shoulder, or extremities during the past year. Self-assessed difficulty in work–life balance was defined as a work–life conflict (WLC. Adjustments for physical factors, as well as other occupational and socio-demographic variables, were made using multiple logistic regression analysis. Interaction terms including WLCs and key covariates were also incorporated. WLC was significantly associated with increased frequency of MSD in both men (OR: 1.49 and women (OR: 1.50. There were significant interaction effects between WLC and some key covariates (job stress for men and job stress, work hours, physical demand, and frequent overtime work for women. We suggest that having the flexibility to coordinate work and family life is important to prevent MSD among employees.

  11. Work-Life Imbalance and Musculoskeletal Disorders among South Korean Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mee; Cho, Sung-Il

    2017-11-01

    Employed workers often have family responsibilities such as childcare or homemaking. This dual burden may increase work-related health problems, particularly if there are conflicts between work and family responsibilities. This study assessed whether difficulty in work-life balance is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among Korean employees. Data from the population-based Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2011, including 28,640 male and 21,392 female workers, were used. Men and women were analyzed separately to investigate gender differences. MSD were defined as pain in the back, neck, shoulder, or extremities during the past year. Self-assessed difficulty in work-life balance was defined as a work-life conflict (WLC). Adjustments for physical factors, as well as other occupational and socio-demographic variables, were made using multiple logistic regression analysis. Interaction terms including WLCs and key covariates were also incorporated. WLC was significantly associated with increased frequency of MSD in both men (OR: 1.49) and women (OR: 1.50). There were significant interaction effects between WLC and some key covariates (job stress for men and job stress, work hours, physical demand, and frequent overtime work for women). We suggest that having the flexibility to coordinate work and family life is important to prevent MSD among employees.

  12. Production and milk marketing strategies of small-scale dairy farmers in the South of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline dos Santos Neutzling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk production is a socio-economically relevant activity for many small-scale family farms in southern Brazil. The objective of this study was to analyse their production and marketing strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 199 farm households in Rio Grande do Sul State to collect information on farm assets and activities, and particularly on the contribution of milk sale to farm income. Through categorical principal component analysis and two-step clustering, farmers were classified into three types: farmers selling only milk (M; farmers selling cash crops and milk (CM; farmers selling cash crops and surplus milk (Cm. Cattle herd (heads and size of pasture land were larger on M farms (114 ±71.9; 51 ±49.4 ha than on CM (31 ±13.4; 9 ±8.9 ha and Cm (12 ±7.5; 5 ±8.1 ha farms. Livestock husbandry contributed 71, 59 and 16 % to family income on M, CM and Cm farms, respectively. Daily milk production of the individual cow depended on the area cultivated with fodder maize (ha per cow; p ≤ 0.001, on sale of milk to cooperatives or to private companies (p ≤ 0.01, on summer pasture area (ha per cow; p = 0.001 and on daily amount of concentrates offered (kg per cow; p ≤ 0.01. These results indicate that the area available for fodder cultivation is a key factor for milk production on small-scale dairy farms in southern Brazil, while concentrate feeding plays a less important role even for highly market-oriented farms. This must be accounted for when exploring options for strengthening the regional small-scale milk production, in which dairy cooperatives do play an important role.

  13. Shining Light into Dark Shadows of Violence and Learned Helplessness: Peace Education in South Korean Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soonjung; Walker, David Ian; Kristjánsson, Kristján

    2018-01-01

    The paper illustrates how a culture of violence is perpetuated and reproduced in South Korea through schooling and argues that peace education could help transform a culture of violence to a culture of peace. Critical ethnographic methods and a framework of peace education were applied to a sample of secondary schools in South Korea to argue that…

  14. Parenting, self-control, and delinquency: examining the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime to South Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Youngoh; Zhang, Yan

    2014-11-01

    Limited studies have examined whether self-control fully mediates the effect of parenting on deviant behavior beyond Western cultures. Using a sample of 882 South Korean middle and high schools students, this article examines the applicability of Gottfredson and Hirschi's argument about the role of parenting in self-control theory in the context of Asian culture. Results of structural equation modeling (SEM) suggest the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency hold in South Korean culture: Parenting has only an indirect effect through self-control on delinquency. The findings of multigroup SEM, however, indicate that gender differences exist in the relationships among parenting, self-control, and delinquency. This study provides support for cultural invariance of self-control theory but suggests that more studies examining gender differences and interaction between gender and race in the theory are required. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. (un)Recognized Discrimination: : A Study of Sexual Harassment and the Disparity between Law and Practice in the South Korean Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tho, Ragnhild Finne

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the last four decades, the active participation of South Korean women in the country’s economy has increased steadily. This has been followed by the enactment of several legal acts aimed to protect female workers from discrimination at the workplace. As this study will show, there exists a great disparity between the level of legal protection against sexual harassment and the actual practice of it in the workplace. While approximately 50 to 80 percent of female workers are...

  16. Appraisal of Hygiene Indicators and Farming Practices in the Production of Leafy Vegetables by Organic Small-Scale Farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5–8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains. PMID:24065036

  17. Appraisal of hygiene indicators and farming practices in the production of leafy vegetables by organic small-scale farmers in uMbumbulu (Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdluli, Fezile; Thamaga-Chitja, Joyce; Schmidt, Stefan

    2013-09-13

    During October, November and December 2011 (when highest sales of Agri-Hub fresh produce are observed), irrigation water, compost, lettuce and spinach sampled from four different farmer cooperatives supplying the local Agri-Hub in uMbumbulu (KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa) were analyzed monthly for the presence of total and fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli using the most probable number (MPN) technique. The pH values for all irrigation water samples analyzed were within the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5 for agricultural use. Fecal coliform levels were vegetables produced by Agri-Hub small-scale farmers met the requirements for total coliforms of vegetables were below the limit of detection. In addition, the farming practices of 73 farmers were assessed via a survey. The results revealed that more than 40% of farmers used microbiologically safe tap water for irrigation and that trained farmers have a significantly better understanding of the importance of production hygiene than untrained farmers. These results reiterate the importance of interventions that build capacity in the area of food safety and hygiene of small-scale farmers for market access of formal value chains.

  18. Reading the Water Table: The Interaction between Literacy Practices and Groundwater Management Training in Preparing Farmers for Climate Change in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavva, Konda Reddy; Smith, Cristine A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on farmers' use of literacy for individual decision-making on crop-water management and crop choices and investigates how farmer participants perceive the usefulness of Farmer Water School (FWS) training. It draws upon a study conducted with farmers of Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh, India. This study has demonstrated that…

  19. Factors Affecting Depressive Symptoms among North Korean Adolescent Refugees Residing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Minji; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2017-08-14

    We examined factors affecting the depressive symptoms and the relationship between depression and quality of life among 131 North Korean adolescent refugees aged 12-24 years. We compared sociodemographic, social, and individual characteristics and perceived the quality of life between participants with and without depression. Thirty-seven refugees (28.2%) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. The refugees with depression were younger ( t = 2.67; p = 0.009), more likely to be male (χ² = 6.98; p = 0.009), and more likely to have a Chinese father (χ² = 9.05; p = 0.003) than those without depression. The refugees with depression had lower levels of psychological social support ( t = 2.96; p = 0.004) and resilience ( t = 4.24; p refugees at risk of depression.

  20. Across the divide: The impact of farmer-to-farmer linkages in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Across the divide: The impact of farmer-to-farmer linkages in the absence of extension services. ... South African Journal of Agricultural Extension ... The literature on recent trends in agricultural development emphasises the importance of extension and research practitioners participating with smallholder farmers in order to ...

  1. The Farmers Perception on Effectiveness of Private Forest Revolving Fund Distribution and Factors Affecting its Repayment: Case in South Lampung District, Lampung Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanudin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial s are ed providing for forest plantation development bank not interest in fund community based . - Therefore, in this case, non bank institutions such Forest Development Funding Center (pusat pembiayaan pembangunan hutan, PPPH private forest are highly required. This paper is aimed to find out the effectiveness of revolving fund and factors affecting its repayment distribution . The research was conducted during September–December 2014 in Private Forest Farmer Groups in Katibung Sub-District South Lampung Dist 3 , , rict Lampung Province. The data was collected through household surveys and in-depth interviews. The household surveys were done using structured questionnaires that included questions related to: characteristics of the borrowers, characteristics of private forest, characteristics of loan, and household perceptions on private forest revolving fund Household perceptions on private forest revolving fund are loan . pre requirement, loan procedure, realization, interest rate, , and repayment procedure The effectiveness of private forest length of repayment periode . revolving fund d t and factors affecting repayment of loan was analyzed by istribution was analyzed by liker scale logistic regression. ult private forest revolving fund in The res showed that: 1 three private forest farmer groups in Katibung Sub-District, South Lampung effective District was 2 income from non-private forest and amount of loan , are factors affecting repayment of private forest revolving fund, 3 faced private forest revolving f the problem in und distribution PPPH private could be overcame by maximizing the role of field officers in assisting and facilitating forest revolving fund ors debit candidate.

  2. Framing, agenda setting, and disease phobia of AIDS-related coverage in the South Korean mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    There has been little research on the concrete role of the press in discourses on AIDS. This study investigated the AIDS discourses created by the major media. In particular, from the perspective of the agenda-setting theory, it examines differences in the framing of AIDS-related news depending on the political orientation and news sources of the press. This study analyzed the thematic frames and news sources implied by AIDS-related coverage. The 2 major media representing conservatism and progressivism were selected as the objects of analysis. As for the search engine for content analysis, the Korean Integrated Newspaper Database System was used, and 151 articles containing "AIDS" or "HIV" over 5 years from January 2005 to December 2010 were analyzed. According to the results of the analysis, there were the 6 following frames: aid/support, accident, human rights, risk, prevention, and biomedicine. Whereas the conservative press in South Korea continued to frame AIDS in the traditional way, the progressive press tended relatively more often to attempt new agenda setting, from the perspective of human rights and inequality. However, both newspaper companies tended mostly to select experts as the sources of AIDS news, thus continuing to exclude infectees and civil and society organizations.

  3. Population specific biomarkers of human aging: a big data study using South Korean, Canadian and Eastern European patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoshina, Polina; Kochetov, Kirill; Putin, Evgeny; Cortese, Franco; Aliper, Alexander; Lee, Won-Suk; Ahn, Sung-Min; Uhn, Lee; Skjodt, Neil; Kovalchuk, Olga; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2018-01-11

    Accurate and physiologically meaningful biomarkers for human aging are key to assessing anti-aging therapies. Given ethnic differences in health, diet, lifestyle, behaviour, environmental exposures and even average rate of biological aging, it stands to reason that aging clocks trained on datasets obtained from specific ethnic populations are more likely to account for these potential confounding factors, resulting in an enhanced capacity to predict chronological age and quantify biological age. Here we present a deep learning-based hematological aging clock modeled using the large combined dataset of Canadian, South Korean and Eastern European population blood samples that show increased predictive accuracy in individual populations compared to population-specific hematologic aging clocks. The performance of models was also evaluated on publicly-available samples of the American population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In addition, we explored the association between age predicted by both population-specific and combined hematological clocks and all-cause mortality. Overall, this study suggests a) the population-specificity of aging patterns and b) hematologic clocks predicts all-cause mortality. Proposed models added to the freely available Aging.AI system allowing improved ability to assess human aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  4. Rural farmers' perspectives on stock theft: police crime statistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural farmers are not only facing challenges of severe drought blamed on the El Nino weather pattern, but the stock theft as well. The South African Police's annual crime statistics report and surveys indicates that rural livestock farmers are mostly affected by stock theft in South Africa. The costs paid by these farmers to ...

  5. South Korean Mothers' Parenting Experiences in Divorced Mother-Headed Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahng, Kyung Eun; Song, Seung Hee

    2017-01-01

    These multiple case studies show what in divorced mother-headed families of South Korea, mothers experience with regard to parenting their children aged 6 to 12 years. Data were collected from participant observations and semi-structured interviews with the participants, including mothers and their children in four divorced mother-headed families…

  6. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Cognitive Attributions of Smoking in Thai and South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Park, Sunhee; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Park, Hyunju; Kemeny, Maria; Philips, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the cognitive attributions of smoking has the potential to advance youth smoking prevention efforts; however, research on this subject is limited in Asian countries. We attempted to determine the degree to which cognitive attributions of smoking differ among adolescents in 2 Asian countries, Thailand and South Korea.…

  7. A Window into South Korean Culture: Stress and Coping in Female High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderGast, Tim S.; Foxx, Sejal Parikh; Flowers, Claudia; Rouse, Andrew Thomas; Decker, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase multicultural competence, professional counselors in the United States analyzed archival data from high school students from Seoul, South Korea. A sample of all female (N = 577) high school students responded to survey questions related to stress and coping. Results demonstrated statistical significance in levels of stress…

  8. The Evolution of Student Activism and Its Influence on Tuition Fees in South Korean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Cheol; Kim, Hoon-Ho; Choi, Hong-Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article briefly overviews the student movement working for political democratisation during the authoritarian governments in South Korea. The article focuses on how student activism has changed as a reflection of political developments from the dictatorship through to the civilian democratic governments. Further, it analyses how tuition-fee…

  9. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and l...

  10. News Media Use, Informed Issue Evaluation, and South Koreans' Support for Genetically Modified Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Choi, Doo-Hun; Jun, Sangil

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing survey data on the issue of genetically modified foods in South Korea, this study explores the role of news media in facilitating informed issue evaluation. Respondents who read a newspaper more often were more knowledgeable about the issue. Also, heavy newspaper readers were more able than light readers to hold "consistent"…

  11. Influence of a Supervised Mentoring Program on the Achievement of Low-Income South Korean Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sumi; Lemberger, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a supervised mentoring program designed to improve the academic achievement of 834 low-income elementary and secondary school students in Seoul, South Korea. When compared to the control group, both elementary and middle school students exposed to the mentoring program improved in mathematic and reading…

  12. South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 44, No 1 (2016) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. What Drives Farmers to Make Top-Down or Bottom-Up Adaptation to Climate Change and Fluctuations? A Comparative Study on 3 Cases of Apple Farming in Japan and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Johnston, Peter; New, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers’ characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers’ cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers’ cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy. PMID:25822534

  14. The Occurrence of Zearalenone in South Korean Feedstuffs between 2009 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hansub; Kim, Woori; Park, Ju-Hee; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Choong-Ryeol; Chung, Soohyun; Lee, Chan

    2017-07-15

    Mycotoxins produced by Fusarium plant pathogen species have harmful effects on humans and livestock by natural contamination in food and feed. Zearalenone, one of the well-known Fusarium mycotoxins, causes hyperestrogenism and toxicosis resulting in reproductive dysfunction in animals. This study investigated the occurrence of zearalenone in feedstuffs (compound feeds, feed ingredients) between 2009 and 2016 in South Korea to obtain information on zearalenone contamination in feeds for management. A total of 653 animal feed samples (494 compound feeds, 159 feed ingredients) produced domestically were sampled five times from 2009 to 2016 (2009, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016) from feed factories in South Korea. The levels of zearalenone were analyzed every year by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after pretreatment with an immunoaffinity column showing limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1-3 μg/kg and 0.3-8 μg/kg, respectively. Four feed samples out of 494 compound feeds exceeded the EU and South Korea commission regulations over the eight-year test period, and no feed ingredients exceeded the guidelines.

  15. South Korean energy scenarios show how nuclear power can reduce future energy and environmental costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sanghyun; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is an important case study for understanding the future role of nuclear power in countries with on-going economic growth, and limited renewable energy resources. We compared quantitatively the sustainability of two ‘future-mapping’ exercises (the ‘Governmental’ scenario, which relies on fossil fuels, and the Greenpeace scenario, which emphasises renewable energy and excludes nuclear power). The comparison was based on a range of environmental and technological perspectives, and contrasted against two additional nuclear scenarios that instead envisage a dominant role for nuclear energy. Sustainability metrics included energy costs, external costs (greenhouse-gas emissions, air pollutants, land transformation, water consumption and discharge, and safety) and additional costs. The nuclear-centred scenarios yielded the lowest total cost per unit of final energy consumption by 2050 ($14.37 GJ −1 ), whereas the Greenpeace scenario has the highest ($25.36 GJ −1 ). We used probabilistic simulations based on multi-factor distributional sampling of impact and cost metrics to estimate the overlapping likelihoods among scenarios to understand the effect of parameter uncertainty on the integrated recommendations. Our simulation modelling implies that, despite inherent uncertainties, pursuing a large-scale expansion of nuclear-power capacity offers the most sustainable pathway for South Korea, and that adopting a nuclear-free pathway will be more costly and produce more greenhouse-gas emissions. - Highlights: • Nuclear power has a key role to play in mitigating greenhouse-gas emissions. • The Greenpeace scenario has higher total external cost than the nuclear scenarios. • The nuclear-centred scenarios offer the most sustainable option for South Korea. • The similar conclusions are likely to apply to other Asian countries

  16. Application of capital social of Bali cattle farmers that participate in the partnership system in Barru Regency, South Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, S. N.; Siregar, A. R.; Mappigau, P.

    2018-05-01

    There are four models of partnership that is centralized models, multipartite models, intermediary models and informal model application in all livestock commodities, including beef cattle. Partnership in the beef cattle business has been done in Barruie the program showroom cattle (SRS).This study aimed to known application the social capital of beef cattle breeders who followed the partnership system (program showroom cattle) in Barru. This research was conducted in April 2017 in the district Tanete Riaja. The population is all the farmers in Barru Regency who joined the partnership system (showroom program) and the sample is beef cattle breeders who followed the partnership system in Tanete Riaja district, Barru regency. This type of research is quantitative descriptive. This type of data is quantitative and qualitative. The resource data are primary data and secondary data. Data analysis uses descriptive statistical analysis with Likert scale. The results research show that social capital (trust, linkage, norm) of beef cattle breeders who joined the partnership system (cattle showroom program) at high scale

  17. Incidence of diabetes and its mortality according to body mass index in South Koreans aged 40–79 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung HH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hae Hyuk Jung, Ji In Park, Jin Seon Jeong Department of Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, South Korea Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess diabetes incidence and all-cause mortality according to baseline body mass index (BMI and to compare relative risks of mortality associated with incident diabetes across various BMI classes in a cohort of South Korean adults.Patients and methods: Based on data from the National Health Insurance database of Korean individuals aged 40–79 years without preexisting diabetes, we calculated BMI at the baseline health examination. We estimated the relative risk of mortality associated with incident diabetes using time-dependent Cox models and considering the time of diabetes diagnosis.Results: We noted 29,307 incident diabetes cases and 22,940 deaths during an 8-year follow-up of the initial cohort (n=436,692 and 73,756 incident diabetes cases and 57,556 deaths during a 10-year follow-up of the replication cohort (n=850,282. Regarding all-cause mortality, time-dependent Cox models revealed statistically significant interactions between diabetes status and baseline BMI class (P=0.018 and P<0.001 in the initial and replication cohorts, respectively. In separately conducted analyses for each BMI class, diabetes-associated relative risks for BMI values of 16.0–18.4, 18.5–22.9, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–29.9, and 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 were 1.50 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–2.07, 1.39 (95% CI, 1.26–1.54, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.08–1.35, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30, and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.74–1.28 in the initial cohort, and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.18–1.74, 1.33 (95% CI, 1.26–1.41, 1.24 (95% CI, 1.16–1.31, 1.11 (95% CI, 1.05–1.17, and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.85–1.16 in the replication cohort. The increasing trend of relative risk with decreasing BMI persisted mostly among subgroups stratified according to age or sex and smoking status

  18. Effect of working hours and precarious employment on depressive symptoms in South Korean employees: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-12-01

    Long working hours and precarious employment are relatively common in South Korea. Since both can impact on mental health, this study examined their independent and combined effects on depressive symptoms of employees. Data were from the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS), 2010-2013. A total of 2733 full-time employees without depressive symptoms were analysed. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of the number of working hours per week (eg, 35-40 hours, 41-52 hours, 53-68 hours, and >68 hours) and employment status (permanent vs precarious employment) on depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) 11 scale. Compared with individuals working 35-40 hours/week, employees working above 68 hours (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.34) had higher odds of depressive symptoms after full adjustment. Similarly, precarious employees (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.75) showed worse mental health than permanent employees. In the combined effect model, employees in precarious employment who worked above 68 hours/week (OR, 2.03 95% CI 1.08 to 3.83) exhibited the highest odds of depressive symptoms compared with permanent employees working 35 to 40 hours/week. Long work hours and precarious employment status were associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of monitoring and addressing the vulnerable groups of employees to reduce the mental health burden of economically active individuals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Relationship between high serum ferritin level and glaucoma in a South Korean population: the Kangbuk Samsung health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gye, Hyo Jung; Kim, Joon Mo; Yoo, Chungkwon; Shim, Seong Hee; Won, Yu Sam; Sung, Ki Chul; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between serum ferritin levels and glaucoma in a South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 164 029 subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. All subjects underwent a physical examination, answered sociodemographic and behavioural questions, and provided samples for laboratory analyses. A digital fundus photograph of both eyes was taken, and all photographs were reviewed by ophthalmologists. The ophthalmologists determined if an eye had glaucoma based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and the appearance of the retinal nerve fibre layer and optic disc. The mean serum ferritin level was 56.98 ng/mL in women and 223.82 ng/mL in men. After adjusting for age, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation, white blood cell (WBC) count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) and total vitamin D level, males in the highest quartile for serum ferritin level had a higher OR for glaucoma than males in the lowest quartile (OR=1.176, 95% CI 1.030 to 1.342, p=0.016); we did not observe this relationship among women. Other markers of iron metabolism, such as iron level, transferrin saturation and TIBC, and inflammation measures, including WBC, HsCRP and total vitamin D, were not associated with glaucoma. High serum ferritin level was associated with a high risk of glaucoma in men, but not in women. Because serum ferritin is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it might play a role in glaucoma development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Environmental exposures to lead, mercury, and cadmium among South Korean teenagers (KNHANES 2010-2013): Body burden and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Ahn, Jaeouk; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jungsun; Kim, Yangho

    2017-07-01

    Limited information is available on the association of age and sex with blood concentrations of heavy metals in teenagers. In addition, factors such as a shared family environment may have an association. We analyzed data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2010-2013) to determine whether blood levels of heavy metals differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in a representative sample of teenagers. This study used data obtained in the KNHANES 2010-2013, which had a rolling sampling design that involved a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the non-institutionalized civilian population in South Korea. Our cross-sectional analysis was restricted to teenagers and their parents who completed the health examination survey, and for whom blood measurements of cadmium, lead, and mercury were available. The final analytical sample consisted of 1585 teenagers, and 376 fathers and 399 mothers who provided measurements of blood heavy metal concentrations. Male teenagers had greater blood levels of lead and mercury, but sex had no association with blood cadmium level. There were age-related increases in blood cadmium, but blood lead decreased with age, and age had little association with blood mercury. The concentrations of cadmium and mercury declined from 2010 to 2013. The blood concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury in teenagers were positively associated with the levels in their parents after adjustment for covariates. Our results show that blood heavy metal concentrations differ by risk factors such as age, sex, and shared family environment in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of sitting time and physical activity on major depressive disorder in South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jin Young; Kim, Juyeong; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Choi, Jaewoo; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-07-28

    Previous studies have examined associations between sitting time and negative health outcomes and mental health. However, the relationship between overall sitting time and major depressive disorder (MDD) in South Korea has not been studied. This study examined the association between MDD and overall sitting time and physical activity in South Koreans. Data from the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey, were analyzed. Total participants were 4145 in 2014. MDD was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Participants' data regarding self-reported sitting time and physical activity were analyzed via multiple logistic regression. Results showed that people who sat for 8-10 h (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.15-2.11) or more than 10 h (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.23-2.39) had increased risk of MDD compared to those who sat for less than 5 h a day. Subgroup analysis showed that the strongest effect of reported sitting time on risk of MDD was found in men with lower levels of physical activity who sat for 8 to 10 h (OR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.15-8.01) or more than 10 h (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 1.26-9.35). Level of physical activity was not an independent predictor for MDD. Sitting for long periods was associated with greater risk of MDD in South Korean adults. Reducing sitting time in people with MDD could help to prevent associated physical health problems and may improve mental health.

  2. Comparison of outcomes in severely injured patients between a South Korean trauma center and matched patients treated in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Matsumoto, Shokei; Smith, Alan; Hwang, Kyungjin; Lee, John Cook-Jong; Coimbra, Raul

    2018-06-05

    The South Korean government recently developed a master plan for establishing a national trauma system based on the implementation of regional trauma centers. We aimed to compare outcomes between severely injured patients treated at a recently established South Korean trauma center and matched patients treated in American level-1 trauma centers. Two cohorts were selected from an institutional trauma database at Ajou University Medical Center (AUMC) and the American National Trauma Data Bank. Adult patients with an Injury Severity Score of ≥9 were included. Patients were matched based on covariates that affect mortality, using 1:1 propensity score matching. We compared outcomes between the two datasets and performed survival analyses. We created 1,451 and 2,103 matched pairs for the pre-trauma center and post-trauma center periods, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in the institutional trauma database pre-trauma center period compared with the American National Trauma Data Bank (11.6% versus 8.1%, P<.001). However, the mortality rate decreased in the institutional trauma database post-trauma center period and was similar to that in the American National Trauma Data Bank (6.9% versus 6.8%, P=.903). Being treated at Ajou University Medical Center Trauma Center was significantly associated with higher mortality during the pre-trauma center period (OR: 1.842, 95% CI: 1.336-2.540; P<.001), although no significant association was observed during the post-trauma center period (OR: 1.102, 95% CI: 0.827-1.468; P=.509). The mortality rate improved after a trauma center was established in a South Korean hospital and is similar to that from matched cases treated at American level-1 trauma centers. Thus, creating trauma centers and a regional trauma system may improve outcomes in major trauma cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of the terms "schizophrenia" and "schizophrenic" in the South Korean news media: a content analysis of newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun-Hyun; Choi, Young-Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong-Woo; Gim, Min-Sook

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we explored the meaning attributed to the words "jungshinbunyeolbyung" (schizophrenia) and "jungshinbunyeol" (schizophrenic) in South Korean newspapers and news programs in the last 10 years. We screened the websites of three national newspapers and the broadcasts of three nationwide television news programs from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. We classified a total of 490 articles and 257 news segments by category and quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed them. The articles and news segments were assigned to one of the following categories based on their use of the term "schizophrenia": 1) negative, 2) neutral or positive, 3) incidental, and 4) metaphorical. The negative viewpoint accounted for 349 incidences (46.7%), while the neutral and positive viewpoints included 225 incidences (30.1%). Incidental uses accounted for 95 incidences (12.7%), and metaphorical uses accounted for 78 incidences (10.4%). The majority of the negative uses focused on violence or dangers posed by patients (137 mentions, 37.8%), while the metaphorical uses mainly focused on the idea of splitting (51 mentions, or 65%). This study showed that the South Korean news media do not provide balanced information about schizophrenia to the public. This study also showed that no significant move has been made toward a more positive use of the term since a previous study was conducted on the subject. Although the term schizophrenia has given way to "attunement disorder," it will be difficult to establish the new term as the standard if the South Korean media continue to use the term "schizophrenic symptom." Even though the term has been changed, guidelines are necessary to encourage the mass media to provide balanced articles and reduce prejudice.

  4. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jin Woo

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  5. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias.

  6. South Korean Family Caregiver Involvement in Delirium Care: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun; Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; O'Dwyer, Siobhan

    2017-12-01

    The current study aimed to describe the effect of an educational program on RN-initiated efforts to involve family caregivers in delirium care. A descriptive qualitative study was performed. A purposive sample of 12 RNs who participated in a one group, pre-post evaluation of a delirium educational program, and a nominated sample of six family caregivers of patients who had been cared for by RNs in the program participated in individual, in-depth interviews. The qualitative findings indicated that the inclusion of a delirium brochure in ward orientation on admission, with reinforcement during shift changes, and RN-initiated engagement with family caregivers promoted family caregiver involvement in delirium prevention. Further studies in South Korea are needed to determine which family-centered nursing care interventions are culturally appropriate and most effective for RNs and family caregivers in delirium care. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(12), 44-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Old, down and out? Appearance, body work and positive ageing among elderly South Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfving-Hwang, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an as yet unexplored dimension of our current understanding of the ageing body in the context of contemporary South Korea. Drawing on interviews with twenty elderly women living in the greater Seoul metropolitan area, this article explores the role of appearance, body work, and the presentation of self in the women's everyday lived experiences. Existing research on the ageing female body in South Korea has primarily focused on the so-called noin munjae ('the elderly issue') discourse, within which the ageing body is framed as passive, undesirable, or out-of-control. Contrary to this, the elderly women's own narratives of everyday beauty practices suggest that the act of sustaining well-ordered appearance in later life allows for the enforcing of positive selves in the context of personal beauty and body work. Maintaining a positive appearance was shown to play an important part of their everyday lives, and functioned as a ritual of not only presenting an appearance that signified control over the ageing body, but to continue to enjoy it. The carefully calculated engagement with various non-surgical and surgical beauty practices also emerged as an embodied practice of mediating intersubjective social encounters through which self-esteem was engendered by evidencing the self's efforts to show respect to others. The findings of this study challenge dominant discourses in the west which present body work on the ageing female body as primarily self-indulgent, or driven by anxiety about the body's inability to fit within existing youthful beauty ideals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatric inpatient expenditures and public health insurance programmes: analysis of a national database covering the entire South Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Woojin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical spending on psychiatric hospitalization has been reported to impose a tremendous socio-economic burden on many developed countries with public health insurance programmes. However, there has been no in-depth study of the factors affecting psychiatric inpatient medical expenditures and differentiated these factors across different types of public health insurance programmes. In view of this, this study attempted to explore factors affecting medical expenditures for psychiatric inpatients between two public health insurance programmes covering the entire South Korean population: National Health Insurance (NHI and National Medical Care Aid (AID. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study used a nationwide, population-based reimbursement claims dataset consisting of 1,131,346 claims of all 160,465 citizens institutionalized due to psychiatric diagnosis between January 2005 and June 2006 in South Korea. To adjust for possible correlation of patients characteristics within the same medical institution and a non-linearity structure, a Box-Cox transformed, multilevel regression analysis was performed. Results Compared with inpatients 19 years old or younger, the medical expenditures of inpatients between 50 and 64 years old were 10% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 40% higher among AID beneficiaries. Males showed higher medical expenditures than did females. Expenditures on inpatients with schizophrenia as compared to expenditures on those with neurotic disorders were 120% higher among NHI beneficiaries but 83% higher among AID beneficiaries. Expenditures on inpatients of psychiatric hospitals were greater on average than expenditures on inpatients of general hospitals. Among AID beneficiaries, institutions owned by private groups treated inpatients with 32% higher costs than did government institutions. Among NHI beneficiaries, inpatients medical expenditures were positively associated with the proportion of

  9. Things Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Roberta

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Korean culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional Korean clothing and accessories, dolls, fans, a Korean game called "yut," tape recordings of Korean music, a "buhk" (drum), and brass eating utensils. A map of Korea, some…

  10. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Competencies on Household Food Security Among Smallholder Farmers in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyolo, Sikhulumile; Mudhara, Maxwell

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of entrepreneurial competencies on food security among rural farming households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA). A total of 513 rural households were randomly selected, and the descriptive results indicated that 51% of these households were food insecure, and they were somewhat negative about their entrepreneurial competencies. The estimated results indicated that entrepreneurship had a positive impact on food security. The study findings suggest that stimulating entrepreneurship through developing entrepreneurial competencies among the farming households is important for improved food security among rural households in SA.

  11. CPRMethicillin resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from South Korean ducks exhibiting tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jee Eun; Hwang, Sun Young; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Jun, Jin Woo; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Yong Ho; Park, Se Chang

    2013-12-11

    We describe coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolates collected from ducklings exhibiting tremor in South Korea over the period of 2010 to 2011. Screening of antimicrobial susceptibility and analysis of SCCmec elements of CoNS were also investigated. Staphylococcus cohnii was the most frequent staphylococcus (9 isolates) and S. sciuri (4 isolates), S. lentus (3 isolate), S. simulans (1 isolate) and S. epidermidis (1 isolate) were also detected. Among the 15 antimicrobials tested in this study, resistance against oxacillin (15 isolates, 83.3%) was most frequently observed, but only one isolate (SNUDS-1) possessed mecA. This isolate was shown to possess SCCmec type III; the type 3 ccr complex and the class A mec complex. Based on these results, isolate SNUDS-1 was shown to possess SCCmec type III; the type 3 ccr complex and the class A mec complex. Although the SCCmec type III is not predominant in human, MR-CoNS (Methicillin resistance Coagulase-negative staphylococci) in food animals should be monitored to prevent the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes and resistant pathogens to the community.

  12. The safety of bycatch: South Korean responses to the moratorium on commercial whaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Tatar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When the global moratorium on commercial whaling was implemented in 1986, Korea prohibited whaling; however, there was no effort to build the capacity of social institutions to guide local residents to cooperate with the policy. Utilizing a social ecology approach, this research examines the practice of eating whale meat in Ulsan, South Korea, to illustrate the importance of culture for attaining the social acceptance of wildlife conservation policy. The cultural models which influence the consumption of whale meat are here classified as representing four distinct responses to the moratorium: opposition, resistance, evasion and support. The two most important changes are the public utilization of whale meat as a symbol of an endangered culture, and the reliance on meat procured legally from accidental entanglements of whales in fishing nets (cetacean bycatch. These cultural changes have a social function, which is to impart legitimacy and acceptance to the continued consumption of whale meat, from illegal as well as legal sources. Given the cultural acceptance of whale meat, I argue that it will not be possible to eradicate the illegal market through enforcement alone. Instead, the solution is to persuade local consumers of whale meat to cooperate with the moratorium.

  13. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences. (author)

  14. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman, E-mail: suleimansaad@gmail.co [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences.

  15. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2011-01-01

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences. (author)

  16. Urinary concentrations of acrylamide (AA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) and associations with demographic factors in the South Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Heon; Lee, Kee Jae; Ahn, Ryoungme; Kang, Hee Sook

    2014-09-01

    Acrylamide (AA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-cysteine (AAMA) are important urinary biomarkers of acrylamide exposure in human biomonitoring, because AA is classified as a probable carcinogen in humans. In this study, urinary AA and AAMA were assessed in the South Korean adult population aged 18-69, based on the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey conducted in 2009. Urinary metabolites in samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS system. Relying on data from 1873 representative South Korean adults, the population-weighted geometric means of urinary AA and AAMA concentrations were 6.8 ng/ml (95% CI: 6.4-7.3), and 30.0 ng/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.2-31.8), respectively. The creatinine-adjusted geometric means of AA and AAMA were 6.2 μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 5.8-6.7) and 26.4μg/g creatinine (95% CI: 24.9-28.0), respectively. When covariates for predictors of urinary metabolites were adjusted simultaneously in a log-linear multiple regressions, the strongest predictors of urinary AA were education (OR=1.08-1.28; 95% CI: 1.11-1.48; p=0.0024) and age (OR=0.66-0.84; 95% CI: 0.54-0.97; p=0.0003), and those of urinary AAMA were smoking status (OR=1.16-2.63; 95% CI: 0.98-3.08; p=0.001) and education (OR=1.12-1.19; 95% CI: 1.02-1.38; p=0.0425). The ratio of current/never smokers for urinary AA was 1.3, whereas the same ratio for urinary AAMA was 3.0. These findings suggested that most South Koreans had detectable levels of AA and AAMA (98.7% and 99.4%, respectively) in their urine and that the body burden of AA and AAMA varied according to demographic, geographic, and lifestyle (smoking) factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO 3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO 4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ 34 S SO4 and δ 18 O SO4 ) verified that the SO 4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) indicated that NO 3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO 3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ 34 S SO4 and δ 15 N NO3 . This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different

  18. Is nutritional labeling associated with individual health? The effects of labeling-based awareness on dyslipidemia risk in a South Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeob; Kweon, Ki Hong; Kim, Min Jae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Jang, Suk-Yong; Kim, Woorim; Han, Kyu-Tae

    2016-09-15

    In 1995, the South Korean government made nutrition labeling compulsory, which has positively impacted patients with certain chronic diseases, such as dyslipidemia. We investigated the association between nutrition labeling-based awareness and the risk of dyslipidemia among individuals not yet diagnosed. Our study used data from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys administered during 2010-2014 (n = 17,687). We performed multiple or logistic regression analysis to examine the association between nutritional analysis and various outcome variables. Approximately 70 % of the respondents (n = 11,513) were familiar with nutrition labeling, of which 20 % (n = 3172) decided what food to buy based on that information. This awareness yielded mostly positive results on outcome indicators, such as triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In general, individuals who used nutritional labels to make decisions regarding food purchases had a lower risk of dyslipidemia than individuals who did not (OR: 0.806, 95 % CI: 0.709-0.917). Utilizing nutrition labels for making food choices correlated with a lower risk of dyslipidemia in certain subgroups. Based on our findings, we recommend that health policymakers and medical professionals consider promoting nutrition labeling as an alternative method for managing certain chronic diseases in South Korean patients.

  19. The representation of Asian others in Korean cinema since 2003: multiculturalism, nationalism and sub-imperialism

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Juyeon

    2016-01-01

    This thesis elucidates current industrial and representational tendencies in South Korean films that depict Asian others. Asian others such as migrant workers, marriage migrants, overseas ethnic Koreans and North Korean defectors have become increasingly important in South Korean filmic discourse and practice since 2003. This thesis examines how contemporary Korean cinema has responded to the multicultural society and how it seeks to articulate Korean nationalism in the globalised era through...

  20. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Jin [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ryu, Jong-Sik [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Lee, Kwang-Sik, E-mail: kslee@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sin-Woo [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO{sub 3} were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO{sub 4} were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4}) verified that the SO{sub 4} in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO3}) indicated that NO{sub 3} in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO{sub 3} in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3}. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes

  1. Removing tar information from cigarette packages may reduce South Korean smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jin Paek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Many smokers still have misconceptions about “light” or “low tar” cigarettes. In South Korea, low-tar (< 3 mg cigarette sales have increased sharply from 1.8% in 2002 to 49.2% in 2015. Although government regulations forbid cigarette packages from displaying messages such as “mild,” “low-tar,” and “light,” numbers indicating tar amounts are still permitted. This study examines whether removing tar information from packaging altogether reduces people's misconceptions about low tar cigarettes. Methods An online experiment was conducted among 531 smokers who were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the “tar” condition, 271 participants were shown in random order three cigarette packages for three major brands (Esse, The One, Marlboro with different tar amounts. In the “no-tar” condition, 260 participants were shown the same packages without tar information. Next, participants evaluated which type of cigarette was mildest, least harmful, easier for nonsmokers to start smoking, and easier for smokers to quit. After descriptive statistics were checked, twelve sets of chi-square tests were performed. Results Average age of the participants was 26.22 (14 - 62 years; 53.5% were male. All 12 chi-square tests were statistically significant. Participants in the tar condition judged the lowest-tar cigarette to be mildest, least harmful, easier to start, and easier to quit. In the no-tar condition, for the Korean brands Esse and The One, most respondents evaluated all cigarette types to be the same only for harm, ease of starting, and ease of quitting; for Marlboro, judgments were the same as those in the tar condition except that “easier to quit” was judged to be the same across the three types. Conclusions Banning tar information from cigarette packages may help reduce smokers' misconceptions about low-tar cigarettes. People have inconsistent judgments about differently packaged cigarettes when tar

  2. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  3. Hydrologic Response Unit Routing in SWAT to Simulate Effects of Vegetated Filter Strip for South-Korean Conditions Based on VFSMOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Jae Lim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model has been used worldwide for many hydrologic and Non-Point Source (NPS Pollution analyses on a watershed scale. However, it has many limitations in simulating the Vegetative Filter Strip (VFS because it considers only ‘filter strip width’ when the model estimates sediment trapping efficiency and does not consider the routing of sediment with overland flow which is expected to maximize the sediment trapping efficiency from upper agricultural subwatersheds to lower spatially-explicit filter strips. Therefore, the SWAT overland flow option between landuse-subwatersheds with sediment routing capability was enhanced by modifying the SWAT watershed configuration and SWAT engine based on the numerical model VFSMOD applied to South-Korean conditions. The enhanced SWAT can simulate the VFS sediment trapping efficiency for South-Korean conditions in a manner similar to the desktop VFSMOD-w system. Due to this enhancement, SWAT is applicable to simulate the effects of overland flow from upper subwatersheds to reflect increased runoff volume at the lower subwatershed, which occurs in the field if no diversion channel is installed. In this study, the enhanced SWAT model was applied to small watersheds located at Jaun-ri in South-Korea to simulate a diversion channel and spatially-explicit VFS. Sediment can be reduced by 31%, 65%, and 68%, with a diversion channel, the VFS, and the VFS with diversion channel, respectively. The enhanced SWAT should be used in estimating site-specific effects on sediment reduction with diversion channels and VFS, instead of the currently available SWAT, which does not simulate sediment routing in overland flow and does not consider other sensitive factors affecting sediment reduction with VFS.

  4. Methods Matter: Teacher-Trainee Perspectives on Language Teaching Methods in a South Korean TESOL Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbitt, Todd

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to ascertain Korean teacher-trainees' perspectives on the awareness, likability, perceived usefulness and prospective application of varied language teaching methods that they had been taught in a sixteen-week language teaching methodology course. What did the students think about these methods? Will students…

  5. Intrahousehold discrepancy regarding food insecurity within intermarried couples of Vietnamese wives and Korean husbands in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ha Ney; Chung, Hye Won; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Chang, Namsoo

    2011-10-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated the inadequate nutritional status of Vietnamese female marriage immigrants in Korea. Major possible reasons include food insecurity due to economic problems as well as a lack of adjustment to unfamiliar Korean foods and limited access to Vietnamese foods; however, no study has investigated food insecurity among such intermarried couples. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of food insecurity in Korean-husband-Vietnamese-wife couples and to determine whether they exhibit an intrahousehold discrepancy regarding food insecurity. A cross-sectional analysis of the Cohort of Intermarried Women in Korea study was performed with 84 intermarried couples. Among the 84 Vietnamese immigrants, 48.8% and 41.7% had food insecurity due to economic problems and a lack of foods appealing to their appetite, respectively. There was a marked discrepancy in reporting food insecurity between Vietnamese wives (22.6-38.1%) and their Korean husbands (6.0-15.5%). Vietnamese wives were five and two times more food-insecure due to economic problems and no foods appealing to their appetite, respectively, than their Korean spouses. A follow-up study is needed to investigate the causes of this discrepancy and ways of reducing food insecurity among female marriage immigrants living in low-income, rural communities.

  6. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun Eun

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in. In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54 and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25 were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending

  7. Determinants of Attitude toward the Public Health Spending and Its Relationship with Voting Behavior in the 2012 South Korean Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, Sang Jun; Lee, Jin Yong; Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors influencing South Korean voters' attitudes towards increasing public expenditure on health and to identify whether the issue of healthcare expenditure influenced candidate choice in the 2012 Korean presidential election. The study used the data from a survey conducted by the Institute of Korean Politics at Seoul National University immediately following the 2012 presidential election. The survey was completed by a nationwide sample of 1,200 people aged 19 or over using a face-to-face interview method and proportional quota sampling based on sex, age, and region. About 44.3% of respondents had a positive attitude toward increasing public health expenditure. There was no significant difference by the candidate they supported (conservative Park Geun-hye or liberal Moon Jae-in). In particular, even 44.9% of conservative supporters agreed with more spending. Politically neutral respondents (OR = 1.76, 90% CI 1.22-2.54) and strong conservative party supporters (OR = 1.53, 90% CI 1.05-2.25) were more likely to support public health expenditure increase compared to strong liberal party supporters. Also, respondents who believed that the economic gap in the country was widening were 1.91 times more likely to support an increase in public health expenditures. However, the issue of health expenditure had no influence on voters' choice of presidential candidates, and in particular no negative effect of choice of the ruling (conservative) party's candidate. Our results should be interpreted with care; one possible reason for this lack of effect might be that constituents voted along partisan lines regardless of their attitude to the welfare issue; another possible explanation might be the success of the "left click strategy" of the conservative party. That is, the conservatives did not reject economic democratization or social welfare expansion. Further research should be done to explain why attitudes to health spending did not directly

  8. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Prevalence of Blepharoptosis in the South Korean Adult Population Based on a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Rha

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis in a representative South Korean population.This cross-sectional study was based on data obtained in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. In total, 17,178 Korean adults (7,261 men and 9,917 women aged 19 years or older were enrolled. Blepharoptosis was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MDR 1 lower than 2 mm. Household income and education level were used as indicators of SES. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relationship between SES and the prevalence of blepharoptosis.Household income was inversely associated with the prevalence of blepharoptosis in women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI was 1.894 (1.336, 2.685], and educational level was inversely associated with blepharoptosis in both men and women [aORs and 95% CIs were 1.572 (1.113, 2.219 and 1.973 (1.153, 3.376, respectively]. After adjusting for household income and educational level, low SES was associated with a high prevalence of blepharoptosis in women only.Socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of blepharoptosis were found among women. Indeed, future research using a prospective design to determine the causal relationship between SES and blepharoptosis may identify SES as a risk factor for this condition.

  9. Age-Related Cataract Is Associated with Elevated Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in the South Korean Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Keun Yoo

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that immunoglobulin E (IgE-mediated events lead to several chronic diseases. We investigated the association between allergic conditions and age-related cataracts in the South Korean adult population.A cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from 1,170 participants aged 40 years or older who were enrolled in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age-related cataracts and allergic conditions, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific serum IgE levels, after adjustment for potential confounders (age, sex, alcohol consumption, smoking, sun exposure, blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as histories of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and rheumatoid arthritis.After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds ratio (OR for age-related cataract was greater in participants with higher total serum IgE levels (OR = 1.37; P = 0.044. In particular, increased IgE levels were significantly associated with nuclear cataract (OR = 1.42; P = 0.032. However, allergen-specific serum IgE levels did not differ significantly between groups. In the trend analysis, no significant relationship was observed between serum IgE and any type of age-related cataract.Increased total serum IgE level is independently associated with age-related cataracts after adjustment for confounding factors.

  10. Association between religiosity/spirituality and quality of life or depression among living-alone elderly in a South Korean city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yoo Sun; Kim, Do Hoon

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of religiosity and spirituality on quality of life and depression among older people. Two hundred and seventy-four solitary elderly people aged over 65 years living in Chuncheon city, South Korea were selected. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Short Geriatric Depression Scale-Korean version (SGDS-K) and quality of life was measured using Geriatric Quality of Life-Dementia (GQOL-D). We used the Duke Religion Index (DUREL) to assess religiosity and spirituality. There was a significant correlation between scales of depression (SGDS-K), quality of life (GQOL-D), and scale of religiosity/spirituality (DUREL) in older people. Depressed people had a lower score GQOL-D than non-depressed people. Among the depressed, those believing in a religion had a higher GQOL-D score than the non-religious. Multiple regression analysis revealed that religiosity and spirituality had significant effects on depression and quality of life among the elderly. Interestingly, religiosity and spirituality were not related to depression and quality of life amongst Buddhists, but were related amongst Protestants and Catholics. Religiosity and spirituality had significant effects on depression and on quality of life among the Korean elderly. However, there are different relationships between depression and religiosity, quality of life, and religiosity based on different religions. More research is needed to elucidate these findings. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Functions of parental involvement and effects of school climate on bullying behaviors among South Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Song, Juyoung

    2012-08-01

    This study uses an ecological systems theory to understand bullying behavior. Emphasis is given to overcome limitations found in the literature, such as very little empirical research on functions of parental involvement and the impacts of school climate on bullying as an outcome variable. Two functions of parental involvement investigated are (a) bridging the negative experiences within the family with bullying behaviors at schools, and (b) influencing school climate. Bullying behaviors were measured by a modified Korean version of Olweus' bully/victim questionnaire (reliability range: .78-.84) from 1,238 randomly selected Korean middle school students in 2007. Findings from structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses showed that (a) individual traits are one of the most important influence on bullying, (b) negative experiences in the family do not have direct influence on bullying behaviors at school, (c) parental involvement influences school climate, and (d) positive school climate was negatively related to bullying behaviors.

  12. Reciprocal Relations between Official Development Assistance Recipient and Donor Countries: Case of South Korean Overseas Construction Business and Southeast Asian Countries’ Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, official development assistance (ODA is generally perceived to be an alternative means to develop infrastructure. Donor countries may expect benefits such as increased construction project orders in recipient countries. However, it remains arguable whether ODA contributes to reciprocal relations between recipient and donor countries. The case of South Korea can provide empirical data given that its government has expanded the amount of ODA to encourage overseas construction business while supporting Southeast Asian countries. In this research, gross national income (GNI, gross domestic product (GDP, foreign direct investment (FDI, and construction project orders awarded by South Korean construction companies in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are analyzed according to the variation of ODA awarded by South Korea. The analysis results show that the influence of ODA upon economic situation of recipient countries varies according to their economic volume and development policy. From the donor country’s perspective, enhanced performance of construction business can be expected by means of cooperation with local construction business.

  13. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Ah Lee; Sungkyu Lee; Hong-Jun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an exper...

  14. Preservation of a traditional Korean dietary pattern and emergence of a fruit and dairy dietary pattern among adults in South Korea: secular transitions in dietary patterns of a prospective study from 1998 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunjung; Kim, Sang Yeun; Wang, Youfa; Lee, Sun Ju; Oh, Kyungwon; Sohn, Chun Young; Moon, Young Myoung; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-09-01

    Transitions in nutrition patterns tend to emerge through industrialization and economic development. We hypothesized that the dietary patterns among South Korean adults who were 20 years or older have changed significantly from 1998 to 2010. Herein, a repeated cross-sectional analysis of data was followed for 140601 adults. We noted changes in consumption, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and exercise, and tested the trends across the study period. Factor and cluster analyses were used to derive dietary patterns. A decrease in traditional Korean food consumption, including cereals, vegetables (252-176 g), and Kimchi (127-82 g), occurred, whereas fruit (172-252 g), egg, and fried food intakes increased (P dietary patterns: "Korean" diet (rice, vegetables, and Kimchi), "Western" diet (soda, eggs, and oil), and "New" diet (low sugar and high fruit and dairy product intakes). Compared to 1998, approximately 40% of participants still followed a Korean diet in 2010. Interestingly, the popularity of the Western diet fell by approximately 20%, whereas the new diet pattern increased 2-fold over the study period. Overall, these data show secular trends in dietary patterns that included a preservation of the traditional Korean diet and the emergence of a new diet pattern, and it demonstrated a unique transition in food and nutrient intakes in Korea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A survey of tick control methods used by resource-poor farmers in the Qwa-Qwa area of the eastern Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hlatshwayo

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey conducted in five villages in a resource-poor farming community in Qwa-Qwa, using the rapid rural appraisal technique and a questionnaire survey, showed that a significant proportion of the farmers (84 % use traditional or alternative methods to control ectoparasites, while 16 % use commercial acaricides (c2 = 7.1; P < 0.05. Alternative control methods included the use of used engine oil, household disinfectant and paraffin. Killing of ticks was the main reason for control (40 %, with disease control being second (20 %. Other reasons given for controlling ticks were to prevent damage to teats, to provide animals with a clean appearance and to protect hides. Some 40 % of farmers were aware of the effects of ticks on their animals. There is a need for farmer education that will provide information on integrated tick management and its advantages over absolute reliance on commercial acaricides.

  16. Social relationship changes in victim families due to a social disaster: Experiences of student victims' families in the South Korean Sewol ferry disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Mi; Jeong, Ansuk; Ha, Jung Hee; Kim, Eun Young

    2017-01-01

    The Sewol ferry incident on April 16, 2014 in South Korea claimed the lives of 304 individuals, including about 250 high school students on a school trip. The majority of South Korean citizens were watching live updates on the capsized Sewol ferry, anxiously watching on TV how the vessel fully sunk over time. They were desperately hoping for the rescue of the survivors inside. However, their anxiety had become shock, anger, and helplessness, and the disaster has become a daunting, collective trauma, not just to the victims and their families, but also to the citizens who were exposed only through the media. In this study, we interviewed victims' families two years after the incident. We explored how they have experienced changes in their social relationships. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 54 family members of the student victims. We qualitatively examined the data applying a thematic analysis. Changes in their social relationships were largely divided into the relationships in the proximal environment and the relationships in distal environments. The former included subcategories such as immediate family, coworkers, friends, relatives, survived students and their parents, and concepts corresponding to each subcategory. The latter involved subcategories such as neighbors, other citizens, the victims' family committee, government, and society, and concepts subject to each subcategory. Based on these findings, rehabilitation plans for trauma victims and their families should take into account the significant changes in their social relationships and the further consequences of those changes.

  17. Social relationship changes in victim families due to a social disaster: Experiences of student victims’ families in the South Korean Sewol ferry disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young

    2017-01-01

    The Sewol ferry incident on April 16, 2014 in South Korea claimed the lives of 304 individuals, including about 250 high school students on a school trip. The majority of South Korean citizens were watching live updates on the capsized Sewol ferry, anxiously watching on TV how the vessel fully sunk over time. They were desperately hoping for the rescue of the survivors inside. However, their anxiety had become shock, anger, and helplessness, and the disaster has become a daunting, collective trauma, not just to the victims and their families, but also to the citizens who were exposed only through the media. In this study, we interviewed victims’ families two years after the incident. We explored how they have experienced changes in their social relationships. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 54 family members of the student victims. We qualitatively examined the data applying a thematic analysis. Changes in their social relationships were largely divided into the relationships in the proximal environment and the relationships in distal environments. The former included subcategories such as immediate family, coworkers, friends, relatives, survived students and their parents, and concepts corresponding to each subcategory. The latter involved subcategories such as neighbors, other citizens, the victims’ family committee, government, and society, and concepts subject to each subcategory. Based on these findings, rehabilitation plans for trauma victims and their families should take into account the significant changes in their social relationships and the further consequences of those changes. PMID:29216210

  18. Social relationship changes in victim families due to a social disaster: Experiences of student victims' families in the South Korean Sewol ferry disaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mi Cho

    Full Text Available The Sewol ferry incident on April 16, 2014 in South Korea claimed the lives of 304 individuals, including about 250 high school students on a school trip. The majority of South Korean citizens were watching live updates on the capsized Sewol ferry, anxiously watching on TV how the vessel fully sunk over time. They were desperately hoping for the rescue of the survivors inside. However, their anxiety had become shock, anger, and helplessness, and the disaster has become a daunting, collective trauma, not just to the victims and their families, but also to the citizens who were exposed only through the media. In this study, we interviewed victims' families two years after the incident. We explored how they have experienced changes in their social relationships. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 54 family members of the student victims. We qualitatively examined the data applying a thematic analysis. Changes in their social relationships were largely divided into the relationships in the proximal environment and the relationships in distal environments. The former included subcategories such as immediate family, coworkers, friends, relatives, survived students and their parents, and concepts corresponding to each subcategory. The latter involved subcategories such as neighbors, other citizens, the victims' family committee, government, and society, and concepts subject to each subcategory. Based on these findings, rehabilitation plans for trauma victims and their families should take into account the significant changes in their social relationships and the further consequences of those changes.

  19. A new approach for concurrently improving performance of South Korean food waste valorization and renewable energy recovery via dry anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Yeop, Jeong Seong; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-08-01

    Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m 3 day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions. In all cases tested, the digesters' best performance was achieved at the SLR of 9.21kg TS/m 3 day, with 74.02% and 80.98% reduction of volatile solids (VS), 0.87 and 0.90m 3 biogas/kg VS removed , and 0.65 (65% CH 4 ) and 0.73 (60.02% CH 4 ) m 3 biogas/kg VS fed , under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Thermophilic dry AD is recommended for FW treatment in South Korea because it is more efficient and has higher energy recovery potential when compared to mesophilic dry AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity explains gender differences in the association between education level and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ki Dong; Cho, BeLong; Lee, Won Chul; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Hyun Ki; Oh, Bum Jo

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of educational level with metabolic syndrome (MS) and its risk factors by gender in South Korea. A total of 6178 participants aged 20 years or older from The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this study. A generalized linear model and adjusted proportion were used to identify educational disparities in MS, its components, and its risk factors (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, obesity, and stress). In women, a clearly inverse association between education level and MS were observed with significant trend, and the decreasing trends of all risk factors across education quartiles were in line with the inverse association. However, the association between education level and MS was not observed with a significant trend among men. An opposite trend of risk factors across education levels was shown in men, with an increasing trend for obesity and decreasing trends for smoking and high-risk alcohol consumption. These findings demonstrate that obesity can explain gender differences in the association between education level and MS in South Korea. © 2013 APJPH.

  1. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on determinants of cattle farmers particiaption in farmers organization in Hamadan province of Iran. Data was colleted from 75 randomly selected respondents with the aid of a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean score, analysis of variance and factor analysis. The findings revealed ...

  2. Gender Differences of Occupational Stress Associated with Suicidal Ideation among South Korean Employees: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Shin, Dong-Won; Oh, Kang-Seob; Kim, Eun-Jin; Park, Yang-Ri; Shin, Young-Chul; Lim, Se-Won

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the relationship between occupational stress and suicidal ideation was investigated, focusing on gender differences among Korean employees. Cross-sectional data for 53,969 workers were collected at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital health screening centers. Risk of suicidal ideation was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire examining suicidal ideation during the past year. Occupational stress was measured using 24 items of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale-Short Form (KOSS-SF). Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the relationships between suicidal ideation and components of occupational stress. In multivariable-adjusted models, all job stress contributed to increased risk of suicidal ideation in males. Most subscales, except insufficient job control and organizational system, were risk factors of suicidal ideation in females. Further adjustments for depression markedly attenuated this relationship. However, the effects of insufficient job control and lack of reward on suicidal ideation remained significant in males, and interpersonal conflict remained significant in females. The results suggest that occupational stress plays a significant role in increasing risk of suicidal ideation through elevation of depressive symptoms. Gender differences in components of occupational stress associated with suicidal ideation were also observed.

  3. The Association of Level of Internet Use with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in South Korean Adolescents: A Focus on Family Structure and Household Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Sohee

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between the level of Internet addiction and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents, focusing on the roles of family structure and household economic status. Data from 221 265 middle and high school students taken from the 2008-2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were used in this study. To identify factors associated with suicidal ideation/attempts, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The level of Internet use was measured using the simplified Korean Internet Addiction Self-assessment Tool. Compared with mild users of the Internet, high-risk users and potential-risk users were more likely to report suicidal ideation (nonuser, odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.15; potential risk, OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.63; high risk OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.10) or attempts (nonuser, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.42; potential risk, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; high risk, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14). The nonuser group also had a slightly higher risk of suicidal ideation/attempts compared with mild users. This association appeared to vary by perceived economic status and family structure. Our study suggests that it is important to attend to adolescents who are at high risk for Internet addiction, especially when they do not have parents, have stepparents, or perceive their economic status as either very low or very high. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The Korean Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon Bu-Guan

    1994-01-01

    A realistic approach to North-South arms control and disarmament would require a step-by-step formula encompassing measures for political and military confidence building, arms limitation and reduction. The most fundamental and important condition for achieving meaningful results in disarmament talks is securing political and military confidence. The problem which arose on the Korean peninsula originates from relations of North Korea and IAEA. North Korean position poses a serious threat to the Non-proliferation Treaty, in particular to the IAEA Safeguards regime. Nuclear non-proliferation and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are the primary concerns of the post-cold war era. The Government of South Korea hopes that this issue can be solved through dialogue and negotiations

  5. Farmers Insures Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifeld, Lorri

    2012-01-01

    Farmers Insurance claims the No. 2 spot on the Training Top 125 with a forward-thinking training strategy linked to its primary mission: FarmersFuture 2020. It's not surprising an insurance company would have an insurance policy for the future. But Farmers takes that strategy one step further, setting its sights on 2020 with a far-reaching plan to…

  6. Danish farmers and investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Bonnichsen, Ole

    The purpose of this paper is to provide some evidence on the push and pull factors that motivate farmers to expand across their home countries’ borders. The focus is on Danish expansion farmers and investor farmers setting up activities in Central and Eastern European countries like Slovakia...

  7. Borders of Belonging: Nationalism, North Korean Defectors and the Spiritual Project for a Unified Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Sarah Eunkyung

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation examines the conflicts and contradictions of national identity that emerge out of the interactions between North Korean defectors and Protestant South Korean Protestants who give them aid. Since the mid 1990s, a significant number of North Koreans have migrated to South Korea in search of food and opportunities as a result of a devastating famine. Instead of the warm welcome they expect, defectors are treated with suspicion by South Koreans who have been taught that North Kore...

  8. Normal range albuminuria and metabolic syndrome in South Korea: the 2011-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Young Park

    Full Text Available It is well-known that there is a close relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and microalbuminuria. However, some recent studies have found that even normal range albuminuria was associated with MetS and cardiometabolic risk factors. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between MetS and normal range albuminuria and to calculate the cutoff value for albuminuria that correlates with MetS in the representative fraction of Korean population.Data were obtained from the 2011-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 9,650 subjects aged ≥ 19 years. We measured metabolic parameters: fasting blood glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lipids, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR. The optimal ACR cutoff points for MetS were examined by the receiver operating characteristic curve. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain the prevalence of MetS and its components according to the ACR levels.The first cutoff value of ACR were 4.8 mg/g for subjects with ≥ 3 components of MetS. There was a graded association between ACR and prevalence of MetS and its components. If ACR was <4 mg/g, there was no significant increase in the prevalence of MetS or its components. From the ACR level of 4-5 mg/g, the prevalence of MetS significantly increased after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, and medications for diabetes mellitus and hypertension (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals = 1.416; 1.041-1.926.Albuminuria within the normal range (around 5 mg/g was associated with prevalence of MetS in the Korean population.

  9. DECISION OF TURKEY SENDING SOLDIER TO KOREAN IN NATIONAL PRESS

    OpenAIRE

    GÜL, Tülay

    2014-01-01

    After the World War II, Korean Peninsula was divided among two contrary different states in terms of ideology. In 25 June 1950, the war started between two states, Democratic People's Republic of Korea ( North Korean), Republic of Korean (South Korean). Following this development, The United Nations' Security Council held an emergency meeting with attempt of The U.S. and invited to participate in studies to conduct by states connected with its. Turkish governmet, founded by Democrat...

  10. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  11. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-03-14

    The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13-18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of

  12. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  13. Social networking-based simulations for nuclear security: Strategy assessment following nuclear cyber terror on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Kwak, Sang Man

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cyber terror modeling is made by the social networking algorithm. • This is applicable by the social networking service (SNS). • Security of nuclear industry could be controlled by the network theory. • Newly developed complex algorithm can be introduced. • Simplified graphics show the operator easily. - Abstract: Nuclear energy has been studied for the secure power productions, which is based on the simulation study following the incident of nuclear cyber terror attack on South Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The social networking is used for the terror incident modeling and its prevention strategies. The nuclear industry could be investigated in the aspect of minimizing the dangerous situations caused by possible terror attacks which are considered by the society oriented connectivity among the related people or groups. The social networking circle by system dynamics diagram (SNCSD) is constructed, where the configuration of a model social networking example by system dynamics (SD) is applied. From A to H regions, the values are obtained by the random numbers incorporated with the designed algorithms. The results show the comparative values of terror possibilities which are based on the proposed social networking algorithm. It is possible to prepare for potential terrorism in the nuclear industry

  14. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  15. Comparing the Nordic and South Korean Models: Labour-Market Regulation and Social Welfare in Times of Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2012-01-01

    The first part of the paper briefly describes the causes and impacts of the US induced financial crisis cum “Great Depression”. The second part discusses the status of the various models of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export-driven product......The first part of the paper briefly describes the causes and impacts of the US induced financial crisis cum “Great Depression”. The second part discusses the status of the various models of contemporary capitalism – the discredited Anglo-Saxon finance-driven model versus the export......-driven production model of growth, with weak safety nets, adopted by East Asian countries in contrast to the export-oriented Nordic social welfare model. The third section documents the impact of the crisis on the economies, and discusses core examples of state intervention in the socio-economic sectors...... such as labor markets and social welfare in the Nordic as well as Korean contexts. The final section discusses some tentative conclusions about the resilience of the Nordic and ROK models and their potential for recovery....

  16. The Role of Career Stress in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Career Attitude Maturity in South Korean Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heerak; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2011-01-01

    Given the central role of career stress in college students' lives, this research examined whether career stress mediated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and career attitude maturity in a sample of 185 undergraduate students in South Korea. The results indicated that career ambiguity stress, as measured by a career stress…

  17. Effects of Self-Control, Social Control, and Social Learning on Sexting Behavior among South Korean Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hun; Moak, Stacy; Walker, Jeffery T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the emerging phenomenon of sexting, scientific investigation with criminological perspectives has been limited. Utilizing data collected from 1,612 randomly selected youth in South Korea, this study begins the investigation into which criminological theory best explains sexting behaviors. Theories considered include self-control, social…

  18. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among South Korean College Students: A Focus on Gender and Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Park, MiRang; Tomsich, Elizabeth A.; Jennings, Wesley G.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the attention given to intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in western societies, dating violence is not currently recognized in South Korea as a social phenomenon in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. Childhood maltreatment has been identified in previous research as a risk factor for violence in a…

  19. Economics of Dry Season Vegetable Production by Women Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to analyze the economics of dry season vegetable farming among women farmers in Owerri West local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 50 randomly selected dry season women vegetable farmers. Data were analyzed ...

  20. Supply chain risks and smallholder fresh produce farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 52 smallholder fresh produce farmers was conducted in the Gauteng province of South Africa to grasp how risk and its management affect the mainstreaming of smallholder farmers into formal, high-value markets. The study employed a supply chain analysis approach, which focused on the functions and risks ...

  1. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among South Korean adults: a cross-sectional study of the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have identified that environmental tobacco smoke exposure is associated with sociodemographic factors such as age, sex, and socioeconomic status, but few studies have been conducted in South Korea. In this study, the authors investigated the extent of environmental tobacco smoke exposure and factors related in a nationally representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The data of 7,801 adults aged 19 years and over collected during the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Information on smoking habits and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was obtained by self-reports using a standardized questionnaire. Risks of environmental tobacco smoke exposure conferred by sociodemographic variables and behavioral risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression methods. Results Overall, 36.1% of nonsmokers (defined as those not currently smoking and 50.1% of current smokers were found to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke either at work or at home. Among the nonsmokers, women were more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at home (OR = 5.22, 95%CI, 4.08-6.67. Furthermore, an inverse relationship was found between education level and the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home (OR = 1.73, 95%CI, 1.38-2.17 for those with a high school education; OR = 2.30, 95%CI, 1.68-3.16 for those with a middle school education; and OR = 2.58, 95%CI, 1.85-3.59 for those with less than an elementary school education vs. those with a college education or more. In addition, those with office, sales service, or manual labor jobs were found to be at significantly higher risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure at work than those with professional, administrative, or managerial jobs. Also, the risk of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the workplace was significantly higher for alcohol drinkers than non-drinkers (OR = 1.23, 95%CI, 1.07-1.47. After adjusting

  2. Adolescents' Financial Literacy: The Role of Financial Socialization Agents, Financial Experiences, and Money Attitudes in Shaping Financial Literacy among South Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sang-Hee; Joo, So-Hyun; Grable, John E.; Lee, Seonglim; Kim, Minjeung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the relationships between financial socialization agents, financial experiences, money attitudes, demographic characteristics, and the financial literacy of Korean adolescents. Using the 2006 Korean National Financial Literacy Test Survey for Adolescents (N = 1185), a series of regression analyses were…

  3. The association between objective income and subjective financial need and depressive symptoms in South Koreans aged 60 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woorim; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Ju, Yeong Jun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the gap between objective income and subjective financial need on depressive symptoms in individuals aged 60 and older. Data from the 2011 and 2013 Korean Retirement and Income Study were used. A total of 4891 individuals aged 60 and older were included at baseline. The Generalized Estimating Equation model was used to examine the association between the gap in objective income and subjective financial need and the presence of depressive symptoms, which were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Compared to individuals in the middle objective income-middle subjective financial need group, individuals in the low-low category (odds ratio (OR): 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.61) and the low-middle category (OR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.09-1.45) showed a statistically significant higher likelihood of having depressive symptoms. In contrast, participants in the middle-low (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.54-0.99), high-low (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34-0.73), high-middle (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.63-0.87), and high-high categories (OR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.55-0.99) were less likely to exhibit depressive symptoms. Additionally, the lower likelihood of depressive symptoms found in middle- and high-income groups with lower levels of subjective financial need was strong among individuals with chronic disease. Differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms generally exist between individuals of the same income category depending on perceived income adequacy. Therefore, it is important to consider discrepancies in objective income and subjective financial need when assessing risk factors for depressive symptoms in older populations. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  4. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzhelele, Priscilla; Oguttu, James W; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2016-05-12

    The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar) in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%). Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production.

  5. Is a 10-sow unit economically sustainable? A profitability assessment of productivity amongst small-holder pig farmers, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Munzhelele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of small-holder pig farmers in Mpumalanga had between 1- and 10-sow herds. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the current government agricultural intervention (supply of 10 sows and a boar in terms of technical and economic feasibilities and ascertain whether the small-scale pig value chain system alleviates poverty. Data were obtained from 220 randomly selected small-holder pig farmers using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results showed that 58% farrowed ≤ 10 piglets/born/sow/litter, 44.2% practiced no weaning method and many fed swill and leftovers alone (41.6%. Pair-wise association revealed that the feeding of commercial feeds had a relationship with pigs in relatively good to very good body condition. Pigs in poor body condition were positively correlated with the feeding of swill alone. The economic models for the 10-sow unit proved that pig farming is unprofitable if the current management and feeding systems that operate in the commercial industry are utilised. However, only through a combination of cooperative systems, benefits of economies of scale, reduction of preweaning mortalities and structured government inputs can pig production be profitable at this scale of production. Keywords: piglets; market; profit; economics; feeds

  6. Market prices on the small screen: Transforming farmers' markets in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-13

    Oct 13, 2010 ... ... partner that aims to use information and communication technologies (ICTs) ... because it helps farmers reduce their transaction costs, according to de Silva. ... Reducing post-harvest losses in South Asia's mango orchards.

  7. The neurobiological role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in recovery from trauma. Longitudinal brain imaging study among survivors of the South Korean subway disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, In Kyoon; Kim, Jieun E; Yoon, Sujung J; Hwang, Jaeuk; Bae, Sujin; Kim, Dajung J

    2011-07-01

    A multiwave longitudinal neuroimaging study in a cohort of direct survivors of a South Korean subway disaster, most of whom recovered from posttraumatic stress disorder 5 years after trauma, provided a unique opportunity to investigate the brain correlates of recovery from a severe psychological trauma. To investigate region-specific brain mobilization during successful recovery from posttraumatic stress disorder by assessing cortical thickness multiple times from early after trauma to recovery, and to examine whether a brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism was associated with this brain mobilization. Five-year follow-up case-control study conducted from 2003-2007. Seoul National University and Hospital. Thirty psychologically traumatized disaster survivors and 36 age- and sex-matched control group members recruited from the disaster registry and local community, respectively, who contributed 156 high-resolution brain magnetic resonance images during 3 waves of assessments. Cerebral cortical thickness measured in high-resolution anatomic magnetic resonance images using a validated cortical thickness analysis tool and its prospective changes from early after trauma to recovery in trauma-exposed individuals and controls. Trauma-exposed individuals had greater dorsolateral prefrontal cortical (DLPFC) thickness 1.42 years after trauma (right DLPFC, 5.4%; left superior frontal cortex, 5.8%; and left inferior frontal cortex, 5.3% [all clusters, P ≤ .01]) relative to controls. Thicknesses gradually normalized over time during recovery. We found a positive linear trend, with trauma-exposed individuals with a valine/valine genotype having the greatest DLPFC cortical thickness, followed by those with a methionine genotype and controls (P < .001 for trend). Greater DLPFC thickness was associated with greater posttraumatic stress disorder symptom reductions and better recovery. The DLPFC region might play an important role in psychological recovery from a

  8. Determinants Of Cattle Farmers Particiaption In Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the activities of the farmer organizations in Hamadan province of Iran. All the members of the cattle-breeding cooperative in Hamadan province (N= 550) were included in the study. By use of simple random method 75 respondents were selected. The study was a descriptive-exploration, survey research. A questionnaire ...

  9. A Multi-Risk Approach to Climate Change Adaptation, Based on an Analysis of South Korean Newspaper Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngeun Kang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The risks caused by climate change are worsening worldwide, and it is recognized that national and regional responses to climate change are essential. This study therefore explores climate change risks that have been recognized as fatal to people and the environment by analyzing multi-influence factors that appear in multiple risk indicators. The climate change risks in this study are based on 73 existing risk indicators; the frame data for multi-influence risk factors are based on 3098 newspaper articles published over 24 years on the impact of climate change in South Korea. The main outcomes for this study were finding climate change risk trend from newspaper articles regarding climate change impacts through text-mining, and figuring out the multi-risk indicators that are likely to occur at the same time with other risk indicators using network analysis. From the network analysis, we found that the major risk indicators have a high degree of interrelationship among risk indicators, including “increase in mortality rate from disaster”, “increase in flood areas due to coastal flooding”, and “destruction of repair facilities due to flooding (river bank, etc.”. The main risk indicators derived from this study can therefore be used as a reasonable standard when identifying the main risks posed by climate change and defining future adaptation planning priorities.

  10. Mozambique - Farmer Income Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Trees For the epidemic zone, the evaluation estimated the impact of FISP on disease prevalence and estimated the consequent impact on coconut production and farmer...

  11. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    of deep archival research with nuanced political analysis makes it required reading for both historians and political scientists interested in this cornerstone of European integration." Helen Wallace, Centennial Professor, European Institute, London School of Economics and Political Science. "Farmers...

  12. Ethnic Mobilization among Korean Dry Cleaners

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ward F; Ong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Korean immigrants in the U.S. rely heavily on ethnic resources to start small businesses.  Ethnic resources include business networks and knowledge, start-up capital, and access to labor power that are embedded in networks of family, friends, and co-ethnics.  This paper shows how Korean dry cleaners in Southern California used ethnic resources to mobilize in response to an environmental policy initiated by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD).  While Korean immigrants used e...

  13. On the Teaching Materials of South Korean Classical Literature from the Perspective of Speciifcity of Literary History%从文学史的特殊性看韩国古典文学史的教学内容

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹允镇

    2014-01-01

    本文从文学的发展和嬗变两种现象归纳出文学史的一般特性,认为文学从发展的角度看,它与社会生活发生各种关系,与前一时期的文学有继承关系;从嬗变的角度看,它与前一时期文学有断层现象。从文学史的这些特征看韩国古典文学史也具有相应的特征。根据文学史的这种特征,本文重点探讨韩国古典文学史的教学内容的同时,试图解决韩国古典文学史教学中存在的教学内容多,教学时数少而产生的矛盾。%The paper sums up the general characteristics of literary history based on its development and change. Literature is related to society and the inheritance of literature in previous times. However, it breaks away from the literary tradition in terms of evolution. It is true with South Korean classical literature. This paper explores the teaching of South Korean classical literature and tries to optimize the course.

  14. Use pattern and predictors of use of highly caffeinated energy drinks among South Korean adolescents: a study using the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Dongmun; Song, Inmyung; Jang, Gyeongil; Lee, Eui-Kyung; Shin, Ju-Young

    2017-09-24

    Concerns about the use of highly caffeinated energy drinks among Korean adolescents remains. We compared adolescents' perceptions regarding the use of drinks to their behaviours and factors. A structured questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model was administered to 850 freshmen and sophomores at three high schools in Bucheon, South Korea. Benefits were defined as beneficial effects from the use of highly caffeinated energy drinks (eg, awakening from sleepiness) and harms as adverse effects of the drinks (eg, cardiac palpitation). Likelihood of action represents the likelihood of taking actions that are perceived to be more beneficial after comparison of the benefits and harms of caffeine use. Descriptive analysis was used to quantify the relationship between their beliefs about highly caffeinated energy drinks and their use. We conducted hierarchical logistic regression to compute ORs and 95% CIs for: (1) demographic factors, (2) health threat, (3) likelihood of action and (4) cues to act. Altogether, 833 students responded to the questionnaire (effective response rate=98.0%). About 63.0% reported use of highly caffeinated energy drinks and 35.2% had used them as needed and habitually. The more susceptible the respondents perceived themselves to be to the risk of using these drinks, the less likely they were to use them (OR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.06). The more severe the perception of a health threat, the less that perception was associated with use (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.67). Likelihood of action was the strongest predictor of use, explaining 12.5% in use. Benefits and harms (OR: 4.43, 95% CI 2.77 to 7.09; OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.99) also were significant predictors. Enhancing adolescents' perceptions of benefits and harms regarding using highly caffeinated energy drinks could be an effective way to influence the use of these drinks. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  15. The Power of Cinema on the Korean Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Samyel Lee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: The Korean peninsula is constantly in a dynamic discussion of identity and direction. For South Korean society, it is no surprise that the Korean War and the existential threat that North Korea poses loom large over its collective conscience. Although mostly disregarded within scholarly discussions in international relations, cinema has always been, and continues to be, an insightful, powerful, and transformative forum. This essay discusses the ways in which cinema as an art form ha...

  16. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seog Ju

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results T...

  17. The Characteristics on the Terrace and Uplift around the South-eastern part of Korean Peninsula for a Suitability of High level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hoon

    2009-08-01

    The result of existing studies on the uplift in Korean peninsula would be regarded as high variety and rough uplifting range because of different approach method and various geologic formation with some location. As the results of this studies, the uplift around the southern part of Korean peninsula was estimated as the range from 0.0096mm to 1.4mm/year according to a geologic formation and location. It could be For the applying to HLW disposal project, the study on the uplift characteristics should be conducted according to the following guidelines: - should be a master program for the characterization of uplift in Korean peninsula considering long-term and systematic - should be applied scientific and quantitative approach methods and made subjective results - should be required an effective approach focused on limited area such as eastern, southern and western part of peninsula

  18. Small millet farmers increase yields through participatory varietal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small millets, despite being rich in micronutrients and dietary fibre and known for their low glycemic index and tolerance of water stress, are in decline in South Asia. Existing varieties suffer from low yield and farmers lack access to improved varieties. The Revalorising Small Millets in Rainfed Regions of South Asia ...

  19. Korean and American Teachers' Praising Styles and Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyeyoung; Kim, Jungsub

    2016-01-01

    Praising is a crucial part of teaching performance that greatly impacts student performance and self-esteem. South Korean teachers are traditionally known to possess authoritarian attributes, whereas U.S. teachers have contradictory beliefs in terms of why and how to use praise. We used Q methodology among 16 American and 22 Korean teachers to…

  20. Japanese and Korean Kindergartners' Perspectives of Play Using Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi-­Taylor, Satomi; Ro, Yeonsun; Han, Jihee; Ito, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine Japanese and Korean kindergarteners' perspectives by asking them to photograph play and explain why their photos represent play (photo elicitation interviews). The participants consisted of 50 kindergarteners on Japan's main island and 50 kindergarteners in South Korea. Japanese and Korean kindergartners…

  1. A study of some infectious causes of reproductive disorders in cattle owned by resource-poor farmers in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Njiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty-nine cattle from Gauteng Province in South Africa were tested for various pathogens causing reproductive diseases including bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis (IBR/IPV virus, Neospora caninum and Brucella abortus using various tests. For BVD/MD virus, 49.37 % tested positive, 74.47 % for IBR/IPV virus, 8.96 % for Neospora caninum and 3.8 % for Brucella abortus. The result for Brucella abortus is higher than the national average, possibly due to the small sample size. A high seroprevalence of antibodies to both BVD/MD virus and IBR/IPV virus was evident. These 2 viruses should be considered, in addition to Brucella abortus, when trying to establish causes of abortion in cattle. The clinical significance of Neospora caninum as a cause of abortion in Gauteng needs further investigation. One hundred and forty-three bulls were tested for Campylobacter fetus and Trichomonas fetus, and a low prevalence of 1.4 % and 2.1 % respectively was found in this study. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. The effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Farmer Field School (FFS) training on farmers competence in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of Cocoa in Ondo state, Nigeria. ... of years of cocoa farming (b=1.785) and participation in Farmer Field School training (b ...

  3. Bringing farmers together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zake, J.; Walaga, C.; Jager, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Farmer Field Schools (FFSs) have been used in many countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa as a way to deal with constraints such as crop pests, soil fertility depletion, health issues like HIV/AIDS and the communal management of natural resources. They often work in partnership with local NGOs

  4. Calibration of farmer dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Anwar, K.; Arshed, W.; Mubarak, M.A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Farmer Dosemeters of Atomic Energy Medical Centre (AEMC) Jamshoro were calibrated in the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) at PINSTECH, using the NPL Secondary Standard Therapy level X-ray exposure meter. The results are presented in this report. (authors)

  5. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seog Ju

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation.

  6. Teaching About South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schisgall, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Identifies reasons why social studies educators should improve their teaching about South Korea. Included in the list is the increasing numbers of Koreans being educated in the United States, the summer Olympics in 1988, and the use of Korean culture as a case study demonstrating the effects of cultural transmission and society in transition. (JDH)

  7. Rapid determination of silver in cultivated Japanese and South Korean oysters and Japanese rock oysters using the 24.6-s neutron activation product 110Ag and estimation of its average daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues of cultivated Japanese (Miyagi Prefecture) and South Korean (Koje-do and Kosong) oysters and Japanese rock oysters (Honshu Island) were analyzed to measure silver levels. The soft tissues, namely hepatopancreas, gill, muscle, and mantle were separated, freeze-dried, pulverized, and analyzed by an instrumental neutron activation analysis method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (INAA-CSS). The method consisted of the irradiation of samples in a neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 using the rapid transfer system in an inner pneumatic irradiation site of the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility for 12-15 s, decay for 20 s, and counting for 60 s. The 657.8-keV gamma-ray of the 24.6-s nuclide 110 Ag was used for assaying silver. The method was validated using NIST, NRC and NIES certified reference materials. An absolute detection limit of 0.05 μg silver using NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue was achieved. About 10-50 times higher levels of silver were found in cultivated Japanese oysters compared to the South Korean ones. The silver concentrations in cultivated oysters in Miyagi Prefecture showed the following trend: gill > mantle > hepatopancreas > muscle as well as on the age. Rock oysters generally had higher silver content compared to cultivated oysters. A very preliminary value of about 0.466 μg silver average intake per person per day was estimated from the consumption of oysters by the people living in the Sendai city of Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  8. 东亚一体化进程中的中国地缘文化因素探析——中韩关系视角下的考量%An Analysis on the Factors of Chinese Geoculture in the Process of East Asian Integration——Considerations from the Perspective of Sino-South Korean Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勃然

    2011-01-01

    地缘文化是影响区域认同的重要因素。它作为构成综合国力的一种因素,直接影响着各国的对外战略。中国地缘文化,在韩国有几千年的影响,以此为突破口,加强中韩文化交流,增强文化认同,是发展更深层次合作关系的必由之路。本文希望在中韩关系的视角下,通过探讨中国地缘文化在韩国的延异,分析中韩文化历史与现实发展中的积极因素,对我国制定对韩外交战略、促进东亚一体化进程,提供一个新的思路。%The Geoculture is the important factor that affects the regional identities.As a part of the national power,it has direct impact on countries' foreign strategies.Chinese Geoculture has been affecting South Korea for thousands of years.Taking this as a starting point,we can find the necessary way to develop deeper cooperative relations between two sides if we strengthen cultural exchange and enhance the cultural identity between China and South Korea.From the perspective of Sino-South Korean relations,the paper analyzes the positive factors in Sino-South Korean culture and history and practical development by studying the difference of Chinese Geoculture in South Korean,which provides a new way of thinking for our setting South Korean diplomatic strategy and promoting the process of East Asian Integration.

  9. The aesthetics of cuteness in Korean pop music

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ae Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aesthetic of ‘cuteness’ in South Korean popular music (known as K-pop) is a pivotal concept in Korean media and culture and is frequently used to describe performances by both male and female K-pop groups. Aegyo is a fundamental part of this aesthetic, also called ‘K-cute’, and it refers to the behaviour of ‘acting cute’ that denotes a particular coquettish style not only in K-pop but also in South Korean society in a broader sense.\\ud \\ud This thesis explores K-pop performance from the m...

  10. Farmers under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Anneberg, Inger

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how risk factors in highly industrialised agriculture are connected to animal neglect. With Danish agriculture as a case study, we use two types of data. First, we use register data from Statistics Denmark to map how risk factors such as farmers’ financial and social trou...... and a growing concern among the farmers towards the governmental control in farm animal production. We discuss how these factors can be used to identify and help farmers with a high risk of being convicted of livestock neglect....... of them face severe financial difficulties, divorce and psychiatric problems, which are connected to an increased risk of being convicted for the neglect of farm animals. The narratives bring forward themes of pressure related to financial trouble, technological break down, family problems, stress...

  11. Korean Children's Cultural Adjustment during Transition to the Early Years of School in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ngaire

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated Korean children's cultural adjustment during transition to South Australian junior primary school settings. Using case-study methodology to provide a sociocultural perspective, data were collected during interviews with a sample of South Korean international students aged five to eight years, their mothers and teachers. All…

  12. Social Capital And Economic Behavior Of Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliawaty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrac The purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between social capital affects economic behavior in producing coffee plants in improving coffee farmers income. This study was conducted in the district of Bantaeng South Sulawesi. Subdistrict Tampobulu selected purposively. The study lasted for four months of April to July 2014. The data used in this study consist of primary data and secondary data. It can be concluded that social capital is trust networking and institutions affect economic behavior namely the production of coffee plants. Trust improving technology adoption Robusta and Arabica coffee cuttings while distrust led to rampant theft of coffee is still green. Networking affect the price of coffee and institutions influence the behavior of farmers in obtaining venture capital through middlemen. It is expected that future studies should be focused on the factors that influence the innovative behavior in increasing the production of coffee plants.

  13. Proper Human Relationships: Korean Principals' Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Miles; Son, Jong Ho

    In an attempt to better understand the values that Korean educational administrators associate with leadership, researchers surveyed a random sample of 292 subjects in South Korea in the spring of 2000. Using several well-tested instruments, the researchers were able to report findings of relevance to scholars interested in cultural influences on…

  14. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The economic implications of Korean unification

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Jonathan L.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A major area of concern for Korean unification is the immense cost it will impose on South Korea. To lessen this burden, South Korea will need to initiate policy reforms that can ease the financial stress and repercussions of unification and create an integrated economic community with North Korea. At the same time, North Korea will need to create an environment that is conducive to economic integration by accepting and adopting reform me...

  16. Role of joined farmer groups in enhancing production and farmers income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, M.; Rahmadanih; Bulkis, S.; Hasnah; Sulili, A.; Darwis; Bustan, A.; Aswad, M.

    2018-05-01

    Production and farmers income still becomes a global issue in economic development. The study aims to (1) describe the implementation of the role of Joined farmer groups (called Gapoktan) in accordance its function and (2) to analyze the role of Gapoktan in increasing production and farming income. The study was conducted in Camba Sub District, Maros District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2017 and choosing Aspana Gapoktan as Case Unit. Data collection is done by a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative data were collected by Focus Group Discussions method, indepth interview and document study while quantitative data was collected through survey method on 60 farmers respondents. The results showed that, (1) Aspana Gapoktan has implemented a role related to its function as a business unit in the provision of production facilities and farming as well as marketing but has not implemented roles related to its function as a processing business unit, and saving and loan (2) Gapoktan role in increasing production and income of farming is facilitating procurement of farm inputs and agricultural production tools for farmers and developing various commodities in farming activities, especially horticultural crops. More than 44.00% of farmers perceived that their production increased about 10.00% - 25.00% and more than 68.00% of farmers perceived that their income increased by about 10.00% - 25.00% for the last three years. It is necessary to increase the role of Gapoktan through (1) the procurement of horticultural product processing industry and (2) doing savings and loan activities by utilizing 40.00% of funds managed by Gapoktan or through the formation of cooperatives under the management of Gapoktan.

  17. Moving On: Farmer Education in Integrated Insect Pest and Disease Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiggins, J.L.S.; Mancini, F.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM) to ensure food security and livelihood improvement

  18. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  19. In Response to Yasukuni: The Curious Approach the Chinese and South Korean Governments Take Toward an Unresolved Link to the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Cumings summarizes the general atmospherics of 1950s South Korea well: “South Korea in the 1950s was a terribly depressing place, where extreme...Japan relations. Firstly, 1969 marked the centennial of the Yasukuni Shrine. In June, the rightist faction of the LDP introduced a Yasukuni Shrine

  20. Language Learning as a Struggle for Distinction in Today's Corporate Recruitment Culture: an Ethnographic Study of English Study Abroad Practices among South Korean Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In Chull

    2015-01-01

    Young adults in South Korea are encouraged to constantly develop their skills and qualifications to meet the challenges posed by the job market in the country's neoliberal post-IMF crisis economy. This paper examines the ways in which changes in South Korea's labor market and corporate recruitment culture have affected the ideologies and practices…

  1. Occupational hearing loss in farmers.

    OpenAIRE

    Plakke, B L; Dare, E

    1992-01-01

    Studies have shown that there is a great deal of high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss among farmers. The studies have failed, however, to differentiate farmers who have occupational noise exposure only from other potential hearing loss etiologies. This study, through extensive case history information, has isolated a farm noise-exposure group and matched its members by age with persons with no significant noise exposure. Results indicate that farmers exposed only to noise from farming ha...

  2. Cranes, crops and conservation: understanding human perceptions of biodiversity conservation in South Korea's Civilian Control Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Oh; Steiner, Frederick; Mueller, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    South Korea's Civilian Control Zone (CCZ), a relatively untouched area due to tight military oversight since the end of Korean War, has received considerable attention nationally and internationally for its rich biodiversity. However, the exclusion of local communities from the process of defining problems and goals and of setting priorities for biodiversity conservation has halted a series of biodiversity conservation efforts. Through qualitative research, we explored CCZ farmers' views of key problems and issues and also the sources of their opposition to the government-initiated conservation approaches. Key findings include the farmers' concerns about the impact of conservation restrictions on their access to necessary resources needed to farm, wildlife impacts on the value of rice and other agricultural goods they produce, and farmers' strong distrust of government, the military, and planners, based on their experiences with past conservation processes. The findings regarding farmers' perceptions should prove useful for the design of future participatory planning processes for biodiversity conservation in the CCZ. This case highlights how conservative measures, perceived to be imposed from above--however scientifically valuable--can be undermined and suggests the value that must be placed on communication among planners and stakeholders.

  3. From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational and Marketing Skills (Middle East and North Africa). RUAF (Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security) was established in 1999 in response to an expressed need on the part of organizations and local governments in the South for a ...

  4. Evaluation of the reliability of local farmer knowledge in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract:Local farmer knowledge of species distribution patterns and plant palatibality in Namaqualand, South Africa, was assessed using Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques. These findings were compared with the results obtained using phytosociological techniques (species distribution), and with palatability indices ...

  5. Research Note: Evaluation of the reliability of local farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract:Local farmer knowledge of species distribution patterns and plant palatibality in Namaqualand, South Africa, was assessed using Participatory Rural Appraisal techniques. These findings were compared with the results obtained using phytosociological techniques (species distribution), and with palatability indices ...

  6. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  7. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Abstract. Adoption studies on fodders legume technologies have shown that spread of the technology is ... A tobit model was used to analyse the data to get the magnitude of the effects of factors affecting .... level of education of the farmer, position of the farmer in the .... Assessing the early stages of adoption of fodder tree.

  8. Retrospective report of social withdrawal during adolescence and current maladjustment in young adulthood: cross-cultural comparisons between Australian and South Korean students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkwan; Rapee, Ronald M; Ja Oh, Kyung; Moon, Hye-Shin

    2008-10-01

    The current study investigated associations between the frequency of and motivations for social withdrawal during adolescence and emotional distress in young adulthood. Perceived motivations for social withdrawal included unsociability, isolation, shyness, and low mood. Social withdrawal during adolescence was assessed using a retrospective questionnaire completed by Australian and Korean university students. They also completed measures of general self-worth, social relationships, loneliness, social anxiety, and depression at university. Partial correlations and path analyses revealed that different motivations for social withdrawal had different risk status for later adjustment across the two samples. In particular, it appeared that shy and unsociable individuals in Korea showed better social and emotional adjustment than their counterparts in Australia. In contrast, social relationships of sad/depressed and isolated respondents in Korea appeared to be more seriously impaired than their Australian counterparts. These cross-cultural differences are discussed in terms of socio-cultural values and environments unique to the two countries.

  9. Extensiveness of Farmers' Buying Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Broens, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we study farmers' buying processes, in particular the selection of a supplier for a given farm input. Extensiveness of farmers' buying processes is defined as the degree information acquisition and alternative evaluation effort carried out to prepare that selection. Hypotheses,

  10. Political radicalism among Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, A.T.J.

    1969-01-01

    Although income parity has been achieved in Dutch agriculture, dissatisfaction with income is prevalent among farmers for reasons which are quite understandable. Low income is the most important factor that brings about the decrease in the number of farmers. A real opposition against government

  11. Entrepreneurship of Dutch dairy farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several developments in the Netherlands as well as in the other countries within the EU are forcing dairy farmers to reconsider their involvement in dairy production. Farmers are being called to account more for the entrepreneurial element of their farming behaviour. Up till now it was unclear how

  12. Understanding collaborative partnerships between farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asai, Masayasu

    Danish farmers have developed their own strategies to respond to environmental regulations of manure application. Selfgoverning manure exchanges have been widely undertaken by farmers for more than a decade, giving rise to well-established practices. However, there is little factual knowledge about...... the extent and functioning of such existing partnerships between farms as well as farmers’ perceptions of what constitutes successful arrangements. Based on registry and farmer survey data the PhD thesis shows that the vast majority of manure exporters know their partners prior to establishing manure......, duration of the partnership and transport distance. The most important aspects of farmers' perception of successful collaborative arrangements seem to be trust, continuity, flexibility and accessibility. These findings supplement the understanding of farmer collaboration based on spatial-economic models...

  13. 03 Apantaku - Farmer involvement..... - gereed vir publika…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lynette

    (farmers) agricultural problems identification and prioritization for research and extension intervention, the willingness of farmers to participate in their own agricultural problems identification and .... environments (Farrington and Mann, 1988),. • by encouraging farmer ..... Natural Resources Prespectives, 2-6. SUMBERG.

  14. Burnout and hopelessness among farmers: The Farmers Stressors Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchot, Didier; Andela, Marie

    2018-05-03

    Farming is a stressful occupation with a high rate of suicide. However, there have been relatively few studies that have examined the antecedents of stress and suicide in farmers. We also lack methodologically sound scales aimed at assessing the stressors faced by farmers. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to develop an instrument assessing the stressors met by farmers, The Farmers Stressors Inventory, and to test its factorial structure, internal consistency and criterion validity. First, based on the existing literature and interviews with farmers, we designed a scale containing 37 items. Then a sample of 2142 French farmers completed a questionnaire containing the 37 items along with two measures: The MBIGS that assesses burnout and the BHS that assesses hopelessness. The statistical analyses (EFA and CFA) revealed eight factors in accordance with different aspects of farmers job stressors: workload and lack of time, incertitude toward the future and the financial market, agricultural legislation pressure, social and geographical isolation, financial worry, conflicts with associates or family members, family succession of the farm, and unpredictable interference with farm work. The internal consistency of the eight subscales was satisfactory. Correlation between these eight dimensions and burnout on the one side and hopelessness on the other side support the criterion-related validity of the scale.

  15. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  16. National Farmers Market Summit Proceedings Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tropp, Debra; Barham, James

    2008-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), in partnership with the Farmers Market Consortium, hosted the National Farmers Market Summit November 7–9, 2007, in Baltimore, MD. The Summit assembled key stakeholders from the farmers market community to convene a national conversation on issues and challenges facing today’s farmers markets. The National Farmers Market Summit had three broad objectives: (1) Identify farmers market needs and existing gaps in assistance, (2) Prioritize future res...

  17. Life in South Korea Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  18. Discrimination of fine-grained sediment provenance using geochemical elements on the inner shelf of the Korean Strait (South Sea), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, I. K.; Choi, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The central South Sea mud (CSSM) is located between the Heuksan mud belt (HMB) in the Yellow Sea and Korea Strait shelf mud (KSSM) in the East Sea and developed along the eastward transport pathway in the South Sea. Major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, and Ti), trace elements (Li, Cs, Sc, and Rb), and rare earth elements (REEs) in the fine-grained sediments (HMB were deposited mostly in the W-CSSM, whereas those from the Seomjin River were deposited mostly in the E-CSSM

  19. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea: Findings from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database (2009–2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Kang, Yu Mi; Kim, Seon-Ok; Cho, Yun Kyung; Ko, Kyung Soo; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2018-01-01

    Background The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has markedly increased worldwide. However, studies in the United States show that it has remained stable or slightly declined in recent years. Whether this applies to other countries is presently unclear. Objectives We examined the trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Korea. Methods The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was estimated in adults aged >30 years from the Korean National Health Insurance Service data from 2009 to 2013. The revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results Approximately 10 million individuals were analyzed annually. The age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased from 28.84% to 30.52%, and the increasing trend was more prominent in men. Prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol, and impaired fasting plasma glucose significantly increased. However, the prevalence of hypertension decreased in both genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity decreased in women over 50 years-of-age but significantly increased in young women and men (metabolic syndrome is still increasing in Korea. Trends in each component of metabolic syndrome are disparate according to the gender, or age groups. Notably, abdominal obesity among young adults increased significantly; thus, interventional strategies should be implemented particularly for this age group. PMID:29566051

  20. Effects of difference in self-esteem between spouses on depressive symptom: Result from a data nationally representative of South Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Woorim; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-12-30

    Although there are many studies on self-esteem, no study has analyzed the relationship between depressive symptom and difference in self-esteem between spouses. We aimed to determine how differences in self-esteem between spouses are associated with depressive symptoms. We used data collected from 2011 to 2013 by the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The initial 2011 baseline data included 3257 married couples over 25 years of age. We used linear mixed-effects models, accounting for the longitudinal nature of the data, to analyze the associations between the self-esteem of spouses and CESD-11 scores. About 20% of the respondents had different self-esteem with their intimate partners. Individuals with spouses having lower self-esteem than self significantly higher depression scores. Individuals with spouses having higher self-esteem than self had significantly lower depression scores regardless of sex. Our findings show how different self-esteem with their intimate partners could be associated with depressive symptoms and imply that one's self-esteem could affect the mental health of one's partner. Therefore, we should give more attention to self-esteem, which can affect families and society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential Selection or Differential Socialization? Examining the Effects of Part-Time Work on School Disengagement Behaviors among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Ju, Eunsu

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the fast-growing number of adolescents involved in part-time work in South Korea, we pay special attention to the effects of part-time work on school disengagement in this age group. While research on this issue in Korea is still scarce, a handful of existing studies have documented the undesirable effects of part-time work on…

  2. Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society: The Case of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jungsoon

    2010-01-01

    South Korean society is in transition toward a multicultural society. Integrating multicultural education into current citizenship education is challenging for the society. Historically, many national tragedies have created the unique characteristics of what being Korean means. South Korean social studies curriculum emphasized that Korea is a…

  3. Putting farmers first: reshaping agricultural research in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimbert, Michel

    2012-01-15

    How agricultural research is funded, organised, controlled and practised can have a huge impact on small-scale producers in the global South. In many countries, such research is driven by external funds, priorities and technological fixes, such as hybrid seeds, which can erode crop diversity. But food producers across the world are beginning to raise their voices to ensure that agricultural research better meets their needs and priorities. A series of farmer assessments and citizens' juries in West Africa has helped farmers assess existing approaches and articulate recommendations for policy and practice to achieve their own vision of agricultural research. In 2012, a high-level policy dialogue between farmers and the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa hopes to take this discussion to the next level and develop a shared agenda that can serve development and the public good.

  4. The Impact of Outsourcing on the Japanese and South Korean Labor Markets: International Outsourcing of Intermediate Inputs and Assembly in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sanghoon; Fukao, Kyoji; Ito, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    Applying a common empirical approach to comparable industry-level data on production, trade, and labor markets for Japan and South Korea, this paper aims to investigate the impacts of outsourcing on different sectors of the labor market focusing on differences in educational attainment. While outsourcing measures used in previous studies only take account of the outsourcing of intermediate inputs, this paper, utilizing the Asian International Input-Output Tables, incorporates the outsourcing ...

  5. 40 CFR 262.70 - Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers. 262.70 Section 262.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Farmers § 262.70 Farmers. A farmer disposing of waste pesticides...

  6. Education Fever: Korean Parents' Aspirations for Their Children's Schooling and Future Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sook; Bang, Hyeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Korean parents set high academic expectations for their children. Utilising Takeuchi's and Clark's theoretical framework and Q methodology, this study explores Korean parents' "education fever" as aspiration for their children's schooling, and how socio-economic status influences this phenomenon. Thirty-six parents in Busan, South Korea,…

  7. Reasons for Living and Their Moderating Effects on Korean Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-yeon

    2011-01-01

    The present study validated the use of the Korean version of the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (KRFL-A) in a group of 406 South Korean high school students. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the original 5-factor structure, and other psychometric properties demonstrated the usefulness of the KRFL-A as a measure of cognitive…

  8. South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, P.

    1990-01-01

    South Korea aspires to become a major nuclear supplier in the world nuclear market. There is no doubt that South Korea has great potential to fulfill these aspirations. South Korea is well positioned in terms of competitiveness, market relationships, institutional capability, ability to deliver, and commitment to nonproliferation values. As a mercantilist state, South Korea hopes to capitalize on its close relationships with transnational nuclear corporations in this endeavor. It hopes to participate in two- or three-way joint ventures---especially with the American firms that have traditionally predominated in the South Korean domestic nuclear business---to market their nuclear wares abroad. This paper is divided into four parts. The first section describes South Korea's intent to become a nuclear supplier in the 1990s. It delineates the networks of prior transactions and relationships that South Korea may use to penetrate export markets. The second section reviews South Korea's nuclear export potential, particularly its technological acquisitions from the domestic nuclear program. These capabilities will determine the rate at which South Korea can enter specific nuclear markets. The third section describes the institutional framework in South Korea for the review and approval of nuclear exports

  9. Can North-made IOT solutions address the challenges of emerging cities in the South? The case of Korean born Smart transportation card implementation in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Audouin, Maxime; Razaghi, Mohamad; Finger, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of the last ten years, the urban population in the Global South has grown at a rate of 1.2 million people per week, putting the developing countries at the center of the urban development in 21st century. This rapid urbanization resulted in the emergence of serious challenges, such as provision of decent mobility, requiring innovative solutions. Currently, many northern cities use Internet of Things (IoT) solutions for answering urban challenges, but there are certain doubts a...

  10. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  11. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  12. Terrorism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  13. The role of psychological factors in the adoption of improved natural grassland by Brazilian cattle farmers in Biome Pampa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi Borges, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research was to explore factors determining cattle farmers' intention to adopt improved natural grassland in Brazil. The research was carried out in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in the south of Brazil.

  14. Smoking habits and nicotine dependence of North Korean male defectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei Won; Lee, Jong Min; Ban, Woo Ho; Park, Chan Kwon; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Lee, Sang Haak

    2016-07-01

    The smoking rates and patterns in the North Korean population are not well known. More than 20,000 North Korean defectors have settled in South Korea; thus, we can estimate the current North Korean smoking situation using this group. All North Korean defectors spend their first 3 months in a South Korean facility learning to adapt to their new home. We retrospectively analyzed the results from a questionnaire conducted among North Korean male defectors in this facility from August 2012 to February 2014. Of 272 men, 84.2% were current smokers, 12.5% were ex-smokers, and 3.3% were non-smokers. The mean age of this group was 35.9 ± 11.3 years, and smoking initiation occurred at a mean age of 18.2 ± 4.7 years. Among the subjects, 78.1% had a family member who smoked. Of the 221 current smokers, 67.4% responded that they intended to quit smoking. Fagerström test and Kano test for social nicotine dependence (KTSND) results for current smokers were 3.35 ± 2.26 and 13.76 ± 4.87, respectively. Question 9 on the KTSND (doctors exaggerate the ill effects of smoking) earned a significantly higher score relative to the other questions and a significantly higher score in current smokers compared with non-smokers. The smoking rate in North Korean male defectors was higher than that indicated previously. However, interest in smoking cessation was high and nicotine dependence was less severe than expected. Further investigation is needed to identify an efficient method for North Korean smokers to stop smoking.

  15. On Being There: Korean in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, John C.; Kawanishi, Yumiko

    1995-01-01

    Examines the experiences of ethnic Koreans and the Korean language in Japan since 1945, focusing on Japanese attitudes toward Koreans and the Korean language, provisions for Korean and bilingual education, and the increasing influence of Koreans in Japanese society. (18 references) (MDM)

  16. Response of the mid-latitude D-region ionosphere to the total solar eclipse of 22 July 2009 studied using VLF signals in South Korean peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanikumar, D. V.; Kwak, Y.-S.; Patra, A. K.; Maurya, A. K.; Singh, Rajesh; Park, S.-M.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we analyze VLF signals received at Busan to study the the D-region changes linked with the solar eclipse event of 22 July 2009 for very short (∼390 km) transmitter-receiver great circle path (TRGCP) during local noon time 00:36-03:13 UT (09:36-12:13 KST). The eclipse crossed south of Busan with a maximum obscuration of ∼84%. Observations clearly show a reduction of ∼6.2 dB in the VLF signal strength at the time of maximum solar obscuration (84% at 01:53 UT) as compared to those observed on the control days. Estimated values of change in Wait ionospheric parameters: reflection height (h‧) in km and inverse scale height parameter (β) in km-1 from Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) model during the maximum eclipse phase as compared to unperturbed ionosphere are 7 km and 0.055 km-1, respectively. Moreover, the D-region electron density estimated from model computation shows 95% depletion in electron density at the height of ∼71 km. The reflection height is found to increase by ∼7 km in the D-region during the eclipse as compared to those on the control days, implying a depletion in the Lyman-α flux by a factor of ∼7. The present observations are discussed in the light of current understanding on the solar eclipse induced D-region dynamics.

  17. Inter-Korean Forest Cooperation 1998–2012: A Policy Arrangement Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite political obstacles, South and North Korea have a history of conducting cooperative forest activities. Since 1999, the two Koreas have taken part in implementing cooperative forest projects, including reforestation, construction of tree nurseries, and control of insect pests, to achieve sustainability of the forests on the Korean Peninsula. This paper analyzes South Korean policies for inter-Korean forest cooperation, using a policy arrangement approach (PAA with four dimensions: discourse, actors, rules of the game, and power. Policy changes by three South Korean administrations are analyzed: that of Kim Dae Jung (1998–2002, Roh Moo Hyun (2003–2007 and Lee Myoung Bak (2008–2012. The analysis focuses on an examination of the interactions among the four dimensions of policy arrangement and the policies of the administrations. This research indicates that change of the South Korean policy discourse to North Korea by the various administrations has fundamentally influenced actors and their resources, as well as the rules, in the field of inter-Korean forest cooperation. Insights from this analysis can contribute to the design of bilateral forest cooperation policies on the Korean Peninsula.

  18. A molecular phylogenetic study on South Korean Tettigonia species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) using five genetic loci: The possibility of multiple allopatric speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyu; Han, Taeman; Kim, Tae-Woo; Park, In Gyun; Kim, Seonghyun; Park, Haechul

    2016-03-15

    In Korea, members of the genus Tettigonia have been known as two species, T. ussuriana and T. dolichoptera dolichoptera. However, the taxonomic status of the Jeju Island population of T. ussuriana (JJ-TU) is in question, relative to the mainland population (ML-TU), because of their different body sizes and ratios of wing length. To clarify the relatedness of JJ-TU and ML-TU, we examined the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationships within and between T. ussuriana and related species collected in South Korea, using five genetic loci: three mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [CO1], cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 [CO2], NADH dehydrogenase 1 [ND1]) and two nuclear loci (second internal transcribed spacer [ITS2], and tubulin alpha-1 [TA1]). Unexpectedly, the JJ-TU population is explicitly sister to T. d. dolichoptera, with low genetic distance (0.76-1.22% in CO1), indicating no direct connection with the ML-TU population; this finding suggests a recent divergence involving rapid morphological change without gene flow between JJ-TU and mainland T. d. dolichoptera. The separation of these populations from their common ancestor was caused by geographical isolation during last glacial age. This finding indicates that the JJ-TU population should be elevated to the rank of subspecies, at the very least. Furthermore, the ML-TU population was also revealed to have four genetically divided groups (group A-D) from four localized populations, but no significant morphological differences exist among them. The genetic difference (range 3.19-4.10% in CO1) between group A + B and C + D was especially large, suggesting that cryptic speciation has widely occurred within the mainland areas, caused by allopatric isolations resulting from mountain barriers.

  19. Isolation, identification, Pb(II) biosorption isotherms and kinetics of a lead adsorbing penicillium sp. MRF-1 from South Korean mine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Natarajan; Hwang, Grim; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Choi, Tae Kie; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Yang-Soo

    2010-01-01

    A heavy metal contaminated soil sample collected from a mine in Chonnam Province of South Korea was found to be a source of heavy metal adsorbing biosorbents. Chemical analyses showed high contents of lead (Pb) at 357 mg/kg and cyanide (CN) at 14.6 mg/kg in the soil. The experimental results showed that Penicillium sp. MRF-1 was the best lead resistant fungus among the four individual metal tolerant fungal species isolated from the soil. Molecular characterization of Penicillium sp. MRF-1 was determined using ITS regions sequences. Effects of pH, temperature and contact time on adsorption of Pb(II) by Penicillium sp. MRF-1 were studied. Favorable conditions for maximum biosportion were found at pH 4 with 3 hr contact time. Biosorption of Pb(II) gradually increased with increasing temperature. Efficient performance of the biosorbent was described using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption kinetics was studied using pseudo first-order and pseudo second-order models. Biosorbent Penicillium sp. MRF-1 showed the maximum desorption in alkali conditions. Consistent adsorption/desorption potential of the biosorbent in repetitive cycles validated the efficacy of it in large scale. SEM studies given notes on surface modification of fungal biomass under metal stress and FT-IR results showed the presence of amino groups in the surface structure of the biosorbent. In conclusion, the new biosorbent Penicillium sp. MRF-1 may potentially be used as an inexpensive, easily cultivatable material for the removal of lead from aqueous solution.

  20. Pediatric Clinical Trials Conducted in South Korea from 2006 to 2015: An Analysis of the South Korean Clinical Research Information Service, US ClinicalTrials.gov and European Clinical Trials Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sheung-Nyoung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Song, In-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Jin-Tae; Kim, Hee-Soo

    2017-12-01

    The status of pediatric clinical trials performed in South Korea in the last decade, including clinical trials of drugs with unapproved indications for children, has not been previously examined. The aim was to provide information regarding the current state of pediatric clinical trials and create a basis for future trials performed in South Korea by reviewing three databases of clinical trials registrations. We searched for pediatric clinical studies (participants South Korea between 2006 and 2015 registered on the Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuCTR). Additionally, we reviewed whether unapproved indications were involved in each trial by comparing the trials with a list of authorized trials provided by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS). The primary and secondary outcomes were to determine the change in number of pediatric clinical trials with unapproved indications over time and to assess the status of unauthorized pediatric clinical trials from the MFDS and the publication of articles after these clinical trials, respectively. We identified 342 clinical studies registered in the CRIS (n = 81), ClinicalTrials.gov (n = 225), and EuCTR (n = 36), of which 306 were reviewed after excluding duplicate registrations. Among them, 181 studies were interventional trials dealing with drugs and biological agents, of which 129 (71.3%) involved unapproved drugs. Of these 129 trials, 107 (82.9%) were authorized by the MFDS. Pediatric clinical trials in South Korea aiming to establish the safety and efficacy of drugs in children are increasing; however, non-MFDS-authorized studies remain an issue.

  1. Armenia - Water to Market Farmer Training

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Farming Practices Survey (FPS) was commissioned by MCC to evaluate the impact of Water-to-Market (WtM) activities, particularly farmer training, on rural farmers...

  2. FARMERS ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    employed by farmers, and yam farmers' level of production across the years .... agricultural produce includes cocoa, kolanut, orange (and other citrus), oil palm, maize, ..... potential and stability will be complementary to bridging the yield gap.

  3. Mapping and understanding farmers indigenous Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The purpose of the study was to develop simple methodologies ... simple, easy to use and farmer friendly. The tools had to ..... institutions are linked to farmer interest groups. These ... the social, economic, cultural, financial and environmental.

  4. Institutional Factors Influencing Crop Farmers Adoption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended agrochemical practices (RAPs) among crop farmers in Nigeria. A total of 260 ... It would neither be logical nor ethical to expect poor people to forego the benefits of ..... Credit use is expected to assist farmers purchase necessary.

  5. Two Golden Ages of Korean Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Y. Jeong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The two books by Steven Chung and Young-a Park that I discuss in this essay signal the growth of Korean studies by simply beginning in medias res. That is, unlike many books that came before them, they offer no lengthy exposition to set things up, to declare and justify the need for the study at hand. These new books also reflect the recent scholarly trend of reaching beyond the established area studies or Korean studies models to present studies that are interdisciplinary and transnational in scope. Park’s Unexpected Alliances is a narrative at once of South Korea’s transition to a (truly civil society, of its artistic struggle for independence and integrity, of the individual’s negotiations with the state, and of feminist awakenings in unlikely circumstances. Chung’s Split Screen Korea, which I will discuss first, is similarly expansive in scope...

  6. Medicinal Meditations on Korean History and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Nelson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Soyoung Suh. Naming the Local: Medicine, Language, and Identity in Korea since the Fifteenth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2017. 244 pp. $40 (cloth. Eunjung Kim. Curative Violence: Rehabilitating Disability, Gender, and Sexuality in Modern Korea. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2017. 312 pp. $100 (cloth; $26 (paper. Taken together, and particularly situated in the context of related studies of science and medicine in Korea and the East Asian region, Naming the Local and Curative Violence illustrate the productive power of ideas of health and wellness in the formation of Korean culture, society, and institutions. Medicine and medical care obviously are central elements of biopolitics, but the reach and complexity of their effects are often overlooked. Given the massive social and financial investments in health, it is no wonder that looking at South Korea through these lenses illuminates whole aspects of Korean society with new light...

  7. Strategy. North-Korean nuclear: endgame?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirandol, Guylain de

    2017-01-01

    As North Korea performed new ballistic missile tests in February 2017, and thus violated UN resolutions, this article proposes an overview of the evolutions from nuclear sanctions to economic sanctions. Initially, UN sanctions aimed at struggling against nuclear programmes and proliferation through embargo on arms and materials. After a nuclear test in 2016, South Korea withdrew from a North Korean industrial complex. International sanctions now aim at economically isolating North Korea, at increasing its trade deficit, and at reducing the sending of currencies by North-Korean expatriates. The author notices that these sanctions do not alter manufacturing activities, and that North Korea thus keeps on developing and being integrated into the international division of labour. The last part briefly discusses how North Korea could be able to get around sanctions

  8. Korean War Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The spreadsheet of Korean War Veterans by State includes the total Korean War Veteran population for each state and broken out by age and gender. It also includes...

  9. Farmer's lung in Ireland (1983-1996) remains at a constant level.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, D S

    2012-02-03

    A prospective study was undertaken by the Departments of Respiratory Medicine and Medical Microbiology at the Cork University Hospital, a. to investigate the epidemiology of Farmer\\'s Lung (F.L.) in the Republic of Ireland (pop. 3.5 million), with special reference to the South Western Region of this country (pop. 536,000) and b. to assess any relationship between the prevalence\\/incidence of F.L. with climatic factors in South West Ireland, between 1983 and 1996. F.L. incidence remained constant throughout the 13 yrs studied both on a national and a regional basis. A significant relationship was also found between total rainfall each summer and F.L. incidence and prevalence over the following yr (p < 0.005) in South-West Ireland. The persistence of F.L. in Ireland at a constant level suggests that farmers\\' working environment and farm practices need to be improved.

  10. Factors Influencing Livelihood Diversification among Rural Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research study was set out to analyze factors influencing rural farmer's engagement in livelihood diversification in the study area. The specific objectives were; to identify the different levels of farmers' engagement in livelihood diversification, determine the socio-demographic factors or forces that influence farmers' ...

  11. Iinformation accessibility and farmers manageriability of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the farmers' access to information and their manageriability of the intervention programme in the study area. To achieve the objective, there was need to determine farmers' information accessibility and manageriability of guinea worm intervention package; then determine farmers satisfaction with the ...

  12. Inter-Korean military confidence building after 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae-woo, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Littlefield, Adriane C.; Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Sang-beom, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Koelm, Jennifer Gay; Olsen, John Norman; Myong-jin, Kim (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea); Sung-tack, Shin (Korea Institute for Defense Analyses, Seoul, Republic of Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Tensions on the Korean Peninsula remain high despite a long-term strategy by South Korea to increase inter-Korean exchanges in economics, culture, sports, and other topics. This is because the process of reconciliation has rarely extended to military and security topics and those initiatives that were negotiated have been ineffective. Bilateral interactions must include actions to reduce threats and improve confidence associated with conventional military forces (land, sea, and air) as well as nuclear, chemical, and biological activities that are applicable to developing and producing weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The purpose of this project is to develop concepts for inter-Korean confidence building measures (CBMs) for military and WMD topics that South Korea could propose to the North when conditions are right. This report describes the historical and policy context for developing security-related CBMs and presents an array of bilateral options for conventional military and WMD topics within a consistent framework. The conceptual CBMs address two scenarios: (1) improved relations where construction of a peace regime becomes a full agenda item in inter-Korean dialogue, and (2) continued tense inter-Korean relations. Some measures could be proposed in the short term under current conditions, others might be implemented in a series of steps, while some require a higher level of cooperation than currently exists. To support decision making by political leaders, this research focuses on strategies and policy options and does not include technical details.

  13. Russia and the Issues of the Korean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D. Toloraya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Korean Peninsula in Russian foreign strategy is based on the need to preserve peace and stability in the Russia's Far East "soft underbelly" and to be a part of international efforts to solve the Korean problem, as well as to promote regional economic cooperation. In 1990-s Russia's position on the peninsula weakened, mainly because of the rupture of ties with North Korea, while relations with South Korea were reactive in nature. Rebalancing relations with the two Koreas in 2000-s increased Russia's involvement into Korean settlement, including the 6- party format. Russia/s relations with North Korea are now based on good neighborhood principle, however, they are far from idyllic as Russia disapproves of Pyongyang's behavior, especially its nuclear and missile activities. However to influence the situation more Russia should deepen its ties with the current Pyongyang leadership regardless of how irritating its behavior might be. Relations with the ROK are aimed at becoming strategic, but in reality are limited due to ROK's alliance with the USA. However South Korea has become the third most important economic partner in Asia. Russia is especially interested in three- party projects, such as Trans-Korean railroad (linked to Transsiberan transit way, gas pipeline and electricity grid. However implementation of these project is negatively influenced by the tensions in Korean peninsula. It can be solved only by multilateral efforts for comprehensive solution combining security guarantees for North Korea and its abandonment of nuclear option.

  14. Zimbabwean farmers in Nigeria: exceptional farmers or spectacular support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Abdul Raufu

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, white commercial farmers displaced under Zimbabwe's fast-track land reform programme have established new successful farms near the central Nigerian town of Shonga. This article explores the basis of that success. It addresses three key questions: (1) What has actually happened near Shonga since 2004? (2) What or who is driving the process of agrarian transformation? And (3) What are the long-term consequences for the peasantry since Nigerian agriculture is still largely peasant-based? It argues that contrary to popular myths of ‘enterprising’ white Zimbabwean farmers, the process is driven by a complex group of actors, including the national and regional states. Comparative evidence from similar transplantations of Zimbabwean farmers suggests that active state support is central to the success of Shonga. With respect to the relationship between the commercial farms and the peasantry, it is argued that all the synergies included in the project design to promote a symbiotic development have failed to materialize. As a result, the peasantry faces a process of ‘development by dispossession’.

  15. Development of the Multilingual Collaboration System for Farmers of Several Counntries (1) : Application of Basic Terminology Translation Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Oh; Nakaji, Kei; Nada, Yoichi

    2004-01-01

    In order to share agricultural information through the Internet, the multilingual collaboratioin system of agricultural productioni was developed for farmers of many countries. The basic terminology translationi dictionary was developed by using several open source programs and free software to translate the basic terminology of multilingual collaboration system. The basic terminology translationi dictionaru was composed of about 4200 terms in Japanese, Korean and English including 2700 horti...

  16. The North Korean nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-01-01

    , based on the capabilities we saw, we must assume that North Korea has the capability to produce a crude nuclear device. On the matter of uranium enrichment programs, our host categorically denied that North Korea has a uranium enrichment program - he said, 'we have no program, no equipment, and no technical expertise for uranium enrichment.' The denials were not convincing at the time and since then have proven to be quite hollow by the revelations of A.Q. Khan's nuclear black market activities. There is no easy solution to the nuclear crisis in North Korea. A military strike to eliminate the nuclear facilities was never very attractive and now has been overcome by events. The principal threat is posed by a stockpile of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade plutonium. We have no way of finding where either may be hidden. A diplomatic solution remains the only path forward, but it has proven elusive. All sides have proclaimed a nuclear weapons-free Korean Peninsula as the end goal. The U.S. Government has chosen to negotiate with North Korea by means of the six-party talks. It has very clearly outlined its position of insisting on complete, verifiable, irreversible dismantlement of all North Korean nuclear programs. North Korea has offered several versions of 're-freezing' its plutonium program while still denying a uranium enrichment program. It has insisted on simultaneous and reciprocal steps to a final solution. Regardless of which diplomatic path is chosen, the scientific challenges of eliminating the North Korean nuclear weapons programs (and its associated infrastructure) in a safe, secure, and verifiable manner are immense. The North Korean program is considerably more complex and developed than the fledgling Iraqi program of 1991 and Libyan program of 2004. It is more along the lines, but more complex than that of South Africa in the early 1990s. Actions taken or not taken by the North Koreans at their nuclear facilities during the course of the ongoing diplomatic

  17. Risk Preference of Farmer Beef Cattle Smallholder in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, H.; Fitriani, A.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle farm is an economic activity that its correlation relatively high with ecology condition, ever more its activity be dominated by smallholder with farm scale of 1—3 head beef cattle, so the capital of feeder cattle are component production costs relatively large. By doing so, lose one head of cattle means losing some of the capital that had been invested in its farm. This condition has implications for the behavior of farmers in managing its farm. The farmers in the decision-making act reluctant to risk so there is a bit of a program or package of new technologies to improve the performance of farm rejected. Therefore, this study analyzed the preferences of farmers against risks, and find out the socio-economic conditions that be the deciding factor on farmer preference for risk.The method used was a survey with multistage random sampling. The numbers of samples in this study were 150 people from three different areas, namely: District of Bandung, Subang, and Pangandaran (South Ciamis). Data analysis model used in relation to this research problem was the model’s utility function and Component Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the overall breeders had a reluctant attitude to risk (risk averter). This is indicated by the value of x3, namely -63,692.693 < 0; and socio-economic factors that determine the preference of farmers against risk are age, education, and experience for farm management; while the business scale factor, number of dependents, and ownership determine the size of the gross margin.

  18. The Proactive Grand Strategy for Consensual and Peaceful Korean Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    previous revisionists―I. F. Stone and Karunakar Gupta. I. F. Stone is the first scholar to claim that South Korea provoked North Korea. Leo Huberman and...Longman, 2001), 39. 20 Leo Huberman and Paul M. Sweezy, “Publisher’s Foreword,” in I.F. Stone, The Hidden History of the Korean War (New York...be a sea of fire. Mr. Song, it will probably be difficult for you to survive.”167 Seoul is only 25 miles away from the DMZ and the North Korean

  19. Cocoa Farmers' Compliance with Safety Precautions in Spraying Agrochemicals and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2018-02-13

    The inability of farmers to comply with essential precautions in the course of spraying agrochemicals remains a policy dilemma, especially in developing countries. The objectives of this paper were to assess compliance of cocoa farmers with agrochemical safety measures, analyse the factors explaining involvement of cocoa farmers in the practice of reusing agrochemical containers and wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE). Data were collected with structured questionnaires from 667 cocoa farmers from the Centre and South West regions in Cameroon. Data analyses were carried out with Probit regression and Negative Binomial regression models. The results showed that average cocoa farm sizes were 3.55 ha and 2.82 ha in South West and Centre regions, respectively, and 89.80% and 42.64% complied with manufacturers' instructions in the use of insecticides. Eating or drinking while spraying insecticides and fungicides was reported by 4.20% and 5.10% of all farmers in the two regions, respectively. However, 37.78% and 57.57% of all farmers wore hand gloves and safety boots while spraying insecticides in the South West and Centre regions of Cameroon, respectively. In addition, 7.80% of all the farmers would wash agrochemical containers and use them at home, while 42.43% would wash and use them on their farms. Probit regression results showed that probability of reusing agrochemical containers was significantly influenced ( p agrochemicals.

  20. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  1. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  2. Motivating Learners at South Korean Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Students at many universities often fail to reach their full potential as English language learners due to low motivation. Some of the factors that affect their motivation relate to the country's education system in general. Others reflect institutional and cultural views of language learning in particular. Using a problem-solution format, this…

  3. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  4. A study on the denuclearization policy in Korean peninsular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.; Choi, Y. S.

    2001-01-01

    The prime ministers of North Korea and South Korea adopted 'Joint Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsular' (Joint Declaration) on December 31, 1991. Unprecedented as an agreement between two political powers of a divided country, this Joint Declaration is important for its historical significance. To analyze the denuclearization policy in the Korean peninsular, this dissertation suggests a framework which can be established on the factors facilitating the denuclearization both on the level of international politics and on the politics of a divided country. A substantial nuclear proliferation theory should be based on the study in detail of the nuclear proliferation cases of about 40 individual countries. This dissertation may be meaningful as a concrete study of the denuclearzation in the Korean peninsular on theoretical and practical basis

  5. Assimilating Dokdo: The Islets in Korean Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Palmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sovereignty over the Tokto Islets is heatedly contested between South Korea and Japan. The Korean government and citizenry have responded to this dispute by inserting the islets into their national collective memory in multifarious ways in an attempt to strengthen their nation’s claim to Tokto. The islets are included in the material culture and public memory of the nation in ways that make them part of everyday life for millions of Koreans. Korea’s claim to Tokto is currently taught in schools, presented in museums, found in popular songs, and exploited by businesses for profit. The deeper Tokto becomes entrenched in Korean society, the less likely a compromise can be reached with Japan over the islets.

  6. Linking Food Industry and Agriculture: The Case of Fruit-Juice Industry and Korean Food Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sounghun; Choi, Ji-Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    In Korea, the portion of food industry has increased, while the portion of agriculture keeps decreasing. The alliance between agriculture and food industry results in the synergy between both industries as well as higher farmers' income. The goal of this study is to analyze the current status of the linkages between two food industries (fruit-juice industry and Korean-style meal franchise industry) and agriculture, and then to present the ways to strengthen the linkages. The discussion in thi...

  7. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  8. Korean Wave sebagai Instrumen Soft Power untuk Memperoleh Keuntungan Ekonomi Korea Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Putu Elvina Suryani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Korean wave is a term used to illustrate the product of South Korean pop culture that has been successfully exported to foreign countries in Asia, Europe, and America. By using the concept of 'soft power', this article argues that, while this phenomenon merely seems like an entertainment phenomenon, Korean wave has actually become a vital instrument that brings positive impacts towards the economic development of South Korea. The strategy to develop the Korean wave as a soft power instrument is actually something that Indonesia must be able follow. This might be useful as an alternative strategy to optimize the role of Indonesian local culture as an effort to drive the national economy in order to face the current global challenges.

  9. Danish dairy farmers' perception of biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Jakobsen, Esben B

    2011-05-01

    To implement biosecurity measures at farm-level is a motivational challenge to dairy farmers as emerging diseases and their consequences largely are unpredictable. One of the reasons for this challenge is that outcomes are more likely to benefit society than the individual farmer. From the individual farmer's point of view the impacts of zoonotic risk, international trade and welfare concerns appear less obvious than the direct costs at farm-level. Consequently, a social dilemma may arise where collective interests are at odds with private interests. To improve biosecurity at farm-level farmers must be motivated to change behavior in the 'right' direction which could provide selfish farmers with unintended possibilities to exploit the level of biosecurity provided by other dairy farmers' collective actions. Farmers' perception of risk of disease introduction into a dairy herd was explored by means of Q-methodology. Participating farmers owned very large dairy herds and were selected for this study because Danish legislation since 2008 has required that larger farms develop and implement a farm specific biosecurity plan. However, a year from introduction of this requirement, none of the participating farmers had developed a biosecurity plan. Farmers' perception of biosecurity could meaningfully be described by four families of perspectives, labeled: cooperatives; confused; defectors, and introvert. Interestingly, all families of perspectives agreed that sourcing of animals from established dealers represented the highest risk to biosecurity at farm-level. Farmers and policy-makers are faced with important questions about biosecurity at farm-level related to the sanctioning system within the contextual framework of social dilemmas. To solve these challenges we propose the development of a market-mediated system to (1) reduce the risk of free-riders, and (2) provide farmers with incentives to improve biosecurity at farm-level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Sweetpotato breeding for northeastern Uganda: farmer varieties, farmer-participatory selection, and stability of performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidin, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, farmer varieties, indigenous knowledge, farmer-participatory research, genetic diversity, genotype-by-environment interaction, germplasm collection, Ipomoea batatas , specific adaptation, yield stability, sweetpotato, variance component

  11. Bt maize for small scale farmers: A case study | Keetch | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, genetically modified (GM) white maize was approved for commercial production in 1998. To educate and inform small-scale farmers and to give them the opportunity to evaluate GM white maize for themselves, six demonstration plots were planted at strategic locations. This communications presents the ...

  12. Understanding Korean Families With Alcoholic Fathers in a View of Confucian Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sihyun; Schepp, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the dynamics of Korean alcoholic family through the lens of Confucianism, using research conducted in South Korea. To gain an in-depth understanding of the family dynamics and the lived experiences of a certain alcoholic family having a specific ethnicity, health professionals must first understand the uniqueness of their own cultural bases and how those cultural components can shape dynamics of alcoholic family. Thus, we reviewed qualitative studies of Korean families with alcoholic fathers to investigate the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic families in terms of Confucian thoughts and values and discuss how the Confucian thoughts affect family dynamics in those Korean alcoholic families. Relevant literature was found through Korean database Research Information Sharing Service by using several (Korean) searching terms: alcoholic, home, spouse, wife, children, and family. Articles were included if they were studies of a Korean alcoholic family and used qualitative methodology. If the studies did not include familial perspectives or not focused on alcoholism issues, those studies were excluded. Eleven qualitative studies of alcoholic family were searched. The members of alcoholic families in South Korea, including the alcoholic member, have expected roles and duties because of the influence of Confucian thoughts and values. By associating with family member's alcoholism, those expectations are a big burden on those family members. Therefore, future plans for community interventions and programs for this population should incorporate the findings from this study.

  13. Korean game industry with a focus on online games from 2000 to the present

    OpenAIRE

    Bišková, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze Korean gaming industry with a focus on online games and to outline future possible path where the industry may go. For better orientation in the field I explain major terms and global gaming situation. I continue with a history of Korean gaming, major games themselves and the role they played on the bigger scene. The other part is focused on localization of Korean games in regions of North America and Europe and also shows South Korea as a pioneer in the f...

  14. Korean working mothers' parenting style in Korea and in the United STates: a qualitative comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyesang; Kim, Eunjung; Sung, Kyungsuk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of cultural influences on the parenting styles of Korean working mothers who live in South Korea versus Korean American working mothers living in the U.S. Four major themes were identified: (a) expression of affection for children, (b) parental control, (c) feelings for children, and (d) feelings for themselves. The findings indicate that acculturation to the American culture affected the Korean American working mothers to grant higher self-regulation to their children and to have more positive feelings for their children and themselves.

  15. Korean Unification and the Future of the U.S.-ROK Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    including the Korean People’s Army, which, by ROK estimates, numbers 1.2 million in the active force and some 7.7 million in the reserve , or...management. A broader alli- ance agenda would also place a premium on establishing an interagency or whole-of-government dialogue, fusing together...annualized gross domestic product (GDP). See Christine Kim, “Korean Unification May Cost South 7 Percent of GDP: Ministry,” Reuters, January 1, 2013

  16. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  18. Small Farmers' Habits of Reading Agricultural Extension Publications: The Case of Moshav Farmers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Abraham; Azencot, Moshe

    1989-01-01

    Interviews farmers in Moshavim, Israel, to examine the need for efficient written communication channels between agricultural extension services and small farmers. Identifies the main problems as a weak distribution system and the necessity for authors of extension pamphlets and brochures to consider the special needs of small farmers. (KEH)

  19. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar

    2016-01-01

    of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, while dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate...

  20. Farmer, Agent, and Specialist Perspectives on Preferences for Learning among Today's Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.; Piercy, Fred; Donaldson, Joseph; Westbrook, Johnnie; Richard, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the types of educational delivery methods preferred by farmers (Eckert & Bell, 2005; Eckert & Bell, 2006). The research project reported here explored the preferred learning methods of farmers in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Virginia. Data on learning methods collected directly from farmers were compared with…

  1. Effect of integrated pest management farmer field school (IPMFFS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aimed to explore the effect of the Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School (IPMFFS), on farmer knowledge, farmer group's ability, process of adoption and diffusion of IPM in Jember district. The population of the research was 556 farmer groups consisting of 22.240 farmers engaged in the IPMFFS in ...

  2. 29 CFR 780.332 - Exchange of labor between farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.332 Exchange of labor between farmers. (a) Occasionally a farmer may help his neighbor with the harvest of his crop. For instance, Farmer B helps his neighbor Farmer A...

  3. Korean soft weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper author deals with the development of nuclear weapons in the Korean People Democratic Republic (North Korea), which was crowned in October 2006 with the first successful underground detonation of nuclear charge. The North Korea so walked into the elite club and became de facto the nuclear great power. Nuclear disarmament negotiations with North Korea misfired. Relationships between the North Korea and the Republic of Korea as well as the China are discussed

  4. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yongsup.

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean 'Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control

  5. The Effect of Traumatic Experiences and Psychiatric Symptoms on the Life Satisfaction of North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonsun; Lim, Sun Young; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji-Chul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-01-01

    Successful adaptation of refugees to a new society can be hindered by traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between trauma, psychiatric symptoms and life satisfaction of North Korean refugees resettled in South Korea. A total of 211 North Korean refugees living in South Korea completed a series of questionnaires on the history of their previous traumatic experiences, life satisfaction in South Korea, depression, anxiety, somatization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. North Korean refugees who had experienced more traumatic events were less satisfied with their economic status in South Korea. Severe depression, anxiety, somatization or PTSD symptoms negatively correlated with their overall satisfaction in South Korea. In the stepwise regression model including all psychiatric symptoms and the number of traumatic experiences as dependent variables, only anxiety, but not trauma, predicted lower life satisfaction in South Korea. Traumatic experiences of North Korean refugees negatively affected the life satisfaction, especially the economic satisfaction, in South Korea. Since the negative effect of trauma was mainly mediated by psychiatric symptoms, the strategy of relieving psychiatric symptoms of traumatized refugees may help the adaptation of refugees. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Koreans in Japan: Their Influence on Korean-Japanese Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    1963. 31. The Republic of Korea National Red Cross, The Dispersed Families in Korea, Seoul, 1977. 32. Sato , Shoki, Koreans in Japan - The...1975. 34. Sumiya, Mikio , Kankoku no Keizai (The Korean Economy), Iwanami Shoten, Tokyo, Japan, 1974. 35. U.S. Government Printing Office, U.S. Army Area

  7. Review of the Genus Apechthis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Pimplinae from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Jin-Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed South Korean species of the genus Apechthis and confirmed four species and two subspecies. In this genus, four species and one subspecies have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, two species and one subspecies were from South Korea. Additionally, we report two species and one subspecies, Apechthis compunctor orientalis Kaspryan, 1973, Apechthis quadridentata (Thomson, 1877 and Apechthis rapae (Uchida, 1925, which were newly recorded for the first time from South Korea. A key to South Korean species of the genus Apechthis, redescriptions of newly recorded species and subspecies and digital images of South Korean Apechthis are provided.

  8. DETERMINANTS OF RURAL FARMERS PREFERENCE FOR CASH-LESS TRANSACTIONS IN IMO STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe Ikenna UKOHA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The preference for cash-less transaction by Nigerians cannot be exaggerated, but despite its patronage, there exist limited access and utilization of the cash-less technologies among farmers in South-East Nigeria. The study analysed the determinants of rural farmers’ preference for cash-less transactions in Imo state, South-East Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was employed in selection of 100 farmers for the study. The determinant of rural farmers’ preference for cash-less transactions in Imo State, was achieved using logit model. The result of the analysis showed that age (5%, gender (10% education levels of the farmers (1%, user friendliness of technologies (5%, transaction charge (5% and security of transactions (5% were found to be the major determinants of farmers preference for cash-less transactions based on their levels of significance. Centred on the findings, the study recommended the strengthening of the use of cash-less transaction by farmers by providing a favourable financial environment through better orientation programs, so as to enable a smooth transition from a cash-based economy to cash-less economy.

  9. The Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA): Provisions and Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, William H; Manyin, Mark E; Jones, Vivian C; Cooney, Stephen; Jurenas, Remy

    2008-01-01

    ....-South Korean Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) for their respective countries. If approved, the KORUS FTA would be the largest FTA that South Korea has signed to date and would be the second largest...

  10. Farmers\\' Characteristics And Adoption Of Recommended Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on farmers under the fadama project scheme in Edo State, Nigeria with emphasis on the relationship between farmers\\' characteristics and adoption of recommended technologies. Analyses of data obtained from a random sample of 80 respondents reveals that fadama farming was dominated by females ...

  11. Farmer's lung is now in decline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arya, A

    2012-02-03

    Farmer\\'s lung incidence in Ireland was constant until 1996, even though hay making methods were revolutionised in late 1980\\'s. We undertook this study to find out the incidence of farmer\\'s lung in Ireland from 1982-2002 and its correlation with rainfall and the effect of changing farm practices. The primary cases of farmer\\'s lung were identified from Hospital in Patients Enquiry (HIPE) unit of the national Economic & Social Research Institute (ESRI) Dublin. Rainfall data were obtained from Met Eireann whereas population, hay production and silage production were obtained from the Central Statistics Office, Dublin. As the farming population is in decline, we used the annual working unit (AWU), which reflects the true population at risk. An AWU is the equivalent of 1800 hours per farm worker per year. The incidence rates were constant from 1982-1996, but from 1997-2002 a marked decline was observed. There was strong positive correlation with hay production (r = 0.81) and strong negative correlation with silage production (r = -0.82). This study indicates that the incidence of farmer\\'s lung is now in decline.

  12. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  13. Human prehistory: Hunting for the earliest farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley-Conwy, Peter

    2009-11-03

    The degree to which the spread of farming into Europe was accompanied by demographic shifts is subject to intense debate. Genetic evidence from Europe's first farmers and their hunter-gatherer counterparts now suggests an important role for the immigration of farmers.

  14. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers Participation in IFAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-02

    Feb 2, 2015 ... This study assessed Factors Influencing smallholder farmers' ... percent of the population engaged in agricultural activities as a career and ... that the major source of income of the poor is agriculture and ... shown that farmers have different reasons for participation in agricultural ... 30 Dan gamau 534. 30.

  15. Predicting a roadkill hotspots based on spatial distribution of Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) using Maxent model in South Korea Expressway : In Case of Cheongju-Sangju Expressway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyomin; Lee, Sangdon

    2016-04-01

    Road construction has direct and indirect effects on ecosystems. Especially wildlife-vehicle conflicts (roadkills) caused by roads are a considerable threat for population of many species. This study aims to identify the effects of topographic characteristics and spatial distribution of Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis). Korean water deer is indigenous and native species in Korea that listed LC (least concern) by IUCN redlist categories. Korean water deer population is growing every year occupying for most of roadkills (>70%) in Korean express highway. In order to predict a distribution of the Korean water deer, we selected factors that most affected water deer's habitat. Major habitats of waterdeer are known as agricultural area, forest area and water. Based on this result, eight factors were selected (land cover map, vegetation map, age class of forest, diameter class of tree, population, slope of study site, elevation of study site, distance of river), and made a thematic map by using GIS program (ESRI, Arc GIS 10.3.1 ver.). To analyze the affected factors of waterdeer distribution, GPS data and thematic map of study area were entered into Maxent model (Maxent 3.3.3.k.). Results of analysis were verified by the AUC (Area Unit Curve) of ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic). The ROC curve used the sensitivity and specificity as a reference for determining the prediction efficiency of the model and AUC area of ROC curve was higher prediction efficiency closer to '1.' Selecting factors that affected the distribution of waterdeer were land cover map, diameter class of tree and elevation of study site. The value of AUC was 0.623. To predict the water deer's roadkills hot spot on Cheongju-Sangju Expressway, the thematic map was prepared based on GPS data of roadkill spots. As a result, the topographic factors that affected waterdeer roadkill were land cover map, actual vegetation map and age class of forest and the value of AUC was 0.854. Through this study, we

  16. Comparing farmers' market revenue trends before and after the implementation of a monetary incentive for recipients of food assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Mattison-Faye, Amy; Alia, Kassandra; Guest, M Aaron; Hébert, James R

    2014-05-22

    We examined the influence of an intervention to increase fruit and vegetable purchases at farmers' markets for recipients of food assistance, Shop N Save (SNS), on revenue trends at a farmers' market located at a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in rural South Carolina. We compared revenue trends for 20 weeks before the intervention (2011) and 20 weeks after (2012). SNS provided one $5 monetary incentive per week to customers spending $5 or more in food assistance at the farmers' market. SNS was available to any farmers' market customer using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and/or Senior or WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) vouchers. Sales receipts were recorded for each transaction at the farmers' market to document payment type and the cost of the purchase. All SNS participants completed a one-time enrollment survey. A total of 336 customers self-enrolled in SNS from June through October 2012. Most SNS participants were female, African American, and patients at the FQHC. In total, the use of all forms of food assistance (SNAP, WIC, and FMNP) at the farmers' market increased significantly after the intervention (from 10% before, to 25% after, P = .003). Senior FMNP vouchers and SNAP usage increased the most. Interventions that provide incentives to recipients of food assistance programs at farmers' markets are a viable strategy for increasing food assistance usage and revenue.

  17. Higher Education Reform in South Korea: Perspectives on the New University for Regional Innovation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sheena; Yeom, Minho

    2010-01-01

    The New University for Regional Innovation (NURI) is one of the South Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development's key projects supporting regional universities. NURI aims to develop areas of specialization in regional universities and link universities to local industries. In 2004, the South Korean government pledged to invest…

  18. How can veterinarians be interesting partners for organic dairy farmers? French farmers' point of views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Vaarst, M

    2017-10-01

    Organic dairy farmers must live up to the organic goal of 'good health' in respect the organic principles and regulation. Veterinarians could be the organic dairy farmers' expected sparring partners in reaching this goal but have found difficulties to establish advisory relationships with them. The objectives of this study are -from organic dairy farmers' points of view- (i) to describe farmers' objectives and strategies regarding herd health, (ii) to describe private veterinarians' roles in farmers' animal health promotion strategies and (iii) to identify farmers' reasons for accepting veterinarians in an advisory role. Fourteen organic dairy farmers were interviewed using qualitative research interviews. Data collection and analysis was performed using a modified approach to Grounded Theory. Organic dairy farmers had animal health management strategies focusing on animal health promotion. Veterinarians had most often solely the role of therapist in farmers' animal health management strategies. Reasons explaining that veterinarians were not able to establish advisory roles were found in the differences between veterinarians and farmers regarding their animal health strategies and solutions to disease problems. Furthermore, veterinarians did not always share farmers' (organic) objectives, values and priorities and this could lead to disagreement on the best choice in animal health management practices. This might be further amplified in situations where there exists a lack of dialogue and mutual interest in other. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Farmer Cooperation in the Context of Agro-clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardhana, D.; Ihle, R.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The geographical concentration of farming activities can promote institutional innovations for farmers. Sharing resources, knowledge, and markets in clustered regions lead to the income improvements of farmers. We explore such advantages for smallholder farmers in West Java of Indonesia by

  20. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA. ACTION: Notice: Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) establish the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on... assistance to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers, methods of maximizing participation of minority...

  1. Korean/Korean American Adolescents' Responses to Young Adult Fiction and Media Created by Korean/Korean Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhyun

    2010-01-01

    Multicultural children's and young adult literature provides readers with various opportunities: to mirror their lives and reflect the meanings of their own experiences; to gain insight on social issues as well as personal issues; and to enhance cross-cultural awareness. How might Korean/Korean American youth cope with everyday life as a minority…

  2. China's Rise and Cataclysmic Changes on the Korean Peninsular (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    OOE Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    For a certain period following the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Korea after the end of the Cold War, relations between China and North Korea deteriorated enormously. Amid escalating tensions due to North Korea's development of nuclear weapons, President Kim Il-Sung died suddenly. Sensing an impeding crisis due to North Korea's destabilized regime, China began providing North Korea with aid, and this marked a move aimed at restoring the China-North Korean relat...

  3. Relationship between Organizational Culture and Workplace Bullying among Korean Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yuseon An, MS, RN; Jiyeon Kang, PhD, RN

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the relationship between organizational culture and experience of workplace bullying among Korean nurses. Methods: Participants were 298 hospital nurses in Busan, South Korea. We assessed nursing organizational culture and workplace bullying among nurses using structured questionnaires from July 1 through August 15, 2014. Results: Most participants considered their organizational culture as hierarchy-oriented (45.5%), followed by relation-oriented (36.0%), innovatio...

  4. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  5. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae

    2011-01-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline

  6. Characteristics of lithology and tectonic setting in the Korean peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byungjoo; Chae, Byunggon; Choi, Junghae [KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    The west coast of the Korean Peninsula is bounded by the Korean Bay to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south; the east coast is bounded by the East Sea. Two hundred kilometers separate the peninsula from eastern China. The Japanese islands of Honshu and Kyushu are located 206 kilometers to the southeast, just across the Korea Strait. Because of its unique geographical location, Chinese culture filtered into Japan through Korea; a common cultural sphere of Buddhism and Confucianism was thus established between the three countries. The total area of the peninsula, including the islands, is 222,154 square kilometers of which about 45 percent, excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone, constitutes the territory of South Korea. There are about 3,000 islands belonging to Korea. The islands are located mostly around the Yellow Sea; Ulleungdo, the largest island in the East Sea, serves as a major fishery base as does Dokdo island. Important islands within South Korea territory include Jejudo, the largest island, which lies off the southwest corner of the peninsula, Geojedo, Ganghwado, and Namhaedo. Nearly 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula is covered by mountains and hills. Located mostly in the southern and the western regions, these hills give way gradually to increasingly higher mountains toward the eastern and the northern end. On the whole, the western and southern slopes of the peninsula are wide with some plains and basins along rivers, while the eastern slope is very narrow because the high mountains hug the East Sea coastline.

  7. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    by Kim’s former Japanese chef , Kenji Fujimoto, reveal that Kim could get just about anything he wanted in his personal life, from foreign delicacies...for his table to Japanese jet skis and Sony home electronics.9 Likewise, the account of Yi Nam-oak (Li Nam-ok), who grew up as a companion to Kim’s...title Kin Seinichi no Ryoryinin [Kim Jong-il’s Chef ], Tokyo: Fusosha, 2003. The title of the Korean edition is Kim Jong-il ui yorisa. FBIS translated

  8. Korean Affairs Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-09

    U.S. Volvo 13. Other 14. Subtotal 15. Toyota 16. Nissan 17. Honda 18. Mazda 19. Mitsubishi 20. Fujitsu 21. Isuzu 22. Suzuki 23. Japanese...cars & Percent Unit=1,000 3. Company 4. U.S.-Made Cars 5. Imported Cars 6. GM 7. Ford 8. Chrysler 9. AMC 10. U.S. Nissan 11. U.S. Honda 12...24 percent. This is a surprisingly large increase compared with the current 1.7 percent. Until 1983, the prospect of Korean automobile exports was

  9. Heat exposure on farmers in northeast Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Kwasi; Van Etten E J, Eddie; Oosthuzien, Jacques; Fannam Nunfam, Victor

    2017-03-01

    Environmental health hazards faced by farmers, such as exposure to extreme heat stress, are a growing concern due to global climate change, particularly in tropical developing countries. In such environments, farmers are considered to be a population at risk of environmental heat exposure. The situation is exacerbated due to their farming methods that involve the use of primitive equipment and hard manual labour conducted in full sunshine under hot and humid conditions. However, there is inadequate information about the extent of heat exposure to such farmers, both at the household and farm levels. This paper presents results from a study assessing environmental heat exposure on rural smallholder farmers in Bawku East, Northern Ghana. From January to December 2013, Lascar USB temperature and humidity sensors and a calibrated Questemp heat stress monitor were deployed to farms and homes of rural farmers at Pusiga in Bawku East to capture farmers' exposure to heat stress in both their living and working environments as they executed regular farming routines. The Lascar sensors have the capability to frequently, accurately and securely measure temperature and humidity over long periods. The Questemp heat stress monitor was placed in the same vicinity and showed strong correlations to Lascar sensors in terms of derived values of wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). The WBGT in the working environment of farmers peaked at 33.0 to 38.1 °C during the middle of the day in the rainy season from March to October and dropped to 14.0-23.7 °C in the early morning during this season. A maximum hourly WBGT of 28.9-37.5 °C (March-October) was recorded in the living environment of farmers, demonstrating little relief from heat exposure during the day. With these levels of heat stress, exposed farmers conducting physically demanding outdoor work risk suffering serious health consequences. The sustainability of manual farming practices is also under threat by such high levels of

  10. Lee Acculturation Dream Scale for Korean-American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Bok

    2005-04-01

    This study examined acculturation as represented in dream narratives of 165 Korean immigrant college students living in the USA. A total of 165 dreams were collected and evaluated using the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale, for which locations of dream contents were coded. 39% of the dreams took place in South Korea, while 38% were in the USA. Also, 16% of the dreams included both locations, whereas 7% had no specific dream location. The dreams contained overlapping dream messages, images, scenes, and interactions in both South Korea and the USA. A two-sample t test on the mean scores of the Lee Acculturation Dream Scale indicated no significant difference between men and women.

  11. Development of Korean EDMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yunjung; Jee, Moonhak; Kim, Inhwan; Park, Munhee [Nuclear Safety Technology Research Laboratory, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moonoh [Atomic Creative Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Safety feature is also needed to more effectively cope with site-wide events affecting multiple units. In this study, the accident mitigation approaches in US are reviewed. The most effective ways to strengthen the defense-in-depth of nuclear power installations are presented as EDMG(Extensive Damage Mitigation Guideline) and FLEX against extreme hazards such as a beyond-design-basis external event (BDBEE) that took place at Fukushima. A combination of the US EDMG and FLEX is applied to develop Korean EDMG, which will be developed to have two different types of EDMGs : 'Site EDMG' to be used for effective technical support to activated TSCs and management of corporate emergency response resources in coordination with the EOF as necessary; and 'Plant-Specific EDMG (for Extreme Event)' to be used by the Technical Support Center (TSC) of a unit where a total loss of control has occurred or plant control cannot be established from the Control Room and Remote Shutdown Panel. The development of Korean EDMG is expected to further enhance mitigation and coping capabilities against site-wide extreme hazard in Korea where a relatively large number of units are assembled on each nuclear power plant site.

  12. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  13. Income analysis of goat farmers on the farmers group in district of Serdang Bedagai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, J. N.; Hasnudi; Supriana, T.

    2018-02-01

    The farmers group are expected to reduce the production cost of goat breeding and improve the income of farmers which impact on the welfare of goat farmers. This research aim to analyze the factors that influence the income of farmers group, in sub-district Dolok Masihul Pegajahan, and Dolok Merawan, Serdang Bedagai. The method used is survey method with 90 respondents. Data was analysed by multiple linear regression. The result showed, simultaneously goat cost, sale price of goat, fixed cost and variable cost had significant effect on income of goat farmers. Partially, goat cost, variable cost and sale price of goat had significant effect on income of goat farmers, while fixed cost had no significant effect.

  14. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Young P

    2008-01-01

    .... To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society...

  15. Determining the Applicability of the Barotropic Approximation to the Mean Seasonal Flow Through the Tsushima/Korean Strait using Variational Assimilation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, S. R; Jacobs, G. A; Leben, R. R

    2005-01-01

    .... The velocity measurements are from two lines of moored acoustic Doppler Current profilers (ADCPs) spanning the Tsushima/Korean strait just north and south of Tsushima island and the SSHA measurements are from the TOPEX altimeter...

  16. Military confidence building on the Korean Peninsula: possible first steps toward cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannoni, M.

    1997-05-01

    The Korean Peninsula is one of the world`s most tense military confrontational sites. Nearly 2 million North Korean, South Korean, and U.S. troops face each other along the 255-km long military demarcation line. Confidence building measures (CBMs), particularly military ones, that address the security needs of both countries could decrease the danger of conflict and help create an environment where a peace regime might be negotiated. In spite of the present high level of mutual distrust, steps can still be taken to prepare for future development and implementation of CBMs. This paper defines some simple and specific first steps toward CBMs that might be useful on the Korean Peninsula.

  17. Allegheny County Farmers Markets Locations (2017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the locations of farmers markets in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  18. Kenyan farmers discover the Internet | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-20

    Oct 20, 2010 ... Kimani is a smallholder farmer in Kirinyaga District, central Kenya, an area ... of farm inputs, as well as information on leading farming techniques. .... Uganda — From the ground up: Urban agriculture reforms take root.

  19. Joint venture schemes in Limpopo Province and their outcomes on smallholder farmers livelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapedza, Everisto; van Koppen, Barbara; Sithole, Pinimidzai; Bourblanc, Magalie

    2016-04-01

    Joint Venture schemes based on the floppy irrigation technology are being promoted in the post-Apartheid South Africa's Limpopo Province. Access to land and water resources in South Africa are largely viewed as a mechanism for re-dressing the Apartheid injustices. This research was part of a broader applied research to help inform irrigation practise in the Limpopo Province. The research used literature review, key informant interviews and a questionnaire survey. The overall research question sought to understand how the Joint Venture Schemes had benefited the smallholder farmers. This paper argues that the joint venture partnership created a new injustice. Firstly, the Joint Venture Scheme design is fundamentally a bad idea which disempower farmers not only to water access but also land as well. The choice of the 'efficient' floppy irrigation technology was made by the state and entailed that land had to be managed as a single unit. In order to make more effective use of this highly sophisticated new technology, the smallholder farmers also needed to go into a joint venture partnership with a white commercial farmer. By virtue of signing the Joint Venture agreement the farmers were also forfeiting their land and water rights to be used for crop production. The smallholder farmers lost access to their water and land resources and were largely relegated to sharing profits - when they exist - with hardly any skills development despite what was initially envisaged in the Joint Venture partnership. Secondly, the implementation of the JVS has been skewed from the start which explains the bad results. This paper further shows how the negative outcomes affected women in particular. As the smallholder farmers argue the technological options chosen by the state have excluded both male and female farmers from accessing and utilising their land and water resources in order to improve their livelihoods; it has entrenched the role of the state and the private interests at the

  20. Relevance of the formal red meat classification system to the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zimmy

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Communal farmers, marketing system, meat industry .... Goat production. There are about 6.6 million goats in South Africa (De Villiers et al., 2009). Sixty-three ...... North West Province, South Africa. MSc thesis ...

  1. Korean Golf Tourism in China: Place, Perception and Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinah Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a critical, cross-cultural social behavior in contemporary society and provides diverse experiences based on different regional resources in destinations. This research identified the attributes associated with Korean golf tourists’ images of seven destination regions in Mainland China. A content analysis of 328 golf tourists’ blogs indicated that each region had different combinations of destination attributes, but these were partially hidden in vivid descriptions of playing experiences. The narratives were coded with 15 golf destination attributes with 136 headwords and they reflected both place-centred images and interactions through perceptual experiences with different social groups. The golfers greatly appreciated congestion control at courses and social interaction during their tours, including the services of local human resources and play partners. The seven Chinese golf destinations had different perceived characteristics and relationships with South Korean society. Thus, they had dissimilar destination images for Korean golf tourists. Historical ties and geographical proximity played important roles, including, for example, the significant presence of ethnic Koreans in northeast China.

  2. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  3. Factors Influencing Smallholder Farmers' Climate Change Perceptions: A Study from Farmers in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtemariam, Lemlem Teklegiorgis; Gandorfer, Markus; Kassa, Getachew Abate; Heissenhuber, Alois

    2016-08-01

    Factors influencing climate change perceptions have vital roles in designing strategies to enrich climate change understanding. Despite this, factors that influence smallholder farmers' climate change perceptions have not yet been adequately studied. As many of the smallholder farmers live in regions where climate change is predicted to have the most negative impact, their climate change perception is of particular interest. In this study, based on data collected from Ethiopian smallholder farmers, we assessed farmers' perceptions and anticipations of past and future climate change. Furthermore, the factors influencing farmers' climate change perceptions and the relation between farmers' perceptions and available public climate information were assessed. Our findings revealed that a majority of respondents perceive warming temperatures and decreasing rainfall trends that correspond with the local meteorological record. Farmers' perceptions about the past climate did not always reflect their anticipations about the future. A substantial number of farmers' anticipations of future climate were less consistent with climate model projections. The recursive bivariate probit models employed to explore factors affecting different categories of climate change perceptions illustrate statistical significance for explanatory variables including location, gender, age, education, soil fertility status, climate change information, and access to credit services. The findings contribute to the literature by providing evidence not just on farmers' past climate perceptions but also on future climate anticipations. The identified factors help policy makers to provide targeted extension and advisory services to enrich climate change understanding and support appropriate farm-level climate change adaptations.

  4. From Resistance to Receptiveness: Farmer Willingness to Participate in Extension Discussions About Climate Variability and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Diehl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Identifying what Extension professionals believe are the critical elements of a communication strategy that is most likely to encourage agricultural producers to participate in discussions of climate variability and climate change is pivotal to providing timely solutions to issues facing farmers. The current study involved interviews with 50 Extension professionals from four southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina who were engaged in ongoing work related to climate and agriculture. Respondents were asked to assess how best to engage farmers in conversations related to climate variability and climate change. Qualitative analysis showed that Extension professionals recommended avoiding content related to politics, attribution of climate change to human causes, and telling farmers what to do. Respondents recommended emphasizing adaptation strategies, climate variability over climate change, evidence that climate change exists, and the financial benefits for farmers. In addition, Extension professionals proposed several delivery methods they thought would be most effective with farmers, including delivery tailored to the characteristics of the audience, a positive overall tone, and an understanding that engagement should be viewed as a long-term process based on building relationships with farmers. The findings suggest that farmers are a potentially receptive audience on climate issues when properly approached.

  5. Farmers' valuation of incentives to produce genetically modified organism-free milk: Insights from a discrete choice experiment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, J A; Latacz-Lohmann, U

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates farmers' willingness to participate in a genetically modified organism (GMO)-free milk production scheme offered by some German dairy companies. The empirical analysis is based upon discrete choice experiments with 151 dairy farmers from 2 regions in Germany. A conditional logit estimation reveals a strong positive effect of the price premium on offer. Reliable feed monitoring and free technical support increase the likelihood of scheme adoption, the latter however only in farms that have been receiving technical support in other fields. By contrast, any interference with the entrepreneurial autonomy of farmers, through pre-arranged feed procurement or prescriptive advice on the part of the dairy company, lowers acceptance probabilities. Farmers' attitudes toward cultivation of genetically modified soy, their assessment of the market potential of GMO-free milk and future feed prices were found to be significant determinants of adoption, as are farmer age, educational status, and current feeding regimens. Respondents requested on average a mark-up of 0.80 eurocents per kilogram of milk to accept a contract. Comparison of the estimates for the 2 regions suggests that farmers in northern Germany are, on average, more likely to convert to genetically modified-free production; however, farmers in the south are, ceteris paribus, more responsive to an increase in the price premium offered. A latent class model reveals significant differences in the valuation of scheme attributes between 2 latent classes of adopters and nonadopters. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 26 CFR 1.162-12 - Expenses of farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenses of farmers. 1.162-12 Section 1.162-12... farmers. (a) Farms engaged in for profit. A farmer who operates a farm for profit is entitled to deduct... 263A and the regulations thereunder. For taxable years beginning after July 12, 1972, where a farmer is...

  7. 7 CFR 760.7 - Other requirements for affected farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other requirements for affected farmers. 760.7 Section... Payments to Dairy Farmers for Milk § 760.7 Other requirements for affected farmers. An indemnity payment for milk may be made under this subpart to an affected farmer only under the following conditions: (a...

  8. 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    This book introduces the root of Korean physics, the dawning of Korean physics, foundation and childhood of Korean physics society, growth of Korean physics society, revival of Korean physics society, corporation Korean physics society, leap of Korean physics society and challenges towards future. It also deals with 50-year-old history of the Korean physical society according to committees, special interest groups, branches in cities and provinces, branches in universities, laboratories, society bureau, and commemoration business to celebrate 50th anniversary.

  9. National Genetic Evaluation (System of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hanwoo (Also known as Korean native cattle; Bos taurus coreanae have been used for transportation and farming for a long time in South Korea. It has been about 30 yrs since Hanwoo improvement began in earnest as beef cattle for meat yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the trend of improvement as well as to estimate genetic parameters of the traits being used for seedstock selection based on the data collected from the past. Hanwoo proven bulls in South Korea are currently selected through performance and progeny tests. National Hanwoo genetic evaluations are implemented with yearling weight (YW, carcass weight (CW, eye muscle area (EMA, backfat thickness (BF and marbling score (MS. Yearling weights and MS are used for selecting young bulls, and EMA, BF, and MS are used for selecting proven bulls. One individual per testing room was used for performance tests, and five individuals per room for progeny tests. Individuals tested were not allowed to graze pasture, but there was enough space for them to move around in the testing room. Feeds including roughages and minerals were fed ad libitum, and concentrates were provided at the rate of about 1.8% of individual weight. Overall means of the traits were 352.8±38.56 kg, 335.09±44.61 kg, 77.85±8.838 cm2, 8.6±3.7 mm and 3.293±1.648 for YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS. Heritabilities estimated in this study were 0.30, 0.30, 0.42, 0.50 and 0.63 in YW, CW, EMA, BF and MS, respectively, which are similar to results from previous research. Yearling weight was 315.54 kg in 1998, and had increased to 355.06 kg in 2011, resulting in about 40 kg of improvement over 13 yrs. YW and CW have improved remarkably over the past 15 yrs. Breeding values between 1996 and 2000 decreased or did not change much, but have moved in a desirable direction since 2001. These improvements correspond with the substantial increase in use of animal models since the late 1990s in Korea. Hanwoo testing programs have

  10. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  11. Korean Unification: Opportunities and Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bundy, Richard B

    1992-01-01

    .... in addition, they agreed to support the Korean peninsula as a nuclear free zone. The two countries have existed in fact since the partition of the peninsula after the allied victory over Japan In 1945...

  12. Estimated rate of agricultural injury: the Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. Methods The first Korean Farmers’ Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. Results We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45–0.45) compared to males. However, the odds of injury among farmers aged 50–59 (OR: 1.53, 95% CI = 1.46–1.60), 60–69 (OR: 1.45, 95% CI = 1.39–1.51), and ≥70 (OR: 1.94, 95% CI = 1.86–2.02) were significantly higher compared to those younger than 50. In addition, the total number of years farmed, average number of months per year of farming, and average hours per day of farming were significantly associated with agricultural injuries. Conclusions Agricultural injury rates in this study were higher than rates reported by the existing compensation insurance data. Males and older farmers were at a greater risk of agriculture injuries; therefore, the prevention and management of agricultural injuries in this population is required. PMID:24808945

  13. The Profitable Adventure of Threatened Middle-Class Families: An Ethnographic Study on Homeschooling in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Deok-Hee

    2009-01-01

    South Korean society in the late 1990s was confronted with socio-economic setbacks and discursive turbulence concerning the quality of education being provided. It was at such a particular historical juncture of South Korean society that I conducted ethnographic research on homeschooling families. Based on field data collected from four…

  14. Who Cares about One Blood in This Global Society? A Qualitative Study of South Korea's Reunification Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoo Jin

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined South Korean teenagers' views on North Korea and possible reunification. In-depth interviews conducted with fourteen (14) South Korean high school students reported that these teenagers were torn about whether or not they should support reunification. While students acknowledged the lack of dialogue and discussion…

  15. Trace of Korean mechanical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This book reports 50 years of Korean mechanical engineers, which includes birth and history, remembrance and future of Korean society of mechanical engineers, current situation and development of mechanical industry such as national industry and 50 years of mechanical industry, track, airline industry, ship and marine engine, a precision instrument, cutting work, casting, welding, plastic working freeze and air handling nuclear power and textile machinery.

  16. Effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress among farmers and non-farmers of rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Ji, Linqin; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of psychological distress between farmers and non-farmers of rural China. Further, this examines the effect of subjective economic status on psychological distress and whether this effect varies between farmers and non-farmers. The study design is a cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted in 27 villages of Dongying City in Shandong Province. Rural employed people included 1433 farmers and 584 non-farmers. Psychological distress was assessed by the Kessler 10 questionnaire, and subjective economic status was assessed by a single question. Overall, the farmers did not report significantly higher prevalence of psychological distress than non-farmers (31.13% versus 30.01%). However, the farmers aged 51-70 years did report significantly higher psychological distress than their non-farmer counterparts (33.4% versus 24.2%, P = 0.04). Second, subjective economic status had a significant (β = -0.28, P farmers (β = 0.30, P farmers (β = 0.20, P farmers had a comparable prevalence of psychological distress when compared with non-farmers in rural China. Subjective economic status exerted a significant effect on the psychological distress of rural employed people, and this effect was stronger for the farmers than for the non-farmers. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A decision theoretic approach and regression method were used to analyze the data collected. The results indicated that (i) expected crop loss should be taken into account when deciding on the amount of fungicides to apply in the study area and (ii) the use rate recommended by CRIN could not be used in all situations – it ...

  18. Increasing gender equality among small millet farmers in South Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... More than 1,600 women were involved in testing small millet varieties. ... has had a special focus on women, working to increase their role in research, ... In Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, monocropping of a single, non-edible variety ...

  19. Increasing gender equality among small millet farmers in South Asia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rich in dietary fiber, have low glycemic index and are known for their ... plows, instead of the wooden plows traditionally ... working in six sites in India, and one site each in Nepal and ... three main areas of focus: enhancing the role of women in ...

  20. Farmers' Perception of Sustainable Agriculture in South- Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KENNY

    Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) was used to test the existence of relationships between the ... Key words Sustainable practices, industrial agriculture, agricultural technology, rural economy. Introduction .... consumers. 4.19. 1.11.

  1. Family functioning, resilience, and depression among North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Boyoung; Kim, Jae Yop; DeVylder, Jordan E; Song, Ahyoung

    2016-11-30

    North Korean refugees in South Korea are at high risk of depression, but there are few studies exploring protective factors in this population. We hypothesized that family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) and resilience would protect North Korean refugees from developing depressive symptoms. A subsample of 304 adult North Korean refugees drawn from the cross-sectional 2010 Nationwide Survey of Domestic Violence in South Korea was analyzed. Approximately 44% of respondents were identified as having depression, using scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. In models capturing the full spectrum of depressive symptoms (continuous), family cohesion was significantly associated with depression, and the relationship was partially mediated by resilience. In models predicting clinical depression (dichotomous), resilience fully mediated the relationship between family cohesion and clinical depression. In contrast, family adaptability was not associated with depression or resilience in this sample. These findings suggest that assessing and enhancing family cohesion and resilience may be essential for professionals working with refugees, and that refugees without family support may be at particularly high risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-05-01

    The 3-D subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a 3-D velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19 935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  3. Smart home design and operation preferences of Americans and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Ah; Salvendy, Gavriel; Proctor, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to generate both culture-specific and universal design and operational guidelines for smart homes. Questionnaire surveys were performed in the USA and South Korea to collect data on preferences for various aspects of the design and operation of smart homes. The factors that the survey participants considered most important were derived through factor analyses of the survey data and the responses of Americans and Koreans were compared to generate culture-specific guidelines. The five factors derived were: 1) environmental connection and control; 2) smart devices (appliances) and their control; 3) physical safety and security concerns; 4) comfort and relaxation issues; 5) control restriction issues. The two cultures showed different preference structures with statistical significance for all five factors. Prediction capability of the derived factors was also examined through multiple regressions for buying intention, interest, self-vision of living, moving intention, living satisfaction and perceived time and effort savings. 'Environmental connection and control' and 'smart devices (appliances) and their control' seemed to be the most influential factors for Americans and Koreans, respectively. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Analysis of a survey of design and operational preferences for smart homes yielded five factors on which US and South Korean respondents differed. These factors form the basis for culture-specific guidelines, which, along with universal guidelines, should be followed in design of user-centred smart homes.

  4. Review Essay : Virtually Alive or Questionably Dead? The Ambivalence of Modern Korean Identity in Literature and Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyu Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Theodore Hughes, Literature and Film in Cold War South Korea: Freedom's Frontier. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. 304 pp. $55 (cloth).Kyung Hyun Kim, Virtual Hallyu: Korean Cinema of the Global Era. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011, pp. 208. $90 (cloth), $25 (paper).The studies by Kyung Hyun Kim and Theodore Hughes discussed in this essay are rich with information and insights but are also challenging, almost subversive, to some prevalent views on Korean cinema and literatur...

  5. The use of mobile technologies amongst South African commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisations offering extension services provide services to farmers which include the provision of relevant and current information pertaining to agriculture. The increased use of mobile technologies is changing the way farmers access information, specifically by using the Internet. This paper focuses on South African (SA) ...

  6. Commercial farmers’ strategies to control water resources in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Méndez-Barrientos, Linda Estelí; Kemerink, Jeltsje Sanne; Wester, Flip; Molle, François

    2018-01-01

    This article shows how large-scale commercial farmers, individually and collectively, are responding to land and water reform processes in the Thukela River basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. With a high degree of innovative agency, commercial farmers have effectively executed four strategies,

  7. Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets: strengthening the advocacy capacities of national farmer organisations through collaborative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.; Grip, de K.; Lançon, F.; Onumah, G.; Proctor, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets programme (ESFIM) supported the advocacy capacities of national farmer organisations (NFOs) for improving smallholder market access. The programme gave NFOs in 11 countries the opportunity to contract local experts to strengthen the evidence-base of

  8. Organic dairy farmers put more emphasis on production traits than conventional farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this research was to characterize the preferences of Danish dairy farmers for improvements in breeding goal traits. The specific aims were (1) to investigate the presence of heterogeneity in farmers’ preferences by means of cluster analysis, and (2) to associate these clusters...... with herd characteristics and production systems (organic or conventional). We established a web-based survey to characterize the preferences of farmers for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings. We also collected a considerable number of herd characteristics. Overall, 106 organic farmers...... and 290 conventional farmers answered the survey, all with Holstein cows. The most preferred trait improvement was cow fertility, and the least preferred was calving difficulty. By means of cluster analysis, we identified 4 distinct clusters of farmers and named them according to the trait improvements...

  9. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  10. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  11. "I'm Never Going to Be Part of It": Identity, Investment and Learning Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearing, Nigel; Roger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the willingness of 14 English-speaking EFL instructors living and working in South Korea to invest in practices connected with learning and using the Korean language. A model of investment for the "new world order" (Darvin, R., and B. Norton. 2015. "Identity and a Model of Investment in Applied…

  12. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  13. A North Korean Social Revolution in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Lorber Films , 2009). 18 nutrition and poor food quality serves as a catalyst for...cunning warmongers…..and South Koreans as sneaky and greedy US puppets .”78 The Ministry of People’s Security (MPS) and State Security Department (SSD

  14. Impact of Confucian Concepts of Feelings on Organizational Culture in Korean Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of Confucian concepts of feelings, especially paternalism and favoritism, on the organizational culture of current higher education in South Korea. A descriptive analysis approach is taken through the lens of a cross cultural perspective. The influence of paternalism and favoritism on Korean institutional…

  15. A North Korean Defector's Journey through the Identity-Transformation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myonghee

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined how a North Korean defector attending a college in South Korea transformed her identity while learning English. This study was grounded in the notion of second language learning as a struggle of a socially constituted being in which the language learner constantly structures and restructures his or her social identity.…

  16. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  17. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  18. Beyond the Model Minority Myth: Interrogating the Lived Experiences of Korean American Gay Men in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayhorn, Terrell L.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have examined the experiences of GLBT students in college and found that gay students often report encountering unwelcoming campus environments, physical or verbal assault, and homophobia. Rarely, however, have the experiences of Asian Pacific Islander (API) or more specifically South Korean gay men been accounted for in the literature. A…

  19. Examination of the Korean Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers: Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, HyeKyeung; Ji, Juye; Kim, Soo-Jin; Sung, Inkyung; Youn, Young-Ah; Hong, Gyunghun; Lee, Hyeonjin; Lee, Young Hwan; Lee, Hyunsuk; Youm, Hyun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the clinical utility and psychometric properties of the Korean Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (K-M-CHAT)-2. A sample of 2300 parents of 16- to 36-month-old children was recruited across South Korea. A phone interview was utilized to follow up with participants who initially screened positive for autism spectrum…

  20. The NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program - Presentation to Korean Aerospace Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide basic information about NASA's Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP), for sharing with representatives of the South Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as part of a larger presentation by Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance. The NEPP information includes mission and goals, history of the program, basic focus areas, strategies, deliverables and some examples of current tasks.

  1. A Study of Predictive Factors Affecting Health: Promoting Behaviors of North Korean Adolescent Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Won Noh; Hyo-Young Yun; Hyunchun Park; Shi-Eun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the factors that could affect the health-promoting behaviors of North Korean adolescent refugees residing in South Korea. Methods: Questions about their sociodemographic variables, subjective health status, healthy living habits, and health-promoting behaviors were asked. Results: Statistically significant differences were found in religion (t=2.30, p

  2. Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerbæk Pedersen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark......Catalogue of Korean manuscripts and rare books in The Royal Library, Copenhagen and the National Museum of Denmark...

  3. Missing billions. How the Australian government's climate policy is penalising farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riguet, T.

    2006-10-01

    rocket. For example, total energy sector emissions are projected to be 45% above 1990 levels by 2010. In short, farmers have been carrying the greenhouse reduction effort in an inequitable relationship to other greenhouse polluting sectors in Australia. The situation is even more unfair to farmers given that it is rural communities that are suffering most from ongoing droughts made worse by the impacts of climate change. It is important to note that the Federal Government cannot claim credit for these emission savings. Reductions in land clearing have been undertaken by farmers and largely driven by controls implemented by the Queensland and New South Wales Governments to protect biodiversity and not Federal Government action to meet Australia's Kyoto target. The Federal Government's policy of meeting Australia's Kyoto Protocol target but not ratifying it means farmers are unable to access international market mechanisms, such as international emissions trading. These are available only to countries that have ratified Kyoto. The Governments refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and implement a domestic carbon price via an emissions trading scheme has meant Australian farmers are unable to convert the emissions reductions they have achieved into financial value and benefit from the growing global carbon market. In effect, farmers who have made most effort in Australia to date to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are being financially penalised by the current Government policy. This report has not assessed additional income streams that also exist for farmers - through emission reductions such as renewable energy and soil management

  4. Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... Researchers urge climate-resilience support for South African maize farmers ... They found that climate change is likely to hurt livelihoods and food security ... In Burkina Faso, local cultivation and livestock practices are losing ...

  5. Oversight framework over oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer: comparative analysis of the Hwang Woo Suk case under South Korean bioethics law and U.S. guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We examine whether the current regulatory regime instituted in South Korea and the United States would have prevented Hwang's potential transgressions in oocyte procurement for somatic cell nuclear transfer, we compare the general aspects and oversight framework of the Bioethics and Biosafety Act in South Korea and the US National Academies' Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, and apply the relevant provisions and recommendations to each transgression. We conclude that the Act would institute centralized oversight under governmental auspices while the Guidelines recommend politically-independent, decentralized oversight bodies including a special review body for human embryonic stem cell research at an institutional level and that the Guidelines would have provided more vigorous protection for the women who had undergone oocyte procurement for Hwang's research than the Act. We also suggest additional regulations to protect those who provide oocytes for research in South Korea.

  6. Why did the First Farmers Toil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    Time-budget studies done among contemporary primitive people suggest that the first farmers worked harder to attain subsistence than their foraging predecessors. This makes the adoption of agriculture in the Stone Age one of the major curiosities in human cultural history. Theories offered...... by economists and economic historians largely fail to capture work-intensification among early farmers. Attributing a key role to human metabolism, this study provides a simple framework for analysing the adoption of agriculture. It demonstrates how the additional output that farming offered could have lured...... people into agriculture, but that subsequent population increase would eventually have swallowed up its benefits, forcing early farmers into an irreversible trap, where they had to do more work to attain subsistence compared to their foraging ancestors. The framework draws attention to the fact that...

  7. Why did the First Farmers Toil?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2009-01-01

    Time-budget studies done among contemporary primitive people suggest that the first farmers worked harder to attain subsistence than their foraging predecessors. This makes the adoption of agriculture in the Stone Age one of the major curiosities in human cultural history. Theories offered...... by economists and economic historians largely fail to capture work-intensification among early farmers. Attributing a key role to human metabolism, this study provides a simple framework for analysing the adoption of agriculture. It demonstrates how the additional output that farming offered could have lured...... people into agriculture, but that subsequent population increase would eventually have swallowed up its benefits, forcing early farmers into an irreversible trap, where they had to do more work to attain subsistence compared to their foraging ancestors. The framework draws attention to the fact that...

  8. Korean Culture and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Grinker, Roy R.; Mandell, David S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on early child development among Koreans, with a focus on autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The literature review of 951 abstracts in English, 101 abstracts in Korean and 27 full articles published from 1994 to 2011 was performed to understand the presentation of and response to ASD in Korean culture. Based on…

  9. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  10. Attitude of Farmers towards Kisan Call Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shely Mary Koshy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to measure the attitude of farmers in Kerala, India towards Kisan Call Centre (KCC. Kisan Call Centre provides free agricultural advisory services to every citizen involved in agriculture through a toll free number. One hundred and fifty farmers who have utilized the Kisan Call Centre service were selected from the database of KCC. The results showed that the respondents had moderately favourable attitude towards KCC followed by highly favourable attitude. The variables digital divide, temporal awareness on KCC, satisfaction towards KCC and utilization of KCC were found to have a positive correlation with the attitude of respondents towards KCC.

  11. Interdecadal variation of precipitation days in August in the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2017-03-01

    The present study examines a climate regime shift in the time series of the number of rainy days during August in the Korean Peninsula. The statistical change-point analysis indicates that a significant shift occurred in the time series around 1998, providing a rationale to divide it into two parts: 1975-1997 for the shorter rainy-day period and 1998-2012 for the longer rainy-day period. To examine the cause of recent rapid increases in the number of days with precipitation in August in the Korean Peninsula, differences in the averages of large-scale environments between the 1998-2012 period and the 1975-1997 period were analyzed. The differences in stream flows showed that anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the East Asian continent while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in the western North Pacific at all layers of the troposphere. The anomalous anticyclones reinforced in the western North Pacific were associated with the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH) developed a little more toward the Korean Peninsula recently. Consequently, the Korean Peninsula has been affected by anomalous south westerlies that supplied warm and humid airs from low tropical regions to the Korean Peninsula. The vertical thermal instability (warm anomaly at lower-level and cold anomaly at middle and upper-level) developed near the Korean Peninsula. In addition, upper tropospheric jets were reinforced further recently near the Korean Peninsula to provide good environments for development of upward flows. The frequency of TCs that affect the Korean Peninsula in August also increased rapidly since 1998.

  12. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  13. Farmer Field School on Nutrient Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.; Muchena, F.N.; Gachimbi, L.N.; Jager, de A.

    2003-01-01

    In Kenya Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is being used to make the best use of local resources and to optimise the effects of external inputs. In Mbeere, a district that lies in the dryland area of Eastern Kenya the Farmer Field School (FFS) has been in operation during one season and work is

  14. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  15. GM plants, farmers and the public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The controversy in Europe over genetically manipulated (GM) foods has been conceived largely as a conflict between a reluctant public and a more enthusiastic agri-food sector. As a result, the political focus has been on the public to the neglect of other actors, such as the farmers, whose willin...

  16. Climate changes and farmers' endogenous adaptation strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been claimed that climate changes impact studies often assume certain adaptations and little explicit examination of how, when, why, and under what conditions they occur. This research aims at analysing the endogenous strategies developed by farmers in agricultural land and crop management. With random ...

  17. Technological Packages Extended To Farmers by Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... extended to farmers by Non Governmental Organizations in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... Modern snailery was the only identified agro forestry technology extended, ... technologies were the significant soil management practices extended.

  18. Farmers and Herders Benefit From Bank Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    From 2000 to the end of 2004, the Tibet Branch of Agricultural Bank provided farmers and herders with loans that helped raise their average net income from 1,342 Yuan to 1,863 Yuan during the period.The net increase in income totaled nearly 1.1 billion Yuan.

  19. (cadp) on farmers' empowerment in kaduna state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    individuals (farmers), special target groups such as children, women, elderly persons ..... The chi-square (x2) was used to measure the discrepancies between the ..... able to access the grant due to inability to pay their part of the contribution. ii.

  20. Measuring the environmental awareness of young farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountios, G.; Ragkos, A.; Padadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2017-09-01

    Young farmers in Europe, especially the beneficiaries of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) funding schemes, are considered as the ones who could ensure the sustainability of the European Model of Agriculture. Economic efficiency and competitiveness, aversion of depopulation of rural areas and environmental protection constitute some of the key objectives of the CAP and young farmers are expected to play a role to all of them. This study proposes a way of measuring the potential of young farmers to contribute to the latter objectives of the CAP by estimating their environmental attitudes. Data from a questionnaire survey of 492 Greek young farmers were used to design a latent construct measuring their environmental attitudes. The latent construct was designed by means of an Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) using the responses to a set of 12 Likert-scale items. The results the EFA yielded a latent construct with three factors related to "Environmental pollution and policies (EPP)", "Environmental factors and food quality (EFF)" and "Farming practices and the environment". These results were validated through a CFA where 8 items in total were categorized in the three factors (latent variables). The utilization of the latent construct for the effective implementation of CAP measures could ameliorate the relationships of agriculture and environment in general.